Science.gov

Sample records for agency esa mission

  1. ESA plans new missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Arne

    The tragic explosion of the space shuttle Challenger has caused a delay of at least 13 months to the European Space Agency/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ESA/NASA) cooperative mission Ulysses, previously known as the Solar Polar Mission. Ulysses was scheduled for launch in May 1986. The launch of the Hubble Space Telescope, in which ESA is a cooperative partner, is certain to be delayed beyond the October 1986 launch date.As Eos went to press, the Giotto spacecraft, which has been on its way to Comet Halley since July 1985, was performing well, according to ESA. All investigator groups participated in operation rehearsals at the European Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany, in preparation for the cometary encounter, which occurred near midnight (UT) on March 13, 1986.

  2. European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist Nicollier trains in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier (left) is briefed by Randall S. McDaniel on Space Shuttle extravehicular activity (EVA) tools and equipment prior to donning an extravehicular mobility unit and participating in an underwater EVA simulation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. Nicollier is holding the EMU mini workstation. Other equipment on the table includes EVA tool caddies and EVA crewmember safety tethers.

  3. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  4. Future ESA Missions in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1984-12-01

    A survey is given of the life sciences research program sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA). This program rests on a number of facilities originated by ESA: Spacelab, Space sled, Biorack, Anthrorack, Eureca and its Botany — and Protein Crystallization facilities. They are all to be brough into space and returned by one of the NASA Space Shuttles. With these facilities a wide range of space biology research will be covered: cell biology, developmental biology, botany, human physiology, radio-biology, exobiology and biotechnology. Information is given on how to prepare, submit and execute an experiment proposal.

  5. NASA's Preparations for ESA's L3 Gravitational Wave Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2016-03-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) selected gravitational-wave astrophysics as the science theme for its third large mission opportunity, known as `L3,' under its Cosmic Vision Programme. NASA is seeking a role as an international partner in L3. NASA is: (1) participating in ESA's early mission activities, (2) developing potential US technology contributions, (3) participating in ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission, (4) and conducting a study of how NASA might participate. This talk will survey the status of these activities.

  6. ESA Missions Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    This presentation will report the planetary protection status of ESA flight projects with planetary protection requirements. It will cover Rosetta, Mars Express, ExoMars 2016, ExoMars 2018, JUICE, Solar Orbiter, and Bepi Colombo.

  7. ESA announces its Future Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    The announcement will be made at ESA's Head Office, 8-10 rue Mario Nikis in Paris, during a press breakfast starting at 08:30. Media representatives wishing to attend the event are kindly requested to fill out the attached accreditation from and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Office - Paris. Note to editors The announcement will follow a two-day meeting of ESA's Space Science Committee (SPC), composed of Delegates from all ESA's Member States, in Paris on 11 and 12 October. The SPC will decide - on the basis of the Space Science Advisory Committee's (SSAC) recommendations formulated earlier in September - about the next Cornerstone (CS) and Flexi (F) Missions that will be implemented in the framework of ESA's Horizons 2000 Programme. Further information about the Future Mission candidates and the ESA Science Programme can be found at: http://sci.esa.int. In particular the SSAC recommendations to SPC can be found at: http://sci.esa.int/structure/content/index.cfm?aid=1&cid=2304 Further information on ESA at : http//www.esa.int

  8. NASA's Preparations for ESA's L3 Gravitational Wave Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2016-01-01

    In November 2013, the European Space Agency (ESA) selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as 'L3,' under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. NASA is seeking a role as an international partner in L3. NASA is supporting: (1) US participation in early mission studies, (2) US technology development, (3) pre-decadal preparations, (4) ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission and (5) the ST7 Disturbance Reduction System project. This talk summarizes NASA's preparations for a future gravitational-wave mission.

  9. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haagmans, R.; Menard, Y.; Floberghagen, R.; Plank, G.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA’s Living Planet Programme. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth’s interior and near-Earth electro-magnetic environment. After release from a single launcher, a side-by-side flying slowly decaying lower pair of satellites will be released at an initial altitude of about 490 km together with a third satellite that will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations that are required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission aims to provide a unique view into Earth core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the development phase, will be addressed. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2012.

  10. ESA's GOCE gravity gradiometer mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touboul, Pierre

    2010-02-01

    In the present decade, three space gravity missions, CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE provide unique information about mass and mass redistribution in the Earth system with a wide range of scientific returns like global ocean circulation, ice mass balance, glacial isostatic adjustment, continental ground water storage. On board the four satellites of these missions, similar electrostatic space inertial sensors deliver continuously, during quite nine years for the older, the accurate acceleration data needed for the missions. The sensor operation remains on the six axes electrostatic suspension of one solid metallic mass, which is servo-controlled motionless at the centre of the highly stable set of gold coated silica electrode plates. All degrees of freedom are measured with very sensitive capacitive sensors down to a few pico-m and the applied electrostatic forces to pico-N. With similar sensor design and technologies, full scale range and resolution can be adjusted according to the satellite environment and the mission requirements. The CHAMP and GRACE accelerometers have demonstrated their in orbit performance. They provides measurements of the satellite non gravitational surface forces like the atmospheric drag and radiation pressures in order to extract from the satellite measured orbital position and velocity fluctuations, the effects of gravity anomalies. The six GOCE accelerometers compose the three axes gradiometer, combined to the SST-high-low GPS tracking to provide higher precision and resolution of the Earth static field. They contribute also to the satellite attitude control and drag compensation system, allowing the heliosynchronous orbit at the very low 260 km altitude. So, the accelerometers are designed to exhibit a full range of 6.5 10-6 ms-2 and a resolution of 2 10-12 ms-2 Hz-1/2. Since the gradiometer switch on in April 09, they deliver data leading to the components of the gravity gradient tensor. The main characteristics of the GOCE accelerometers and

  11. The Gravitational Universe - ESA's L3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Guido; Ando, Masaki; Binetruy, Pierre; Bouyer, Philippe; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Cruise, Mike; Favata, Fabio; Gehler, Martin; Genzel, Reinhard; Jennrich, Oliver; Kasevich, Mark; Klipstein, Bill; Perryman, Michael; Safa, Frederic; Schutz, Bernard; Stebbins, Robin; Vitale, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Following the advice of ESA's Senior Survey Committee (SSC) the Science Programme Committee (SPC) decided in November 2013 to select the science theme ``The Gravitational Universe'' for their L3 mission. The Director of Science and Robotic Exploration (D/SRE) has established a Gravitational Observatory Advisory Team (GOAT) to advise on the scientific and technological approaches for a gravitational wave observatory with a planned launch date in 2034. Our team is comprised of scientists from Europe and the US as well as scientists and engineers from ESA and observers from NASA and JAXA. We meet about every ten weeks, evaluate the technical readiness of all necessary technologies, study the science impact of different mission designs, and will advise ESA on the required future technology development. We will report on our progress and plans forward to a future space-based gravitational-wave observatory. For JAXA.

  12. ESA'S Biomass Mission System And Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcioni, M.; Bensi, P.; Fois, F.; Gabriele, A.; Heliere, F.; Lin, C. C.; Massotti, L.; Scipal, K.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Explorers are the backbone of the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, providing an important contribution to the understanding of the Earth system. Following the User Consultation Meeting held in Graz, Austria on 5-6 March 2013, the Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) has recommended implementing Biomass as the 7th Earth Explorer Mission within the frame of the ESA Earth Observation Envelope Programme. This paper will give an overview of the satellite system and its payload. The system technical description presented here is based on the results of the work performed during parallel Phase A system studies by two industrial consortia led by EADS Astrium Ltd. and Thales Alenia Space Italy. Two implementation concepts (respectively A and B) are described and provide viable options capable of meeting the mission requirements.

  13. Astronomy Missions In The Esa Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favata, Fabio

    2011-09-01

    I will present an overview of the Science Programme of the European Space Agency, focusing on the astronomy missions. I will give a brief overview of missions currently in operation and under implementation, and then present the portfolio of missions currently under study as candidates for future implementation in the program. The planning and selection process will be illustrated, as well as the prospective building blocks for the future program. Missions falling under the remit of HEAD, e.g. X-ray, gamma-ray and gravitational wave missions, will be discussed in detail.

  14. ESA strategy for human exploration and the Lunar Lander Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardini, B.

    As part of ESAs Aurora Exploration programme, the Agency has defined, since 2001, a road map for exploration in which, alongside robotic exploration missions, the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon play an essential role on the way to other destinations in the Solar System, ultimately to a human mission to Mars in a more distant future. In the frame of the Human Spaceflight programme the first European Lunar Lander Mission, with a launch date on 2018, has been defined, targeting the lunar South Pole region to capitalize on unique illumination conditions and provide the opportunity to carry out scientific investigations in a region of the Moon not explored so far. The Phase B1 industrial study, recently initiated, will consolidate the mission design and prepare the ground for the approval of the full mission development phase at the 2012 ESA Council at Ministerial. This paper describes the mission options which have been investigated in the past Phase A studies and presents the main activities foreseen in the Phase B1 to consolidate the mission design, including a robust bread-boards and technology development programme. In addition, the approach to overcoming the mission's major technical and environmental challenges and the activities to advance the definition of the payload elements will be described.

  15. Joint NASA-ESA Outer Planet Mission study overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.-P.; Niebur, C.; Cutts, J.; Falkner, P.; Greeley, R.; Lunine, J.; Blanc, M.; Coustenis, A.; Pappalardo, R.; Matson, D.; Clark, K.; Reh, K.; Stankov, A.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.

    2009-04-01

    evaluated by each agency between November 2008 and January 2009, and a joint decision as to which destination has been selected is expected to be announced in February 2009. The ESA Cosmic Vision selection process includes two additional competitive steps (that include two competing astronomy missions) before its contribution to the selected Outer Planet Mission is confirmed in 2012. NASA expects to proceed with the initial implementation of the mission in FY2009, while full implementation will start in FY2013, in line with ESA Cosmic Vision schedule. Should ESA select an astronomy mission instead, NASA would proceed in 2013 with the implementation of a NASA-only mission concept. This presentation will provide an overview of the selected Outer Planet Mission and outline the next steps towards its implementation.

  16. Mission to Mars set to revolutionise ESA's working methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    ESA took the decision in principle to send a mission to Mars shortly after the loss of the Russian spacecraft Mars '96 with several European experiments on board. The Agency wanted to build on the Mars '96 payload experience to design a mission that would put Europe at the leading-edge of Mars exploration. But ESA had to act quickly. Major space missions can take up to 11 years from concept to launch - and there was little more than six years to go before the positioning of the planets in 2003 would offer the shortest travel time to Mars with the highest payload. Budgetary pressures were also forcing ESA to look for cheaper ways of building spacecraft. A Mars mission therefore seemed a good candidate to explore cheaper and faster working methods. Mars Express (so called because of the streamlined development time) is the first of a new type of "flexible" missions in ESA's long-term scientific programme, which should be built and launched for about half the previous budget for similar missions. The global budget for Mars Express will actually be only150 million Euro including spacecraft development, launch by a Russian Soyuz/Fregat launcher, operations, testing and management costs. Costs are being saved by shortening the time from original concept to launch, re-using existing hardware, adopting new project management practices, and having access to reduced launcher costs. Selection of the scientific payload by ESA's scientific advisory bodies and mission definition by industry have been performed simultaneously, instead of sequentially as in previous missions. This has cut the time from concept to the awarding of today's design and development contract from about five years to little more than one year. The design and development phase will take under four years, compared with up to six previously. Mars Express is making maximum use of pre-existing technology, which is either "off-the-shelf" or has already been developed for the Rosetta mission (also due for launch

  17. Status of future ESA Earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginati, A.; Meynart, R.; Tobias, A.

    2005-10-01

    The European Space Agency is pursuing the development of innovative Earth Observation missions to foster better scientific understanding of the system Earth and to respond to the requirements of the operational users. Six Earth Explorer missions (CRYOSAT, GOCE, SMOS, AEOLUS, SWARM, EarthCARE) are under development for launch between 2005 and 2012. They will provide to provide new critical information in a wide range of Earth science disciplines: ocean circulation, Earth's gravity and magnetic fields, the cryosphere, ocean salinity and soil moisture, magnetic field, aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions and the demonstration of the measurement of tropospheric wind fields. Application-oriented missions of the Earth Watch class are continuing with the METEOSAT series of geostationary meteorological satellites, the preliminary studies of the next-generation METEOSAT spacecraft and the forthcoming launch of the first spacecraft of the EPS/METOP series. Preparatory activities are underway for the series of operational missions, to provide data and services for Earth monitoring, in the frame of the GMES programme.

  18. Status of the ESA L1 mission candidate ATHENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, N.; Martin, D.; Lumb, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Bavdaz, M.; Fransen, S.; Linder, M.; Peyrou-Lauga, R.; Voirin, T.; Braghin, M.; Mangunsong, S.; van Pelt, M.; Wille, E.

    2012-09-01

    ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) was an L class mission candidate within the science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency, with a planned launch by 2022. ATHENA was conceived as an ESA-led project, open to the possibility of focused contributions from JAXA and NASA. By allowing astrophysical observations between 100 eV and 10 keV, it would represent the new generation X-ray observatory, following the XMM-Newton, Astro-H and Chandra heritage. The main scientific objectives of ATHENA include the study of large scale structures, the evolution of black holes, strong gravity effects, neutron star structure as well as investigations into dark matter. The ATHENA mission concept would be based on focal length of 12m achieved via a rigid metering tube and a twoaperture, x-ray telescope. Two identical x-ray mirrors would illuminate fixed focal plane instruments: a cryogenic imaging spectrometer (XMS) and a wide field imager (WFI). The S/C is designed to be fully compatible with Ariane 5 ECA. The observatory would operate at SE-L2, with a nominal lifetime of 5 yr. This paper provides a summary of the reformulation activities, completed in December 2011. An overview of the spacecraft design and of the payload is provided, including both telescope and instruments. Following the ESA Science Programme Committee decision on the L1 mission in May 2012, ATHENA was not selected to enter Definition Phase.

  19. The ESA mission to Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhard, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Europeon Space Agency's approximately Giotto mission plans for a launch in July 1985 with a Halley encounter in mid-March 1986 4 weeks after the comet's perihelion passage. Giotto carries 10 scientific experiments, a camera, neutral, ion and dust mass spectrometers, a dust impact detector system, various plasma analyzers, a magnetometer and an optical probe. The instruments are described, the principles on which they are based are described, and the experiment key performance data are summarized. The launch constraints the helicentric transfer trajectory, and the encounter scenario are analyzed. The Giotto spacecraft major design criteria, spacecraft subsystem and the ground system are described. The problem of hypervelocity dust particle impacts in the innermost part of the coma, the problem of spacecraft survival, and the adverse effects of impact-generated plasma aroung the spacecraft are considered.

  20. Cryosphere campaigns in support of ESA's Earth Explorers Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Tânia; Davidson, Malcolm; Plank, Gernot; Floberghagen, Rune; Parrinello, Tommaso; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Drusch, Matthias; Fernandez, Diego

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out ground based and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne Earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans, atmosphere and solid Earth. ESA has conducted over 110 airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 and this presentation will describe three campaigns in Antarctica and the Arctic. They were undertaken during the calibration/validation phase of Earth Explorer (EE) missions, such as SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) and CryoSat-2. In support of SMOS and GOCE, the DOMECair airborne campaign took place in Antarctica, in the Dome C region in the middle of January 2013. The two main objectives were a) to quantify and document the spatial variability in the DOME C area (SMOS) and b) to fill a gap in the high-quality gravity anomaly maps in Antarctica where airborne gravity measurements are sparse (GOCE). Results from the campaign for the SMOS component, showed that the DOME C area is not as spatially homogenous as previously assumed, therefore comparisons of different missions (e.g. SMOS and NASA's Aquarius) with different footprints must be done with care, highlighting once again the importance of field work to test given assumptions. One extremely surprising outcome of this campaign was the pattern similarity between the gravity measurements and brightness temperature fields. To date, there has never been an indication that L-Band brightness temperatures could be correlated to gravity, but preliminary analysis showed coincident high brightness temperature with high gravity values, suggesting that topography may influence microwave emissions. Also in support of SMOS, the SMOSice airborne campaign has been planned in the Arctic. It was motived by a previous ESA SMOSice study that

  1. SOHO Mission Interruption Joint NASA/ESA Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Contact with the SOlar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft was lost in the early morning hours of June 25, 1998, Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), during a planned period of calibrations, maneuvers, and spacecraft reconfigurations. Prior to this the SOHO operations team had concluded two years of extremely successful science operations. A joint European Space Agency (ESA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineering team has been planning and executing recovery efforts since loss of contact with some success to date. ESA and NASA management established the SOHO Mission Interruption Joint Investigation Board to determine the actual or probable cause(s) of the SOHO spacecraft mishap. The Board has concluded that there were no anomalies on-board the SOHO spacecraft but that a number of ground errors led to the major loss of attitude experienced by the spacecraft. The Board finds that the loss of the SOHO spacecraft was a direct result of operational errors, a failure to adequately monitor spacecraft status, and an erroneous decision which disabled part of the on-board autonomous failure detection. Further, following the occurrence of the emergency situation, the Board finds that insufficient time was taken by the operations team to fully assess the spacecraft status prior to initiating recovery operations. The Board discovered that a number of factors contributed to the circumstances that allowed the direct causes to occur. The Board strongly recommends that the two Agencies proceed immediately with a comprehensive review of SOHO operations addressing issues in the ground procedures, procedure implementation, management structure and process, and ground systems. This review process should be completed and process improvements initiated prior to the resumption of SOHO normal operations.

  2. ESA's advanced relay and technology mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechte, H.; Bird, A. G.; van Holtz, L.; Oppenhauser, G.

    1990-05-01

    The Advanced Relay and Technology Mission is discussed. The objective of the mission is to develop, launch, and operate a single geostationary satellite. The proposed satellite includes advanced communications payloads with data-relay, mobile, and fixed-service applications. The semiconductor laser intersatellite link experiment (Silex), which is aimed at developing an optical communications data-relay system, is described. The Silex configuration is designed for LEO or GEO applications and has a 65 Mbit/s data rate over the optical return link. Consideration is given to the phased-array technology utilized in the S-band data-relay payload; the L-band land mobile payload; diagnostics and propagation packages; and technology experiments for improving the platform.

  3. ESA Swarm Mission - Level 1b Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Floberghagen, Rune; Mecozzi, Riccardo; Menard, Yvon

    2014-05-01

    Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system, has been launched in November 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, which will bring new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and environment. The Level 1b Products of the Swarm mission contain time-series of the quality screened, calibrated, corrected, and fully geo-localized measurements of the magnetic field intensity, the magnetic field vector (provided in both instrument and Earth-fixed frames), the plasma density, temperature, and velocity. Additionally, quality screened and pre-calibrated measurements of the nongravitational accelerations are provided. Geo-localization is performed by 24- channel GPS receivers and by means of unique, three head Advanced Stellar Compasses for high-precision satellite attitude information. The Swarm Level 1b data will be provided in daily products separately for each of the three Swarm spacecrafts. This poster will present detailed lists of the contents of the Swarm Level 1b Products and brief descriptions of the processing algorithms used in the generation of these data.

  4. Unresolved Galaxy Classifier for ESA's Gaia Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellas-Velidis, I.; Kontizas, M.; Livanou, E.; Tsalmantza, P.

    2010-07-01

    Unresolved Galaxy Classifier (UGC), a software package for the ground-based pipeline of ESA’s Gaia mission is presented. It aims at analyzing Gaia BP/RP spectra of unresolved galaxies, to provide taxonomic classification and specific parameters estimation. The UGC algorithm is based on Support Vector Machines, a supervised learning technique. The software is implemented in JAVA. An offline UGC-learning module provides functions for SVM-model training. Once trained, the set of models can be repeatedly applied to unknown galaxy spectra by the pipeline’s UGC-application module. Tests with a library of BP/RP simulated galaxy spectra show a very good performance of UGC.

  5. ESA SMART-1 Mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.; Racca, Giuseppe D.; Marini, Andrea; Grande, Manuel; Huovelin, Juhani; Josset, Jean-Luc; Keller, Horst Uwe; Nathues, Andreas; Koschny, Detlef; Malkki, Ansi

    SMART-1 is the first of ESA’s Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology. Its objective is to demonstrate Primary Solar Electric Propulsion for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The 370 kg spacecraft is to be launched in summer 2003 as Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger and after a 15 month cruise is to orbit the Moon for 6 months with possible extension. SMART-1 will carry out observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit with a science and technology payload (19 kg total mass): a miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) mapping surface elemental composition a Deep Space Communication experiment (KaTE) a radio-science investigations (RSIS) a Laser-Link Experiment an On Board Autonomous Navigation experiment (OBAN) and plasma sensors (SPEDE). SMART-1 will study accretional and bombardment processes that led to the formation of rocky planets and the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. Its science investigations include studies of the chemical composition of the Moon of geophysical processes (volcanism tectonics cratering erosion deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology and the preparation for future lunar and planetary exploration.

  6. The Operations Security Concept for Future ESA Earth Observation Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, D.; Bargellini, P.; Merri, M.

    2008-08-01

    Next-generation European earth observation missions will play a critical role in public safety and security infrastructures. This makes it necessary for ESA to protect the communication infrastructure of these missions in order to guarantee their service availability. In this paper, we discuss the development process for a generic earth observation security concept. This concept has been developed as part of a GMES Flight Operation Segment security study with the objective to analyse and select a number of high level security requirements for the missions. Further, we studied the impact of an implementation for these requirements on the operational infrastructure of current earth observation missions.

  7. ESA unveils Spanish antenna for unique space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    The newly refurbished antenna, which is located at the Villafranca del Castillo Satellite Tracking Station site (VILSPA) near Madrid, has been selected as the prime communication link with the Cluster II spacecraft. The VIL-1 antenna will play a vital role in ESA's Cluster mission by monitoring and controlling the four spacecraft and by receiving the vast amounts of data that will be returned to Earth during two years of operations. Scheduled for launch in summer 2000, the Cluster quartet will complete the most detailed investigation ever made into the interaction between our pl0anet's magnetosphere - the region of space dominated by Earth's magnetic field - and the continuous stream of charged particles emitted by the Sun - the solar wind. This exciting venture is now well under way, following completion of the satellite assembly and test programme and two successful verification flights by the newly developed Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle. The ESA Flight Acceptance Review Board has accordingly given the go-ahead for final launch preparations at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. VILSPA, ESA and Cluster II Built in 1975, after an international agreement between the European Space Agency and the Spanish government, VILSPA is part of the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) Tracking Station Network (ESTRACK). In the last 25 years, VILSPA has supported many ESA and international satellite programmes, including the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), EXOSAT and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to supporting the Cluster II mission, it has been designated as the Science Operations Centre for ESA's XMM Newton mission and for the Far-Infrared Space Telescope (FIRST), which is due to launch in 2007. There are now more than half a dozen large dish antennae installed at VILSPA. One of these is the VIL-1 antenna, a 15 metre diameter dish which operates in the S-band radio frequency (1.8 - 2.7 GHz). This antenna has been modernised recently in order

  8. ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission - An overview on the mission's performance and scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched on 2 November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the need for global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. This paper will provide an overview on the various aspects of the SMOS mission, such as 1. The performance of the mission after more than 5 years in orbit: The SMOS mission has been in routine operations since May 2010, following the successful completion of the 6-months commissioning phase. The paper will summarise the technical and scientific status of the mission, including the status of the RFI detection and mitigation and its effect on the data products. SMOS has so far provided very reliable instrument operations, data processing and dissemination to users. The paper will also provide an overview on the MIRAS instrument performance, including the instrument calibration and level 1 brightness temperature data processing. 2. An overview on the SMOS data products: SMOS provides continuously level 1 (brightness temperature) and level 2 (soil moisture and ocean salinity) to its scientific user community since summer 2010. SMOS also provides brightness temperature data (level 1 data) to ECMWF in near-real time (NRT), who assimilates the data into their forecasting system. New services have been established to deliver a tailored NRT data product via the WMO's GTS and EUMETSAT's EUMETCast data dissemination systems to other operational agencies. This will open up new operational applications for SMOS data. Other data products are under development

  9. Packet utilisation definitions for the ESA XMM mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, H. R.

    1994-11-01

    XMM, ESA's X-Ray Multi-Mirror satellite, due for launch at the end of 1999 will be the first ESA scientific spacecraft to implement the ESA packet telecommand and telemetry standards and will be the first ESOC-controlled science mission to take advantage of the new flight control system infrastructure development (based on object-oriented design and distributed-system architecture) due for deployment in 1995. The implementation of the packet standards is well defined at packet transport level. However, the standard relevant to the application level (the ESA Packet Utilization Standard) covers a wide range of on-board 'services' applicable in varying degrees to the needs of XMM. In defining which parts of the ESA PUS to implement, the XMM project first considered the mission objectives and the derived operations concept and went on to identify a minimum set of packet definitions compatible with these aspects. This paper sets the scene as above and then describes the services needed for XMM and the telecommand and telemetry packet types necessary to support each service.

  10. Packet utilisation definitions for the ESA XMM mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nye, H. R.

    1994-01-01

    XMM, ESA's X-Ray Multi-Mirror satellite, due for launch at the end of 1999 will be the first ESA scientific spacecraft to implement the ESA packet telecommand and telemetry standards and will be the first ESOC-controlled science mission to take advantage of the new flight control system infrastructure development (based on object-oriented design and distributed-system architecture) due for deployment in 1995. The implementation of the packet standards is well defined at packet transport level. However, the standard relevant to the application level (the ESA Packet Utilization Standard) covers a wide range of on-board 'services' applicable in varying degrees to the needs of XMM. In defining which parts of the ESA PUS to implement, the XMM project first considered the mission objectives and the derived operations concept and went on to identify a minimum set of packet definitions compatible with these aspects. This paper sets the scene as above and then describes the services needed for XMM and the telecommand and telemetry packet types necessary to support each service.

  11. Science performance of Gaia, ESA's space-astrometry mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, J. H. J.

    2012-09-01

    Gaia is the next astrometry mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), following up on the success of the Hipparcos mission. With a focal plane containing 106 CCD detectors, Gaia will survey the entire sky and repeatedly observe the brightest 1,000 million objects, down to 20th magnitude, during its 5-year lifetime. Gaia's science data comprises absolute astrometry, broad-band photometry, and low-resolution spectro-photometry. Spectroscopic data with a resolving power of 11,500 will be obtained for the brightest 150 million sources, down to 17th magnitude. The thermo-mechanical stability of the spacecraft, combined with the selection of the L2 Lissajous point of the Sun-Earth/Moon system for operations, allows stellar parallaxes to be measured with standard errors less than 10 micro-arcsecond (μas) for stars brighter than 12th magnitude, 25 μas for stars at 15th magnitude, and 300 μas at magnitude 20. Photometric standard errors are in the milli-magnitude regime. The spectroscopic data allows the measurement of radial velocities with errors of 15 km s-1 at magnitude 17. Gaia's primary science goal is to unravel the kinematical, dynamical, and chemical structure and evolution of the Milky Way. In addition, Gaia's data will touch many other areas of science, e.g., stellar physics, solar-system bodies, fundamental physics, and exo-planets. The Gaia spacecraft is currently in the qualification and production phase. With a launch in 2013, the final catalogue is expected in 2021. The science community in Europe, organised in the Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC), is responsible for the processing of the data.

  12. THOR - a mission candidate for ESA M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaivads, Andris

    2015-04-01

    We present a mission concept THOR (http://thor.irfu.se) that was proposed in the response to the ESA M4 Call. The scientific theme of the THOR mission is turbulent energy dissipation and particle energization. The main focus is on turbulence and shock processes, however areas where the different fundamental processes interact, such as reconnection in turbulence or shock generated turbulence, is also of high importance. The THOR mission aims to address such fundamental questions as how energy is dissipated at kinetic scales, how energy is partitioned among different plasma components, what is the relative importance of waves and coherent structures in the dissipation processes. To reach the goal a careful design work of the THOR mission and its payload has been done and it is based on the earlier mission concepts of Tor, EIDOSCOPE and Cross-Scale. We present the basic concepts of the THOR mission, THOR's payload and the major science questions to be addressed.

  13. SCOS2: ESA's new generation of mission control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J. F.; Head, N. C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the next generation Spacecraft Control System infrastructure (SCOSII) which is being developed at the Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA). The objectives of the new system and selected areas of the proposed hardware and software approach are described.

  14. Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and Maurizio Cheli, representing European Space Agency (ESA),

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and Maurizio Cheli, representing European Space Agency (ESA), set up an experiment at the glovebox on the Space Shuttle Columbias mid-deck. The two mission specialists joined three other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia.

  15. An ESA precursor mission to human exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; Pradier, Alain; de Rossa, Diego; Vanoutryve, Benjamin; Jojaghaian, Aliac; Espinasse, Sylvie; Gardini, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    The coming decades will once again see humans on the surface of the Moon. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s this new lunar exploration will be an international effort, with long duration missions and a goal to pave the way for further human expansion into the solar system. Ensuring the success and sustainability of this exploration poses significant challenges for all involved. ESA is currently preparing its first contribution to this international lunar exploration effort; a lunar lander mission, which will be a precursor to a future, Ariane V launched, ESA cargo and logistics capability to the Moon. The precursor mission will demonstrate soft precision landing with hazard avoidance capabilities, which will be required by a future cargo lander. In addition the mission can be applied as a preparation for future human exploration activities and help to ensure the sustainability of future exploration efforts. Activities have included Phase A and B1 mission design studies and technology development activities (both reported in another paper) and the definition of mission objectives and a model payload. The mission objectives have been derived by the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, a group derived of European specialists in various areas of exploration related science and technology, supported by ESA. Major inputs to the definition process were the 195 responses received to a request for information for potential payload contributions to the mission. The group was tasked with establishing how such a mission could best prepare for future human exploration. It was determined that the mission's goal should be to enable sustainable exploration and objectives were identified within a number of themes: health, habitation, resources, mobility and scientific preparations for future human activities. Investigations seek to characterise the lunar environment (e.g. radiation, dust etc.) and its effects and the properties of a landing site (potential resources, geological

  16. An ESA precursor mission to human exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; Pradier, Alain; de Rossa, Diego; Vanoutryve, Benjamine; Jojaghaian, Aliac; Espinasse, Sylvie; Gardini, Bruno

    The coming decades will once again see humans on the surface of the Moon. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s this new lunar exploration will be an international effort, with long duration missions and a goal to pave the way for further human expansion into the solar system. Ensuring the success and sustainability of this exploration poses significant challenges for all involved. ESA is currently preparing its first contribution to this international lunar exploration effort; a lunar lander mission, which will be a precursor to a future, Ariane V launched, ESA cargo and logistics capability to the Moon. The precursor mission will demonstrate soft precision landing with hazard avoidance capabilities, which will be required by a future cargo lander. In addition the mission can be applied as a preparation for future human exploration activities and help to ensure the sustainability of future exploration efforts. Activities have included Phase A and B1 mission design studies and technology development activities (both reported in another paper) and the definition of mission objectives and a model payload. The mission objectives have been derived by the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, a group derived of European specialists in various areas of exploration related science and technology, supported by ESA. Major inputs to the definition process were the 195 responses received to a request for information for potential payload contributions to the mission. The group was tasked with establishing how such a mission could best prepare for future human exploration. It was determined that the mission's goal should be to enable sustainable exploration and objectives were identified within a number of themes: health, habitation, resources, mobility and scientific preparations for future human activities. Investigations seek to characterise the lunar environment (e.g. radiation, dust etc.) and its effects and the properties of a landing site (potential resources, geological

  17. The europa initiative for esa's cosmic vision: a potential european contribution to nasa's Europa mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Michel; Jones, Geraint H.; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of the habitability of Jupiter's icy moons is considered of high priority in the roadmaps of the main space agencies, including the decadal survey and esa's cosmic vision plan. the voyager and galileo missions indicated that europa and ganymede may meet the requirements of habitability, including deep liquid aqueous reservoirs in their interiors. indeed, they constitute different end-terms of ocean worlds, which deserve further characterization in the next decade. esa and nasa are now both planning to explore these ice moons through exciting and ambitious missions. esa selected in 2012 the juice mission mainly focused on ganymede and the jupiter system, while nasa is currently studying and implementing the europa mission. in 2015, nasa invited esa to provide a junior spacecraft to be carried on board its europa mission, opening a collaboration scheme similar to the very successful cassini-huygens approach. in order to define the best contribution that can be made to nasa's europa mission, a europa initiative has emerged in europe. its objective is to elaborate a community-based strategy for the proposition of the best possible esa contribution(s) to nasa's europa mission, as a candidate for the upcoming selection of esa's 5th medium-class mission . the science returns of the different potential contributions are analysed by six international working groups covering complementary science themes: a) magnetospheric interactions; b) exosphere, including neutrals, dust and plumes; c) geochemistry; d) geology, including expressions of exchanges between layers; e) geophysics, including characterization of liquid water distribution; f) astrobiology. each group is considering different spacecraft options in the contexts of their main scientific merits and limitations, their technical feasibility, and of their interest for the development of esa-nasa collaborations. there are five options under consideration: (1) an augmented payload to the europa mission main

  18. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Engdahl, Marcus; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Gascon, Ferran; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Koetz, Benjamin; Arino, Olivier; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Foumelis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element are • to federate, support and expand the research community • to strengthen the leadership of European EO research community • to enable the science community to address new scientific research As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 and 2013 In particular the ESA Living Planet Symposium was successfully organized in Edinburgh September 2013 and involving 1700 participants from 60 countries. The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the 2014 SEOM work plan approved by ESA member states. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing open-source, multi-mission, scientific toolboxes : the new toolboxes for Sentinel 1/2/3 and 5P will be introduced 2. Research and development studies: the first SEOM studies are being launched such as the INSARAP studies for Sentinel 1 interferometry in orbit demonstration , the IAS study to generate an improved spectroscopic database of the trace gas species CH4, H2O, and CO in the 2.3 μm region and SO2 in the UV region for Sentinel 5 P. In addition larger Sentinels for science call will be tendered in 2014 covering grouped studies for Sentinel 1 Land , Sentinel 1 Ocean , Sentinel 2 Land, Sentinel 3 SAR Altimetry ,Sentinel 3 Ocean color, Sentinel 3 Land and Sentinels Synergy . 3. Science users consultation : the Sentinel 2 for Science workshop is planned from 20 to 22 may 2014 at ESRIN to prepare for scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-2 mission (http://seom.esa.int/S2forScience2014 ) . In addition the FRINGE workshop focusing on scientific explotation of Sentinel1 using SAR interferometry is planned to be held at ESA ESRIN in Q2 2015 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinels data: the Advanced Training course Land

  19. M⁴ - a mission candidate for ESA M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retino, A.; Vaivads, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present a mission concept that will be proposed in the response to the upcoming ESA M4 Call. The working name of the mission is M⁴. The scientific theme of the M⁴ mission is turbulent energy dissipation and particle energization. The main focus is on turbulence and shock processes, however areas where the different fundamental processes interact, such as reconnection in turbulence or shock generated turbulence, is also of high importance. The M⁴ mission aims to address such fundamental questions as how energy is dissipated at kinetic scales, how energy is partitioned among different plasma components, what is the relative importance of waves and coherent structures in the dissipation processes. To reach the goal a careful design work of the M⁴ mission and its payload has been done and it is based on the earlier mission concepts of Tor, EIDOSCOPE and Cross-Scale. We present the basic concepts of the M⁴ mission and its payload as well as illustrate how it will help to address the science questions posed.

  20. Mission Design for NASA's Inner Heliospheric Sentinels and ESA's Solar Orbiter Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, John; Folta, David; Marr, Greg; Rodriquez-Canabal, Jose; Conde, Rich; Guo, Yanping; Kelley, Jeff; Kirby, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This paper will document the mission design and mission analysis performed for NASA's Inner Heliospheric Sentinels (IHS) and ESA's Solar Orbiter (SolO) missions, which were conceived to be launched on separate expendable launch vehicles. This paper will also document recent efforts to analyze the possibility of launching the Inner Heliospheric Sentinels and Solar Orbiter missions using a single expendable launch vehicle, nominally an Atlas V 551.

  1. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  2. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS,ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan has been established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. The 2015 SEOM work plan is covering the organisation of three Science users consultation workshops for Sentinel1/3/5P , the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organisation of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data. The first SEOM projects have been tendered since 2013 including the development of Sentinel toolboxes, advanced INSAR algorithms for Sentinel-1 TOPS data exploitation, Improved Atmospheric Spectroscopic data-base (IAS), as well as grouped studies for Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 land and ocean applications and studies for exploiting the synergy between the Sentinels. The status and first results from these SEOM projects will be presented and an outlook for upcoming SEOM studies will be given.

  3. International cooperation in the field of space life sciences: European Space Agency's (ESA) perspectives.

    PubMed

    Oser, H

    1989-08-01

    International cooperation in life sciences, as in any other of the space research fields, takes place at two distinct levels: scientist to scientist, or agency to agency. This article is more concerned with the agency to agency level, which involves the arrangements made between two partners for the flying of experiments and/or hardware on space missions. International cooperation is inherent to the European Space Agency (ESA), since it consists of 13 member states (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and West Germany) and one associated member, Finland. ESA also has special cooperative arrangements with Canada. Life sciences research in ESA is carried out within the Microgravity Research Program, an optional program to which member states (in this case all but Austria and Ireland) contribute "a la carte," and receive their "share" accordingly. Therefore, many of the activities are naturally linked to international arrangements within the member states, and also to arrangements between the agencies, with life sciences being the dominant activity between NASA and ESA. PMID:11592293

  4. The phase 0/A study of the ESA M3 mission candidate EChO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, Ludovic; Isaak, Kate; Linder, Martin; Escudero, Isabel; Crouzet, Pierre-Elie; Walker, Roger; Ehle, Matthias; Hübner, Jutta; Timm, Rainer; de Vogeleer, Bram; Drossart, Pierre; Hartogh, Paul; Lovis, Christophe; Micela, Giusi; Ollivier, Marc; Ribas, Ignasi; Snellen, Ignas; Swinyard, Bruce; Tinetti, Giovanna; Eccleston, Paul

    2015-12-01

    EChO, the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, has been one of the five M-class mission candidates competing for the M3 launch slot within the science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency (ESA). As such, EChO has been the subject of a Phase 0/A study that involved European Industry, research institutes and universities from ESA member states and that concluded in September 2013. EChO is a concept for a dedicated mission to measure the chemical composition and structure of hundreds of exoplanet atmospheres using the technique of transit spectroscopy. With simultaneous and uninterrupted spectral coverage from the visible to infrared wavelengths, EChO targets extend from gas giants (Jupiter or Neptune-like) to super-Earths in the very hot to temperate zones of F to M-type host stars, opening up the way to large-scale, comparative planetology that would place our own solar system in the context of other planetary systems in the Milky Way. A review of the performance requirements of the EChO mission was held at ESA at the end of 2013, with the objective of assessing the readiness of the mission to progress to the Phase B1 study phase. No critical issues were identified from a technical perspective, however a number of recommendations were made for future work. Since the mission was not selected for the M3 launch slot, EChO is no longer under study at ESA. In this paper we give an overview of the final mission concept for EChO as of the end of the study, from scientific, technical and operational perspectives.

  5. THE JOINT ESA-NASA EUROPA JUPITER SYSTEM MISSION (EJSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Blanc, M.; Bunce, E. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Erd, C.; Grasset, O.; Greeley, R.; Johnson, T. V.; Clark, K. B.; Prockter, L. M.; Senske, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The joint "Europa Jupiter System Mission" (EJSM) is an international mission under study in collaboration between NASA and ESA. Its goal is to study Jupiter and its magnetosphere, the diversity of the Galilean satellites, the physical characteristics, composition and geology of their surfaces. Europa and Ganymede are two primary targets of the mission. The reference mission architecture consists of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The two primary goals of the mission are i) to determine whether the Jupiter system harbors habitable worlds and ii) to characterize the processes within the Jupiter system. The science objectives addressing the first goal are to: i) characterize and determine the extent of subsurface oceans and their relations to the deeper interior, ii) characterize the ice shells and any subsurface water, including the heterogeneity of the ice, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; iii) characterize the deep internal structure, differentiation history, and (for Ganymede) the intrinsic magnetic field; iv) compare the exospheres, plasma environments, and magnetospheric interactions; v) determine global surface composition and chemistry, especially as related to habitability; vi) understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ exploration. The science objectives for addressing the second goal are to: i) understand the Jovian satellite system, especially as context for Europa and Ganymede; ii) evaluate the structure and dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere; iii) characterize processes of the Jovian magnetodisk/magnetosphere; iv) determine the interactions occurring in the Jovian system; and v) constrain models for the origin of the Jupiter system. Both spacecraft would carry a complement of 11-12 instruments launch separately in 2020 and use a Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA

  6. Cluster Science Archive: the ESA long term archive of the Cluster mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Arnaud; Escoubet, C. Philippe; Laakso, Harri

    2014-05-01

    The science data archive of the Cluster mission is a major contribution of the European Space Agency (ESA) to the International Living With a Star program. Known as the Cluster Active Archive (CAA), its availability since 2006 has resulted in a significant increase of the scientific return of this on-going mission. The Cluster science archive (CSA) has been developed in parallel to CAA over the last few years at the European Space Astronomy Center of ESA in Madrid, Spain. It is the long-term science archive of the Cluster mission developed and managed along with all the other ESA science missions data archives. CSA design and data services are based on the CAA interface and its user-friendly services. Publicly opened in November 2013, CSA is available in parallel to CAA during a transition period until CAA will be closed in spring 2014. It is the purpose of this presentation to first provide an overview of the various services offered by the Cluster Science Archive, including: data visualisation, VO support and command line capabilities (which enables data access via Matlab or IDL softwares). Upcoming services will then be presented (e.g. data streaming, particle distribution plot visualisation...). Support data related to on-going FP7 projects such as ECLAT and MAARBLE will be soon available on the CSA and will be briefly presented. Possible new services such as data mining will finally be evoked. This last point will hopefully lead to an open and lively debate about which services shall be offered to the scientific community by a space agency for a specific type of mission and what should be left to the community to develop.

  7. Particle Environment Package (PEP) for the ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, Stas; Wurz, Peter; PEP Team

    2013-04-01

    Particle Environment Package (PEP) is a suite of particle sensors proposed for the ESA JUICE mission. PEP includes sensors for the comprehensive measurements of electrons, ions, energetic neutrals, and neutral gas. PEP covers over nine decades of energy <0.001 eV to >1 MeV with full angular coverage. Combining remote global imaging via energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) with in-situ measurements, PEP addresses all scientific objectives of the JUICE mission relevant to particle measurements. PEP will seek answers for four overarching science questions: How does the corotating magnetosphere of Jupiter interact with complex and diverse environment of Ganymede? How does the rapidly rotating magnetosphere of Jupiter interact with seemingly inert Callisto? What are the governing mechanisms and their global impact of release of material into the Jupiter magnetosphere from Europa and Io? How do internal and solar wind drivers cause such energetic, time variable and multi-scale phenomena in the steadily rotating giant magnetosphere of Jupiter? We discuss the suite's sensor basic design, performance, radiation mitigation principles and demonstrate how the suite fully addresses its scientific objectives.

  8. An Historic Encounter: Reviewing the Outreach around ESA's Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzen, D.

    2016-03-01

    The Rosetta mission is a milestone in terms of science and public outreach. The European Space Agency and the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt in particular did a marvellous job of sparking global public interest, driven by various events throughout the mission. In contrast, the actions of the Max Planck Society research group in charge of the high resolution Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System were, in my opinion, the cause of some concern and bring to light an important debate in the relationship between outreach and science. This article seeks to review the outreach that surrounded the Rosetta mission and to highlight both the best practice that made it a success and the bad practice that set some aspects behind.

  9. CarbonSat: ESA's Earth Explorer 8 Candidate Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Y. J.; Ingmann, P.; Löscher, A.

    2012-04-01

    The CarbonSat candidate mission is part of ESA's Earth Explorer Programme. In 2010, two candidate opportunity missions had been selected for feasibility and preliminary definition studies. The missions, called FLEX and CarbonSat, are now in competition to become ESA's eighth Earth Explorer, both addressing key climate and environmental change issues. In this presentation we will provide a mission overview of CarbonSat with a focus on science. CarbonSat's primary mission objective is the quantification and monitoring of CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks from the local to the regional scale for i) a better understanding of the processes that control carbon cycle dynamics and ii) an independent estimate of local greenhouse gas emissions (fossil fuel, geological CO2 and CH4, etc.) in the context of international treaties. A second priority objective is the monitoring/derivation of CO2 and CH4 fluxes on regional to global scale. These objectives will be achieved by a unique combination of frequent, high spatial resolution (2 x 2 km2) observations of XCO2 and XCH4 coupled to inverse modelling schemes. The required random error of a single measurement at ground-pixel resolution is of the order of between 1 and 3 ppm for XCO2 and between 9 and 17 ppb for XCH4. High spatial resolution is essential in order to maximize the probability for clear-sky observations and to identify flux hot spots. Ideally, CarbonSat shall have a wide swath allowing a 6-day global repeat cycle. The CarbonSat observations will enable CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, localized industrial complexes, cities, and other large emitters to be objectively assessed at a global scale. Similarly, the monitoring of natural gas pipelines and compressor station leakage will become feasible. The detection and quantification of the substantial geological greenhouse gas emission sources such as seeps, volcanoes and mud volcanoes will be achieved for the first time. CarbonSat's Greenhouse Gas instrument will

  10. Status of esa smart-1 mission to the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. R.; Marini, A.; SMART-1 Technology Working Team

    2003-04-01

    SMART-1 is the first in the programme of ESA’s Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology . Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft has been readied for launch in spring 2003 as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger. After a cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit. SMART-1's science payload, with a total mass of some 19 kg, features many innovative instruments and advanced technologies. A miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) with a new type of detector and micro-collimator which will provide fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's surface elemental composition. The payload also includes an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical composition and evolution of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission could address several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of planets, and the origin of the

  11. ESA M3 mission candidate EChO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, L.; Isaak, K. G.; Escudero, I.; Martin, D.; Crouzet, P.-E.; Rando, N.

    2011-09-01

    The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) is a medium class mission candidate within the science program Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency. It was selected in February 2011 as one of 4 M3 mission candidates to enter an assessment phase. The assessment activities start with the definition of science and mission requirements as well as of a preliminary model payload, followed by an internal Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study. Parallel industrial studies will follow in 2012, after which the 4 missions will be reviewed to identify candidates entering definition phase studies in 2013. EChO aims at characterising the atmosphere of known transiting exoplanets, potentially from giant Hot Jupiters down to Super-Earths orbiting in the habitable zone of M-dwarf stars. It will use a 1 m class telescope, feeding a spectrometer covering the wave lengths from 0.4 to 11 microns with a potential extension to 16 microns. While spatial differentiation of the exoplanet and its host star is not necessary, spectral differentiation will be achieved by making differential measurements of in- and out- of transit frames to cancel the star signal. This paper describes critical requirements, and gives an overview of the model payload design. It also reports on the results of the CDF.

  12. The Alfvén Mission: A possible ESA M4 Mission Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Berthomier, Matthieu; Pottelette, Raymond; Forsyth, Colin

    2014-05-01

    The Alfvén mission was proposed to the ESA M3 call for missions in 2010. Its scientific objective was to study the Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR), the most accessible laboratory for investigating plasmas at an interface where ideal magneto-hydrodynamics does not apply. Alfvén was designed to teach us where and how the particles that create the aurorae are accelerated, how and why they emit auroral kilometric radiation, what creates and maintains large scale electric fields aligned with the magnetic field, and to elucidate the ion outflow processes which are slowly removing the Earth's atmosphere. The auroral regions are the interface connecting the solar wind-driven collisionless magnetosphere to the collisional ionosphere at the top of Earth's atmosphere. Solar wind energy, transmitted via the magnetosphere, is dissipated in this interface, often explosively during magnetic substorms. The plasma organizes itself on a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales, manifesting as auroral structures ranging from huge long-lived arcs to tiny flickering filaments. The only way to make substantial further progress in auroral plasma science and to elucidate the fundamental physics of the acceleration processes at the heart of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is to combine the advantages of high-time resolution in situ measurements (as pioneered by the FAST mission), with the advantages of multi-point measurements (as pioneered by Cluster) in one mission. The mission concept also envisages continuous auroral imaging from the spacecraft, guaranteeing an understanding of the context (auroral morphology and motion) within which the in situ plasma measurements are made, and strong coordination with the existing dense network of ground based observatories, for more detailed ionospheric and auroral information when Alfvén overflights occur. We will review the ESA M3 Alfvén concept, consider recent scientific progress in this area, and discuss possible developments of the

  13. A vista of new knowledge from ESA's Hipparcos astronomy mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    Hipparcos is a milestone in the history of astronomy. In 1985 the American physicist Freeman J. Dyson hailed Hipparcos as the first major new development in space science to come from outside the United States. The spacecraft operated in orbit 1989-93, measuring the angles between stars in the sky. Over a further three years, computing teams across Europe generated a consistent, high-precision plot of 118,000 stars in the Hipparcos Catalogue and somewhat less accurate (but still unprecedented) data on a million stars in the Tycho Catalogue. The distances, motions, pairings and variability of stars are now known far more accurately than ever before. Hipparcos will make an impact on every branch of astronomy, from the Solar System to the history of the Universe, and especially on theories of stars and their evolution. For almost a year, astronomers most closely associated with the mission have had an early view of the completed catalogues and in Venice they will summarize their initial results. The Hipparcos data will be published in June, as an extraordinary contribution from Europe to astronomy all around the world. The success of Hipparcos has created problems for the organizers of Venice symposium. Altogether 190 scientific papers were offered for presentation by various groups of astronomers. With three mornings and three afternoons available for the main scientific sessions, 67 oral presentations are accommodated, by restricting speakers to 10-15 minutes each. For the rest, there will a generous display of results in the form of posters. Thus Hipparcos will be celebrated by a vista of new knowledge. The stars are looking younger Already Hipparcos seems to cure a headache concerning the ages of stars. As recently as last year, astronomers were perplexed by a contradiction between their estimates of the age of the Universe, and stars that seemed to be older. An early Hipparcos result announced in February 1997 (ESA Information Note 04/97) concerned the winking

  14. Comparing NASA and ESA Cost Estimating Methods for Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Charles D.; vanPelt, Michel O.

    2004-01-01

    To compare working methodologies between the cost engineering functions in NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and ESA European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), as well as to set-up cost engineering capabilities for future manned Mars projects and other studies which involve similar subsystem technologies in MSFC and ESTEC, a demonstration cost estimate exercise was organized. This exercise was a direct way of enhancing not only cooperation between agencies but also both agencies commitment to credible cost analyses. Cost engineers in MSFC and ESTEC independently prepared life-cycle cost estimates for a reference human Mars project and subsequently compared the results and estimate methods in detail. As a non-sensitive, public domain reference case for human Mars projects, the Mars Direct concept was chosen. In this paper the results of the exercise are shown; the differences and similarities in estimate methodologies, philosophies, and databases between MSFC and ESTEC, as well as the estimate results for the Mars Direct concept. The most significant differences are explained and possible estimate improvements identified. In addition, the Mars Direct plan and the extensive cost breakdown structure jointly set-up by MSFC and ESTEC for this concept are presented. It was found that NASA applied estimate models mainly based on historic Apollo and Space Shuttle cost data, taking into account the changes in technology since then. ESA used models mostly based on European satellite and launcher cost data, taking into account the higher equipment and testing standards for human space flight. Most of NASA's and ESA s estimates for the Mars Direct case are comparable, but there are some important, consistent differences in the estimates for: 1) Large Structures and Thermal Control subsystems; 2) System Level Management, Engineering, Product Assurance and Assembly, Integration and Test/Verification activities; 3) Mission Control; 4) Space Agency Program Level

  15. A vista of new knowledge from ESA's Hipparcos astronomy mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    Hipparcos is a milestone in the history of astronomy. In 1985 the American physicist Freeman J. Dyson hailed Hipparcos as the first major new development in space science to come from outside the United States. The spacecraft operated in orbit 1989-93, measuring the angles between stars in the sky. Over a further three years, computing teams across Europe generated a consistent, high-precision plot of 118,000 stars in the Hipparcos Catalogue and somewhat less accurate (but still unprecedented) data on a million stars in the Tycho Catalogue. The distances, motions, pairings and variability of stars are now known far more accurately than ever before. Hipparcos will make an impact on every branch of astronomy, from the Solar System to the history of the Universe, and especially on theories of stars and their evolution. For almost a year, astronomers most closely associated with the mission have had an early view of the completed catalogues and in Venice they will summarize their initial results. The Hipparcos data will be published in June, as an extraordinary contribution from Europe to astronomy all around the world. The success of Hipparcos has created problems for the organizers of Venice symposium. Altogether 190 scientific papers were offered for presentation by various groups of astronomers. With three mornings and three afternoons available for the main scientific sessions, 67 oral presentations are accommodated, by restricting speakers to 10-15 minutes each. For the rest, there will a generous display of results in the form of posters. Thus Hipparcos will be celebrated by a vista of new knowledge. The stars are looking younger Already Hipparcos seems to cure a headache concerning the ages of stars. As recently as last year, astronomers were perplexed by a contradiction between their estimates of the age of the Universe, and stars that seemed to be older. An early Hipparcos result announced in February 1997 (ESA Information Note 04/97) concerned the winking

  16. Mission to the Moon: An ESA study on future exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing worldwide interest in the continuation of lunar exploration has convinced ESA to carry out an investigation of the motivations to return to the Moon to establish a permanent or a semi-permanent manned lunar base. This study also considers the possible role Europe could play in the future exploration and possible utilization of the Moon. The study concentrated in this first phase mainly on scientific questions, leaving technological issues such as transportation, the role of humans, infrastructure, and policy matters to a later phase. It only partially considered questions relating to the exploitation of lunar resources and the impact of human activities on science.

  17. Performance of novel polymer shields aboard the ESA Biopan-5 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Fugger, M.; Vana, N.

    Radiation exposure of astronaut crew has been identified as a key issue in human spaceflight The reduction of dose by appropriate shielding measures is thus donated an essential role for the future development of space exploration particularly with regard to long-term interplanetary missions Optimization of shielding strategies and design may involve polymeric materials with enhanced hydrogen content specifically developed to attenuate high charge-and-energy HZE particles such as those encountered in galactic cosmic rays GCR The projectile energy loss is proportional to rho cdot Z A and reaches a maximum for hydrogen targets Light elements are also expected to minimize target fragmentation particularly the production of secondary neutrons The LETVAR experiment flow aboard the European Space Agency ESA Biopan-5 mission as part of a 27 kg payload attached to the external surface of the Foton-M2 descent capsule was dedicated to studying the shielding performance of three different polymers in reference to aluminium when exposed to the unshielded space environment in low-earth orbit LEO The mission was launched successfully on May 31 2005 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome Kazakhstan and spent 15 6 days at an orbital altitude between 262 and 304 km inclined by 63 r to the equatorial plane After recovery absorbed dose and average linear energy transfer LET were determined in front and behind the material slabs To support data interpretation material samples equivalent to those flown in space were exposed---to the extent possible

  18. BepiColombo - a joint ESA/JAXA mission to explore Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhoff, J.; Fujimoto, M.; Zender, J.

    2015-10-01

    BepiColombo is a joint project between ESA and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The Mission consists of two orbiters, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). The mission scenario foresees a launch of both spacecraft with an ARIANE V in January 2017 and an arrival at Mercury in the first half of 2024. From their dedicated orbits the two spacecraft will be studying the planet and its environment. The MPO scientific payload comprises eleven instruments/instrument packages; the MMO scientific payload consists of five instruments/instrument packages. Together,the scientific payload of both spacecraft will perform measurements to find clues to the origin and evolution of a planet close to its parent star. The MPO on BepiColombo will focus on a global characterization of Mercury through the investigation of its interior, surface, exosphere and magnetosphere. In addition, it will be testing Einstein's theory of general relativity. The MMO provided by JAXA focuses on investigating the wave and particle environment of the planet from an eccentric orbit. Together, the scientific payload of both spacecraft will provide the detailed information necessary to understand the process of planetary formation and evolution in the hottest part of the proto-planetary nebula as well as the similarities and differences between the magnetospheres of Mercury and the Earth.

  19. ESA's Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Haagmans, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth's gravity field is the fundamental physical force for every dynamic process on its surface. With the Gravity Field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) Mission as its first Earth Explorer core mission, the European Space Agency (ESA) is playing an important role in this `geopotential decade' by preparing for acquisition of a high quality, high spatial resolution gravity field and geoid for future scientific applications. GOCE combines an innovative new three-axis gravity gradiometer (EGG) instrument (comprising three x, y, z pairs of accelerometers with a baseline separation of 0.5 m) with a drag-compensating ion-propulsion system to measure for the first time the full gravity gradient tensor along its orbit at 250 km altitude. GOCE will carry a GPS satellite-to-satellite tracking navigation system for 3-dimensional positioning, star trackers for precise pointing knowledge, and a laser retroreflector for ground laser tracking. GOCE is specifically designed to make accurate and precise measurements of the stationary gravity field and gravity anomalies (to 1 mGal) at high spatial resolution (100 km). The data will facilitate the computation of a high spatial resolution (100 km) global geoid model to 1-2 cm accuracy. Applications of these products will be illustrated using examples in oceanography, solid-earth physics and geodesy. After a successful completion of the design consolidation phase, the construction phase for the GOCE satellite is presently underway, with an anticipated a launch in late 2006.

  20. A sample return mission to a pristine NEO submitted to ESA CV 2015-2025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; Barucci, A.

    2007-08-01

    ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 aims at furthering Europe's achievements in space science, for the benefit of all mankind. ESA' multinational Space Science Advisory Committee prepared the final plan, which contains a selection of themes and priorities. In the theme concerning how the Solar System works, a Near-Earth Object (NEO) sample return mission is indicated among the priorities. Indeed, small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. The Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are representative of the population of asteroids and dead comets and are thought to be similar in many ways to the ancient planetesimal swarms that accreted to form the planets. NEOs are thus fundamentally interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research and space missions. A sample return space mission to a pristine NEO has thus been proposed in partnership with the Japanese Space Agency JAXA, involving a large European community of scientists. The principal objectives are to obtained crucial information about 1) the properties of the building blocks of the terrestrial planets; 2) the major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating, ... .) which ruled the history of planetesimals; 3) the properties of primitive asteroids which may contain presolar material unknown in meteoritic samples; 4) the organics in primitive materials; 5) the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula; and 6) on the potential origin of molecules necessary for life. This project appears clearly to have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials. It involves a main spacescraft which will allow the determination of important physical properties of the target (shape, mass, crater distribution . . . ) and which will take samples by a touch-and-go procedure, a Lander for in-situ investigation of the sampling site, and sampling depending on

  1. Planetary Exploration in ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwehm, Gerhard H.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on planetary exploration in the European Space Agency is shown. The topics include: 1) History of the Solar System Material; 2) ROSETTA: The Comet Mission; 3) A New Name For The Lander: PHILAE; 4) The Rosetta Mission; 5) Lander: Design Characteristics; 6) SMART-1 Mission; 7) MARS Express VENUS Express; 8) Planetary Exploration in ESA The Future.

  2. SCOS 2: ESA's new generation of mission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Head, N. C.; Keyte, K.; Howard, P.; Lynenskjold, S.

    1994-01-01

    New mission-control infrastructure is currently being developed by ESOC, which will constitute the second generation of the Spacecraft Control Operations system (SCOS 2). The financial, functional and strategic requirements lying behind the new development are explained. The SCOS 2 approach is described. The technological implications of these approaches is described: in particular it is explained how this leads to the use of object oriented techniques to provide the required 'building block' approach. The paper summarizes the way in which the financial, functional and strategic requirements have been met through this combination of solutions. Finally, the paper outlines the development process to date, noting how risk reduction was achieved in the approach to new technologies and summarizes the current status future plans.

  3. Distribution of ESA's planetary mission data via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Barthelemy, Maud; Arviset, Christophe; Osuna, Pedro; Ortiz, Inaki

    Scientific and engineering data from the European Space Agency's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. All data in the PSA are compatible with the Planetary Data System (PDS) Standard of NASA, and the PSA staff work in close collaboration with the PDS staff. One major part of the ongoing development of the IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) has been to draw upon the lessons learned on both sides of this working relationship in order to refine and streamline the Standards. This is driving towards ‘interoperability' of the data systems maintained at all Agencies archiving planetary data, and it is hoped that in the long-run any data can be obtained from any of the co-operating archives using the same protocol. Currently, the PSA contains data from the GIOTTO spacecraft, several ground-based cometary observations, and the Mars Express, Smart-1, and Huygens missions. Independent reviews for the first Venus Express data are schedule for Spring 2008 and the first Venus Express data should be released on the PSA in late spring 2008. The first data release from the ROSETTA mission is also expected to be released on the PSA by spring 2008. Preparation for the release of data from the SMART-1 spacecraft is ongoing. Future missions such as ExoMars and Bepi- Colombo will also aim to work with the PSA to distribute their data to the community. The focus of the PSA activities is on the long-term preservation of data and knowledge from ESA's planetary missions. Scientific users can access the data online using several interfaces: - The Classical Interface allows complex parameter based queries, providing the end user with a facility to complete very specific searches on meta-data and geometrical parameters. By nature, this interface requires careful use and heavy

  4. NASA's Preparations for ESA's L3 Gravitational Wave Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Telescope Subsystem - Jeff Livas (GSFC): Demonstrate pathlength stability, straylight and manufacturability. Phase Measurement System - Bill Klipstein (JPL): Key measurement functions demonstrated. Incorporate full flight functionality. Laser Subsystem - Jordan Camp (GSFC): ECL master oscillator, phase noise of fiber power amplifier, demonstrate end-to-end performance in integrated system, lifetime. Micronewton Thrusters - John Ziemer (JPL): Propellant storage and distribution, system robustness, manufacturing yield, lifetime. Arm-locking Demonstration - Kirk McKenzie (JPL): Studying a demonstration of laser frequency stabilization with GRACE Follow-On. Torsion Pendulum - John Conklin (UF): Develop U.S. capability with GRS and torsion pendulum test bed. Multi-Axis Heterodyne Interferometry - Ira Thorpe (GSFC): Investigate test mass/optical bench interface. UV LEDs - John Conklin+ (UF): Flight qualify UV LEDs to replace mercury lamps in discharging system. Optical Bench - Guido Mueller (UF): Investigate alternate designs and fabrication processes to ease manufacturability. LISA researchers at JPL are leading the Laser Ranging Interferometer instrument on the GRACE Follow-On mission.

  5. Wavefront sensor for the ESA-GAIA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosteen, L. L. A.; Draaisma, F.; van Werkhoven, W. P.; van Riel, L. J. M.; Mol, M. H.; den Ouden, G.

    2009-08-01

    TNO developed a Wave Front Sensor (WFS) instrument for the GAIA mission. This Wave Front Sensor will be used to monitor the wave front errors of the two main telescopes mounted on the GAIA satellite, which may be corrected by a 5-degree of freedom (DOF) mechanism during operation. The GAIA-WFS will operate over a broad wavelength (450 to 900 nm) and under cryogenic conditions (130 to 200 K operation temperature). The WFS uses an all reflective, a-thermal design and is of the type of Shack-Hartmann. The boundary condition for the design is that the focal plane of the WFS is the same plane as the focal plane of the GAIA telescopes. The spot pattern generated after a micro lens array (MLA) by a star is compared to the pattern of one of the three calibration sources that is included in the WFS, allowing in flight calibration. We show the robust and lightweight opto mechanical design that is optimised for launch and cryogenic operation. Furthermore we give details on its alignment and commissioning. The WFS can measure wave front distortions in the order of lambda/1000, and determines the focal plane with an accuracy of 50 μm.

  6. ESA's Soil Moisture dnd Ocean Salinity Mission - Contributing to Water Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, S.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched in November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the need for global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. The focus of this paper will be on SMOS's contribution to support water resource management: SMOS surface soil moisture provides the input to derive root-zone soil moisture, which in turn provides the input for the drought index, an important monitoring prediction tool for plant available water. In addition to surface soil moisture, SMOS also provides observations on vegetation optical depth. Both parameters aid agricultural applications such as crop growth, yield forecasting and drought monitoring, and provide input for carbon and land surface modelling. SMOS data products are used in data assimilation and forecasting systems. Over land, assimilating SMOS derived information has shown to have a positive impact on applications such as NWP, stream flow forecasting and the analysis of net ecosystem exchange. Over ocean, both sea surface salinity and severe wind speed have the potential to increase the predictive skill on the seasonal and short- to medium-range forecast range. Operational users in particular in Numerical Weather Prediction and operational hydrology have put forward a requirement for soil moisture data to be available in near-real time (NRT). This has been addressed by developing a fast retrieval for a NRT level 2 soil moisture product based on Neural Networks, which will be available by autumn 2015. This paper will focus on presenting the

  7. BepiColombo - A joint ESA/JAXA mission to explore Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, Joe; Benkhoff, Johannes; Futjimoto, Masaki

    2015-04-01

    BepiColombo is a joint project between ESA and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The Mission consists of two orbiters, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). The mission scenario foresees a launch of both spacecraft with an ARIANE V in July 2016 and an arrival at Mercury in the first half of 2024. From their dedicated orbits the two spacecrafts will be studying the planet and its environment. The MPO scientific payload comprises eleven instruments/instrument packages; the MMO scientific payload consists of five instruments/instrument packages. Together, the scientific payload of both spacecraft will perform measurements to find clues to the origin and evolution of a planet close to its parent star. The MPO on BepiColombo will focus on a global characterization of Mercury through the investigation of its interior, surface, exosphere and magnetosphere. In addition, it will be testing Einstein's theory of general relativity. The MMO provided by JAXA focuses on investigating the wave and particle environment of the planet from an eccentric orbit. Together, the scientific payload of both spacecraft will provide the detailed information necessary to understand the process of planetary formation and evolution in the hottest part of the proto-planetary nebula as well as the similarities and differences between the magnetospheres of Mercury and the Earth. Most scientific instruments are already integrated into the spacecraft and both spacecraft have undergone successfully the thermal vacuum and thermal balance test (TV/TB) campaigns. The poster will inform about the current status of the mission, spacecraft and payload with emphasis on the expected scientific return.

  8. ESA and NASA agree new mission scenario for Cassini-Huygens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    After six months of investigations and analysis by a joint ESA/NASA Huygens Recovery Task Force (HRTF), senior management from the two space agencies and members of the Cassini-Huygens scientific community have endorsed several modifications to the mission. These will ensure a return close to 100% of the Huygens science data, with no impact on the nominal prime Cassini tour after the third Titan encounter. The modifications have been introduced because of a design flaw in the Huygens communication system. This problem meant that the Huygens receiver was unable to compensate for the frequency shift between the signal emitted by the Probe and the one received by the Orbiter, due to the Doppler shift (**). This would have resulted in the loss of most of the unique data returned from the Probe during its descent through Titan’s dense atmosphere. To ensure that as much data as possible is returned from the pioneering Probe, the HRTF proposed a new schedule for Cassini’s first orbits around Saturn. The agreed scenario involves shortening Cassini’s first two orbits around the ringed planet and adding a third which provides the required new geometry for the Huygens mission to Titan. In the new scenario, the arrival at Saturn on 1 July 2004 remains unchanged. However, Cassini’s first flyby of Titan will now occur on 26 October, followed by another on 13 December. The Huygens Probe will be released towards Titan on 25 December, for an entry into the moon’s atmosphere 22 days later, on 14 January 2005, seven weeks later than originally planned. To reduce the Doppler shift in the signal from Huygens, the Cassini Orbiter will fly over Titan’s cloud tops at a much higher altitude than originally planned - 65,000 km instead of 1,200 km. This higher orbit has the added advantage that Cassini will be able to preserve the four-year baseline tour through the Saturn system, by resuming its original orbital plan in mid-February 2005. “In any complex space mission problems

  9. ESA SMART-1 mission: results and lessons for future lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We review ESA’s SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. We discuss lessons for future lunar exploration and upcoming missions. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang’ E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to application geostationary missions and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of

  10. The ExoMars 2016 mission in the new ESA Planetary Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Tanya

    2015-12-01

    ExoMars 2016 will be the first operational ESA mission to use PDS4 the new version of the NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The data produced will be housed in the new Planetary Science Archive (PSA) which is currently under development at ESAC. This talk will introduce the ExoMars 2016 mission and its payload. The adaptation of the PDS4 standard for ExoMars 2016 and other future missions in the PSA will be discussed along with a progress report on the new PSA development.

  11. ESA SMART-1 mission: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We review ESA's SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to geostationary satellites and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions and exploration. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to

  12. Design of a satellite end-to-end mission performance simulator for imaging spectrometers and its application to the ESA's FLEX/Sentinel-3 tandem mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicent, Jorge; Sabater, Neus; Tenjo, Carolina; Acarreta, Juan R.; Manzano, María.; Rivera, Juan P.; Jurado, Pedro; Franco, Raffaella; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, Jose

    2015-09-01

    The performance analysis of a satellite mission requires specific tools that can simulate the behavior of the platform; its payload; and the acquisition of scientific data from synthetic scenes. These software tools, called End-to-End Mission Performance Simulators (E2ES), are promoted by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the goal of consolidating the instrument and mission requirements as well as optimizing the implemented data processing algorithms. Nevertheless, most developed E2ES are designed for a specific satellite mission and can hardly be adapted to other satellite missions. In the frame of ESA's FLEX mission activities, an E2ES is being developed based on a generic architecture for passive optical missions. FLEX E2ES implements a state-of-the-art synthetic scene generator that is coupled with dedicated algorithms that model the platform and instrument characteristics. This work will describe the flexibility of the FLEX E2ES to simulate complex synthetic scenes with a variety of land cover classes, topography and cloud cover that are observed separately by each instrument (FLORIS, OLCI and SLSTR). The implemented algorithms allows modelling the sensor behavior, i.e. the spectral/spatial resampling of the input scene; the geometry of acquisition; the sensor noises and non-uniformity effects (e.g. stray-light, spectral smile and radiometric noise); and the full retrieval scheme up to Level-2 products. It is expected that the design methodology implemented in FLEX E2ES can be used as baseline for other imaging spectrometer missions and will be further expanded towards a generic E2ES software tool.

  13. JANUS: the visible camera onboard the ESA JUICE mission to the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Pasquale; Jaumann, Ralf; Cremonese, Gabriele; Hoffmann, Harald; Debei, Stefano; Della Corte, Vincenzo; Holland, Andrew; Lara, Luisa Maria

    2014-05-01

    The JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission [1] was selected in May 2012 as the first Large mission in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. JUICE is now in phase A-B1 and its final adoption is planned by late 2014. The mission is aimed at an in-depth characterization of the Jovian system, with an operational phase of about 3.5 years. Main targets for this mission will be Jupiter, its satellites and rings and the complex relations within the system. Main focus will be on the detailed investigation of three of Jupiter's Galilean satellites (Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto), thanks to several fly-bys and 9 months in orbit around Ganymede. JANUS (Jovis, Amorum ac Natorum Undique Scrutator) is the camera system selected by ESA to fulfill the optical imaging scientific requirements of JUICE. It is being developed by a consortium involving institutes in Italy, Germany, Spain and UK, supported by respective Space Agencies, with the support of Co-Investigators also from USA, France, Japan and Israel. The Galilean satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto show an increase in geologic activity with decreasing distance to Jupiter [e.g., 2]. The three icy Galilean satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa show a tremendous diversity of surface features and differ significantly in their specific evolutionary paths. Each of these moons exhibits its own fascinating geologic history - formed by competition and also combination of external and internal processes. Their origins and evolutions are influenced by factors such as density, temperature, composition (volatile compounds), stage of differentiation, volcanism, tectonism, the rheological reaction of ice and salts to stress, tidal effects, and interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere and space. These interactions are still recorded in the present surface geology. The record of geological processes spans from possible cryovolcanism through widespread tectonism to surface degradation and impact cratering

  14. The Swarm Archiving Payload Data Facility, an Instance Configuration of the ESA Multi-Mission Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruin, B.; Martini, A.; Shanmugam, P.; Lopes, C.

    2015-04-01

    The Swarm mission consists of 3 satellites, each carrying an identical set of instruments. The scientific algorithms for processing are organized in 11 separate processing steps including automated product quality control. In total, the mission data consists of data products of several hundred distinct types from raw to level 2 product types and auxiliary data. The systematic production for Swarm within the ESA Archiving and Payload Data Facility (APDF) is performed up to level 2. The production up to L2 (CAT2-mature algorithm) is performed completely within the APDF. A separate systematic production chain from L1B to L2 (CAT1-evolving algorithm) is performed by an external facility (L2PS) with output files archived within the APDF as well. The APDF also performs re-processing exercises. Re-processing may start directly from the acquired data or from any other intermediate level resulting in the need for a refined product version and baseline management. Storage, dissemination and circulation functionality is configurable in the ESA generic multi-mission elements and does not require any software coding. The control of the production is more involved. While the interface towards the algorithmic entities is standardized due to the introduction of a generic IPF interface by ESA, the orchestration of the individual IPFs into the overall workflows is distinctly mission-specific and not as amenable to standardization. The ESA MMFI production management system provides extension points to integrate additional logical elements for the build-up of complex orchestrated workflows. These extension points have been used to inject the Swarm-specific production logic into the system. A noteworthy fact about the APDF is that the dissemination elements are hosted in a high bandwidth infrastructure procured as a managed service, thus affording users a considerable access bandwidth. This paper gives an overview of the Swarm APDF data flows. It describes the elements of the solution

  15. LISA — An ESA cornerstone mission for the detection and observation of gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danzmann, K.; LISA Science Team

    2003-10-01

    The primary objective of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is to detect and observe gravitational waves from massive black holes, galactive binary stars, and violent events in the Universe in a frequency range from 10 -4 to 10 -1 Hz which is totally inaccessible to ground based experiments. It uses highly stabilised laser light (Nd: YAG, λ = 1.064 μm) in a Michelson-type interferometer arrangement. A cluster of six spacecraft with two at each vertex of an equilateral triangle is placed in an Earth-like orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the Sun, and 20° behind the Earth. Three subsets of four adjacent spacecraft each form an interferometer comprising a central station, consisting of two relatively adjacent spacecraft (200 km apart), and two spacecraft placed at a distance of 5 × 10 6 km from the centre to form arms which make an angle of 60° with each other. Each spacecraft is equipped with a laser. A descoped LISA with only four spacecraft has undergone an ESA assessment study in the M3 cycle, and the full 6-spacecraft LISA mission has now been selected as a cornerstone mission in the ESA Horizons 2000 programme. The LISA Assessment Report is available as ESA document SCI(94)6, May 1994. Detailed information on the LISA cornerstone mission is contained in the LISA Pre-Phase A Report, available as MPQ Report MPQ 208 (1996) from the Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik.

  16. ESA's Spaceborne Lidar Mission ADM-Aeolus; Recent Achievements and Preparations for Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grete Straume, Anne; Elfving, Anders; Wernham, Denny; Culoma, Alain; Mondin, Linda; de Bruin, Frank; Kanitz, Thomas; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Buscaglione, Fabio; Dehn, Angelika

    2016-06-01

    Within ESA's Living Planet Programme, the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus) was chosen as the second Earth Explorer Core mission in 1999. It shall demonstrate the potential of high spectral resolution Doppler Wind lidars for operational measurements of wind profiles and their use in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). Spin-off products are profiles of cloud and aerosol optical properties. ADM-Aeolus carries the novel Doppler Wind lidar instrument ALADIN. Recently the two ALADIN laser transmitters were successfully qualified and delivered for further instrument integration. The instrument delivery will follow later this year and the satellite qualification and launch readiness is scheduled for 2016. In February 2015, an Aeolus Science and Calibration and Validation (CAL/VAL) Workshop was held in ESA-ESRIN, Frascati, Italy, bringing industry, the user community and ESA together to prepare for the Aeolus Commissioning and Operational Phases. During the Workshop the science, instrument and product status, commissioning phase planning and the extensive number of proposals submitted in response to the Aeolus CAL/VAL call in 2014 were presented and discussed. A special session was dedicated to the Aeolus CAL/VAL Implementation Plan. In this paper, the Aeolus mission, status and launch preparation activities are described.

  17. Present and future Solar System missions in the framework of the ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    The Science Directorate is in charge of developing the "Science Mandatory Programme". Through the science programme, ESA implements scientific projects to achieve ambitious objectives. On this ground, science challenges and advancement in technologies work together in a synergistic endeavour. Both long-term science planning and mission calls are bottom-up processes, relying on broad community input and peer review. The Cosmic Vision program is since 2005 the implementation tool for the science mandatory programme. I will present an overview of the space missions in operation, under development and for study with particular emphasis on those visiting the Solar System.

  18. SCOSII: ESA's new generation of mission control systems: The user's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, P.; Pecchioli, M.; Shurmer, I.

    1994-01-01

    In 1974 ESOC decided to develop a reusable Mission Control System infrastructure for ESA's missions operated under its responsibility. This triggered a long and successful product development line, which started with the Multi Mission Support System (MSSS) which entered in service in 1977 and is still being used today by the MARECS and ECS missions; it was followed in 1989 by a second generation of systems known as SCOS-I, which was/is used by the Hipparcos, ERS-1 and EURECA missions and will continue to support all future ESCO controlled missions until approximately 1995. In the meantime the increasing complexity of future missions together with the emergence of new hardware and software technologies have led ESOC to go for the development of a third generation of control systems, SCOSII, which will support their future missions up to at least the middle of the next decade. The objective of the paper is to present the characteristics of the SCOSII system from the perspective of the mission control team; i.e. it will concentrate on the improvements and advances in the performance, functionality and work efficiency of the system.

  19. Current status of the assessment of the ESA Cosmic Vision mission candidate PLATO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, R.; Stankov, A.; Fridlund, M.; Rando, N.

    2009-08-01

    PLATO is a candidate of the European Space Agency's Science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. "PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars" aims to characterise exoplanetary systems by detecting planetary transits and conducting asteroseismology of their parent stars. This is achieved through high-precision photometry (visible waveband). PLATO is currently in assessment phase, which was started with an internal study in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two phase-A, parallel industrial studies with 12-months durations are being conducted until July 2009. The objectives of these studies are to understand the critical areas inherent to this mission and assess the trade-offs in order to define a baseline concept that optimises scientific return while minimising complexity and risk and meeting the applicable programmatic constraints. PLATO will operate in a large-amplitude orbit around Sun-Earth L2 where it will observe targets for several years in order to characterise the exoplanetary transits. To observe enough stars (with focus on Sun-like cool dwarfs) to maximize the number of transit detections, a large field-of-view (FoV) is required as well as a sufficiently high collecting area. PLATO will achieve this objective by utilizing several smaller telescopes instead of one large telescope. Several different optical designs, both reflective and refractive, are being studied. Due to the large number of simultaneously observed stars the spacecraft will require a high degree of autonomy and adequate on-board processing capability. Moreover, the stars must be monitored with high accuracy, which means that the spacecraft must provide a stable environment in terms of pointing stability and thermal environment. This paper summarises the results of the assessment studies.

  20. Terrestrial and Celestial Reference Frame Realization with Highly Elliptical Orbit - The ESA STE-QUEST Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svehla, Drazen; Rothacher, Markus; Hugentobler, Urs; Nothnagel, Axel; Willis, Pascal; Biancale, Richard; Ziebart, Marek; Appleby, Graham; Schuh, Harald; Ádám, József; Iess, Luciano; Cacciapuoti, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    The Space-Time Explorer and QUantum Equivalence Principle Space Test (STE-QUEST) is a Medium Class fundamental physics mission pre-selected for the M3 slot of the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme to test Einstein's Equivalence Principle using atom interferometry and the general and special theory of relativity. Two secondary mission objectives are related to space geodesy: terrestrial and celestial reference frame of the Earth and relativistic geodesy aiming at the realization of unified reference frame for positioning, time, and temporal gravity. The highly elliptical orbit of the STE-QUEST satellite can be used for terrestrial reference frame realization by means of on board GNSS, SLR and VLBI radio source (STE-QUEST metrology link tracked by VLBI antenna - compatible with VLBI2010). By upgrading the on board GNSS receiver for DORIS tracking, the STE-QUEST mission will be similar to the GRASP mission proposal from JPL. Due to the highly elliptical orbit of STE-QUEST (apogee

  1. The Hera Entry Probe Mission to Saturn, an ESA M-class mission proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousis, O.; Atkinson, D. H.; Spilker, T.; Venkatapathy, E.; Poncy, J.; Coustenis, A.; Reh, K.

    2015-10-01

    A fundamental goal of solar system exploration is to understand the origin of the solar system, the initial stages, conditions, and processes by which the solar system formed, how the formation process was initiated, and the nature of the interstellar seed material from which the solar system was born. Key to understanding solar system formation and subsequent dynamical and chemical evolution is the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. Additionally, the atmospheres of the giant planets serve as laboratories to better understand the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, processes, and climates on all planets in the solar system including Earth, offer a context and provide a ground truth for exoplanets and exoplanetary systems,and have long been thought to play a critical role in the development of potentially habitable planetary systems. Remote sensing observations are limited when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. A remarkable example of the value of in situ probe measurements is illustrated by the exploration of Jupiter, where key measurements such as noble gases abundances and the precise measurement of the helium mixing ratio have only been made available through in situ measurements by the Galileo probe. Representing the only method providing ground-truth to connect the remote sensing inferences with physical reality, in situ measurements have only been accomplished twice in the history of outer solar system exploration, via the Galileo probe for Jupiter and the Huygens probe for Titan. In situ measurements provide access to atmospheric regions that are beyond the reach of remote sensing, enabling the dynamical, chemical and aerosol-forming processes at work from the thermosphere to the troposphere below the cloud decks to be studied. A proposal for a Saturn entry probe mission named Hera was recently submitted to the European Space Agency Medium Class mission announcement of

  2. The design of Janus, the visible camera for the ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Corte, Vincenzo; Schmitz, Nicole; Castro, José Maria; Leese, Mark; Debei, Stefano; Magrin, Demetrio; Michalik, Harald

    2014-05-01

    The JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission was selected in May 2012 as the first Large mission in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mission is aimed at an in-depth characterization of the Jovian system, with an operational phase of about 3.5 years. During the whole operational phase, JANUS (Jovis, Amorum ac Natorum Undique Scrutator) will acquire panchromatic and narrow-band images in the visible - NIR range of many targets within the Jovian system: the Galilean satellites surfaces and exospheres, Jupiter atmosphere, minor and irregular satellites, the ring system. After a long trade-off between different design solutions, based on performance requirements, mission design and constraints, the present JANUS design has been based on the following architectural choices detailed below. A catoptric telescope with excellent optical quality is coupled with a framing CMOS detector, avoiding any scan-ning mechanism or operational requirement on the S/C. The three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) off-axis design with F#=4.67 allows an MTF between 62% and 72% at Nyquist, with good straylight rejection. The detector is the CIS115 from e2v; it is a CMOS with a squared 7 micron pixel pitch and image format of 2000x1504. It performs a high readout rate of up to 40 Mpixel/s, high quantum efficiency and low readout noise and dark signal. Fine tuning of instrument parameters allows to perform both high resolution targeted observations and lower resolution global coverage of targets, as required to meet science objectives. The IFoV (Fieldo of View per pixel) is 15 microrad, al-lowing sampling of 7.5 m/pixel from 500 km and 15 km/pixel from 10E6 km, while the FoV is 1.72x1.29 deg. The acquisition parameters allow to cope with the many different observation requirements and conditions that JANUS will face. Design of the two electronics units (a proximity electronics controlling the detector and a main electronics controlling the instrument and the interfaces with

  3. Two ESA astronauts named to early Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    Nicollier and three NASA astronauts, who had already been training for a Hubble servicing mission planned for June 2000, have been reassigned to this earlier mission (STS-103). Jean-Francois Clervoy and two other NASA astronauts will complete the STS-103 crew. The repairs and maintenance of the telescope will require many hours spent working outside the Shuttle and will make extensive use of the Shuttle's robotic arm Nicollier, of Swiss nationality and making his fourth flight, will be part of the team that will perform the "spacewalks". An astronomer by education, he took part in the first Hubble servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993, controlling the Shuttle's robotic arm while astronauts on the other end of the arm performed the delicate repairs to the telescope. He also served on STS-46 in 1992 using the robotic arm to deploy ESA's Eureca retrievable spacecraft from the Shuttle, and on STS-75 with the Italian Tethered Satellite System in 1996. Nicollier is currently the chief of the robotics branch in NASA's astronaut office and ESA's lead astronaut in Houston. Jean-Francois Clervoy, of French nationality and making his third flight, will have the lead role in the operation of the robotic arm for this mission. He previously served on STS-66 in 1994 using the robotic arm to deploy and later retrieve the German CRISTA-SPAS atmospheric research satellite, and on STS-84 in 1997, a Shuttle mission to the Russian Mir space station. The other STS-103 crewmembers are: Commander Curtis Brown, pilot Scott Kelly, and mission specialists Steven Smith, Michael Foale and John Grunsfeld. During the flight, the astronauts will replace Hubble's failing pointing system, which allows the telescope to aim at stars, planets and other targets, and install other equipment that will be ready for launch at that time. A second mission to complete the previously-scheduled Hubble refurbishment work is foreseen at a later date. The crew for that mission has not yet been assigned. The Hubble

  4. 15 K liquid hydrogen thermal Energy Storage Unit for future ESA science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges de Sousa, P.; Martins, D.; Tomás, G.; Barreto, J.; Noite, J.; Linder, M.; Fruchart, D.; de Rango, P.; Haettel, R.; Catarino, I.; Bonfait, G.

    2015-12-01

    A thermal Energy Storage Unit (ESU) using liquid hydrogen has been developed as a solution for absorbing the heat peaks released by the recycling phase of a 300 mK cooler that is a part of the cryogenic chain of one of ESA's new satellites for science missions. This device is capable of storing 400 J of thermal energy between 15 and 16 K by taking advantage of the liquid-to-vapor latent heat of hydrogen in a closed system. This paper describes some results obtained with the development model of the ESU under different configurations and using two types of hydrogen storage: a large expansion volume for ground testing and a much more compact unit, suitable for space applications and that can comply with ESA's mass budget.

  5. NASA-ESA Joint Mission to Explore Two Worlds of Great Astrobiological Interest - Titan and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, K.; Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J.; Matson, D.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.

    2009-04-01

    Rugged shorelines, laced with canyons, leading to ethane/methane seas glimpsed through an organic haze, vast fields of dunes shaped by alien sciroccos… An icy moon festooned with plumes of water-ice and organics, whose warm watery source might be glimpsed through surface cracks that glow in the infrared… The revelations by Cassini-Huygens about Saturn's crown jewels, Titan and Enceladus, have rocked the public with glimpses of new worlds unimagined a decade before. The time is at hand to capitalize on those discoveries with a broad mission of exploration that combines the widest range of planetary science disciplines—Geology, Geophysics, Atmospheres, Astrobiology,Chemistry, Magnetospheres—in a single NASA/ESA collaboration. The Titan Saturn System Mission will explore these exciting new environments, flying through Enceladus' plumes and plunging deep into Titan's atmosphere with instruments tuned to find what Cassini could only hint at. Exploring Titan with an international fleet of vehicles; from orbit, from the surface of a great polar sea, and from the air with the first hot air balloon to ride an extraterrestrial breeze, TSSM will turn our snapshot gaze of these worlds into an epic film. This paper will describe a collaborative NASA-ESA Titan Saturn System Mission that will open a new phase of planetary exploration by projecting robotic presence on the land, on the sea, and in the air of an active, organic-rich world.

  6. LISA — a study of the ESA cornerstone mission for observing gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, T.; Sandford, M. C. W.; Hammesfahr, A.

    2001-03-01

    The primary objective of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is to detect and observe gravitational waves from massive black holes and galactic binaries in the frequency range 10 -4 to 10 -1 Hz. This low-frequency range is inaccessible to ground-based interferometers because of the unshieldable background of local gravitational noise and because ground-based interferometers are limited in length to a few km. LISA is an ESA cornerstone mission and recently had a system study (Ref. 1) carried out by a consortium led by Astrium, which confirmed the basic configuration for the payload with only minor changes, and provided detailed concepts for the spacecraft and mission design. The study confirmed the need for a drag-free technology demonstration mission to develop the inertial sensors for LISA, before embarking on the build of the flight sensors. With a technology demonstration flight in 2005, it would be possible to carry out LISA as a joint ESA-NASA mission with a launch by 2010 subject to the funding programmatics. The baseline for LISA is three disc-like spacecraft each of which consist of a science module which carries the laser interferometer payload (two in each science module) and a propulsion module containing an ion drive and the hydrazine thrusters of the AOCS. The propulsion module is used for the transfer from earth escape trajectory provided by the Delta II launch to the operational orbit. Once there the propulsion module is jettisoned to reduce disturbances on the payload. Detailed analysis of thermal and gravitational disturbances, a model of the drag-free control and of the interferometer operation confirm that the strain sensitivity of the interferometer will be achieved.

  7. ESA's Mercury mission named BepiColombo in honour of a space pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    The mission to Mercury, now named after Prof. Colombo, is one of ESA's science programme "cornerstones". In the course of the comprehensive Horizon 2000 Plus review of the programme five years ago, it was identified by Europe's space scientists as one of the most challenging long-term planetary projects. Mercury is the least known of the inner planets. Its orbit close to the Sun makes it difficult to observe from a distance and hard to reach by spaceflight. As a result, big questions raised by the Mariner 10 flybys of a quarter of a century ago remain unanswered. "I am very pleased we have given the name of BepiColombo to our Mercury cornerstone. Bepi was a great scientist, a great European and a great friend; we could do no better than name one of our most challenging and imaginative missions after him" said Roger Bonnet, Director of ESA Science Programme. Scientists cannot claim to fully understand the origin and history of the Earth itself until they can make sense of Mercury. Why is the planet surprisingly dense ? Where does its magnetic field come from ? What were the effects of massive collisions suffered by Mercury, apparent in shattered zones seen by Mariner 10 ? Is Mercury geologically active ? How does its close proximity to the Sun affect its surface, its tenuous atmosphere and the small magnetic bubble, or magnetosphere, which surrounds it ? BepiColombo will seek the answers to these and other questions with three separate sets of scientific instruments. According to preliminary studies completed in April 1999, a Planetary Orbiter will examine the planet from an orbit over the poles, using two cameras and half a dozen other remote-sensing instruments. Seven detectors in a smaller Magnetospheric Orbiter will observe Mercury's magnetic field and its interactions with the solar wind. A Surface Element dropped by BepiColombo will land near one of the poles of Mercury, where the temperature is milder. Here the instruments will include a camera, a seismometer

  8. In-orbit data verification of the accelerometers of the ESA GOCE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophe, B.; Marque, J.-P.; Foulon, B.

    2010-12-01

    The ESA GOCE mission aims to map Earth gravity field in unprecedented detail. The Gradiometer is the instrument which makes possible the high resolution restitution of the gravity field to the science communities. The tri-axes Gradiometer of the GOCE Mission is conceived around six electrostatic accelerometers developed by ONERA. The satellite was launched on March 17th, 2009 and the gradiometer was switched on in Science mode on April 7th. Since, the accelerometers are continuously feeding the science channel with data, first during the commissioning and calibration phases, then during the first measurement phase started in September 2009. The paper will illustrate the in-flight behaviour of the six accelerometers as deduced from the analysis of their output signals.

  9. The Alfvén Mission for the ESA M5 Call: Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Berthomier, Matthieu; Pottelette, Raymond; Forsyth, Colin

    2016-04-01

    This poster will present the proposed Alfvén mission concept and is complemented by a presentation of the mission scientific goals planned for the ST1.5 session. The Alfvén mission has the scientific objective of studying particle acceleration and other forms of electromagnetic energy conversion in a collisionless low beta plasma. The mission is proposed to operate in the Earth's Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR), the most accessible laboratory for investigating plasmas at an interface where ideal magneto-hydrodynamics does not apply. Alfvén is designed to answer questions about where and how the particles that create the aurorae are accelerated, how and why they emit auroral kilometric radiation, what creates and maintains large scale electric fields aligned with the magnetic field, and to elucidate the ion outflow processes which are slowly removing the Earth's atmosphere. The mission will provide the required coordinated two-spacecraft observations within the AAR several times a day. From well designed separations along or across the magnetic field lines, using a comprehensive suite of inter-calibrated particles and field instruments, it will measure the parallel electric fields, variations in particle flux, and wave energy that will answer open questions on energy conversion. It will use onboard auroral imagers to determine how this energy conversion occurs in the regional context and, together with its orbit design, this makes the mission ideally suited to resolving spatio-temporal ambiguities that have plagued previous auroral satellite studies. The spacecraft observations will be complemented by coordinated observations with the existing dense network of ground based observatories, for more detailed ionospheric and auroral information when Alfvén overflights occur.

  10. OPSE metrology system onboard of the PROBA3 mission of ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreggia, D.; Bemporad, A.; Capobianco, G.; Fineschi, S.; Focardi, M.; Landini, F.; Massone, G.; Nicolini, G.; Pancrazzi, M.; Romoli, M.; Cernica, I.; Purica, M.; Budianu, E.; Thizy, C.; Renotte, E.; Servaye, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, ESA has assessed several mission involving formation flying (FF). The great interest in this topics is mainly driven by the need for moving from ground to space the location of next generation astronomical telescopes overcoming most of the critical problems, as example the construction of huge baselines for interferometry. In this scenario, metrology systems play a critical role. PROBA3 is an ESA technology mission devoted to in-orbit demonstration of the FF technique, with two satellites, an occulter and a main satellite housing a coronagraph named ASPIICS, kept at an average inter-distance by about 144m, with micron scale accuracy. The guiding proposal is to test several metrology solution for spacecraft alignment, with the important scientific return of having observation of Corona at never reached before angular field. The Shadow Position Sensors (SPS), and the Optical Position Emitters Sensors (OPSE) are two of the systems used for FF fine tracking. The SPS are finalized to monitor the position of the two spacecraft with respect to the Sun and are discussed in dedicated papers presented in this conference. The OPSE will monitor the relative position of the two satellites and consists of 3 emitters positioned on the rear surface of the occulter, that will be observed by the coronagraph itself. By following the evolution of the emitters images at the focal plane the alignment of the two spacecrafts is retrieved via dedicated centroiding algoritm. We present an overview of the OPSE system and of the centroiding approach.

  11. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; de Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  12. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  13. The ESA SMART-1 Mission to the Moon: Goals and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. R.; SMART-1 Science and Technology Working Team

    2000-10-01

    SMART-1 is the first in the programme of ESA's Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology . Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The project aims to have the spacecraft ready in October 2002 for launch as an Ariane-5 auxiliary payload. After a cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit. SMART-1's science payload, with a total mass of some 15 kg, features many innovative instruments and advanced technologies. A miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) with a new type of detector and micro-collimator which will provide fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's surface elemental composition. The payload also includes an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemica composition and evolution of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission could address several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of planets, and the origin

  14. SMART-1 Technology and Science Experiments in Preparation of Future Missions and ESA Cornerstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, A. E.; Racca, G. D.; Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Project

    1999-12-01

    SMART-1 is the first ESA Small Mission for Advanced Research in Technology, aimed at the demonstration of enabling technologies for future scientific missions. SMART-1's prime technology objective is the demonstration of the solar primary electric propulsion, a key for future interplanetary missions. SMART-1 will use a Stationary Plasma Thruster engine, cruising 15 months to capture a Moon polar orbit. A gallery of images of the spacecraft is available at the web site: http://www.estec.esa.nl/spdwww/smart1/html/11742.html SMART-1 payload aims at monitoring the electric propulsion and its spacecraft environment and to test novel instrument technologies. The Diagnostic Instruments include SPEDE, a spacecraft potential plasma and charged particles detector, to characterise both spacecraft and planetary environment, together with EPDP, a suite of sensors monitoring secondary thrust-ions, charging and deposition effects. Innovative spacecraft technologies will be tested on SMART-1 : Lithium batteries and KATE, an experimental X/Ka-band deep-space transponder, to support radio-science, to monitor the accelerations of the electric propulsion and to test turbo-code technique, enhancing the return of scientific data. The scientific instruments for imaging and spectrometry are: \\begin{itemize} D-CIXS, a compact X-ray spectrometer based on novel SCD detectors and micro-structure optics, to observe X-ray celectial objects and to perform lunar chemistry measurements. SIR, a miniaturised quasi-monolithic point-spectrometer, operating in the Near-IR (0.9 ÷ 2.4 micron), to survey the lunar crust in previously uncovered optical regions. AMIE, a miniature camera based on 3-D integrated electronics, imaging the Moon, and other bodies and supporting LASER-LINK and RSIS. RSIS and LASER-LINK are investigations performed with the SMART-1 Payload: \\begin{itemize} RSIS: A radio-science Experiment to validate in-orbit determination of the libration of the celestial target, based on high

  15. Beagle 2: a proposed exobiology lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission.

    PubMed

    Sims, M R; Pillinger, C T; Wright, I P; Dowson, J; Whitehead, S; Wells, A; Spragg, J E; Fraser, G; Richter, L; Hamacher, H; Johnstone, A; Meredith, N P; de la Nougerede, C; Hancock, B; Turner, R; Peskett, S; Brack, A; Hobbs, J; Newns, M; Senior, A; Humphries, M; Keller, H U; Thomas, N; Lingard, J S; Ng, T C

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the proposed Beagle 2 small lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission is to search for organic material on and below the surface of Mars and to study the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of the landing site. The lander will have a total mass of 60kg including entry, descent, and landing system. Experiments will be deployed on the surface using a robotic arm. It will use a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks, and inside rocks. Sample analysis by a mass spectrometer will include isotopic analysis. An optical microscope, an X-ray spectrometer and a Mossbauer spectrometer will conduct in-situ rock studies. PMID:11543221

  16. Thermal simulations of the STIX instrument for ESA Solar Orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Białek, Agata; Severyn, Karol; Grassmann, Kamil; Orleańskii, Piotr; Skup, Konrad R.; Arnold, Nicolas; Gröbelbauer, Hans-Peter; Hurford, Gordon J.; Krucker, Samuel; Bauer, Svend-Marian; Mann, Gottfied; Önel, Hakan; Bernet, Adeline; Blecha, Luc; Grimm, Oliver; Limousin, Olivier; Martignac, Jerome; Meuris, Aline

    2013-07-01

    The ESA Solar Orbiter mission, planned to be launched in 2017, is going to study the Sun with ten different instruments including the Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays - STIX. The thermal environment on the elliptical orbit around the Sun - 0.28 AU at perihelion and 0.952 AU at aphelion - is extreme, where at one point of the orbit is very hot, while on another very cold. That makes the requirements for the heat fluxes exchanged between each instrument and the spacecraft, as well as between the instrument - subsystems, very restrictive. Here the authors discuss the thermal design with respect to the defined requirements and present the results of the thermal analyses performed with ESATAN TMS software.

  17. Science of the Joint ESA-NASA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Michel; Greeley, Ron

    2010-05-01

    The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), an international joint mission under study by NASA and ESA, has the overarching theme to investigate the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Jupiter's diverse Galilean satellites—three of which are believed to harbor internal oceans—are the key to understanding the habitability of icy worlds. To this end, the reference mission architecture consists of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO will execute a coordinated exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO carry sets of complementary instruments, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. Encompassed within the overall mission theme are two science goals, (1) Determine whether the Jupiter System harbors habitable worlds and (2) Characterize the processes within the Jupiter System. The science objectives addressed by the first goal are to: i) characterize and determine the extent of subsurface oceans and their relations to the deeper interior, ii) characterize the ice shells and any subsurface water, including the heterogeneity of the ice, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; iii) characterize the deep internal structure, differentiation history, and (for Ganymede) the intrinsic magnetic field; iv) compare the exospheres, plasma environments, and magnetospheric interactions; v) determine global surface composition and chemistry, especially as related to habitability; vi) understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ exploration. The science objectives for addressed by the second goal are to: i) understand the

  18. 3D Vision on Mars: Stereo processing and visualizations for NASA and ESA rover missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) vision processing is an essential component of planetary rover mission planning and scientific data analysis. Standard ground vision processing products are digital terrain maps, panoramas, and virtual views of the environment. Such processing is currently developed for the PanCam instrument of ESA's ExoMars Rover mission by the PanCam 3D Vision Team under JOANNEUM RESEARCH coordination. Camera calibration, quality estimation of the expected results and the interfaces to other mission elements such as operations planning, rover navigation system and global Mars mapping are a specific focus of the current work. The main goals of the 3D Vision team in this context are: instrument design support & calibration processing: Development of 3D vision functionality Visualization: development of a 3D visualization tool for scientific data analysis. 3D reconstructions from stereo image data during the mission Support for 3D scientific exploitation to characterize the overall landscape geomorphology, processes, and the nature of the geologic record using the reconstructed 3D models. The developed processing framework PRoViP establishes an extensible framework for 3D vision processing in planetary robotic missions. Examples of processing products and capabilities are: Digital Terrain Models, Ortho images, 3D meshes, occlusion, solar illumination-, slope-, roughness-, and hazard-maps. Another important processing capability is the fusion of rover and orbiter based images with the support of multiple missions and sensors (e.g. MSL Mastcam stereo processing). For 3D visualization a tool called PRo3D has been developed to analyze and directly interpret digital outcrop models. Stereo image products derived from Mars rover data can be rendered in PRo3D, enabling the user to zoom, rotate and translate the generated 3D outcrop models. Interpretations can be digitized directly onto the 3D surface, and simple measurements of the outcrop and sedimentary features

  19. ESA's Rosetta mission and the puzzles that Hale-Bopp left behind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    The scientific payload was confirmed by ESA's Science Programme Committee in February. Now the scientists must perfect the full range of ultra-sensitive yet spaceworthy instruments in good time for Rosetta's despatch by an Ariane 5 launcher in January 2003. And even as most of the world was admiring Comet Hale-Bopp at its brightest, dedicated astronomers were examining the comet that will be Rosetta's target. Although too faint to be seen with the naked eye, Comet Wirtanen made its closest approach to the Sun on 14 March and a fairly close approach to the Earth on 24 March. This comet comes back every 5.5 years. Rosetta will dance attendance on Comet Wirtanen, not at the next return in 2002, nor even in 2008, but in 2013. The project is an ambitious and patient effort to achieve the most thorough investigation of a comet ever attempted. As the successor to ESA's highly successful Giotto mission to Halley's Comet and Comet Grigg-Skjellerup (which took seven years) Rosetta will spend eight years positioning itself. It will manoeuvre around the planets until it is shadowing Comet Wirtanen far beyond Mars, on nearly the same path around the Sun. In 2011 it will rendezvous with the comet and fly near it. In April 2012 Rosetta will go into a near orbit around Comet Wirtanen, and escort it for 17 busy months, as it flies in to make its closest approach to the Sun in September 2013, at the climax of the mission. "The Giotto mission placed us at the forefront of cometary exploration," comments Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "The motivation came from European scientists with a sharp sense of the special importance of comets for understanding the Solar System. The same enthusiasm drives us onward to Rosetta, which will ensure our continued leadership in this important branch of space science." Scientific tasks During its prolonged operations in very close company with the comet's nucleus, Rosetta will map and examine its entire surface from distances of 10 to 50

  20. ESA's Rosetta mission and the puzzles that Hale-Bopp left behind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    The scientific payload was confirmed by ESA's Science Programme Committee in February. Now the scientists must perfect the full range of ultra-sensitive yet spaceworthy instruments in good time for Rosetta's despatch by an Ariane 5 launcher in January 2003. And even as most of the world was admiring Comet Hale-Bopp at its brightest, dedicated astronomers were examining the comet that will be Rosetta's target. Although too faint to be seen with the naked eye, Comet Wirtanen made its closest approach to the Sun on 14 March and a fairly close approach to the Earth on 24 March. This comet comes back every 5.5 years. Rosetta will dance attendance on Comet Wirtanen, not at the next return in 2002, nor even in 2008, but in 2013. The project is an ambitious and patient effort to achieve the most thorough investigation of a comet ever attempted. As the successor to ESA's highly successful Giotto mission to Halley's Comet and Comet Grigg-Skjellerup (which took seven years) Rosetta will spend eight years positioning itself. It will manoeuvre around the planets until it is shadowing Comet Wirtanen far beyond Mars, on nearly the same path around the Sun. In 2011 it will rendezvous with the comet and fly near it. In April 2012 Rosetta will go into a near orbit around Comet Wirtanen, and escort it for 17 busy months, as it flies in to make its closest approach to the Sun in September 2013, at the climax of the mission. "The Giotto mission placed us at the forefront of cometary exploration," comments Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "The motivation came from European scientists with a sharp sense of the special importance of comets for understanding the Solar System. The same enthusiasm drives us onward to Rosetta, which will ensure our continued leadership in this important branch of space science." Scientific tasks During its prolonged operations in very close company with the comet's nucleus, Rosetta will map and examine its entire surface from distances of 10 to 50

  1. PACA_Rosetta67P: Global Amateur Observing Support for ESA/Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Alexander, Claudia; Morales, Efrain; Feliciano-Rivera, Christiana

    2015-11-01

    The PACA (Professional - Amateur Collaborative Astronomy) Project is an ecosystem of several social media platforms (Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter, Flickr, Vimeo) that takes advantage of the global and immediate connectivity amongst amateur astronomers worldwide, that can be galvanized to participate in a given observing campaign. The PACA Project has participated in organized campaigns such as Comet Observing Campaign (CIOC_ISON) in 2013 and Comet Siding Spring (CIOC_SidingSpring)in 2014. Currently the PACA Project is supporting ESA/Rosetta mission with ground-based observations of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) through its perihelion in August 2015 and beyond; providing baseline observations of magnitude and evolution from locations around the globe. Comet 67P/CG will reach its brightest post-perihelion and pass closest to Earth in November 2015. We will present the various benefits of our professional - amateur collaboration: developing and building a core astronomer community; defining an observing campaign from basic information of the comet from its previous apparitions; coordinating with professionals and the mission to acquire observations, albeit low-resolution, but on a long timeline; while addressing the creation of several science products such as the variation of its magnitude over time and the changing morphology. We will present some of our results to date and compare with observations from professionals and previous apparations of the comet. We shall also highlight the challenges faced in building a successful collaborative partnership between the professional and amateur observers and their resolution. With the popularity of mobile platforms and instant connections with peers globally, the multi-faceted social universe has become a vital part of engagement of multiple communities for collaborative scientific partnerships and outreach. We shall also highlight other cometary observing campaigns that The PACA Project has initiated to evolve

  2. MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, designed for the future ESA/JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccioni, Giuseppe; Langevin, Yves; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Tosi, Federico; Eng, Pascal; Dumesnil, Cydalise; Zambelli, Massimo; Saggin, Bortolino; Fonti, Sergio; Grassi, Davide; Altieri, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer), the first Large-class mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme. Scheduled for a launch in 2022, JUICE will perform a comprehensive exploration of the Jovian system thanks to several flybys of Callisto, Ganymede and Europa, before finally entering orbit around Ganymede. During these phases, MAJIS will acquire hyperspectral data necessary to unveil and map the surface composition of different geologic units of the satellites. Transfers between successive satellites' flybys shall be devoted to remote observations of Jupiter's atmosphere and auroras. MAJIS' instrument design relies on a 75 mm pupil, f/3.2 aperture TMA telescope matching two Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometers. A dichroic element is used to split the beam between the two spectral channels. The VIS-NIR spectral channel covers the 0.4-1.9 μm range with a sampling of 2.3 nm/band. The IR channel works in the 1.5-5.7 μm range with a 6.6 nm/band sampling. The entire optical structure is passively cooled at cryogenic temperature

  3. Planetary protection and humans missions to Mars: summary results from two workshops sponsored by NASA and NASA/ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, M. S.; Kminek, G.; Rummel, J. D.; Nasa; Nasa/Esa Workshop Participants

    Planetary Protection PP requirements will strongly influence mission and spacecraft designs for future human missions to Mars particularly those related to the operation of advanced life support systems ALS extravehicular activities EVA laboratory and in situ sampling operations and systems for environmental monitoring and control EMC In order to initiate communication understanding and working relations between the ALS EVA EMC and PP communities in both NASA and ESA two separate workshops were held to focus on mission-specific PP issues during future human missions to Mars The NASA Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop was held in Houston TX Center for Advanced Space Studies April 2005 and The Mars PP and Human Systems Research and Technology Joint NASA ESA Workshop was held at ESA ESTEC Noordwijk Netherlands May 2005 This poster presentation summarizes the findings of both workshops and their associated recommendations which are summarized as follows The NASA workshop developed a tentative conceptual approach consistent with current PP requirements to provide preliminary guidance in the assessment of EVA ALS EMC and other aspects of human missions The workshop report identified the need for development of a comprehensive classification and zoning system for Mars to minimize contamination and guide operations particularly in relation to COSPAR Special Region and protection of science and environmental conditions Critical research and technology

  4. ESA STSE North Hydrology: Development of multi-mission satellite data products in support of atmospheric and hydrological modeling of cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Prieto, D.; Duguay, C.; Gauthier, Y.; Gustafsson, D.; Malnes, E.; Mattila, O.-P.; Rontu, L.; Rott, H.; Samuelsson, P.; Solberg, R.

    2012-04-01

    Through its Support To Science Element (STSE) Programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) is currently sponsoring the North Hydrology project. The overall goal of North Hydrology is to support the international efforts coordinated by the Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) project of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) to exploit the use of Earth Observation (EO) technology, models and in situ data to improve the characterization of river and lake ice processes and their contribution to the Northern Hydrology system. To attain this goal, the North Hydrology project is developing a portfolio of new multi-mission geo-information products, maximizing the use of ESA satellite data, to respond to the scientific requirements of the CliC community and the operational requirements of the weather and climate operational agencies, and the requirements of the operational user community to better characterize river-ice (and glacier temporary lakes) dynamics in flood forecasting models at the basin scale. This talk will provide an overview of the North Hydrology project, the EO-based products it is generating (e.g. lake and river ice, land water surface temperature, ice flow dynamics and mass balance of outlet glaciers), the atmospheric and hydrological models it is using, and the EO data integration/assimilation experiments it is conducting. More information about ESA's STSE North Hydrology project can be found at http://env-ic3-vw2k8.uwaterloo.ca:8080/

  5. Development of radiation hard electron monitor RADEM for ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, Wojtek; Desorgher, Laurent; Goncalves, Patricia; Pinto, Costa; Marques, Arlindo; Maehlum, Gunnar; Meier, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Future mission of ESA to Jupiter - JUICE - will be equipped with a new radiation monitoring instrument RADEM. The main purpose is characterizing of the highly dynamic and hazardous although rather weakly known particle environment of the giant planet. RADEM performance must be tailored with numerous constraints and severe risks put on the instrument and its detection system. The first objective is precise spectroscopy of electrons and protons over more than two energy orders i.e. up to 40 MeV and 250 MeV respectively. It requires an exact identification of particles and supreme suppression of the background. Measurements should in addition provide dynamic maps of particle directionality and be very accurate even for extremely high particle fluxes. Further goals cover detection of heavy ions with their LET and determination of the radiation dose and dose rate absorbed by the spacecraft. Constrains and risks are given by limitations put on the monitor mass, volume and power and by radiation damage hazards imposed on its materials, electronic components and detection sensors. Additional challenge is in required instrument operational longevity. The design of RADEM is supported by extensive modeling and Monte Carlo simulations based on present knowledge of the Jupiter radiation environment. Deeper level of optimization requires taking into account the whole spacecraft with all its modules and structures. For entire detection system of RADEM the Si-sensors equipped with structures minimizing radiation damage are chosen. They have individual design features in accordance to their specific functionality such as pitch angle measurements with the directionality detector or energy spectroscopy with the telescope. Detected signals are processed using specially designed low power, radiation hard ASIC responsible for both analogue and digital branches. Initial results based on the previous ASIC version as well as data from studies of the detector radiation damage already exist

  6. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; Ballentine, C. J.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Slater, G.; Moser, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  7. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. L.; Mavris, C.; Michalski, J. R.; Rumsey, M. S.; Russell, S. S.; Jones, C.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  8. An Enhanced MWR-Based Wet Tropospheric Correction for Sentinel-3: Inheritance from Past ESA Altimetry Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaro, Clara; Fernandes, Joanna M.

    2015-12-01

    The GNSS-derived Path Delay (GPD) and the Data Combination (DComb) algorithms were developed by University of Porto (U.Porto), in the scope of different projects funded by ESA, to compute a continuous and improved wet tropospheric correction (WTC) for use in satellite altimetry. Both algorithms are mission independent and are based on a linear space-time objective analysis procedure that combines various wet path delay data sources. A new algorithm that gets the best of each aforementioned algorithm (GNSS-derived Path Delay Plus, GPD+) has been developed at U.Porto in the scope of SL_cci project, where the use of consistent and stable in time datasets is of major importance. The algorithm has been applied to the main eight altimetric missions (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2, ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and CryoSat-2 and SARAL). Upcoming Sentinel-3 possesses a two-channel on-board radiometer similar to those that were deployed in ERS-1/2 and Envisat. Consequently, the fine-tuning of the GPD+ algorithm to these missions datasets shall enrich it, by increasing its capability to quickly deal with Sentinel-3 data. Foreseeing that the computation of an improved MWR-based WTC for use with Sentinel-3 data will be required, this study focuses on the results obtained for ERS-1/2 and Envisat missions, which are expected to give insight into the computation of this correction for the upcoming ESA altimetric mission. The various WTC corrections available for each mission (in general, the original correction derived from the on-board MWR, the model correction and the one derived from GPD+) are inter-compared either directly or using various sea level anomaly variance statistical analyses. Results show that the GPD+ algorithm is efficient in generating global and continuous datasets, corrected for land and ice contamination and spurious measurements of instrumental origin, with significant impacts on all ESA missions.

  9. ExELS: an exoplanet legacy science proposal for the ESA Euclid mission - I. Cold exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, M. T.; Kerins, E.; Rattenbury, N.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Robin, A. C.; Mao, S.; Batista, V.; Calchi Novati, S.; Cassan, A.; Fouqué, P.; McDonald, I.; Marquette, J. B.; Tisserand, P.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.

    2013-09-01

    The Euclid mission is the second M-class mission of the ESA Cosmic Vision programme, with the principal science goal of studying dark energy through observations of weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillations. Euclid is also expected to undertake additional Legacy Science programmes. One such proposal is the Exoplanet Euclid Legacy Survey (ExELS) which will be the first survey able to measure the abundance of exoplanets down to Earth mass for host separations from ˜1 au out to the free-floating (unbound) regime. The cold and free-floating exoplanet regimes represent a crucial discovery space for testing planet formation theories. ExELS will use the gravitational microlensing technique and will detect 1000 microlensing events per month over 1.6 deg2 of the Galactic bulge. We assess how many of these events will have detectable planetary signatures using a detailed multiwavelength microlensing simulator - the Manchester-Besançon microLensing Simulator (MABμLS) - which incorporates the Besançon Galactic model with 3D extinction. MABμLS is the first theoretical simulation of microlensing to treat the effects of point spread function (PSF) blending self-consistently with the underlying Galactic model. We use MABμLS, together with current numerical models for the Euclid PSFs, to explore a number of designs and de-scope options for ExELS, including the exoplanet yield as a function of filter choice and slewing time, and the effect of systematic photometry errors. Using conservative extrapolations of current empirical exoplanet mass functions determined from ground-based microlensing and radial velocity surveys, ExELS can expect to detect a few hundred cold exoplanets around mainly G-, K- and M-type stellar hosts, including ˜45 Earth-mass planets and ˜6 Mars-mass planets for an observing programme totalling 10 months. ExELS will be capable of measuring the cold exoplanet mass function down to Earth mass or below, with orbital separations ranging from ˜1 au out

  10. European Space Agency (ESA) Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ Archive Bulk-Processing: processor improvements and data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, F.; Biasutti, R.; Ferrara, R.; Fischer, P.; Galli, L.; Hoersch, B.; Hopkins, S.; Jackson, J.; Lavender, S.; Mica, S.; Northrop, A.; Paciucci, A.; Paul, F.; Pinori, S.; Saunier, S.

    2014-09-01

    The Landsat program is a joint United States Geological Survey (USGS) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enterprise for Earth Observation (EO), that represents the world's longest running system of satellites for moderate-resolution optical remote sensing. The European Space Agency (ESA) has acquired Landsat data over Europe through the ESA ground stations over the last 40 years, in co-operation with USGS and NASA. A new ESA Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) processor has been developed. This enhanced processor aligns the historical Landsat products to the highest quality standards that can be achieved with the current knowledge of the instruments. The updated processor is mainly based on the USGS algorithm; however the ESA processor has some different features that are detailed in this paper. Using this upgraded processor, ESA is currently performing for the first time a bulk-processing of its entire Landsat series MSS/TM/ETM+ historical archive to make all products available to users. Current achievements include the processing and online distribution of approximately 290 000 new Landsat 5 TM high-quality products acquired at the Kiruna ground station between 1983 and 2011. The Landsat 5 TM bulk-processed products are made available for direct download after registration at: https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/pi-community/apply for-data/fast-registration. The remainder of the ESA's Landsat data, dating back more than 40 years, will gradually become available for all users during the course of 2014. The ESA Landsat processor algorithm enhancement, together with the results of the ESA archive bulk-processing, and an overview on the data quality on a subset of the Landsat 5 TM data are herein presented.

  11. COBRAS/SAMBA: the ESA Medium Size Mission for measurements of CBR anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolesi, N.; Bersanelli, M.; Cesarsky, C.; Danese, L.; Efstathiou, G.; Griffin, M.; Lamarre, J. M.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Pace, O.; Puget, J. L.; Raisanen, A.; Smoot, G. F.; Tauber, J.; Volonte, S.

    1995-02-01

    The COBRAS/SAMBA mission is designed for extensive, accurate mapping of the anisotropy of the Cosmic Background Radiation. with angular sensitivity from scales of a few arcminutes up to and overlapping with the > 7° COBE-DMR resolution. This will allow a full identification of the primordial density perturbations which grew to Corm the large-scale structures observed in the present universe. The COBRAS/SAMBA maps will provide a major source of information relevant to several cosmological and astrophysical issues, such as testing theories of the early universe and the origin of cosmic structure. One of the main diffuse foreground emissions will be from interstellar dust, and the mission will provide relevant information on its components and emission properties. A combination of bolometric and radiometric detection techniques will ensure the sensitivity and wide spectral coverage required for accurate foreground discrimination. A far-Earth orbit has been selected to minimize the unwanted emission from the Earth as a source of contamination. The project is currently undergoing a feasibility study within the European Space Agency M3 programme.

  12. Reflection grating spectrometer onboard the ESA x-ray multi-mirror (XMM) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Herder, Jan-Willem; Aarts, Henry J.; van den Berg, Marcel L.; Bixler, Jay V.; den Boggende, Antonius J.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Brinkman, Albert C.; Decker, Todd A.; Dubbeldam, Luc; Hailey, Charles J.; Jansen, Fred A.; Kahn, Steven M.; de Korte, Piet A.; Mauche, C. W.; Montesanti, Richard C.; Paerels, Frits B.; Spruijt, Hugo; Thomsen, K.; Verhoeve, P.; Zehnder, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) onboard the ESA satellite XMM (X-ray Multi Mirror mission) combines a high resolving power (approximately 400 at 0.5 keV) with a large effective area (approximately 200 cm(superscript 2)). The spectral range selected for RGS (5 - 35 angstroms) contains the K shell transitions of N, O, Ne, Mg, Al, Si and S as well as the important L shell transitions of FE. The resolving power allows the study of a wide variety of challenging scientific questions. Detailed temperature diagnostics are feasible as the ionization balance is a unique function of the distribution of the electron temperature. Density diagnostics are provided by studying He-like triplets where the ratio of the forbidden to intercombination lines varies with density. Other fields of interest include the determination of elemental abundances, the study of optical depth effects, velocity diagnostics by measuring Doppler shifts and the estimate of magnetic fields through the observation of Zeeman splitting. The resolving power is obtained by an array of 240 gratings placed behind the mirrors of the telescope, dispersing about half of the X-rays in two spectroscopic orders. The X-rays are recorded by an array of 9 large format CCDs. These CCDs are operated in the frame transfer mode. They are back illuminated as the quantum efficiency of front illuminated devices is poor at low energies because of their poly-silicon gate structure. To suppress dark current the CCDs are passively cooled. In order to obtain the effective area of about 200 cm(superscript 2), grating arrays and CCD cameras are placed behind two of the three XMM telescopes. A model of RGS was tested last autumn ('93) at the Panter long beam X-ray facility in Munich. The model consisted of a subset of four mirrors, eight representative gratings covering a small section of the inner mirror shells and a CCD camera containing three CCDs. The purpose of these tests was to verify the resolution and sensitivity of

  13. Hera - an ESA M-class Saturn Entry Probe Mission Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. H.; Mousis, O.; Spilker, T. R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Poncy, J.; Coustenis, A.; Reh, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    A fundamental goal of solar system exploration is to understand the origin of the solar system, the initial stages, conditions, and processes by which the solar system formed, how the formation process was initiated, and the nature of the interstellar seed material from which the solar system was born. Key to understanding solar system formation and subsequent dynamical and chemical evolution is the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. Additionally, the atmospheres of the giant planets serve as laboratories to better understand the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, processes, and climates on all planets in the solar system including Earth, offer a context and provide a ground truth for exoplanets and exoplanetary systems, and have long been thought to play a critical role in the development of potentially habitable planetary systems. Remote sensing observations are limited when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. A remarkable example of the value of in situ measurements is provided by measurements of Jupiter's noble gas abundances and helium mixing ratio by the Galileo probe. In situ measurements provide direct access to atmospheric regions that are beyond the reach of remote sensing, enabling the dynamical, chemical and aerosol-forming processes at work from the thermosphere to the troposphere below the cloud decks to be studied. Studies for a newly proposed Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission named Hera is being prepared for the upcoming European Space Agency Medium Class (M5) mission announcement of opportunity. A solar powered mission, Hera will take approximately 8 years to reach Saturn and will carry instruments to measure the composition, structure, and dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere. In the context of giant planet science provided by the Galileo, Juno, and Cassini missions to Jupiter and Saturn, the Hera Saturn probe will provide critical measurements of composition

  14. Design concepts and options for the Thermal Infrared Imager (TIRI) as part of ESA's Asteroid Impact Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Neil; Calcutt, Simon; Licandro, Javier; Reyes, Marcos; Delbo, Marco; Donaldson Hanna, Kerri; Arnold, Jessica; Howe, Chris

    2016-04-01

    ESA's Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is being studied as part of the joint ESA/NASA AIDA mission for launch in 2020. AIDA's primary mission is to investigate the effect of a kinetic impactor on the secondary component of the binary asteroid 65803 Didymos in late 2022. AIM will characterise the Didymos system and monitor the response of the binary system to the impact. A multi-spectral, thermal-infrared imaging instrument (TIRI) will be an essential component of AIM's remote sensing payload, as it will provide key information on the nature of the surfaces (e.g. presence or absence of materials, degree of compaction, and rock abundance of the regolith) of both components in the Didymos system. The temperature maps provided by TIRI will be important for navigation and spacecraft health and safety for proximity/lander operations. By measuring the asteroids' diurnal thermal responses (thermal inertia) and their surface compositions via spectral signatures, TIRI will provide information on the origin and evolution of the binary system. In this presentation we will discuss possible instrument design for TIRI, exploring options that include imaging spectroscopy to broadband imaging. By using thermal models and compositional analogues of the Didymos system we will show how the performance of each design option compares to the wider scientific goals of the AIDA/AIM mission.

  15. Performance characteristics of the PAW instrumentation on Beagle 2 (the astrobiology lander on ESA's Mars Express Mission)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Mark R.; Pullan, D.; Fraser, George W.; Whitehead, S.; Sykes, J.; Holt, J.; Butcher, Gillian I.; Nelms, Nick; Dowson, J.; Ross, D.; Bicknell, C.; Crocker, M.; Favill, B.; Wells, Alan A.; Richter, L.; Kochan, H.; Hamacher, Hans; Ratke, L.; Griffiths, Andrew D.; Coates, A. J.; Phillips, N.; Senior, A.; Zarnecki, John C.; Towner, M. C.; Leese, M.; Patel, M.; Wilson, C.; Thomas, Nicolas; Hviid, S.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Klingelhoefer, G.; Bernhardt, B.; van Duijn, P.; Sims, G.; Yung, K. L.

    2003-02-01

    The performance of the PAW instrumentation on the 60kg Beagle 2 lander for ESA"s 2003 Mars Express mission will be described. Beagle 2 will search for organic material on and below the surface of Mars in addition to a study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of the landing site. The lander will utilize acquisition and preparation tools to obtain samples from below the surface, and both under and inside rocks. In situ analysis will include examination of samples with an optical microscope, Mossbauer and fluorescent X-ray spectrometers. Extracted samples will be returned to the lander for analysis, in particular a search for organics and a measurement of their isotopic composition. The PAW experiment performance data will be described along with the status of the project.

  16. First results from experiments performed with the ESA Anthrorack during the D-2 spacelab mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuipers, A.

    1996-06-01

    In 1993 four astronauts performed physiological experiments on the payload "Anthrorack" during the second German Spacelab mission D-2. The Anthrorack set-up is a Spacelab double rack developed under the management of the European Space Agency. It consists of an ECHO machine, a respiratory monitoring system (gas analyzer with flow meter), a blood centrifuge, an ergometer, a finger blood pressure device, ECG, body impedance measurement device and a respiratory inductance plethysmograph. Experiment-specific equipment was used as well. Nineteen investigators performed experiments in the cardiovascular, pulmonary, fluid-renal and nutritional physiology area. Results on central venous pressure, ocular pressure, vascular resistance, cardiac output, tissue thickness and orthostatic intolerance are presented in the cardiovascular area. In the pulmonary area first results are mentioned on O 2 transport perfusion and ventilation distribution and breathing pattern. From the fluid-renal experiments, data from diuresis, sodium excretion and hormonal determinations are given. Finally results from glucose metabolism and nitrogen turnover experiments are presented.

  17. Long term monitoring of extragalactic sources in the framework of the Gaia ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TARIS, François

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia astrometric mission of the European Space Agency has been launched the 19th December 2013. It will provide an astrometric catalogue of 500.000 extragalactic sources that could be the basis of a new optical reference frame after the Hipparcos satellite one. On the other hand, the current International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) is based on the observations of extragalactic sources at radio wavelength. The astrometric coordinates of sources in these two reference systems will have roughly the same uncertainty. It is then mandatory to observe a set of common targets at both optical and radio wavelength to link the ICRF with what could be called the GCRF (Gaia Celestial Reference Frame).This poster presents the set of optical telescopes used to observe the targets chosen for the link of the two reference systems.It also presents some results obtained with the Lomb-Scargle method and CLEAN algorithm applied to optical magnitude monitoring of extragalactic sources suitable for the GCRF-ICRF link. These two methods allow to show that some periodic (or quasi-periodic) phenomena could be present and could be at the origin of the observed light curves. This could have an important impact on the photocenter's position of a particular target which is relevant for the link of the reference systems.

  18. Charge-coupled devices for the ESA Euclid M-class Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endicott, J.; Darby, S.; Bowring, S.; Burt, D.; Eaton, T.; Grey, A.; Swindells, I.; Wheeler, R.; Duvet, L.; Cropper, M.; Walton, D.; Holland, A.; Murray, N.; Gow, J.

    2012-07-01

    The European Space Agency has funded e2v’s development of an image sensor for the visible instrument in the Euclid space telescope. Euclid has been selected for a medium class mission launch opportunity in 2020. The project aims to map the dark universe with two complementary methods; a galaxy red-shift survey and weak gravitational lensing using near infrared and visible instruments. The baseline for the visible instrument was to be the CCD203-82, which has been successfully flown on NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. However, to optimise the device for Euclid, e2v have designed and manufactured the CCD273-84. This device has a higher-responsivity lower-noise amplifier, enhanced red response, parallel charge injection structures and narrower registers which improve low signal charge transfer efficiency. Development models for Euclid have been manufactured with a thinner gate dielectric than standard for improved tolerance to ionising radiation. This paper describes the imager sensor in detail and focuses on the novel aspects of the device, package and interface.

  19. The KOALA Shape Modeling Technique Validated at (21) Lutetia by ESA Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carry, Benoit; Merline, W. J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Conrad, A.; Drummond, J. D.; Dumas, C.; Kueppers, M.; OSIRIS Instrument Team

    2010-10-01

    We recently developed a shape reconstruction algorithm, dubbed KOALA (Kaasalainen, IPI 2010; Carry et al., Icarus 2010), which allows the determination of the size, shape, and spin properties of asteroids from a combined data set of disk-resolved images, optical lightcurves, and stellar occultations. Using adaptive optics (AO) imaging systems on the Keck and VLT telescopes, we acquired more than 300 images of the main-belt asteroid (21) Lutetia in 2007 and 2008. We combined these images with 50 lightcurves spanning some 48 years and including data taken almost up until the time of flyby. We produced a 3D shape model of Lutetia and determined the spin pole and rotation rate (Carry et al., submitted to A&A). On 2010 July 10, the International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency successfully encountered (21) Lutetia. The images recorded by the OSIRIS camera on-board Rosetta revealed our shape prediction to be accurate. We will present the KOALA (Knitted Occultation, Adaptive-optics, and Lightcurve Analysis) method, and a comparison of our shape model with the high-resolution images acquired by Rosetta during the flyby.

  20. Searching for life on Mars: selection of molecular targets for ESA's aurora ExoMars mission.

    PubMed

    Parnell, John; Cullen, David; Sims, Mark R; Bowden, Stephen; Cockell, Charles S; Court, Richard; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Gaubert, Francois; Grant, William; Parro, Victor; Rohmer, Michel; Sephton, Mark; Stan-Lotter, Helga; Steele, Andrew; Toporski, Jan; Vago, Jorge

    2007-08-01

    The European Space Agency's ExoMars mission will seek evidence of organic compounds of biological and non-biological origin at the martian surface. One of the instruments in the Pasteur payload may be a Life Marker Chip that utilizes an immunoassay approach to detect specific organic molecules or classes of molecules. Therefore, it is necessary to define and prioritize specific molecular targets for antibody development. Target compounds have been selected to represent meteoritic input, fossil organic matter, extant (living, recently dead) organic matter, and contamination. Once organic molecules are detected on Mars, further information is likely to derive from the detailed distribution of compounds rather than from single molecular identification. This will include concentration gradients beneath the surface and gradients from generic to specific compounds. The choice of biomarkers is informed by terrestrial biology but is wide ranging, and nonterrestrial biology may be evident from unexpected molecular distributions. One of the most important requirements is to sample where irradiation and oxidation are minimized, either by drilling or by using naturally excavated exposures. Analyzing regolith samples will allow for the search of both extant and fossil biomarkers, but sequential extraction would be required to optimize the analysis of each of these in turn. PMID:17723091

  1. Proba, an ESA technology demonstration mission, results after 3 years in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teston, F.; Bernaerts, D.; Gantois, K.

    2004-11-01

    PROBA (Project for On Board Autonomy) is a technology demonstration mission of the European Space Agency's General Support Technology Programme. PROBA was launched on October, 22nd , 2001 on a LEO Sun-synchronous 681x561 km orbit. The spacecraft mass is 94 kg, with 25 kg dedicated to scientific and Earth observation instruments, in addition to the technology demonstration payloads. PROBA principal objectives are in-orbit evaluation of new spacecraft technologies. PROBA, however, has also been intended as a flight opportunity for Earth observation instruments which can benefit from the pointing and agility capabilities of the satellite. PROBA onboard automatic functions include all payload operations scheduling and execution, target fly-by prediction and control of cameras pointing and scanning from raw inputs from users (target latitude, longitude and altitude). The point and stare requirements of the High Resolution Camera (HRC), as well as the multiple images scan requirement to support Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements with the Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS) are satisfied with the specified accuracy, by this small and agile gyro-less platform, whose attitude determination is based on autonomous star trackers only. PROBA main Earth imaging payload, CHRIS, weighting only 14 kg, is used to measure directional spectral reflectance. The instrument is capable of imaging (with multiple imaging of same target area under different viewing and illumination geometries) up to 200 spectral bands simultaneously at full resolution with a spatial resolution of 20 m at nadir and swath width of 15 km. The paper will cover, the spacecraft design and in-flight performances, as well as a description of the enabling technologies.

  2. ESA Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merin, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    The ESAC Science Data Centre, ESDC, is working on a science-driven discovery portal for all its astronomy missions with the provisional name Multi-Mission Interface. The first public release of this service will be demonstrated, featuring an interface for sky exploration and for single and multiple target searches. It requires no prior knowledge of any of the missions involved. From a technical point of view, the system offers all-sky projections of full mission datasets using a new-generation HEALPix projection called HiPS; detailed geometrical footprints to access individual observations at the mission archives using VO-TAP queries; and direct access to the underlying mission-specific science archives. A first public release is scheduled before the end of 2015 and will give users worldwide simplified access to high-level science-ready data products from all ESA Astronomy missions plus a number of ESA-produced source catalogues. A demo will accompany the presentation.

  3. critcial human health issues in connection with future human missions to mMars: the HUMEX study of ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Humex Team

    ESA has recently initiated a study of the human responses, limits and needs with regard to the stress environments of interplanetary and planetary missions. Emphasis was laid on human health and performance care as well as Advanced Life Support Developments including Bioregenerative Life Support Systems and environmental monitoring. The overall study goals were as follows: (i) to define reference scenarios for a European participation in human exploration and to estimate their influence on the Life Sciences and Life Support requirements; (ii) for selected mission scenarios, to critically assess the limiting factors for human health, wellbeing, and performance and to recommend relevant countermeasures; (iii) for selected mission scenarios, to critically assess the potential of Advanced Life Support Developments and to pro-pose a European strategy including terrestrial applications; (iv) to critically assess the feasibility of existing facilities and technologies on ground and in space as test-beds in preparation for human exploratory missions and to develop a test plan for ground and ISS campaigns; (v) to develop a roadmap for a future European strategy towards human exploratory missions, including preparatory activities and terrestrial applications and benefits. Two scenarios for a Mars mission were selected: (i) with a 30 days stay on Mars, and (ii) with about 500 days stay on Mars. The impact on human health, perform-ance and well being has been investigated from the view point of (i) the effects of microgravity (during space travel), reduced gravity (on Mars) and abrupt gravity changes (during launch and landing), (ii) the effects of cosmic radiation including solar particle events, (iii) psychological issues as well as general health care. Coun-termeasures as well as necessary research using ground-based testbeds and/or the ISS have been defined. The need for highly intelligent autonomous diagnostic and therapy systems was emphasized. Advanced life support

  4. Cryosat: ESA'S Ice Explorer Mission, 6 years in operations: status and achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Maestroni, Elia; Krassenburg, Mike; Badessi, Stefano; Bouffard, Jerome; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. CryoSat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Initial results have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. The CryoSat mission reached its 6th years of operational life in April 2016. Since its launch has delivered high quality products to the worldwide cryospheric and marine community that is increasing every year. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and its main scientific achievements. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on the next scientific development of the mission in its extended period of operations.

  5. System assessment study of the ESA Darwin Mission: concepts trade-off and first iteration design on novel Emma arrangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruilier, C.; Krawczyk, R.; Sghedoni, M.; Chanal, O.; Degrelle, C.; Pirson, L.; Simane, O.; Thomas, E.

    2007-09-01

    ESA's Darwin mission is devoted to direct detection and spectroscopic characterisation of Earth-like planets in the thermal infrared domain by nulling interferometry in space. This technique requires deep and stable starlight rejection to an efficiency around 106 over the whole spectral band. Darwin is a major target for Thales Alenia Space, and is considered as a strategic part of its programme roadmap. In this paper we present the main outcomes of the Darwin mission study conducted by Thales Alenia Space from Oct. 2005 to Jul. 2007. Studying this mission in depth, our proposed most promising configuration features spacecraft in non planar arrangement (called Emma). It offers the best science return in terms of number of stars detected and sky accessibility while staying compliant with mass and volume constraints of a single Ariane 5 launch. Our solution dramatically alleviates engineering constraints thanks to a fully non deployable concept. As compared to the more conventional planar arrangement (called Charles), Emma suppresses Single Point Failures and spurious flexible modes, thus maximising both the system reliability and the stability of the dynamical environment. Emma is fully compatible with either 3 or 4 collectors.

  6. 45 CFR 1321.7 - Mission of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.7 Mission of the State agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the State agency on aging shall be the leader relative to...

  7. 45 CFR 1321.7 - Mission of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.7 Mission of the State agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the State agency on aging shall be the leader relative to...

  8. 45 CFR 1321.53 - Mission of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.53 Mission of the area agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the area agency on aging shall be the...

  9. 45 CFR 1321.7 - Mission of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.7 Mission of the State agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the State agency on aging shall be the leader relative to...

  10. 45 CFR 1321.53 - Mission of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.53 Mission of the area agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the area agency on aging shall be the...

  11. 45 CFR 1321.7 - Mission of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.7 Mission of the State agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the State agency on aging shall be the leader relative to...

  12. 45 CFR 1321.7 - Mission of the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.7 Mission of the State agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the State agency on aging shall be the leader relative to...

  13. 45 CFR 1321.53 - Mission of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.53 Mission of the area agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the area agency on aging shall be the...

  14. 45 CFR 1321.53 - Mission of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.53 Mission of the area agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the area agency on aging shall be the...

  15. 45 CFR 1321.53 - Mission of the area agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Area Agency Responsibilities § 1321.53 Mission of the area agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the area agency on aging shall be the...

  16. A preliminary optical design for the JANUS camera of ESA's space mission JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greggio, D.; Magrin, D.; Ragazzoni, R.; Munari, M.; Cremonese, G.; Bergomi, M.; Dima, M.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Viotto, V.; Debei, S.; Della Corte, V.; Palumbo, P.; Hoffmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Michaelis, H.; Schmitz, N.; Schipani, P.; Lara, L.

    2014-08-01

    The JANUS (Jovis, Amorum ac Natorum Undique Scrutator) will be the on board camera of the ESA JUICE satellite dedicated to the study of Jupiter and its moons, in particular Ganymede and Europa. This optical channel will provide surface maps with plate scale of 15 microrad/pixel with both narrow and broad band filters in the spectral range between 0.35 and 1.05 micrometers over a Field of View 1.72 × 1.29 degrees2. The current optical design is based on TMA design, with on-axis pupil and off-axis field of view. The optical stop is located at the secondary mirror providing an effective collecting area of 7854 mm2 (100 mm entrance pupil diameter) and allowing a simple internal baffling for first order straylight rejection. The nominal optical performances are almost limited by the diffraction and assure a nominal MTF better than 63% all over the whole Field of View. We describe here the optical design of the camera adopted as baseline together with the trade-off that has led us to this solution.

  17. Formation flying metrology for the ESA-PROBA3 mission: the Shadow Position Sensors (SPS) silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Bemporad, A.; Buckley, S.; O'Neill, K.; Fineschi, S.; Noce, V.; Pancrazzi, M.; Landini, F.; Baccani, C.; Capobianco, G.; Romoli, M.; Loreggia, D.; Nicolini, G.; Massone, G.; Thizy, C.; Servaye, J. S.; Renotte, E.

    2015-09-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is planning to launch in 2018 the PROBA3 Mission, designed to demonstrate the inorbit formation flying (FF) attitude capability of its two satellites and to observe the inner part of the visible solar corona as the main scientific objective. The solar corona will be observed thanks to the presence on the first satellite, facing the Sun, of an external occulter producing an artificial eclipse of the Sun disk. The second satellite will carry on the coronagraph telescope and the digital camera system in order to perform imaging of the inner part of the corona in visible polarized light, from 1.08 R⦿ up to about 3 R⦿. One of the main metrological subsystems used to control and to maintain the relative (i.e. between the two satellites) and absolute (i.e. with respect to the Sun) FF attitude is the Shadow Position Sensor (SPS) assembly. It is composed of eight micro arrays of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) able to measure with the required sensitivity and dynamic range the penumbral light intensity on the Coronagraph entrance pupil. In the following of the present paper we describe the overall SPS subsystem and its readout electronics with respect to the capability to satisfy the mission requirements, from the light conversion process on board the silicon-based SPS devices up to the digital signal readout and sampling.

  18. Farewell to a legendary mission : ESA to hand over the IUE archive to the world scientific community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    The IUE Archive, storing two decades of ultraviolet astronomy, has become a historical reference. It contains more than 110 000 spectra from observations that in most cases cannot be repeated, and is an excellent source for studying variable phenomena. The long time-lapse covered and the stability of the instrument have enabled astronomers to witness events they never thought they would, such as the metamorphosis of a very old star into a beautiful planetary nebula: a hot central star surrounded by glowing gas and dust. The IUE archive was the first astronomical archive accessible online -- back in 1985, when the World Wide Web did not even exist-- and has been a key catalyst for science: it has triggered the publication of 3 600 articles in refereed journals so far, and a whole generation of astrophysicists have used IUE data at some stage. During IUE's lifetime the archive was managed by ESA, from the Villafranca Satellite Tracking Station near Madrid (Spain). But not any longer. The IUE archive will now belong to the world scientific community. ESA has created INES (IUE Newly Extracted Spectra), a distribution system that allows IUE data to be accessed faster and more easily from non-ESA national hosts throughout the world, managed entirely by local experts. INES maintenance costs are minimal, and the system is designed for ready incorporation of whatever innovations might come in the future. "The INES system and its data guarantee that future generations of astronomers will be able to use IUE data as much as they want, regardless of whether they know about the technicalities of the mission or whether there is an improvement in archive technology. And the distributed structure is better adapted to changes in user needs than a single archive centre", says Antonio Talavera from the Laboratory for Space Astrophysics and Theoretical Physics (LAEFF), based at Villafranca. "ESA has created INES using a minimalist engineering approach for the world scientific community

  19. Towards a cooperation between the arts, space science research and the European Space Agency - Preliminary findings of the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pell, Sarah Jane; Imhof, Anna Barbara; Waldvogel, Christian; Kotler, J. Michelle; Peljhan, Marko

    2014-12-01

    The arts offer alternative insights into reality, which are explored by science in general, and broadened by the activities conducted by the European Space Agency [4] and other space agencies. Similar to the way the members of ESA are ambassadors for spaceflight and science, artists and cultural professionals are ambassadors for human expression, experimentation, and exploration. In June 2011, the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS) held a three-day workshop at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. During this workshop, topics and ideas were discussed to develop initiatives between the arts, sciences and ESA. The aim was to foster and expand the human and cultural aspects of space exploration, and at the same time offer a means of communication that aims to reach audiences beyond the scope of traditional space-related channels. The consensus of the team was that establishing and sustaining a transdisciplinary professional community consisting of ESA representatives, scientists and artists would fuel knowledge transfer, and mutual inspiration. Potential ways to provide a sustainable cooperation within and between the various groups were discussed. We present the preliminary findings including a number of measures and mechanisms to initiate and conduct such an initiative. Plausible organisational measures, procedures and consequences, as well as a proposition on how to proceed are also discussed. Overall, the involvement and cooperation between the arts, space science research and ESA will enhance in the citizens of the ESA member states the sense of public ownership of ESA results, and participation in ESA's research.

  20. European Space Agency's Fluorescence Explorer Mission: Concept and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, G.; Moreno, J. F.; Goulas, Y.; Huth, A.; Middleton, E.; Miglietta, F.; Nedbal, L.; Rascher, U.; Verhoef, W.; Drusch, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) is a dedicated satellite for the detection and measurement of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF). It is one of two candidate missions currently under evaluation by ESA for deployment in its Earth Explorer 8 program, with Phase A/B1 assessments now underway. FLEX is planned as a tandem mission with ESA's core mission Sentinel-3, and would carry an instrument, FLORIS, optimized for discrimination of the fluorescence signal in terrestrial vegetation. The FLEX mission would be the first to be focussed upon optimization of SIF detection in terrestrial vegetation, and using finer spatial resolution than is available with current satellites. It would open up a novel avenue for monitoring photosynthetic function from space, with diverse potential applications. Plant photosynthetic tissues absorbing sunlight in the wavebands of photosynthetically active radiation (400 to 700 nm) emit fluorescence in the form of red and far-red light. This signal confers a small but measurable contribution to apparent reflectance spectra, and with appropriate analysis it may be detected and quantified. Over the last 15-20 years, techniques for SIF detection have progressed from contact or near-contact methods using single leaves to remote techniques using airborne sensors and towers over plant canopies. Ongoing developments in instrumentation, atmospheric correction procedures, signal extraction techniques, and utilization of the SIF signal itself are all critical aspects of progress in this area. The FLEX mission would crystallize developments to date into a state-of-the-art pioneering mission targeting actual photosynthetic function. This compares to existing methods which address only potential function. Thus, FLEX could serve to provide real-time data on vegetation health and stress status, and inputs for parameterization of photosynthetic models (e.g. with measures of light-use efficiency). SIF might be correlated or modelled to photosynthetic rates or

  1. Space Electron Density Gradient Studies using a 3D Embedded Reconfigurable Sounder and ESA/NASA CLUSTER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides a direct comparison between data captured by a new embedded reconfigurable digital sounder, different ground-based ionospheric sounders spread around Europe and the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The CLUSTER mission consists of four identical space probes flying in a formation that allows measurements of the electron density gradient in the local magnetic field. Both the ground-based and the spacecraft instrumentations assist in studying the motion, geometry and boundaries of the plasmasphere. The comparison results are in accordance to each other. Some slight deviations among the captured data were expected from the beginning of this investigation. These small discrepancies are reasonable and seriatim analyzed. The results of this research are significant, since the level of the plasma's ionization, which is related to the solar activity, dominates the propagation of electromagnetic waves through it. Similarly, unusually high solar activity presents serious hazards to orbiting satellites, spaceborne instrumentation, satellite communications and infrastructure located on the Earth's surface. Long-term collaborative study of the data is required to continue, in order to identify and determine the enhanced risk in advance. This would allow scientists to propose an immediate cure.

  2. Mars Express - ESA sets ambitious goals for the first European mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Mars has always fascinated human beings. No other planet has been visited so many times by spacecraft. And still, it has not been easy to unveil its secrets. Martian mysteries seem to have increased in quantity and complexity with every mission. When the first spacecraft were sent - the Mariner series in 1960s - the public was expecting an Earth ‘twin’, a green, inhabited planet full of oceans. Mariner shattered this dream by showing a barren surface. This was followed by the Viking probes which searched for life unsuccessfully in 1976. Mars appeared dry, cold and uninhabited: the Earth’s opposite. Now, two decades later, modern spacecraft have changed that view, but they have also returned more questions. Current data show that Mars was probably much warmer in the past. Scientists now think that Mars had oceans, so it could have been a suitable place for life in the past. “We do not know what happened to the planet in the past. Which process turned Mars into the dry, cold world we see today?” says Agustin Chicarro, ESA’s Mars Express project scientist. “With Mars Express, we will find out. Above all, we aim to obtain a complete global view of the planet - its history, its geology, how it has evolved. Real planetology!” Mars Express will reach the Red Planet by the end of December 2003, after a trip of just over six months. Six days before injection into its final orbit, Mars Express will eject the lander, Beagle 2, named after the ship on which Charles Darwin found inspiration to formulate his theory of evolution. The Mars Express orbiter will observe the planet and its atmosphere from a near-polar orbit, and will remain in operation for at least a whole Martian year (687 Earth days). Beagle 2 will land in an equatorial region that was probably flooded in the past, and where traces of life may have been preserved. The Mars Express orbiter carries seven advanced experiments, in addition to the Beagle 2 lander. The orbiter’s instruments have been

  3. JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E. J.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2012-04-01

    the first subsurface observations of this icy moon, including the first determination of the minimal thickness of the icy crust over the most recently active regions. JUICE will determine the characteristics of liquid-water oceans below the icy surfaces of the moons. This will lead to an understanding of the possible sources and cycling of chemical and thermal energy, allow investigation of the evolution and chemical composition of the surfaces and of the subsurface oceans, and enable an evaluation of the processes that have affected the satellites and their environments through time. The study of the diversity of the satellite system will be enhanced with additional information gathered remotely on Io and smaller moons. The mis-sion will also focus on characterising the diversity of processes in the Jupiter system which may be required in order to provide a stable environment at Ganymede, Europa and Callisto on geologic time scales, including gravitational coupling between the Galilean satellites and their long term tidal influence on the system as a whole. Focused stud-ies of Jupiter's atmosphere, and magnetosphere and their interaction with the Galilean satellites will further enhance our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of the Jovian system. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of Jupiter will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. These observations will be attained over a sufficiently long temporal baseline with broad latitudinal coverage to investigate evolving weather systems and the mechanisms of transporting energy, momentum and material between the different layers. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated.

  4. Gaia science operations 1.5 yr into the nominal mission: concepts, experiences and lessons learned ESA/ESTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Uwe; Guerra, Rocio; Cheek, Neil; Siddiqui, Hassan; Jansen, Fred

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency's astrometry satellite Gaia was launched in December 2013 and started its scientific operations in July 2014 after an extended payload commissioning period. During the first year of the nominal mission the astrometric instrument alone has made around 250 Billion individual measurements which already now constitues one of the largest astronomical datasets in existence. Operations will continue for at least the next 4 years and after an extensive data processing effort an astronomical catalogue containing some 1.5 Billion celestial objects will be produced. We describe the chosen key concepts for handling the massive amounts of daily data at the Science Operations Centre at ESAC, Madrid, their initial processing and dissemination to the other five partner processing centres. We will also illustrate some of the great challenges that the mission data poses in terms of storage, processing, monitoring, and analysis.

  5. Planetary entry vehicle design for planned and potential ESA missions to Titan, Mars, and Earth return (FGE TN 51/92)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Arthur

    1993-04-01

    Design of ballistic planetary entry probes for planned ESA/NASA Titan, Mars, and Earth-Return missions is discussed with emphasis on the common design constraints. The choice of aeroshell configuration and some of the simple design rules are outlined which are used initially at pre-feasibility stages. These include the influence of body dynamics, conventional aerodynamics, and aerothermodynamics. Prediction of the aerothermodynamic environment and influence of uncertainties in the basic physics and chemistry are seen to dominate. Analysis methodology and some of the ESA sponsored experimental program which was initiated to tackle the lack of basic chemistry data is discussed.

  6. Mobile Payload Element (MPE): Concept study for a sample fetching rover for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarmann, R.; Jaumann, R.; Claasen, F.; Apfelbeck, M.; Klinkner, S.; Richter, L.; Schwendner, J.; Wolf, M.; Hofmann, P.

    2012-12-01

    In late 2010, the DLR Space Administration invited the German industry to submit a proposal for a study about a Mobile Payload Element (MPE), which could be a German national contribution to the ESA Lunar Lander Mission. Several spots in the south polar region of the moon come into consideration as landing site for this mission. All possible spots provide sustained periods of solar illumination, interrupted by darkness periods of several 10 h. The MPE is outlined to be a small, autonomous, innovative vehicle in the 10 kg class for scouting and sampling the environment in the vicinity of the lunar landing site. The novel capabilities of the MPE will be to acquire samples of lunar regolith from surface, subsurface as well as shadowed locations, define their geological context and bring them back to the lander. This will enable access to samples that are not contaminated by the lander descent propulsion system plumes to increase the chances of detecting any indigenous lunar volatiles contained within the samples. Kayser-Threde, as prime industrial contractor for Phase 0/A, has assembled for this study a team of German partners with relevant industrial and institutional competence in space robotics and lunar science. The primary scientific objective of the MPE is to acquire clearly documented samples and to bring them to the lander for analysis with the onboard Lunar Dust Analysis Package (L-DAP) and Lunar Volatile Resources Analysis Package (L-VRAP). Due to the unstable nature of volatiles, which are of particular scientific interest, the MPE design needs to provide a safe storage and transportation of the samples to the lander. The proposed MPE rover concept has a four-wheeled chassis configuration with active suspension, being a compromise between innovation and mass efficiency. The suspension chosen allows a compact stowage of the MPE on the lander as well as precise alignment of the solar generators and instruments. Since therefore no further complex mechanics are

  7. Requirements on Atmospheric Entry of Small Probes for Several Planets: Venus, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus in Preparation for the Future ESA Cosmic Vision Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomuta, D.; Rebuffat, D.; Larranaga, J.; Erd, C.; Bavdaz, M.; Falkner, P.

    2011-02-01

    In preparation for the ESA Cosmic Vision new call for medium class missions, a set of entry probes for inner and outer planets have been preliminary investigated by ESA using its Concurrent Design Facility. These Entry Probe missions are hypothetically assumed for launching time 2020-2035. A preliminary design of the probes arrived at a mass of about 300kg. In the following, the study is focused on the entry conditions for each of the planets Venus, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus with the aim to define the conditions for the Entry and Descent System (EDS) and its required technologies. For Venus case, two scenarios where considered: one where the entry probe is released during a typical gravity assist by a large interplanetary mission and another scenario featuring a stand alone mission targeted to Venus. During the entry in Venus atmosphere (mainly composed of CO2 (96.5%) and N2 (3.5%)), the probes are subjected to maximum heat fluxes of 60MW/m2, which is highly demanding in both scenarios. For the outer planet missions, only flyby scenarios with a targeted release of the probe were considered. The entry probes for the outer planets are subjected to heat fluxes above 100MW/m2, which is even more challenging the Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) and therefore requiring the use of special high temperature protection technology to prevent the destruction during the entry. ESA efforts for future missions are directed towards the development of an European Light Ablative Material (ELAM), though used in PEP study only for the Back Cover of the Entry Module. The TPS as well as both radiative and convective heat fluxes need simulations and verification by means of ground facility experiments. Based on the lessons learned from previous mission studies (mission to a near-Earth objects c.f. Marco Polo, Deimos Sample return), an Atmospheric Mars Sample Return is now under study. For sample return missions on return to Earth, a passive re-entry capsule delivering the sample

  8. The ESA standard for telemetry and telecommand packet utilisation: PUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-11-01

    ESA has developed standards for packet telemetry and telecommand, which are derived from the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). These standards are now mandatory for future ESA programs as well as for many programs currently under development. However, while these packet standards address the end-to-end transfer of telemetry and telecommand data between applications on the ground and Application Processes on-board, they leave open the internal structure or content of the packets. This paper presents the ESA Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) which addresses this very subject and, as such, serves to extend and complement the ESA packet standards. The goal of the PUS is to be applicable to future ESA missions in all application areas (Telecommunications, Science, Earth Resources, microgravity, etc.). The production of the PUS falls under the responsibility of the ESA Committee for Operations and EGSE Standards (COES).

  9. Exploiting the parallels - maximising the outreach potentials for the European Space Agency's Rosetta comet chaser mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, C. T.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2013-09-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA)'s comet chaser mission, Rosetta, has been more than a quarter of a century in coming to fruition. Whilst it might sound a long time humankind has been interested in comets for much longer. For over a thousand years depictions of comets have been appearing in Art 1 including many humorous cartoons 2. There are numerous cometary metaphors throughout literature. With this in mind we have recognised that there is a tremendous opportunity with comets to introduce science to different non-scientific audiences who would not necessarily believe they were interested in science. A similar approach was adopted with great success for the Beagle 2 involvement in ESA's Mars Express 3,4. By exploiting the perhaps sometimes less obvious connections to the Rosetta mission we hope to capture the attention of non-scientists and introduce them to science unawares - a case of a little sugar to help the medicine go down. It is our belief that the Rosetta mission has enormous potential for bringing science to the unconverted. We give here one example of a connection between Art and the Rosetta mission. By choosing the allegorical name Rosetta for its cometary mission, ESA have immediately invited comparison with the stone tablet which provided the key to translating the languages of ancient cultures, particularly Egyptian hieroglyphics. It is well known that a scientist, Thomas Young, foreign secretary of The Royal Society, made the break through which recognised the name Ptolemy in a cartouche on the Rosetta stone which can be seen today at the British Museum. The events concerning the 'capture' of the Rosetta stone were witnessed by scientists Sir William Hamilton (a renowned geophysicist as well as husband of Horatio Nelson's notorious mistress Lady Hamilton) and Edward Daniel Clarke, a geologist who would become first Professor of Mineralogy at Cambridge and an early meteoricist. Young's inspiration allowed Jean-Francois Champollion to decipher the

  10. Results of the ESA study on psychological selection of astronaut candidates for Columbus missions II: Personality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeters, Klaus-Martin; Fassbender, Christoph

    A unique composition of personality assessment methods was applied to a group of 97 ESA scientists and engineers. This group is highly comparable to real astronaut candidates with respect to age and education. The list of used tests includes personality questionnaires, problem solving in groups as well as a projective technique. The study goals were: 1. Verification of psychometric qualities and applicability of tests to the target group; 2. Search for culture-fair tests by which multi-national European groups can be examined; 3. Identification of test methods by which the adaptability of the candidates to the psycho-social stress of long-duration space flights can be assessed. Based on the empirical findings, a test battery was defined which can be used in the selection of ESA space personnel.

  11. NASA/ESA CV-990 Spacelab simulation. Appendixes: C, data-handling: Planning and implementation; D, communications; E, mission documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reller, J. O., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Data handling, communications, and documentation aspects of the ASSESS mission are described. Most experiments provided their own data handling equipment, although some used the airborne computer for backup, and one experiment required real-time computations. Communications facilities were set up to simulate those to be provided between Spacelab and the ground, including a downlink TV system. Mission documentation was kept to a minimum and proved sufficient. Examples are given of the basic documents of the mission.

  12. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Espinasse, S.; Hufenbach, B.

    2013-09-01

    Lunar exploration continues to be a priority for the European Space Agency (ESA) and is recognized as the next step for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Moon is also recognized as an important scientific target providing vital information on the history of the inner solar system; Earth and the emergence of life, and fundamental information on the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets. The Moon also provides a platform that can be utilized for fundamental science and to prepare the way for exploration deeper into space and towards a human Mars mission, the ultimate exploration goal. Lunar missions can also provide a means of preparing for a Mars sample return mission, which is an important long term robotic milestone. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. These include activities on the ISS and participation with US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017. Future activities planned activities also include participation in international robotic missions. These activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future. We present ESA's plans for Lunar exploration and the current status of activities. In particular we will show that this programme gives rise to unique scientific opportunities and prepares scientifically and technologically for future exploratory steps.

  13. Results of the ESA study on psychological selection of astronaut applicants for Columbus missions I: Aptitude testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassbender, Christoph; Goeters, Klaus-Martin

    European participation in the Space Station Freedom brought about new challenges for the psychological selection of astronaut candidates, particularly in respect to specific demands of long duration space flights. For this reason existing selection criteria and methods were reassessed. On these grounds a study was undertaken applying a unique composition of aptitude tests to a group of 97 ESA scientists and engineers who are highly comparable to the expected astronaut applicants with respect to age and education. The tests assessed operational aptitudes such as logical reasoning, memory function, perception, spatial orientation, attention, psychomotor function, and multiple task capacity. The study goals were: 1) Verification of psychometric qualities and applicability of tests in a normative group; 2) Search for culture-fair tests by which multi-national groups can be examined; 3) Identification of test methods which consider general and special operational demands of long duration space flights. Based on the empirical findings a test battery was arranged for use in the selection of ESA astronaut applicants. Results showed that 16 out of the 18 employed tests have good psychometric qualities and differentiate reliably in the special group of testees. The meta structure of the test battery as described by a factorial analysis is presented. Applicability of tests was generally high. Tests were culture-fair, however, a relation between English language skills and test results was identified. Since most item material was language-free, this was explained with the importance of English language skills for the understanding of test instructions. Solutions to this effect are suggested.

  14. [Interior] Configuration options, habitability and architectural aspects of the transfer habitat module (THM) and the surface habitat on Mars (SHM)/ESA's AURORA human mission to Mars (HMM) study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    This paper discusses the findings for [Interior] configuration options, habitability and architectural aspects of a first human spacecraft to Mars. In 2003 the space architecture office LIQUIFER was invited by the European Space Agency's (ESA) AURORA Program committee to consult the scientists and engineers from the European Space and Technology Center (ESTEC) and other European industrial communities with developing the first human mission to Mars, which will take place in 2030, regarding the architectural issues of crewed habitats. The task was to develop an interior configuration for a transfer vehicle (TV) to Mars, especially a transfer habitation module (THM) and a surface habitat module (SHM) on Mars. The total travel time Earth—Mars and back for a crew of six amounts to approximately 900 days. After a 200-day-flight three crewmembers will land on Mars in the Mars excursion vehicle (MEV) and will live and work in the SHM for 30 days. For 500 days before the 200-day journey back the spacecraft continues to circle the Martian orbit for further exploration. The entire mission program is based on our present knowledge of technology. The project was compiled during a constant feedback-design process and trans-disciplinary collaboration sessions in the ESA-ESTEC concurrent design facility. Long-term human space flight sets new spatial conditions and requirements to the design concept. The guidelines were developed from relevant numbers and facts of recognized standards, interviews with astronauts/cosmonauts and from analyses about habitability, sociology, psychology and configuration concepts of earlier space stations in combination with the topics of the individual's perception and relation of space. Result of this study is the development of a prototype concept for the THM and SHM with detailed information and complete plans of the interior configuration, including mass calculations. In addition the study contains a detailed explanation of the development of

  15. CLUPI, a high-performance imaging system on the ESA-NASA rover of the 2018 ExoMars mission to discover biofabrics on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, J.-L.; Westall, F.; Hofmann, B. A.; Spray, J. G.; Cockell, C.; Kempe, S.; Griffiths, A. D.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Colangeli, L.; Koschny, D.; Pullan, D.; Föllmi, K.; Diamond, L.; Josset, M.; Javaux, E.; Esposito, F.; Barnes, D.

    2012-04-01

    The scientific objectives of the ESA-NASA rover of the 2018 mission of the ExoMars Programme are to search for traces of past or present life and to characterise the near-sub surface. Both objectives require study of the rock/regolith materials in terms of structure, textures, mineralogy, and elemental and organic composition. The 2018 rover ExoMars payload consists of a suite of complementary instruments designed to reach these objectives. CLUPI, the high-performance colour close up imager, on board the 2018 ESA-NASA Rover plays an important role in attaining the mission objectives: it is the equivalent of the hand lens that no geologist is without when undertaking field work. CLUPI is a powerful, highly integrated miniaturized (<700g) low-power robust imaging system, able to operate at very low temperatures (-120°C). CLUPI has a working distance from 10cm to infinite providing outstanding pictures with a color detector of 2652x1768. At 10cm, the resolution is 7 micrometer/pixel in color. The focus mechanism and the optical-mechanical interface are a smart assembly in titanium that can sustain a wide temperature range. The concept benefits from well-proven heritage: Proba, Rosetta, MarsExpress and Smart-1 missions… Because the main science objective of ExoMars concerns the search for life, whose traces on Mars are likely to be cryptic, close up observation of the rocks and granular regolith will be critical to the decision as whether to drill and sample the nearby underlying materials. Thus, CLUPI is the essential final step in the choice of drill site. But not only are CLUPI's observations of the rock outcrops important, but they also serve other purposes. CLUPI, could observe the placement of the drill head. It will also be able to observe the fines that come out of the drill hole, including any colour stratification linked to lithological changes with depth. Finally, CLUPI will provide detailed observation of the surface of the core drilled materials when

  16. A probabilistic analysis of the implications of instrument failures on ESA's Swarm mission for its individual satellite orbit deployments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    On launch, one of Swarm's absolute scalar magnetometers (ASMs) failed to function, leaving an asymmetrical arrangement of redundant spares on different spacecrafts. A decision was required concerning the deployment of individual satellites into the low-orbit pair or the higher "lonely" orbit. I analyse the probabilities for successful operation of two of the science components of the Swarm mission in terms of a classical probabilistic failure analysis, with a view to concluding a favourable assignment for the satellite with the single working ASM. I concentrate on the following two science aspects: the east-west gradiometer aspect of the lower pair of satellites and the constellation aspect, which requires a working ASM in each of the two orbital planes. I use the so-called "expert solicitation" probabilities for instrument failure solicited from Mission Advisory Group (MAG) members. My conclusion from the analysis is that it is better to have redundancy of ASMs in the lonely satellite orbit. Although the opposite scenario, having redundancy (and thus four ASMs) in the lower orbit, increases the chance of a working gradiometer late in the mission; it does so at the expense of a likely constellation. Although the results are presented based on actual MAG members' probabilities, the results are rather generic, excepting the case when the probability of individual ASM failure is very small; in this case, any arrangement will ensure a successful mission since there is essentially no failure expected at all. Since the very design of the lower pair is to enable common mode rejection of external signals, it is likely that its work can be successfully achieved during the first 5 years of the mission.

  17. A novel optical design for planetary surface stereo-imaging: preliminary design of the stereoscopic imaging channel of SIMBIOSYS for the BepiColombo ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Naletto, Giampiero; Cremonese, Gabriele; Debei, Stefano; Flamini, Enrico

    2006-06-01

    The optical design of the STereoscopic imaging Channel (STC) of the imaging/spectroscopic system SIMBIOSYS for the ESA BepiColombo mission is presented. The main aim of this system is the global stereo mapping of planet Mercury surface during the BepiColombo mission lifetime. The instrument consists of two identical cameras looking at +/-20° from nadir which are sharing some optical components and the detector. The instrument has a 23"/pixel scale factor, corresponding to 50 m/px at 400 km from the surface, on a 4°x 4° FoV; imaging in four different spectral bands, between 540 nm and 890 nm, is foreseen. The STC optical characteristics guarantee global stereo mapping of the whole Mercury surface with all the filters. The coupling of an achromatic air-spaced doublet with a relay lens system allows good aberration balancing over all the field of view: the diffraction Ensquared Energy inside one pixel of the detector is of the order of 80%. In addition, an intermediate field stop gives the possibility of designing an efficient baffling system for straylight rejection. To cope with the hazardous radiation environment in which the spacecraft will be immersed in during the mission, all the glasses selected for the design are rad-hard type. A preliminary tolerance analysis has also been undertaken showing a low criticality level for manufacturing, alignment and stability of the system.

  18. ESA Earth Explorer 8 Candidate Mission CarbonSat: Error Budget for Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Methane Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, M.; Bovensmann, H.; Reuter, M.; Krings, T.; Heymann, J.; Schneising, O.; Burrows, J. P.; Boesch, H.; Meijer, Y.; Sierk, B.; Loscher, A.; Caron, J.; Ingmann, P.

    2015-06-01

    CarbonSat is one of two candidate missions for ESA’s Earth Explorer 8 (EE8) satellite; one of them will be selected for implementation in November 2015 for a targeted launch date around 2023. The main goal of CarbonSat is to advance our knowledge of the sources and sinks, both natural and man-made, of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases; carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from the global via the sub-continental to the local scale. CarbonSat will be the first satellite mission to image local scale emission hot spots of CO2 (e.g., cities, volcanoes, industrial areas) and CH4 (e.g., fossil fuel production, landfills, seeps) and to quantify their emissions and discriminate them from surrounding biospheric fluxes. The primary geophysical data products of CarbonSat are atmospheric colum-naveraged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 , i.e., XCO2 (in ppm) and XCH4 (in ppb), respectively. In addition, CarbonSat will deliver a number of secondary data products, which will also be of good quality, such as vegetation chlorophyll Sun-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) as retrieved from clear solar Fraunhofer lines located at 755 nm; SIF will be retrieved simultaneously with the primary products. Here we present an updated error budget using the latest retrieval algorithm and instrument/mission specification focusing on nadir observations over land.

  19. External calibration/validation of ESA's GOCE mission and contribution to DOT and SLA determination using a stochastic approach - The GOCESeaComb Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziavos, Ilias N.; Vergos, George S.; Grigoriadis, Vassilios N.; Tzanou, Elena A.; Natsiopoulos, Dimitrios A.

    2013-04-01

    The monitoring the Earth's gravity field both over marine and continental regions has been the focus of extensive geodetic research during the past decades and it has been considerably increased due to the recent gravity-field dedicated satellite missions. With the missions of CHAMP and GRACE setting the path, the latest ESA mission of GOCE is offering new opportunities for improved insights into the Earth's gravity field and geoid, while the synergistic use of geodetic and oceanographic data are promising improved representations of the ocean circulation and the sea level variations mechanisms. Moreover, the combination of GOCE-type high-quality and accuracy gravity field models with altimetric observations from ENVISAT, ERS1/2 and Jason1/2 missions, offer new opportunities for the determination of the marine geoid, vertical datum unification, as well as the introduction of a global vertical datum and the determination of dynamic ocean topography (DOT) modeling in different scales. The present work summarizes the objectives of the GOCESeaComb project funded by ESA in the frame of the PRODEX program and the work carried out thus far. The key points in studies to determine rigorously stationary components of the gravity field (e.g., geoid) and quasi- or non-stationary constituents (e.g., DOT, time-varying DOT and steric and eustatic sea level variations), are: a) The utilization of calibrated and validated input data, b) the investigation of the spectral content of the input data, and c) the development of data optimal combination methods, considering the statistical behavior of the input observations, towards the achievement of high-quality and accuracy predictions. Given the above, we outline the initial processing strategy to be followed, the GOCE/GRACE GGMs to be used along with their pre-processing, and, finally, the local gravity and GPS/Levelling data that will be employed for validation. The first results on the investigation of the GOCE/GRACE GGM spectral

  20. The ground support equipment for the E-NIS instrument on-board the ESA-Euclid Dark Energy Mission in the baseline configuration presented in phase A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, Massimo; Gianotti, Fulvio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Franceschi, Enrico; Nicastro, Luciano; Valenziano, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo Maria; Cimatti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    Euclid is a high-precision survey mission to map the geometry of the Dark Universe. The Euclid Mission concept presented in the Assessment Phase Study Report1 was selected by ESA on February 2010 to undergo a competitive Definition Phase. Euclid is a candidate for launch in the first slice of the Cosmic Vision Plan (M1/M2), with a possible launch date of 2018. In this paper we refer to the instrument baseline configuration identified in the Assessment Phase. It consisted of a Korsch telescope with a primary mirror of 1.2 m diameter and a focal plane hosting 3 scientific instruments, each with a field of view of 0.5 deg2: (1) E-VIS: a CCD based optical imaging channel, (2) E-NIP: a NIR imaging photometry channel, and (3) E-NIS: a NIR slitless spectral channel. We present the conceptual design developed in the Assessment Phase study for the Ground Support Equipment required to support the assembly, integration and verification operations at instrument level for the E-NIS baseline configuration, with particular regards to the scientific and calibration activities.

  1. HiRISE/NEOCE: an ESA M5 formation flying proposed mission combining high resolution and coronagraphy for ultimate observations of the chromosphere, corona and interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, Luc; Von Fay-Siebenburgen (Erdélyi), Robert

    2016-07-01

    The global understanding of the solar environment through the magnetic field emergence and dissipation, and its influence on Earth, is at the centre of the four major thematics addressed by HiRISE/NEOCE (High Resolution Imaging and Spectroscopy Explorer/New Externally Occulted Coronagraph Experiment). They are interlinked and also complementary: the internal structure of the Sun determines the surface activity and dynamics that trigger magnetic field structuring which evolution, variation and dissipation will, in turn, explain the coronal heating onset and the major energy releases that feed the influence of the Sun on Earth. The 4 major themes of HiRISE/NEOCE are: - fine structure of the chromosphere-corona interface by 2D spectroscopy in FUV at very high resolution; - coronal heating roots in inner corona by ultimate externally-occulted coronagraphy; - resolved and global helioseismology thanks to continuity and stability of observing at L1 Lagrange point; - solar variability and space climate with a global comprehensive view of UV variability as well. Recent missions have shown the definite role of waves and of the magnetic field deep in the inner corona, at the chromosphere-corona interface, where dramatic changes occur. The dynamics of the chromosphere and corona is controlled by the emerging magnetic field, guided by the coronal magnetic field. Accordingly, the direct measurement of the chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields is of prime importance. This is implemented in HiRISE/NEOCE, to be proposed for ESA M5 ideally placed at the L1 Lagrangian point, providing FUV imaging and spectro-imaging, EUV and XUV imaging and spectroscopy, and ultimate coronagraphy by a remote external occulter (two satellites in formation flying 375 m apart minimizing scattered light) allowing to characterize temperature, densities and velocities up to the solar upper chromosphere, transition zone and inner corona with, in particular, 2D very high resolution multi

  2. ATLID, ESA Atmospheric LIDAR Developement Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira do Carmo, João; Hélière, Arnaud; Le Hors, L.; Toulemont, Y.; Lefebvre, A.

    2016-06-01

    The ATmospheric LIDAR ATLID[1] is part of the payload of the Earth Cloud and Aerosol Explorer[2] (EarthCARE) satellite mission, the sixth Earth Explorer Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) Living Planet Programme. EarthCARE is a joint collaborative satellite mission conducted between ESA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (JAXA) that delivers the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) instrument. The payload consists of four instruments on the same platform with the common goal to provide a picture of the 3D-dimensional spatial and the temporal structure of the radiative flux field at the top of atmosphere, within the atmosphere and at the Earth's surface. This paper is presenting an updated status of the development of the ATLID instrument and its subsystem design. The instrument has recently completed its detailed design, and most of its subsystems are already under manufacturing of their Flight Model (FM) parts and running specific qualification activities. Clouds and aerosols are currently one of the biggest uncertainties in our understanding of the atmospheric conditions that drive the climate system. A better modelling of the relationship between clouds, aerosols and radiation is therefore amongst the highest priorities in climate research and weather prediction.

  3. Active optics for space applications: an ESA perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Hallibert, Pascal; Pereira do Carmo, Joao; Wille, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Active optics for Space is relatively new field that takes advantage of lessons learnt on ground, and together with the tighter constrains of space environment it allows operation of larger mirrors apertures for space telescopes and better image quality. Technical developments are crucial to guarantee proper technological readiness for applications on new missions whose performance can be driven also by these novelties. This paper describes the philosophy pursued at ESA, providing an overview of the activities run within the Agency, as well as perspectives for new developments. The Optics Section of the Directorate of Technical and Quality Management of ESA/ESTEC is currently running three projects. Two examples are here addressed.

  4. Pre-launch calibrations of the Vis-IR Hyperspectral Imager (VIHI) onboard BepiColombo, the ESA mission to Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Dami, Michele; Tommasi, Leonardo; Barbis, Alessandra; Ficai-Veltroni, Iacopo

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the design, assembly and calibration activities relative to the internal calibration unit mounted on the Visible and Infrared Hyperspectral Imager (VIHI). VIHI is one of the three optical channels of the SIMBIO-SYS suite (Spectrometers and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem), one of the payload instruments onboard the probe BepiColombo/MPO, the ESA cornestone mission to be launched in 2016-2017 to Mercury. The activities reported include also the qualification tests of the commercial sources (a Welch-Allyn 1163 incandescence lamp and the NICHIA NJSW036BLT LED) selected. All the qualifications (Thermal, Vibration and Radiation tests) were successful, demonstrating the suitability of the commercial sources as Flight hardware. The performances of the ICU were verified during its mounting and alignment in the VIHI optical bench. The ICU satisfy the requirements of providing a spectral radiance of the same order of magnitude of the signal from Mercury and of guaranteeing a good degree of spatial uniformity across the spectrometer slit for the verification of the flat field in flight. The LED source provide an uniformity of the order of 10%, while the lamp signal drops by about 30% at the extreme edges of the FOV.

  5. HST's 10th anniversary, ESA and Hubble : changing our vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    With the astronauts who took part in the most recent Servicing Mission (SM3A) in attendance, ESA is taking the opportunity to give a - first - complete overview of Europe's major contribution to the HST mission. It will also review the first ten years of operations and the outstanding results that have "changed our vision" of the cosmos. A new fully European outreach initiative - the "European Space Agency Hubble Information Centre" - will be presented and officially launched; it has been set up by ESA to provide information on Hubble from a European perspective. A public conference will take place in the afternoon to celebrate Hubble's achievements midway through its life. Ten years of outstanding performance Launched on 24 April 1990, Hubble is now midway through its operating life and it is considered one of the most successful space science missions ever. So far more than 10,000 scientific papers based on Hubble results have been published and European scientists have contributed to more than 25% of these. Not only has Hubble produced a rich harvest of scientific results, it has impressed the man in the street with its beautiful images of the sky. Thousands of headlines all over the world have given direct proof of the public's great interest in the mission - 'The deepest images ever', 'The sharpest view of the Universe', 'Measurements of the earliest galaxies' and many others, all reflecting Hubble's performance as a top-class observatory. The Servicing Missions that keep the observatory and its instruments in prime condition are one of the innovative ideas behind Hubble. Astronauts have serviced Hubble three times, and ESA astronauts have taken part in two of these missions. Claude Nicollier (CH) worked with American colleagues on the First Servicing Mission, when Hubble's initial optical problems were repaired. On the latest, Servicing Mission 3A, both Claude Nicollier and Jean-François Clervoy (F) were members of the crew. Over the next 10 years European

  6. Follow the Mars Express launch from one of ESA's establishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Europe’s first mission to the Red Planet will reach its target in December, after a six-month journey. Mars Express will help scientists answer questions about the Martian landscape, atmosphere and the origin of life that remain open, although a wealth of information is already available. Media representatives in Europe can follow the launch and initial orbital operations at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, or ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy and the Italian Space Agency, ASI, are organising a joint event at the University of Rome. ESA/Villafranca (VILSPA) and the CDTI, the Spanish institution in charge of space issues, are organising a joint event in Spain at the Museo Principe Felipe de la Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias in Valencia. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide live televised coverage of the launch and initial orbital operations with English commentary, between 19:15 and 22:00 CEST. Satellite: Astra 2C at 19 degrees East Reception frequency: 10832 MHz Polarisation: Horizontal Symbol rate: 22 Msymb/s FEC: 5/6 Service ID: 61950 Service name: ESA TXT: none Details of the transmission schedule and satellite details for the various pre-launch Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int. The launch can also be followed live on the internet at www.esa.int/marsexpresslaunch starting at 19:15 hrs. Here you can also find the launch diary, news, press releases, videos, images and more.

  7. ESA's Earth Observation Programmes in the Changing Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-07-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to studying the anthropocene. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific studies of the anthropocene. In the anthropocene human activities affect the whole planet and space is a very efficient means to measure their impact, but for relevant endeavours to be successful they can only be carried out in international cooperation. ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges and to requirements resulting from political priorities set by decision makers. Activities related to Climate Change are a prime example. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative, 13 Essential Climate Variables are constantly monitored to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters.

  8. ESA proposes Moon initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    Upon the invitation of the Swiss Government, the European Space Agency (ESA) is organising from Tuesday 31 May to Friday 3 June 1994 an international workshop on present and future plans for study and exploration of the Moon. This meeting will be held in Beatenberg, Switzerland, and attended by European, Russian and Japanese national space agencies as well as by NASA, the National Aeraunotics & Space Administration. For the media : * - a presentation will be held by Prof. Roger M. Bonnet, ESA Director of Science, and Mr. Jean-Jacques Dordain, Associate Director for Strategy, Planning and International Policy, at ESA Headquarters (8-10, rue Mario Nikis - 75015-PARIS) at 09h00 during a press breakfast on Monday 30 May. An info note describing the main lunar studies which will be presented at the Beatenberg workshop will be distributed on this occasion. * - On Friday 3 June, the press is invited to attend the closing session of the Beatenberg workshop starting at 09h30. This session will be followed by a briefing with the chairmen of the working groups and a lunch.

  9. Temporal aliasing effects on future gravity satellite missions and their assessment – Lessons from the ESA-SC4MGV project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daras, Ilias; Pail, Roland; Visser, Pieter; Weigelt, Matthias; Iran-Pour, Siavash; Murböck, Michael; Gruber, Thomas; Texeira da Encarnação, Joao; Sneeuw, Nico; Tonetti, Stefania; Christian, Siemes; van den IJssel, Jose; Cornara, Stefania; van Dam, Tonie; Cesare, Stefano; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Temporal aliasing is expected to add up to the error budget of future gravity satellite missions of low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (LL-SST) type in such a way, that it could act as a constraining factor on their way to achieve the expected accuracy that new generation sensors could provide. Within the scope of the ESA-SC4MGV project, we investigate the impact of temporal aliasing on future gravity satellite missions as well as methods for its minimization. This is achieved on the one hand by optimizing the choice for the orbital configuration, and on the other by optimizing the gravity field retrieval techniques accordingly. In this study we investigate the contribution of all error sources to the error budget and prove that temporal aliasing errors are one of the biggest contributors. We explore the advantages of using two in-line pairs in reducing temporal aliasing errors. For this purpose, the optimized orbit constellation consisting of two in-line pairs of a Bender type configuration is used as our "baseline" scenario. Using the "baseline" scenario, we investigate gravity field processing methods that lead in a reduction of the temporal aliasing errors. As a first step we apply the so-called "Wiese" approach, which suggests co-estimating low resolution gravity fields at short time intervals in order to directly estimate the short-term signals that alias into the combined solution. We demonstrate the ability of the "Wiese" approach to minimize temporal aliasing errors for our "baseline" scenario. Moreover, we fine-tune the "Wiese" parameterization options such as the duration and the resolution of the gravity field solutions estimated at high frequency, in order to maximize the effectiveness of the method at reducing the temporal aliasing effects with respect to our chosen Bender constellation. As a step forward, we experiment with alternative parameterizations that combine low and medium spatial resolution gravity fields at different time intervals

  10. ESA SnowLab project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmann, Andreas; Caduff, Rafael; Frey, Othmar; Werner, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Retrieval of the snow water equivalaent (SWE) from passive microwave observations dates back over three decades to initial studies made using the first operational radiometers in space. However, coarse spatial resolution (25 km) is an acknowledged limitation for the application of passive microwave measurements. The natural variability of snow cover itself is also notable; properties such as stratigraphy and snow microstructure change both spatially and over time, affecting the microwave signature. To overcome this deficit, the satellite mission COld REgions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) was proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2005 in response to the call for Earth Explorer 7 candidate missions. CoReH2O was a dual frequency (X- and Ku-band) SAR mission aimed to provide maps of SWE over land and snow accumulation on glaciers at a spatial resolution of 200 to 500 meters with an unprecedented accuracy. Within the frame of preparatory studies for CoReH2O Phase A, ESA undertook several research initiatives from 2009 to 2013 to study the mission concept and capabilities of the proposed sensor. These studies provided a wealth of information on emission and backscattering signatures of natural snow cover, which can be exploited to study new potential mission concepts for retrieval of snow cover properties and other elements of the cryosphere. Currently data related to multi-frequency, multi-polarisation, multitemporal of active and passive microwave measurements are still not available. In addition, new methods related to e.g. tomography are currently under development and need to be tested with real data. Also, the potential of interferometric and polarimetric measurements of the snow cover and its possible impact for novel mission/retrieval concepts must be assessed. . The objective of the SnowLab activity is to fill this gap and complement these datasets from earlier campaigns by acquiring a comprehensive multi-frequency, multi

  11. Automated science target selection for future Mars rovers: A machine vision approach for the future ESA ExoMars 2018 rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2013-04-01

    The ESA ExoMars 2018 rover is planned to perform autonomous science target selection (ASTS) using the approaches described in [1]. However, the approaches shown to date have focused on coarse features rather than the identification of specific geomorphological units. These higher-level "geoobjects" can later be employed to perform intelligent reasoning or machine learning. In this work, we show the next stage in the ASTS through examples displaying the identification of bedding planes (not just linear features in rock-face images) and the identification and discrimination of rocks in a rock-strewn landscape (not just rocks). We initially detect the layers and rocks in 2D processing via morphological gradient detection [1] and graph cuts based segmentation [2] respectively. To take this further requires the retrieval of 3D point clouds and the combined processing of point clouds and images for reasoning about the scene. An example is the differentiation of rocks in rover images. This will depend on knowledge of range and range-order of features. We show demonstrations of these "geo-objects" using MER and MSL (released through the PDS) as well as data collected within the EU-PRoViScout project (http://proviscout.eu). An initial assessment will be performed of the automated "geo-objects" using the OpenSource StereoViewer developed within the EU-PRoViSG project (http://provisg.eu) which is released in sourceforge. In future, additional 3D measurement tools will be developed within the EU-FP7 PRoViDE2 project, which started on 1.1.13. References: [1] M. Woods, A. Shaw, D. Barnes, D. Price, D. Long, D. Pullan, (2009) "Autonomous Science for an ExoMars Rover-Like Mission", Journal of Field Robotics Special Issue: Special Issue on Space Robotics, Part II, Volume 26, Issue 4, pages 358-390. [2] J. Shi, J. Malik, (2000) "Normalized Cuts and Image Segmentation", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Volume 22. [3] D. Shin, and J.-P. Muller (2009

  12. The ESA STSE Changing Earth Science Network 2008-2013: Supporting The Next Generation Of European Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Prieto, D.; Sabia, R.

    2013-12-01

    In 2006, the European Space Agency (ESA) published the document “The Changing Earth: New Scientific Challenges for ESA's Living Planet Programme” as the main driver of ESA's new Earth Observation (EO) science strategy. The document outlines 25 major scientific challenges covering all the different aspects of the Earth system, where EO technology and ESA missions may provide a key contribution. In this framework, and aiming at enhancing the ESA scientific support towards the achievement of “The Challenges”, the Agency has launched the “Changing Earth Science Network”, an important programmatic component of the new Support To Science Element (STSE) of the Earth Observation Envelope Programme (EOEP). In this paper, the objectives of this initiative are summarized and the list of the projects selected in the various calls is provided.

  13. Study of soil moisture retrieval algorithms using multiangular L-band brightness temperatures: application to ESA's SMOS Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monerris, Alessandra; Vall-llossera, Merce; Camps, Adriano

    2004-02-01

    The European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission will be launched in 2007. Its goal is the global and frequent measurement of soil moisture over the land and surface salinity over the sea, two key parameters governing the complex global climate. SMOS" single payload is the Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS), the first space-borne interferometric radiometer. SMOS will provide brightness temperature data over a wide range of incidence angles at vertical and horizontal polarizations (dual-polarimetric mode) or the full Stokes emission vector (full-polarimetric mode), from which the geophysical parameters will be derived. This paper focuses on the soil moisture retrieval problem using dual or full-polarimetric information. In this case, the brightness temperatures, as measured by the radiometer, depend mainly on five parameters descriptive of the surface under study: vegetation opacity and albedo, and soil surface temperature, roughness and moisture. Some of these parameters can be derived from other sensors or can be inferred from the multi-angular brightness temperatures themselves. Simulation results using the SMOS End-to-end Performance Simulator (SEPS) developed at the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC) will be presented and discussed.

  14. ESA Venus Entry Probe Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vandenBerg, M. L.; Falkner, P.; Phipps, A.; Underwood, J. C.; Lingard, J. S.; Moorhouse, J.; Kraft, S.; Peacock, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Venus Entry Probe is one of ESA s Technology Reference Studies (TRS). The purpose of the Technology Reference Studies is to provide a focus for the development of strategically important technologies that are of likely relevance for future scientific missions. The aim of the Venus Entry Probe TRS is to study approaches for low cost in-situ exploration of Venus and other planetary bodies with a significant atmosphere. In this paper, the mission objectives and an outline of the mission concept of the Venus Entry Probe TRS are presented.

  15. The ESA's Space Trajectory Analysis software suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    The European Space Agency (ESA) initiated in 2005 an internal activity to develop an open source software suite involving university science departments and research institutions all over the world. This project is called the "Space Trajectory Analysis" or STA. This article describes the birth of STA and its present configuration. One of the STA aims is to promote the exchange of technical ideas, and raise knowledge and competence in the areas of applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics at University level. Conceived as a research and education tool to support the analysis phase of a space mission, STA is able to visualize a wide range of space trajectories. These include among others ascent, re-entry, descent and landing trajectories, orbits around planets and moons, interplanetary trajectories, rendezvous trajectories, etc. The article explains that STA project is an original idea of the Technical Directorate of ESA. It was born in August 2005 to provide a framework in astrodynamics research at University level. As research and education software applicable to Academia, a number of Universities support this development by joining ESA in leading the development. ESA and Universities partnership are expressed in the STA Steering Board. Together with ESA, each University has a chair in the board whose tasks are develop, control, promote, maintain, and expand the software suite. The article describes that STA provides calculations in the fields of spacecraft tracking, attitude analysis, coverage and visibility analysis, orbit determination, position and velocity of solar system bodies, etc. STA implements the concept of "space scenario" composed of Solar system bodies, spacecraft, ground stations, pads, etc. It is able to propagate the orbit of a spacecraft where orbital propagators are included. STA is able to compute communication links between objects of a scenario (coverage, line of sight), and to represent the trajectory computations and

  16. Future lunar exploration activities in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdou, B.; Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Koschny, D.; Pradier, A.; di Pippo, S.; Gardini, B.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in the Moon and various recent and coming orbital missions including Smart-1, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter are advancing our understanding. In 2004 the US announced a new Vision for Space Exploration [1], whose objectives are focused towards human missions to the Moon and Mars. The European Space Agency has established similar objectives for Europe, described in [2] and approved at the ESA ministerial council (2009). There is considerable potential for international cooperation in these activities, as formulated in the recently agreed Global Exploration Strategy [3]. Present lunar exploration activities at ESA emphasise the development of European technologies and capabilities, to enable European participation in future international human exploration of the Moon. A major element in this contribution has been identified as a large lunar cargo lander, which would fulfill an ATV-like function, providing logistical support to human activities on the Moon, extending the duration of sorties and the capabilities of human explorers. To meet this ultimate goal, ESA is currently considering various possible development approaches, involving lunar landers of different sizes. Lunar Lander Mission Options A high capacity cargo lander able to deliver consumables, equipment and small infrastructure, in both sortie and outpost mission scenarios, would use a full Ariane 5 launch and is foreseen in the 2020-2025 timeframe. ESA is also considering an intermediate, smaller-scale mission beforehand, to mature the necessary landing technologies, to demonstrate human-related capabilities in preparation of human presence on the Moon and in general to gain experience in landing and operating on the lunar surface. Within this frame, ESA is currently leading several feasibility studies of a small lunar lander mission, also called "MoonNEXT". This mission is foreseen to be to be launched from Kourou with a

  17. "Cosmic Vision": the new ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The outcome of the ESA Council at Ministerial level held in Edinburgh in November 2001 was not as positive as expected for the Agency's Science Programme. It appeared that the money made available would not be sufficient to carry out the Long Term Programme approved by the Science Programme Committee in October 2000, based on financial assumptions approved by the same Committee in Bern in May 1999. The resources granted in Edinburgh taken at their face value meant the cancellation of a mission (e.g. GAIA). At the conclusion of the exercise, following extensive consultations with all its partners, the Executive could propose a revised plan, which not only maintained the missions approved in October 2000, but added the Eddington mission in addition. The new plan, strongly endorsed by the Science Programme Committee on the occasion of its 99th meeting, contains the following missions, listed by production groups: Astrophysics Group 1: XMM-Newton (1999), INTEGRAL (2002). X and Gamma Ray Observatories (studying the 'violent' universe) Group 2: Herschel, exploring the infrared and microwave universe; Planck, to study the cosmic microwave background; Eddington, searching for extra-solar planets and studying the stellar seismology. (The three missions will be launched in the 2007-2008 timeframe.) Group 3: GAIA, the ultimate galaxy mapper (to be launched no later than 2012). Missions will follow in the same group after 2012. Solar System Science: Group 1:Rosetta, a trip to a comet (2003); Mars Express, a Mars orbiter carrying the Beagle2 lander (2003); (Venus Express, a Venus orbiter, would have been in this group.) Group 2: SMART-1, which will demonstrate solar propulsion technology while on its way to the Moon (2003); BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, Solar Orbiter, a mission to take a closer look at the Sun (missions to be launched in 2011-2012). Fundamental Physics missions: (one group only) STEP (2005) the 'equivalence principle' test, SMART2, a technology

  18. Ozone Structure and Variabiligy in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere as Seen by Envisat and ESA Third-Party Mission Limb Profiling Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofieva, V. F.; Tamminen, J.; Hakkarainen, J.; Kyrola, E.; Sofiev, M.; Stiller, G.; Laeng, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Lossow, S.; Weber, M.; Rahpoe, N.; Rozanov, A.; Degenstein, D.; Bourassa, A.; Walker, K. A.; Hubert, D.; van Roozandael, M.; Zehner, C.

    2015-06-01

    In this technical note, we compare the spatio-temporal distributions and variations of the ozone field in the UTLS obtained from the limb instruments participating in the ESA Climate Change Initiative for Ozone (Ozone_cci): MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS on Envisat, OSIRIS on Odin, and ACE-FTS on SCISAT. We study seasonal variations and the influence of Asian Summer Monsoon on UTLS ozone. The observational distributions by Ozone_cci instruments are generally in good agreement. This consistency of the observed patterns allows creating Level 3 datasets and parameters, which can be useful for validation of chemistry climate models.

  19. The European space exploration programme: current status of ESA's plans for Moon and Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Messina, Piero; Vennemann, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    After a large consultation with the scientific and industrial communities in Europe, the Aurora Space Exploration Programme was unanimously approved at the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at ministerial level in Edinburgh in 2001. This marked the start of the programme's preparation phase that was due to finish by the end of 2004. Aurora features technology development robotic and crewed rehearsal missions aimed at preparing a human mission to Mars by 2033. Due to the evolving context, both international and European, ESA has undertaken a review of the goals and approach of its exploration programme. While maintaining the main robotic missions that had been conceived during Aurora, the European Space Exploration Programme that is currently being proposed to the Aurora participating states and other ESA Member States has a reviewed approach and will feature a greater synergy with other ESA programmes. The paper will present the process that led to the revision of ESA's plans in the field of exploration and will give the current status of the programme. PMID:16010757

  20. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Barthelemy, Maud; Manaud, Nicolas; Martinez, Santa; Szumlas, Marek; Vazquez, Jose Luis; Arviset, Christophe; Osuna, Pedro; PSA Development Team

    2013-04-01

    validation and ingestion of the products into the archive. To ensure a common archiving approach for all of ESA's planetary missions as well as to provide a similar data quality and standard for end users, a tool has been developed supporting the instrument teams in syntactically validating their datasets before delivering to the PSA. This tool, and the overall archiving process is being streamlined in line with the re-development of the science ground segment for Rosetta. This will be very important for the efficient handling and release of data during Rosetta's encounter with the comet Churyamov-Gerasimenko. A major focus for the PSA in 2013 will be to establish a PSA User Group (PSA-UG) and host a first working meeting. The PSA-UG is comprised of 6-8 members chosen to ensure an appropriate range of expertise in disciplines important for the PSA. They shall be a major driver for the future development of the PSA and its data content, and will be a focus for the interests of the scientific community. PSA personnel are the ESA representatives on the committee of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), an international collaboration of space agencies with a mission of providing access to scientific data returned from Solar System missions archived at international data centers. Venus Express data are already made available internationally via the 'PDAP' protocol thanks to this collaboration. A key IPDA project for 2013 is the implementation of the emerging PDS4 data standards. The new Standards aim to provide a framework for capturing planetary science data results in international archives based on a homogeneous set of standards that can be extended as needed for international usage. PSA are co-leading this project, using the upcoming BepiColombo mission to develop our first PDS4 data models.

  1. ESA's Earth Observation in Support of Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation Programme and its contribution to Geoscience. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. A special focus will be put on the Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme and focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. In addition the operational Sentinel satellites have a huge potential for Geoscience. Earth Explorers' emphasis is also on learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The process of Earth Explorer mission selection has given the Earth science community an efficient tool for advancing the understanding of Earth as a system.

  2. ESA chairs the International Living With a Star programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    chairing the ILWS steering committee for the first two years. “There is a clear need to study the Sun and its interaction with the Earth” he says, “ and it is too big a job for a single space agency to cope with.” Notes to editors The new International Living With a Star (ILWS) programme builds upon a previous international framework between Europe, Japan, Russia (formerly the Soviet Union), and the United States to study the Sun and its effects on Earth. That framework was the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) programme. The SOHO and Cluster missions were part of ESA’s contribution. For ILWS, the Canadian Space Agency has joined the collaboration. A ‘kick-off’ meeting between the space agencies involved in ILWS was held on 4-6 September 2002 in Washington DC, United States. An international steering committee of representatives from those agencies will now supervise the programme. The committee comprises five space agencies: the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Space Agency (ESA), Japan's Institute for Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (Rosaviacosmos), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). There will be an ILWS Working Group to coordinate special projects. More than 20 space agencies have announced their participation in the first Working Group meeting, scheduled to take place in Nice, France, on 14 -15 April 2003. Contributions from the various space agencies include missions, payloads, subsystems, launch or tracking services, rockets, balloons, and open access to data sources.

  3. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2009-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for spaceborne gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. LISA Pathfinder is currently in the integration and test phase of the development, and is due to be launched on a dedicated launch vehicle in late 2011, with first results on the performance of the system being available approx 6 months later. This poster will describe the mission in detail, give the current status of the spacecraft development, and highlight the future milestones in the integration and test campaign.

  4. Athena Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, D.

    2016-07-01

    Athena has been selected by ESA for its second large mission opportunity of the Cosmic Visions programme, to address the theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Following the submission of a proposal from the community, the technical and programmatic aspects of the mission design were reviewed in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility. The proposed concept was deemed to betechnically feasible, but with potential constraints from cost and schedule. Two parallel industry study contracts have been conducted to explore these conclusions more thoroughly, with the key aim of providing consolidated inputs to a Mission Consolidation Review that was conducted in April-May 2016. This MCR has recommended a baseline design, which allows the agency to solicit proposals for a community provided payload. Key design aspects arising from the studies are described, and the new reference design is summarised.

  5. ESA to unveil its new science programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The science community, European industry, the ESA Executive and cooperating space agencies in Europe and elsewhere have been consulted, and sometimes challenged, to find the best ways to maximise science value for money. The exercise is now over following intensive consultations with ESA's Space Science Advisory Committee (SSAC) and the Member States represented by the Science Programme Committee (SPC). After final SPC approval at the meeting on 22/23 May there will be a new programme and a new implementation plan. The results of this meeting will then be presented to the press on 27 May, in Paris, by the ESA Director of Science, in the presence of the chairmen of the SSAC and SPC. Media representatives wishing to attend the press breakfast are kindly requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations, Fax: +33.(0)1.5369.7690 For more information, please contact: ESA - Communication Department Media Relations Office Tel: +33 (0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33 (0)1.53.69.76.90 ESA's Science Programme Agenda Monday 27 May 2002 - 08:30-10:00 ESA Headquarters, 8/10 rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris 08:30 Registration & breakfast 08:45 Introduction , by Hugo Marée, Science Programme Coordination Office 08:50 Presentation of the new ESA Science Programme, by Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science 09:10 Question &Answer session

  6. Swarm - The European Space Agency's Constellation Mission: Mapping Earth's Magnetic and Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floberghagen, Rune

    2016-07-01

    Launched on 22 November 2013, the three-satellite Swarm constellation is about halfway into its four-year nominal mission. Embarking identical, high accuracy and high spatial as well as temporal resolution instrumentation on all satellites, the mission has ambitious goals reaching from the deep Earth interior (the liquid outer core) all the way out to the solar-terrestrial interaction in the magnetosphere. One may safely state that the mission addresses a diverse range of science issues, and therefore acts as a true discoverer in many fields. Measurements of the magnetic field (magnitude and vector components), the electric field (through ion drift velocity, ion density, ion temperature, electron density, electron temperature and spacecraft potential), the gas density and horizontal winds as well as precise positioning are supported by a range of derived products for the magnetic field, geophysics, aeronomy and space physics communities. Indeed, Swarm is at the forefront of cross-cutting science issues that involve significant parts of the space and earth physics community. In recent data exploitation and science projects we have also seen a high number of coupling studies emerging. This contribution details the status and achievements of the mission in the field of magnetic field, electric field and geospace research. It furthermore discusses the the Agency's further plans, beyond the currently foreseen nominal end of mission in spring 2018. The role of Swarm for space weather research will also be discussed.

  7. Mission to the Public: A Journalist's Experiences with European Astronomers and Space Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzen, D. H.

    January 2004: NASA lands two rovers on Mars. The landings are covered worldwide live by CNN with millions of people watching it. January 2005: ESA lands a probe on Titan. The landing is covered live in the ESOC control room with a few scientists and VIPs on site. The first pictures of the unknown world are presented to the public hours later. June 2006: NASA continues to publish magnificent views of Saturn and its moons and rings taken by the Cassini spacecraft on a daily basis. ESA - having a spacecraft in orbit around Mars - continues to publish new views of the red plant on a biweekly basis. June 2006: The Hubble Space Telescope is fascinating the public worldwide with marvellous pictures almost on a weekly basis. Europe operates the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile, considered the world's most powerful observatory. In 2005, the VLT published as few as six "Hubble class" pictures. These are a few random examples of a lack of proper communication of Europe's space and astronomy activities. The talk will address a few key issues on what's going wrong in Europe: - Why are many scientists so reluctant to communicate their research to the public? - Why isn't public relations work an integral part of any project financed by the European taxpayer? - What are the constraints of a public outreach officer's professional routine? - Is a scientific observation or a scientific paper really more important than a good picture making the front page of newspapers throughout Europe? Europe is doing great scientifically and technologically - but for some reason, this is not communicated properly. Can we change the attitude of scientists and agencies towards public communication?

  8. BEYOND REGULATION TO PROTECTION. THE APPLICATION OF NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE SYSTEMS IN THE SCIENCE MISSION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of National Technical Means (NTM) data and advanced geospatial technologies has an important role in supporting the mission of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA's responsibilities have grown beyond pollution compliance monitoring and enforcement to include t...

  9. Reassessing the Crater Distributions on Ganymede and Callisto: Results from Voyager and Galileo, and an Outlook to ESA's JUICE Mission to Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Roland; Schmedemann, Nico; Neukum, Gerhard; Werner, Stephanie C.; Ivanov, Boris A.; Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Palumbo, Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    Crater distributions and origin of potential impactors on the Galilean satellites has been an issue of controversial debate. In this work, we review the current knowledge of the cratering record on Ganymede and Callisto and present strategies for further studies using images from ESA’s JUICE mission to Jupiter. Crater distributions in densely cratered units on these two satellites show a complex shape between 20 m and 200 km crater diameter, similar to lunar highland distributions implying impacts of members of a collisionally evolved projectile family. Also, the complex shape predominantly indicates production distributions. No evidence for apex-antapex asymmetries in crater frequency was found, therefore the majority of projectiles (a) preferentially impacted from planetocentric orbits, or (b) the satellites were rotating non-synchronously during a time of heavy bombardment. The currently available imaging data are insufficient to investigate in detail significant changes in the shape of crater distributions with time. Clusters of secondary craters are well mappable and excluded from crater counts, lack of sufficient image coverage at high resolution, however, in many cases impedes the identification of source craters. ESA’s future JUICE mission will study Ganymede as the first icy satellite in the outer Solar system from an orbit under stable viewing conditions. Measurements of crater distributions can be carried out based on global geologic mapping at highest spatial resolutions (10s of meters down to 3 m/pxl).

  10. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  11. The New ESA Planetary Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarisi, I.; Rios, C.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Gonzalez, J.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Martinez, S.; Grotheer, E.; Lim, T.; Besse, S.; Heather, D.; Fraga, D.; Barthelemy, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the central repository for all scientific and engineering data returned by ESA's planetary missions, making them accessible to the world-wide scientific community.With the advent of new ESA planetary missions, currently in development Bepi Colombo (Mercury) and ExoMars16 (Mars), and later on ExoMars18 (Mars Rover) and JUICE (Jupiter and moons), the PSA faces the need of supporting new functionalities and requirements.Within this scenario there is a need for a new concept of the PSA, supporting both the evolution of the PDS standard (PDS4), and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications toward a better science exploitation. We introduce the new PSA layout, conceived for better data discovery and retrieval, with special emphasis on GIS technology, interoperability and visualization capabilities.

  12. The ESA earth observation polar platform programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, M.; Readings, C. J.

    1991-08-01

    The overall scenario of ESA earth observation polar platform program is reviewed with particular attention given to instruments currently being considered for flight on the first European polar platforms. The major objectives of the mission include monitoring the earth's environment on various scales; management and monitoring of the earth's resources; improvement of the service provided to the worldwide operational meteorological community, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the earth's crust and interior. The program encompasses four main elements: an ERS-1 follow-on mission (ERS-2), a solid earth gravity mission (Aristoteles), a Meteosat Second Generation, and a series of polar orbit earth observation missions.

  13. Second space Christmas for ESA: Huygens to begin its final journey to Titan/ Media activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-12-01

    At 1.25 billion km from Earth, after a 7-year journey through the Solar system, ESA’s Huygens probe is about to separate from the Cassini orbiter to enter a ballistic trajectory toward Titan, the largest and most mysterious moon of Saturn, in order to dive into its atmosphere on 14 January. This will be the first man-made object to explore in-situ this unique environment, whose chemistry is assumed to be very similar to that of the early Earth just before life began, 3.8 billion years ago. The Cassini-Huygens pair, a joint mission conducted by NASA, ESA and the Italian space agency (ASI), was launched into space on 15 October 1997. With the help of several gravity assist manoeuvres during flybys of Venus, Earth and Jupiter, it took almost 7 years for the spacecraft to reach Saturn. The Cassini orbiter, carrying Huygens on its flank, entered an orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004, and began to investigate the ringed planet and its moons for a mission that will last at least four years. The first distant flyby of Titan took place on 2-3 July 2004. It provided data on Titan's atmosphere which were confirmed by the data obtained during the first close flyby on 26 October 2004 at an altitude of 1174 km. These data were used to validate the entry conditions of the Huygens probe. A second close flyby of Titan by Cassini-Huygens at an altitude of 1200 km is scheduled on 13 December and will provide additional data to further validate the entry conditions of the Huygens probe. On 17 December the orbiter will be placed on a controlled collision course with Titan in order to release Huygens on the proper trajectory, and on 21 December (some dates and times are subject to minor adjustment for operational reasons, except the entry time on 14 January which is know to within an accuracy of under 2 minutes) all systems will be set up for separation and the Huygens timers will be set to wake the probe a few hours before its arrival at Titan. The Huygens probe is due to separate on

  14. Christmas on Mars: be there with ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    The exciting event can be followed at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, on Thursday, 25 December, from 01:30 to 14:00, together with the mission managers, the operation teams, scientists and top ESA management, including ESA’s Director-General Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA’s Director of Science David Southwood and ESA’s Director of Technical and Operational Support Gaele Winters. The highlights of the night will be also webcast over the internet http://mars.esa.int. As well as live streaming of key events, the Mars Express site will have daily news, features, images, videos and more. The ESA TV Service will provide live coverage of operations, from the Operations Control Centre at ESOC. All transmission and satellite details are published online at http://television.esa.int All live transmissions are also carried free-to-air on Astra 2 C at 19 degrees East, transponder 57, horizontal, (DVB-MPEG-2), frequency 10832 MHz, Symbol Rate 22000 MS/sec, FEC 5/6. The service name is ESA Media wishing to attend are asked to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Service: +33 (0)1 53 69 76 90.

  15. ESA Science Archives and associated VO activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arviset, Christophe; Baines, Deborah; Barbarisi, Isa; Castellanos, Javier; Cheek, Neil; Costa, Hugo; Fajersztejn, Nicolas; Gonzalez, Juan; Fernandez, Monica; Laruelo, Andrea; Leon, Ignacio; Ortiz, Inaki; Osuna, Pedro; Salgado, Jesus; Tapiador, Daniel

    ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), near Madrid, Spain, hosts most of ESA space based missions' scientific archives, in planetary (Mars Express, Venus Express, Rosetta, Huygens, Giotto, Smart-1, all in ESA Planetary Science Archive), in astronomy (XMM-Newton, Herschel, ISO, Integral, Exosat, Planck) and in solar physics (Soho). All these science archives are operated by a dedicated Science Archives and Virtual Observatory Team (SAT) at ESAC, enabling common and efficient design, development, operations and maintenance of the archives software systems. This also ensures long term preservation and availability of such science archives, as a sustainable service to the science community. ESA space science data can be accessed through powerful and user friendly user interface, as well as from machine scriptable interface and through VO interfaces. Virtual Observatory activities are also fully part of ESA archiving strategy and ESA is a very ac-tive partner in VO initiatives in Europe through Euro-VO AIDA and EuroPlanet and worldwide through the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) and the IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance).

  16. International Living With a Star - Contributions from the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opgenoorth, H. J.

    The new ILWS initiative aims at the understanding of the governing processes in Solar, heliospheric and Solar-terrrestrial physics, through which the variability of the Sun influences Earth, the human society and human equipment on Earth and in space. Any potentially successful approach to such a global enterprise demands simultaneous observations in all key regions of space - a task which is practically impossible to be carried out by one space agency alone. ESA, the European Space Agency has a number of missions in its present program, which are considered to make major contributions to the ILWS program. ESA also actively seeks for opportunities to support missions of other space agencies with payload, ground-stations or other logistical contributions, which might improve the scientific outcome and level of coordination for missions in the ILWS realm. In particular ESA seeks to identify synergistic effects of missions in the wider scientific realm of ILWS, in order to widen the scope and scientific applicability of the present program. In this presentation the key ESA missions for ILWS will be reviewed, and plans for dedicated ESA contributions to other missions of partner agencies will be described. Opportunites for synergistic missions with other research areas will be pointed out.

  17. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: International collaborations towards transparent data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the central repository for science data returned by all ESA planetary missions. Current holdings include data from Giotto, SMART-1, Cassini-Huygens, Mars Express, Venus Express, and Rosetta. In addition to the basic management and distribution of these data to the community through our own interfaces, ESA has been working very closely with international partners to globalize the archiving standards used and the access to our data. Part of this ongoing effort is channelled through our participation in the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), whose focus is on allowing transparent and interoperable access to data holdings from participating Agencies around the globe. One major focus of this work has been the development of the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) that will allow for the interoperability of archives and sharing of data. This is already used for transparent access to data from Venus Express, and ESA are currently working with ISRO and NASA to provide interoperable access to ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 data through our systems using this protocol. Close interactions are ongoing with NASA's Planetary Data System as the standards used for planetary data archiving evolve, and two of our upcoming missions are to be the first to implement the new 'PDS4' standards in ESA: BepiColombo and ExoMars. Projects have been established within the IPDA framework to guide these implementations to try and ensure interoperability and maximise the usability of the data by the community. BepiColombo and ExoMars are both international missions, in collaboration with JAXA and IKI respectively, and a strong focus has been placed on close interaction and collaboration throughout the development of each archive. For both of these missions there is a requirement to share data between the Agencies prior to public access, as well as providing complete open access globally once the proprietary periods have

  18. ESA's Support To Science Element (STSE): A New Opportunity for the Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Prieto, D.; Herland, E.-A.

    2009-04-01

    In 1998, the document ESA SP-1227: "The Science and Research Elements of ESA's Living Planet Programme", laid out the research objectives for the scientific component of the Living Planet Program. These were formulated around four themes: Earth Interior, Physical Climate, Geosphere/Biosphere and Atmosphere & Marine Environment: Anthropogenic Impact. These themes encompassed the full scope of Earth Science. Although no specific area of Earth Science was prioritised, the document emphasised the need to move towards an integrated Earth System Model, where the role of internationally coordinated scientific programmes and coordination with national programmes and other agencies and organisations were recognised as being a key aspect of the science strategy. In 2006, the EO Science Strategy was updated (ESA/PB-EO(2006)89) under the auspices of the ESA's Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) in wide consultation with the scientific community. The resulting document: "The Changing Earth - New Scientific Challenges for ESA's Living Planet Programme" (ESA/SP-1304) outlines the new scientific direction for the future progress of the ESA Living Planet Programme. In particular, the document set out the 25 major challenges for our understanding of the Earth System with especial focus on those areas of knowledge where satellite data may make a major contribution. Achieving those challenges will require a large international effort involving, novel observation, enhanced data sets, improved models and coordinated research. ESA is contributing to those efforts through its missions (e.g., the ERS1 and 2, ENVISAT, the Meteorological satellites and the coming Earth Explorers and Sentinel series) and exploitation programs. However, in order to further reinforce the ESA support to the scientific community, a dedicated element of the Envelop program was launched in 2008, the Support To Science Element (STSE). STSE aims at providing "scientific support for both future and on

  19. Ulysses - An ESA/NASA cooperative programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, W.; Eaton, D.

    1990-01-01

    Cooperation between ESA and NASA is discussed, noting that the Memorandum of Understanding lays the framework for this relationship, defining the responsibilities of ESA and NASA and providing for appointment of leadership and managers for the project. Members of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and ESA's ESTEC staff have been appointed to leadership positions within the project and ultimate control of the project rests with the Joint Working Group consisting of two project managers and two project scientists, equally representing both organizations. Coordination of time scales and overall mission design is discussed, including launch cooperation, public relations, and funding of scientific investigations such as Ulysses. Practical difficulties of managing an international project are discussed such as differing documentation requirements and communication techniques, and assurance of equality on projects.

  20. ESA airborne campaigns in support of Earth Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Tania; Davidson, Malcolm; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Perrera, Andrea; Bianchi, Remo

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out ground based and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans and atmosphere. ESA has been conducting airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 by deploying a broad range of active and passive instrumentation in both the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such as lidars, limb/nadir sounding interferometers/spectrometers, high-resolution spectral imagers, advanced synthetic aperture radars, altimeters and radiometers. These campaigns take place inside and outside Europe in collaboration with national research organisations in the ESA member states as well as with international organisations harmonising European campaign activities. ESA campaigns address all phases of a spaceborne missions, from the very beginning of the design phase during which exploratory or proof-of-concept campaigns are carried out to the post-launch exploitation phase for calibration and validation. We present four recent campaigns illustrating the objectives and implementation of such campaigns. Wavemill Proof Of Concept, an exploratory campaign to demonstrate feasibility of a future Earth Explorer (EE) mission, took place in October 2011 in the Liverpool Bay area in the UK. The main objectives, successfully achieved, were to test Astrium UKs new airborne X-band SAR instrument capability to obtain high resolution ocean current and topology retrievals. Results showed that new airborne instrument is able to retrieve ocean currents to an accuracy of ± 10 cms-1. The IceSAR2012 campaign was set up to support of ESA's EE Candidate 7,BIOMASS. Its main objective was to document P-band radiometric signatures over ice-sheets, by upgrading ESA's airborne POLARIS P-band radar ice sounder with SAR capability. Campaign

  1. The Euclid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Giuseppe; Laureijs, Rene

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing their signatures on the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of large structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid is optimised for two primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for a launch date in the first half of 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. The Payload Module consists of a 1.2 m three-mirror Korsch type telescope and of two instruments, the visible imager and the near-infrared spectro-photometer, both covering a large common field-of-view enabling to survey more than 35% of the entire sky. The ground segment is broken down into three elements: the Mission Operations, the Science Operations under the responsibility of ESA and the Science Data Centres belonging to the Euclid Consortium. We will describe the overall mission, the mission elements architecture and the current project status.

  2. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Foing, Bernard H.; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernado; Schiemann, Jens

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the abundance, composition and isotopes of lunar volatiles in polar regions, and their associated chemistry. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterise and utilise polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensable partner in the

  3. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensable partner in the exploration missions of the future.

  4. Modeling ESA's TT/C systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassallo, Enrico

    1994-01-01

    After a brief introduction on the need for simulation packages for the analysis and design of satellite communications systems, the software tool developed for the European Space Agency (ESA), its main objectives and the design choices made during the development are presented. A very concise description of the available communications and measurement block follows. The ESA standard Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C) system simulator is then introduced along with a description of the ESA standard modulation and coding schemes. As an example, the simulation of the ranging system which is a non-standard communications block, is described in details. Several examples of TT&C simulations outputs are given and compared with measurement results or theoretical approximations, when available. Finally, future developments like the support of advanced modulation schemes and the dynamic satellite link simulation are presented.

  5. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the Russian led science payload, focusing on developing an characterising the resource opportunities offered at the lunar surface. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. In the frame of a broader future international programme under discussion through the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) future missions are under investigation that would provide access to the lunar surface through international cooperation and human-robotic partnerships.

  6. Operation IceBridge/ESA Collaboration Benefits All

    NASA Video Gallery

    For the second straight year, NASA's Operation IceBridge is collaborating with the European Space Agency's CryoVEx program, flying aircraft low over Arctic sea ice while ESA's CryoSat satellite orb...

  7. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); however, these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM) over East Africa. Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we find substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies are well correlated (R > 0.5) with modeled soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use pixel-wise correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons of seasonal maps and time series to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can inform remote drought monitoring that has traditionally relied on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  8. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Due to interest in the application of simplified techniques used to conduct airborne science missions at NASA's Ames Research Center, a joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Communication links between the 'Spacelab' and a ground based mission operations center were limited consistent with Spacelab plans. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for Spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  9. Overview of ESA life support activities in preparation of future exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Paille, Christel

    2016-07-01

    Since 1987, the European Space Agency has been active in the field of Life Support development. When compare to its international colleagues, it is clear that ESA started activities in the field with a "delay of around 25 years. Due to this situation and to avoid duplication, ESA decided to focus more on long term manned missions and to consider more intensively regenerative technologies as well as the associated risks management ( e.g. physical, chemical and contaminants). Fortunately or not, during the same period, no clear plan of exploration and consequently not specific requirements materialized. This force ESA to keep a broader and generic approach of all technologies. Today with this important catalogue of technologies and know-how, ESA is contemplating the different scenario of manned exploration beyond LEO. In this presentation we review the key scenario of future exploration, and identify the key technologies who loo the more relevant. An more detailed status is presented on the key technologies and their development plan for the future.

  10. STS-46 ESA MS Nicollier conducts IFM on OV-104's waste collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, wearing goggles, face mask, and rubber gloves, reviews inflight maintenance (IFM) checklist procedures before starting waste collection system (WCS) fan separator repair. One of two fan separators used to transfer waster water from the waste management compartment (WMC) to the waste water tank has failed. The suspected accumulation of water in the separator was believed to have occurred during a test dumping of waste water at a lower than normal pressure to evaluate the performance of new nozzles. The WMC is located on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104.

  11. STS-46 ESA MS Nicollier and PLC Hoffman pose on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier (left) and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman pose in front of the onorbit station controls on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The overhead windows W7 and W8 appear above their heads and the aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10 behind them. Hoffman and Nicollier have been training together for a dozen years at JSC. Hoffman was an astronaut candidate in 1978 and Nicollier accompanied a group of trainees in 1980. Note the partially devoured chocolate Space Shuttle floating near the two.

  12. NASA's Deep Space Network and ESA's Tracking Network Collaboration to Enable Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, Sami; Accomazzo, Andrea; Firre, Daniel; Ferri, Paolo; Liebrecht, Phil; Mann, Greg; Morse, Gary; Costrell, Jim; Kurtik, Susan; Hell, Wolfgang; Warhaut, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Planetary missions travel vast distances in the solar system to explore and answer important scientific questions. To return the data containing their discoveries, communications challenges have to be overcome, namely the relatively low transmitter power, typically 20 Watts at X-band, and the one-over-the-square of the distance loss of the received power, among other factors. These missions were enabled only when leading space agencies developed very large communications antennas to communicate with them as well as provide radio-metric navigation tools. NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) and ESA's ESTRACK network are distributed geographically in order to provide global coverage and utilize stations ranging in size from 34 m to 70 m in diameter. With the increasing number of missions and significant loading on networks' capacity, unique requirements during critical events, and long-baseline interferometry navigation techniques, it became obvious that collaboration between the networks was necessary and in the interest of both agencies and the advancement of planetary and space sciences. NASA and ESA established methods for collaboration that include a generic cross-support agreement as well as mission-specific memoranda of understanding. This collaboration also led to the development of international inter-operability standards. As a result of its success, the DSN-ESTRACK cross support approach is serving as a model for other agencies with similar stations and an interest in collaboration. Over recent years, many critical events were supported and some scientific breakthroughs in planetary science were enabled. This paper will review selected examples of the science resulting from this work and the overall benefits for deep space exploration, including lessons learned, from inter-agency collaboration with communications networks.

  13. Hello World: Harnessing social media for the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, E.; Mignone, C.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Homfeld, A.-M.; Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) comet-chasing Rosetta mission was launched in 2004, before social media became a popular tool for mainstream communication. By harnessing a range of platforms for communicating the key messages of this unprecedented space adventure as the spacecraft reached its destination ten years later, a wide range of new audiences were reached and could follow this once-in-a-lifetime mission.

  14. 41 CFR 102-83.110 - When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies required to... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.110 When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies...

  15. 41 CFR 102-83.110 - When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies required to... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.110 When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are Executive agencies...

  16. ESA's satellite communications programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  17. STS-90 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The STS-90 crew patch reflects the dedication of the mission to neuroscience in celebration of the decade of the brain. Earth is revealed through a neuron-shaped window, which symbolizes new perspectives in the understanding of nervous system development, structure and function, both here on Earth and in the microgravity environment of space. The Space Shuttle Columbia is depicted with its open payload bay doors revealing the Spacelab within. An integral component of the mission, the laboratory/science module provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), signifies the strong international involvement in the mission. The seven crew members and two alternate payload specialists, Chiaki Naito-Mukai and Alexander W. Dunlap, are represented by the nine major stars of the constellation Cetus (the whale) in recognition of the International Year of the Ocean. The distant stars illustrate the far reaching implications of the mission science to the many sponsoring agencies, helping prepare for long-duration space flight aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The moon and Mars are depicted to reflect the crew's recognition that those two celestial bodies will be the next great challenges in human exploration of space and represent the key role that life science research will play in supporting such missions.

  18. ESA `Huygens and Mars Express' science highlights - call to press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Almost one year has passed since ESA’s Huygens probe landed on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. Today, a set of new wide-ranging results from the probe’s two-and-a-half hour descent and landing, part of the extraordinary NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moons, is ready for release. At the same time, ESA’s Mars Express mission is continuing its investigations of Mars, painting a new picture of the 'red planet'. This includes the first ever probing below the surface of Mars, new geological clues with implications for the climate, newly-discovered surface and atmospheric features and, above all, traces of the presence of water on this world. These and other exciting findings from just one year of observations and data analysis - in the context of ESA’s overall scientific achievements - will be the focus of a press conference to be held at ESA Headquarters in Paris at 16:00 on 30 November 2005. Media interested in attending are invited to complete the following registration form. Press conference programme Space Science Highlights 2005 From Huygens to Mars Express 30 November 2005, 16:00 hrs Room 137, European Space Agency Headquarters 8-10 Rue Mario-Nikis, F-75738 Paris Cedex, France 15:30 - Registration 16:00 - A Year of European Space Science Successes Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science Programme 16:10 - Highlights of the Huygens Mission Results Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Project Scientist 16:15 - Robin Duttaroy, Co-Investigator, Doppler Wind Experiment, University of Bonn, Germany 16:20 - Marcello Fulchignoni , Principal Investigator, Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument, Université de Paris 7, France 16:25 - John Zarnecki, Principal Investigator, Surface Science Package, Open University, UK 16:30 - François Raulin, Co-Investigator, Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer, Université de Paris 12 - Créteil, France 16:35 - Guy Israel, Principal Investigator, Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser, Service d

  19. NASA/ESA CV-990 Spacelab Simulation (ASSESS 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Androes, G. M.; Reeves, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    To test the validity of the ARC approach to Spacelab, several missions simulating aspects of Spacelab operations have been conducted as part of the ASSESS Program. Each mission was designed to evaluate potential Shuttle/Spacelab concepts in increasing detail. For this mission, emphasis was placed on development and exercise of management techniques planned for Spacelab using management participants from NASA and ESA who have responsibilities for Spacelab 1 which will be launched in 1980.

  20. The ESA Geohazard Exploitation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, Philippe; Laur, Henri; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Pinto, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the world's most significant hazards in terms both of loss of life and damages. In the first decade of the 21st century, earthquakes accounted for 60 percent of fatalities from natural disasters, according to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). To support mitigation activities designed to assess and reduce risks and improve response in emergency situations, satellite EO can be used to provide a broad range of geo-information services. This includes for instance crustal block boundary mapping to better characterize active faults, strain rate mapping to assess how rapidly faults are deforming, soil vulnerability mapping to help estimate how the soil is behaving in reaction to seismic phenomena, geo-information to assess the extent and intensity of the earthquake impact on man-made structures and formulate assumptions on the evolution of the seismic sequence, i.e. where local aftershocks or future main shocks (on nearby faults) are most likely to occur. In May 2012, the European Space Agency and the GEO Secretariat convened the International Forum on Satellite EO for Geohazards now known as the Santorini Conference. The event was the continuation of a series of international workshops such as those organized by the Geohazards Theme of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership. In Santorini the seismic community has set out a vision of the EO contribution to an operational global seismic risk program, which lead to the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) initiative. The initial contribution of ESA to suuport the GSNL was the first Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) system in the framework of Grid Processing On Demand (GPOD), now followed by the Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP). In this presentation, we will describe the contribution of the GEP for exploiting satellite EO for geohazard risk assessment. It is supporting the GEO Supersites and has been further

  1. Lunar Exploration and Science Opportunities in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Schiemann, J.; Patti, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavour. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  2. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Patti, B.; Schiemann, J.; Hufenbach, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  3. 34 CFR 300.2 - Applicability of this part to State and local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... educational agencies (LEAs), educational service agencies (ESAs), and public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA. (iii) Other State agencies...

  4. 34 CFR 300.2 - Applicability of this part to State and local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... educational agencies (LEAs), educational service agencies (ESAs), and public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA. (iii) Other State agencies...

  5. 34 CFR 300.2 - Applicability of this part to State and local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... educational agencies (LEAs), educational service agencies (ESAs), and public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA. (iii) Other State agencies...

  6. 34 CFR 300.2 - Applicability of this part to State and local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... educational agencies (LEAs), educational service agencies (ESAs), and public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA. (iii) Other State agencies...

  7. 34 CFR 300.2 - Applicability of this part to State and local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... educational agencies (LEAs), educational service agencies (ESAs), and public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA. (iii) Other State agencies...

  8. A comparison of the specifications for standard Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) parts used by the National Aeronautics and Space Admininstration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA): Towards common specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Michael John

    1991-03-01

    Results of a study comparing Electric, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) parts used by NASA and ESA are presented. This test is seen as a first step towards the assessment of part equivalency and as a means to identify the principal barriers to common space part specifications. Progress towards internatinal standardization of procurement specifications is encouraged by multinational cooperation in high technology projects and by the need to complete in world markets. ESA and NASA are partners in Space Station Freedom, and more joint ventures can be anticipated for the future. Successful joint ventures require that the parties concerned have confidence in all the component parts involved. Thus, NASA and ESA share a need to establish equivalency in their space level EEE parts.

  9. Research recommendations of the ESA Topical Team on Artificial Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Gilles; Bukley, Angie

    Many experts believe that artificial gravity will be required for an interplanetary mission. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for simplifying operational activities, much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before artificial gravity can be successfully implemented. The European Space Agency (ESA) Topical Team on Artificial Gravity recommended a comprehensive program to determine the gravity threshold required to reverse or prevent the detrimental effects of microgravity and to evaluate the effects of centrifugation on various physiological functions. Part of the required research can be accomplished using animal models on a dedicated centrifuge in low Earth orbit. Studies of human responses to centrifugation could be performed during ambulatory, short- and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight studies. Artificial-gravity scenarios should not be a priori discarded in Moon and Mars mission designs. One major step is to determine the relationship between the artificial gravity dose level, duration, and frequency and the physiological responses of the major body functions affected by spaceflight. Once its regime characteristics are defined and a dose-response curve is established, artificial gravity should serve as the standard against which all other countermeasure candidates are evaluated, first on Earth and then in space.

  10. Low cost test bed tool development for validation of mission control events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montanez, L.; Cervantes, D.; Tatge, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Cassini Program is one of the last large interplanetary spacecraft missions. It is a joint effort between the European Space Agency, the Italian Space Agency and NASA.The U.S. portion of the mission is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The primary mission is to survey the complex Saturnian system and release the ESA-Huygens probe at Titan. The success of the Cassini Mission has been largely due its many simulation test beds and its rigorous test program.

  11. ESA Human rating Requirements:Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, M.; Sgobba, T.

    2012-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) human rating safety requirements are based on heritage requirements of the International Space Station as well as the knowledge and experience derived from European participation on international partnerships. This expertise in conjunction with recommendations derived from past accidents (i.e.: Columbia) and lessons learned have led to the identification of m inimum core safety tech nical requirements for hum an rated space syst ems. These requirements apply to th e crewed space vehicle, integrated space system (i.e.: cre wed vehicle on its launcher) and its interfaces with control centres, la unch pad, etc. In 2009, a first draft was issued. Then, in the summer of 2010, ESA established a working group comprised of more than twenty experts (from disciplines including propulsion, pyrotechnics, structures, avionics, human factors and life support among others) across the Agency to review this draft. This paper provides an overview of ESA "Safety technical re quirements for human rated s pace systems" document, its scope a nd structure, as well as the planned steps for verification of these requirements in term s of achieving the identified safety objectives for crew safety in t erms of a quantitative risk evaluation.

  12. Mir Mission Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Dockings, module additions, configuration changes, crew changes, and major mission events are tracked for Mir missions 17 through 21 (November 1994 through August 1996). The international aspects of these missions are presented, comprising joint missions with ESA and NASA, including three U.S. Space Shuttle dockings. New Mir modules described are Spektr, the Docking Module, and Priroda.

  13. Missions to Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, D. V.; Baines, K. H.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Chassefiere, E.; Chin, G.; Crisp, D.; Esposito, L. W.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Lellouch, E.; Moroz, V. I.; Nagy, A. F.; Owen, T. C.; Oyama, K.-I.; Russell, C. T.; Taylor, F. W.; Young, R. E.

    2002-10-01

    Venus has always been a fascinating objective for planetary studies. At the beginning of the space era Venus became one of the first targets for spacecraft missions. Our neighbour in the solar system and, in size, the twin sister of Earth, Venus was expected to be very similar to our planet. However, the first phase of Venus spacecraft exploration in 1962-1992 by the family of Soviet Venera and Vega spacecraft and US Mariner, Pioneer Venus, and Magellan missions discovered an entirely different, exotic world hidden behind a curtain of dense clouds. These studies gave us a basic knowledge of the conditions on the planet, but generated many more questions concerning the atmospheric composition, chemistry, structure, dynamics, surface-atmosphere interactions, atmospheric and geological evolution, and the plasma environment. Despite all of this exploration by more than 20 spacecraft, the "morning star" still remains a mysterious world. But for more than a decade Venus has been a "forgotten" planet with no new missions featuring in the plans of the world space agencies. Now we are witnessing the revival of interest in this planet: the Venus Orbiter mission is approved in Japan, Venus Express - a European orbiter mission - has successfully passed the selection procedure in ESA, and several Venus Discovery proposals are knocking at the doors of NASA. The paper presents an exciting story of Venus spacecraft exploration, summarizes open scientific problems, and builds a bridge to the future missions.

  14. The SENTINEL-3 Mission: Overview and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Mecklenburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The Sentinel-3 missions will be jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT for the marine products. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products. Sentinel-3A is foreseen to be launched at the beginning of November 2015. The paper will give an overview on the mission, its instruments and objectives, the data products provided, the mechanisms to access the mission's data, and if available first results.

  15. ESA's Integral satellite ready for lift-off from Baikonur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    ESA's INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) satellite, will be launched by a Proton launcher from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on 17 October at 06:41 CEST (Central European Summer Time). The most sensitive gamma-ray observatory ever launched, INTEGRAL is a truly international mission involving all ESA member states plus the USA and Russia. It carries four instruments from teams led by scientists in Italy, France, Germany, Denmark and Spain to gather and analyse gamma-rays, X-rays and visible light from celestial objects. INTEGRAL will give astronomers across the world their clearest views yet of the most extreme environments in the Universe. It will detect radiation from the most violent events far away and from processes that made the Universe inhabitable. Media representatives in Europe can follow the videotransmission of the launch at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands, ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy or ESA/Villafranca (VILSPA) in Spain. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide video news releases and live coverage of the launch between 06:15-07:00 and 08:00-08:30 CEST. Details of the transmission schedule for the various Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int The launch can also be followed live on the internet at www.esa.int/integrallaunch starting at 06:15 hrs.

  16. The Challenges and Opportunities of a Commercial Astronaut Mission to the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirra, C.; Carl, S.

    2002-01-01

    ISS flight opportunities for ESA astronauts are considered as a vital source to meet the objectives (utilisation, operation and political), which Europe has established in participating to the International Space Station programme. Recent internal ESA assessments have demonstrated that, in order to satisfy the objectives drawn in the ESA ISS Exploitation programme, a rate of three flights per year for European Astronauts should be maintained as minimum objective. Since the establishment of a single European Astronaut Corps and having regard of the ISS flight opportunities provided through national space agencies, the current European astronauts flight rate is rather lower than the above three flights per year. In order to improve this situation, in the context of the activation of the ESA ISS Commercialisation programme, the Agency contracted Intospace to develop the conditions for the establishment of ESA astronaut missions with the financial support of both ESA and the private sector or, in future, the latter only. The study led to the definition of a "commercial astronaut", as a member of the European Astronaut Corp that will be assigned the responsibility to perform research and commercial space projects in a given ISS mission scenario. This paper will present the recent outcomes of a detailed study phase, including highlights on possible implementation of a private sector-supported astronaut mission to the ISS.

  17. 41 CFR 102-83.110 - When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.110 When an agency's... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When an agency's mission... give first consideration to central business areas? 102-83.110 Section 102-83.110 Public Contracts...

  18. 41 CFR 102-83.110 - When an agency's mission and program requirements call for the location in an urban area, are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.110 When an agency's... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When an agency's mission... give first consideration to central business areas? 102-83.110 Section 102-83.110 Public Contracts...

  19. Rebuilding NIFL to Meet Future Needs: A New Innovative Agency with a Broader Mission. Discussion Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisman, Forrest P.; Spangenberg, Gail

    2009-01-01

    One major report after another shows that the United States needs a large, innovative, and effective adult education and workforce skills system. It is essential to the national security, economic stability, and democratic way of life. To address this need fully a leadership agency focused on a singular national goal is required, one with a…

  20. Agency Governance and Enforcement: The Influence of Mission on Environmental Decisionmaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    Administrative agencies seeking to impose sanctions for regulatory violations can handle matters internally or through civil or criminal courts. Organizational culture, legal constraints, and political and private actors may influence governance and hence choice of enforcement venue. An enforcement behavior model is constructed and tested…

  1. Astronaut Maurizio Cheli, mission specialist, works with the Tether Optical Phenomenon System (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Astronaut Maurizio Cheli, mission specialist, works with the Tether Optical Phenomenon System (TOPS) on the flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia. Cheli, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), joined four other astronauts and an international payload specialists for 16 days of scientific research in Earth-orbit.

  2. The European Medicines Agency: an overview of its mission, responsibilities, and recent initiatives in cancer drug regulation.

    PubMed

    Pignatti, Francesco; Gravanis, Iordanis; Herold, Ralf; Vamvakas, Spiros; Jonsson, Bertil; Marty, Michel

    2011-08-15

    The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is responsible for the scientific evaluation of medicines developed by pharmaceutical companies for use in the European Union (EU). Since 2005, the agency has become responsible for the approval of all new oncology drugs in the EU. In this article we describe the mission, role, and responsibilities of the EMA, and provide a brief summary of recent initiatives related to cancer drug regulation. The EMA recently published its Road Map to 2015. Over the next 5 years, the agency aims to continue to stimulate drug development in areas of unmet medical needs. Concerning drug safety, one of the priorities over the next few years will be to establish a more proactive approach in ensuring patient safety. This is the result of new EU legislation coming into force in 2012 that will strengthen the way the safety of medicines for human use is monitored in the EU. In terms of its general operation, the agency is committed to increased openness and transparency, and to build on its interactions with stakeholders, including members of academia, health care professionals, patients, and health technology assessment bodies. The agency recently created an oncology working party to expand the current guideline for the development and evaluation of cancer drugs. The guideline focuses on both exploratory and confirmatory studies for different types of agents. The current revision will address a number of topics, including the use of biomarkers as an integrated part of drug development and the use of progression-free survival as a primary endpoint in registration trials. PMID:21844037

  3. ESA activities on satellite laser ranging to non-cooperative objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Funke, Quirin; Jilete, Beatriz; Mancas, Alexandru

    2016-07-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to non-cooperative objects is an emerging technology that can contribute significantly to operational, modelling and mitigation needs set by the space debris population. ESA is conducting various research and development activities in SLR to non-cooperative objects. ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program supports specific activities in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) segment. Research and development activities with operational aspects are run by ESA's Space Debris Office. At ESA SSA/SST comprises detecting, cataloguing and predicting the objects orbiting the Earth, and the derived applications. SST aims at facilitating research and development of sensor and data processing technologies and of related common components while staying complementary with, and in support of, national and multi-national European initiatives. SST promotes standardisation and interoperability of the technology developments. For SLR these goals are implemented through researching, developing, and deploying an expert centre. This centre shall coordinate the contribution of system-external loosely connected SLR sensors, and shall provide back calibration and expert evaluation support to the sensors. The Space Debris Office at ESA is responsible for all aspects related to space debris in the Agency. It is in charge of providing operational support to ESA and third party missions. Currently, the office studies the potential benefits of laser ranging to space debris objects to resolve close approaches to active satellites, to improve re-entry predictions of time and locations, and the more general SLR support during contingency situations. The office studies the determination of attitude and attitude motion of uncooperative objects with special focus on the combination of SLR, light-curve, and radar imaging data. Generating sufficiently precise information to allow for the acquisition of debris objects by a SLR sensor in a stare

  4. NASA/ESA CV-990 Spacelab Simulation (ASSESS 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Cost effective techniques for addressing management and operational activities on Spacelab were identified and analyzed during a ten day NASA-ESA cooperative mission with payload and flight responsibilities handled by the organization assigned for early Spacelabs. Topics discussed include: (1) management concepts and interface relationships; (2) experiment selection; (3) hardware development; (4) payload integration and checkout; (5) selection and training of mission specialists and payload specialists; (6) mission control center/payload operations control center interactions with ground and flight problems; (7) real time interaction during flight between principal investigators and the mission specialist/payload specialist flight crew; and (8) retrieval of scientific data and its analysis.

  5. ESA is now a major player in global space science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-07-01

    * Results from the star-fixing satellite Hipparcos, released this summer to the world's astronomers, give the positions and motions of 118,000 stars a hundred times more accurately than ever before. * Every day the Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, examines 45 cosmic objects on average at many different wavelengths never observable before, giving fresh insights into cosmic history and chemistry. * Invaluable new knowledge of the Sun comes from SOHO, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, which is the first spacecraft able to observe the Sun's deep interior as well as its stormy surface and atmosphere. Besides these missions making present headlines, several other spacecraft are helping to fulfil ESA's scientific objectives. * 2 - * The launch in October 1997 of ESA's probe Huygens, aboard the Cassini spacecraft bound for Saturn, foreshadows a breakthrough in planetary science in 2004. That is when Huygens will carry its scientific instruments into the unique and puzzling atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. * Ulysses, also built in Europe, is exploring hitherto unknown regions of space, after making the first-ever visit to the Sun's polar regions in 1994-95. It will return to the Sun in 2000-2001, to observe the effects of the climax of solar activity due at that time. * The Cluster 2 mission, announced in April 1997 and to be launched in 2000, will explore the Earth's space environment far more throughly than ever before. ESA's decision to replace the four Cluster satellites lost in a launch accident in 1996 ensures that Europe will continue as the leader in solar-terrestrial research in space. * An example of the three unique 58-mirror X-ray telescopes for the XMM mission was unveiled for the press in May 1997. When it goes into orbit in 1999 XMM will make, in seconds, observations of cosmic objects that took hours with previous X-ray astronomy missions. * The Hubble Space Telescope, in which ESA is a partner, continues to deliver the sharpest pictures of the

  6. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Study of the Sun and Interplanetary Medium in Three Dimensions. [space mission planning and interplanetary trajectories by NASA and ESA to better observe the sun and solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, L. A. (Editor); Axford, W. I. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A series of papers are presented from a symposium attended by over 200 European and American scientists to examine the importance of exploring the interplanetary medium and the sun by out-of-the-ecliptic space missions. The likely scientific returns of these missions in the areas of solar, interplanetary, and cosmic ray physics is examined. Theoretical models of the solar wind and its interaction with interplanetary magnetic fields are given.

  7. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  8. Golden legacy from ESA's observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    'milestone number' of 1000 scientific papers was reached. Even now ISO's data archive remains a valuable source of new results. For example, some of the latest papers describe the detection of water in 'protostars', which are stars in the process of being born, and studies of numerous nearby galaxies. "Of course we were confident ISO was going to do very well, but its actual productivity has been far beyond our expectations. The publication rate does not even seem to have peaked yet! We expect many more results," Salama says. Note for editors ISO's data archive contains scientific data from about 30 000 observations. Astronomers from all over the world have downloaded almost eight times the equivalent of the entire scientific archive. As much as 35% of all ISO observations have already been published at least once in prestigious scientific journals. ESA is now preparing to continue its infrared investigation of the Universe. The next generation of infrared space observatories is already in the pipeline. ISO is to be followed by the NASA SIRTF observatory to be launched later this year. Then, in 2007, ESA will follow up the pioneering work of ISO with the Herschel Space Observatory, which will become the largest imaging telescope ever put into space. ISO The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) was launched in 1995 and operated from November that year to May 1998, when it ran out of the coolant needed to keep its detectors working. At the time it was the most sensitive infrared satellite ever launched and made particularly important studies of the dusty regions of the Universe, where visible light telescopes can see nothing. ESA will reopen its examination of the infrared Universe when Herschel is launched in 2007. Herschel Herschel will be the largest space telescope when, in 2007, it is launched on an Ariane-5 rocket, together with ESA’s cosmology mission, Planck. Herschel’s 3.5-metre diameter mirror will collect longwave infrared radiation from some of the coolest and most

  9. Results of the Simulation and Assimilation of Doppler Wind Lidar Observations in Preparation for European Space Agency's Aeolus Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarty, Will

    2011-01-01

    With the launch of the European Space Agency's Aeolus Mission in 2013, direct spaceborne measurements of vertical wind profiles are imminent via Doppler wind lidar technology. Part of the preparedness for such missions is the development of the proper data assimilation methodology for handling such observations. Since no heritage measurements exist in space, the Joint Observing System Simulation Experiment (Joint OSSE) framework has been utilized to generate a realistic proxy dataset as a precursor to flight. These data are being used for the development of the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system utilized at a number of centers through the United States including the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NOAA/NWS/NCEP) as an activity through the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation. An update of this ongoing effort will be presented, including the methodology of proxy data generation, the limitations of the proxy data, the handling of line-of-sight wind measurements within the GSI, and the impact on both analyses and forecasts with the addition of the new data type.

  10. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, james; McNamara, P. W.

    2011-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a dedicated technology demonstration space mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a NASA/ESA collaboration to operate a space-based observatory for gravitational waves in the milli-Hertz band. Although the formal partnership between the agencies was dissolved in the Spring of 2011, both agencies are actively pursuing concepts for LISA-like gravitational wave observatories. These concepts take advantage of the significant technology development efforts that have already been made, especially those of the LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder, which is in the late stages of implementation, will place two test masses in drag-free flight and measure the relative acceleration between them. This measurement will validate a number of technologies that are critical to LISA-like gravitational wave instruments including sensing and control of the test masses, drag-free control laws, microNewton thrusters, and picometer-level laser metrology. We will present the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission and associated activities.

  11. Exploring Cold Trapped Volatiles from Stationary Landers and Mobile Rovers: ESA Activities for Resource Prospecting at the Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Aziz, S.; Houdou, B.

    2015-10-01

    An overview of ESA activities in the area of measuring cold trapped volatiles in-situ, including the PROSPECT package for the Russian Luna-27 mission and the development of mobile platform capabilities that could be applied to future missions.

  12. Marshall Personnel Display Flag Flown During STS-78 Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Launched on June 20, 1996, the STS-78 mission's primary payload was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS), which was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the 17 day space flight, the crew conducted a diverse slate of experiments divided into a mix of life science and microgravity investigations. In a manner very similar to future International Space Station operations, LMS researchers from the United States and their European counterparts shared resources such as crew time and equipment. Five space agencies (NASA/USA, European Space Agency/Europe (ESA), French Space Agency/France, Canadian Space Agency /Canada, and Italian Space Agency/Italy) along with research scientists from 10 countries worked together on the design, development and construction of the LMS. In this photo, LMS mission scientist Patton Downey and LMS mission manager Mark Boudreaux display the flag that was flown for the mission at MSFC.

  13. Space Environment Forecasting with Neutron Monitors: Establishing a novel service for the ESA SSA Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Souvatzoglou, George; Paschalis, Pavlos; Sarlanis, Christos; Dimitroulakos, John; Gerontidou, Maria

    2013-04-01

    High-energy particles released at the Sun during a solar flare or a very energetic coronal mass ejection, result to a significant intensity increase at neutron monitor measurements known as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs). Due to their space weather impact (i.e. risks and failures at communication and navigation systems, spacecraft electronics and operations, space power systems, manned space missions, and commercial aircraft operations) it is crucial to establish a real-time operational system that would be in place to issue reliable and timely GLE Alerts. Currently, the Cosmic Ray group of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens is working towards the establishment of a Neutron Monitor Service that will be made available via the Space Weather Portal operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), under the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Program. To this end, a web interface providing data from multiple Neutron Monitor stations as well as an upgraded GLE Alert will be provided. Both services are now under testing and validation and they will probably enter to an operational phase next year. The core of this Neutron Monitor Service is the GLE Alert software, and therefore, the main goal of this research effort is to upgrade the existing GLE Alert software, to minimize the probability of a false alarm and to enhance the usability of the corresponding results. The ESA Neutron Monitor Service is building upon the infrastructure made available with the implementation of the High-Resolution Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB). In this work the structure of the Neutron Monitor Service for ESA SSA Program and the impact of the novel GLE Alert Service that will be made available to future users via ESA SSA web portal will be presented and further discussed.

  14. Inter-Agency Consultative Group for Space Science (IACG): Handbook of Missions and Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The ACE spacecraft design is based on the Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) built by Johns Hopkins University (JHU) and the Applied Physics Lab (APL) for the AMPTE program. ACE is designed as a spinning spacecraft with its spin axis aligned to the Earth-Sun axis. The ACE launch weight will be approx. 633 kg, including 105 kg of scientific instruments and 184 kg of propellant. Using a Delta-class expendable launch vehicle, ACE will be launched into an L1 libration point (240 R(sub e)) orbit. Telemetry will be 6.7 kbps average, using tape recorder storage with daily readout to DSN. The experiment power requirement is approximately 76 W nominal and 96 W peak. The prime objective of the ACE mission is: (1) to determine accurate elemental and isotropic abundances including solar matter, local interstellar matter and local galactic matter; (2) to study the origin of elements and evolutionary processing in galactic nucleosynthesis, galactic evolution, origin and evolution of the solar system; (3) to study coronal formation and solar-wind acceleration processes; and (4) to study particle acceleration and transport, including coronal shock acceleration, stochastic flare acceleration, interplanetary shock acceleration, and interstellar acceleration and propagation. To accomplish this objective, ACE will perform comprehensive and coordinated determinations of the elemental and isotopic composition of energetic nuclei accelerated on the Sun, in interplanetary space, and from galactic sources. These observations will span five decades in energy, from solar wind to galactic cosmic ray energies, and will cover the element range from H-1 to Zr-40. Comparison of these samples of matter will be used to study the origin and subsequent evolution of both solar system and galactic material by isolating the effects of fundamental processes that include nucleosynthesis, charged and neutral particle separation, bulk plasma acceleration, and the acceleration of suprathermal and high

  15. The ESA Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio Rossi, Angelo; Cecconi, Baptiste; Fraenz, Markus; Hagermann, Axel; Heather, David; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Svedhem, Hakan; Widemann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    ESA has established a Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG), with the task of offering independent advice to ESA's Planetary Science Archive (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). The PSA-UG is an official and independent body that continuously evaluates services and tools provided by the PSA to the community of planetary data scientific users. The group has been tasked with the following top level objectives: a) Advise ESA on future development of the PSA. b) Act as a focus for the interests of the scientific community. c) Act as an advocate for the PSA. d) Monitor the PSA activities. Based on this, the PSA-UG will report through the official ESA channels. Disciplines and subjects represented by PSA-UG members include: Remote Sensing of both Atmosphere and Solid Surfaces, Magnetospheres, Plasmas, Radio Science and Auxilliary data. The composition of the group covers ESA missions populating the PSA both now and in the near future. The first members of the PSA-UG were selected in 2013 and will serve for 3 years, until 2016. The PSA-UG will address the community through workshops, conferences and the internet. Written recommendations will be made to the PSA coordinator, and an annual report on PSA and the PSA-UG activities will be sent to the Solar System Exploration Working Group (SSEWG). Any member of the community and planetary data user can get in touch with individual members of the PSA-UG or with the group as a whole via the contacts provided on the official PSA-UG web-page: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa/psa-ug. The PSA is accessible via: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa References: Heather, D., Barthelemy, M., Manaud, N., Martinez, S., Szumlas, M., Vazquez, J. L., Osuna, P. and the PSA Development Team (2013) ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status, Activities and Plans. EuroPlanet Sci. Congr. #EPSC2013-626

  16. SNAP (Sentinel Application Platform) and the ESA Sentinel 3 Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhlke, Marco; Fomferra, Norman; Brockmann, Carsten; Peters, Marco; Veci, Luis; Malik, Julien; Regner, Peter

    2015-12-01

    ESA is developing three new free open source Toolboxes for the scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 missions. The Toolboxes are based on a common software platform, namely the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). SNAP is an evolution of the proven ESA BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current BEAM and NEST functionality including multi-mission support for SAR and optical missions to support ESA and third party missions for years to come. The Sentinel-3 Toolbox includes generic function for visualisation and analysis of Sentinel-3 OLCI and SLSTR Level 1 and Level 2 data, as well as specific processing tools such as cloud screening, water constituent retrieval and SST retrieval. The Toolbox will put emphasis on access to remote in-situ databases such as Felyx or MERMAID, and exploitation of the data-uncertainty information which is included in the Sentinel-3 data products. New image classification, segmentation and filtering methods, as well as interoperability with the ORFEO Toolbox and the GDAL libraries will be additional new tools. New challenges stemming from Sentinel-3 sensors, such as raster data in different resolutions within a single dataset, will be supported gracefully. The development of SNAP and the Sentinel Toolboxes is funded through the “Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM)” programme, a new programme element of ESA’s fourth period of the Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017).

  17. AIDA: The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Cheng, A. F.; Reed, C.; Ulamec, S.; Biele, J.; Abell, P.; Landis, R.

    2013-09-01

    The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission, a joint effort of ESA, JHU/APL, NASA, OCA, and DLR, is the first demonstration of asteroid deflection and assessment via kinetic impact. AIDA consists of two independent but mutually supporting mission elements, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor and the other is the characterization spacecraft. These two missions are, respectively, JHU/APL's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the European Space Agency's Asteroid Investigation Mission (AIM) missions. As in the separate DART and AIM studies, the target of this mission is the binary asteroid [65803] Didymos in October, 2022. For a successful joint mission, one spacecraft, DART, would impact the secondary of the Didymos system while AIM would observe and measure any change in the relative orbit. AIM will be the first probe to characterise a binary asteroid, especially from the dynamical point of view, but also considering its interior and subsurface composition. The mission concept focuses on the monitoring aspects i.e., the capability to determine in-situ the key physical properties of a binary asteroid playing a role in the system's dynamic behavior. DART will be the first ever space mission to deflect the trajectory of an asteroid in a measurable way.- It is expected that the deflection can be measured as a change in the relative orbit period with a precision better than 10%. The joint AIDA mission will return vital data to determine the momentum transfer efficiency of the kinetic impact [1,2].

  18. ESA situational awareness of space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Keil, Ralf; Kraft, Stefan; Lupi, Adriano

    2016-07-01

    ESA SSA Period 2 started at the beginning of 2013 and will last until the end of 2016. For the Space Weather Segment, transition to Period 2 introduced an increasing amount of development of new space weather service capability in addition to networking existing European assets. This transition was started already towards the end of SSA Period 1 with the initiation of the SSA Space Weather Segment architecture definition studies and activities enhancing existing space weather assets. The objective of Period 2 has been to initiate SWE space segment developments in the form of hosted payload missions and further expand the federated service network. A strong focus has been placed on demonstration and testing of European capabilities in the range of SWE service domains with a view to establishing core products which can form the basis of SWE service provision during SSA Period 3. This focus has been particularly addressed in the SSA Expert Service Centre (ESC) Definition and Development activity that was started in September 2015. This presentation will cover the current status of the SSA SWE Segment and the achievements during SSA Programme Periods 1 and 2. Particular attention is given to the federated approach that allow building the end user services on the best European expertise. The presentation will also outline the plans for the Space Weather capability development in the framework of the ESA SSA Programme in 2017-2020.

  19. Giotto—The mission operations system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, David E. B.

    On 2 July 1985, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched an interplanetary probe to encounter Halley's Comet on the night of 13/14 March 1986 at a distance of 0.98 AU from Earth. The mission to Halley's Comet was the Agency's first venture into deep space. The tracking stations necessary to support such a mission were not directly available to ESA at the initiation of the GIOTTO project although facilities operated by NASA's deep space network were later made available for certain phases of the mission, together with the 30-m Weilheim antenna of the DFVLR. ESA's European Space Operations Centre, ESOC therefore developed the new deep space tracking stations especially for support of the GIOTTO mission. One of these stations, the 15-m antenna facility at Carnarvon, West Australia, was designed and installed by ESA as a dedicated S-band and X-band tracking, telemetry and command station. The second station at Parkes, New South Wales, Australia, a 64-m radio telescope owned by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) was modified to provide X-band telemetry reception using cryogenic MASER low-noise amplifiers. This station operated by CSIRO with assistance from a ESA engineering and operations team, provided support to the GIOTTO mission for reception of the 46 kbs high speed telemetry format which is vital to success of the GIOTTO mission at time of Cometary Encounter. Additionally, the DFVLR Weilheim station was modified to include the newly developed ESOC deep space tracking system which was also installed at the Carnarvon Station. The paper discusses in some detail the network of tracking stations which provided the Control Centre at ESOC in Darmstadt, F.R.G. with the data which was vital to the success of the mission. Because the launch date of GIOTTO was a date which could not be rescheduled, the design installation, integration and testing of the complete GIOTTO mission operations system was an extremely time critical activity

  20. Scout Missions and Future Exploration of the Martian Poles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Program, (MEP) complemented by missions in operation by ESA and the Japanese space agency, is revolutionizing the study of Mars as a planet and potential home for life, past, present or future. Within the MEP there are a number of significant opportunities for the study of the Mars polar regions--from the ongoing Mars Global Surveyor and Odyssey missions, the upcoming Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the soon-to-be-defined Mars Science Laboratory. As an internal complement to the Mars missions being developed by JPL for the MEP, Mars Scout investigations can provide substantial future opportunities to study the polar regions of Mars. These relatively small, PI-led missions provide substantial flexibility within the overall MEP, providing the capability to respond to scientific targets of opportunity in Mars science, with special-interest small missions, or to be developed to respond to instrument opportunities for missions developed by international partners.

  1. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  2. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  3. ESA's experts are ready for a storm of comet dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    's eastern horizon. Nevertheless, observers in Europe watching out between midnight and dawn, on 17 and 18 November, may see unusual numbers of meteors. The best view will be from east Asia, where Leo will be high in the night sky at the time of the expected maximum. ESA has joined with other space agencies in sponsoring a Canadian expedition to Mongolia to observe the Leonids with video cameras equipped with image intensifiers. The same Canadian intiative will use radars in northern Australia to detect the meteors. Real-time information on the intensity and duration of the dust storm will help spacecraft operators to judge when the risk has passed. Next year's appearance of the Leonids, in November 1999, will be best seen from Europe, and it could be bigger than this year's event. For the same reason, the risk posed by the Leonids to spacecraft will recur at that time. ESA scientists will be rehearsing this year for ground-based observations of the Leonids next year, from southern Spain. Historical note on dust damage ESA has brutal experience of cosmic dust storms. In March 1986, its Giotto spacecraft flew deep into the dusty head of Halley's Comet, where it obtained amazing pictures of the nucleus. A dust particle no bigger than a grain of rice slammed into the spacecraft at 68 kilometres per second with the force of a hand grenade, and set it wobbling. A sand-blast of smaller grains, recorded as a continous drumbeat by dust detectors on Giotto, disabled the camera and caused other damage. Nevertheless the ESA operations team recovered control of the spacecraft and even managed to fly Giotto on an extended mission that took it to Comet Grigg-Skjellerup six years later. Controllers were less lucky in August 1993 when a dust grain from Comet Swift-Tuttle, in the Perseid meteor stream, was probably to blame for knocking out ESA's Olympus telecommunications satellite after four years of operation. Although it remained intact, Olympus lost so much thruster fuel in trying to

  4. START Analysis for ESAS Capability Needs Prioritization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, William; Mrozinski, Joe; Hua, Hook; Merida, Sofia; Shelton, Kacie; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Weisbin, Charles R.; Derleth, Jason

    2006-01-01

    START is a tool to optimize research and development primarily for NASA missions. It was developed within the Strategic Systems Technology Program Office, a division of the Office of the Chief Technologist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. START is capable of quantifying and comparing the risks, costs, and potential returns of technologies that are candidates for funding. START can be enormously helpful both in selecting technologies for development -- within the constraints of budget, schedule, and other resources -- and in monitoring their progress. START's methods are applicable to everything from individual tasks to multiple projects comprising entire programs of investigation. They can address virtually any technology assessment and capability prioritization issue. In this report, START is used to analyze the capability needs using data from NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS).

  5. Mission impossible? - Government Agencies And Public Relations For Nuclear Waste Disposal In Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Landsmann, B.; Brauer, V.

    2007-07-01

    Analyzing the opinion of European Union citizens on the management of radioactive waste a survey of 2005 shows that European citizens are almost unanimous in the need to set up a national strategy for high-level radioactive waste disposal without any delay. While 45% of respondents consider that deep underground disposal represents the most appropriate solution for long-term management of highly radioactive waste, 38% disagree. In Germany, the divergence of opinion in this respect is very distinctive and it shows that, although experts believe that selected sites represent the best solution, this information does not yet seem to have reached the public. The reason therefore is both the lack of interesting and comprehensible information of issues related to nuclear waste disposal and negative media reporting always coupled with the negative public opinion about atomic energy in Germany. In Germany the siting, construction, and operation of a repository for radioactive waste is a national task. The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) as a government agency is a praxis oriented science institution and works on all geo-scientific and geotechnical issues in the German repository projects. According to its guidance BGR feels responsible for the future generations and is acting as a neutral and anticipatory partner for ministries and public authorities as well as a partner for industry, society and scientific bodies. BGR therefore is able to accomplish an essential contribution for the creation of public confidence for radioactive waste disposal due to precise public relations strategies. Sending the following messages is BGR's communication goal: - Radioactive waste can safely be disposed of in deep geological formations; - BGR is capable to handle this duty and delivers reliable results. Thereby, the BGR is in particular interested in passing on the information about nuclear waste disposal in a current and comprehensible way as well as

  6. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  7. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James

    2016-04-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. Last year, PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of

  8. Outer Planet Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, James; Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J.

    2008-09-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEm and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn (TSSM) and Europa/Jupiter Missions (EJSM). We provide an update on the background, organization and schedule for these two mission studies.

  9. Outer Planet Flagship Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J.; Cutts, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEM and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn and Europa/Jupiter Missions. We provide the background, organization and schedule that are presently envisaged for these two mission studies.

  10. Outer Planets Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J. P.; Cutts, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEm and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn (TSSM) and Europa/Jupiter Missions (EJSM). We provide an update on the background, organization and schedule for these two mission studies.

  11. Views of the mission control center during STS-9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A group of payloads operation flight controllers follows early progress of the Spacelab 1 mission. Standing behind the row of consoles are European Space Agency's (ESA) Director General Erik Quistgaard and NASA Headquarters Dr. Michael J. Wiskerchen (44919); After opening of Spacelab in the cargo bay of Columbia, these flight controllers in the payloads operations control center (POCC) at JSC discuss agenda of experiments. Quistgaard, center, ESA's Director General, talks to ESA's Mel Brooks, left, and NASA headquarters Wiskerchen (44920); Flight controllers on duty in the POCC at JSC monitor day 1 activity aboard the Spacelab module. Behind them is a banner representing the West German state of Baden-Wurtenbug from which payload specialist Ulf Merbold hails (44921).

  12. The ESA Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A. P.; Cecconi, B.; Fraenz, M.; Hagermann, A.; Heather, D.; Rosenblatt, P.; Svedhem, H.; Widemann, T.

    2014-04-01

    ESA has established a Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG), with the task of offering independent advice to ESA's Planetary Science Archive (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). The PSA-UG is an official and independent body that continuously evaluates services and tools provided by the PSA to the community of planetary data scientific users. The group has been tasked with the following top level objectives: a) Advise ESA on future development of the PSA. b) Act as a focus for the interests of the scientific community. c) Act as an advocate for the PSA. d) Monitor the PSA activities. Based on this, the PSA-UG will report through the official ESA channels. Disciplines and subjects represented by PSA-UG members include: Remote Sensing of both Atmosphere and Solid Surfaces, Magnetospheres, Plasmas, Radio Science and Auxilliary data. The composition of the group covers ESA missions populating the PSA both now and in the near future. The first members of the PSA-UG were selected in 2013 and will serve for 3 years, until 2016. The PSA-UG will address the community through workshops, conferences and the internet. Written recommendations will be made to the PSA coordinator, and an annual report on PSA and the PSA-UG activities will be sent to the Solar System Exploration Working Group (SSEWG). Any member of the community and planetary data user can get in touch with individual members of the PSA-UG or with the group as a whole via the contacts provided on the official PSA-UG web-page: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa/psa-ug The PSA is accessible via: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa

  13. The ExoMars 2016 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Håkan; Vago, Jorge; de Groot, Rolf

    2015-11-01

    The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency (ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. It consists of the ExoMars 2016 mission with the Trace Gas Orbiter, TGO, and the Entry Descent and Landing Demonstrator, Schiaparelli, and the Exomars 2018 mission which carries a lander and a rover.The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments. These are: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector for search of subsurface hydrogen. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and the Schiaparelli Lander demonstrator and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the launcher and the other two TGO instruments.After the arrival of the ExoMars 2018 mission at the surface of Mars, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and lander through its UHF communication system. The 2016 mission will be launched by a Russian Proton rocket from Baikonur in January 2016 and will arrive at Mars in October the same year. This presentation will cover a description of the 2016 mission, including the spacecraft, its payload and science and the related plans for scientific operations and measurements.

  14. “Will the real ESA please stand up?” [Column

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Entomological Society of America, the largest association of insect scientists in the world, is known by the acronym “ESA.” However, there are many other associations, agencies, companies, concepts and laws which share the ESA moniker. This eye-opening and humorous column sets out a few for th...

  15. Cost Considerations in Database Selection: A Comparison of DIALOG and ESA/IRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Robert F.

    1984-01-01

    Of 25 databases available on both DIALOG and European Space Agency's Information Retrieval Service (ESA/IRS), five are less expensive on DIALOG by three price factors (online connect charges, online displays of citations, offline prints); five are less expensive on ESA/IRS; remaining 15 represent mixed bag (connect charges offset citation…

  16. ESA joins forces with Japan on new infrared sky surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    analysis. This second phase will end with the depletion of the liquid helium needed to cool down the spacecraft telescope and its instruments to only a few degrees above absolute zero. ASTRO-F will then start its third operations phase and continue to make observations of selected celestial targets with its infrared camera only, in a few specific infrared wavelengths. ESA’s involvement: Only two decades have passed since the birth of space-based infrared astronomy; since then, each decade has been marked by the launch of innovative infrared satellites that have revolutionised our very perception of the cosmos. In fact, infrared satellites make possible the detection of cool objects, including planetary systems, interstellar dust and gas, or distant galaxies, all of which are most difficult to study in the visible part of the light spectrum. With infrared astronomy, it is also possible to study the birth of stars and galaxies, the ‘creation’ energy of which peaks in the infrared range. The European Space Agency and Europe have a strong tradition in infrared astronomy, which is now being continued by the participation of the UK, the Netherlands and ESA in ASTRO-F. ESA is providing network support through its ground station in Kiruna (Sweden) for a few passes per day. ESA is also providing expertise and support for the sky-survey data processing. This includes ‘pointing reconstruction’ - which means measuring exactly where the observed objects are in the sky, to help accelerate the production of sky catalogues and ultimately produce a census of the infrared universe. In return, ESA has obtained ten percent of the observing opportunities during the second and third operational phases of the ASTRO-F mission, which is being allocated to European astronomers to perform their proposed observations. “The cooperation offered to ESA by Japan in ASTRO-F will help keep up momentum for European astronomers as they build on their past work with ISO, and look forward to the

  17. ESA on RAINEWS24: A Case Study of Television Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.

    2005-12-01

    In May 2000, ESRIN, the Italian establishment of the European Space Agency (ESA), started a collaboration with the television channel Rainews24. Rainews24 is the "allnews" channel of Italian public television (RAI) and is now about 10 years old. It transmits 24 hours a day and is the most watched all-news satellite channel in Italy. Each Thursday an ESA representative (Stefano Sandrelli) is interviewed by a professional RAI journalist in a 5-6 minute long slot that follows the 5 pm news bulletin. The broadcast is repeated late at night or in the early hours of Thursday and Friday. Interviews are strictly linked to the weekly news and are prepared on the morning of the same day by the ESA representative in collaboration with a RAI journalist. The subject is chosen from the most topical news items of the week: video, images and animations are provided by the ESA television service and by press agencies (Reuters etc.). The interviews are largely informal and resemble a dialogue rather than an academic discussion "from space". Even though they focus on ESA activities, they are not advertisements: space science and research is dealt with as a human activity, so both the positive and negative aspects of space exploration and exploitation may emerge. Although this outreach activity began as an experiment, the ESA interviews have become a fixed feature. As a result of five years of uninterrupted collaboration, over 200 interviews have been recorded, with about 30% of the interviews dedicated to pure astronomy. A welcome positive feature is that the interviews are seen by Rainews24 as an open source of daily news.

  18. Strengthening the Security of ESA Ground Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flentge, Felix; Eggleston, James; Garcia Mateos, Marc

    2013-08-01

    A common approach to address information security has been implemented in ESA's Mission Operations (MOI) Infrastructure during the last years. This paper reports on the specific challenges to the Data Systems domain within the MOI and how security can be properly managed with an Information Security Management System (ISMS) according to ISO 27001. Results of an initial security risk assessment are reported and the different types of security controls that are being implemented in order to reduce the risks are briefly described.

  19. Emerging Organizational Patterns of Educational Service Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harken, Dennis

    This paper discusses intergovernmental relationships between education service agencies (ESAs) in Pennsylvania and the agencies they serve, namely, the state department of education and local school districts. Some suggestions made are that ESA policies retain flexibility and that local control be retained in ESA programs, for example, through…

  20. Successful communications test for ESA's Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-10-01

    , it was the Stanford dish's turn to listen, as Mars Express had been programmed to turn MELACOM back towards Earth and begin transmitting. A faint but clear signal was heard proving MELACOM was ready to talk to Beagle 2. A way to overcome the under-performance of the spacecraft's power systems has been found. This was due to some intensive and creative thinking by ESA engineers and the team from Astrium Toulouse, led by Mars Express Project Manager Rudi Schmidt. Although only up to 70% of the spacecraft's expected power is available, all of its instruments can be switched on without any restrictions for 85% of the time. The remaining 15% of the time, some compromises need to be made, including optimising the power dissipation within the spacecraft subsystems. Most importantly, power will be saved by tilting the spacecraft to gain heating from the Sun. On its bottom surface the spacecraft has a silvered ring that attached the spacecraft to its rocket during launch. It has been found that if sunlight falls on the ring, it will conduct some heat inside Mars Express, allowing some of the heaters to be turned off thus saving electricity. The instruments can then use this extra power. "In the current situation, I am confident that we can achieve all mission goals." says Schmidt. The Mars Express team is now preparing for a series of Mars orbit insertion and Beagle 2 landing simulations to take place at ESOC during October and November. Meanwhile, Mars Express is safely continuing its journey to Mars, getting closer every day to the time of arrival, due in late December this year.

  1. A Summary of the Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, Docking, and Undocking (RPODU) Lessons Learned from the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) Demonstration System Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Carpenter, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) Technical Discipline Team (TDT) sponsored Dr. J. Russell Carpenter, a Navigation and Rendezvous Subject Matter Expert (SME) from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), to provide support to the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) rendezvous and docking flight test that was conducted in 2007. When that DARPA OE mission was completed, Mr. Neil Dennehy, NASA Technical Fellow for GN&C, requested Dr. Carpenter document his findings (lessons learned) and recommendations for future rendezvous missions resulting from his OE support experience. This report captures lessons specifically from anomalies that occurred during one of OE's unmated operations.

  2. Rosetta Mission's "7 Hours of Terror" and Philae's Descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Philip

    2015-09-01

    In November 2014 the Rosetta mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko made the headlines when its Philae lander completed a successful unpowered descent onto the surface of the comet nucleus after "7 hours of terror" for the mission scientists. 67P's irregular shape and rotation made this task even more challenging. Philae fell almost radially towards 67P, as shown in an animation produced by the European Space Agency (ESA) prior to the event. Below, we investigate whether it is possible to model the spacecraft's descent time and impact speed using concepts taught in an introductory physics course.

  3. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  4. The first Spacelab payload - A joint NASA/ESA venture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R.; Pace, R.; Collet, J.; Sanfourche, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Planning for the 1980 qualification flight of Spacelab, which will involve a long module and one pallet, is discussed. The mission will employ two payload specialists, one sponsored by NASA and the other by ESA. Management of the Spacelab mission functions, including definition and execution of the on-board experiments, development of the experimental hardware and training of the payload specialists, is considered; studies proposed in the areas of atmospheric physics, space plasma physics, solar physics, earth observations, astronomy, astrophysics, life sciences and material sciences are reviewed. Analyses of the Spacelab environment and the Spacelab-to-orbiter and Spacelab-to-experiment interactions are also planned.

  5. The APIES microsatellite mission to explore the asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, P.; Santandrea, S.

    2004-11-01

    APIES (Asteroid Population Investigation &Exploration Swarm) is a mission developed by EADS Astrium in response to a European Space Agency (ESA) Call for Ideas for "swarm" missions, based on the utilisation of a large number of spacecraft working cooperatively to achieve the mission objectives. The APIES baseline concept is centred on a "swarm" of 19 BElt Explorer (BEE) identical microsatellites, weighting less than 45 kg each, including their scientific payload, visiting over 100 Main Belt asteroids in multiple flybys. The BEEs are carried to the asteroid belt by a Hub and Interplanetary VEhicle (HIVE), a conventional spacecraft launched with a Soyuz-Fregat rocket, using solar electric propulsion for the transfer to the asteroid belt and acting as communication hub and control centre for the mission after the swarm deployment. Using the latest advances in systems miniaturization, propulsion, onboard autonomy and communications, the APIES mission can achieve its ambitious goal within the framework of a standard ESA mission, representing a novel mission concept example, whose feasibility is essentially linked to the use of microsatellite technology, enabling the achievement of science objectives unattainable with conventional spacecraft.

  6. The Space Shuttle Columbia clears the tower to begin the mission. The liftoff occurred on schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 LAUNCH VIEW --- The Space Shuttle Columbia clears the tower to begin the mission. The liftoff occurred on schedule at 3:18:00 p.m. (EST), February 22, 1996. Visible at left is the White Room on the orbiter access arm through which the flight crew had entered the orbiter. Onboard Columbia for the scheduled two-week mission were astronauts Andrew M. Allen, commander; Scott J. Horowitz, pilot; Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, payload commander; and astronauts Maurizio Cheli, Jeffrey A. Hoffman and Claude Nicollier, along with payload specialist Umberto Guidioni. Cheli and Nicollier represent the European Space Agency (ESA), while Guidioni represents the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

  7. Selecting a landing site for the ExoMars 2018 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vago, J. L.; Lorenzoni, L.; Calantropio, F.; Zashchirinskiy, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) and Roscosmos ExoMars 2018 joint mission is planned to deliver a rover and a surface platform to the surface of Mars. The rover's payloads are designed to search for signs of life; those of the surface platform are to conduct environmental and geophysical measurements. A necessary condition for meeting these objectives is to land safely at a scientifically appropriate location. This article describes the procedure followed by the two agencies to select a suitable landing site for the mission.

  8. The Life Sciences Programme of the European Space Agency, and opportunities for radiation biology experiments.

    PubMed

    Oser, H

    1984-01-01

    With the advent of Europe's commitment to contribute the European Space Agency (ESA) to the NASA Space Transportation System (STS) by means of the Spacelab programme, a new area for research opportunities on Life Sciences has been created for the European scientific community. Although considered as a young and new discipline, the goals of Life Sciences research in space had soon been defined by the ESA advising Life Sciences Working Group in the beginning of 1977. The programme proposals of the various subdisciplines concentrated on the advantageous use of the microgravity environment, to study in more depth the gravity relevance of biological systems. It included, however, also the use of other factors during space flight which cannot be reproduced or adequately simulated on the ground: cosmic radiation in its total spectrum, particularly HZE particles, solar and UV radiation, vacuum, and the combination of radiation and weightlessness, etc. On this basis, call for proposals in the various subdisciplines resulted in experiments also in the field of radiation biology which were flown on the Spacelab 1 mission and which were selected for later missions. In particular, ESA is providing the science community with mission opportunities on Spacelab, either European or International, with platforms to be launched by STS, and with so called multi-user facilities (e.g. Biorack). Typically, the experiments will be the responsibility of the scientists, the integration and mission phase the responsibility of ESA. Both mission definition and experiment selection rests with the ultimate decision of the responsible ESA Programme Board. A further description of missions envisioned, the Spacelab facility, platforms, multi-user facilities and areas of research applicable to radiobiology will be given. ESA's continuing interaction with the scientific community through the Life Sciences Working Group, and the advice on future programmes will be stressed as a vital factor

  9. ESA Sea Level Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larnicol, Gilles; Cazenave, Anny; Faugere, Yannice; Ablain, Michael; Johannessen, Johnny; Stammer, Detlef; Timms, Gary; Knudsen, Per; Cipollini, Paolo; Roca, Monica; Rudenko, Sergei; Fernandes, Joana; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Guinle, Thierry; Benveniste, Jerome

    2013-04-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. As the ocean warms in response to global warming, sea waters expand and, as a result, sea level rises. When mountain glaciers melt in response to increasing air temperature, sea level rises because more freshwater glacial runoff discharges into the oceans. Similarly, ice mass loss from the ice sheets causes sea-level rise. Therefore, understanding the sea level variability and changes implies in addition to the understanding of the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere, an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales. That is why Sea Level is one of the variables selected in the frame of the ESA Climate change Initiative (CCI) program initiated by ESA in July 2010. In overall, this program aims to provide an adequate, comprehensive, and timely response to the extremely challenging set of requirements for highly stable, long-term satellite-based products for climate, that have been addressed to Space Agencies via the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). In order to achieve this global objective, the specific objectives of the sea level CCI project are: to involve the climate research community to collect their needs and feedbacks on product quality, to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate a climate time series (so called SL ECV products), and to provide a complete specification of the production system. After two of projects the first two objectives have been completed. Hereafter, we aim to provide an overview and the current status of the Sea Level project of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) that has started in july 2010. The main objective of this project is to produce and validate the Sea Level Essential Climate Variable (ECV) product. Two years after the project kick-off, the 20 Years of Progress in Radar Altimetry Symposium was

  10. Titan Saturn System Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reh, Kim R.

    2009-01-01

    Titan is a high priority for exploration, as recommended by NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Roadmap. NASA's 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program Themes. Recent revolutionary Cassini-Huygens discoveries have dramatically escalated interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer solar system. This study demonstrates that an exciting Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) that explores two worlds of intense astrobiological interest can be initiated now as a single NASA/ESA collaboration.

  11. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  12. Hello, world: Harnessing social media for the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Emily; Mignone, Claudia; O'Flaherty, Karen; Homfeld, Anne-Mareike; Bauer, Markus; McCaughrean, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) comet-chasing Rosetta mission was launched in 2004, before social media became a popular tool for mainstream communication. By harnessing a range of platforms for communicating the key messages of this unprecedented mission as it reached its destination ten years later, new audiences were reached and a global impact was achieved. Rosetta-specific social media accounts - @ESA_Rosetta on Twitter, the Rosetta Mission Facebook page and the rosettamission Instagram account - were developed during 2013/14 and used alongside the traditional reporting line of the main ESA website and the Rosetta blog to build awareness about the mission. Coordinated with ESA's existing social media channels (Flickr, YouTube, G+, Twitter, Facebook and Livestream) and with the support of ESA's country desks and Rosetta partner agency accounts (including @philae2014), information could be shared in a number of European languages, ensuring a wide reach across Europe - and the world. We discuss the roles of the various social media accounts in supporting and promoting the competitions and social media campaigns that were built around the key mission milestones of 2014: waking up from deep space hibernation (January), arriving at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (August) and naming the landing site for Philae ahead of the landing event in November. We discuss the different approach to each channel, such as the first person twitter accounts, the dialogue with and between blog users, and the discussions held live via G+ Hangouts with leading scientists and spacecraft operators. We compare and contrast the audiences, the interaction we had with them and how challenges were overcome. We also use the science-fiction-meets-science-fact Ambition short movie, and its "undercover" dissemination on social media, as an example of how the profile of the Rosetta mission was raised in a unique way. By using a variety of social media platforms to target different audiences with

  13. First Results of the SMOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Yann; Font, Jordi; Neira, Manuel Martin; Delwart, Steven; Hahne, Achim; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Bermudo, François

    2010-05-01

    It is now well understood that soil moisture and sea surface salinity are required to improve meteorological and climatic predictions. These two quantities were not available globally and with an adequate temporal sampling. So as to cover this data gap, it has been recognized that, provided it is possible to accommodate a suitable antenna on board a satellite, L Band radiometry was most probably the most promising way to fulfill this gap. It is within this framework that the European Space Agency (ESA)'s selected the second Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission, namely the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. SMOS, launched successfully in November 2009. The SMOS mission is ESA's second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission it is a joint program lead by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent. Consequently, the instrument probes the Earth surface emissivity. Surface emissivity can then be related to the moisture content in the first few centimeters of soil over land, and, after some surface roughness and temperature corrections, spatio temporal aggregation, to the sea surface salinity over oceans. SMOS achieves an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) seeking to meet soil moisture science objectives. Such innovative concept has required a significant effort in the development of calibration techniques. It provides multiangular-dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe and with a revisit time smaller than 3 days to retrieve soil moisture and ocean salinity, but with a somewhat reduced sensitivity when compared to conventional radiometers. SMOS as been now

  14. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Itten, Klaus I.; Dell'Endice, Francesco; Hueni, Andreas; Kneubühler, Mathias; Schläpfer, Daniel; Odermatt, Daniel; Seidel, Felix; Huber, Silvia; Schopfer, Jürg; Kellenberger, Tobias; Bühler, Yves; D'Odorico, Petra; Nieke, Jens; Alberti, Edoardo; Meuleman, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB) by using the Control Test Master (CTM), the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC), quality flagging (QF) and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF), and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output) introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a) satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b) helping the understanding of the Earth's complex mechanisms.

  15. LISA Pathfinder: mission and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Boatella, C.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Ciani, G.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Fertin, D.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jeannin, O.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Perreca, A.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Rais, B.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Zweifel, P.

    2011-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. The technologies required for LISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical LISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the LISA constellation by shrinking the 5 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the LISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in 2013 on-board a dedicated small launch vehicle (VEGA). After a series of apogee raising manoeuvres using an expendable propulsion module, LISA Pathfinder will enter a transfer orbit towards the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L1). After separation from the propulsion module, the LPF spacecraft will be stabilized using the micro-Newton thrusters, entering a 500 000 km by 800 000 km Lissajous orbit around L1. Science results will be available approximately 2 months after launch.

  16. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  17. The European Venus Explorer (EVE) mission proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassefiere, E.; Wilson, C. F.; Titov, D.; Korablev, O.; Aplin, K.; Baines, K.; Balint, T.; Blamont, J.; Cochrane, C.; Ferencz, Cs.; Ferri, F.; Gerasimov, M.; Imamura, T.; Leitner, J.; Lopez-Moreno, J.; Marty, B.; Martynov, M.; Pogrebenko, S.; Rodin, A.; Whiteway, J.; Zasova, L.

    2007-08-01

    The European Venus Explorer (EVE) is a mission proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) under the Cosmic Vision Call for Ideas, for launch in 2016-2018. The central goal of this mission is to investigate the evolution of Venus and its climate, in order to understand better the 'life cycle' of Earth-like planets everywhere. After the excellent results being obtained from ESA's Venus Express orbiter, in situ measurements will be required to answer many of the outstanding questions, specially relating to the evolution of the planet, its complex cloud chemistry and the stability of its climate. The baseline EVE mission consists of one balloon platform floating at an altitude of 50-60 km, one descent probe provided by Russia, and an orbiter with a polar orbit which will perform science observations as well as relay data from the balloon and descent probe. The minimum lifetime of the balloon is 7 days, required for one full circle around the planet, much longer than the 48 hour data returned from Russia's VEGA balloons. Earth-based VLBI and Doppler measurements provide tracking information for the orbiter, allowing measurement of the variations in the planet's gravity field, and for the balloon and descent probe to yield wind measurements in the lower atmosphere. The descent probe's fall through the atmosphere is expected to last 60 minutes, followed by a lifetime of 30 minutes on the surface. The Japanese space agency (JAXA) also proposes to include another independent platform, a small water vapour-inflated balloon which would be deployed at 35 km altitude and would communicate directly to Earth. Further details of the EVE mission, including proposals for Education & Outreach schemes, can be viewed at the mission website: http://www.aero.jussieu.fr/EVE/

  18. The ESA contribution to the European Satellite Navigation Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, R.; Lo Galbo, P.; de Mateo, M. L.; Steciw, A.; Ashford, E.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes the ESA ARTES-9 programme on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). This programme will be the ESA contribution to the wider European Satellite Navigation Programme which is to be implemented as a joint effort of the European Union, Eurocontrol and ESA with the support of other European bodies such as telecommunication operators, national civil aviation authorities, national space agencies, industry, universities and R&D institutes in general. In fact, in view of the geographical area concerned, the large number of parties interested, the experience required and the global nature of GNSS, the proposed initiative can only be successful if based on a strong cooperation at a European and international scale. The ESA ARTES-9 programme will consist on one side, of the design, development and validation of the European complement to the GPS and GLONASS systems (GNSS1), and on the other side of the study, design and pre-development of the European contribution to follow-on systems: GNSS2.

  19. Demonstrating xLuna on ESA EXOMADER Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present xLuna [1] and its successful demonstration on the ESA EXOMArs DEmonstration Rover (EXOMADER) [2]. xLuna is a Linux-specific hypervisor extension for RTEMS, a Real-time Executive already used on ESA missions. On xLuna, RTEMS runs natively and directly on top of the hardware providing all its native services to real- time control applications. On top of the hypervisor runs a Linux kernel para-virtualised specifically for the system that provides all the well known POSIX based services and an endless set of software libraries to payload applications. On the demonstration, the complete navigation software of the rover (with stereo image processing and path processing) that was being tested ran on xLuna's Linux subsystem, while the RTEMS components were running control tasks. Due to impossibilities of integration, the RTEMS tasks running were simulated. The control was performed by existing HW.

  20. PANGU: a sub-GeV gamma-ray detector proposed for the joint CAS-ESA misson call

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Meng

    2015-08-01

    The ESA Directorate of Science and Robotic Exploration (ESA-SRE) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have agreed to jointly pursue a scientific space mission, to be implemented by the ESA Science Programme and the Chinese National Space Science Centre (NSSC) under the CAS. In this talk, I will briefly describe a proposed space mission for the low energy gamma-ray observations. The highly successful Fermi mission has proved the great potential of studying astrophysics, cosmology and fundamental physics in high energy gamma rays. One area of improvement is in the 10 MeV to 1 GeV region, where the PSF of Fermi is limited by the presence of the Tungsten converters. Another area is the polarization measurement. It is also crucial to have a gamma-ray all sky survey mission running in parallel with HERD and CTA. PANGU (PAir-productioN Gamma-ray Unit) is a mission candidate proposed to the ESA-CAS joint mission. To achieve a PSF of ~1° at 100 MeV, PANGU proposes to use a fully active tracker use thin silicon strip detectors. Our proposal has been presented at the first dedicated workshop of the ESA-CAS joint mission, and was selected for oral presentation as the only high energy mission for the second workshop. PANUG mission involves ~100 scientists from both China and Europe.

  1. Triple F - A Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kueppers, Michael; Keller, H. U.; Kuehrt, E.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Altwegg, K.; Bertrand, R.; Busemann, H.; Capria, M. T.; Colangeli, L.; Davidsson, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Knollenberg, J.; Mottola, S.; Weiss, P.; Zolensky, M.; Akim, E.; Basilevsky, A.; Galimov, E.; Gerasimov, M.; Korablev, O.; Charnley, S.; Nittler, L. R.; Sandford, S.; Weissman, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Triple F (Fresh From the Fridge) mission, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, has been proposed to ESA's Cosmic Vision program. A sample return from a comet enables us to reach the ultimate goal of cometary research. Since comets are the least processed bodies in the solar system, the proposal goes far beyond cometary science topics (like the explanation of cometary activity) and delivers invaluable information about the formation of the solar system and the interstellar molecular cloud from which it formed. The proposed mission would extract three sample cores of the upper 50 cm from three locations on a cometary nucleus and return them cooled to Earth for analysis in the laboratory. The simple mission concept with a touch-andgo sampling by a single spacecraft was proposed as an M-class mission in collaboration with the Russian space agency ROSCOSMOS.

  2. Triple F - A Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kueppers, Michael; Keller, Horst Uwe; Kuhrt, Ekkehard; A'Hearn, Michael; Altwegg, Kathrin; Betrand, Regis; Busemann, Henner; Capria, Maria Teresa; Colangeli, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    The Triple F (Fresh From the Fridge) mission, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, has been proposed to ESA s Cosmic Vision program. A sample return from a comet enables us to reach the ultimate goal of cometary research. Since comets are the least processed bodies in the solar system, the proposal goes far beyond cometary science topics (like the explanation of cometary activity) and delivers invaluable information about the formation of the solar system and the interstellar molecular cloud from which it formed. The proposed mission would extract three samples of the upper 50 cm from three locations on a cometary nucleus and return them cooled to Earth for analysis in the laboratory. The simple mission concept with a touch-and-go sampling by a single spacecraft was proposed as an M-class mission in collaboration with the Russian space agency ROSCOSMOS.

  3. The Software Architecture of the Upgraded ESA DRAMA Software Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebschull, Christopher; Flegel, Sven; Gelhaus, Johannes; Mockel, Marek; Braun, Vitali; Radtke, Jonas; Wiedemann, Carsten; Vorsmann, Peter; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Krag, Holger

    2013-08-01

    In the beginnings of man's space flight activities there was the belief that space is so big that everybody could use it without any repercussions. However during the last six decades the increasing use of Earth's orbits has lead to a rapid growth in the space debris environment, which has a big influence on current and future space missions. For this reason ESA issued the "Requirements on Space Debris Mitigation for ESA Projects" [1] in 2008, which apply to all ESA missions henceforth. The DRAMA (Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis) software suite had been developed to support the planning of space missions to comply with these requirements. During the last year the DRAMA software suite has been upgraded under ESA contract by TUBS and DEIMOS to include additional tools and increase the performance of existing ones. This paper describes the overall software architecture of the ESA DRAMA software suite. Specifically the new graphical user interface, which manages the five main tools ARES (Assessment of Risk Event Statistics), MIDAS (MASTER-based Impact Flux and Damage Assessment Software), OSCAR (Orbital Spacecraft Active Removal), CROC (Cross Section of Complex Bodies) and SARA (Re-entry Survival and Risk Analysis) is being discussed. The advancements are highlighted as well as the challenges that arise from the integration of the five tool interfaces. A framework had been developed at the ILR and was used for MASTER-2009 and PROOF-2009. The Java based GUI framework, enables the cross-platform deployment, and its underlying model-view-presenter (MVP) software pattern, meet strict design requirements necessary to ensure a robust and reliable method of operation in an environment where the GUI is separated from the processing back-end. While the GUI framework evolved with each project, allowing an increasing degree of integration of services like validators for input fields, it has also increased in complexity. The paper will conclude with an outlook on

  4. From ESAS to Ares: A Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout my career, I have observed many launch vehicle efforts come and go. Although it may appear on the surface that those were dead-end streets, the knowledge we gained through them actually informs the work in progress. Following the tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia's crew, the administration took the Columbia Accident Investigation Board's findings to heart and united the Agency behind the Vision for Space Exploration, with clear goals and objectives, including fielding a new generation of safe, reliable, and affordable space transportation. The genesis of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle activities now under way by a nationwide Government and industry team was the confirmation of the current NASA Administrator in April 2005. Shortly thereafter, he commissioned a team of aerospace experts to conduct the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which gave shape to launch vehicles that will empower America's resurgence in scientific discovery through human and robotic space exploration. In October 2005, I was asked to lead this effort, building the team and forming the partnerships that will, in turn, build America's next human-rated space transportation system. In November 2006, the Ares I team began conducting the System Requirements Review milestone, just 1 year after its formation. We are gaining momentum toward the first test flight of the integrated vehicle system in 2009, just a few short years away. The Agency is now poised to deliver on the commitment this nation has made to advance our interests in space. In its inaugural year, the Ares team has conducted the first human-rated launch vehicle major milestone in over 30 years. Using the Exploration Systems Architecture Study recommendations as a starting point, the vehicle designs have been evolved to best meet customer and stakeholder requirements to fulfill the strategic goals outlined in the Vision for Space Exploration.

  5. ESA Intermediate Experimental Vehicle. Independent Aerothermodynamic Characterization And Aerodatabase Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufolo, Giuseppe C.; Di Benedetto, Sara; Walpot, Louis; Roncioni, Pietro; Marini, Marco

    2011-05-01

    In the frame of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) project, the European Space Agency (ESA) is coordinating a series of technical assistance activities aimed at verifying and supporting the IXV industrial design and development process. The technical assistance is operated with the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), by means of the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA), and the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) under the super visioning and coordination of ESA IXV team. One of the purposes of the activity is to develop an independent capability for the assessment and verification of the industrial results with respect to the aerothermodynamic characterization of the IXV vehicle. To this aim CIRA is developing and independent AeroThermodynamics DataBase (ATDB), intended as a tool generating in output the time histories of local quantities (heat flux, pressure, skin friction) for each point of the IXV vehicle and for each trajectory (in a pre-defined envelope), together with an uncertainties model. The reference Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions needed for the development of the tool have been provided by ESA-ESTEC (with the CFD code LORE) and CIRA (with the CFD code H3NS).

  6. ESA's Integral discovers hidden black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-10-01

    discovered so far? Astronomers, who have been observing the object regularly, guess that it had remained invisible because there must be a very thick shell of obscuring material surrounding it. If that was the case, only the most energetic radiation from the object could get through the shell; less-energetic radiation would be blocked. That could explain why space telescopes that are sensitive only to low-energy radiation had overlooked the object, while Integral, specialised in detecting very energetic emissions, did see it. To test their theory, astronomers turned to ESA's XMM-Newton space observatory, which observes the sky in the X-ray wavelengths. As well as being sensitive to high-energy radiation, XMM-Newton is also able to check for the presence of obscuring material. Indeed, XMM-Newton detected this object last February, as well as the existence of a dense 'cocoon' of cold gas with a diameter of similar size to that of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This obscuring material forming the cocoon is probably 'stellar wind', namely gas ejected by the supermassive companion star. Astronomers think that this gas may be accreted by the compact black hole, forming a dense shell around it. This obscuring cloud traps most of the energy produced inside it. The main author of these results, Roland Walter of the Integral Science Data Centre, Switzerland, explained: "Only photons with the highest energies [above 10 keV] could escape from that cocoon. IGR J16318-4848 has therefore not been detected by surveys performed at lower energies, nor by previous gamma-ray missions that were much less sensitive than Integral." The question now is to find out how many of these objects lurk in the Galaxy. XMM-Newton and Integral together are the perfect tools to do the job. They have already discovered two more new sources embedded in obscuring material. Future observations are planned. Christoph Winkler, ESA Project Scientist for Integral, said: "These early examples of using two

  7. Antenna pointing mechanism for ESA ENVISAT polar platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrano, J.; SanMillan, J.; Santiago, R.

    1996-01-01

    INTA is currently developing a two-degree-of-freedom antenna pointing mechanism (APM) as part of the ESA ENVISAT POLAR PLATFORM (PPF) program. This mechanism will drive a Ka-band antenna within the Data-Relay Satellite System (DRS) on board the Polar Platform satellite. The first mission using PPF is ENVISAT, which is expected to be flown in 1998. This paper describes the main requirements, design, and test results of this pointing system, as well as the main technical problems from customer requirements and how those have been faced to achieve a final design.

  8. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  9. Mission operations update for the restructured Earth Observing System (EOS) mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita Castro; Chang, Edward S.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) will provide a comprehensive long term set of observations of the Earth to the Earth science research community. The data will aid in determining global changes caused both naturally and through human interaction. Understanding man's impact on the global environment will allow sound policy decisions to be made to protect our future. EOS is a major component of the Mission to Planet Earth program, which is NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. EOS consists of numerous instruments on multiple spacecraft and a distributed ground system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the major ground system developed to support EOS. The EOSDIS will provide EOS spacecraft command and control, data processing, product generation, and data archival and distribution services for EOS spacecraft. Data from EOS instruments on other Earth science missions (e.g., Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)) will also be processed, distributed, and archived in EOSDIS. The U.S. and various International Partners (IP) (e.g., the European Space Agency (ESA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA)) participate in and contribute to the international EOS program. The EOSDIS will also archive processed data from other designated NASA Earth science missions (e.g., UARS) that are under the broad umbrella of Mission to Planet Earth.

  10. ESA Fire CCI product assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Angelika; Yue, Chao; Mouillot, Florent; Storm, Thomas; Chuvieco, Emilio; Kaiser, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation fires are a major disturbance in the Earth System. Fires change the biophysical properties and dynamics of ecosystems and alter terrestrial carbon pools. By altering the atmosphere's composition, fire emissions exert a significant climate forcing. To realistically model past and future changes of the Earth System, fire disturbances must be taken into account. Related modelling efforts require consistent global burned area observations covering at least 10 to 20 years. Guided by the specific requirements of a wide range of end users, the ESA fire_cci project is currently computing a new global burned area dataset. It applies a newly developed spectral change detection algorithm upon the full ENVISAT-MERIS archive (2002 to 2012). The algorithm relies on MODIS active fire information as "seed". A first, formally validated version has been released for the period 2006 to 2008. It comprises a pixel burned area product (spatial resolution of 333 m) with date detection information and a biweekly grid product at 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We compare fire_cci burned area with other global burned area products (MCD64, GFED4(s), GEOLAND) and a set of active fires data (hotspots from MODIS, TRMM, AATSR and fire radiative power from GFAS). Output from the ongoing processing of the full MERIS timeseries will be incorporated into the study, as far as available. The analysis of patterns of agreement and disagreement between fire_cci and other products provides a better understanding of product characteristics and uncertainties. The intercomparison of the 2006-2008 fire_cci time series shows a close agreement with GFED4 data in terms of global burned area and the general spatial and temporal patterns. Pronounced differences, however, emerge for specific regions or fire events. Burned area mapped by fire_cci tends to be notably higher in regions where small agricultural fires predominate. The improved detection of small agricultural fires by fire_cci can be related to

  11. The ESA Nanosatellite Beacons for Space Weather Monitoring Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapgood, M.; Eckersley, S.; Lundin, R.; Kluge, M.

    2008-09-01

    This paper will present final results from this ESA-funded study that has investigated how current and emerging concepts for nanosats may be used to monitor space weather conditions and provide improved access to data needed for space weather services. The study has reviewed requirements developed in previous ESA space weather studies to establish a set of service and measurements requirements appropriate to nanosat solutions. The output is conveniently represented as a set of five distinct classes of nanosat constellations, each in different orbit locations and which can address a specific group of measurement requirements. One example driving requirement for several of the constellations was the need for real-time data reception. Given this background, the study then iterated a set of instrument and spacecraft solutions to address each of the nanosat constellations from the requirements. Indeed, iteration has proved to be a critical aspect of the study. The instrument solutions have driven a refinement of requirements through assessment of whether or not the physical parameters to be measured dictate instrument components too large for a nanosat. In addition, the study has also reviewed miniaturization trends for instruments relevant to space weather monitoring by nanosats, looking at the near, mid and far-term timescales. Within the spacecraft solutions the study reviewed key technology trends relevant to space weather monitoring by nanosats: (a) micro and nano-technology devices for spacecraft communications, navigation, propulsion and power, and (b) development and flight experience with nanosats for science and for engineering demonstration. These requirements and solutions were then subject to an iterative system and mission analysis including key mission design issues (e.g. launch/transfer, mission geometry, instrument accommodation, numbers of spacecraft, communications architectures, de-orbit, nanosat reliability and constellation robustness) and the

  12. On the progress of the nano-satellite SAR based mission TOPMEX-9 and specification of potential applications advancing the Earth Observation Programme of the Mexican Space Agency.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Gutiérrez-Nava, Antonio; Ponce, Octavio; Vicente-Vivas, Esaú; Pacheco, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    TOPMEX-9 is put forward in this paper, advancing a mission for the Earth Observation Programme of the Mexican Space Agency, a distributed Micro-SAR concept within a Master and Slaves flight formation. International collaboration is essential and a start project is being developed between the Microwaves and Radar Institute of the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), the Mexican Space Agency (AEM). While the basic idea is making use of the transmitting component of a SAR on a microsatellite and the receiving component on a nano-satellites cluster, only a brief illustration is given here. The objective of this work is mainly to present some SAR characteristics and the most important potential applications. Special attention is given to the capabilities and limitations of SAR systems to properly detect ocean surface waves. We do take into account the nonlinear nature of the ocean surface imaging porcesses, mainly based upon the SAR and the waves characteristics, and certainly considering the K band SAR being proposed. Some other ocean applications are also overview, regarding coastal erosion-deposition estimation, as well as ship detection and monitoring. International co-operation is also addressed as an essential component of TOPMEX-9 Mission. This work represents a DOT Project (CONACYT-SRE 186144) contribution.

  13. Mission Architecture Options for Enceladus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Thomas R.; Strange, N. J.; Elliott, J. O.; Reh, K. R.

    2009-09-01

    Discoveries made by the Cassini-Huygens mission reveal Saturn's moon Enceladus as a high science-value target for a future mission. Recent work at JPL to assessed the feasibility of various mission architecture options for Enceladus exploration. This poster discusses the feasibility of Enceladus flyby, orbiter, lander, impactor, and sample return missions. In 2007 and 2008, NASA and ESA both commissioned studies of concepts for large missions that would investigate Enceladus either as a dedicated mission or jointly with Titan. This battery of studies included the 2007 NASA Enceladus Flagship study, the 2007 ESA TandEM study, and the 2008 joint NASA/ESA Titan Saturn System Mission study. We summarize these recent studies and present additional mission concepts beyond those examined in detail in these studies.

  14. NASA AND ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, NASA and ESA made a decision to partially offset the European obligations deriving from the extension of the ISS Program until the end of 2020 with different means than ATVs, following the ATV-5 mission foreseen in mid-2014. NASA and ESA considered a number of barter options, and concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module and Spacecraft Adaptor for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter element with the most interest. A joint ESA - NASA working group was established to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage. The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin. This paper gives an overview of the results of the on-going study as well as its projected utilization for the global space exploration endeavour.

  15. ESA's STSE WACMOS Project: Towards a Water Cycle Multimission Observation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Prieto, Diego; Su, Bob

    2010-05-01

    synergic manner; • Develop robust methodologies to integrate and assimilate space observations and in situ measurements into advance coupled models being able to describe biophysical processes and interactions between ocean, land and atmosphere describing the water cycle and hydrological processes; In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) launched the project Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) early in 2009. The project, funded under the ESA's Support To Science Element, address the first of the above objectives. In particular, the project objective is twofold: • On the one hand, developing and validating a Product Portfolio of novel geo-information products responding to the GEWEX scientific priorities and exploiting the synergic capabilities between ESA EO data and other non-ESA missions. • Exploring and assessing different methodologies to exploit in a synergic manner different observations towards the development of long-term consistent datasets of key (essential) variables describing the water cycle. In this context, WACMOS is focused on four components of the above cycle that are also thematic priorities identified in close collaboration with the GEWEX scientific community: Evapotranspiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour. The product portfolio comprises: 1) AATSR-MERIS based evapotranspiration modelling approach; 2) Merged passive and active microwave first multi-decade soil moisture data set; 3) Novel MSG SEVIRI-SCIAMACHY cloud products and 4) Synergic SEVIRI-IASI and SEVIRI-MERIS water vapour products. In this paper, the methodologies and preliminary results of WACMOS are introduced. In the next phase of the project, consolidated methods, data products and validation results will be generated, so that a global water cycle product of evapotranpiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour with quantified

  16. New Hubble Servicing Mission to upgrade instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-10-01

    its history. Astronomers are requesting five times more observing time than that available to them” says Bob Fosbury, Head of the HST European Coordinating Facility. “The new instruments will open completely new windows on the universe. Extraordinary observations are planned over the coming years, including some of the most fascinating physical phenomena ever seen: investigation of planets around other stars, digging deeper into the ancestry of our Milky Way and above all gaining a much deeper insight into the evolution of the universe.” Around the same time that the Shuttle lifts off for the Servicing Mission, ESA will launch Herschel, the orbiting telescope with the largest mirror ever deployed in space. Herschel will complement Hubble in the infrared part of the spectrum and is an ESA mission with NASA participation. Instead of being left at the mercy of its aging instruments, the Hubble Space Telescope will now be given the new lease of life it deserves. In the hope that more discoveries from Hubble will help explain more of the mysteries of the universe, astronauts will make this fifth trip to the world’s most powerful visual light observatory and increase its lifespan and scientific power. Hubble’s direct successor, the James Webb Space Telescope - a collaborative project being undertaken by NASA, ESA and the Canadian Space Agency - is scheduled for launch in 2013. The Servicing Mission just decided on will reduce the gap between the end of the HST mission and the start of the JWST mission. Notes for editors The Hubble Space Telescope project is being carried out by ESA and NASA on the basis of international cooperation.

  17. ESA New Generation Science Archives: SOHO and EXOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuna, P.; Arviset, C.; Baines, D.; Barbarisi, I.; Castellanos, J.; Cheek, N.; Costa, H.; Fajersztejn, N.; Fernandez, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Laruelo, A.; Leon, I.; Ortiz, I.; Salgado, J.; Stebe, A.; Tapiador, D.

    2010-12-01

    The ESAC Science Archives and VO Team (SAT) has developed a new infrastructure for the development and maintenance of the ESA space based missions’ Science Archives. This infrastructure makes use of state-of-the-art technology to overcome some of the already known limitations of older technologies, used for the building of the current archives, the older of which has been live since 1998. This paper describes how the SAT approached the issue of re-engineering their infrastructure to result in a more flexible, reusable, robust and cost-effective way of building their archives. It also describes how the new technology has been applied to the building of two Science Archive s from scratch: the SOHO Science Archive (a Solar physics mission) and the EXOSAT Science Archive (an astronomy mission).

  18. ESA DUE GlobVapour water vapor products: Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Nadine; Schröder, Marc; Lindstrot, Ramus; Preusker, Rene; Stengel, Martin; ESA DUE GlobVapour Consortium

    2013-05-01

    The main objective of the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) GlobVapour project was the development of multi-annual global water vapor data sets. Since water vapour is a key climate variable it is important to have a good understanding of its behavior in the climate system. The ESA DUE GlobVapour project provides water vapor data, including error estimates, based on carefully calibrated and inter-calibrated satellite radiances in response to user requirements for long time series satellite observations. ESA DUE GlobVapour total columnar water vapor (TCWV) products derived from GOME/SCIA/GOME-2 (1996-2008) and SSM/I+MERIS (2003-2008) have been validated for the mentioned period, using satellite-based (AIRS, ATOVS) and ground-based measurements (radiosondes and microwave radiometer). The validation results are discussed in the following. The technical specifications on bias (1 kg/m2 for SSMI+MERIS and 2 kg/m2 for GOME/SCIA/GOME-2) are generally met. For more information, documents and data download follow the link: www.globvapour.info.

  19. ESA DUE GlobVapour water vapor products: Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Nadine; Schroeder, Marc; Stengel, Martin; Lindstrot, Ramus; Preusker, Rene; Collaboration: ESA DUE GlobVapour Consortium

    2013-05-10

    The main objective of the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) GlobVapour project was the development of multi-annual global water vapor data sets. Since water vapour is a key climate variable it is important to have a good understanding of its behavior in the climate system. The ESA DUE GlobVapour project provides water vapor data, including error estimates, based on carefully calibrated and inter-calibrated satellite radiances in response to user requirements for long time series satellite observations. ESA DUE GlobVapour total columnar water vapor (TCWV) products derived from GOME/SCIA/GOME-2 (1996-2008) and SSM/I+MERIS (2003-2008) have been validated for the mentioned period, using satellite-based (AIRS, ATOVS) and ground-based measurements (radiosondes and microwave radiometer). The validation results are discussed in the following. The technical specifications on bias (1 kg/m{sup 2} for SSMI+MERIS and 2 kg/m{sup 2} for GOME/SCIA/GOME-2) are generally met. For more information, documents and data download follow the link: www.globvapour.info.

  20. EarthCARE mission, overview, implementation approach, and development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Alain; Hélière, Arnaud; Pérez Albiñana, Aberlardo; Wallace, Kotska; Maeusli, Damien; Lemanczyk, Jerzy; Lusteau, Cyrille; Nakatsuka, Hirotaka; Tomita, Eiichi

    2014-11-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) are cooperating to develop the EarthCARE satellite mission with the fundamental objective of improving the understanding of the processes involving clouds, aerosols and radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. The payload consists of two active and two passive instruments: an ATmospheric LIDar (ATLID), a Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), a Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) and a Broad-Band Radiometer (BBR). The four instruments' data are processed individually and in a synergetic manner to produce a large range of products, which include vertical profiles of aerosols, liquid water and ice, observations of cloud distribution and vertical motion within clouds, and will allow the retrieval of profiles of atmospheric radiative heating and cooling. The presentation will cover the configuration of the satellite with its four instruments, the mission implementation approach, an overview of the ground segment and the overall mission development status. The four instruments performance, based upon currently available analyses and test results will also be briefly addressed with a focus on the ESA instruments.

  1. Mission and Instrument Design Trades for a Space-based Gravitational Wave Observatory to Maximize Science Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livas, Jeffrey; Baker, John; Stebbins, Robin; Thorpe, James; Larson, Shane; Sesana, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    A space-based gravitational wave observatory is required to access the rich array of astrophysical sources expected at frequencies between 0.0001 and 0.1 Hz. The European Space Agency (ESA) chose the Gravitational Universe as the science theme of its L3 launch opportunity. A call for mission proposals will be released soon after the completion of the LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission. LPF is scheduled to start science operations in March 2016, and finish by the end of the year, so an optimized mission concept is needed now. There are a number of possible design choices for both the instrument and the mission. One of the goals for a good mission design is to maximize the science return while minimizing risk and keeping costs low. This presentation will review some of the main design choices for a LISA-like laser interferometry mission and the impact of these choices on cost, risk, and science return.

  2. XEUS: approaches to mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Peacock, Anthony J.; van der Laan, Thijs; Parmar, Arvind N.

    2003-03-01

    The x-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission (XEUS) is an ambitious project under study by the European Space Agency (ESA), which aims to probe the distant hot universe with comparable sensitivity to NGST and ALMA. The effective optical area and angular resolution required to perform this task is 30m2 and <5" respectively at 1 keV. The single Wolter-I x-ray telescope having these characteristics will be equipped with large area semiconductor detectors and high-resolution cryogenic imaging spectrometers with 2 eV resolution at 1 keV. A novel approach to mission design has been developed, placing the detector instruments on one dedicated spacecraft and the optics on another. The International Space Station (ISS) with the best ever available infrastructure in space will be used to expand the mirror diameter from 4.5 m to 10 m, using robotics and extravehicular activities. The detector spacecraft (DSC) uses solar-electric propulsion to maintain its position while flying in formation with the mirror spacecraft. The detector instruments are protected from straylight and contamination by sophisticated baffles and filters, and employ the earth as a sun shield to make the most sensitive low energy x-ray observations of the heavily red-shifted universe. Detailed approaches, including alternatives to the baseline mission design of XEUS, have been and continue to be addressed, ensuring an efficient concept to be available for the eventual mission implementation. Both the development of the XEUS baseline scenario and complementary work conducted on some alternative mission designs are discussed.

  3. APIES: A mission for the exploration of the main asteroid belt using a swarm of microsatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, P.; Santandrea, S.

    2006-10-01

    APIES (Asteroid Population Investigation and Exploration Swarm) is a mission developed by EADS Astrium in response to a European Space Agency (ESA) Call for Ideas for "swarm" missions, based on the utilization of a large number of spacecraft working cooperatively to achieve the mission objectives. The APIES baseline concept is centred on a "swarm" of 19 BElt Explorer (BEE) identical microsatellites, weighing less than 45 kg each, including their scientific payload, visiting over 100 Main Belt asteroids in multiple flybys. The BEEs are carried to the asteroid belt by a Hub and Interplanetary VEhicle (HIVE), a conventional spacecraft launched with a Soyuz-Fregat rocket, using solar electric propulsion for the transfer to the asteroid belt and acting as communication hub and control centre for the mission after the swarm deployment. Using the latest advances in systems miniaturization, propulsion, onboard autonomy and communications, the APIES mission can achieve its ambitious goal within the framework of a standard ESA mission, representing a novel mission concept example, whose feasibility is essentially linked to the use of microsatellite technology, enabling the achievement of science objectives unattainable with conventional spacecraft.

  4. ESA space spin-offs benefits for the health sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Bianca; Detsis, Emmanouil; Peeters, Walter

    2012-11-01

    Humanity will be faced with an important number of future challenges, including an expansion of the lifespan, a considerable increase of the population (estimated 9 billion by 2050) and a depletion of resources. These factors could trigger an increase of chronic diseases and various other health concerns that would bear a heavy weight on finances worldwide. Scientific advances can play an important role in solving a number of these problems, space technology; in general, can propose a panoply of possible solutions and applications that can make life on Earth easier and better for everyone. Satellites, Earth Observation, the International Space Station (ISS) and the European Space Agency (ESA) may not be the first tools that come to mind when thinking of improving health, yet there are many ways in which ESA and its programmes contribute to the health care arena. The research focuses on quantifying two ESA spin-offs to provide an initial view on how space can contribute to worldwide health. This quantification is part of the present strategy not only to show macroeconomic return factors for space in general, but also to identify and describe samples of 'best practice' type of examples close to the general public's interest. For each of the 'best practices' the methodology takes into account the cost of the space hardware/software, a number of tangible and intangible benefits, as well as some logical assumptions in order to determine the potential overall returns. Some of the hindering factors for a precise quantification are also highlighted. In conclusion, the study recommends a way in which ESA's spin-offs can be taken into account early on in the development process of space programmes in order to generate higher awareness with the general public and also to provide measurable returns.

  5. Giotto Extended Mission (GEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, D. E. B.; Grensemann, M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Giotto Extended Mission (GEM), are to determine the composition and physical state of the Grigg Skjellerup Comet's nucleus; to determine the processes that govern the composition and distribution of neutral and ionized species in the cometary atmosphere. Giotto consists of a single European Space Agency (ESA) spacecraft that was launched in 1985 from Center Spatial Guyanis in French Guiana on an Ariane launch vehicle. After a successful launch into geostationary orbit and a heliocentric transfer trajectory, the spacecraft successfully encountered Halley's Comet in 1986. One month after encountering Halley's Comet, Mar. 1986, the spacecraft was placed in hibernation in a heliocentric orbit slightly less than 1 AU. Between Feb. and Jul. 1990 the spacecraft was successfully reactivated, checked out, and placed on a trajectory course to intercept comet Grigg Skjellerup. The spacecraft has been in hibernation since Jul. 1990. Information is presented in tabular form in the following areas: coverage goals, Deep Space Network Support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  6. STS-88 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Designed by the STS-88 crew members, this patch commemorates the first assembly flight to carry United States-built hardware for constructing the International Space Station (ISS). This flight's primary task was to assemble the cornerstone of the Space Station: the Node with the Functional Cargo Block (FGB). The rising sun symbolizes the dawning of a new era of international cooperation in space and the beginning of a new program: the International Space Station. The Earth scene outlines the countries of the Station Partners: the United States, Russia, those of the European Space Agency (ESA), Japan, and Canada. Along with the Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMA) and the Functional Cargo Block, the Node is shown in the final mated configuration while berthed to the Space Shuttle during the STS-88/2A mission. The Big Dipper Constellation points the way to the North Star, a guiding light for pioneers and explorers for generations. In the words of the crew, These stars symbolize the efforts of everyone, including all the countries involved in the design and construction of the International Space Station, guiding us into the future.

  7. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully on mission STS-95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery soars above billowing clouds of steam and smoke into clear blue skies as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. The crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Steven W. Lindsey; Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski; Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA); and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio and one of the original Mercury 7 astronauts. Glenn is making his second voyage into space after 36 years. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  8. The search for exoplanets in the ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volonte, S.; Fridlund, C. V. M.

    2003-10-01

    The Darwin mission is a mission aimed at the search for and study of Terrestrial Exoplanets. As such it may be one of the most ambitious objectives undertaken by the European Space Agency. We describe the place of it as an integral part in the COSMIC VISION science plans and the topic of exo-planets. We describe the context within which it will be carried out in the next decade.

  9. Huygens Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Matson, D. L.

    2005-12-01

    . Huygens is the ESA-provided element of the Cassini-Huygens mission, which is a joint NASA-ESA programme in cooperation with the Italian Space Agency

  10. "Europe lands on Mars" - Media event at ESA/ESOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Launched on 2 June 2003 from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on board a Russian Soyuz operated by Starsem, the European probe - built for ESA by a European team of industrial companies led by Astrium - carries seven scientific instruments that will perform a series of remote-sensing experiments designed to shed new light on the Martian atmosphere, the planet's structure and its geology. In particular, the British-made Beagle 2 lander will contribute to the search for traces of life on Mars through exobiology experiments and geochemistry research. On board Mars Express tests have been run to check that the instruments are functioning correctly. Mars Express has successfully come through its first power test on the whole spacecraft after the gigantic solar flare on 28 October. Since 17 November the onboard software has been 'frozen' after several updates and the spacecraft is now quietly proceeding to its destination. Before even entering into Martian orbit to perform its mission, Mars Express has to face another challenge: safely delivering the Beagle 2 lander to its destination. This task, starting on 19 December, will not be without risk. First of all, to deliver the lander where planned, Mars Express has been put on a collision course with Mars, since Beagle 2 does not have a propulsion system of its own and must therefore be 'carried' precisely to its destination. This means that after separation, Mars Express has to veer away quickly to avoid crashing onto the planet. During the cruise Beagle 2 will take its power from the mother spacecraft, Mars Express. After separation and until its solar arrays are fully deployed on the surface, Beagle 2 must rely on its own battery, which cannot last beyond 6 days. So, like a caring parent, Mars Express must release Beagle 2 at the last possible moment to ensure that the lander has enough power for the rest of its journey to the surface. Only then can Mars Express change its orientation and rapidly fire the thrusters to get away

  11. ESO's VLT Helps ESA's Rosetta Spacecraft Prepare to Ride on a Cosmic Bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    New Images of Comet Wirtanen's Nucleus [1] Summary New images of Comet Wirtanen's 1-km 'dirty snowball' nucleus have been obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile). They show this object at a distance of approx. 435 million km from the Sun, about the same as when the Rosetta spacecraft of the European Space Agency (ESA) arrives in 2011. The new observations indicate that the comet has a very low degree of activity at this point in its orbit - almost no material is seen around the nucleus. This means that there will not be so much dust near the nucleus as to make the planned landing dramatically difficult. PR Photo 06a/02 : The Nucleus of Comet Wirtanen (composite photo). PR Photo 06b/02 : Comet Wirtanen's motion in the sky (animated). A distant target ESO PR Photo 06a/02 ESO PR Photo 06a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 445 pix - 120k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 890 pix - 1.1M] ESO PR Photo 06b/02 ESO PR Photo 06b/02 [Animated GIF: 400 x 420 pix - 312k] Caption : PR Photo 06a/02 shows a (false-colour) composite image of the nucleus of Comet Wirtanen (the point of light at the centre), recorded on December 9, 2001, with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN Unit Telescope. It is based on four exposures and since the telescope was set to track the motion of the comet in the sky, the images of stars in the field are seen as four consecutive trails. The measured brightness and the fact that the image of the comet's 'dirty snowball' nucleus is almost star-like indicates that it is surrounded by a very small amount of gas or dust. The diameter of the nucleus is about 1 km and the distance to the comet from the Earth was approx. 534 million km. In PR Photo 06b/02 , the four exposures have been combined to show the motion of the comet during the four exposures. Technical information about the photos is available below. Chase a fast-moving comet, land on it and 'ride' it while it speeds up towards the Sun: not the script of a science-fiction movie

  12. ESA's planning and coordination of the OLYMPUS propagation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbesser-Rastburg, B.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the organization of the OLYMPUS propagation experimenters group (OPEX) is given. Preparations, participation, and experiments are described. Some examples for first statistical results are also reported. OLYMPUS, a 3-axis stabilized communications satellite was launched in 1989 for providing experimental telecommunications payloads and a propagation beacon payload at 12, 20, and 30 GHz to the European Space Agency. From previous experience (OTS), the Agency undertook to carry out extensive preparations with an eye on obtaining the statistical results needed within the limited available lifetime of the spacecraft. The OLYMPUS propagation experiment was conceived as part of ESA's space telecommunications applications program (ESA/IPC/(79)83) with the emphasis on exploring the possibilities and limitations of Ka-band satellite communications. The objectives of the OLYMPUS propagation campaign were: (1) characterization of the slant-path propagation conditions at 20/30 GHz in the various climatic regions of Europe; (2) improvement of the understanding of the link between atmospheric observable (rain rate, cloud thickness, etc.) to propagation impairments such as attenuation, depolarization, scintillation, etc.; and (3) arrive at improved propagation prediction methods.

  13. TEMPO: an ESA-funded project for uncovering significant features of the South Atlantic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; De Santis, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    In this work we provide the last results of the ESA (European Space Agency) funded project TEMPO ("Is The Earth's Magnetic field POtentially reversing? New insights from Swarm mission"). The mail goal of this project is to analyse the time and spatial evolution of one of the most important features of the present geomagnetic field, i.e. the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The region covered by this anomaly is characterized by values of geomagnetic field intensity around 30% lower than expected for those latitudes and extends over a large area in the South Atlantic Ocean, South America, South Africa and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This large depression of the geomagnetic field strength has its origin in a prominent patch of reversed polarity flux in the Earth's outer core. The study of the SAA is an important challenge nowadays not only for the geomagnetic and paleomagnetic community, but also for other areas focused on the Earth Observation due to the protective role of this potential field against the charged particles forming the solar wind. A further increase of the SAA surface extent could have dramatic consequences for human health and technologies because a larger number of solar charged particles could reach the Earth's surface.

  14. ESA to launch six scientific satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-09-01

    Cluster launch campaign is proceeding on schedule for the planned launch date of 17 January 1996. At the same time, final acceptance tests are being carried out on the new Ariane 5 launch vehicle components. Note to TV editors: Video indexes describing in detail the ISO, SOHO and Cluster missions will be available on request from ESA PR as from 15 September 1995.

  15. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists...

  16. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists...

  17. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists...

  18. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists...

  19. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists...

  20. The ADAHELI Solar Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrilli, F.; Velli, M.; Roselli, L.; Bigazzi, A.; Moretti, P. F.; Romoli, M.; Orsini, S.; Cavallini, F.; Greco, V.; Carbone, V.; Consolini, G.; Di Mauro, M. P.; Ermolli, I.; Pietropaolo, E.; Romano, P.; Ventura, P.; White, S. M.; Zuccarello, F.; Cauzzi, G.; Valdettaro, L.

    2008-09-01

    ADAHELI (Advanced Astronomy for HELIOphysics) is an Italian Space project for the investigation of solar photospheric and chromospheric dynamics, via high-resolution spectro-polarimetric observations in the near-infrared spectral range. The mission has been financed for phase A study in the framework of ASI Italian Space Agency Small Missions Program call of September 2007. Four fields have been selected to highlight the specific benefits of ADAHELI scientific payload: 1) Photospheric and chromospheric dynamics and structure, 2) Emergence and evolution of solar active regions and solar irradiance, 3) Chromospheric and corona heating and turbulence, 4) Solar flares in the millimeter wavelength region. The principal science instrument, ISODY, is a 50 cm solar telescope equipped with an innovative Focal Plane Suite composed of a spectro-polarimetric imager, based upon two Fabry-Perot interferometers operating in the NIR regions around 845nm and 1083nm, a broad band imager, and a correlation tracker used as image stabilization system. Designed Mission Profiles for ADAHELI intend to achieve continuous high-spectral and spatial resolution observations of the Sun for a routine duration of 4 hours with a goal to be extended to 24 hours. ADAHELI also carries MIOS, a millimeter wavelengths radiometer operating at around 90 GHz for flare detection. The ADAHELI payload's instrument suite integrates and complements, without overlap, the present major objectives of ESA, NASA and the International Living with a Star program, in particular Solar Dynamics Observatory, PICARD, Solar Orbiter, and the Solar Probe missions. Proposals for optional instruments are also under evaluation: DIMMI-2h, a double channel MOF based full disk imager operating at 589nm and 770nm, allowing high temporal resolution velocity and magnetic field measurements; EISR a two channel spectrometer operating in the 50-130 nm wavelength range, and NPA, an in-situ Neutral Particle Analyzer to detect Energetic

  1. In-situ databases and comparison of ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI) products with precursor data, towards an integrated approach for ocean colour validation and climate studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brotas, Vanda; Valente, André; Couto, André B.; Grant, Mike; Chuprin, Andrei; Jackson, Thomas; Groom, Steve; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    2014-05-01

    Ocean colour (OC) is an Oceanic Essential Climate Variable, which is used by climate modellers and researchers. The European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative project, is the ESA response for the need of climate-quality satellite data, with the goal of providing stable, long-term, satellite-based ECV data products. The ESA Ocean Colour CCI focuses on the production of Ocean Colour ECV uses remote sensing reflectances to derive inherent optical properties and chlorophyll a concentration from ESA's MERIS (2002-2012) and NASA's SeaWiFS (1997 - 2010) and MODIS (2002-2012) sensor archives. This work presents an integrated approach by setting up a global database of in situ measurements and by inter-comparing OC-CCI products with pre-cursor datasets. The availability of in situ databases is fundamental for the validation of satellite derived ocean colour products. A global distribution in situ database was assembled, from several pre-existing datasets, with data spanning between 1997 and 2012. It includes in-situ measurements of remote sensing reflectances, concentration of chlorophyll-a, inherent optical properties and diffuse attenuation coefficient. The database is composed from observations of the following datasets: NOMAD, SeaBASS, MERMAID, AERONET-OC, BOUSSOLE and HOTS. The result was a merged dataset tuned for the validation of satellite-derived ocean colour products. This was an attempt to gather, homogenize and merge, a large high-quality bio-optical marine in situ data, as using all datasets in a single validation exercise increases the number of matchups and enhances the representativeness of different marine regimes. An inter-comparison analysis between OC-CCI chlorophyll-a product and satellite pre-cursor datasets was done with single missions and merged single mission products. Single mission datasets considered were SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua and MERIS; merged mission datasets were obtained from the GlobColour (GC) as well as the Making Earth Science

  2. The ExoMars 2016 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Håkan; Vago, Jorge; de Groot, Rolf; McCoy, Don

    2016-04-01

    ExoMars is a joint programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) and Roscosmos, Russia. It consists of the ExoMars 2016 mission with the Trace Gas Orbiter, TGO, and the Entry Descent and Landing Demonstrator, EDM, named Schiaparelli, and the ExoMars 2018 mission, which carries a lander and a rover. The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments. These are: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector to search for subsurface hydrogen (as proxy for water ice and hydrated minerals). The mass of the TGO is 3700 kg, including fuel. The EDM, with a mass of 600 kg, is mounted on top of the TGO as seen in its launch configuration. The EDM is carried to Mars by the TGO and is separated three days before arrival at Mars. In addition to demonstrating the landing capability two scientific investigations are included with the EDM. The AMELIA investigation aims at characterising the Martian atmosphere during the entry and descent using technical and engineering sensors of the EDM, and the DREAMS suite of sensors that will characterise the environment of the landing site for a few days after the landing. ESA provides the TGO spacecraft and the Schiaparelli Lander demonstrator, ESA member states provide two of the TGO instruments and Roscosmos provides the launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2018 mission at the surface of Mars, the TGO will handle all communications between the Earth and the Rover. The communication between TGO and the rover/lander is done through a UHF communications system, a contribution from NASA. The 2016 mission will be launched by a Russian Proton rocket from Baikonur in March 2016 (launch window 14-25 March) and will arrive at Mars on 19 October. This presentation will cover a description of the 2016 mission, including the spacecraft

  3. Bold ideas shortlisted for future ESA science projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    ESA's science programme introduced flexi-missions in 1997, to achieve greater flexibility. They replace the medium-scale projects, of which Huygens (Titan lander) and Integral (gamma-ray astronomy) are current examples. The aim is to have two flexi-missions for the price of one medium mission. Mars Express, already under construction for launch in 2003, is the first flexi-mission, or F1. Now under consideration are F2 and F3, each with a cost to ESA of no more than 176 million euros at 1999 prices. The frontrunner in the astronomy field for one of these slots is European participation with NASA in the Next Generation Space Telescope, successor to the NASA-ESA Hubble Space Telescope. Although a formal decision will not be taken until later this year, much European effort has already gone into preparing for this NGST project, due for launch in 2008. That intensifies the competition for the other slot. An embarrassment of riches - of ideas Multinational teams of scientists from Europe's universities and research institutes are backing each of the proposals selected for assessment, half of which concern the Solar System and the Earth's space environment. STORMS is a scheme to use three spacecraft to investigate a source of big trouble for technological systems, after solar eruptions. The "ring current" of energetic charged particles circulates around the equator at altitudes of several times the Earth's radius, and when its intensity varies during solar storms it causes magnetic perturbations at the Earth's surface. Three identical spacecraft, orbiting out to 50,000 kilometres and equally spaced around the equator, could clear up several remaining mysteries of the ring current -- and also provide real-time monitoring of magnetic storms. SOLAR ORBITER would fly on an extended orbit taking it at intervals to within about 30 million kilometres of the Sun -- much closer than the innermost planet, Mercury. At its closest approach the spacecraft would round the Sun at

  4. The Sentinel-2 Mission Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, Ferran

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) in partnership with the European Commission (EC) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. This system will deliver a new generation of optical data products designed to directly feed downstream services acting in several domains such as land management, agricultural industry, forestry, food security, or disaster control management following floods, volcanic eruptions, landslides, etc. The Sentinel-2 mission designed to generate products with accurate radiometric and geometric performances (including multi-temporal imagery co-registration). To maximize the products suitability and readiness to downstream usage for the majority of applications, the Sentinel-2 PDGS will systematically generate and archive Level-1C products, which will provide Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance images, orthorectified using a global DEM and UTM projection. A Level-1B product will also be available for expert users and will provide the radiometrically corrected pixels in sensor geometry with the geometric model appended. Finally, a complementary atmospheric correction and enhanced cloud screening algorithm is being prototyped in parallel with the goal of providing some initial capabilities to the users, by means of a specific software toolbox operated on their platforms, to translate the Level-1C TOA reflectance image into Bottom of Atmosphere (BOA) reflectance.

  5. 78 FR 18585 - FIFRA Pesticide Registration Review and ESA Consultation Processes; Stakeholder Input; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Pesticide Registration Review and ESA Consultation Processes; Stakeholder Input; Notice of... availability of the final paper describing enhanced opportunities for stakeholder input during its review of... of Agriculture (USDA), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in the U.S. Department...

  6. Mission X in Japan, an Education Outreach Program Featuring Astronautical Specialties and Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niihori, Maki; Yamada, Shin; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Nakao, Reiko; Nakazawa, Takashi; Kamiyama, Yoshito; Takeoka, Hajime; Matsumoto, Akiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki

    In the science field, disseminating new information to the public is becoming increasingly important, since it can aid a deeper understanding of scientific significance and increase the number of future scientists. As part of our activities, we at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Space Biomedical Research Office, started work to focus on education outreach featuring space biomedical research. In 2010, we launched the Mission X education program in Japan, named after “Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut” (hereinafter called “Mission X”), mainly led by NASA and European Space Agency (ESA). Mission X is an international public outreach program designed to encourage proper nutrition and exercise and teaching young people to live and eat like astronauts. We adopted Mission X's standpoint, and modified the program based on the originals to suit Japanese culture and the students' grade. Using astronauts as examples, this mission can motivate and educate students to instill and adopt good nutrition and physical fitness as life-long practices.Here we introduce our pilot mission of the “Mission X in Japan” education program, which was held in early 2011. We are continuing the education/public outreach to promote the public understanding of science and contribute to science education through lectures on astronautical specialties and knowledge.

  7. From ESAS to Ares: A Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the decision making that led to the choice of the Ares launch vehicle. There are charts that show comparisons of the features of the ESAS launch vehicles. There is discussion of the rationale of the choice of using a Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) as the launch vehicle for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle.

  8. The Challenges and Opportunities for International Cooperative Radio Science; Experience with Mars Express and Venus Express Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Dwight P.; Thompson, Tommy; Simpson, Richard; Tyler, G. Leonard; Dehant, Veronique; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Hausler, Bernd; Patzold, Martin; Goltz, Gene; Kahan, Daniel; Valencia, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Radio Science is an opportunistic discipline in the sense that the communication link between a spacecraft and its supporting ground station can be used to probe the intervening media remotely. Radio science has recently expanded to greater, cooperative use of international assets. Mars Express and Venus Express are two such cooperative missions managed by the European Space Agency with broad international science participation supported by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) and ESA's tracking network for deep space missions (ESTRAK). This paper provides an overview of the constraints, opportunities, and lessons learned from international cross support of radio science, and it explores techniques for potentially optimizing the resultant data sets.

  9. BepiColombo mission to be presented to the media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    After a competitive phase started in 2001, ESA has awarded Astrium the prime contract to build BepiColombo. The contract signature ceremony will take place in presence of the Prime Minister of Baden Württemberg (Germany), Dr. Guenther Oettinger, and will mark the kick-off of the industrial development of the spacecraft. BepiColombo will be launched in 2013. It consists of two spacecraft - an orbiter for planetary investigation, led by ESA, and one for magnetospheric studies, led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The satellite duo will reach Mercury in 2019 after a six-year journey towards the inner Solar System, to make the most extensive and detailed study of Mercury ever attempted. The press event will feature a thorough presentation of the mission and its objectives, as well as the technical challenges that Astrium will have to address. Such challenges derive from the difficulty of reaching, surviving and operating in the harsh environment of a planet so close to Sun, making of BepiColombo one of the most complex long-term planetary projects undertaken by ESA so far. Media interested to attend are invited to register by the reply form attached below. Visit of Prime Minister Guenther Oettinger and BepiColombo Contract Signature Event programme 18 January 2008, h 10:30 Astrium Friedrichshafen, Germany Claude-Dornier-Straße, 88090 Immenstaad Building 8, Room "Meersburg" 10:30 Check-in 11:00 Welcome and introduction, Uwe Minne, Astrium, Director of Earth Observation and Science, Head of Friedrichshafen Site 11:05 BepiColombo in the context of the ESA Science Programme, Jacques Louet, ESA Head of Science Projects Departments 11:10 BepiColombo's scientific objectives, Johannes Benkhoff, ESA, BepiColombo Project Scientist 11:20 The BepiColombo mission, Jan van Casteren, ESA, BepiColombo Project Manager 11:30 BepiColombo's technical challenges, Rainer Best, Astrium, BepiColombo Project Manager 11:40 Q&A 12:00 Buffet lunch 13:00 Arrival of Prime

  10. The ESA Meteoroid Model 2010: Enhanced Physical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikarev, Valeri; Mints, Alexey; Drolshagen, Gerhard

    The orbital distributions of meteoroids in interplanetary space are revised in the ESA meteoroid model. In the present update, the chemical composition of the meteoroids is simulated in more detail than in the previous meteoroid models. Silicate and carbonaceous fractions are introduced for all meteoroid populations, and in addition to asteroids and Jupiter-crossing comets, comet 2P/Encke is added as a source. The orbital evolution under planetary gravity, Poynting-Robertson effect and mutual collisions is simulated using analytical approximations. Infrared observations of the zodiacal cloud by the COBE DIRBE instrument, in situ flux measurements by the dust detectors on board Galileo, Ulysses, Pioneer 11 and Helios-1 spacecraft, and the crater size distributions on lunar rock samples retrieved by the Apollo missions are incorporated in the model.

  11. The SMOS mission. Project status and next steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y.; Waldteufel, P.; Cabot, F.; Font, J.; Hahne, A.; Mecklenburg, S.

    2009-04-01

    It is now well understood that soil moisture and sea surface salinity are required to improve meteorological and climatic predictions. These two quantities are not yet available globally and with an adequate temporal sampling. So as to cover this data gap, it has been recognized that, provided it is possible to accommodate a suitable antenna on board a satellite, L Band radiometry was most probably the most promising way to fulfill this gap . It is within this framework that the European Space Agency (ESA)'s selected the second Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission, namely the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. SMOS is currently ready to be launched and is scheduled for launch in 2009, slightly before Aquarius and SMAP. The SMOS mission is ESA's second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission it is a joint program lead by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Teccnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L band 2D interferometric radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz h protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the vegetation and the atmosphere is almost transparent. Consequently, the instrument probes the Earth surface emissivity. Surface emissivity can then be related to the moisture content in the first few centimeters of soil over land, and, after some surface roughness and temperature corrections, spatio temporal aggregation, to the sea surface salinity over oceans. SMOS will achieve an unprecedented spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band maximum (43 km on average) seeking to meet soil moisture science objectives. This is possible by using a non-rotating thinned 8 m diameter antenna. The imaging capability of such antenna is implemented by aperture synthesis, the same technique of radio-astronomy. Such innovative concept has required a significant effort in the development of calibration techniques. It provides multiangular

  12. ESA's Hipparcos finds rebels with a cause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    gas and stars, called 'density waves' and similar to traffic hot-spots along the motorway. An approaching density wave compresses the gas it encounters and favours the birth of new stars, but it can also affect pre-existing stars by deflecting their motion. After the wave has passed, many stars will thus travel together in a stream, all in the same direction, even though they were originally on different trajectories or not even born. This research has shown that the neighbourhood of the Sun is a crossroads of many streams, made up of stars with different origins and chemical composition. These streams could also account for many of the stars with planetary systems recently discovered near the Sun. Astronomers know that stars with planetary systems preferentially form in dense gas clouds with a high metal content, such as those located in the more central regions of the Milky Way. The streams discovered by Hipparcos could be the mechanism that brought them closer to the Sun. As Famaey explains, "If these stars are kicked by a spiral arm, they can be displaced thousands of light-years away from their birthplace." These stars, together with their planets, can thus have migrated closer to the Sun. To learn more about the structure of our Milky Way, an aggregate of thousands of millions of stars, astronomers look at the way in which stars stay together in a coherent way or move with respect to the Sun and relative to one another. During its four-year mission, ESA's Hipparcos satellite has measured the distance and motion of more than a hundred thousand stars within a 1000 light-years of the Sun. However, while Hipparcos's data show in which directions stars are moving on the sky, they cannot tell whether stars are coming towards us or going away from us. By combining the Hipparcos data with ground-based measurements of their ‘Doppler shift’, obtained with a Swiss telescope at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France, Famaey and his colleagues could add the missing

  13. ESA unveils its big XMM spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-02-01

    have to imagine the big tube of XMM filled with focused X-rays en route to the detectors », says Robert Lainé, ESA's project manager for XMM. « That is the whole purpose of the mission, and our chief preoccupation has been with the three multi-mirror modules that accomplish it. Critics thought we were too ambitious, trying to nest 58 precisely formed mirrors together in each module. No one had ever attempted such a feat before. It was not easy, but thanks to excellent innovative work by European industry, XMM's telescopes are even better than we hoped ». X-rays are focused by glancing them off a carefully shaped mirror, like a bucket without a bottom. In a single-mirror telescope, most of the incoming X-rays miss the mirror. To catch more of them, designers nest multiple mirrors inside one another. Before XMM, astronomers had to choose between many mirrors with relatively poor focusing, or a very few mirrors with a sharp focus. With 58 precision-made mirrors in each of its three X-ray telescopes, XMM combines enormous gathering power with accurate focusing. Carl Zeiss in Germany made shaped and polished mandrels (moulds) for mirrors of 58 different diameters, up to 70 cm for the widest. Media Lario in Italy made the mirrors by electrodeposition of nickel on the mandrels, coated their inner surfaces with gold, and carefully assembled them in their nested configuration, in a framework fabricated by APCO in Switzerland. The performance of each XMM mirror module has been verified in special facilities of the Centre Spatial de Liège in Belgium and the Max-Planck Institut für extraterrestriche Physik in Germany. The first flight model conformed with the specification, and the second and third were even better. Some facts about XMM The total surface area of the extremely thin mirror that gathers X-rays in XMM's three multi-mirror telescopes (taken together) is larger than 200 m2. Two of the three X-ray telescopes are fitted with reflection grating spectrometers for the

  14. Solar system object observations with Gaia Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, Maria; Tanga, Paolo; Mignard, Francois; CARRY, Benoit; Christophe, Ordenovic; DAVID, Pedro; Hestroffer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    After a commissioning period, the astrometric mission Gaia of the European Space Agency (ESA) started its survey in July 2014. Throughout passed two years the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been treating the data. The current schedule anticipates the first Gaia Data Release (Gaia-DR1) toward the end of summer 2016. Nevertheless, it is not planned to include Solar System Objects (SSO) into the first release. This is due to a special treatment required by solar system objects, as well as by other peculiar sources (multiple and extended ones). In this presentation, we address issues and recent achivements in SSO processing, in particular validation of SSO-short term data processing chain, GAIA-SSO alerts, as well as the first runs of SSO-long term pipeline.

  15. Bold ideas shortlisted for future ESA science projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    ESA's science programme introduced flexi-missions in 1997, to achieve greater flexibility. They replace the medium-scale projects, of which Huygens (Titan lander) and Integral (gamma-ray astronomy) are current examples. The aim is to have two flexi-missions for the price of one medium mission. Mars Express, already under construction for launch in 2003, is the first flexi-mission, or F1. Now under consideration are F2 and F3, each with a cost to ESA of no more than 176 million euros at 1999 prices. The frontrunner in the astronomy field for one of these slots is European participation with NASA in the Next Generation Space Telescope, successor to the NASA-ESA Hubble Space Telescope. Although a formal decision will not be taken until later this year, much European effort has already gone into preparing for this NGST project, due for launch in 2008. That intensifies the competition for the other slot. An embarrassment of riches - of ideas Multinational teams of scientists from Europe's universities and research institutes are backing each of the proposals selected for assessment, half of which concern the Solar System and the Earth's space environment. STORMS is a scheme to use three spacecraft to investigate a source of big trouble for technological systems, after solar eruptions. The "ring current" of energetic charged particles circulates around the equator at altitudes of several times the Earth's radius, and when its intensity varies during solar storms it causes magnetic perturbations at the Earth's surface. Three identical spacecraft, orbiting out to 50,000 kilometres and equally spaced around the equator, could clear up several remaining mysteries of the ring current -- and also provide real-time monitoring of magnetic storms. SOLAR ORBITER would fly on an extended orbit taking it at intervals to within about 30 million kilometres of the Sun -- much closer than the innermost planet, Mercury. At its closest approach the spacecraft would round the Sun at

  16. ESA on the trail of the earliest stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    hi-res Size hi-res: 3054 kb Credits: NASA Simulated image of the distant Universe as seen by JWST This is a simulated image showing the abilities of the NGST. Compared to the Hubble Space Telescope the NGST will improve our 'sight' considerably. Artist's impression of JWST hi-res Size hi-res: 3960 kb Credits: ESA Artist's impression of JWST Image shows an artist's impression of the selected design for the JWST spacecraft. Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace are the prime contractors for JWST. Gamma-ray burst as seen by Integral Credits: ESA. Original image by the Integral IBIS team. Image processing by ESA/ECF Gamma-ray burst as seen by Integral A gamma-ray burst seen by ESA's Integral satellite. This picture was taken using the Imager on Board the Integral Satellite (IBIS). Astronomers suspect that some gamma-ray bursts are the explosions of individual population III stars. Astronomers know they must have been out there: only in this way could they solve the riddle of the origin and composition of stars in today's Universe. A couple of ESA missions will help astronomers search for this elusive population. When the Universe formed, there was just hydrogen and helium. Chemical elements such as oxygen, carbon, iron and so on were forged later, in the nuclear furnaces at the hearts of stars and then cast into space at the end of the star's life. Astronomers call everything that is heavier than helium a 'metal'. All stars we can observe today contain metals. The youngest contain the most metals and astronomers call them population I stars. The oldest contain only some metals and astronomers call these population II stars. Where do these metals come from? Astronomers have theorised that a first generation of stars, which they call population III, must have existed in the early Universe. This first generation of stars must have formed using only hydrogen and helium, the only elements available in the early cosmic history. After living for 'just' a million years, they

  17. Exomars Mission Verification Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris

    According to the long-term cooperation plan established by ESA and NASA in June 2009, the ExoMars project now consists of two missions: A first mission will be launched in 2016 under ESA lead, with the objectives to demonstrate the European capability to safely land a surface package on Mars, to perform Mars Atmosphere investigation, and to provide communi-cation capability for present and future ESA/NASA missions. For this mission ESA provides a spacecraft-composite, made up of an "Entry Descent & Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)" and a Mars Orbiter Module (OM), NASA provides the Launch Vehicle and the scientific in-struments located on the Orbiter for Mars atmosphere characterisation. A second mission with it launch foreseen in 2018 is lead by NASA, who provides spacecraft and launcher, the EDL system, and a rover. ESA contributes the ExoMars Rover Module (RM) to provide surface mobility. It includes a drill system allowing drilling down to 2 meter, collecting samples and to investigate them for signs of past and present life with exobiological experiments, and to investigate the Mars water/geochemical environment, In this scenario Thales Alenia Space Italia as ESA Prime industrial contractor is in charge of the design, manufacturing, integration and verification of the ESA ExoMars modules, i.e.: the Spacecraft Composite (OM + EDM) for the 2016 mission, the RM for the 2018 mission and the Rover Operations Control Centre, which will be located at Altec-Turin (Italy). The verification process of the above products is quite complex and will include some pecu-liarities with limited or no heritage in Europe. Furthermore the verification approach has to be optimised to allow full verification despite significant schedule and budget constraints. The paper presents the verification philosophy tailored for the ExoMars mission in line with the above considerations, starting from the model philosophy, showing the verification activities flow and the sharing of tests

  18. Green light for deployment of ESA's Mars Express radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    , the amount of energy involved, the nature of the materials, and the physical conditions in space. The board concluded that the risk of an impact on the spacecraft could not be ruled out, but that the impact energy would be low and the probability of a severe failure was very small. One credible failure case is that an antenna boom could become blocked during deployment, either by itself or by the spacecraft. Although means are available to unblock a deployment, in the worst case MARSIS would have to be considered partially or completely lost. However, the analyses have shown that the Mars Express control systems would be able to cope with such a configuration and minimise the consequences for the other scientific instruments. The ESA board recommended planning the deployment for the week beginning 2 May. However, should the remaining preparations proceed faster than planned, it might be feasible to start deployment during the week beginning 25 April. An early deployment is scientifically desirable, as the evolution of the Mars Express orbit will allow radar measurements of the most interesting scientific regions on Mars to start in May 2005. If, as expected, the deployment is successful, MARSIS will probe the secrets of Mars’s subsurface at least until 30 November 2005, the nominal end date of Mars Express operations, and beyond if the mission is further extended. Note to editors Mars Express was launched on 2 June 2003 and reached the planet on 25 December 2003. Since entering its operational orbit on 28 January 2004, it has been performing studies and global mapping of the atmosphere and surface, analysing their chemical composition, and delivering amazing images of Martian landscapes.

  19. Design and performance of the ESA Optical Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Garcia-Talavera, Marcos; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Viera, Teodora; Moreno-Arce, Heidi; Rasilla, Jose L.; Gago, Fernando; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Gomez, Panchita; Ballesteros Ramirez, Ezequiel

    2002-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has undertaken the development of Optical Data Relay payloads, aimed at establishing free space optical communication links between satellites. The first of such systems put into orbit is the SILEX project, in which an experimental link between a GEO satellite (ARTEMIS) and a LEO satellite (SPOT IV) will be used to relay earth observation data. In order to perform In Orbit Testing (IOT) of these and future optical communications systems, ESA and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) reached an agreement for the building of the Optical Ground Station (OGS) in the IAC Teide Observatory, which consists basically of a 1-meter telescope and the suitable instrumentation for establishing and testing bi-directional optical links with satellites. The presence of the atmosphere in the data path posses particular problems, with an impact on the instrumentation design. The transmission, reception and measurement functions, along with the overall control of the instruments, are performed at OGS by the Focal Plane Control Electronics (FPCE). The design and performance of this instrumentation is presented, emphasizing the Pointing, Acquisition and Tracking, the Tuneable Laser and the Master Control.

  20. Selection of a Propulsion System for Jason-CS in Order to Fulfil Space Debris Mitigation Requirements for ESA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthen, Bjoern; Beck, Jan; Duske, Norbert; Francis, Richard; Koeble, Klaus-Peter

    2013-08-01

    For two decades, the mission Topex-Poseidon and its successor mission Jason/Ocean Surface Topography Mission provide satellite data for the analysis of sea topography, wave heights and wind speeds. For the continuation of service mission Jason-CS, ESA's choice to rely on the CryoSat-2 platform design permits re-use of a well established product and proven processes. An industrial consortium led by Astrium GmbH has built the satellite CryoSat-2 which for over three years successfully provides altimeter measurements of the polar ice cap thickness evolutions. This platform is perfectly suited for accommodation of the Jason-CS instruments. Unlike CryoSat-2, Jason-CS is required to perform a post-mission disposal according to the Requirements for Space Debris Mitigation for ESA Projects. This paper discusses different technologies in terms of efficiency, feasibility and accommodation, aiming at minimizing necessary spacecraft design modifications.

  1. Geologic report and recommendations for the cobalt mission to Morocco sponsored by The Trade and Development Program of the International Development Cooperation Agency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; Rossman, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    A mission sponsored by the Trade and Development Program (TDP) of the International Development Cooperation Agency (IDCA) went to Morocco to evaluate the possibility of finding additional sources of cobalt in that country, as well as other types of mineralization. Information obtained during this trip shows Morocco to be a country for which much geologic information is available and in which there are many favorable target areas for future exploration. Work in the Bou Azzer district (Morocco's principal cobalt district) shows that much excellent geologic work has been done in searching for additional deposits. However, a number of useful approaches to locate cobalt have not been tried, and their use might be successful. The potential for undiscovered deposits in the Bou Azzer region seems very high. The cobalt mineralization in the Siroua uplift is different from that in the Bou Azzer district. However, geologic similarities between the two areas suggest that a genetic link may exist between the two types of mineralization. This further indicates that cobalt deposits of the Bou Azzer types might be present in the Siroua region. Examination of the Bleida copper mine shows it to be a well-exposed volcanic hosted stratabound copper deposit. Large unexplored areas containing similar rocks occur near this deposit and may contain as yet undiscovered copper mineralization.

  2. Endeavour blasts-off on ambitious mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    "I am delighted to see the servicing mission off to such a beautiful start", said Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, who watched the launch from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. "We are anxious to see the Hubble Space Telescope restored to its full capability so astronomers world- wide can take advantage of this unique observatory". During the eight and a half minute climb to orbit ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier helped the shuttle commander and pilot monitor the cockpit displays. Nicollier is the first international astronaut to serve as a shuttle's flight engineer. He will perform the same task at the end of the mission for reentry and landing. The European Space Agency has a major role in the telescope servicing mission. In addition to the presence of its astronaut, the agency is supplying new, improved power generating solar arrays and helped NASA test the Costar system of corrective optics. Nicollier will be responsible for operation of the shuttle's robot arm during the 11-day mission. He will use the arm to pluck the telescope from orbit and move astronauts and equipment around the payload bay during the mission's five spacewalks. The astronauts are spending their first hours in space setting up equipment in the orbiter's crew cabin. They will fire the shuttle's manoeuvring jets before going to bed to begin the two-day pursuit of the orbiting telescope. There will be three orbital manoeuvres tomorrow to further close the gap. The shuttle is due to reach the telescope Saturday and repair work will begin Sunday. Checkouts of the four space suits and the robot arm will occupy the crew tomorrow. Nicollier will use the arm to inspect the equipment in the cargo bay and later practise the manoeuvre he will use on Saturday to capture the telescope. Hubble Space Telescope science operations will be suspended at midnight tonight EST (06h00 a.m. CET tomorrow) and the HST aperture door closed at 07h30 a.m. EST (01h30 p.m. CET).

  3. The James Webb Space Telescope: Science and Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA for launch later this decade. The European and Canadian Space Agencies are mission partners. JWST will find and study the first galaxies that formed in the early universe and peer through dusty clouds to see star and planet formation at high spatial resolution. The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of star formation and evolution in the Milky Way, including the Galactic Center, nearby galaxies, and the early universe. JWST will have a segmented primary mirror, approximately 6.5 meters in diameter, and will be diffraction-limited at 2 microns. The JWST observatory will be placed in a L2 orbit by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle provided by ESA. The observatory is designed for a 5- year prime science mission, with consumables for 10 years of science operations.

  4. XEUS mission and instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Peacock, Anthony J.; Parmar, Arvind N.; Beijersbergen, Marco W.

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission (XEUS) is an ambitious project under study by the European Space Agency (ESA), which aims to probe the distant hot universe with comparable sensitivity to NGST and ALMA. The effective optical area and angular resolution required to perform this task is 30 m2 effective area and <5 inch angular resolution respectively at 1 keV. The single Wolter-I X-ray telescope having these characteristics will be equipped with large area semiconductor detectors and high-resolution cryogenic imaging spectrometers with 2 eV resolution at 1 keV. A novel approach to mission design has been developed, placing the detector instruments on one dedicated spacecraft and the optics on another. The International Space Station (ISS) with the best ever-available infrastructure in space will be used to expand the mirror diameter from 4.5 m to 10 m, by using the European Robotic Arm on the ISS. The detector spacecraft (DSC) uses solar-electric propulsion to maintain its position while flying in formation with the mirror spacecraft. The detector instruments are protected from straylight and contamination by sophisticated baffles and filters, and employing the Earth as a shield to make the most sensitive low energy X-ray observations of the heavily red-shifted universe. After completion of an initial observation phase lasting 5 years, the mirror spacecraft will be upgraded (basically expanded to a full 10 m diameter mirror) at the ISS, while the DSC is replaced by a new spacecraft with a new suite of detector instruments optimised to the full area XEUS mirror. An industrial feasibility study was successfully completed and identified no major problem area. Current activities focus on a full system level study and the necessary technology developments. XEUS is likely to become a truly global mission, involving many of the partners that have teamed up to build the ISS. Japan is already a major partner int the study of XEUS, with ISAS having its main

  5. Evolution of ESA's SSA Conjunction Prediction Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, D.; Sancho, A. Tirado, J.; Agueda, A.; Martin, L.; Luque, F.; Fletcher, E.; Navarro, V.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents the recent evolution of ESA's SSA Conjunction Prediction Service (CPS) as a result of an on-going activity in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The CPS is one of a number of precursor services being developed as part of the SST segment. It has been implemented as a service to provide external users with web-based access to conjunction information and designed with a service-oriented architecture. The paper encompasses the following topics: service functionality enhancements, integration with a live objects catalogue, all vs. all analyses supporting an operational concept based on low and high fidelity screenings, and finally conjunction detection and probability algorithms.

  6. The ESA Hubble 15th Anniversary Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, L. L.; Kornmesser, M.

    2005-12-01

    The 15th anniversary of the launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope occurred on 24th April 2005. As Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects in the world, ESA decided to celebrate this anniversary, among other things, with the production of a Hubble 15th Anniversary movie and a book, both called "Hubble, 15 years of discovery". The movie covers all aspects of the Hubble Space Telescope project - a journey through the history, the problems and the scientific successes of Hubble. With more than 700,000 multi-lingual DVDs distributed to the public, media, educators, decision-makers and scientists, the Hubble 15th anniversary campaign has been one of the largest such projects in Europe.

  7. ISO, ESA's explorer of the Unknown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    Some burning questions left open in many fields of astrophysics, from nearby planets to the most distant quasars, taking in star formation, the dark matter of the universe and superluminous galaxies should find clues. The 5,3m high satellite will be commanded into its 24h eccentric orbit by ESA's space operations centre in Darmstadt (Germany). In its final orbit the spacecraft will pass as close as 1000 km to the Earth and go as far as 70,500 km. After the first signal from the satellite has been received, 45 minutes after the launch, the spacecraft controllers will switch on the systems and instruments on board over the next 72 hours before handing the control of the satellite over to Science Control Center located at ESA's Villafranca ground station near Madrid. A fully international team of 100 or so operations engineers and scientists will monitor and control the satellite from some 18 months of operational life time. Reflecting the project's international dimension, American and Japanese scientists will be co-located at its operations center and the NASA station at Goldstone, California, will relay communications when the satellite is out of Europe's ground station view. Full coverage will be provided with real-time links, making it possible to carry out observations for 16hrs per day when the observatory is outside the radiation belts. The building of the satellite has been an engineering challenge to the European Space industry and "will be the culmination of twelve years of intensive effort to build the most powerful and precise infrared space observatory to date", Prof. Bonnet, Director of ESA's Science Programme, said. The media are kindly invited to participate in the launch event in ESA's European --Space Operations Centre (ESOC) where the main press information center will be located. The launch can also be followed in other establishments where the respective PR officers can be contacted.

  8. An Overview of the Smart Sensor Inter-Agency Reference Testbench (SSIART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Braham, Stephen P.; Dufour, Jean-Francois; Barton, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of a proposed collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA), which is designed to facilitate the introduction of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radios for smart-sensing applications into international spaceflight programs and projects. The proposed work will produce test hardware reference designs, test software reference architectures and example implementations, test plans in reference test environments, and test results, all of which will be shared between the agencies and documented for future use by mission planners. The proposed collaborative structure together with all of the anticipated tools and results produced under the effort is collectively referred to as the Smart Sensor Inter-agency Reference Testbench or SSIART. It is intended to provide guidance in technology selection and in increasing the related readiness levels of projects and missions as well as the space industry.

  9. Lunar PanCam: Adapting ExoMars PanCam for the ESA Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Schmitz, N.; Barnes, D. P.; Josset, J.-L.; Hancock, B. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Paar, G.; Bauer, A.; the PanCam Team

    2012-12-01

    A scientific camera system would provide valuable geological context from the surface for lunar lander missions. Here, we describe the PanCam instrument from the ESA ExoMars rover and its possible adaptation for the proposed ESA lunar lander. The scientific objectives of the ESA ExoMars rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The ExoMars PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for that mission. We describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, and atmospheric science, and 3D vision objectives. We also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench (OB) and electrical interface is provided via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). Additional hardware items include a PanCam Calibration Target (PCT). We also briefly discuss some PanCam testing during field trials. In addition, we examine how such a 'Lunar PanCam' could be adapted for use on the Lunar surface on the proposed ESA lunar lander.

  10. A Reference Implementation of the OGC CSW EO Standard for the ESA HMA-T project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Boldrini, Enrico; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Vitale, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    This work was developed in the context of the ESA Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility (HMA) project, whose main objective is to involve the stakeholders, namely National space agencies, satellite or mission owners and operators, in an harmonization and standardization process of their ground segment services and related interfaces. Among HMA objectives was the specification, conformance testing, and experimentation of two Extension Packages (EPs) of the ebRIM Application Profile (AP) of the OGC Catalog Service for the Web (CSW) specification: the Earth Observation Products (EO) EP (OGC 06-131) and the Cataloguing of ISO Metadata (CIM) EP (OGC 07-038). Our contributions have included the development and deployment of Reference Implementations (RIs) for both the above specifications, and their integration with the ESA Service Support Environment (SSE). The RIs are based on the GI-cat framework, an implementation of a distributed catalog service, able to query disparate Earth and Space Science data sources (e.g. OGC Web Services, Unidata THREDDS) and to expose several standard interfaces for data discovery (e.g. OGC CSW ISO AP). Following our initial planning, the GI-cat framework has been extended in order to expose the CSW.ebRIM-CIM and CSW.ebRIM-EO interfaces, and to distribute queries to CSW.ebRIM-CIM and CSW.ebRIM-EO data sources. We expected that a mapping strategy would suffice for accommodating CIM, but this proved to be unpractical during implementation. Hence, a model extension strategy was eventually implemented for both the CIM and EO EPs, and the GI-cat federal model was enhanced in order to support the underlying ebRIM AP. This work has provided us with new insights into the different data models for geospatial data, and the technologies for their implementation. The extension is used by suitable CIM and EO profilers (front-end mediator components) and accessors (back-end mediator components), that relate ISO 19115 concepts to EO and CIM ones. Moreover

  11. NEXT Lunar Lander Mission - Overview and Challenges of the Lunar Rover Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouis, Elie

    Looking ahead at the 2015-2018 timeframe, the European Space Agency (ESA) has recently started the investigation of the Next Exploration Science and Technology missions (NEXT) to demonstrate a number of key technologies for future programmes such as the Mars Sample Return (MSR). This paper provides the first insights into the mobile rover concept investigated as part of the NEXT Lunar Lander Study. Operating at the South Pole of the Moon, the rover will face a very challenging environment. Subjected to 200-hours long cold lunar nights at -200C for an initial mission duration of 1 year, and a total traverse of 20km, the design and operation of the rover requires careful attention. Its design is initially based on the knowledge developed for the ESA ExoMars mission, but the major differences in the environment and operation of the rover, means that most of the systems need a thorough assessment of their capabilities under Lunar condition and, where required, the development of new solutions. From the locomotion system designed to cope with uncertain lunar terrain, the thermal system dealing with gradients of hundreds of degrees, to the navigation through dark shadows, this paper illustrates some of the challenges future missions will face when targeting location such as the south pole on the Moon, but it will also provide details of the enabling technologies leading to the Mars Sample Return Mission and beyond.

  12. Overview of the knowledge management system in ESA/ESOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, Roberta Mugellesi; Pallaschke, Siegmar; Merri, Mario; Montagnon, Elsa; Schabe, Melanie; Belingheri, Maurizio; Bucher, Michael

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the knowledge management (KM) system as implemented in a pilot project at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA). By means of audits, we have identified the main knowledge fields in our domain, weighted their importance in the short, medium and long terms, and derived KM requirements in order to preserve, maintain, share and enhance relevant knowledge. The preliminary results from the knowledge audits were analysed and discussed by domain experts, showing that the KM process put in place has been successfully validated and appropriate measures, like continuous training, have to be put in place. The KM requirements were then mapped on the existing KM infrastructure and the available KM resources in order to assess the status of KM at ESOC and to recommend its evolution. Finally, some additional suggestions are made regarding the future of the initiative and potential steps that might be taken to further support KM within ESOC.

  13. Commonality of flight control systems for support of European telecommunications missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debatin, Kurt

    1993-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the presentation of mission-independent software systems that provide a common software platform to ground data systems for mission operations. The objectives of such common software platforms are to reduce the cost of the development of mission-dedicated software systems and to increase the level of reliability of the ground data systems for mission operations. In accordance with this objective, the Multi-Satellite Support System (MSSS) was developed at the European Space Operations Center (ESOC). Between 1975 and 1992, the MSSS provided support to 16 European Space Agency (ESA) missions, among them very demanding science missions such as GEOS, EXOSAT, and Giotto. The successful support of these missions proved the validity of the MSSS concept with its extended mission-independent platform. This paper describes the MSSS concept and focuses on the wide use of MSSS as a flight control system for geosynchronous telecommunications satellites. Reference is made to more than 15 telecommunications missions that are operated from Western Europe using flight control systems with an underlying MSSS concept, demonstrating the benefits of a commonly used software platform. Finally, the paper outlines the design of the new generation of flight control systems, which is being developed at ESOC for this decade, following a period of more than 15 years of MSSS support.

  14. Marco Polo : an Italian Mission Scoring a lot of Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Pippo, Simonetta; Bracciaferri, Fabio M.

    2002-01-01

    The first astronaut of the European Astronaut Corps of Italian nationality, Roberto Vittori, will fly on a Soyuz capsule at the end of April 2002, opening a new era of space flight. The mission, sponsored by the Italian Space Agency, has been developed in the framework of an ESA- ROSAVIAKOSMOS agreement, reached in order to give European astronauts additional possibilities to fly. It's the first mission of this kind. In addition to that, this is the real first time in which a Soyuz mission is in the hands of two cosmonauts, and one of them is non Russian. On the same flight, in fact, Mark Shuttleworth, the second tourist in the history of space activities, is going to fly, performing also a set of scientific experiments. Marco Polo is also the first mission in which the two Agencies, ASI and ESA, are developing a joint commercialisation program, devoted to attire sponsors for improving research and development activities in the Human Spaceflight area. This will allow the two agencies to improve also the quality of life on Earth. A comprehensive scientific program is also foreseen accompanying Vittori on board, mainly in the field of life science. Experiments devoted to neurophysiology, arms rehabilitation, test of new materials for dressing in space, evaluation of the behaviour of the Nobel Prize Montalcini discovery named NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) will be performed on board. A R&D payload for Blood Pressure Measurements could have in the future commercial spin-off. In addition, a possible institutional sponsorship of the World Health Organization is under discussion. It will be the real first time in which a space mission gets this kind of sponsorship, and this strictly related to the World Health Day this year, devoted in promoting health throughout movement, i.e. "Move for Health". The Italian Space Agency proposed a joint combination of the two slogans, coupling the "Move for Health" message with the Italian "Space for Health" one. This is because of the Marco

  15. Cost considerations in database selection - A comparison of DIALOG and ESA/IRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that there are many factors which affect the decision-making process in determining which databases should be selected for conducting the online search on a given topic. In many cases, however, the major consideration will be related to cost. The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of the costs involved in making use of DIALOG and the European Space Agency's Information Retrieval Service (ESA/IRS). The two services are very comparable in many respects. Attention is given to pricing structure, telecommunications, the number of databases, prints, time requirements, a table listing online costs for DIALOG and ESA/IRS, and differences in mounting databases. It is found that ESA/IRS is competitively priced when compared to DIALOG, and, despite occasionally higher telecommunications costs, may be even more economical to use in some cases.

  16. Drug Safety Communication: Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ESAs) to be prescribed and used under a risk management program, known as a risk evaluation and mitigation ... the manufacturer of these products, to develop a risk management program because studies show that ESAs can increase ...

  17. Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini Mission. Supplement 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (FSEIS) to the 1995 Cassini mission Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) focuses on information recently made available from updated mission safety analyses. This information is pertinent to the consequence and risk analyses of potential accidents during the launch and cruise phases of the mission that were addressed in the EIS. The type of accidents evaluated are those which could potentially result in a release of plutonium dioxide from the three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGS) and the up to 129 Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The RTGs use the heat of decay of plutonium dioxide to generate electric power for the spacecraft and instruments. The RHUs, each of which contains a small amount of plutonium dioxide, provide heat for controlling the thermal environment of the spacecraft and several of its instruments. The planned Cassini mission is an international cooperative effort of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to conduct a 4-year scientific exploration of the planet Saturn, its atmosphere, moons, rings, and magnetosphere.

  18. The ESA Rad-Hard electron monitor (RADEM) for JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desorgher, Laurent; Hajdas, Wojtek; Goncalves, Patricia; Pinto, Costa; Marques, Arlindo; Chastellain, Frédéric; Gambarara, Fabio; Muff, Reto; Maehlum, Gunnar; Meier, Dirk

    2014-05-01

    The ESA Jupiter Icy moons explorer (JUICE) mission will encounter a harsh radiation environment that is known to be severe but that is not yet fully understood. The Rad-Hard electron monitor (RADEM), currently under development, is a compact instrument (1L, 1kg, 2.2W) that will be set on JUICE for measuring the radiation environment during the mission. Its design is adapted to the harsh Jovian radiation environment and optimized for the detection of high energetic electrons. RADEM will consist of three detector subunits. The magneto-spectrometer will measure the electron spectrum in the 0.3 to 40 MeV range. The directionality sensor will characterize the pitch angle distribution of the electron environment. The Silicon stack detector will be dedicated to measure the spectrum of solar and Jovian protons, as well as the LET spectrum of heavy ions. In this paper we present the status of the development of RADEM, as well as Geant4 Monte Carlo analysis of the capability of the instruments.

  19. A Statistical Look on ESA's Conjunction Event Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, T.; Krag, H.; Lemmens, S.; Bastida Virgili, B.; Merz, K.; Klinkrad, H.

    2013-08-01

    On a routine basis, ESA predicts close conjunctions for its own satellites and assesses the associated collision risk. This process is supported by acquiring external tracking data to improve the knowledge on orbit state and associated uncertainties of the secondary object, and by evaluating close approach notifications and conjunction summary messages received from the US Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). The process also includes screening of planned manoeuvres for close conjunctions. ESOC-operated missions in low Earth orbit and in highly-eccentric orbits are covered. Recently, the process has been extended to cover third party missions. We describe the applied process and present the latest status, including a history of high-risk conjunction events and processed CSMs, and we revisit major recent software developments. As this process has been in place for some years, we can use the archived results for a detailed assessment of the close conjunctions from an operator's perspective. We analyse the evolution of object classes and the accumulated risk from TLE-based information for secondary objects. The impact of the severe collision events in 2007 and 2009 is also part of this discussion.

  20. Technology Development Roadmap: A Technology Development Roadmap for a Future Gravitational Wave Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Jordan; Conklin, John; Livas, Jeffrey; Klipstein, William; McKenzie, Kirk; Mueller, Guido; Mueller, Juergen; Thorpe, James Ira; Arsenovic, Peter; Baker, John; Bender, Peter; Brinker, Edward; Crow, John; Spero, Robert; deVine Glenn; Ziemer, John

    2013-01-01

    Humankind will detect the first gravitational wave (GW) signals from the Universe in the current decade using ground-based detectors. But the richest trove of astrophysical information lies at lower frequencies in the spectrum only accessible from space. Signals are expected from merging massive black holes throughout cosmic history, from compact stellar remnants orbiting central galactic engines from thousands of close contact binary systems in the Milky Way, and possibly from exotic sources, some not yet imagined. These signals carry essential information not available from electromagnetic observations, and which can be extracted with extraordinary accuracy. For 20 years, NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and an international research community have put considerable effort into developing concepts and technologies for a GW mission. Both the 2000 and 2010 decadal surveys endorsed the science and mission concept of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). A partnership of the two agencies defined and analyzed the concept for a decade. The agencies partnered on LISA Pathfinder (LPF), and ESA-led technology demonstration mission, now preparing for a 2015 launch. Extensive technology development has been carried out on the ground. Currently, the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA) concept, a LISA-like concept with only two measurement arms, is competing for ESA's L2 opportunity. NASA's Astrophysics Division seeks to be a junior partner if eLISA is selected. If eLISA is not selected, then a LISA-like mission will be a strong contender in the 2020 decadal survey. This Technology Development Roadmap (TDR) builds on the LISA concept development, the LPF technology development, and the U.S. and European ground-based technology development. The eLISA architecture and the architecture of the Mid-sized Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory (SGO Mid)-a competitive design with three measurement arms from the recent design study for a NASA

  1. CERN, ESA and ESO Launch "Physics On Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    Physics is everywhere . The laws of physics govern the Universe, the Sun, the Earth and even our own lives. In today's rapidly developing society, we are becoming increasingly dependent on high technology - computers, transport, and communication are just some of the key areas that are the result of discoveries by scientists working in physics. But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! [Go to Physics On Stage Website] Beginning in February 2000, three major European research organisations are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , with support from the European Union. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, on the CERN premises at the French-Swiss border near Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge about physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European

  2. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the

  3. The ESA astronaut sleep restraint--its development and use onboard Spacelab and MIR.

    PubMed

    Ockels, W; Stoewer, H

    1990-02-01

    The development of the ESA portable sleep restraint system is described. The system was developed to simulate certain earthbound sleep conditions in microgravity. The restraint is a bag made of two sheets of Nomex(R) cloth stretched over a tubular tension device and provides the astronaut with feedback pressure similar to bedding on Earth. The final prototype of the bag was tested on the German Spacelab-D1 mission and during a six-month mission aboard MIR. Positive feedback from astronauts suggests the need for further evaluation during space flight. PMID:11540491

  4. Shielding from the Cosmic Radiation for Interplanetary Missions: Active and Passive Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillantini, P.; Topical Team Of ESA On Radiation Shielding

    Shielding is arguably the main countermeasure for the exposure to cosmic radiation during interplanetary exploratory missions. However, shielding of cosmic rays, both of galactic or solar origin, is highly problematic, because of the high-energy of the charged particles involved and the nuclear fragmentation occurring in shielding materials. Although computer codes can predict the shield performance in space, there is a lack of biological and physical measurements to benchmark the codes. An attractive alternative to passive, bulk material shielding is the use of magnetic fields to deflect the charged particles from the spacecraft target. A shielding system based on superconducting magnetic lenses could effectively shield a spacecraft from solar particle events, at least for the portion of energetic particles roughly collinear with the direction of the solar magnetic field. To address these issues, the European Space Agency (ESA) established a Topical Team in 2003 including several European experts in the field of space radiation shielding and superconducting magnets. The Topical Team identified a number of open research questions to be addressed, including development and testing of novel shielding materials, studies on the angular distributions of energetic solar particles, and cooling systems for magnetic lenses in space. A detailed report to ESA will be published within the Fall of the 2004. A summary of the Topical Team conclusions and recommendations will be discussed in this paper. (Work supported by ESA Opportunities for Research in Life Sciences grant # ESA-RA-LS-01-PREP/TT-007).

  5. International solar-terrestrial physics program: A plan for the core spaceflight missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This brochure has been prepared by NASA on behalf of the European Space Agency (ESA), the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan) (ISAS), and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to describe the scope of the science problems to be investigated and the mission plan for the core International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. This information is intended to stimulate discussions and plans for the comprehensive worldwide ISTP Program. The plan for the study of the solar - terrestrial system is included. The Sun, geospace, and Sun-Earth interaction is discussed as is solar dynamics and the origins of solar winds.

  6. The ESA GML Application Schema for EO Products: extension to new product types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Andrew; Smolders, Steven; Houbie, Frédéric; Martin, Jolyon; Marchetti, Pier Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    The Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility (HMA) project is a joint activity of the European and Canadian Space Agencies lead by ESA through its Ground Segment Coordination Body (GSCB). It aims to provide a seamless and harmonised access to heterogeneous Earth observation (EO) datasets from multiple mission ground segments. To achieve this goal of interoperability, the HMA project is developing standardised metadata descriptions at collection- and product-level, as well as standardised network service interfaces for data discovery, ordering, planning, user management, and data access. These interfaces will be implemented in the EO Data Access and Integration Layer (DAIL), providing an integrated, harmonised access across multiple mission ground segments. A standardised description of EO data products is provided through a GML Application Schema for EO Products, endorsed as a Best Practice paper (06-080) by the standards body, Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Product-level metadata conforming to this schema may be ingested into an HMA standard catalogue service implementing the ebRIM profile of OGC's CSW interface with an extension package for EO products (OGC document 06-131). The GML application schema is based on the GML observation, adding detail to the following properties for an Earth observation: • general metadata describing identifier, downlink, archiving information, etc. • the acquisition duration • the platform/instrument/sensor used for the acquisition, and other acquisition parameters • the observed ground footprint • the observation result (browse, mask, and product descriptions) In addition, the schema takes a layered form: a foundation ‘Earth Observation' schema is applicable for any type of EO product, with more specialised schemas derived from this for specific product types (optical, radar, atmospheric) . We report on new work sponsored by ESA (in the ‘HMA Follow-On' project) which is extending the existing application schemas to

  7. NASA and ESA astronauts visit ESO. Hubble repair team meets European astronomers in Garching.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-02-01

    On Wednesday, February 16, 1994, seven NASA and ESA astronauts and their spouses will spend a day at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. They are the members of the STS-61 crew that successfully repaired the Hubble Space Telescope during a Space Shuttle mission in December 1993. This will be the only stop in Germany during their current tour of various European countries. ESO houses the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST/ECF), a joint venture by the European Space Agency and ESO. This group of astronomers and computer specialists provide all services needed by European astronomers for observations with the Space Telescope. Currently, the European share is about 20 of the total time available at this telescope. During this visit, a Press Conference will be held on Wednesday, February 16, 11:45 - 12:30 at the ESO Headquarters Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2 D-85748 Garching bei Munchen. Please note that participation in this Press Conference is by invitation only. Media representatives may obtain invitations from Mrs. E. Volk, ESO Information Service at this address (Tel.: +49-89-32006276; Fax.: +49-89-3202362), until Friday, February 11, 1994. After the Press Conference, between 12:30 - 14:00, a light refreshment will be served at the ESO Headquarters to all participants. >From 14:00 - 15:30, the astronauts will meet with students and teachers from the many scientific institutes in Garching in the course of an open presentation at the large lecture hall of the Physics Department of the Technical University. It is a 10 minute walk from ESO to the hall. Later the same day, the astronauts will be back at ESO for a private discussion of various space astronomy issues with their astronomer colleagues, many of whom are users of the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as ground-based telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory and elsewhere. The astronauts continue to Switzerland in the evening.

  8. European students explore possible mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The Russian Yuri Gagarin was the first man in orbit, the American Neil Armstrong the first man on the Moon, on 21 July, 1969. Is there a chance that the first human being to set foot on Mars will be a European? Attendants at the 1999 Alpbach Summer School will be putting their minds to this challenging question. Seventy-four students from member states of the European Space Agency will be attending the Summer School from 3 to 12 August in the small mountain village of Alpbach in the Austrian Tyrol. They will be set the task of defining a future Mars Exploration Mission. 25 European experts will provide them with an overview of all aspects of the Red Planet. Basic questions such as the chemical and mineralogical composition of its surface, its geophysics and geochemistry or the search for life on Mars will be addressed. A review of past, present and future exploration of Mars will be presented. The annual Summer School is co-organised by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Transport, the European Space Agency and the Austrian Space Agency. ESA's Director of Science, Prof. Roger Bonnet, will open this year's at 9 a.m. on 3 August, in Alpbach Secondary School with a lecture on "Mars Exploration: For What Purpose? How?" Media representatives are most welcome.

  9. Ulysses, the end of an extraordinary mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Ulysses, a pioneering ESA/NASA mission, was launched in October 1990 to explore uncharted territories - the regions above and below the Sun’s poles - and study our star’s sphere of influence, or heliosphere, in the four dimensions of space and time. Originally designed for a lifetime of five years, the mission has surpassed all expectations. The reams of data Ulysses has returned have forever changed the way scientists view the Sun and its effect on the space surrounding it. Media representatives interested in attending the press conference are invited to register using the attached form. Those not able to attend will have the opportunity to follow the press conference using the following phone number: +33 1 56785733 (listening-mode only). The programme of the event is as follows: The Ulysses Legacy Press Conference 12 June 2008, 15:30, Room 137, ESA Headquarters, 8-10 rue Mario-Nikis, Paris Event programme 15:30 Welcome, by David Southwood, ESA Director of Science and Robotic Exploration (with a joint ESA/NASA statement) 15:40 Ulysses: a modern-day Odyssey, by Richard Marsden, ESA Ulysses Project Scientist and Mission Manager 15:50 The Ulysses scientific legacy: Inside the heliosphere, by Richard Marsden,ESA Ulysses Project Scientist and Mission Manager 16:00 The Ulysses scientific legacy: Outside the heliosphere, by Ed Smith, NASA Ulysses Project Scientist 16:10 Ulysses, the over-achiever: challenges and successes of a 17-year-old mission, by Nigel Angold, ESA Ulysses Mission Operations Manager 16:20 Questions and Answers, Panelists: David Southwood, Richard Marsden, Ed Smith, Nigel Angold and Ed Massey (NASA Ulysses Project Manager) 16:40 Interview opportunities 17:30 End of event

  10. The SPICA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibthorpe, B.; Helmich, F.; Roelfsema, P.; Kaneda, H.; Shibai, H.

    2016-05-01

    SPICA is a mid and far-infrared space mission to be submitted as a candidate to ESA's fifth medium class mission call, due in early 2016. This will be a joint project between ESA and JAXA, with ESA taking the lead role. If selected, SPICA will launch in ˜2029 and operate for a goal lifetime of 5 years. The spacecraft will house a 2.5 m telescope actively cooled to 8 K, providing unprecedented sensitivity at mid-far infrared wavelengths. The low background environment and wavelength coverage provided by SPICA will make it possible to conduct detailed spectroscopic surveys of sources in both the local and distant Universe, deep into the most obscured regions. Using these data the evolution of galaxies over a broad and continuous range of cosmic time can be studied, spanning the era of peak star forming activity. SPICA will also provide unique access to, among others, the deep-lying water-ice spectral features and HD lines within planet forming discs. SPICA will conduct an extensive survey of both planet forming discs and evolved planetary systems, with the aim of providing the missing link between planet formation models and the large number of extrasolar planetary systems now being discovered.

  11. Effective methodology to derive strategic decisions from ESA exploration technology roadmaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresto Aleina, Sara; Viola, Nicole; Fusaro, Roberta; Saccoccia, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Top priorities in future international space exploration missions regard the achievement of the necessary maturation of enabling technologies, thereby allowing Europe to play a role commensurate with its industrial, operational and scientific capabilities. As part of the actions derived from this commitment, ESA Technology Roadmaps for Exploration represent a powerful tool to prioritise R&D activities in technologies for space exploration and support the preparation of a consistent procurement plan for space exploration technologies in Europe. The roadmaps illustrate not only the technology procurement (to TRL-8) paths for specific missions envisaged in the present timeframe, but also the achievement for Europe of technological milestones enabling operational capabilities and building blocks, essential for current and future Exploration missions. Coordination of requirements and funding sources among all European stakeholders (ESA, EU, National, and Industry) is one of the objectives of these roadmaps, that show also possible application of the technologies beyond space exploration, both at ESA and outside. The present paper describes the activity that supports the work on-going at ESA on the elaboration and update of these roadmaps and related tools, in order to criticise the followed approach and to suggest methodologies of assessment of the Roadmaps, and to derive strategic decision for the advancement of Space Exploration in Europe. After a review of Technology Areas, Missions/Programmes and related building blocks (architectures) and operational capabilities, technology applicability analyses are presented. The aim is to identify if a specific technology is required, applicable or potentially a demonstrator in the building blocks of the proposed mission concepts. In this way, for each technology it is possible to outline one or more specific plans to increase TRL up to the required level. In practice, this translates into two possible solutions: on the one

  12. The astrobiological mission EXPOSE-R on board of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Burfeindt, Jürgen; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Pereira, Carlos; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    EXPOSE-R flew as the second of the European Space Agency (ESA) EXPOSE multi-user facilities on the International Space Station. During the mission on the external URM-D platform of the Zvezda service module, samples of eight international astrobiology experiments selected by ESA and one Russian guest experiment were exposed to low Earth orbit space parameters from March 10th, 2009 to January 21st, 2011. EXPOSE-R accommodated a total of 1220 samples for exposure to selected space conditions and combinations, including space vacuum, temperature cycles through 273 K, cosmic radiation, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110, >170 or >200 nm at various fluences up to GJ m-2. Samples ranged from chemical compounds via unicellular organisms and multicellular mosquito larvae and seeds to passive radiation dosimeters. Additionally, one active radiation measurement instrument was accommodated on EXPOSE-R and commanded from ground in accordance with the facility itself. Data on ultraviolet radiation, cosmic radiation and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry and data carrier every few months. The EXPOSE-R trays and samples returned to Earth on March 9th, 2011 with Shuttle flight, Space Transportation System (STS)-133/ULF 5, Discovery, after successful total mission duration of 27 months in space. The samples were analysed in the individual investigators laboratories. A parallel Mission Ground Reference experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions following to the data transmitted from the flight mission.

  13. CIRS-lite: A Fourier Transform Spectrometer for a Future Mission to Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasunas, John C.; Flasar, F. Michael; Jennings, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    The CIRS FTS, aboard the NASA/ESA Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn, has been returning exciting science since 2004. CIRS-lire, a lightweight CIRS successor, is being designed for a follow-up Titan mission.

  14. Data Management Coordinators Monitor STS-78 Mission at the Huntsville Operations Support Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Launched on June 20, 1996, the STS-78 mission's primary payload was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS), which was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the 17 day space flight, the crew conducted a diverse slate of experiments divided into a mix of life science and microgravity investigations. In a manner very similar to future International Space Station operations, LMS researchers from the United States and their European counterparts shared resources such as crew time and equipment. Five space agencies (NASA/USA, European Space Agency/Europe (ESA), French Space Agency/France, Canadian Space Agency /Canada, and Italian Space Agency/Italy) along with research scientists from 10 countries worked together on the design, development and construction of the LMS. This photo represents Data Management Coordinators monitoring the progress of the mission at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at MSFC. Pictured are assistant mission scientist Dr. Dalle Kornfeld, Rick McConnel, and Ann Bathew.

  15. "Europe lands on Mars" - Media event at ESA/ESOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Launched on 2 June 2003 from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on board a Russian Soyuz operated by Starsem, the European probe - built for ESA by a European team of industrial companies led by Astrium - carries seven scientific instruments that will perform a series of remote-sensing experiments designed to shed new light on the Martian atmosphere, the planet's structure and its geology. In particular, the British-made Beagle 2 lander will contribute to the search for traces of life on Mars through exobiology experiments and geochemistry research. On board Mars Express tests have been run to check that the instruments are functioning correctly. Mars Express has successfully come through its first power test on the whole spacecraft after the gigantic solar flare on 28 October. Since 17 November the onboard software has been 'frozen' after several updates and the spacecraft is now quietly proceeding to its destination. Before even entering into Martian orbit to perform its mission, Mars Express has to face another challenge: safely delivering the Beagle 2 lander to its destination. This task, starting on 19 December, will not be without risk. First of all, to deliver the lander where planned, Mars Express has been put on a collision course with Mars, since Beagle 2 does not have a propulsion system of its own and must therefore be 'carried' precisely to its destination. This means that after separation, Mars Express has to veer away quickly to avoid crashing onto the planet. During the cruise Beagle 2 will take its power from the mother spacecraft, Mars Express. After separation and until its solar arrays are fully deployed on the surface, Beagle 2 must rely on its own battery, which cannot last beyond 6 days. So, like a caring parent, Mars Express must release Beagle 2 at the last possible moment to ensure that the lander has enough power for the rest of its journey to the surface. Only then can Mars Express change its orientation and rapidly fire the thrusters to get away

  16. Hubble gets revitalised in new Servicing Mission for more and better science!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    As a unique collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA), and NASA, Hubble has had a phenomenal scientific impact. The unsurpassed sharp images from this space observatory have penetrated into the hidden depths of space and revealed breathtaking phenomena. But Hubble's important contributions to science have only been possible through a carefully planned strategy to service and upgrade Hubble every two or three years. ESA, the European Space Agency has a particular role to play in this Servicing Mission. One of the most exciting events of this mission will come when the ESA-built solar panels are replaced by newer and more powerful ones. The new panels, developed in the US, are equipped with ESA developed drive mechanisms and were tested at the facilities at ESA's European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. This facility is the only place in the world where such tests can be performed. According to Ton Linssen, HST Project Manager at ESA, who supervised all ESA involvement in the new solar panels development including the test campaign at Estec - "a particularly tense moment occurs when the present solar panels have to be rolled up to fit into the Shuttle's cargo bay. The hard environment of space has taken its toll on the panels and it will be a very delicate operation to roll them up. Our team will be waiting and watching with bated breath. If the panels can't be rolled up they will possibly have to be left in space." "With this Servicing Mission Hubble is once again going to be brought back to the frontline of scientific technology", says Piero Benvenuti, Hubble Project Scientist at ESA. "New super-advanced instrumentation will revitalise the observatory. For example, Hubble's new digital camera - The new Advanced Camera for Surveys, or ACS - can take images of twice the area of the sky and with five times the sensitivity of Hubble's previous instruments, therefore increasing by ten times Hubble's discovery capability! The

  17. Earth Sensor Assembly for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Steven S.; Hoover, James M.

    1995-01-01

    EDO Corporation/Barnes Engineering Division (BED) has provided the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA), a key element in the TRMM spacecraft's attitude control system. This report documents the history, design, fabrication, assembly, and test of the ESA.

  18. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  19. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  20. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  1. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  2. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  3. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  4. SOHO Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Footage shows the SOHO Mission Pre-Launch Science Briefing. The moderator of the conference is Fred Brown, NASA/GSFC Public Affairs, introduces the panel members. Included are Professor Roger Bonnet, Director ESA Science Program, Dr. Wesley Huntress, Jr., NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Dr. Vicente Domingo, ESA SOHO Project Scientist. Also present are several members from the SOHO Team: Dr. Richard Harrison, Art Poland, and Phillip Scherrer. The discussions include understanding the phenomena of the sun, eruption of gas clouds into the atmosphere, the polishing of the mirrors for the SOHO satellite, artificial intelligence in the telescopes, and the launch and operating costs. The panel members are also seen answering questions from various NASA Centers and Paris.

  5. Top class images help ESA's Rosetta prepare to ride on a cosmic bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    to the end of the mission in July 2013, at which time the comet is at its closest approach to the Sun, at about 160 million km from it. VLT observations have also provided Rosetta mission planners with an accurate measurement of their target's size: Wirtanen is only 1.2 km in diameter, a true cosmic bullet. "Rosetta is certainly a very challenging space mission. No one has ever tried to land on a comet before," says Gerhard Schwehm, Rosetta's Project Scientist. "We need to learn as much as possible about our target. The new data will allow us to improve our models and make decisions once we get there." Note to editors Rosetta's prime scientific goal is to unravel the origin of the Solar System. The chemical composition of comets is known to reflect that of the primordial nebula that gave birth to the Solar System - in the planets, that primeval material has gone through complex processing, but not in the comets. Therefore, Rosetta will allow scientists to look back 4.6 billion years, to an epoch when the Solar System formed. Previous studies by ESA's Giotto spacecraft and by ground-based observatories have shown that comets contain complex organic molecules - compounds that are rich in carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Intriguingly, these are the elements which make up nucleic acids and amino acids, essential ingredients for life as we know it. Did life on Earth begin with the help of comet seeding? Rosetta may help us to find the answer to this fundamental question. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total . These are provided by scientific consortia from institutes across Europe and the United States. The Wirtanen observations by the VLT fall into a tradition of fruitful collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The two organizations are already combining their efforts in several strategic areas, in order to facilitate the synergy between space and ground facilities, where mutual sharing of technology and

  6. Solar Flare Prediction Science-to-Operations: the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Themelis, Konstantinos; Magiati, Margarita; Angelopoulou, Georgia

    2016-07-01

    We attempt a synoptical overview of the scientific origins of the Athens Effective Solar Flare Forecasting (A-EFFort) utility and the actions taken toward transitioning it into a pre-operational service of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The preferred method for solar flare prediction, as well as key efforts to make it function in a fully automated environment by coupling calculations with near-realtime data-downloading protocols (from the Solar Dynamics Observatory [SDO] mission), pattern recognition (solar active-region identification) and optimization (magnetic connectivity by simulated annealing) will be highlighted. In addition, the entire validation process of the service will be described, with its results presented. We will conclude by stressing the need for across-the-board efforts and synergistic work in order to bring science of potentially limited/restricted interest into realizing a much broader impact and serving the best public interests. The above presentation was partially supported by the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort project, ESA Contract No. 4000111994/14/D/MRP. Special thanks go to the ESA Project Officers R. Keil, A. Glover, and J.-P. Luntama (ESOC), M. Bobra and C. Balmer of the SDO/HMI team at Stanford University, and M. Zoulias at the RCAAM of the Academy of Athens for valuable technical help.

  7. Latest processing status and quality assessment of the GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY ESA dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niro, F.; Brizzi, G.; Saavedra de Miguel, L.; Scarpino, G.; Dehn, A.; Fehr, T.; von Kuhlmann, R.

    2011-12-01

    GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY instruments are successfully observing the changing Earth's atmosphere since the launch of the ENVISAT-ESA platform on March 2002. The measurements recorded by these instruments are relevant for the Atmospheric-Chemistry community both in terms of time extent and variety of observing geometry and techniques. In order to fully exploit these measurements, it is crucial to maintain a good reliability in the data processing and distribution and to continuously improving the scientific output. The goal is to meet the evolving needs of both the near-real-time and research applications. Within this frame, the ESA operational processor remains the reference code, although many scientific algorithms are nowadays available to the users. In fact, the ESA algorithm has a well-established calibration and validation scheme, a certified quality assessment process and the possibility to reach a wide users' community. Moreover, the ESA algorithm upgrade procedures and the re-processing performances have much improved during last two years, thanks to the recent updates of the Ground Segment infrastructure and overall organization. The aim of this paper is to promote the usage and stress the quality of the ESA operational dataset for the GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY missions. The recent upgrades in the ESA processor (GOMOS V6, MIPAS V5 and SCIAMACHY V5) will be presented, with detailed information on improvements in the scientific output and preliminary validation results. The planned algorithm evolution and on-going re-processing campaigns will be mentioned that involves the adoption of advanced set-up, such as the MIPAS V6 re-processing on a clouds-computing system. Finally, the quality control process will be illustrated that allows to guarantee a standard of quality to the users. In fact, the operational ESA algorithm is carefully tested before switching into operations and the near-real time and off-line production is thoughtfully verified via the

  8. An overview of ESA cryocooler activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, C. I.

    1991-12-01

    With a significant number of future cryogenic cooling requirements incompatible with either radiative or cryogen cooling, a program of cryocooler developments which should lead to a range of 'space qualified' cryocoolers being commercially available for future users has been followed. An ESA 80 K 'Oxford type' cooler can presently be considered to be space qualified, while 20 and 4 K coolers are expected to be 'qualified' by 1992. Work is also being undertaken for the development of a 2.5 K cryocooler with 0.3 K as a future goal. The history of the 'Oxfordtype' cooler indicated that the design is based on an excellent pedigree and suggested future work should significantly increase the cryocoolers realm of applications.

  9. The PROBA-3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 is the next ESA mission in the PROBA line of small technology demonstration satellites. The main goal of PROBA-3 is in-orbit demonstration of formation flying techniques and technologies. The mission will consist of two spacecraft together forming a giant (150 m long) coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). The bigger spacecraft will host the telescope, and the smaller spacecraft will carry the external occulter of the coronagraph. ASPIICS heralds the next generation of solar coronagraphs that will use formation flying to observe the inner corona in eclipse-like conditions for extended periods of time. The occulter spacecraft will also host the secondary payload, DARA (Davos Absolute RAdiometer), that will measure the total solar irradiance. PROBA-3 is planned to be launched in 2019. The scientific objectives of PROBA-3 will be discussed in the context of other future solar and heliospheric space missions.

  10. Grand mission versus small OPS team: Can we have both?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Perez, Raul

    1994-01-01

    Space Missions are growing more ambitious, but resources are getting smaller. Is this is a contradiction in terms, or is it a healthy challenge? This paper offers the author's point of view as a member of a small Mission Operations Team that carries out an ambitious international mission (Ulysses ESA/NASA).

  11. Why we need asteroid sample return mission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, Maria Antonietta

    2016-07-01

    Small bodies retain evidence of the primordial solar nebula and the earliest solar system processes that shaped their evolution. They may also contain pre-solar material as well as complex organic molecules, which could have a major role to the development of life on Earth. For these reasons, asteroids and comets have been targets of interest for missions for over three decades. However, our knowledge of these bodies is still very limited, and each asteroid or comet visited by space mission has revealed unexpected scientific results, e.g. the structure and nature of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) visited by the Rosetta mission. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms a small body regolith, to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. For those reasons, sample return missions are considered a high priority by a number of the leading space agencies. Abundant within the inner Solar System and the main impactors on terrestrial planets, small bodies may have been the principal contributors of the water and organic material essential to create life on Earth. Small bodies can therefore be considered to be equivalent to DNA for unravelling our solar system's history, offering us a unique window to investigate both the formation of planets and the origin of life. A sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) has been study at ESA from 2008 in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision (CV) programme, with the objective to answer to the fundamental CV questions "How does the Solar System work?" and "What are the conditions for life and planetary formations?". The returned material

  12. Rosetta performs ESA's closest-ever Earth fly-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Rosetta’s unique instruments, such as its ultraviolet light instrument ALICE, should be able to make critical contributions to the American mission. About Rosetta Rosetta is the first mission designed to both orbit and land on a comet, and consists of an orbiter and a lander. The spacecraft carries 11 scientific experiments and will be the first mission to undertake long-term exploration of a comet at close quarters. After entering orbit around Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the spacecraft will release a small lander onto the icy nucleus. Rosetta will orbit the comet for about a year as it heads towards the Sun, remaining in orbit for another half-year past perihelion (closest approach to the Sun). Comets hold essential information about the origin of our Solar System because they are the most primitive objects in the Solar System and their chemical composition has changed little since their formation. By orbiting and landing on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta will help us reconstruct the history of our own neighbourhood in space. Note for broadcasters: The ESA TV Service will transmit a TV exchange with images of the fly-by, together with science results/images from observations as far as available on 11 March. For further details : http://television.esa.int

  13. ESA sees stardust storms heading for Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    The Sun's galactic environment Credits: P.C. Frisch, University of Chicago The Sun's galactic environment The Sun and the nearest stars move through filaments of galactic clouds. Ulysses and the heliosphere hi-res Size hi-res: 1337 kb Credits: ESA (image by D. Hardy) Ulysses and the heliosphere Over more than 17 years of observations above and below the poles of the Sun, the ESA/NASA Ulysses mission has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the Sun itself, its sphere of influence (the heliosphere), and our local interstellar neighbourhood. The mission provided the first-ever map of the heliosphere in the four dimensions of space and time. Ulysses was launched by Space Shuttle Discovery in October 1990. It headed out to Jupiter, arriving in February 1992 for the gravity-assist manoeuvre that swung the craft into its unique solar orbit. It orbited the Sun three times and performed six polar passes. The mission concludes on 1 July 2008. Since its launch in 1990, Ulysses has constantly monitored how much stardust enters the Solar System from the interstellar space around it. Using an on-board instrument called DUST, scientists have discovered that stardust can actually approach the Earth and other planets, but its flow is governed by the Sun's magnetic field, which behaves as a powerful gate-keeper bouncing most of it back. However, during solar maximum - a phase of intense activity inside the Sun that marks the end of each 11-year solar cycle - the magnetic field becomes disordered as its polarity reverses. As a result, the Sun's shielding power weakens and more stardust can sneak in. What is surprising in this new Ulysses discovery is that the amount of stardust has continued to increase even after the solar activity calmed down and the magnetic field resumed its ordered shape in 2001. Scientists believe that this is due to the way in which the polarity changed during solar maximum. Instead of reversing completely, flipping north to south, the Sun

  14. EarthCARE mission, overview, implementation approach and development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Alain; Hélière, Arnaud; Pérez Albiñana, Abelardo; Wallace, Kotska; Maeusli, Damien; Lemanczyk, Jerzy; Lusteau, Cyrille; Nakatsuka, Hirotaka; Tomita, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) are co-operating to develop the EarthCARE satellite mission with the fundamental objective of improving the understanding of the processes involving clouds, aerosols and radiation in the Earth's atmosphere in order to include them correctly and reliably in climate and numerical weather prediction models. The satellite will be placed in a Sun-Synchronous Orbit at about 400 Km altitude and14h00 mean local solar time. The payload consisting of a High Spectral Resolution UV Atmospheric LIDar (ATLID), a 94GHz Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) with Doppler capability, a Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) and a Broad-Band Radiometer will provide information on cloud and aerosol vertical structure of the atmosphere along the satellite track as well as information about the horizontal structures of clouds and radiant flux from sub-satellite cells. The presentation will cover the configuration of the satellite with its four instruments, the mission implementation approach, an overview of the ground segment and the overall mission development status.

  15. Operational Experience with Autonomous Star Trackers on ESA Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Mathias; Jauregui, Libe; Kielbassa, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Mars Express (MEX), Rosetta and Venus Express (VEX) are ESA interplanetary spacecrafts (S/C) launched in June 2003, March 2004 and November 2005, respectively. Mars Express was injected into Mars orbit end of 2003 with routine operations starting in spring 2004. Rosetta is since launch on its way to rendezvous comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It has completed several test and commissioning activities and is performing several planetary swingbys (Earth in spring 2005, Mars in spring 2007, Earth in autumn 2007 and again two years later). Venus Express has also started routine operations since the completion of the Venus orbit insertion maneuver sequence beginning of May 2006. All three S/C are three axes stabilized with a similar attitude and orbit control system (AOCS). The attitude is estimated on board using star and rate sensors and controlled using four reaction wheels. A bipropellant reaction control system with 10N thrusters serves for wheel off loadings and attitude control in safe mode. Mars Express and Venus Express have an additional 400N engine for the planetary orbit insertion. Nominal Earth communication is accomplished through a high gain antenna. All three S/C are equipped with a redundant set of autonomous star trackers (STR) which are based on almost the same hardware. The STR software is especially adapted for the respective mission. This paper addresses several topics related to the experience gained with the STR operations on board the three S/C so far.

  16. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge was developed in 2011 to encourage proper exercise and nutrition at an early age by teaching young people to live and eat like space explorers. The strong correlation between an unhealthy childhood diet and adolescent fitness, and the onset of chronic diseases as an adult is the catalyst for Mission X. Mission X is dedicated to assisting people on a global scale to live healthier lifestyles and learn about human space exploration. The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut 2015 (MX15) International Challenge hosted almost 40,000 children on 800 teams, 28 countries affiliated with 12 space agencies. The MX15 website included 17 languages. MX15, the fifth annual international fitness challenges sponsored by the NASA Human Research Program worked with the European Space Agency and other space agencies from around the world. In comparison to MX14, MX15 expanded to include four additional new countries, increased the number of students by approximately 68% and the number of teams by 29%. Chile' and South Korea participated in the new fall Astro Charlie Walk Around the Earth Challenge. Pre-challenge training materials were made more readily available from the website. South Korea completed a prospective assessment of the usability of the MX content for improving health and fitness in 212 preschool children and their families. Mission X is fortunate to have the support of the NASA, ESA and JAXA astronaut corps. In MX15, they participated in the opening and closing events as well as while on-board the International Space Station. Italian Astronaut Samantha Cristoretti participated as the MX15 Astronaut Ambassador for health and fitness providing the opening video and other videos from ISS. United Kingdom Astronaut Tim Peake and US Astronaut Kate Rubins have agreed to be the MX Ambassadors for 2016 and 2017 respectively. The MX15 International Working Group Face-to-Face meeting and Closing Event were held at the Agenzia Spaziale

  17. Planetary protection issues for the MarcoPolo NEO sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romstedt, Jens; Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Koschny, Detlef; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brucato, J. R.; Coradini, Marcello; Dotto, Elisabetta; Franchi, Ian A.; Green, Simon F.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Kawagushi, Jun; Michel, Patrick; Muinonen, Karri; Oberst, Juergen; Pillinger, Judith; Prieur, Daniel; Yano, Hajime; Agnolon, David; Binzel, Richard P.

    The MarcoPolo mission has been selected as an M-class candidate for assessment study within the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through a competitive process the final candidate will be selected at the end of the year 2011. The primary goal of this mission is to return samples of material from a Near Earth Object (NEO) to Earth. An automated system will collect material from the top surface layer with a mass of around 100g. The actual sampling sequence is preceded by an intensive mapping and characterisation campaign of the target body by remote sensing instruments on an orbiting spacecraft. The collected material will be transferred to a return capsule that enters Earth's atmosphere and lands. The proposed candidate targets are primitive objects of various spectral classes. In a current process based on scientific evaluation, engineering and programmatic requirements the list of objects will be narrowed down to a short list of prime target bodies. The delivery of alien material to Earth using a spacecraft places this mission in Category V according to COSPAR planetary protection rules. Depending on the target or region of a target the mission is subclassified as "none-restricted" or" restricted" return. The latter implies a severe impact on the complexity of the mission architecture due to much higher technological constraints and sample handling procedures on Earth. Among the NEO population there is a large variety of very different objects. Only a few are assessed on the basis of planetary protection rules. Future small body exploration missions like MarcoPolo require the assessment and categorisation according to the biologic potential of the respective target body. This presentation will assess the proposed mission according to the COSPAR planetary protection rules as adopted by ESA.

  18. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reller, J. O., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Simplified techniques were applied to conduct an extensive spacelab simulation using the airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a spacelab mission.

  19. Current Development of Global Precipitation Mission (GPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non- sun-synchronous daughter satellites, with the core satellite providing relevant measurements on internal cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus "training-calibrating" information to be used with the retrieval algorithms for the daughter satellite measurements. The GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US, NASDA in Japan, and ESA in Europe (representing the European community nations). The mission is expected to involve additional international participants, sister agencies to the mainstream space agencies, and a diverse collection scientists from academia, government, and the private sector.

  20. PROBA2: Mission and Spacecraft Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santandrea, S.; Gantois, K.; Strauch, K.; Teston, F.; Tilmans, E.; Baijot, C.; Gerrits, D.; De Groof, A.; Schwehm, G.; Zender, J.

    2013-08-01

    Within the European Space Agency's (ESA) General Support and Technology Programme (GSTP), the Project for On-Board Autonomy (PROBA) missions provide a platform for in-orbit technology demonstration. Besides the technology demonstration goal, the satellites allow to provide services to, e.g., scientific communities. PROBA1 has been providing multi-spectral imaging data to the Earth observation community for a decade, and PROBA2 provides imaging and irradiance data from our Sun to the solar community. This article gives an overview of the PROBA2 mission history and provides an introduction to the flight segment, the ground segment, and the payload operated onboard. Important aspects of the satellite's design, including onboard software autonomy and the functionality of the navigation and guidance, are discussed. PROBA2 successfully proved again within the GSTP concept that it is possible to provide a fast and cost-efficient satellite design and to combine advanced technology objectives from industry with focussed objectives from the science community.

  1. Cluster and SOHO - A joint endeavor by ESA and NASA to address problems in solar, heliospheric, and space plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Rudolf; Domingo, Vicente; Shawhan, Stanley D.; Bohlin, David

    1988-01-01

    The NASA/ESA Solar-Terrestrial Science Program, which consists of the four-spacecraft cluster mission and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), is examined. It is expected that the SOHO spacecraft will be launched in 1995 to study solar interior structure and the physical processes associated with the solar corona. The SOHO design, operation, data, and ground segment are discussed. The Cluster mission is designed to study small-scale structures in the earth's plasma environment. The Soviet Union is expected to contribute two additional spacecraft, which will be similar to Cluster in instrumentation and design. The capabilities, mission strategy, spacecraft design, payload, and ground segment of Cluster are discussed.

  2. Life Sciences Investigations for ESA's First Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Angerer, O.; Durante, M.; Linnarson, D.; Pike, W. T.

    2010-12-01

    Preparing for future human exploration of the Moon and beyond is an interdisciplinary exercise, requiring new technologies and the pooling of knowledge and expertise from many scientific areas. The European Space Agency is working to develop a Lunar Lander, as a precursor to future human exploration activities. The mission will demonstrate new technologies and perform important preparatory investigations. In the biological sciences the two major areas requiring investigation in advance of human exploration are radiation and its effects on human physiology and the potential toxicity of lunar dust. This paper summarises the issues associated with these areas and the investigations planned for the Lunar Lander to address them.

  3. The European Space Agency standard for space packet utilisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J.-F.; Parkes, A.; Pidgeon, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the ESA concept for the use of CCSDS defined Telemetry and Telecommand Packets at the application level. These Packets are used to monitor and control remotely a space born application. This concept is defined in a Packet Utilisation Standard (PUS) which should become applicable for all ESA missions using Packets. The production of this standard is under the responsibility of an ESA standardization group called 'COES'.

  4. Gravitational-wave Mission Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Paul; Jennrich, Oliver; Stebbins, Robin T.

    2014-01-01

    In November 2013, ESA selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as L3, under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. ESA is considering a 20% participation by an international partner, and NASA's Astrophysics Division has indicated an interest in participating. We have studied the design consequences of a NASA contribution, evaluated the science benefits and identified the technology requirements for hardware that could be delivered by NASA. The European community proposed a strawman mission concept, called eLISA, having two measurement arms, derived from the well studied LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) concept. The US community is promoting a mission concept known as SGO Mid (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory Mid-sized), a three arm LISA-like concept. If NASA were to partner with ESA, the eLISA concept could be transformed to SGO Mid by the addition of a third arm, augmenting science, reducing risk and reducing non-recurring engineering costs. The characteristics of the mission concepts and the relative science performance of eLISA, SGO Mid and LISA are described. Note that all results are based on models, methods and assumptions used in NASA studies

  5. Atmospheric Drag, Occultation `N' Ionospheric Scintillation (ADONIS) mission proposal. Alpbach Summer School 2013 Team Orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettrich, Sebastian; Kempf, Yann; Perakis, Nikolaos; Górski, Jędrzej; Edl, Martina; Urbář, Jaroslav; Dósa, Melinda; Gini, Francesco; Roberts, Owen W.; Schindler, Stefan; Schemmer, Maximilian; Steenari, David; Joldžić, Nina; Glesnes Ødegaard, Linn-Kristine; Sarria, David; Volwerk, Martin; Praks, Jaan

    2015-02-01

    The Atmospheric Drag, Occultation `N' Ionospheric Scintillation mission (ADONIS) studies the dynamics of the terrestrial thermosphere and ionosphere in dependency of solar events over a full solar cycle in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The objectives are to investigate satellite drag with in-situ measurements and the ionospheric electron density profiles with radio occultation and scintillation measurements. A constellation of two satellites provides the possibility to gain near real-time data (NRT) about ionospheric conditions over the Arctic region where current coverage is insufficient. The mission shall also provide global high-resolution data to improve assimilative ionospheric models. The low-cost constellation can be launched using a single Vega rocket and most of the instruments are already space-proven allowing for rapid development and good reliability. From July 16 to 25, 2013, the Alpbach Summer School 2013 was organised by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), the European Space Agency (ESA), the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) and the association of Austrian space industries Austrospace in Alpbach, Austria. During the workshop, four teams of 15 students each independently developed four different space mission proposals on the topic of "Space Weather: Science, Missions and Systems", supported by a team of tutors. The present work is based on the mission proposal that resulted from one of these teams' efforts.

  6. Status of the ESA Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H. R.; Schumann, W.

    2004-11-01

    Following on from the first generation of Meteosat, the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) programme promises to provide advanced and more frequent data for short-range and medium-range weather forecasting and climate monitoring for at least the next 12 years. The MSG programme is a cooperation between ESA and EUMETSAT, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites organisation. ESA has been responsible for designing and developing the first of the four satellites in the MSG programme, whilst EUMETSAT has overall responsibility for defining the end-user requirements, developing the ground segment and operating the system. The first MSG satellite, called MSG-1 (METEOSAT 8), was successfully launched on 28August 2002 by an Ariane 5 launcher together with its co-passenger Atlantic Bird. ESOC took over control of the satellite after separation and placed the satellite from the Ariane injection orbit to a quasi-geostationary orbit drifting slowly towards the commissioning longitude at 10.5 deg West. Subsequently EUMETSAT started the satellite commissioning testing. Except the in-orbit failure of an on-board amplifier, with its consequences for the dissemination service, the achieved results show a high degree of compliance with respect to the satellite specification and show very good overall performance of the satellite, in particular for the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument to be outstanding. METEOSAT-8 entered routine operations on 29 January 2004. In parallel with the MSG-1 commissioning activities, the integration and test phases on the other MSG satellites has well progressed. Begin March 2004, EUMETSAT took the decision to take the MSG-2 satellite out of storage, resuming testing and work on it towards its final preparation for launch with a launch period now defined between February and April 2005. MSG-3 is entered into storage in summer this year. It is an intermediate storage configuration, after the

  7. ESO's VLT Helps ESA's Rosetta Spacecraft Prepare to Ride on a Cosmic Bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    New Images of Comet Wirtanen's Nucleus [1] Summary New images of Comet Wirtanen's 1-km 'dirty snowball' nucleus have been obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile). They show this object at a distance of approx. 435 million km from the Sun, about the same as when the Rosetta spacecraft of the European Space Agency (ESA) arrives in 2011. The new observations indicate that the comet has a very low degree of activity at this point in its orbit - almost no material is seen around the nucleus. This means that there will not be so much dust near the nucleus as to make the planned landing dramatically difficult. PR Photo 06a/02 : The Nucleus of Comet Wirtanen (composite photo). PR Photo 06b/02 : Comet Wirtanen's motion in the sky (animated). A distant target ESO PR Photo 06a/02 ESO PR Photo 06a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 445 pix - 120k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 890 pix - 1.1M] ESO PR Photo 06b/02 ESO PR Photo 06b/02 [Animated GIF: 400 x 420 pix - 312k] Caption : PR Photo 06a/02 shows a (false-colour) composite image of the nucleus of Comet Wirtanen (the point of light at the centre), recorded on December 9, 2001, with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN Unit Telescope. It is based on four exposures and since the telescope was set to track the motion of the comet in the sky, the images of stars in the field are seen as four consecutive trails. The measured brightness and the fact that the image of the comet's 'dirty snowball' nucleus is almost star-like indicates that it is surrounded by a very small amount of gas or dust. The diameter of the nucleus is about 1 km and the distance to the comet from the Earth was approx. 534 million km. In PR Photo 06b/02 , the four exposures have been combined to show the motion of the comet during the four exposures. Technical information about the photos is available below. Chase a fast-moving comet, land on it and 'ride' it while it speeds up towards the Sun: not the script of a science-fiction movie

  8. The GRB Investigations by ESA Satellite Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Šimon, V.; Hudec, L.

    2009-05-01

    The ESA satellite in development Gaia to be launched in 2011 will focus on highly precise astrometry of stars and all objects down to limiting magnitude 20. Albeit focusing on astrometry related matters, the satellite will also provide photometric and spectral information and hence important inputs for various branches of astrophysics. Within the Gaia Variability UnitCU7 and related work package Specific Object Studies there has been a sub-work package accepted for optical counterparts to celestial high-energy sources, a category which includes the optical counterparts (i.e. optical transients and optical afterglows, including counterparts of XRFs and yet hypothetical orphan afterglows) of GRBs, and also microquasars. Although the sampling of photometric data will not be optimal for this type of work, the strength of Gaia in such analyses is the fine spectral resolution (spectro-photometry) which will allow the correct classification of related triggers. The possibilities to detect and to analyze optical transients and optical afterglows of GRBs and microquasars by Gaia will be presented and discussed.

  9. Overview of Key Saturn Probe Mission Trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Kowalkowski, Theresa; Folkner, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Ongoing studies, performed at NASA/JPL over the past two years in support of NASA's SSE Roadmap activities, proved the feasibility of a NF class Saturn probe mission. I. This proposed mission could also provide a good opportunity for international collaboration with the proposed Cosmic Vision KRONOS mission: a) With ESA contributed probes (descent modules) on a NASA lead mission; b) Early 2017 launch could be a good programmatic option for ESA-CV/NASA-NF. II. A number of mission architectures could be suitable for this mission: a) Probe Relay based architecture with short flight time (approx. 6.3-7 years); b) DTE probe telecom based architecture with long flight time (-11 years), and low probe data rate, but with the probes decoupled from the carrier, allowing for polar trajectories I orbiter. This option may need technology development for telecom; c) Orbiter would likely impact mission cost over flyby, but would provide significantly higher science return. The Saturn probes mission is expected to be identified in NASA's New Frontiers AO. Thus, further studies are recommended to refine the most suitable architecture. International collaboration is started through the KRONOS proposal work; further collaborated studies will follow once KRONOS is selected in October under ESA's Cosmic Vision Program.

  10. Return to Europa: Overview of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, K.; Tan-Wang, G.; Boldt, J.; Greeley, R.; Jun, I.; Lock, R.; Ludwinski, J.; Pappalardo, R.; Van Houten, T.; Yan, T.

    2009-01-01

    Missions to explore Europa have been imagined ever since the Voyager mission first suggested that Europa was geologically very young. Subsequently, Galileo supplied fascinating new insights into that satellite's secrets. The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) would be the NASA-led portion of the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), an international mission with orbiters developed by NASA, ESA and possibly JAXA. JEO would address a very important subset of the complete EJSM science objectives and is designed to function alone or in conjunction with ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO).

  11. ESA Science Media Day: Rosetta and Integral getting ready for launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    Media representatives are invited to ESTEC on Tuesday 18 June to learn about these two missions. Professor David Southwood, ESA Director of Science, ESA project managers and project scientists, together with industry representatives, will be giving presentations and be on hand for interviews. Visits to the spacecraft in their test environment will also be included. Representatives of the media wishing to attend this media day at ESA/ESTEC on 18 June are kindly requested to complete the attached accreditation form and fax it to: Heidi Graf, Head of Corporate Communication Office - ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands - (Tel. +31(0) 71.565.3006 - Fax. +31(0)71.565.5728). Note for editors: The mission goal for the Rosetta spacecraft is a rendezvous with Comet Wirtanen in 2011. Rosetta will be launched in January 2003 by an Ariane-5 from Kourou, French Guiana. On its eight-year journey to the Comet, the spacecraft will pass close to two asteroids, before studying the nucleus of Comet Wirtanen and its environment in great detail for a period of nearly two years (2011-2013). The spacecraft will also carry a lander to the nucleus and deploy it on the comet's surface. The lander science will focus on in situ study of the composition and structure of the nucleus material. The mission will make an unparalleled study of cometary material and reveal much about how the solar system formed. Integral will have the task of tracking gamma radiation across the entire sky. ESA's International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Integral, will gather gamma rays, the most energetic radiation that comes from space. The spacecraft is scheduled for launch on 17 October this year, from Baikonur, on board a Russian Proton launcher and will help solve some of the biggest mysteries in astronomy. Integral will be the most sensitive gamma-ray observatory ever launched. It will detect radiation from the most violent events far away and yet at the same time give evidence of the processes that

  12. An ESA roadmap for geobiology in space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, Claire R.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Geobiology, and in particular mineral-microbe interactions, has a significant role to play in current and future space exploration. This includes the search for biosignatures in extraterrestrial environments, and the human exploration of space. Microorganisms can be exploited to advance such exploration, such as through biomining, maintenance of life-support systems, and testing of life-detection instrumentation. In view of these potential applications, a European Space Agency (ESA) Topical Team "Geobiology in Space Exploration" was developed to explore these applications, and identify research avenues to be investigated to support this endeavour. Through community workshops, a roadmap was produced, with which to define future research directions via a set of 15 recommendations spanning three key areas: Science, Technology, and Community. These roadmap recommendations identify the need for research into: (1) new terrestrial space-analogue environments; (2) community level microbial-mineral interactions; (3) response of biofilms to the space environment; (4) enzymatic and biochemical mineral interaction; (5) technical refinement of instrumentation for space-based microbiology experiments, including precursor flight tests; (6) integration of existing ground-based planetary simulation facilities; (7) integration of fieldsite biogeography with laboratory- and field-based research; (8) modification of existing planetary instruments for new geobiological investigations; (9) development of in situ sample preparation techniques; (10) miniaturisation of existing analytical methods, such as DNA sequencing technology; (11) new sensor technology to analyse chemical interaction in small volume samples; (12) development of reusable Lunar and Near Earth Object experimental platforms; (13) utility of Earth-based research to enable the realistic pursuit of extraterrestrial biosignatures; (14) terrestrial benefits and technological spin-off from existing and future space

  13. Concepts For An EO Land Convoy Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, M. A.; Eves, S.; Remedios, J.; Humpage, N.; Hall, D.; Regan, A.

    2013-12-01

    ESA are undertaking three studies investigating possible synergistic satellite missions flying in formation with the operational Copernicus Sentinel missions and/or the METOP satellites. These three studies are focussed on:- a) ocean and ice b) land c) atmosphere Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), the University of Leicester and Astrium Ltd are undertaking the second of these studies into the synergetic observation by missions flying in formation with European operational missions, focusing on the land theme. The aim of the study is to identify and develop, (through systematic analysis), potential innovative Earth science objectives and novel applications and services that could be made possible by flying additional satellites, (possibly of small-class type), in constellation or formation with one or more already deployed or firmly planned European operational missions, with an emphasis on the Sentinel missions, but without excluding other possibilities. In the long-term, the project aims at stimulating the development of novel, (smaller), mission concepts in Europe that may exploit new and existing European operational capacity in order to address in a cost effective manner new scientific objectives and applications. One possible route of exploitation would be via the proposed Small Mission Initiative (SMI) that may be initiated under the ESA Earth Explorer Observation Programme (EOEP). The following ESA science priority areas have been highlighted during the study [1]:- - The water cycle - The carbon cycle - Terrestrial ecosystems - Biodiversity - Land use and land use cover - Human population dynamics The study team have identified the science gaps that might be addressed by a "convoy" mission flying with the Copernicus Sentinel satellites, identified the candidate mission concepts and provided recommendations regarding the most promising concepts from a list of candidates. These recommendations provided the basis of a selection process performed by ESA

  14. Cluster: Mission Overview and End-of-Life Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallaschke, S.; Munoz, I.; Rodriquez-Canabal, J.; Sieg, D.; Yde, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The Cluster mission is part of the scientific programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) and its purpose is the analysis of the Earth's magnetosphere. The Cluster project consists of four satellites. The selected polar orbit has a shape of 4.0 and 19.2 Re which is required for performing measurements near the cusp and the tail of the magnetosphere. When crossing these regions the satellites form a constellation which in most of the cases so far has been a regular tetrahedron. The satellite operations are carried out by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) at Darmstadt, Germany. The paper outlines the future orbit evolution and the envisaged operations from a Flight Dynamics point of view. In addition a brief summary of the LEOP and routine operations is included beforehand.

  15. Assessment of a 2016 Mission Concept: The Search for Trace Gases in the Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Richard W.; Chicarro, Augustin; Allen, Mark A.; Bertauz, Jean-Loup; Clancy, R. Todd; Daerden, Frank; Formisano, Vittorio; Garvin, James B.; neukum, Gerhard; Smith, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The reported detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars as well as its potentially large seasonal spatial variations challenge our understanding of both the sources and sinks of atmospheric trace gases. The presence of methane suggests ongoing exchange between the subsurface and the atmosphere of potentially biogenic trace gases, while the spatial and temporal variations cannot be accounted for with current knowledge of martian photochemistry. A Joint Instrument Definition Team (JIDT) was asked to assess concepts for a mission that might follow up on these discoveries within the framework of a series of joint missions being considered by ESA and NASA for possible future exploration of Mars. The following is based on the report of the JIDT to the space agencies (Zurek et al., 2009); a synopsis of the report was presented at the Workshop on Mars Methane held in Frascati, Italy, in November 2009. To summarize, the JIDT believed that a scientifically exciting and credible mission could be conducted within the evolving capabilities of the science/telecommunications orbiter being considered by ESA and NASA for possible launch in the 2016 opportunity for Mars.

  16. Dynamics of ejecta from the binary asteroid Didymos, the target of the AIDA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Yu, Yang; Schwartz, Stephen; Naidu, Shantanu; Benner, Lance

    2016-04-01

    The AIDA space mission, a collaborative effort between ESA and NASA, aims to characterize the near-Earth asteroid binary (65803) Didymos and to perform a kinetic impactor demonstration on the small moon of the binary system. Our study presents a multi-scale dynamical model of the ejecta cloud produced by a hypervelocity impact, which enables us to compute the ejecta properties at different spatial and time scales. This model is applied to the impact into the small moon of Didymos on October 2022 as considered by the AIDA mission. We model the process by including as much practical information as possible, e.g., the gravitational environment influenced by the non-spherical shapes of the bodies (based on the observed shape of the primary), the solar tides, and the solar radiation pressure. Our simulations show where and for how long the ejecta cloud evolves with time for the considered ejecta initial conditions. This information is used to assess the potential hazard to the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) observing spacecraft and to determine the safest positions. This study is performed with support of the European Space Agency and in the framework of the NEOShield-2 project that has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 640351.

  17. A Possible U.S. Contribution to eLISA, a Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept for ESA’s L2 Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2013-04-01

    Scientists from the member states of the European Space Agency (ESA) that proposed the New Gravitational Wave Observatory (NGO) have organized the eLISA Consortium to propose for ESA's next large mission opportunity, called L2. The Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA) concept is derived from the well studied LISA concept for a space-based, gravitational-wave mission. eLISA will use the technology being developed in the LISA Pathfinder mission in a two-arm version that achieves much of the LISA science endorsed by the Decadal Survey. If invited, NASA could join the project as a junior partner with a ~15% share. This could enable a third arm and substantially augment the science return. While the details of the eLISA concept to be proposed have not yet been finalized, the SGO Mid concept, recently studied in the U.S., constitutes a possible augmented concept for an ESA/NASA partnership. The eLISA concept and the SGO Mid concept are described and compared.

  18. European Space Agency Campaign Activities in Support of Earth Observation Projects: Examples for Snow and Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüttemeyer, D.; Davidson, M.; Casal, T.; Perrera, A.; Bianchi, R.; Kern, M.; Scipal, K.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out groundbased and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans and atmosphere. Campaigns in support of future mission development have technological, geophysical and simulation objectives while exploitation projects need validation for the assessment of the quality of the earth observation products and of the service provision. ESA has been conducting airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 by deploying a broad range of active and passive instrumentation in both the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such as lidars, limb/nadir sounding interferometers/spectrometers, high-resolution spectral imagers, advanced synthetic aperture radars, altimeters and radiometers. These campaigns take place inside and outside Europe in collaboration with national research organisations in the ESA member states as well as with international organisations harmonising European campaign activities. For the different activities a rich variety of datasets has been recorded, are archived and users can access campaign data through the EOPI web portal [http://eopi.esa.int]. In 2005, ESA released a call for the next Earth Explorer Core Mission Ideas with the aim to select a 7th Earth Explorer (EE7) mission to be launched in the next decade. Twenty-four proposals were received and subject to detailed scientific and technical assessment. During the so-called Phase 0, six concepts were selected and further investigated. A down-selection was made after the User Consultation Meeting held in Lisbon, Portugal in January 2009. Three candidate mission concepts were selected for further feasibility phase (phase A) investigation. Each of the candidate missions are being elaborated through two parallel industrial

  19. Battery development and testing at ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verniolle, Jean

    1987-01-01

    The principal activities of the Energy Storage Section of the Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) of the European Space Agency are presented. Nickel-hydrogen and fuel cell systems development are reported. The European Space Battery Test Center (ESBTC) facilities are briefly described along with the current test programs and results obtained.

  20. The ESA Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, D.; Quaghebeur, B.; Evans, H. D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The ESA SPace ENVironment Information System (SPENVIS) provides standardized access to models of the hazardous space environment through a user-friendly WWW interface. The interface includes parameter input with extensive defaulting, definition of user environments, streamlined production of results (both in graphical and textual form), background information, and on-line help. It is available on-line at http://www.spenvis.oma.be/spenvis/. SPENVIS Is designed to help spacecraft engineers perform rapid analyses of environmental problems and, with extensive documentation and tutorial information, allows engineers with relatively little familiarity with the models to produce reliable results. It has been developed in response to the increasing pressure for rapid-response tools for system engineering, especially in low-cost commercial and educational programmes. It is very useful in conjunction with radiation effects and electrostatic charging testing in the context of hardness assurance. SPENVIS is based on internationally recognized standard models and methods in many domains. It uses an ESA-developed orbit generator to produce orbital point files necessary for many different types of problem. It has various reporting and graphical utilities, and extensive help facilities. The SPENVIS radiation module features models of the proton and electron radiation belts, as well as solar energetic particle and cosmic ray models. The particle spectra serve as input to models of ionising dose (SHIELDOSE), Non-Ionising Energy Loss (NIEL), and Single Event Upsets (CREME). Material shielding is taken into account for all these models, either as a set of user-defined shielding thicknesses, or in combination with a sectoring analysis that produces a shielding distribution from a geometric description of the satellite system. A sequence of models, from orbit generator to folding dose curves with a shielding distribution, can be run as one process, which minimizes user interaction and

  1. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Pretreatments Only Final Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (hex chrome or CR(VI)) is a widely used element within applied coating systems because of its self-healing and corrosion-resistant properties. The replacement of hex chrome in the processing of aluminum for aviation and aerospace applications remains a goal of great significance. Aluminum is the major manufacturing material of structures and components in the space flight arena. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) are engaged in a collaborative effort to test and evaluate alternatives to hexavalent chromium containing corrosion coating systems. NASA and ESA share common risks related to material obsolescence associated with hexavalent chromium used in corrosion-resistant coatings.

  2. ESA activities in the use of microwaves for the remote sensing of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccoll, D.

    1984-01-01

    The program of activities under way in the European Space Agency (ESA) directed towards Remote Sensing of the oceans and troposphere is discussed. The initial project is the launch of a satellite named ERS-1 with a primary payload of microwave values in theee C- and Ku-bands. This payload is discussed in depth. The secondary payload includes precision location experiments and an instrument to measure sea surface temperature, which are described. The important topic of calibration is extensively discussed, and a review of activities directed towards improvements to the instruments for future satellites is presented. Some discussion of the impact of the instrument payload on the spacecraft design follows and the commitment of ESA to the provision of a service of value to the ultimate user is emphasized.

  3. On-orbit demonstrations of automated closure and capture using ESA-developed proximity operations technologies and an existing serviceable NASA Explorer platform spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohweisner, Bill; Pairot, Jean-Michael

    1991-01-01

    Since 1984 the European Space Agency (ESA) has been working to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking capability to enable Hermes to dock automatically with Columbus. As a result, ESA (with Matra, MBB, and other space companies) have developed technologies that are directly supportive of the current NASA initiative for Automated Rendezvous and Capture. Fairchild and Matra would like to discuss the results of the applicable ESA/Matra rendezvous and capture developments and suggest how these capabilities could be used together with an existing NASA Explorer Platform satellite to minimize new development and accomplish a cost-effective automatic closure and capture demonstration program.

  4. Europa Lander Mission: A Challenge to Find Traces of Alien Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Korablev, Oleg; Vorobyova, Elena; Martynov, Maxim; Akim, Efraim L.; Zakahrov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    An international effort dedicated to science exploration of Jupiter system planned by ESA and NASA in the beginning of next decade includes in-depth science investigation of Europa. In parallel to EJSM (Europa-Jupiter System Mission) Russian Space Agency and the academy of Science plan Laplace-Europa Lander mission, which will include the small telecommunication and science orbiter and the surface element: Europa Lander. In-situ methods on the lander provide the only direct possibility to assess environmental conditions, and to perform the search for signatures of life. A critical advantage of such in situ analysis is the possibility to enhance concentration and detection limits and to provide ground truth for orbital measurements. The science mission of the lander is biological, geophysical, chemical, and environmental characterizations of the Europa surface. Remote investigations from the orbit around Europa would not be sufficient to address fully the astrobiology, geodesy, and geology goals. The science objectives of the planned mission, the synergy between the Europa Lander and EJSM mission elements, and a brief description of the Laplace-Europa Lander mission are presented.

  5. MELFI ready for science - ESA's -80°C freezer begins work in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Parolis, Maria N.; Crippa, Giorgio; Chegancas, Jean; Olivier, Frederic; Guichard, Jerome

    2006-11-01

    After a 4-year wait, ESA's "MELFI" freezer rack is now installed and working in the International Space Station (ISS). It provides researchers with a unique cold-storage facility important, for example, for biology and human physiology investigations. Originally designed for frequent return trips, a major shift in Station requirements meant that a major effort had to be made before launch aboard Shuttle mission STS-121 in July to prepare it for permanent residence in space. The first science samples have been successfully frozen, before the first European samples were added in September.

  6. Are you ready for Mars? - Main media events surrounding the arrival of ESA's Mars Express at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Launched on 2 June 2003 from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on board a Russian Soyuz launcher operated by Starsem, the European probe -built for ESA by a European team of industrial companies led by Astrium - carries seven scientific instruments that will perform a series of remote-sensing experiments designed to shed new light on the Martian atmosphere, the planet’s structure and its geology. In particular, the British-made Beagle 2 lander, named after the ship on which Charles Darwin explored uncharted areas of the Earth in 1830, will contribute to the search for traces of life on Mars through exobiology experiments and geochemistry research. On Christmas Eve the Mars Express orbiter will be steered on a course taking it into an elliptical orbit, where it will safely circle the planet for a minimum of almost 2 Earth years. The Beagle 2 lander - which will have been released from the mother craft a few days earlier (on 19 December) - instead will stay on a collision course with the planet. It too should also be safe, being designed for atmospheric entry and geared for a final soft landing due to a sophisticated system of parachutes and airbags. On arrival, the Mars Express mission control team will report on the outcome of the spacecraft's delicate orbital insertion manoeuvre. It will take some time for Mars Express to manouvre into position to pick communications from Beagle 2. Hence, initially, other means will be used to check that Beagle 2 has landed: first signals from the Beagle 2 landing are expected to be available throughout Christmas Day, either through pick-up and relay of Beagle 2 radio signals by NASA’s Mars Odyssey, or by direct pick-up by the Jodrell Bank radio telescope in the UK. Mars Express will then pass over Beagle 2 in early January 2004, relaying data and images back to Earth. The first images from the cameras of Beagle 2 and Mars Express are expected to be available between the end of the year and the beginning of January 2004. The key dates

  7. Rosetta Mission Status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to ex-amine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Nearly 10 years after launch in 2004, on 20th January 2014 at 10:00 UTC the spacecraft woke up from hibernation. Following successful instrument commissioning, Rosetta successfully rendezvoused with the comet. Following an intense period of map-ping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was suc-cessfully deployed. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission up to date and where we stand in main science phase, which began with Philae's separation. It will also provide a look forward. IT is given on behalf of ALL Rosetta mission science, in-strument and operations teams.

  8. Rosetta Mission Status Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. G.; Altobelli, N.; Alexander, C. J.; Schwehm, G. H.; Jansen, F.; Küppers, M.; O'Rourke, L.; Barthelemy, M.; Geiger, B.; Grieger, B.; Moissl, R.; Vallat, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae will be the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Nearly 10 years after launch in 2004, on 20th January 2014 at 10:00 UTC the spacecraft woke up from hibernation. Following successful instrument commissioning, at the time of writing the spacecraft is about to rendez-vous with the comet. The rest of 2014 will involve careful mapping and characterisation of the nucleus and its environs, for science and to identify a landing site for the lander Philae in November. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission up to date and where we stand in early part of the escort phase of the mission which runs until end of 2015.

  9. STS-41 mission charts, computer-generated and artist concept drawings, photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 related charts, computer-generated and artist concept drawings, and photos of the Ulysses spacecraft and mission flight path provided by the European Space Agency (ESA). Charts show the Ulysses mission flight path and encounter with Jupiter (45980, 45981) and sun (illustrating cosmic dust, gamma ray burst, magnetic field, x-rays, solar energetic particles, visible corona, interstellar gas, plasma wave, cosmic rays, solar radio noise, and solar wind) (45988). Computer-generated view shows the Ulysses spacecraft (45983). Artist concept illustrates Ulysses spacecraft deploy from the space shuttle payload bay (PLB) with the inertial upper stage (IUS) and payload assist module (PAM-S) visible (45984). Ulysses spacecraft is also shown undergoing preflight testing in the manufacturing facility (45985, 45986, 45987).

  10. Gaia Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusti, Timo

    2015-08-01

    The commissioning phase of the Gaia satellite was completed in July 2014 and we are well into the first year of routine phase operations out of the nominal 5 year mission. All subsystems are working and the operational parameters have been tuned for optimum science performance. A final upgrade of the on-board detection software is under testing. The aim is to be operational in the final configuration by summer 2015. The magnitude limit of the survey has been set to G=20.7 mag for astrometry and photometry. The spectroscopy magnitude limit is currently G_RVS=16.2 mag, but may be adjusted pending the new on-board software testing. The Science Alerts stream based on photometry has been started while preparations are underway for the first intermediate catalogue release by summer 2016. Examples of Gaia observations will be shown to indicate the scientific power of this ESA cornerstone mission.

  11. Space Weather studies with a fleet of ESA SREM monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, Wojtek; Evans, Hugh; Mohammadzadeh, Ali; Nieminen, Petteri; Desorgher, Laurent; Buehler, Paul; Daly, Eamonn

    2012-07-01

    Reliable observations and studies of Space Weather are based on precisely correlated network of specialized and well calibrated instruments. Such devices are able to provide simultaneously a set of 3D data encompassing large volume of the Earth magnetosphere. The fleet of ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) is an example of such a network. SREM is a particle detector capable of detection of electrons (E > 500 keV) and protons (E > 8 MeV) with fair spectral and angular resolution. Six of them have been already launched onboard of Proba-1, Rosetta, INTEGRAL, Giove-B, Herschel and Planck missions. As single devices they are able to follow local Space Weather conditions providing accurate measurements of proton and electron spectra. As a network they allow for correlated observations of the radiation environments 3D variability. It includes not only the dynamics of the radiation belts but also propagation of Solar Energetic Particles as well as mapping of Forbusch decreases from coupling of Cosmic Rays and Coronal Mass Ejections. We present the SREM Data Bank open to the public and discuss its main features. Typical examples of the raw data corresponding to the physical phenomena listed above will also be shown. We will also discuss several data conversions algorithms leading to the particle spectra. A comparison between various methods such as simple algorithms, neural network or minimization will be discussed. Several other aspects of the SREM data analysis such as particle identification and separation or flux anisotropy level will also be addressed. Finally we provide short introduction for using of the SREM DB and its main analysis tools.

  12. The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küppers, M.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Mellab, K.; Michel, P.; AIM Team

    2015-10-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is ESA's contribution to an international cooperation targeting the demonstration of deflection of a hazardous nearearth asteroid as well as the first in-depth investigation of a binary asteroid. After launch in 2020, AIM will rendezvous the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos in 2022 and observe the system before, during, and after the impact of NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. The AIM mission will test new technologies like optical telecommunications by laser and Cubesats with nano-payloads and will perform scientific measurements at the asteroid system.

  13. Technology for Future Exoplanet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter; Devirian, Michael; van Zyl, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    A central theme in NASA's and ESA's vision for future missions is the search for habitable worlds and life beyond our Solar System. This presentation will review the current state of the art in planet-finding technology, with an emphasis on methods of starlight suppression. At optical wavelengths, Earth-like planets are about 10 billion times fainter than their host stars. Starlight suppression is therefore necessary to enable measurements of biosignatures in the atmospheres of faint Earth-like planets. Mission concepts based on coronagraph, starshade, and interferometers will be described along with their science objectives and technology requirements.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues (ESA 1997)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESA

    1997-02-01

    The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues are the primary products of the European Space Agency's astrometric mission, Hipparcos. The satellite, which operated for four years, returned high quality scientific data from November 1989 to March 1993. Each of the catalogues contains a large quantity of very high quality astrometric and photometric data. In addition there are associated annexes featuring variability and double/multiple star data, and solar system astrometric and photometric measurements. In the case of the Hipparcos Catalogue, the principal parts are provided in both printed and machine-readable form (on CDROM). In the case of the Tycho Catalogue, results are provided in machine-readable form only (on CDROM). Although in general only the final reduced and calibrated astrometric and photometric data are provided, some auxiliary files containing results from intermediate stages of the data processing, of relevance for the more-specialised user, have also been retained for publication. (Some, but not all, data files are available from the Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg.) The global data analysis tasks, proceeding from nearly 1000 Gbit of raw satellite data to the final catalogues, was a lengthy and complex process, and was undertaken by the NDAC and FAST Consortia, together responsible for the production of the Hipparcos Catalogue, and the Tycho Consortium, responsible for the production of the Tycho Catalogue. A fourth scientific consortium, the INCA Consortium, was responsible for the construction of the Hipparcos observing programme, compiling the best-available data for the selected stars before launch into the Hipparcos Input Catalogue. The production of the Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues marks the formal end of the involvement in the mission by the European Space Agency and the four scientific consortia. For more complete and detailed information on the data, the user is advised to refer to Volume 1 ("Introduction and Guide to the Data", ESA

  15. mkESA: enhanced suffix array construction tool.

    PubMed

    Homann, Robert; Fleer, David; Giegerich, Robert; Rehmsmeier, Marc

    2009-04-15

    We introduce the tool mkESA, an open source program for constructing enhanced suffix arrays (ESAs), striving for low memory consumption, yet high practical speed. mkESA is a user-friendly program written in portable C99, based on a parallelized version of the Deep-Shallow suffix array construction algorithm, which is known for its high speed and small memory usage. The tool handles large FASTA files with multiple sequences, and computes suffix arrays and various additional tables, such as the LCP table (longest common prefix) or the inverse suffix array, from given sequence data. PMID:19246510

  16. ESA Press Event: See Mars Express before its departure to the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    There will be ten participants: four ESA astronauts (Pedro Duque, Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli and Thomas Reiter), four Japanese astronauts from NASDA (Takao Doi, Koichi Wakata, Satoshi Furukawa and Aikihido Hoshide) and two NASA astronauts (Nicole Passonno Stott and Stephanie D. Wilson). The main objective of this training session is to prepare the astronauts for the tasks they will have to perform when the Japanese experiment module (JEM) and ESA's Columbus laboratory are docked with the core of the International Space Station over the years ahead. After completing their training and certification, the astronauts will be assigned to long-duration missions to the ISS. The advanced training at the EAC will focus on the Columbus systems and the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). It will consist of 24 classroom lectures on the Columbus and ATV systems and 4 on payloads, and 2 sessions in the Columbus Trainer. Instructors are being provided by Astrium for the Columbus systems and Alenia Spazio for the ATV, with ESA/EAC staff as mentors for the Columbus payloads. The astronauts are scheduled to visit Astrium in Bremen on 30 August to get acquainted with the flight unit of the Columbus laboratory module currently undergoing integration. This group of astronauts started their advanced training in April 2001 at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, where they attended a first course on the US segment of the International Space Station. This was followed by training on the JEM system at NASDA's Tsukuba Space Center, Japan, in December 2001 - January 2002 and additional training at the JSC in May 2002. At the beginning of next year the group will be returning to Tsukuba for training on Japanese payloads. Hands-on sessions on Columbus Payload Training Models are scheduled for the second half of 2003, again at ESA's European Astronaut Centre. On Thursday 5 September, between 16:30 and 18:30 hrs, the astronauts and other ESA specialists will be available for interviews

  17. East Meets West on "Double Star", a Joint Mission to Explore Earth's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    ESA Director General Antonio Rodotà and Luan Enjie, Administrator of the CNSA, signed an official agreement that will enable European experiments to be flown on Chinese satellites for the first time. "This agreement marks a significant advance for international cooperation in the exploration and peaceful use of outer space," said Mr. Rodotà. "It is one of the most important landmarks in scientific collaboration since ESA and the People's Republic of China first agreed to exchange scientific information more than 20 years ago." "The Double Star programme will be just the first step in substantial cooperation between the Chinese National Space Administration and ESA" said Mr Luan Enjie. "The signing of today's agreement paves the way not only for reciprocal cooperation between scientists, but for the establishment of comprehensive cooperation between the two agencies". Double Star will follow in the footsteps of ESA's groundbreaking Cluster mission by studying the effects of the Sun on the Earth's environment. Conducting joint studies with Cluster and Double Star should increase the overall scientific return from both missions. A key aspect of ESA's participation in the Double Star project is the inclusion of 10 instruments that are identical to those currently flying on the four Cluster spacecraft. A further eight experiments will be provided by Chinese institutes. "We hope it will be possible to make coordinated measurements with both Cluster and Double Star." said Cluster Project Scientist Philippe Escoubet. "For example, we would hope to carry out a joint exploration of the magnetotail, a region where storms of high energy particles are generated. When these particles reach Earth, they can cause power cuts, damage satellites and disrupt communications." Six of the eleven Cluster principal investigators have agreed to provide flight spares or duplicates of the experiments that are currently revolutionising our understanding of near-Earth space. This reuse of

  18. Return to Europa: Overview of the Jupiter Europa orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, K.; Boldt, J.; Greeley, R.; Hand, K.; Jun, I.; Lock, R.; Pappalardo, R.; van Houten, T.; Yan, T.

    2011-08-01

    Missions to explore Europa have been imagined ever since the Voyager mission first suggested that Europa was geologically very young. Subsequently, the Galileo spacecraft supplied fascinating new insights into this satellite of Jupiter. Now, an international team is proposing a return to the Jupiter system and Europa with the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). Currently, NASA and ESA are designing two orbiters that would explore the Jovian system and then each would settle into orbit around one of Jupiter's icy satellites, Europa and Ganymede. In addition, the Japanese Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is considering a Jupiter magnetospheric orbiter and the Russian Space Agency is investigating a Europa lander.The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) would be the NASA-led portion of the EJSM; JEO would address a very important subset of the complete EJSM science objectives and is designed to function alone or in conjunction with ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The JEO mission concept uses a single orbiter flight system that would travel to Jupiter by means of a multiple-gravity-assist trajectory and then perform a multi-year study of Europa and the Jupiter system, including 30 months of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of 9 months.The JEO mission would investigate various options for future surface landings. The JEO mission science objectives, as defined by the international EJSM Science Definition Team, include:Europa's ocean: Characterize the extent of the ocean and its relation to the deeper interior.Europa's ice shell: Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange.Europa's chemistry: Determine global surface compositions and chemistry, especially as related to habitability.Europa's geology: Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ

  19. HADES : A Mission Concept for the Identification of New Saline Aquifer Sites Suitable for Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechorro, Ed; Lecuyot, Arnaud; Bacon, Andrew; Chalkley, Simon; Milnes, Martin; Williams, Ivan; Williams, Stuart; Muthu, Kavitha

    2014-05-01

    The Hidden Aquifer & Deep Earth Sounder (HADES) is a ground penetrating radar mission concept for identifying new saline aquifer sites suitable for Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS). HADES uses a newly proposed type of Earth Observation technique, previously deployed in Mars orbit to search for water. It has been proposed to globally map the sub-surface layers of Earth's land area down to a maximum depth of 3km to detect underground aquifers of suitable depth and geophysical conditions for CCS. We present the mission concept together with the approach and findings of the project from which the concept has arisen, a European Space Agency (ESA) study on "Future Earth Observation Missions & Techniques for the Energy Sector" performed by a consortium of partners comprising CGI and SEA. The study aims to improve and increase the current and future application of Earth Observation in provision of data and services to directly address long term energy sector needs for a de-carbonised economy. This is part of ESA's cross-agency "Space and Energy" initiative. The HADES mission concept is defined by our specification of (i) mission requirements, reflecting the challenges and opportunities with identifying CCS sites from space, (ii) the observation technique, derived from ground penetrating radar, and (iii) the preliminary system concept, including specification of the resulting satellite, ground and launch segments. Activities have also included a cost-benefit analysis of the mission, a defined route to technology maturation, and a preliminary strategic plan towards proposed implementation. Moreover, the mission concept maps to a stakeholder analysis forming the initial part of the study. Its method has been to first identify the user needs specific to the energy sector in the global transition towards a de-carbonised economy. This activity revealed the energy sector requirements geared to the identification of suitable CCS sites. Subsequently, a qualitative and quantitative

  20. The ESA activities on future launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeffer, H.

    1984-01-01

    A future launcher development scenario depends on many assumptions, such as the impetus provided by the probability of future missions, and the political willingness of member states to undertake future developments. Because of the long timescale implied by a coherent launcher development, a step-wise approach within an overall future launcher development plan appears essential. The definition of development steps allows the launcher developments to be adapted to the driving external forces, so that no possible opportunity to Europe in the space launch business is missed out because of improper planning on the absence of a long term goal. The launcher senario, to be presented in 1985, forms part of Europe's overall STS plan for the future. This overall STS plan is one product of the complete STS LTPP, a first draft of which should exist by 1985, and which will be updated regularly to take into account the changing political and economic perspectives.

  1. ESA's process for the identification and assessment of high-risk conjunction events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Klinkrad, Heiner

    ESA's Space Debris Office provides an operational service for the assessment of collision risks of ESA satellites. At present these are the ENVISAT and ERS-2 missions in low Earth orbits. If an upcoming high-risk conjunction event is predicted based on two-line element data from the US Space Surveillance Network, then own tracking data of the potential collider object are acquired to improve the knowledge of its orbit state. This improved knowledge of the error co-variances derived from the orbit determination process scales down the position error ellipsoid at conjunction epoch. Hence, for the same miss-distance, in most cases an avoidance manoeuvre can be suppressed with an acceptable residual risk. During the past years sophisticated stand-alone tools have been developed and maintained at ESA's Space Debris Office. The central tools for analysing conjunction events are the collision risk assessment software CRASS and the orbit determination software ODIN. ODIN is used to process tracking data and to determine orbits by least-squares fits to tracking data, or to pseudo-data in terms of osculating orbit states, which can for instance be derived from Two- Line Elements (TLE). On this basis, also estimates of TLE error co-variances can be established as input for initial collision risk assessments. During ESA's automated, routine conjunction event assessments, which are embedded in a daily process with 7-day predictions, the handling of high-risk events proved to be work-intensive. This shortcoming has been tackled by the implementation of a job scheduler, and of automated procedures to facilitate the processing of tracking data, the update of ephemeredes and covariances, and the update of conjunction geometries and collision risk figures. The application of the upgraded environment will be illustrated at the example of two recent conjunction events of ENVISAT with Russian Cosmos satellites.

  2. European Space Agency announces contest to "Name the Cluster Quartet"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    1. Contest rules The European Space Agency (ESA) is launching a public competition to find the most suitable names for its four Cluster II space weather satellites. The quartet, which are currently known as flight models 5, 6, 7 and 8, are scheduled for launch from Baikonur Space Centre in Kazakhstan in June and July 2000. Professor Roger Bonnet, ESA Director of Science Programme, announced the competition for the first time to the European Delegations on the occasion of the Science Programme Committee (SPC) meeting held in Paris on 21-22 February 2000. The competition is open to people of all the ESA member states (*). Each entry should include a set of FOUR names (places, people, or things from history, mythology, or fiction, but NOT living persons). Contestants should also describe in a few sentences why their chosen names would be appropriate for the four Cluster II satellites. The winners will be those which are considered most suitable and relevant for the Cluster II mission. The names must not have been used before on space missions by ESA, other space organizations or individual countries. One winning entry per country will be selected to go to the Finals of the competition. The prize for each national winner will be an invitation to attend the first Cluster II launch event in mid-June 2000 with their family (4 persons) in a 3-day trip (including excursions to tourist sites) to one of these ESA establishments: ESRIN (near Rome, Italy): winners from France, Ireland, United Kingdom, Belgium. VILSPA (near Madrid, Spain): winners from The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Finland. ESTEC (near Amsterdam, The Netherlands): winners from Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, Austria. ESOC (in the Rhine Valley, Germany): winners from Italy, Spain , Portugal. During the first Cluster II launch event (June 2000) the chosen four names for the spacecraft will be announced. The grand prize will be: * a trip for the winner and family (4 people) to Paris where ESA's headquarters are

  3. Operating the EOSDIS at the Land Processes DAAC Managing Expectations, Requirements, and Performance Across Agencies, Missions, Instruments, Systems, and User Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.

    2002-09-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990's. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990's changed as each community had its say -- first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC -- particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) -- are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  4. Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalvelage, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  5. LEO and GEO missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercanti, Enrico

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of the Challenger disaster in early 1986 caused a severe reevaluation of the space program. Plans already established had to be drastically revised and new plans had to be made. NASA created the Space Leadership Planning Group (SLPG) to formulate space mission plans covering a 50 year period based on Agency goals and objectives responsive to the National Commission on Space recommendations. An interim view of the status of SLPG plans for low altitude and geosynchronous missions is presented.

  6. Earth observation Water Cycle Multi-Mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z.; Dorigo, W.; Fernández-Prieto, D.; van Helvoirt, M.; Hungershoefer, K.; de Jeu, R.; Parinussa, R.; Timmermans, J.; Roebeling, R.; Schröder, M.; Schulz, J.; van der Tol, C.; Stammes, P.; Wagner, W.; Wang, L.; Wang, P.; Wolters, E.

    2010-10-01

    Observing and monitoring the different components of the global water cycle and their dynamics are essential steps to understand the climate of the Earth, forecast the weather, predict natural disasters like floods and droughts, and improve water resources management. Earth observation technology is a unique tool to provide a global understanding of many of the essential variables governing the water cycle and monitor their evolution over time from global to basin scales. In the coming years an increasing number of Earth observation missions will provide an unprecedented capacity to quantify several of these variables on a routine basis. In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA), in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), launched the Water Cycle Multi-Mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) project in 2009. The project aims at developing and validating a novel set of geo-information products relevant to the water cycle covering the following thematic areas: evapotranspiration, soil moisture, cloud characterization and water vapour. The generation of these products is based on a number of innovative techniques and methods aiming at exploiting the synergies of different types of Earth observation data available today to the science community. This paper provides an overview of the major findings of the project with the ultimate goal of demonstrating the potential of innovative multi-mission based strategies to improve current observations by maximizing the synergistic use of the different types of information provided by the currently available observation systems.

  7. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    be just sensitive enough to reveal a few more of them in the years to come. These could be just the tip of the iceberg and future gamma-ray observatories, such as the planned NASA's Swift mission, should be able to extend this search to a much larger volume of the Universe and find many more sub-energetic GRBs. Notes for editors The results of this investigation are presented in two articles that have appeared in today's issue of the scientific journal Nature. One of them, by S. Sazonov, A. Lutovinov and R. Sunyaev, is entitled "An apparently normal gamma-ray burst with unusually low luminosity". The other, entitled "The sub-energetic GRB 031203 as a cosmic analogue to GRB 980425", is signed by A. Soderberg, S. Kulkarni, E. Berger, D. Fox, M. Sako, D. Frail, A. Gal-Yam, D. Moon, S. Cenko, S. Yost, M. Phillips, E. Persson, W. Freedman, P. Wyatt, R. Jayawardhana and D. Paulson. The original announcement of the Integral detection of GRB 031203 was made by D. Goetz, S. Mereghetti, M. Beck, J. Borkowski and N. Mowlavi, via the Circular Service of the GRB Co-ordinates Network. More about Integral The International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (Integral) is the first space observatory that can simultaneously observe celestial objects in gamma rays, X-rays and visible light. Integral was launched on a Russian Proton rocket on 17 October 2002 into a highly elliptical orbit around Earth. Its principal targets include regions of the galaxy where chemical elements are being produced and compact objects, such as black holes. For more information about Integral please see: http://www.esa.int/esaSC/spk.html More about XMM-Newton ESA's XMM-Newton can detect more X-ray sources than any previous satellite and is helping to solve many cosmic mysteries of the violent Universe, from black holes to the formation of galaxies. It was launched on 10 December 1999, using an Ariane-5 rocket, from French Guiana. It is expected to return data for a decade. XMM-Newton's high-tech design uses

  8. Earth Observation in Support of Science and Applications Development in the Field "land and Environment": Synthesis Results from the Esa-Most Dragon Cooperation Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartalis, C.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.; Ban, Y.; Bao, Y.; Bi, Y.; Defourny, P.; Del Barrio, G.; Fan, J.; Gao, Z.; Gong, H.; Gong, J.; Gong, P.; Li, C.; Pignatti, S.; Sarris, A.; Yang, G.

    2015-04-01

    Dragon is a cooperation Programme between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the P.R. China. The Programme, initiated in 2004, focuses on the exploitation of ESA, Third Party Missions (TPM) and Chinese Earth Observation (EO) data for geo-science and applications development in land, ocean and atmospheric applications. In particular, the Programme brings together joint Sino- European teams to investigate 50 thematic projects. In this paper, the results of the research projects1 in the thematic field "Land and Environment" will be briefly presented, whereas emphasis will be given in the assessment of the usefulness of the results for an integrated assessment of the state of the environment in the respective study areas. Furthermore new knowledge gained in such fields as desertification assessment, drought and epidemics' monitoring, forest modeling, cropwatch monitoring, climate change vulnerability (including climate change adaptation and mitigation plans), urbanization monitoring and land use/cover change assessment and monitoring, will be presented. Such knowledge will be also linked to the capacities of Earth Observation systems (and of the respective EO data) to support the temporal, spatial and spectral requirements of the research studies. The potential of DRAGON to support such targets as "technology and knowledge transfer at the bilateral level", "common EO database for exploitation" and "data sharing and open access data policy" will be also presented. Finally special consideration will be given in highlighting the replication potential of the techniques as developed in the course of the projects, as well as on the importance of the scientific results for environmental policy drafting and decision making.

  9. ESA ExoMars program: The next step in exploring Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vago, J.; Witasse, O.; Svedhem, H.; Baglioni, P.; Haldemann, A.; Gianfiglio, G.; Blancquaert, T.; McCoy, D.; de Groot, R.

    2015-12-01

    The ExoMars program is an ESA-Roscosmos cooperation with some NASA contributions. ExoMars consists of two missions, one in 2016 and one in 2018. The 2016 mission includes an orbiting satellite dedicated to the study of atmospheric trace gases to acquire information on possible on-going geological or biological processes, and a European entry, descent, and landing demonstrator module (EDM) to achieve a successful soft landing on Mars. The orbiter can also provide data communication services for all surface missions landing on Mars until the end of 2022. The 2018 mission is planned to deliver a 300-kg-class rover and an instrumented landing platform to the Martian surface using a landing system developed by Roscosmos. The 2018 mission is to pursue one of the most outstanding questions of our time by attempting to establish whether life ever existed, or is still present, on Mars today. The article gives an overview of the ExoMars program.

  10. Inspire: A Mars Network Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voirin, T.; Larranaga, J.; Taylor, G.; Sanchez Perez, J. M.; Prost, J. P.; Cavel, C.; Falkner, P.

    2014-06-01

    INSPIRE is a Mars Network Science mission which is been studied by ESA in the frame of its Mars Robotic Exploration Program. It consists of three probes performing a direct entry on Mars for geophysics and meteorology science over one full martian year.

  11. NASA/ESA CT-990 Spacelab simulation. Appendix A: The experiment operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    A joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Two experiment operators from Europe and two from the U.S. were selected to live aboard the aircraft along with a mission manager for a six-day period and operate the experiments in behalf of the principal scientists. This appendix discusses the experiment operators and their relationship to the joint mission under the following general headings: selection criteria, training programs, and performance. The performance of the proxy operators was assessed in terms of adequacy of training, amount of scientific data obtained, quality of data obtained, and reactions to problems that arose in experiment operation.

  12. mkESA: enhanced suffix array construction tool

    PubMed Central

    Homann, Robert; Fleer, David; Giegerich, Robert; Rehmsmeier, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Summary: We introduce the tool mkESA, an open source program for constructing enhanced suffix arrays (ESAs), striving for low memory consumption, yet high practical speed. mkESA is a user-friendly program written in portable C99, based on a parallelized version of the Deep-Shallow suffix array construction algorithm, which is known for its high speed and small memory usage. The tool handles large FASTA files with multiple sequences, and computes suffix arrays and various additional tables, such as the LCP table (longest common prefix) or the inverse suffix array, from given sequence data. Availability: The source code of mkESA is freely available under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) version 2 at http://bibiserv.techfak.uni-bielefeld.de/mkesa/. Contact: rhomann@techfak.uni-bielefeld.de PMID:19246510

  13. Sharing ESA's knowledge and experience - the Erasmus Experiment Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakeit, Dieter; Sabbatini, Massimo; Carey, William

    2004-11-01

    The Erasmus Experiment Archive is an electronic database, that collects all experiments performed to date in the faciliteis that fall under the responsibility of the ESA (human spaceflight, microgravity, exploration).

  14. The strengths of constellation missions when exploring our atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, A. J.; Ruf, C. S.; Posselt, D. J.; Rose, R.; Provost, D.

    2014-12-01

    A few constellation mission have been flow by NASA, ESA, DoD and different companies. While some of these missions are with large satellites, such as ESA's Cluster mission, others are with smaller satellites, such as NASA's Themis mission. CubeSats and MicroSats are obviously smaller than monolithic satellites, and are therefore much more constrained in mass, power, volume and data throughput. They are also cheaper and can be launched in constellations or as secondary payloads. Constellations can provide measurements over larger areas and better sampling in time than single satellites in low Earth orbit, which is one of their main advantages. In this presentation, we focus on the CYGNSS constellation mission, which will measure the winds over the ocean. We show how the the mission will be deployed, the constellation measurement strategy, coverage statistics, and repeat times. We will also discuss other constellation missions that have flown or are being planned.

  15. ESA Experiments with the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillouet, Claude; Briganti, Luca; Schwarzwalder, Achim

    2008-06-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) is an ESA developed facility dedicated to gravitational biology and especially to plant research. However, experiments using small animals, like insects and small invertebrates are also possible. EMCS is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since July 2006 and four experiments, including two from ESA, have been already performed. Several others are in their final development phase and shall be flown within the next following years.

  16. 48 CFR 702.170-11 - Mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mission. 702.170-11 Section 702.170-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-11 Mission. Mission means the USAID mission or...

  17. The Europa Jupiter System Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Clark, K.; Erd, C.; Pappalardo, R.; Greeley, R. R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.; van Houten, T.

    2009-05-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) will be an international mission that will achieve Decadal Survey and Cosmic Vision goals. NASA and ESA have concluded a joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA; contributions by JAXA are also possible. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The JEO mission has been selected by NASA as the next Flagship mission to the out solar system. JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO would carry eleven and ten complementary instruments, respectively, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. EJSM will fully addresses high priority science objectives identified by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision for exploration of the outer solar system. The Decadal Survey recommended a Europa Orbiter as the highest priority outer planet flagship mission and also identified Ganymede as a highly desirable mission target. EJSM would uniquely address several of the central themes of ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, through its in-depth exploration of the Jupiter system and its evolution from origin to habitability. EJSM will investigate the potential habitability of the active ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede, detailing the geophysical, compositional, geological and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also explore Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the

  18. X-38 NASA/DLR/ESA-Dassault Aviation Integrated Aerodynamic and Aerothermodynamic Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labbe, Steve G.; Perez, Leo F.; Fitzgerald, Steve; Longo, Jose; Rapuc, Marc; Molina, Rafael; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The characterization of the aeroshape selected for the X-38 [Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) demonstrator] is presently being performed as a cooperative endeavour between NASA, DLR (through its TETRA Program), and European Space Agency (ESA) with Dassault Aviation integrating the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic activities. The methodologies selected for characterizing the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic environment of the X-38 are presented. Also, the implications for related disciplines such as Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) with its corresponding Flight Control System (FCS), Structural, and Thermal Protection System (TPS) design are discussed. An attempt is made at defining the additional activities required to support the design of a derived operational CRV.

  19. Athena: ESA's X-ray observatory to study the Hot and Energetic Universe in the late 2020s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcons, X.

    2016-06-01

    Athena (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) is the X-ray observatory mission selected by ESA to address the Hot and Energetic Universe theme, due for launch in 2028. In this presentation, on behalf of the Athena Science Study Team (ASST), I will provide an overview of the Athena science objectives, developed thanks to the support of a large community and describe the Athena mission concept and its instruments. I will also report on a number of on-going study activities, including those aiming at placing Athena in the broad astrophysical context of the late 2020s.

  20. MARCO POLO: A Near Earth Object Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Michel, P.; Kawaguchi, J.; Yano, H.; Brucato, J. R.; Franchi, I. A.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Ulamec, S.; Boehnhardt, H.; Coradini, M.; Green, S. F.; Josset, J.-L.; Koschny, D.; Muinonen, M.; Oberst, J.; Marco Polo Scienc

    2008-03-01

    MARCO POLO is a joint European-Japanese sample return mission to a near-Earth object. In late 2007 this mission was selected by ESA, in the framework of COSMIC VISION 2015-2025, for an assessment scheduled to last until mid 2009.

  1. ESA's Comet Orbiter Rosetta and Lander Philae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Schwehm, G.; Schulz, R.; Ulamec, S.

    2014-05-01

    Rosetta is the first mission designed to orbit, and deploy a Lander onto the surface of, a comet, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G). After an active Cruise Phase, which included three swingbys at the Earth, one at Mars and two flybys at Main Belt asteroids, the spacecraft is scheduled to orbit the comet nucleus and, after careful reconnaissance, deliver to the surface, while still at a distance of about 3 AU from the Sun, its Lander (Philae). The Lander payload, which comprises ten onboard experiments, will investigate the physical properties of the cometary surface/subsurface, measuring in particular their chemical, mineralogical and isotopic compositions. The lifetime of the Lander will depend on the prevailing cometary environment. The spacecraft will meanwhile continue to orbit and map the comet as it advances along its trajectory toward the Sun, utilizing eleven payload experiments to investigate how the comet becomes gradually more active and how its interactions with the solar wind develop. Post-perihelion Rosetta will continue to orbit, and make observations of the gradually declining comet environment out to a distance of ˜ 2 AU.

  2. Low Earth orbit journey and ground simulations studies point out metabolic changes in the ESA life support organism Rhodospirillum rubrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Leys, Natalie; Benotmane, Rafi; Vanhavere, Filip; Janssen, Ann; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max

    ). Other differential expression was observed for genes involved in chemotaxis, flagellum formation and nitrogen metabolism. Except genes related to oxidoreduction system, the same group of genes were found in the simulated microgravity study. Transcriptomic data were combined to LC-MS/MS proteomic data collected from the same R. rubrum samples since parallel profiling of mRNA and protein on a global scale could provide insight into metabolic mechanisms underlying complex biological systems. These results indicate that low doses of ionising radiation and changes in gravity on life-support microorganisms have observable effects and deserve specific attention in the perspective of long term space missions. The presented project was financially supported by the European Space Agency (ESA-PRODEX) and the Belgian Science Policy (Belspo) (PRODEX agreements No C90247 and No 90094). We are grateful to C. Lasseur and C. Pailĺ, both from ESTEC/ESA, e for their constant support and advice.

  3. ESA takes part in Earth observation and space science experiments on board the Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The ATLAS-2 mission is focusing on Earth observation and space science; three out of the seven instruments have been developed by scientific institutes in Belgium, France and Germany, with support from ESA. Four experiments have been provided by NASA and US scientists. The three European instruments have already shown an excellent performance during the first Atlas mission in March 1992, when they were tended by payload specialist Dirk Frimout, a Belgian astronaut and ESA staff member. Although the main scientific objective of the series of Atlas missions is to achieve continuity of annual measurements over a period as long as a decade, the first scientific results from Atlas can already be considered as a contribution to critical research topics, in particular the environment. The data from ATLAS-2 will add to this achievement. Two European instruments, Solcon and Solspec, are measuring to a very high degree of precision the total irradiation the Earth receives from the Sun - the "solar constant" -and the spectral distribution of this radiation over a wide range of wavelengths. Knowledge of the solar constant and the solar radiation spectrum matters not only for a better understanding of the Sun, but also for improving numerical models of climate and climate change. SOLCON was developed under the responsibility of Dr. Dominique Crommelynck of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Brussels, Belgium. SOLSPEC was instead developed under the responsibility of Dr. Gerard Thuillier of the CNRS, Verrieres le Buisson, France. One of these instruments will be fully remote-controlled by scientists from a laboratory in Belgium, via telecommunications links to the Shuttle, and the data of another will be transmitted to Belgium in real time to follow the results obtained. This approach is known as telescience: using telescience, a scientist can monitor his experiment in real-time, repeat it with different settings, consult his team, process data and adapt his measurements when

  4. Edwardsiella tarda EsaE (Orf19 protein) is required for the secretion of type III substrates, and pathogenesis in fish.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Liu, Lu Yi; He, Tian Tian; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Nie, Pin; Gao, Qian; Xie, Hai Xia

    2016-07-15

    Type III secretion system (T3SS) is a large macromolecular assembly found on the surface of many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Edwardsiella tarda is an important Gram-negative pathogen that employs T3SS to deliver effectors into host cells to facilitate its survival and replication. EseB, EseC, and EseD, when secreted, form a translocon complex EseBCD on host membranes through which effectors are translocated. The orf19 gene (esaE) of E. tarda is located upstream of esaK, and downstream of esaJ, esaI, esaH and esa