Science.gov

Sample records for agency incineration research

  1. EPA-ORD (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT) MOBILE INCINERATION SYSTEM TRIAL BURN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses testing of the EPA Mobile Incineration system developed through the Office of Research and Development for the purpose of destroying hazardous materials on site. The test program (Trial Burn) consisted of a series of five tests that were designed to evaluate ...

  2. THE INCINERATION RESEARCH FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cincinnati-based Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. EPA operates the Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas. his facility's pilot-scale experimental incineration systems include a Rotary Kiln System and a Liqui...

  3. INCINERATION RESEARCH FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cincinnati-based Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA operates the Incineration Research Facility *IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas. This facility's pilot-scale experimental incineration systems include a Rotary Kiln System and a Liquid Injection System. Each syste...

  4. OPERATIONS AND RESEARCH AT THE U.S. EPA INCINERATION RESEARCH FACILITY: ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY89

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility in Jefferson, Arkansas, is an experimental facility which houses two pilot-scale incinerators and the associated waste handling emission control, process control, and safety equipment, as well as onsite laborato...

  5. OPERATIONS AND RESEARCH AT THE U.S. EPA INCINERATION RESEARCH FACILITY: ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY92

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, is an experimental facility that houses two pilotscale incinerators and the associated waste handling, emission control, process control, and safety equipment; as well as onsit...

  6. Operations and research at the US EPA incineration research facility: Annual report for FY92

    SciTech Connect

    Waterland, L.R.

    1993-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, is an experimental facility that houses two pilot-scale incinerators and the associated waste handling, emission control, process control, and safety equipment; as well as onsite laboratory facilities. During fiscal year 1992, three major test programs were completed at the facility: an evaluation of the incinerability of two contaminated sludges from the Bofors-Nobel Superfund site for Region 5, an evaluation of the incinerability of PCB-contaminated soil from the Scientific Chemical Processing Superfund site for Region 2, and an evaluation of the effects of repeated incinerator waste feed cutoffs on incinerator particulate, HCl, trace metal, and organic constituent emissions for the Office of Solid Waste and the EPA incinerator permit writers.

  7. Operations and research at the U. S. EPA Incineration Research Facility: Annual report for FY91

    SciTech Connect

    Waterland, L.R.

    1992-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, is an experimental facility that houses two pilot-scale incinerators and the associated waste handling, emission control, process control, and safety equipment; as well as onsite laboratory facilities. During fiscal year 1991, five major test programs were completed at the facility: tests to establish residue characteristics from the incineration of spent potliners from aluminum production (K088) for the Office of Solid Waste (OSW); an evaluation of the incinerability of five contaminated soils from the Drake Chemical Superfund site for Region 3; an evaluation of the incinerability of PCB-contaminated marine sediments from the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site for Region 1; a parametric evaluation of the fate of trace metals in a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with a Calvert high-efficiency scrubber system; and an evaluation of incinerability of arsenic-contaminated soil from the Chemical Insecticide Corporation Superfund site for Region 2.

  8. OPERATION AND RESEARCH AT THE USEPA INCINERATION RESEARCH FACILITY: ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY91

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, is an experimental facility that houses two pilot-scale incinerators and the associated waste handling, emission control, process control, and safety equipment; as well as onsi...

  9. OPERATING EXPERIENCE WITH EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) MOBILE INCINERATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the recent modifications made to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Mobile Incineration System. These modifications were aimed toward increasing the capacity of the system as well as its on-stream factor. The operation of the modified system was ...

  10. OPERATIONS AND RESEARCH AT THE U.S. EPA INCINERATION RESEARCH FACILITY: ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY90

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility in Jefferson, Arkansas, is an experimental facility that houses two pilot.scale incinerators and the associated waste handling, emission control, process control, and safety equipment; as well as onsite lab...

  11. Operations and research at the U. S. EPA Incineration Research Facility: Annual report for FY90

    SciTech Connect

    Waterland, L.R.; Lee, J.W.

    1991-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility in Jefferson, Arkansas, is an experimental facility that houses two pilot-scale incinerators and the associated waste handling, emission control, process control, and safety equipment, as well as onsite laboratory facilities. During fiscal year 1990, two major test programs were completed at the facility: an evaluation of the thermal-stability-based principal organic hazardous constituent incinerability ranking for the Office of Solid Waste (OSW), and an incinerability evaluation of five contaminated materials from the Purity Oil Sales and the McColl Superfund sites for Region 9 and the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR). In addition, results of two test programs completed in FY89 were reported: an evaluation of the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with a single-stage ionizing wet scrubber for air pollution control for OSW, and an incinerability evaluation of arsenic and pesticide contaminated soils from the Baird and McGuire Superfund site for Region 1 and OERR. Several facility and equipment construction and upgrade efforts were also completed.

  12. Advanced two-stage incineration: Research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Khinkis, M.

    1991-01-01

    IGT is currently developing a two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incineration system that is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration/incineration and cyclonic combustion technologies, both of which have been developed individually at IGT over many years. This combination has resulted in a unique and extremely flexible incinerator for solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes. The system can operate over a wide range of conditions in the first stage, from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-Btu wastes. In the combined system, solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes are expected to be easily and efficiently destroyed (>99.99% destruction and removal efficiency (DRE)) while solid inorganic contaminants are expected to be contained within a glassy matrix, rendering them benign and suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill. The development of the two-stage incinerator is a culmination of extensive research and development efforts on each stage of the incinerator. A variety of data obtained for both stages includes agglomeration of ash, incineration and reclamation of used blast grit and foundry sand, partial combustion of carbonaceous fuels, in-situ desulfurization, combustion of low-Btu gases, incineration of industrial wastewater, and incineration of carbon tetrachloride.

  13. Pilot-scale incineration of ballistic missile liquid propellant components. Research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Waterland, L.R.; Venkatesh, S.

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) recently concluded agreements with the Ukraine and the Russian Federation under which the DoD is committed to providing both former Soviet Union (FSU) states with equipment and other aid for use in eliminating their strategic offensive arms in accordance with schedules negotiated in the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. One specific need consists of process equipment to treat or destroy pure ballistic missile liquid propellant components as well as vapor or purge media contaminated by these components. The propellant components are unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) fuel and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) oxidizer. Incineration is one possible treatment process. To supply data to demonstrate that incineration is a safe and effective treatment process, a series of tests was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Incineration Research Facility.

  14. EVALUATION OF ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR OPERATION AT LOW TO MODERATE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate volatilities (boiling points). The data in the Appendix contain: incinerator operating data, laboratory analyses, sampl...

  15. Incineration treatment of arsenic-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Waterland, L.R.; King, C.; Richards, M.K.; Thurnau, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    An incineration test program was conducted at the US Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the incinerability of these soils in terms of the fate of arsenic and lead and the destruction of organic contaminants during the incineration process. The test program consisted of a series of bench-scale experiments with a muffle furnace and a series of incineration tests in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator system.

  16. EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) INCINERATION OF AN INDUSTRIAL REFINERY. LAGOON SLUDGE USING INFRARED FURNACE TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report briefly presents a case study of a recent field-scale incineration test supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as one of over twenty projects under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The purpose of these programs is to...

  17. RECENT EPA-CINCINNATI RESEARCH IN HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, the results of five major testing programs of the U.S. EPA's Cincinnati-based Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) are described. hree of the five programs were carried out at RREL's Incineration Research Facility (IRF), a fully-permitted pilot plant operat...

  18. Operations and research at the US EPA Incineration Research Facility: Annual report for FY93. Report for October 1992-September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Waterland, L.R.

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, is an experimental facility that houses a pilot-scale rotary kiln incineration system (RKS) and the associated waste handling, emission control, process control, and safety equipment; as well as onsite laboratory facilities. During fiscal year 1993, two major test programs were completed at the IRF: an evaluation of rotary kiln incinerator operation at low to moderate temperatures, and a series of tests in which simulated mixed wastes were incinerated to support the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Results of a pilot-scale test program previously completed, a parametric evaluation of the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with a Calvert Flux-Force/Condensation scrubber system, were reported during FY93. Finally, a fabric filter air pollution control system, including flue gas reheat, was incorporated into the RKS. This report summarizes all efforts completed or onging at the IRF during FY93.

  19. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An incineration test program was conducted at the US Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. he purp...

  20. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

  1. Proposed biological testing methods for the United States incineration-at-sea research program

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Gentile, J.H.; Schimmel, S.C.; Carr, R.S.; Williams, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration-at-Sea research program, a suite of toxicity tests has been selected for assessing the toxicity of incinerator emissions generated during the combustion of chlorinated wastes. The test organisms for the five short-term chronic tests are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, the myside Mysidopsis bahia, the red macroalga Champia parvula, the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus, and gametes from the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. The durations of individual tests range from 2 hours to 7 days. The endpoints include survival, growth and reproductive effects. The results have demonstrated that the proposed methodologies can be used to test the toxicity of gaseous emissions, and that there appears to be no significant toxicity associated with the combustion products of a carrier fuel oil.

  2. HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS BY THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a summary of performance information gained from hazardous waste incineration testing supported by USEPA. The data and results presented focus on twelve (12) environmental performance evaluations conducted on industrial and commercial waste incinerators from 1...

  3. EVALUATION OF ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR OPERATION AT LOW TO MODERATE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate temperatures in decontaminating soils containing organic compounds with different volatilities (boiling points). The da...

  4. INCINERATION DATA ON ARSENIC AND LEAD EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1988, nine test programs have been conducted at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility aimed at evaluating the fate of trace metals in the rotary kiln incineration of hazardous wastes and Superfund site materials. esults of six of those test prog...

  5. OPERATIONS AND RESEARCH AT THE U.S. EPA INCINERATION RESEARCH FACILITY: ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY94

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, is an experimental facifity that houses a pilot-scale rotary kiln incineration system (RKS) and the associated waste handling, emission control, process control, and safety equ...

  6. STATUS OF U.S. EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) SLUDGE INCINERATOR REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a potential regulatory approach that the U.S. EPA could use for controlling sewage sludge incinerators. The approach utilizes a most exposed individual risk assessment to ensure that sludge incineration air emissions will not cause an unacceptable health risk...

  7. Status of US EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) sludge-incinerator regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Crumpler, E.P.; Rubin, A.B.; Bostian, H.E.

    1988-11-01

    This report describes a potential regulatory approach that the U.S. EPA could use for controlling sewage-sludge incinerators. The approach utilizes a most-exposed individual risk assessment to ensure that sludge-incineration air emissions will not cause an unacceptable health risk. An incinerator facility can demonstrate compliance using a three-tiered system which proceeds from a simple worst case calculation to a more resource intensive site-specific demonstration. A key part of the tiering system is development of an accurate and reliable emissions data base for U.S. sludge incinerators that can be used to develop reasonable worst case emission-control factors. The results of testing to date are discussed in the paper.

  8. PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL FROM THE PURITY OIL SALES AND MCCOLL SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as an option to treat contaminated soils at the Purity Oil Sales superfund site in Fresno, California, and the McColl ...

  9. PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL FROM THE CHEMICAL INSECTICIDE CORPORATION SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental protection Agency's Incinerator Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as an option to treat contaminated soils at the Chemical insecticide Corporation Site. The test data show that: he orga...

  10. DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENT EMISIONS FROM THE LIQUID INJECTION INCINERATOR COMBUSTION RESEARCH FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of tests was conducted at EPA's Combustion Research Facility (CRF) to investigate the fate of volatile trace elements in liquid injection hazardous waste incineration. In these tests, arsenic in the form of arsenic trioxide and antimony in the form of antimony trichlorid...

  11. SYSTEMS RELIABILITY AND PERFORMANCE: PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CHLORINATED BENZENES AT THE COMBUSTION RESEARCH FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of 34 test burns was conducted between August 1983 and January 1984 in the pilot-scale rotary kiln incineration system at the USEPA Combustion Research Facility (CRF), using chlorinated benzenes as surrogate Principal Organic Hazardous Components (POHCs), over a range of...

  12. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A VENTURI/PACKED COLUMN SCRUBBER - VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 5-week series of pilot-scale incineration tests, employing a synthetic waste feed, was performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with a venturi scrubber/p...

  13. OPERATIONS AND RESEARCH AT THE U.S. EPA INCINERATION RESEARCH FACILITY: ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY94

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fiscal year 1994 (FY94, October 1, 1993 through September 30,1994) saw the continuation of incineration research testing efforts at the IRF. uring the year, two major pilot-scale programs were completed and a third carried to near-completion, and two bench-scale test programs of ...

  14. 76 FR 61707 - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the intention of the Agency for Healthcare Research and...

  15. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A VENTURI/PACKED COLUMN SCRUBBER - VOLUME I: TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A five week series of pilot-scale incineration tests, using a synthetic waste feed, was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator. Eight tests studied the fate of five ha...

  16. Government: Senate Generous on Agency Research Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Janice

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the senate's 1981 research and development appropriations. The senate has approved research funding levels higher than both the amount requested by the House and the Administration except in the case of the Environmental Protection Agency. Research agencies discussed are NASA, Energy, NSF, Commerce, and ERA. (Author/DS)

  17. Distribution of trace-element emissions from the liquid-injection incinerator Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Ross, R.W.; Vocque, R.H.; Lewis, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.

    1987-08-01

    A series of tests was conducted at EPA's Combustion Research Facility (CRF) to investigate the fate of volatile trace elements in liquid-injection hazardous-waste incineration. In these tests, arsenic in the form of arsenic trioxide and antimony in the form of antimony trichloride were added to a methanol base containing varying amounts of chlorobenzene and carbon tetrachloride, and fired in the liquid-injection incinerator at the CRF. Test variables included incinerator temperature and excess air level, and feed chlorine content. Test results show a relatively even distribution of both elements between scrubber-exit flue gas and scrubber blowdown. Both elements are found in the vapor phase at high temperatures, though most condenses to particulate at scrubber exit temperatures. Designated POHC destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) ranged from 99.99 to 99.999% at the afterburner exit to 99.999 to 99.9999% in the scrubber-exit flue gas. Typical levels of common products of incomplete combustion were measured.

  18. Testing fluidized bed incinerators for energy-efficient operation for the Southtowns Sewage Treatment Agency. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Two methods for improving the energy efficiency of fluidized bed sludge incinerators were evaluated. The first method used paper pulp and polymer as conditioning agents for municipal sludge instead of lime and ferric chloride. Automatic control of the incinerator was the second method evaluated for energy savings. To evaluate the use of paper pulp and polymer as conditioning agents, varying quantities of paper pulp were added to the liquid sludge to determine the optimal sludge-to-paper pulp ratio. The effect of the paper pulp and polymer-conditioned sludge on plant operations also was evaluated. When compared to sludge conditioned with lime and ferric chloride, the paper pulp and polymer-conditioned sludge had similar cake release and feed characteristics, higher BTU values for the dry sludge solids, required less auxiliary fuel for incineration, and generated less ash for disposal. The paper pulp and polymer did not have any appreciable negative effects on the operation of the wastewater treatment plant. It was estimated that processing and incinerating the sludge conditioned with paper pulp and polymer resulted in a cost savings of up to $91.73 per dry ton of activated sludge solids. To evaluate the effect of automatic control, all the incinerator operating parameters including air flow rates, fuel oil feed rates, and sludge feed rates, were automatically monitored and controlled to minimize auxiliary fuel oil use and to keep the incinerator running at optimal conditions. Although effective, the estimated cost savings for automatic control of the incinerator were small.

  19. INCINERATION AND TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (10TH) HELD AT FT. MITCHELL, KENTUCKY ON APRIL 3-5, 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tenth Annual Research Symposium on Land Disposal, Remedial Action, Incineration and Treatment of Hazardous Waste was held April 3 through 5, 1984. This volume is a compilation of speakers' papers and poster presenters' abstracts for Session B, Hazardous Waste Incineration and...

  20. US Federal Agency Research on Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last decade, research and policy institutions across the globe have shown a dramatic increase in attention to the benefits that human society receives from ecosystems. In the U.S., a broad range of Federal resource management and environmental agencies are conducting r...

  1. Clearing the air about sludge incinerator emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.M.; Kuchenrither, R.D.; Waltz, E.W.

    1994-12-31

    In 1990, a research needs assessment for wastewater treatment agencies conducted by the Water Environment Research Foundation recommended a three-year project to identify and quantify hydrocarbon constituents in emissions from municipal sewage sludge incinerators. The project was designed to evaluate existing emission test data and obtain additional information to more completely characterize hydrocarbon emissions, their associated health risk, and operational factors effecting emissions. This paper presents the results and findings from the first year of the project.

  2. Incineration data on arsenic and lead emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Waterland, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1988, nine test programs have been conducted at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility aimed at evaluating the fate of trace metals in the rotary kiln incineration of hazardous wastes and Superfund site materials. Results of six of those test programs have been reported to date. Of these six, two were parametric test series using a synthetic hazardous waste formulation and four were incineration treatability test programs using contaminated Superfund site materials. Results of these six text programs show remarkably consistent arsenic and lead partitioning behavior among the incinerator system discharge streams. Overall test programs lead exhibits relatively nonvolatile behavior over a kiln temperature range from nominally 815 C (1,500 F) to 980 C (1,800F) provided no chlorine is present in the feed material. Arsenic also exhibits relatively nonvolatile behavior over the same temperature range regardless of whether the feed contains chlorine at levels up to nominally 8 percent. Arsenic may be more volatile in the incineration of environmental samples such as Superfund site wastes than it is from a synthetic waste in which arsenic is introduced as As2O3 in aqueous solution. However, even with environmental samples, behavior is relatively nonvolatile. Lead volatility significantly increases at all kiln temperatures as feed chlorine content increases from 0 to as high as 8 percent.

  3. Consolidated Incineration Facility waste burn test. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.

    1995-01-11

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is Providing technical support for start-up and operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility. This support program includes a series of pilot incineration tests performed at the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Incineration Research Facility (MF) using surrogate CIF mixed wastes. The objectives for this test program included measuring incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distributions as a function of several operating variables, characterizing kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates, determining heavy metal partition between the kiln bottom ash and incinerator stack gas, and measuring kiln organics emissions (particularly polychlorinated dioxins and furans). These tests were designed to investigate the effect of the following operating parameters: Incineration Temperature; Waste Feed Rate; Waste Density; Kiln Solids Residence Time; and Waste Composition. Tests were conducted at three kiln operating temperatures. Three solid waste simulants were burned, two waste mixtures (paper, plastic, latex, and PVC) with one containing spiked toxic organic and metal compounds, and one waste type containing only paper. Secondary Combustion Chamber (SCC) offgases were sampled for particulate loading and size distribution, organic compounds, polychlorinated dibenzo[p]dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), metals, and combustion products. Kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates were characterized to determine the principal elements and compounds comprising these secondary wastes.

  4. ACTIVELY CONTROLLED AFTERBURNER FOR COMPACT WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a continuing research program directed at developing technology for compact shipboard incinerators, active control of fluid dynamics has been used to enhance mixing in incinerator afterburner (AB) experiments and increase the DRE for a waste surrogate. Experiments were conduc...

  5. 78 FR 61362 - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Five AHRQ Subcommittee Meetings. SUMMARY: The... remainder of the meeting) 4. Healthcare Safety and Quality Improvement Research (HSQR) Date: October...

  6. The behavior of arsenic in a rotary kiln incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Thurnau, R.C. ); Fournier, D. Jr. )

    1992-02-01

    A research test program which focused on the partitioning of environmentally sensitive metals that resulted from controlled incineration of multi-contaminated soils (organics and metals) was carried out at the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Incineration Research Facility (IRF). A synthetic matrix and an actual Superfund soil were the systems from which the partitioning of arsenic was measured. Incineration variables of kiln exit temperature, afterburner exit temperature, chlorine content and initial arsenic concentration were tested. The amount of arsenic partitioned to the ash was found to be dependent on kiln temperature, but independent of afterburner exit temperature and feed chlorine content. A distinct difference in arsenic volatility was observed between the different soil matrices, and the TCLP values for arsenic in the kiln ash of the Superfund soil was affected by the combustion conditions.

  7. What is `Agency'? Perspectives in Science Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Jenny; Clarke, David John

    2014-03-01

    The contemporary interest in researching student agency in science education reflects concerns about the relevance of schooling and a shift in science education towards understanding learning in science as a complex social activity. The purpose of this article is to identify problems confronting the science education community in the development of this new research agenda and to argue that there is a need for research in science education that attends to agency as a social practice. Despite increasing interest in student agency in educational research, the term 'agency' has lacked explicit operationalisation and, across the varied approaches, such as critical ethnography, ethnographies of communication, discourse analysis and symbolic interactionism, there has been a lack of coherence in its research usage. There has also been argument concerning the validity of the use of the term 'agency' in science education research. This article attempts to structure the variety of definitions of 'student agency' in science education research, identifies problems in the research related to assigning intentionality to research participants and argues that agency is a kind of discursive practice. The article also draws attention to the need for researchers to be explicit in the assumptions they rely upon in their interpretations of social worlds. Drawing upon the discursive turn in the social sciences, a definition of agency is provided, that accommodates the discursive practices of both individuals and the various functional social groups from whose activities classroom practice is constituted. The article contributes to building a focused research agenda concerned with understanding and promoting student agency in science.

  8. Incineration and monitoring of low-level 3H and 14C wastes at a biological research institution

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrick, P.E.; Knapp, S.J.; Parker, M.G.; Watson, J.E. Jr.

    1986-10-01

    Low-level radioactive waste containing liquid scintillation fluid and known amounts of /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H has been incinerated in a modified pathological incinerator with the incinerator effluent, refractory surface and ash being monitored. The study relates the activity monitored to that incinerated and discusses how this relation was affected by a modification of the incinerator and monitoring conditions. No significant activity was found to be associated with the ash, particulates or the refractory surface. These data suggest that most of the activity is released as tritiated water vapor and /sup 14/C-labeled carbon dioxide. However, incomplete oxidation may occur for short periods of time depending on the amount of liquid scintillation fluid incinerated, with the possible release of /sup 14/C-labeled carbon monoxide.

  9. Community Agency Survey Formative Research Results From the TAAG Study

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Ruth P.; Moody, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    School and community agency collaboration can potentially increase physical activity opportunities for youth. Few studies have examined the role of community agencies in promoting physical activity, much less in collaboration with schools. This article describes formative research data collection from community agencies to inform the development of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) intervention to provide out-of-school physical activity programs for girls. The community agency survey is designed to assess agency capacity to provide physical activity programs for girls, including resources, programs, and partnerships. Most agency respondents (n = 138) report operations during after-school hours, adequate facilities, and program options for girls, although most are sport oriented. Agency resources and programming vary considerably across the six TAAG field sites. Many agencies report partnerships, some involving schools, although not necessarily related to physical activity. Implications for the TAAG intervention are presented. PMID:16397156

  10. Young People's "Agency" in Sexuality Research Using Visual Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore how we might understand young people's agency in sexuality research using visual methods. It is concerned with troubling the perception that power is held by the adult researcher and denied to youthful participants who simply submit to their authority. Rather than attempting to cast moments of young people's agency as…

  11. INCINERATION AND TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NINTH ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM HELD AT FT. MITCHELL, KENTUCKY ON MAY 2-4, 1983

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ninth Annual Research Symposium on land disposal, incineration and treatment of hazardous waste was held in Ft. Mitchell, Kentucky, on May 2, 3 and 4, 1983. The purposes of the symposium were (1) to provide a forum for state-of-the-art review and discussion of ongoing and rec...

  12. INCINERATION AND TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM (8TH) AT FT. MITCHELL, KENTUCKY ON MARCH 8-10, 1982

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Eighth Annual Research Symposium on land disposal, incineration and treatment of hazardous wastes was held in Ft. Mitchell, Kentucky, on March 8, 9, and 10, 1982. These Proceedings are a compilation of papers presented by the symposium speakers. The symposium proceedings are ...

  13. Research and development to improve naval shipboard waste management using a compact closed-loop-controlled waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Cole, J A; Widmer, N C; Seeker, W M; Schadow, K C; Parr, T P; Wilson, K J

    2001-01-01

    Research has been conducted into the application of forced acoustics for enhancing the performance of a pyrolyzed waste afterburner configured as a dump combustor. Subscale studies showed that acoustic forcing of an air jet entering a dump chamber could trigger the formation of coherent vortices generated by entrainment of ambient gases. Subsequent studies showed that combustible gases could be introduced into the coherent vortices, and with additional modulation this configuration would lead to an enhanced combustion rate with low emissions of pollutants. The acoustically forced burner concept was scaled up to practical levels and tested as an afterburner on a commercial waste incinerator operating in pyrolysis mode. Results show that the afterburner can promote both compactness, due to the rapid combustion rate, and low pollutant emissions resulting from enhanced mixing prior to combustion. PMID:11219702

  14. The Role and Value of Conservation Agency Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Dirk J.; Kingsford, Richard T.; McCool, Stephen F.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C.

    2015-06-01

    Governments charge their conservation agencies to safeguard biodiversity through protected areas and threat mitigation. Increasingly, conservation management and policy need to be supported by rigorous evidence provided by science. As such, institutional arrangements should consider and enable effective scientific research and information dissemination. What role can in-house agency research play in responding to this challenge? We examined the research capabilities of three conservation agencies from Australia, South Africa, and United States. Seven indicators were used to characterize the reliability and relevance of agency research. We found similarities among agencies in their patterns of peer-reviewed publication, cultures of research collaboration, and tendencies to align research with organizational objectives. Among the many and diverse activities that constitute the role of a contemporary agency researcher, we emphasize two key research dimensions: reliability, achieved through peer-reviewed research output, and relevance, achieved through active stakeholder engagement. Amid increasingly challenging realities for conservation of ecosystems, agency science functions are vital to providing the evidence base required for effective management and policy development.

  15. The role and value of conservation agency research.

    PubMed

    Roux, Dirk J; Kingsford, Richard T; McCool, Stephen F; McGeoch, Melodie A; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C

    2015-06-01

    Governments charge their conservation agencies to safeguard biodiversity through protected areas and threat mitigation. Increasingly, conservation management and policy need to be supported by rigorous evidence provided by science. As such, institutional arrangements should consider and enable effective scientific research and information dissemination. What role can in-house agency research play in responding to this challenge? We examined the research capabilities of three conservation agencies from Australia, South Africa, and United States. Seven indicators were used to characterize the reliability and relevance of agency research. We found similarities among agencies in their patterns of peer-reviewed publication, cultures of research collaboration, and tendencies to align research with organizational objectives. Among the many and diverse activities that constitute the role of a contemporary agency researcher, we emphasize two key research dimensions: reliability, achieved through peer-reviewed research output, and relevance, achieved through active stakeholder engagement. Amid increasingly challenging realities for conservation of ecosystems, agency science functions are vital to providing the evidence base required for effective management and policy development. PMID:25840698

  16. Pilot-scale incineration of contaminated soil from the chemical insecticide corporation superfund site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Siag, A.; Fournier, D.J.; Waterland, L.R.

    1993-02-01

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incinerator Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as an option to treat contaminated soils at the Chemical Insecticide Corporation Site. The test data show that: The organochlorine pesticides were destroyed to non-detectable quantities in the ash, the state-of-the-art scrubber removed arsenic to the 99.95% level, lime addition did not improve the arsenic removal efficiency, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) values for ash metals varied, lime addition reduced TCLP leachability of metals, particulate and HCl levels were within accepted limits. Incineration data that can be used for other purposes was also collected for the soil tested.

  17. THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has directed much attention to watersheds and water quality during its tenure as the United States Federal Agency charged with protection of human health and the environment. Watershed research as a vehicle to understand the interaction ...

  18. Research in Action: The Uses of Research in a Social Work Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan F.; Johnson, Penelope R.

    This book describes an action research program in a child welfare agency. The purpose of the program was to evaluate agency services and to disseminate agency thinking and experimenting to other social workers. In the introduction (Part I) the development of the research project is briefly outlined. In Part II the areas in which research was…

  19. INCINERABILITY INDEX: A MEASURE OF INCINERATOR PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since promulgation of the hazardous waste incinerator performance standards in January 1981, there has been a continuing interest in validating a real-time surrogate means of measuring incinerator compliance with the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) performance standard. ...

  20. An Overview Of Current Research At The Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the current research at the Environmental Protection Agency. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT ROGER B. YEARDLEY, JR., LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION, 513-569-7548.

  1. The nonuse of psychological research at two federal agencies.

    PubMed

    Arkes, Hal R

    2003-01-01

    In 1994 the Government Accounting Office (GAO) issued a report critical of some features of the proposal review processes at the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. I provide two examples of procedures the agencies could have adopted to address the GAO's criticisms. I also relate the history of the two agencies' reluctance to use the psychological research literature to guide them as their new review procedures were instituted. Finally, I enumerate possible reasons for the agencies' decision not to follow or even test suggestions based on the judgment and decision-making research literature. PMID:12564746

  2. Use of Research for Transforming Youth Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baizerman, Michael; Rence, Emily; Johnson, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Current philosophy and practice urge, even require for funding, that programs be empirically based and grounded in empirically proven emerging, promising, or best practices. In most of the human services, including youth programs, services, and practices, this requirement is a goal as well as an ideal. Empirical research and evaluation can be used…

  3. Consolidated incineration facility technical support

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.; Looper, M.G.

    1993-12-31

    In 1996, the Savannah River Site plans to begin operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) leads an extensive technical support program designed to obtain incinerator and air pollution control equipment performance data to support facility start-up and operation. Key components of this technical support program include recently completed waste burn tests at both EPA`s Incineration Research Facility and at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation`s Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility. The main objectives for these tests were determining the fate of heavy metals, measuring organics destruction and removal efficiencies, and quantifying incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distribution as a function of waste feed characteristics and incineration conditions. In addition to these waste burning tests, the SRTC has recently completed installations of the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), a 1/10 scale CIF offgas system pilot plant. This pilot facility will be used to demonstrate system operability and maintainability, evaluate and optimize equipment and instrument performance, and provide direct CIF start-up support. Technical support programs of this type are needed to resolve technical issues related with treatment and disposal of combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive waste. Implementation of this program will minimize facility start-up problems and help insure compliance with all facility performance requirements.

  4. OFFSHORE PLATFORM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a program conducted to evaluate the technical and environmental feasibility of using a proposed offshore platform incineration facility in the destruction of hazardous wastes and for incineration research.

  5. Agency Researchers' Perception of the Users and Uses of Copy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; Salmon, Charles T.

    A survey of 30 advertising agency researchers sought to determine (1) whether there are differences between agency researchers' perception of who benefits most from copy research and who should benefit most, and (2) whether there are differences between their perception of how copy research is used and how it should be used. Consistent with…

  6. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) has recently released a research strategy to guide its program to improve ecosystem risk assessment and risk management, which is one of the Agency's higheset priority search areas (http://www.epa.gov/ORD/WebPubs/fmal/eco.pdf). It is...

  7. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) OIL SHALE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of EPA's oil shale research activities. In spite of substantial cutbacks in the program, several new projects should not only be of interest to developers and researchers but also support future regulatory and permitting decisions by the Agency. New activ...

  8. ONGOING FUNDAMENTAL HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION RESEARCH AT EPA/RTP FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes five combustors, results of some completed research, and plans for future studies at EPA/AEERL's RCRA-permitted facility at Research Triangle Park, NC. esearch is conducted to examine the effect of operating parameters such as residence time, temperature, turb...

  9. Continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Gerard P.; Bentley, G. E.; Crain, J. S.; Fry, Herbert A.; Funk, David J.; Moore, David S.; Oldenborg, Richard C.; Palmer, Byron A.; Swanson, Basil I.

    1993-03-01

    A system for the real-time monitoring of emissions from incinerators must be developed which can address the needs of the DOE community and others involved in mixed waste incineration. These needs are an outgrowth of the ever-increasing waste storage problems and the growing concern of the public, as witnessed by the stricter compliance requirements of federal and state agencies, that the products of incineration are hazardous to their health and injurious to the environment. This paper focuses on the technologies being developed here at Los Alamos and other laboratories which address the detection of a broad spectrum of toxic and hazardous chemicals.

  10. What Is "Agency"? Perspectives in Science Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Jenny; Clarke, David John

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary interest in researching student agency in science education reflects concerns about the relevance of schooling and a shift in science education towards understanding learning in science as a complex social activity. The purpose of this article is to identify problems confronting the science education community in the development…

  11. Incinerator system

    SciTech Connect

    Rathmell, R.K.

    1986-10-07

    An incineration system is described which consists of: combustion chamber structure having an inlet, an outlet, and burner structure in the combustion chamber, heat exchanger structure defining a chamber, divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber, an array of tubes extending through the heat exchanger chamber to the inlet of the combustion chamber at the divider structure. The heat exchanger chamber has an inlet coupled to the outlet of the combustion chamber for flow of the combustion products discharged from the combustion chamber through the heat exchanger chamber over the tubes in heat exchange relation, and an outlet for discharge of products from the heat exchanger chamber, aspirator sleeve structure secured to the divider structure between the heat exchanger chamber and the combustion chamber. Each aspirator sleeve receives the outlet end of a heat exchanger tube in slip fit relation so that the heat exchanger tubes are free to thermally expand longitudinally within the aspirator sleeves, and means for flowing vapor through the heat exchanger tubes into the combustion chamber at sufficiently high velocity to produce a reduced pressure effect in the aspirator sleeves in the heat exchanger chamber to draw a minor fraction of combustion products through the aspirator sleeves into the combustion chamber for reincineration.

  12. The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Expanding the Opportunities for Dental Health Services Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, William R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes current research interests and priorities of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, relates those interests to dentistry and oral health, and discusses the development of practice guidelines within the context of other initiatives of the Agency including the Medical Treatment Effectiveness Program. (DB)

  13. Conserving biodiversity: A research agenda for development agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book was written to assist development agencies in identifying the kinds of biological, economic and cultural research that need to be funding to provide an information base for conserving biodiversity. The presentation is concise and non-technical with summaries of data and ideas relevant to biodiversity. The human role in accelerating biotic loss is discussed, and stragies for sustainable land use and restoration of degraded lands are among several topics.

  14. Relational agency from a teacher as researcher perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Shequana

    2015-09-01

    This essay responds to a selection of ideas and theoretical frameworks Sharada Gade uses to conduct her study. The ideas raised by Sharada are placed in the context of the changes and experiences taking place in today's public school system. Her ideas also provide new insights into the construct of relational agency in accordance with expansive learning activity from a teacher as researcher perspective. The purpose of this response is to shed light on the collaboration that needs to exist between teachers and researchers as curriculum is designed and implemented.

  15. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Academic Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomer, S. A.

    2004-12-01

    "Know the Earth.Show the Way." In fulfillment of its vision, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) provides geospatial intelligence in all its forms and from whatever source-imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial data and information-to ensure the knowledge foundation for planning, decision, and action. To achieve this, NGA conducts a multi-disciplinary program of basic research in geospatial intelligence topics through grants and fellowships to the leading investigators, research universities, and colleges of the nation. This research provides the fundamental science support to NGA's applied and advanced research programs. The major components of the NGA Academic Research Program (NARP) are: - NGA University Research Initiatives (NURI): Three-year basic research grants awarded competitively to the best investigators across the US academic community. Topics are selected to provide the scientific basis for advanced and applied research in NGA core disciplines. - Historically Black College and University - Minority Institution Research Initiatives (HBCU-MI): Two-year basic research grants awarded competitively to the best investigators at Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and Minority Institutions across the US academic community. - Director of Central Intelligence Post-Doctoral Research Fellowships: Fellowships providing access to advanced research in science and technology applicable to the intelligence community's mission. The program provides a pool of researchers to support future intelligence community needs and develops long-term relationships with researchers as they move into career positions. This paper provides information about the NGA Academic Research Program, the projects it supports and how other researchers and institutions can apply for grants under the program.

  16. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration.

    PubMed

    Holder, Amara L; Vejerano, Eric P; Zhou, Xinzhe; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-09-01

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which nanomaterials may enter incinerator waste streams and the fate of these nanomaterials during the incineration process. Although the literature on incineration of nanomaterials is scarce, results from studies of their behavior at high temperature or in combustion environments for other applications can help predict their fate within an incinerator. Preliminary evidence suggests nanomaterials may catalyze the formation or destruction of combustion by-products. Depending on their composition, nanomaterials may undergo physical and chemical transformations within the incinerator, impacting their partitioning within the incineration system (e.g., bottom ash, fly ash) and the effectiveness of control technology for removing them. These transformations may also drastically affect nanomaterial transport and impacts in the environment. Current regulations on incinerator emissions do not specifically address nanomaterials, but limits on particle and metal emissions may prove somewhat effective at reducing the release of nanomaterials in incinerator effluent. Control technology used to meet these regulations, such as fabric filters, electrostatic precipitators, and wet electrostatic scrubbers, are expected to be at least partially effective at removing nanomaterials from incinerator flue gas. PMID:23880913

  17. 17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  18. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL INCINERATOR DESIGN CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report surveys commercial incineration facilities; characterizes four major types of incinerators - liquid injection, fluidized bed, rotary kiln and multiple hearth; and discusses how thermochemical properties of wastes affect their incineration and how application of thermo...

  19. HYDROCARBON CONTINUOUS MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR EMISSIONS MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored an extended laboratory and field evaluation of continuous emission monitoring systems available to measure hydrocarbon emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. erformance tests of calibration drift, calibration error, res...

  20. OPERATIONS AND RESEARCH AT THE U.S. EPA IRF: ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY93

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, is an experimental facility that houses a pilot-scale rotary kiln incineration system (RKS) and the associated waste handling, emission control, process control, and safety equ...

  1. Sludge incineration in a spinning fluidized bed incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Swithenbank, J.; Basire, S.; Wong, W.Y.; Lu, Y.; Nasserzadeh, V.

    1999-07-01

    At the present time, the sewage treatment plants in the UK produce about 25 million tonnes of sewage sludge each year at a concentration of 4% solids. New regulations forbid sea dumping and in the near future new incinerators will be required to dispose of about five million tonnes per year. Bubbling fluidized bed incinerators are widely used to burn sewage sludge at a typical consumption rate of about 0.02 kg(dry)/s/m{sup 2}, and it follows that over 300 conventional fluidized bed incinerators of 3 meters bed diameter could be required to cope with the increased demand. At Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC) research work is being carried out to develop a novel spinning fluidized bed incinerator. The key factor to note is that when air flows up through a bed of near mono-sized particles, it fluidizes when the pressure drop across the bed is equal to the weight of the bed. Normally, the weight of the bed is determined by gravity. However, if the bed is contained by a cylindrical air distributor plate that is rotating rapidly about its axis, then the effective weight of the bed can be increased dramatically. The airflow passing through the bed can be increased proportionally to the g level produced by the rotation and it follows that the process has been intensified. In exploratory tests with a spinning fluidized bed the authors have achieved combustion intensities with coal combustion as high as 100 MW/m{sup 3}. A problem with burning coal is that it was difficult to remove the heat and rotating water seals had to be used to transfer cooling water into the bed. In the case of sewage and other sludges, this problem does not exist since the flue gases can remove the small amount of heat released. The rotating fluidized bed sludge incinerator is a novel device, which is very compact. It is able to solve the turndown problem encountered with conventional fluidized beds by simply changing the rotation speed. Bearing in mind that a centrifugal sludge

  2. 40 CFR 761.70 - Incineration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incineration. 761.70 Section 761.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.70...

  3. CLOSURE OF A DIOXIN INCINERATION FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Mobile Incineration System, whihc was operated at the Denney Farm site in southwestern Miissouri between October 1985 and June 1989, treated almost six million kilograms of dioxin-contaminated wastes from eight area sites. At the conclusi...

  4. 40 CFR 761.70 - Incineration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incineration. 761.70 Section 761.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.70...

  5. Evaluation of the thermal stability POHC incinerability ranking in a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.; Whitworth, W.E.; Carroll, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the thermal stability-based POHC incinerability ranking. In the tests, mixtures of 12 POHCs with predicted incinerability spanning the range of most to least difficult to incinerate class were combined with a clay-based sorbent and batch-fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator via a fiberpack drum ram feeder. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln exit POHC DREs were in the 99.99 percent range for the volatile POHCs for the baseline, mixing failure (increased charge mass), and matrix failure (decreased feed H/C) tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected in the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999 percent. The thermal failure (low kiln temperature) and worst case (combination of thermal, mixing, and matrix failure) tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln exit POHC DREs. These ranged from 99 percent or less for Freon 113 to greater than 99.999 percent for the less stable-ranked semivolatile POHCs. General agreement between relative kiln exit POHC DRE and predicted incinerability class was observed.

  6. KEPONE INCINERATION TEST PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Kepone Incineration Test (KIT) program was undertaken to evaluate incineration as a method of destroying Kepone and Kepone-containing materials and to determine the range of operating variables required for complete destruction. The program was divided into two phases: (a) ex...

  7. MONITORING OF INCINERATOR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring of Incinerator Emissions is a chapter to be included in a book entitled Hazardous Waste Incineration, edited by A. Sarofim and D. Pershing, and published by John Wiley and Sons. he chapter describes stack sampling and analysis procedures in use on hazardous waste incin...

  8. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME/EPA (AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS/ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION CONFERENCE HELD AT WILLIAMSBURG, VIRGINIA ON MAY 27-29, 1981

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a proceedings of a 3-day conference among industry, government, professional engineers and scientists, and the general public concerning hazardous waste incineration which came at a time when EPA interim final rule incineration regulations had just been made public...

  9. An investigation of the efficiency of plasma incineration for destruction of aromatics in incinerator ash

    SciTech Connect

    Retarides, C.J.; Chevis, E.A.; Busch, K.L.

    1994-12-31

    Plasma incineration is being investigated as a means for the vitrification of ash from a conventional incinerator. Incinerator ash, consisting of 20% bottom ash and 80% fly ash, is introduced into a plasma incinerator operated at a power of 100 kW. The sample is vitrified, leaving a glassy material that is more dense and therefore less voluminous than the ash, for disposal. Volume reduction by up to a factor of twenty may be achieved through this process. The resulting material can be used as concrete fill or can be disposed of in a landfill at a much lower cost than the original ash. Plasma incineration should also result in the nearly complete destruction of hazardous organic compounds. Plasma temperatures commonly reach more than 3000 Kelvin resulting in the thermal destruction of most organic compounds. The extent of the destruction of organic compounds found in incinerator ash has been investigated. Plasma incineration was completed at the Georgia Tech Research Institute Plasma Research Center (GTRI). All ash vitrified product samples were obtained from GTRI.

  10. PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION TEST BURN OF TCDD-CONTAMINATED TRICHLOROPHENOL PRODUCTION WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of three tests directed at evaluating the incinerability of the toluene stillbottoms waste from trichlorophenol production previously generated by the Vertac Chemical Company were performed in the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) rotary kiln incineration system. This w...

  11. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-07-15

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance.

  12. An overview of the Defence Research Agency photovoltaic programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodbody, C.; Davies, M. A. H.

    1993-05-01

    The Defense Research Agency (DRA) has been active in the photovoltaic field since the early 1960's, then as the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE). The early work was aimed at developing silicon cells, solar panels, and light-weight flexible arrays in support of the 'UK' and 'X' series of British scientific and technology satellites, for which the RAE was either the design authority or technical advisor. The X3 satellite - Prospero, launched in 1971 test flew 50 micron wrap-round silicon cells. The X4 satellite - Miranda, launched in 1974 test flew a deployable flexible silicon array which was developed at the DRA. During this period an extensive range of test equipment was developed which was maintained, modernized, and extended to date. Following a period of reduced activity in the late 1970's and early 1980's the current program evolved. The programs that have been undertaken since 1983 are briefly summarized. These range from various cell developments, new types of coverglasses, flight experiments, radiation testing, primary cell calibration, and environmental testing. The current photovoltaic program is mainly funded by the UK Ministry of Defence and by the Department of Trade and Industry through the British National Space Center (BNSC). The program is aimed at research and development, both internally and with industry, to meet the customer's technical objectives and requirements and to provide them with technical advice. The facilities are also being used on contract work for various national and international organizations.

  13. An overview of the Defence Research Agency photovoltaic programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodbody, C.; Davies, M. A. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Defense Research Agency (DRA) has been active in the photovoltaic field since the early 1960's, then as the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE). The early work was aimed at developing silicon cells, solar panels, and light-weight flexible arrays in support of the 'UK' and 'X' series of British scientific and technology satellites, for which the RAE was either the design authority or technical advisor. The X3 satellite - Prospero, launched in 1971 test flew 50 micron wrap-round silicon cells. The X4 satellite - Miranda, launched in 1974 test flew a deployable flexible silicon array which was developed at the DRA. During this period an extensive range of test equipment was developed which was maintained, modernized, and extended to date. Following a period of reduced activity in the late 1970's and early 1980's the current program evolved. The programs that have been undertaken since 1983 are briefly summarized. These range from various cell developments, new types of coverglasses, flight experiments, radiation testing, primary cell calibration, and environmental testing. The current photovoltaic program is mainly funded by the UK Ministry of Defence and by the Department of Trade and Industry through the British National Space Center (BNSC). The program is aimed at research and development, both internally and with industry, to meet the customer's technical objectives and requirements and to provide them with technical advice. The facilities are also being used on contract work for various national and international organizations.

  14. Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, D. G.; Dahmann, J. S.

    Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects are in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

  15. Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, D.G.; Dahmann, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects is in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

  16. Research and Evaluation in Regional Education Agencies: A Texas Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roecks, Alan L.; Noonan, Albert J.

    Texas is divided into 20 regions served by intermediate education agencies offering school districts the opportunity to receive specialized services normally beyond the reach of school systems. This report examines how one such regional educational agency in Region 20, which serves 50 districts in 14 counties, is organized to provide evaluation…

  17. Sampling and analysis of municipal waste-water sludge incinerator emissions for metals, metal species, and organics

    SciTech Connect

    DeWees, W.G.; Davis, C.A.; McClintock, S.C.; Cone, A.L.; Bostian, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    There is concern regarding chromium and nickel species in the emissions from incineration of municipal wastewater sludge because of the associated cancer risk. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Water Regulations and Standards (OWRS) is developing new regulations for sewage sludge incinerators and EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) has been assisting OWRS in the collection of supporting data. The paper reports new data on emissions of chromium and nickel species and associated emissions needed to respond to public comments. The primary objectives of the portion of the RREL/OWRS research program described in the paper are to determine (1) the ratio of hexavalent chromium to total chromium and (2) the ratio of nickel subsulfide to total nickel in sewage sludge incinerator emissions under several incinerator operating conditions. Secondary objectives include comparing the analytical results for emissions of chromium and nickel subspecies determined by different analytical procedures, and gathering data on other metals and inorganic and organic gaseous components in uncontrolled and controlled incinerator emissions.

  18. Test report for the trial burn of Dinoseb in a pilot-scale incinerator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oberacker, D.; Wool, M.; Villa, F.; Mason, H.

    1989-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that the herbicide Dinoseb represents a significant human health hazard. EPA estimates that there are approximately 5 million gallons affected by this action. As part of a program by the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to determine which technically viable disposal option is appropriate, pilot-scale test burns were made of a mixture of Dinoseb products at the John Zink Company Research Incineration Facility in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The mixture represented the various Dinoseb products to be destroyed. The rationale for doing the pilot-scale test was that specific performance data were needed to address, with confidence, any public or permitting questions that may arise in authorizing a full-scale incineration disposal operation. The test burns were successfully performed between February 18 and February 26, 1988. The report gives an overall summary of the test program.

  19. Perspectives: A Journal of Research and Opinion about Educational Service Agencies, 1995-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, William G., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the first four volumes of the annual serial publication "Perspectives: A Journal of Research and Opinion about Educational Service Agencies." Educational service agencies (ESAs) have various names and characteristics across states, but all provide services to local education agencies in a specific geographic region. ESAs…

  20. Sample Identification at Scale - Implementing IGSN in a Research Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Golodoniuc, P.; Wyborn, L. A.; Devaraju, A.; Fraser, R.

    2015-12-01

    Earth sciences are largely observational and rely on natural samples, types of which vary significantly between science disciplines. Sharing and referencing of samples in scientific literature and across the Web requires the use of globally unique identifiers essential for disambiguation. This practice is very common in other fields, e.g. ISBN in publishing, doi in scientific literature, etc. In Earth sciences however, this is still often done in an ad-hoc manner without the use of unique identifiers. The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) system provides a persistent, globally unique label for identifying environmental samples. As an IGSN allocating agency, CSIRO implements the IGSN registration service at the organisational scale with contributions from multiple research groups. Capricorn Distal Footprints project is one of the first pioneers and early adopters of the technology in Australia. For this project, IGSN provides a mechanism for identification of new and legacy samples, as well as derived sub-samples. It will ensure transparency and reproducibility in various geochemical sampling campaigns that will involve a diversity of sampling methods. Hence, diverse geochemical and isotopic results can be linked back to the parent sample, particularly where multiple children of that sample have also been analysed. The IGSN integration for this project is still in early stages and requires further consultations on the governance mechanisms that we need to put in place to allow efficient collaboration within CSIRO and collaborating partners on the project including naming conventions, service interfaces, etc. In this work, we present the results of the initial implementation of IGSN in the context of the Capricorn Distal Footprints project. This study has so far demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach, while maintaining the flexibility to adapt to various media types, which is critical in the context of a multi-disciplinary project.

  1. University Research. Most Federal Agencies Need to Better Protect against Financial Conflicts of Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In fiscal year 2001, federal agencies provided $19 billion for university research, a vital part of the nation's research and development effort. GAO was asked to examine federal agencies' actions to ensure that (1) the results of the university research grants they fund are made available to the public and (2) universities receiving such grants…

  2. PILOT-SCALE INCINERABILITY EVALUATION OF ARSENIC- AND LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM TWO SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two incineration test programs were conducted at EPA's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the suitability of incineration as an option to treat-contaminated Superfund site soils. he soils from the Purity Oil Sales site in Region 9 are contaminated with lead, up to several...

  3. TRACE METAL FATE IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH AN IONIZING WET SCRUBBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with an ionizing wet scrubber (IWS) for particulate and acid gas control. est ...

  4. Summary of DOE Incineration Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, M.

    1998-07-01

    This document summarizes and compares operating capacities, waste acceptance criteria, and permits pertaining to the U.S. Department of Energy's three mixed waste incinerators. The information will assist Department evaluation of the incinerators.

  5. The Advanced Research Projects Agency: A new paradigm for funding chemical research

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, L.H.

    1995-12-01

    The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) is the central research and development organization of the Department of Defense. Its mission is to develop imaginative, innovative and often high risk research ideas offering a significant technological impact that go well beyond normal evolutionary developmental approaches; and to pursue these ideas from the demonstration of technical feasibility through the development of prototype systems. Despite the fact that funding for research is tied tightly to strategic interests, their is still a strong need for fundamental science (approximately 14% of ARPA`s $2.7B budget goes directly to universities). Examples of how the two can coexist (and thrive!) will be presented. These include the development of advanced fuel cells and the creation of new environmental technologies. The impact of this new paradigm on creativity in science, chemical synthesis, theory, the peer review system, and accountability will also be discussed.

  6. Research Funding Cut in Proposed Environmental Protection Agency Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    The Obama administration's proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2014 provides a total of 8.153 billion to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a decrease of 296 million from FY 2012 spending (comparisons are to FY 2012 because final appropriations for 2013 were not available when the president released his proposed FY 2014 budget).

  7. Structure, Agency, Complexity Theory and Interdisciplinary Research in Education Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Education Studies needs to develop its existing interdisciplinarity understanding of structures and agencies by giving greater attention to the modern process theories of self-organisation in the physical, biological, psychological and social sciences, sometimes given the umbrella term "complexity theory". The…

  8. Government Agencies, Research Libraries, and Archival Sources in Urban Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Martin H.

    All levels of government influence urban studies because of legal jurisdictions and control of funding sources. Selected U.S. and Canadian federal level agencies and organizations are described in terms of their activities and involvement in urban affairs and their assistance, through grants and programs, to urban studies. Use of "The Municipal…

  9. 48 CFR 312.202(d) - Market research and description of agency need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market research and description of agency need. 312.202(d) Section 312.202(d) Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND... for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 312.202(d) Market research and description of agency...

  10. 48 CFR 312.202(d) - Market research and description of agency need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market research and description of agency need. 312.202(d) Section 312.202(d) Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND... for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 312.202(d) Market research and description of agency...

  11. 76 FR 54002 - Agency Information Collection (Nonprofit Research and Education Corporations (NPCs) Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Nonprofit Research and Education Corporations (NPCs) Data... expected cost and burden and includes the actual data collection instrument. ] DATES: Comments must be... (NPCs) Data Collection: a. Nonprofit Research and Education Corporations (NPCs) PC Annual...

  12. Overcoming subject recruitment challenges: strategies for successful collaboration with novice research agencies.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Patricia G; Yates, Shawna M; Rogers, Bonnie; Healow, Julia M

    2003-02-01

    In most studies, the investigator reaches out to locate potential research subjects using direct strategies such as targeted radio advertising, recruitment posters, and newspaper advertisements. However, other studies may depend on indirect methods of locating potential subjects and work through intermediary contacts in clinics and hospital outpatient departments. Some agency personnel may not have had prior experience with clinical research protocols and may be unfamiliar with screening potential subjects; these personnel are likely to be employed in agencies unaffiliated with academic health sciences centers. In cases in which agency staff members are new to clinical research, special attention is required to keep agency personnel updated about the status of the research and subject recruitment efforts. This article provides an overview of practical tips designed to engage and sustain the interest of novice research agencies in subject recruitment. The article concludes with a case overview of recruitment issues that occurred during a clinical trial addressing occupational low back pain. PMID:12624862

  13. Electrochemical Membrane Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dennis C.; Houk, Linda L.; Feng, Jianren

    1998-12-08

    Electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone was evaluated as a model for the mineralization of carbon in toxic aromatic compounds. A Ti or Pt anode was coated with a film of the oxides of Ti, Ru, Sn and Sb. This quaternary metal oxide film was stable; elemental analysis of the electrolyzed solution indicated the concentration of these metal ions to be 3 {micro}g/L or less. The anode showed good reactivity for the electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone. The use of a dissolved salt matrix as the so-called ''supporting electrolyte'' was eliminated in favor of a solid-state electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and cathode.

  14. Electrochemical membrane incinerator

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Dennis C.; Houk, Linda L.; Feng, Jianren

    2001-03-20

    Electrochemical incineration of p-benzoquinone was evaluated as a model for the mineralization of carbon in toxic aromatic compounds. A Ti or Pt anode was coated with a film of the oxides of Ti, Ru, Sn and Sb. This quaternary metal oxide film was stable; elemental analysis of the electrolyzed solution indicated the concentration of these metal ions to be 3 .mu.g/L or less. The anode showed good reactivity for the electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone. The use of a dissolved salt matrix as the so-called "supporting electrolyte" was eliminated in favor of a solid-state electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and cathode.

  15. Bacterial emissions from incineration of hospital waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.J.; Brenniman, G.R.; Logue, R.R.; Strand, V.A.

    1988-07-01

    This research examined the emissions from a hospital incinerator to determine if human pathogenic bacteria were being released into community air. Incineration of the hospital waste resulted in stack gas with excessively high particulate matter and hydrochloric acid which made sampling impossible. Incineration of a substitute waste consisting of paper products, water, and cultures of Bacillus subtilis (a spore producing bacteria) resulted in no viable Bacillus subtilis in the stack-gas samples. Eight bacteria species other than Bacillus subtilis were found in stack gas samples. The indoor air was similar to the stack gas in bacteria number and species composition. It was concluded that these bacteria were able to pass through the incinerator via excess air entering the secondary combustion chamber. One human pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) was found in the indoor air samples and elevated levels of bacteria were found in hospital hallways adjacent to the incinerator where waste handling occurred.

  16. Technology evaluation report: SITE (Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation) program demonstration test. The American Combustion Pyretron Thermal Destruction System at the US EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) combustion research facility

    SciTech Connect

    Waterland, L.; Lee, J.W.

    1989-04-01

    A series of demonstration tests of the American Combustion, Inc., Thermal Destruction System was performed under the SITE program. This oxygen-enhanced combustion system was retrofit to the rotary-kiln incinerator at EPA's Combustion Research Facility. The system's performance was tested firing contaminated soil from the Stringfellow Superfund Site, both alone and mixed with a coal tar waste (KO87). Comparative performance with conventional incinerator operation was also tested. Compliance with the incinerator performance standards of 99.99% principal organic hazardous constituents (POHC) destruction and removal efficiency and particulate emissions of less than 180 mg/dscm at 7% O2 was measured for all tests. The Pyretron system was capable of in-compliance performance at double the mixed waste feedrate and at a 60% increase in batch waste charge mass than possible with conventional incineration. Scrubber blowdown and kiln ash contained no detectable levels of any of the POHCs chosen.

  17. A university-agency mental health research collaboration: a case example.

    PubMed

    Biegel, David E; Kola, Lenore A; Meeks, David; Stevenson, Lauren; Beimers, David

    2010-01-01

    There is significant documentation in the literature of barriers that may prevent research results from being utilized by agencies to inform and impact practice and policy. Such barriers pertain to several factors as follows: (a) those related to the nature of the research enterprise itself (b) those related to differences between the producers and consumers of research, and (c) barriers arising from the differences in organizational contexts of researchers and case management and supported employment agency staff. This article discusses a collaborative relationship between university researchers and agency practitioners in the context of a research project studying the implementation of supported employment, an evidence-based practice. As a case example, it provides an exemplar of the problems and issues of conducting mental health research with community-based agencies and offers strategies and case examples that address these issues. PMID:20560517

  18. Continuous monitoring of total hydrocarbon emissions from sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bostian, H.E.; Crumpler, E.P.; Koch, P.D.; Chehaske, J.T.; Hagele, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Water (OW) drafted risk-based sludge regulations (for incineration and a variety of other options) under Section 405d of the Clean Water Act. Under consideration for the final regulation is a provision for continuously monitoring total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions as a method of controlling organic emissions from sludge incineration. The monitoring would have to demonstrate that the THC stack emissions were not exceeding a concentration limit. Continuous analyzers for THC, CO, and oxygen (O2) were installed and operated at two facilities, both of which employed multiple-hearth furnaces (MHFs) to incinerate wastewater sludge. In addition, EPA requested an evaluation of the use of these monitors to assist with incinerator operation.

  19. PARTITIONING OF METALS IN ROTARY KILN INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project investigated the fate of trace metals in rotary kiln incineration with venturi- and packed tower-scrubber particulate- and acid gas-control. est plan was developed, using a factorial experimental design, to study the partitioning of metals among kiln ash, sc...

  20. SPECIATION OF ELEMENTS IN INCINERATION RESIDUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowledge as to the speciation of elements in incineration residues is important for the successful management and utilization of the residues and for modelling and predicting their leaching behavior. s part of a larger research effort on speciation in combustion residues, ESP as...

  1. 40 CFR 761.70 - Incineration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Recovery, except for research and development involving less than 500 pounds of PCB material (see... specified in paragraph (a)(7) of this section; (ii) Failure of the PCB rate and quantity measuring and... during PCB incineration and shall meet any performance requirements specified by EPA. Scrubber...

  2. 40 CFR 761.70 - Incineration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Recovery, except for research and development involving less than 500 pounds of PCB material (see... specified in paragraph (a)(7) of this section; (ii) Failure of the PCB rate and quantity measuring and... during PCB incineration and shall meet any performance requirements specified by EPA. Scrubber...

  3. Consolidated Incineration Facility Tritium Emissions Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D. L.; Aggus, J.R.

    1995-03-29

    The Savannah River Technology Center, a research and development facility at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site, provides environmental and regulatory compliance support to onsite operations. A new consolidated Incinerator Facility at SRS is being built to treat hazardous and a combination of hazardous and radioactive (mixed) wastes.

  4. Electrochemical incineration of wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bockris, J. O. M.; Bhardwaj, R. C.; Tennakoon, C. L. K.

    1993-01-01

    There is an increasing concern regarding the disposal of human wastes in space vehicles. It is of utmost importance to convert such wastes into harmless products which can be recycled into an Environmental Life Support System (CELSS), which incorporates the growth of plants (e.g. wheat) and algae to supplement the diet of the astronauts. Chemical treatments have proven relatively unsatisfactory and tend to be increasingly so with increase of the mission duration. Similarly, the use of heat to destroy wastes and convert them to CO2 by the use of air or oxygen has the disadvantage and difficulty of dissipating heat in a space environment and to the inevitable presence of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide in the effluent gases. In particular, electrochemical techniques offer several advantages including low temperatures which may be used and the absence of any NO and CO in the evolved gases. Successful research has been carried out in the electrochemical oxidation of wastes over the last several years. The major task for 1992 was to conduct parametric studies in preparation for the building of a breadboard system, i.e., an actual practical device to consume the daily waste output of one astronaut in 24 hours, electrochemical incineration of human wastes in space vehicles. One of the main objectives was to decide on the type of three dimensional or other electrode system that would suit this purpose. The various types of electrode systems which were considered for this purpose included: rotating disc electrode, micro-electrode (an array), vibrating electrode, jet electrode, and packed bed electrode.

  5. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  6. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    EPA Science Inventory

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  7. Incineration of hazardous wastes.

    PubMed

    Gannon, T; Ansbro, A R; Burns, R P

    1991-10-01

    Glaxo has practiced incineration of liquid and gaseous wastes for over twenty years and currently operate eleven liquid and gas incinerators in the United Kingdom and Singapore. The liquid incinerators burn, as their main streams, those solvents that cannot be recovered and recycled within the processes. The early installations were for readily combustible solvents only. However, there has been a progressive move into the destruction of more difficult and hazardous wastes, with the consequential requirements for more sophisticated technology, in the belief that the responsible destruction of waste should be tackled near to its source. The eventual aim is to be self-sufficient in this area of waste management. The incineration of hazardous liquid and gaseous waste has presented a series of design, operational and monitoring problems into account which have all been successfully overcome. The solutions take into account the environmental consequences of the operations from both liquid and gaseous emissions. In order to ensure minimal environmental impact and safe operation the best practicable technology is employed. Environmental assessment forms part of the process development and permitting procedures. PMID:24233930

  8. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... yard waste? 60.2974 Section 60.2974 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  9. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... yard waste? 60.3069 Section 60.3069 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... yard waste? 60.2974 Section 60.2974 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  11. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... yard waste? 60.3069 Section 60.3069 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  12. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... yard waste? 60.2974 Section 60.2974 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... and Qualification Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... yard waste? 60.3069 Section 60.3069 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  14. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... yard waste? 60.3069 Section 60.3069 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3069 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... yard waste? 60.3069 Section 60.3069 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard... incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator...

  16. Reviewing HIV-Related Research in Emerging Economies: The Role of Government Reviewing Agencies.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Patrina; Hui, Katrina; Hanrahan, Donna; Barnes, Mark; Sugarman, Jeremy; London, Alex John; Klitzman, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Little research has explored the possible effects of government institutions in emerging economies on ethical reviews of multinational research. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth telephone interviews with 15 researchers, Research Ethics Committees (RECs) personnel, and a government agency member involved in multinational HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) research in emerging economies. Ministries of Health (MOH) or other government agencies often play pivotal roles as facilitators or barriers in the research ethics approval process. Government agency RECs reviewing protocols may face particular challenges, as they can lack resources, be poorly organized, have inconsistent review processes and limited expertise, and use differing definitions of national interests, including upholding national reputation and avoiding potential exploitation and stigma of the country's population. The MOH/governmental review body may be affected by power dynamics and politics in study reviews; may consider issues both related and unrelated to research ethics as understood elsewhere; and may prioritize particular diseases, treatments, or interventions over other topics/types of research. Poor communication and deeply-rooted tensions may exist between sponsor and host countries, impeding optimal interactions and reviews. Investigators must understand and plan for the potential effects of governmental agencies on multinational collaborative research, including preserving adequate time for agency review, and contacting these agencies beforehand to address issues that may arise. Better understanding of these issues can aid and advance appropriate global scientific collaboration. PMID:25388003

  17. 76 FR 31927 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Formative Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Formative Research for the Pilot of a Garden-Related Nutrition Curriculum AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  18. USING SUBSURFACE TRANSPORT RESEARCH TO ACHIEVE AGENCY OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline leaks from underground storage tanks can cause ground water contamination because there are a number of organic chemicals in gasoline. These chemicals have varying properties that influence how far contamination extends from the release. Research on transport of these ...

  19. Hazardous materials incineration system

    SciTech Connect

    Hladun, K.W.

    1982-03-23

    A hazardous materials incineration system is disclosed which includes a solid waste combustor of the inclined, oscillating or rocking type and a liquid waste combustor suitable to incinerate wastes in liquid form. The combustion products from both the solid waste combustor and the liquid waste combustor are fed to an afterburner which is equipped with burners to maintain elevated temperatures throughout the length of the afterburner chamber. The products of combustion exit the afterburner into a conditioning unit which eliminates larger particulate matter, cools the combustion products and releases certain additives into the moving gas stream prior to entry into a baghouse. All neutralized salts are withdrawn at the baghouse and the gaseous baghouse effluent is directed to a further aqueous liquor contact apparatus prior to exhausting to atmosphere through a forced draft stack system.

  20. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses EPA's research program on indoor air quality. Now in its third year, it is a broad-based program that includes: field surveys of pollutant concentrations in homes, characterization of emissions from sources, health studies of genotoxic and irritant/neurobehavi...

  1. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S STRATOSPHERIC OZONE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major consequence of decreasing the ozone layer is an increase in the transmission of UV-B radiation (290-320nm) to the surface of the earth. Researchers have identified many potentially serious effects of increased exposure to UV-B radiation on the environment and human health...

  2. 48 CFR 12.202 - Market research and description of agency need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... standards issued by the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board at 36 CFR part 1194 (see... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market research and... Commercial Items 12.202 Market research and description of agency need. (a) Market research (see 10.001)...

  3. 48 CFR 12.202 - Market research and description of agency need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... standards issued by the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board at 36 CFR part 1194 (see... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market research and... Commercial Items 12.202 Market research and description of agency need. (a) Market research (see 10.001)...

  4. 48 CFR 12.202 - Market research and description of agency need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... standards issued by the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board at 36 CFR part 1194 (see... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market research and... Commercial Items 12.202 Market research and description of agency need. (a) Market research (see 10.001)...

  5. The Council of Youth Research: Critical Literacy and Civic Agency in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Antero; Mirra, Nicole; Morrell, Ernest; Martinez, Antonio; Scorza, D'Artagnan

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between critical literacy practice, digital media production, and civic agency in the Council of Youth Research, a youth participatory action research program in which Los Angeles high school students conduct research and create dynamic, multimedia presentations as leaders of a growing youth movement for…

  6. FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A SINGLE-STAGE IONIZING WET SCRUBBER - VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with an ionizing wet scrubber (IWS) for particulate and acid gas control. ...

  7. FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A VENTURI/PACKED COLUMN SCRUBBER - VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A five week series of pilot-scale incineration tests, using a synthetic waste feed, was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator. ight tests studied the fate of five hazardous constituent and four nonh...

  8. FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A VENTURI/PACKED COLUMN SCRUBBER - VOLUME I: TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A five week series of pilot-scale incineration tests, using a synthetic waste feed, was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator. ight tests studied the fate of five hazardous constituent and four nonh...

  9. SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF TRACE METALS IN FLUE GAS PARTICULATE FROM A PILOT-SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distributions of nine trace metals in flue gas particulate by particle size range were determined as part of a pilot-scale hazardous waste incineration test program. hese tests were conducted in the rotary kiln incinerator system at the U.S. EPA's Incineration Research Facili...

  10. EVALUATION OF HCL MEASUREMENTS TECHNIQUES AT MUNICIPAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) emission from hazardous waste incinerators are regulated by the EPA, and the Agency is considering HCl regulations for municipal waste combustors. ntil recently, techniques to adequately quantify these emissions using either instrumentation or wet-chemistr...

  11. Dewatering and incinerating wastewater solids

    SciTech Connect

    Shamat, N.; Hart, J.

    1992-10-01

    The solids processing and incineration-energy recovery system at the Metropolitan Waste Control Commission (MWCC) wastewater treatment plant in St. Paul, Minn., is unique in the wastewater treatment field. The system consists of innovative processes including two types of solids dewatering devices-twin-roll filter presses and plate-and-frame diaphragm filter presses, and two new and four rehabilitated multiple-hearth incinerators. Four of the incinerators are equipped with energy recovery boilers, an economizer, heat wheels, and rotary solids dryers. The plant scum and the odorous gases generated from the thermal solids conditioning process are destroyed by combustion in the incinerators.

  12. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) initiates wetlands research in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Kentula, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    In January 1986 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted a Wetlands Research Plan (Zedler and Kentula 1986). The plan describes the research necessary to assist the Agency in implementing its responsibilities for protecting wetlands, including Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. Three research needs were identified and an emphasis on freshwater systems was recommended. Research will be implemented to: (1) assess the water quality functions of wetlands; (2) develop methods to predict the cumulative impact(s) associated with wetland loss; and (3) improve the formulation and evaluation of wetland creation/ restoration projects required as mitigation for unavoidable impacts.

  13. Management of information in a research and development agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keene, Wallace O.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA program for managing scientific and technical information (STI) is examined, noting the technological, managerial, educational, and legal aspects of transferring and disseminating information. A definition of STI is introduced and NASA's STI-related management programs are outlined. Consideration is given to the role of STI management in NASA mission programs, research efforts supporting the management and use of STI, STI program interfaces, and the Automated Information Management Program to eliminate redundant automation efforts in common administrative functions. The infrastructure needed to manage the broad base of NASA information and the interfaces between NASA's STI management and external organizations are described.

  14. 41. BUILDINGS 2215, 2216, AND 2217, INCINERATORS. INCINERATORS AS MODIFIED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. BUILDINGS 2215, 2216, AND 2217, INCINERATORS. INCINERATORS AS MODIFIED WITH ENCLOSURES TO PREVENT GARBAGE FROM BEING BLOWN OFF THE PLATFORM WHEN UNLOADED, AND STEPS TO THE PLATFORM. Fort McCoy photograph, #57-13, October 1943. - Fort McCoy, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  15. Collaborative agency to support integrated care for children, young people and families: an action research study

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Kaz

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Collaboration was legislated in the delivery of integrated care in the early 2000s in the UK. This research explored how the reality of practice met the rhetoric of collaboration. Theory The paper is situated against a theoretical framework of structure, agency, identity and empowerment. Collectively and contextually these concepts inform the proposed model of ‘collaborative agency’ to sustain integrated care. The paper brings sociological theory on structure and agency to the dilemma of collaboration. Methods Participative action research was carried out in collaborative teams that aspired to achieve integrated care for children, young people and families between 2009 and 2013. It was a part time, PhD study in collaborative practice. Results The research established that people needed to be able to be jointly aware of their context, to make joint decisions, and jointly act in order to deliver integrated services, and proposes a model of collaborative agency derived from practitioner’s experiences and integrated action research and literature on agency. The model reflects the effects of a range of structures in shaping professional identity, empowerment, and agency in a dynamic. The author proposes that the collaborative agency model will support integrated care, although this is, as yet, an untested hypothesis. PMID:24868192

  16. Incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a laboratory incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Z.; Mcintosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results on the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator. Temperature of the incinerator, excess air ratio and mean residence time were varied to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions. The flue gas was monitored on line using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupling with a heated long path cell (LPC). Methane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide in the flue gas were simultaneously analyzed. Experimental results indicate that benzene is a major product of incomplete combustion (PIC) besides carbon monoxide in the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene, and is very sensitive to combustion conditions. This suggests that benzene is a target analyle to be monitored in full-scale incinerators.

  17. Incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a laboratory incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Zhuoxiong; McIntosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports results on incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator. The incinerator temperature, excess air ratio and mean residence time were varied to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions. The flue gas was monitored on line using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupling with a heated long path cell (LPC). Methane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide in the flue gas were simultaneously analyzed. Experimental results indicate that benzene is a major product of incomplete combustion (PIC), besides carbon monoxide, in the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene and is very sensitive to the combustion conditions. This suggests that benzene is a target analyte to be monitored in full-scale incinerators.

  18. Incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a laboratory incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Zhuoxiong; McIntosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    This paper reports results on incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator. The incinerator temperature, excess air ratio and mean residence time were varied to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions. The flue gas was monitored on line using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupling with a heated long path cell (LPC). Methane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide in the flue gas were simultaneously analyzed. Experimental results indicate that benzene is a major product of incomplete combustion (PIC), besides carbon monoxide, in the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene and is very sensitive to the combustion conditions. This suggests that benzene is a target analyte to be monitored in full-scale incinerators.

  19. LONG-RANGE RESEARCH AGENDA FOR THE PERIOD 1986-1991 (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The framework for the document is based on scientific issues identified by EPA's Research Committees composed of representatives of the Office of Research Development (ORD), Agency Program (regulatory) Offices and the Regions. One of the major issues is the development and evalua...

  20. State Education Agencies' Acquisition and Use of Research Knowledge for School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massell, Diane; Goertz, Margaret E.; Barnes, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, state education agencies (SEAs) have been given considerable responsibilities for improving low-performing schools and for adopting research-based practices in doing so. Yet we know little about how and where these organizations search for, select, and use research and other kinds of evidence. We examined these questions…

  1. 75 FR 27575 - Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... notice (74 FR 68860) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB for approval and soliciting comments... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program... Water Resources Research Act of 1984, as amended (42 U.S.C. 10301 et seq.), authorizes a water...

  2. HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL RESEARCH, USEPA (UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Land Pollution Control Division (LPCD), Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab. (HWERL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in Cincinnati, Ohio, has responsibility for research in solid and hazardous waste management with respect to land disposal of wastes. To fulfill th...

  3. Establishing a Research Utilization Specialist in a State Vocational Rehabilitation Agency. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Paul T.

    This document reviews the Virginia Research Utilization Specialist (RUS) project which began in 1969 to assist in demonstrating effective methods of research utilization in the State Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies. Nine RUS personnel were involved in the demonstration project and developed the following activities: (1) work on a statewide…

  4. U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) WASTEWATER DISINFECTION RESEARCH PROGRAM EVOLUTION TO A DESIGN MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the history of the EPA wastewater disinfection research program from the early 1970's until it culminated with the publication of the Process Design Manual in September 1986. The program was elevated to the highest Agency research priority in 1976 with the infu...

  5. On the Complexity of Digital Video Cameras in/as Research: Perspectives and Agencements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangou, Francis

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this article is to consider the potential for digital video cameras to produce as part of a research agencement. Our reflection will be guided by the current literature on the use of video recordings in research, as well as by the rhizoanalysis of two vignettes. The first of these vignettes is associated with a short video clip shot by…

  6. How research funding agencies support science integration into policy and practice: An international overview

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Funding agencies constitute one essential pillar for policy makers, researchers and health service delivery institutions. Such agencies are increasingly providing support for science implementation. In this paper, we investigate health research funding agencies and how they support the integration of science into policy, and of science into practice, and vice versa. Methods We selected six countries: Australia, The Netherlands, France, Canada, England and the United States. For 13 funding agencies, we compared their intentions to support, their actions related to science integration into policy and practice, and the reported benefits of this integration. We did a qualitative content analysis of the reports and information provided on the funding agencies’ websites. Results Most funding agencies emphasized the importance of science integration into policy and practice in their strategic orientation, and stated how this integration was structured. Their funding activities were embedded in the push, pull, or linkage/exchange knowledge transfer model. However, few program funding efforts were based on all three models. The agencies reported more often on the benefits of integration on practice, rather than on policy. External programs that were funded largely covered science integration into policy and practice at the end of grant stage, while overlooking the initial stages. Finally, external funding actions were more prominent than internally initiated bridging activities and training activities on such integration. Conclusions This paper contributes to research on science implementation because it goes beyond the two community model of researchers versus end users, to include funding agencies. Users of knowledge may be end users in health organizations like hospitals; civil servants assigned to decision making positions within funding agencies; civil servants outside of the Ministry of Health, such as the Ministry of the Environment; politicians deciding

  7. Science youth action research: Promoting critical science literacy through relevance and agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Elizabeth R.

    This three-article dissertation presents complementary perspectives on Science Youth Action Research (Sci-YAR), a K-12 curriculum designed to emphasize relevance and agency to promote youth's science learning. In Sci-YAR, youth conduct action research projects to better understand science-related issues in their lives, schools, or communities, while they simultaneously document, analyze, and reflect upon their own practices as researchers. The first article defines Sci-YAR and argues for its potential to enhance youth's participation as citizens in a democratic society. The second article details findings from a case study of youth engaged in Sci-YAR, describing how the curriculum enabled and constrained youth's identity work in service of critical science agency. The third article provides guidance to science teachers in implementing student-driven curriculum and instruction by emphasizing Sci-YAR's key features as a way to promote student agency and relevance in school science.

  8. Conducting research with end-of-life populations: overcoming recruitment challenges when working with clinical agencies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dena J; Burgener, Sandy C; Kavanaugh, Karen; Ryan, Catherine; Keenan, Gail

    2012-11-01

    Conducting end-of-life (EOL) research can present numerous challenges associated with recruitment and retention of research subjects. Such issues may result from working with a variety of clinical settings or the uniqueness of the patient population. The purposes of this article were to describe recruitment challenges in EOL research when collaborating with different types of clinical agencies and to discuss strategies that are being used to overcome these recruitment issues. PMID:21700424

  9. Trial Burn Activities for a Mixed Waste Incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, M.B.

    1998-05-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is located on the Savannah River Site (SRS), owned by the U. S. Department of Energy and managed by BNFL, Inc. for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. SRS received permits from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region IV to construct and operate the CIF, a hazardous, radioactive mixed waste incinerator. This paper presents the results of the trial burn conducted on the CIF in April 1997 which is the initial demonstration of compliance with the permits. The incinerator is currently operating under approved post-trial burn conditions while the trial burn results are being evaluated. A final operating permit is expected the fall of 1998.

  10. Review of biosolids management options and co-incineration of a biosolid-derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Roy, Murari Mohon; Dutta, Animesh; Corscadden, Kenny; Havard, Peter; Dickie, Lucas

    2011-11-01

    This paper reviews current biosolids management options, and identifies incineration as a promising technology. Incineration is attractive both for volume reduction and energy recovery. Reported emissions from the incineration of biosolids were compared to various regulations to identify the challenges and future direction of biosolids incineration research. Most of the gaseous and metal emissions were lower than existing regulations, or could be met by existing technologies. This paper also presents the results of an experimental study to investigate the potential use of biosolids for co-incineration with wood pellets in a conventional wood pellet stove. Pilot scale combustion tests revealed that co-incineration of 10% biosolids with 90% premium grade wood pellets resulted in successful combustion without any significant degradation of efficiency and emissions. PMID:21763120

  11. Behavior of arsenic in a rotary-kiln incinerator (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Thurnau, R.C.; Fourneir, D.

    1992-01-01

    A series of pilot scale incineration tests were performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) to evaluate the fate of arsenic when fed to a rotary kiln incinerator. In addition to parametric tests, an arsenic-containing soil from a Superfund site was also fed to the same incinerator. The operation of the incinerator and the resulting test conditions were similar. The data showed that arsenic when incinerated tends to partition to the bottom ash. However, as the temperature in the kiln rises, the amount of arsenic partitioning to the ash decreases. With regard to the Superfund soil, the TCLP values for arsenic went down as the oxygen level in the kiln increased. Afterburner temperature and chlorine concentration in the waste did not appear to have any effect on the partitioning of arsenic.

  12. Diesel exhaust filter-incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Martyniuk, E.T.

    1981-08-11

    A diesel engine exhaust particulate filter-incinerator comprising an enclosed filter panel having particulate deposition surfaces bordered by electrodes of a high voltage power supply. Periodic incineration is accomplished by the collection on the surfaces of particulates in amounts sufficient to conduct sufficient electric current along paths through the particulates to heat them to incineration temperature. Ignition and burn off of particulates may be automatically accomplished by maintaining a suitable voltage across the electrodes at the edges of the collection surfaces to initiate arc-like current flow before the collected particulates reach a level that would plug the filter. Specific embodiments of exemplary filter constructions are disclosed.

  13. State Education Agencies' Acquisition and Use of Research Knowledge in School Improvement Strategies. CPRE Research Report # RR-77

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goertz, Margaret E.; Barnes, Carol; Massell, Diane; Fink, Ryan; Francis, Anthony Tuf

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, state education agencies (SEAs) have been given considerably more responsibilities for directing and guiding the improvement of low-performing schools. At the same time, federal policies strongly pressed SEAs to use research to design these supports. Very few studies have explored the SEA as an organization, or its role in…

  14. Incineration method and system

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, J.G.; Lombana, L.A.

    1982-10-05

    The following disclosure teaches ways and means for incinerating organic wastes in a multiple hearth furnace equipped with an afterburner. In the furnace, the wastes are pyrolyzed in an oxygen deficient atmosphere which is regulated to only partially complete the oxidation of the organic substances which are pyrolyzed from the wastes. In the afterburner, air is introduced to complete the oxidation of the partially oxidized substances carried by gases and vapors from the furnace. The air supply to the afterburner is controlled so that, at temperatures above a predetermined temperature, the quantity of air introduced is increased with increasing temperatures and is decreased with decreasing temperatures. In other words, the pyrolyzing furnace is caused to operate with a deficiency of air over its operating range, while the afterburner is caused to operate with excess air and the amount of excess air supplied is used to control the operating temperature by quenching.

  15. Pulsating incinerator hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Basic, J.N. Sr.

    1984-10-09

    A pulsating hearth for an incinerator wherein the hearth is suspended on a fixed frame for movement in a limited short arc to urge random size particles burning in a pile on the hearth in a predetermined path intermittently across the surface of the heart. Movement is imparted to the hearth in periodic pulses preferably by inflating sets of air bags mounted on the frame, which stroke the hearth to move it a short distance from an initial position and jar it against the frame, thus impelling the burning particles a short distance by inertia and concurrently stoking the burning pile upon each stroke, and then returning the hearth to its initial position. The hearth may also have a plurality of nozzles connected to a source of air for delivering gently flowing air to the burning pile on the hearth.

  16. Geiselbullach refuse incineration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The vast diversity of wastes, heightened awareness of environmental problems, and unabating demand for power and raw materials, are making it imperative to minimize waste-dumping. Refuse incineration power plants present an ecologically and economically sound answer to this problem, since they also enable communities and large industrial facilities to convert their wastes into electricity and energy for district heating. The refuse produced each year by 1,000,000 people represents a resource equivalent to $30 million of fuel oil. This plant is now converting into energy the waste produced by a population of 280,000. The conversion and expansion were completed without any significant interruption to plant operation. The modernized plant complies fully with today's stringent legal requirements for obtaining an operating license in West Germany. Because landfill sites are becoming increasingly scarce everywhere, thermal processes that dispose of refuse and simultaneously generate electrical power and heat are creating a great deal of interest.

  17. 78 FR 46597 - Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research Institute Program Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ..., we published a Federal Register notice (78 FR 2422) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB....S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: State Water Resources Research... Water Resources (NIWR) USGS Competitive Grant Program. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  18. Learner Contribution to English Language Learning: Chinese Research Students' Agency and Their Transitional Experiences in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of agency for the English language development of three Chinese research students with high English proficiency sojourning in Australia. The focus is on the various approaches the learners employed to strengthen their sense of confidence in their language use in Australia. The data were obtained through in-depth…

  19. RESEARCH ON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS IN THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT BY THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on Endocrine Disrupters in the Aquatic Environment by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (Abstract). Presented at the Endocrine Disrupters Workshop sponsored by the UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 8-9 September 2001, Weymouth, UK. 1 p...

  20. What Can Research into Graduate Employability Tell Us about Agency and Structure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tholen, Gerbrand

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally theorists who have written about agency and structure have eschewed empirical research. This article uses the findings of an empirical study into graduate employability to inform the sociological debate on how they relate to each other. The study examined how Dutch and British final-year students approach the labour market right…

  1. Agency and communication challenges in discussions of informed consent in pediatric cancer research.

    PubMed

    Young, Amanda J; Kim, Loel; Shu Li; Baker, Justin N; Schmidt, Michael; Camp, Jonathan W; Barfield, Raymond C

    2010-05-01

    In this article we examine the discourse of four focus groups we conducted at a pediatric research hospital in which we queried teenage patients, parents, nurses, and physicians about their perceptions of the informed consent process in research. Autonomy, as the goal of informed consent, is a murky concept, with some ethicists questioning the possibility that it can ever be attained. We argue that it might be more productive to consider agency, which we define as language and action that are constructed, negotiated, and maintained through effective communication. Our goal was to understand how individuals rhetorically constructed agency in discussions of informed consent experiences. After transcribing and coding the focus group interviews, we identified six aspects of agency in participants' discourse: (a) defining roles, (b) seeking information, (c) providing information, (d) supporting others, (e) making decisions, and (f) claiming agency for self. Examining these aspects of agency indicated that efforts to improve the informed consent process must address: (a) status differentials, (b) role definitions, (c) information flow, and (d) relationships. PMID:20154295

  2. Today's challange in MSW incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Vaux, W.G. . Research and Development Center)

    1988-01-01

    A decade ago, incinerator ash was of little concern. There wasn't much of it, and it was treated like soil of fill and therefore disposed of without much concern. Today, however, the situation is far different. Waste-to-energy plants reduce the amount of trash they process by 90%, but they require environmentally sound landfills to dispose of residue. This paper examines the management of incinerator ash. At its best, incinerator ash is well burned out; at worst, it is more pyrolized and contains unburned carbon. This latter case is likely following receipt of rain-saturated waste at the incinerator. Ash contains about 15 to 20 weight of unburnables; for example metal cans, ceramics, other metals and so on. According to the author, recent work on presence of combustion products in the ash does not show appreciable levels of dioxins leaching form ash.

  3. Controlling air emissions from incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Foisy, M.B.; Li, R.; Chattapadhyay, A.

    1994-04-01

    Last year, EPA published final rules establishing technical standards for the use and disposal of wastewater biosolids (40 CFR, Part 503). Subpart E specifically regulates the operations of and emissions from municipal wastewater biosolids incinerators.

  4. Review of research works done on Tamra Bhasma [Incinerated Copper] at Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y; Jagtap, Chandrashekhar Y; Galib, R; Bedarkar, Prashant B; Patgiri, Biswajyoti; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The metal, Tamra though mentioned in Ayurveda with a wide range of therapeutic utilities; is attributed with Ashta Maha Dosha. Hence, one should be cautious while using Tamra Bhasma. Considering the significance of Tamra in therapeutics, many studies have been carried out at different centers of India. Aim of the present study was to compile such available research works done on Tamra in the Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana (RS and BK), IPGT and RA, Jamnagar and provide brief information about pharmaceutical, analytical, and pharmacological studies. Total eleven studies on Tamra Bhasma, which revalidated the impact of classical guidelines, safety issues, and therapeutic utilities, were screened from PG Department of RS and BK, Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. All studies revealed that Tamra Bhasma is safe clinically, experimentally at Therapeutic Equivalent Dose (TED) levels as no toxic hazards were reported during the treatment period. In all aspects (pharmaceutical, pharmacological, and clinical) Somnathi Tamra Bhasma has proven to be better than Tamra Bhasma. The clinical efficacy of Tamra Bhasma has been evaluated in Shvasa, Kasa, Yakrit Pliha Vriddhi, Grahani, etc. conditions. Satisfactory responses with a decrease in the intensity of signs and symptoms were reported in all the studies. Though certain limitations were observed in these researches, the results can be considered as a lead for further well stratified studies covering larger population. No adverse effects were reported in any of these studies. PMID:24049401

  5. Review of research works done on Tamra Bhasma [Incinerated Copper] at Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y.; Jagtap, Chandrashekhar Y.; Galib, R.; Bedarkar, Prashant B.; Patgiri, Biswajyoti; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The metal, Tamra though mentioned in Ayurveda with a wide range of therapeutic utilities; is attributed with Ashta Maha Dosha. Hence, one should be cautious while using Tamra Bhasma. Considering the significance of Tamra in therapeutics, many studies have been carried out at different centers of India. Aim of the present study was to compile such available research works done on Tamra in the Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana (RS and BK), IPGT and RA, Jamnagar and provide brief information about pharmaceutical, analytical, and pharmacological studies. Total eleven studies on Tamra Bhasma, which revalidated the impact of classical guidelines, safety issues, and therapeutic utilities, were screened from PG Department of RS and BK, Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. All studies revealed that Tamra Bhasma is safe clinically, experimentally at Therapeutic Equivalent Dose (TED) levels as no toxic hazards were reported during the treatment period. In all aspects (pharmaceutical, pharmacological, and clinical) Somnathi Tamra Bhasma has proven to be better than Tamra Bhasma. The clinical efficacy of Tamra Bhasma has been evaluated in Shvasa, Kasa, Yakrit Pliha Vriddhi, Grahani, etc. conditions. Satisfactory responses with a decrease in the intensity of signs and symptoms were reported in all the studies. Though certain limitations were observed in these researches, the results can be considered as a lead for further well stratified studies covering larger population. No adverse effects were reported in any of these studies. PMID:24049401

  6. Properties of solid waste incinerator fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Poran, C.J. ); Ahtchi-Ali, F. )

    1989-08-01

    Since the late 1950s solid waste incinerators have become widely used in the United States. The incineration of solid waste produces large quantities of bottom and fly ash, which has been disposed of primarily by landfilling. However, as landfills become undesirable other disposal methods are being sought. An experimental research program is conducted to determine engineering properties of solid waste incinerator fly ash (SWIF) in order to evaluate the feasibility of using the material for compacted fill and road and subbase construction. Moisture-density relationship, permeability, shear strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR) are investigated. The effects of densification on these engineering properties are also examined. In addition, the effectiveness of cement and lime stabilization is investigated using two common mix ratios. Test results of stabilized mixes are compared to the unstabilized material. Cement stabilization is found to be very effective in reducing permeability, and increasing shear strength and CBR values of the material. The results indicate that SWIF with cement stabilization may be used effectively for compacted fill and road subbase construction. Finally, some environmental aspects related to these applications are examined.

  7. Collaborating for breast health education and research. A university, industry, and community agency partnership.

    PubMed

    Thomas, B; Stamler, L L; Malinowski, A

    1999-11-01

    Initiating a collaborative health education program about breast health required talent, expertise, and workload contributions from all involved including university researchers, a regional breast screening agency, and local industries. The credibility and opinions of liaisons or key informants were valued highly, and their support was critical to the success of the project. Participation in any collaborative project is predicated on benefits perceived by each of the partners. The community agency reaped the benefits of greater dissemination of their educational materials through the interventions. The project increased corporate and union awareness of the resources of this agency and in this community. Throughout the project, meetings and telephone conferences were held on a weekly or biweekly basis with the liaisons. Liaisons disseminated updates to management and union representatives. PMID:10865537

  8. Analysis of incinerator performance and metal emissions from recent trial and test burns

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.C.; Lee, H.T.; Kuo, T.H.

    1994-12-31

    Recent trial- and test-burn data from five rotary kiln incinerator facilities were analyzed for combustion performance and metal emissions. The incinerator facilities examined included: DuPont`s Gulf Coast Regional Waste Incinerator in Orange, Texas; Chemical Waste Management`s Incinerator in Port Arthur, Texas; Rollins Environmental Service`s Incinerator in Deer Park, Texas; Martin Marietta`s TSCA Incinerator in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; and EPA`s Incineration Research Facility in Jefferson, Arkansas. The analysis involved the use of a PC-based computer program capable of performing material and energy balance calculations and predicting equilibrium compositions based on the minimization of system free energy. For each analysis, the feed data of waste and fuel and the corresponding operating parameters associated with incinerator and/or afterburner operation were input to the program and the program simulated the combustion performance under equilibrium conditions. In the analysis, the field-recorded performance data were compared with the simulated equilibrium results and the incinerator performance, including the quality of the field data, the combustion efficiency, the percent excess air, the heat loss, and the amount of air inleakage, was evaluated. In addition, the field-obtained metal data were analyzed for emission rate and metal balance. 13 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CONTAMINATED SLUDGES FROM THE BOFORS-NOBEL SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed test program was performed at the U.S. EPA Incineration Research Facility to help determine the effectiveness of incineration in treating two contaminated lagoon sludges from the Bofors-Nobel Superfund site in Muskegon, MI. he sludges tested were contaminated with vari...

  10. PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CONTAMINATED SLUDGES FROM THE BOFORS-NOBEL SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed test program was performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Incineration Research Facility (IRF) to help determine the effectiveness of incineration in treating two contaminated lagoon sludges from the Bofors-Nobel Superfund site in Mus...

  11. FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A SINGLE-STAGE IONIZING WET SCRUBBER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with an ionizing wet scrubber (IWS) for particulate and acid gas control. ...

  12. THE FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A SINGLE-STAGE IONIZING WET SCRUBBER - VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with an ionizing wet scrubber (IWS) for particulate and acid gas control. ...

  13. FATE OF TRACE METALS IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR WITH A SINGLE-STAGE IONIZING WET SCRUBBER - VOLUME I: TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of pilot-scale incineration tests was performed at EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas, to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with an ionizing wet scrubber (IWS) for particulate and acid gas control. ...

  14. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for which the incinerator or air curtain incinerator is being used, a description of the types of materials being burned in the incinerator or air curtain incinerator, a brief description of the size...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... disaster or emergency for which the incinerator or air curtain incinerator is being used, a description of the types of materials being burned in the incinerator or air curtain incinerator, a brief...

  16. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... disaster or emergency for which the incinerator or air curtain incinerator is being used, a description of the types of materials being burned in the incinerator or air curtain incinerator, a brief...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... disaster or emergency for which the incinerator or air curtain incinerator is being used, a description of the types of materials being burned in the incinerator or air curtain incinerator, a brief...

  18. 40 CFR 60.3061 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... disaster or emergency for which the incinerator or air curtain incinerator is being used, a description of the types of materials being burned in the incinerator or air curtain incinerator, a brief...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2969 - What are the requirements for temporary-use incinerators and air curtain incinerators used in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for which the incinerator or air curtain incinerator is being used, a description of the types of materials being burned in the incinerator or air curtain incinerator, a brief description of the size...

  20. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  1. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS RESEARCH AT THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an overview of research efforts at EPA on the application, monitoring, and performance of Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) for groundwater restoration. Over the past 10 years, research projects conducted by research staff at EPA's National Risk M...

  2. "What Happened to Our Sense of Justice?" Tracing Agency and Critical Engagement in a Youth Participatory Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giraldo-García, Regina J.; Galletta, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Tracing the nature of critical engagement and agency among youth in a participatory action research (PAR) collective, the study attends to the manner in which critical engagement and agency developed over time for the youth researchers. The focus of the project was to conduct a survey among ninth grade students concerning their early high school…

  3. Career opportunities for college graduates with the Agricultural Research Service Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service is the principal scientific research agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. This agency employs more than 7,600 people working at various locations in the United States and U.S. territories. Careers for new scientists span a variety of disciplines such as c...

  4. The environmental analysis of helicopter operations by Federal agencies: Current procedures and research needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. C.; Warner, D. B.; Dajani, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental problems restricting commercial helicopter passenger operations are reviewed. The key considerations for effective assessment procedures are outlined and a preliminary model for the environmental analysis of helicopters is developed. It is recommended that this model, or some similar approach, be used as a common base for the development of comprehensive environmental assessment methods for each of the federal agencies concerned with helicopters. A description of the critical environmental research issues applicable to helicopters is also presented.

  5. Academic research opportunities at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency(NGA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomer, Scott A.

    2006-05-01

    The vision of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is to "Know the Earth...Show the Way." To achieve this vision, the NGA provides geospatial intelligence in all its forms and from whatever source-imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial data and information-to ensure the knowledge foundation for planning, decision, and action. Academia plays a key role in the NGA research and development program through the NGA Academic Research Program. This multi-disciplinary program of basic research in geospatial intelligence topics provides grants and fellowships to the leading investigators, research universities, and colleges of the nation. This research provides the fundamental science support to NGA's applied and advanced research programs. The major components of the NGA Academic Research Program are: *NGA University Research Initiatives (NURI): Three-year basic research grants awarded competitively to the best investigators across the US academic community. Topics are selected to provide the scientific basis for advanced and applied research in NGA core disciplines. *Historically Black College and University - Minority Institution Research Initiatives (HBCU-MI): Two-year basic research grants awarded competitively to the best investigators at Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and Minority Institutions across the US academic community. *Intelligence Community Post-Doctoral Research Fellowships: Fellowships providing access to advanced research in science and technology applicable to the intelligence community's mission. The program provides a pool of researchers to support future intelligence community needs and develops long-term relationships with researchers as they move into career positions. This paper provides information about the NGA Academic Research Program, the projects it supports and how researchers and institutions can apply for grants under the program. In addition, other opportunities for academia to engage with NGA through

  6. Advanced two-stage incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Khinkis, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is developing an advanced incinerator that combines the fluidized-bed agglomeration/incineration and cyclonic combustion/incineration technologies that have been developed separately at IGT over many years. This combination results in a unique and extremely flexible incinerator for solid, sludge, liquid, and gaseous wastes. This system can operate over a wide range of conditions in the first stage, from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-Btu wastes. In the combined system, solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes would be easily and efficiently destroyed (>99.99% destruction and removal efficiency (DRE)), whereas solid inorganic contaminants would be contained within a glassy matrix, rendering them benign and suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill. This technology is different from other existing technologies because of its agglomeration and encapsulation capability and its flexibility with respect to the types wastes it can handle. Both the fluidized-bed as well as the cyclonic incineration technologies have been fully developed and tested separately at pilot scales. 12 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    PubMed

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management. PMID:23978558

  8. The Collaborative Action Research Network: 30 Years of Agency in Developing Educational Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the Collaborative Action Research Network's (CARN) origins and development since its foundation in 1976. The author brings the unique perspective of active involvement in CARN almost from its inception, and editorship for many years of its journal "Educational Action Research". Cultural-historical activity…

  9. Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhaoping; Jin, Baosheng; Huang, Yaji; Zhou, Hongcang; Lan, Jixiang

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m3/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10(-13)kg/Nm3 and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries. PMID:16054809

  10. HANDBOOK: HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication, Volume III of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series, contains general guidance to permit writers in reviewing hazardous waste incineration permit applications and trial burn plans. he handbook is a how-to document dealing with how incineration measure...

  11. Consolidated Incineration Facility model videotape

    SciTech Connect

    Krolewski, J F; Augsburger, S T

    1988-01-01

    A Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is in final design for construction at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, South Carolina. The CIF will detoxify and volume reduce combustible radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste. A study model was constructed during scope development for project authorization to assist with equipment layout and insure sufficient maintenance access. To facilitate the Department of Energy Validation process, a videotape of the model was developed. This ten minute videotape includes general information about the incineration process and a tour of the study model with a discussion of activities in each area. The videotape will be shown and the current status and schedule for the CIF presented.

  12. Federal agencies active in chemical industry-related research and development

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.

  13. Development of advanced fluid-bed agglomeration and cyclonic incineration for simultaneous waste disposal and energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Khinkis, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is currently developing a two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating incineration system for waste disposal that is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration/incineration and cyclonic combustion techologies. Both technologies have been developed individually at IGT over many years. This combination has resulted in a unique and extremely flexible incinerator for solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes including municipal sludges. The system can operate over a wide range of conditions in the first stage, from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of wastes. In the combined system, solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes are incinerated with ease and great efficiency (>99.99% destruction and removal efficiency (DRE)), while solid inorganic contaminants contained within a glassy matrix are rendered benign and suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill. The heat generated within the incinerator can be recovered using the state-of-the-art boilers. The development of the two-stage incinerator is a culmination of extensive research and development efforts on each stage of the incinerator. The variety of data obtained with solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes for both stages includes agglomeration of ash, incineration and reclamation of used blast grit and foundry sand, partial combustion of carbonaceous fuels, in-situ desulfurization, combustion of low-Btu gases, incineration of industrial wastewater, and incineration of carbon tetrachloride. 5 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. The Use of Microwave Incineration to Process Biological Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The handling and disposal of solid waste matter that has biological or biohazardous components is a difficult issue for hospitals, research laboratories, and industry. NASA faces the same challenge as it is developing regenerative systems that will process waste materials into materials that can be used to sustain humans living in space for extended durations. Plants provide critical functions in such a regenerative life support scheme in that they photosynthesize carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The edible portions of the plant provide a food source for the crew. Inedible portions can be processed into materials that are more recyclable. The Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center has been evaluating a microwave incinerator that will oxidize inedible plant matter into carbon dioxide and water. The commercially available microwave incinerator is produced by Matsushita Electronic Instruments Corporation of Japan. Microwave incineration is a technology that is simple, safe, and compact enough for home use. It also has potential applications for institutions that produce biological or biohazardous waste. The incinerator produces a sterile ash that has only 13% of the mass of the original waste. The authors have run several sets of tests with the incinerator to establish its viability in processing biological material. One goal of the tests is to show that the incinerator does not generate toxic compounds as a byproduct of the combustion process. This paper will describe the results of the tests, including analyses of the resulting ash and exhaust gases. The significance of the results and their implications on commercial applications of the technology will also be discussed.

  15. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Fresh, Aged, and Incinerated Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to assess the chemical transformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aged, fresh, and incinerated biosolids in order to provide information for AgNP life cycle analyses. Silver nanoparticles were introduced to the influent of a pilot...

  16. ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF INCINERATED MUNICIPAL SLUDGE ASHES AND LEACHATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to analyze the physical and chemical properties of ashes from incinerated municipal sludge and of corresponding dewatered sludge. Samples were gathered from 10 wastewater treatment plants ranging in size from 0.22 to 27.1 cu/sec. These samples were subjecte...

  17. CONTROLLED AIR INCINERATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL-TREATED WOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research was initiated to determine the operating conditions necessary to effect complete thermal destruction (greater than 99.99%) of pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood in a controlled air incinerator (CAI) and to provide a basis for evaluating the applicability of other ...

  18. IMPROVING SLUDGE INCINERATION AND VACUUM FILTRATION WITH PULVERIZED COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research was aimed at improving the filtration and incineration characteristics of primary activated sludge by the addition of pulverized coal prior to the dewatering step. Various doses of coal were added to the sludge in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 kg coal/kg dry sludge solids....

  19. Radioprotective drugs: a synopsis of current research and a proposed research plan for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.; Anspaugh, L.

    1985-04-01

    FEMA has broad roles in the management of disasters potentially involving substantial amounts of radioactive contamination. These could be either peacetime or wartime disasters. A meeting was held in March 1985 to see if there are any research contributions that FEMA might reasonably make in the area of radioprotective drugs that would substantially enhance its ability to perform its mission. The other federal agencies presently sponsoring research in the field were represented at the meeting. A few selected researchers also participated to provide complementary viewpoints. Activities of a modest scale that FEMA might undertake were identified, as were larger scale activities that might be undertaken in the event of long-term, major funding-level increases for FEMA. 2 refs.

  20. Combustion science for incineration technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.

    1994-12-31

    The major impediments to public acceptance, of incineration as a waste disposal technology are emissions of organic compounds, dioxins, and toxic metals. Combustion science provides insight into mechanisms governing each of these three issues. It accomplishes two things: It identifies potential problems before they occur in the field, and it proposes solutions to known problems after they have occurred. In this paper, the practical relevance of combustion science to incineration technology issues is reviewed, and important gaps and needs are identified. Turbulent mixing plays a most important role in the destruction of organic wastes in practical units. Emissions of products of incomplete combustion are also more often governed by the effects of physical combustion processes on kinetics, rather than by chemical kinetics alone. For example, incinerator failure modes can arise through wayward trajectories of rogue droplets after atomization, or, in rotary kilns, through the formation of puffs, caused by the transient release of waste from containerized sorbents and subsequent incomplete mixing. Prediction of these phenomena requires a detailed knowledge of the fundamentals of turbulent reactive flows. Toxic metals are transformed in the incinerator environment, and the high temperatures can be exploited to allow these metals to be managed. Metal/sorbent chemistry at high temperature is not known, but it is important, since it can control the ultimate impact of these metals upon the environment. 48 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  2. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  3. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  4. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  5. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... yard waste? 60.2974 Section 60.2974 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2974 Am I required to apply for and..., and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator is subject to this subpart, you are required...

  6. 40 CFR 60.2974 - Am I required to apply for and obtain a title V operating permit for my air curtain incinerator...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... yard waste? 60.2974 Section 60.2974 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2974 Am I required to apply for and..., and yard waste? Yes, if your air curtain incinerator is subject to this subpart, you are required...

  7. LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) RCRA Part B incinerator health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates several hazardous waste storage and treatment units including a hazardous waste incinerator for managing wastes generated by research programs. Research programs conducted at LLNL generate nonradioactive, radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. LLNL operates several hazardous waste storage and treatment units including a hazardous waste incinerator. Because numerous storage and treatment operations are used to manage these wastes, it was necessary to conduct this health risk assessment. This document presents the results of a detailed evaluation of the hazardous and radioactive waste incinerator and associated waste feed tank. This volume contains only appendices. 200 refs., 5 figs., 53 tabs.

  8. Thc continuous emission monitoring guidance for part 503 sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-30

    The Envrionmental Protection Agency's guidance document for monitoring of total hydrocarbons (THCs) at sewage sludge incinerators was finalized in response to comments received from Federal, State and local government agencies. The document contains recommendations for compliance with these requirements. It addresses installation, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures for sewage sludge incinerators in the following areas: (1) THC continuous emissions monitoring (CEM); (2) oxygen CEM; (3) moisture CEM; (4) quality assurance; and (5) recordkeeping and reporting. The document will provide guidance for both the interim and long-term sludge permitting programs.

  9. CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) EMISSIONS BY CATALYTIC INCINERATION. VOLUME 4. CATALYTIC INCINERATOR PERFORMANCE AT INDUSTRIAL SITE C-2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radian Corporation is conducting a testing program for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate the performance of catalytic incinerators that are applied to industrial processes for volatile organic compound (VOC) control. This report documents the results of the per...

  10. The human immunodeficiency virus preventive vaccine research at the French National Agency for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome research.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Elizabeth; Rieux, Véronique; Guillet, Jean-Gérard; Kazatchkine, Michel

    2005-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic is of unprecedented gravity and is spreading rapidly, notably in the most disadvantaged regions of the world. The search for a preventive vaccine is thus an absolute priority. For over 10 years the French National Agency for AIDS research (ANRS) has been committed to an original program combining basic science and clinical research. The HIV preventive vaccine research program run by the ANRS covers upstream research for the definition of immunogens, animal models, and clinical research to evaluate candidate vaccines. Most researchers in 2004 believe that it should be possible to obtain partial vaccine protection through the induction of a strong and multiepitopic cellular response. Since 1992, the ANRS has set up 15 phases I and II clinical trials in order to evaluate the safety and the capacity of the candidate vaccines for inducing cellular immune responses. The tested candidate vaccines were increasingly complex recombinant canarypox viruses (Alvac) containing sequences coding for certain viral proteins, utilized alone or combined with other immunogens (whole or truncated envelope proteins). ANRS has also been developing an original strategy based on the utilization of lipopeptides. These comprise synthetic fragments of viral proteins associated with lipids that facilitate the induction of a cellular immune response. These approaches promptly allowed the assessment of a prime-boost strategy combining a viral vector and lipopeptides. PMID:15867969

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A WASTE-TO-ENERGY PROCESS: BRAINTREE MUNICIPAL INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Midwest Research Institute conducted an array of field tests at the Braintree Municipal Incinerator facility in Braintree, Massachusetts, for the purpose of providing data on multimedia emissions to help determine adverse environmental impact and pollution contol technology needs...

  12. REAL-TIME MONITORING OF A HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR WITH A MOBILE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA project involving a mobile laboratory for continuous monitoring of emissions and operating parameters of hazardous waste incinerators. This Hazardous Air Pollutants Mobile Laboratory (HAPML), easily transported for use by research projects at a variety ...

  13. Incineration of different types of medical wastes: emission factors for gaseous emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Afonso, S. A. V.

    Previous research works showed that to protect public health, the hospital incinerators should be provided with air pollution control devices. As most hospital incinerators do not possess such equipment, efficient methodologies should be developed to evaluate the safety of incineration procedure. Emission factors (EF) can be used for an easy estimation of legal parameters. Nevertheless, the actual knowledge is yet very scarce, mainly because EF previously published do not include enough information about the incinerated waste composition, besides considering many different waste classifications. This paper reports the first EF estimated for CO, SO 2, NO x and HCl, associated to the incineration of medical waste, segregated in different types according to the classification of the Portuguese legislation. The results showed that those EF are strongly influenced by incinerated waste composition, directly affected by incinerated waste type, waste classification, segregation practice and management methodology. The correspondence between different waste classifications was analysed comparing the estimated EF with the sole results previously published for specific waste types, being observed that the correspondence is not always possible. The legal limit for pollutant concentrations could be obeyed for NO x, but concentrations were higher than the limit for CO (11-24 times), SO 2 (2-5 times), and HCl (9-200 times), confirming that air pollution control devices must be used to protect human health. The small heating value of medical wastes with compulsory incineration implied the requirement of a bigger amount of auxiliary fuel for their incineration, which affects the emitted amounts of CO, NO x and SO 2 (28, 20 and practically 100% of the respective values were related with fuel combustion). Nevertheless, the incineration of those wastes lead to the smallest amount of emitted pollutants, the emitted amount of SO 2 and NO x reducing to 93% and the emitted amount of CO

  14. Ready, set,...quit! A review of the controlled-air incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.E.

    1996-05-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Controlled-Air Incinerator (CAI) has had a long and productive past as a research and development tool. It now appears that use of the CAI to treat LANL legacy and other wastes under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act is no longer viable due to numerous programmatic problems. This paper will review the history of the CAI. Various aspects associated with the CAI and how those aspects resulted in the loss of this Department of Energy asset as a viable waste treatment option will also be discussed. Included are past missions and tests-CAI capabilities, emissions, and permits; Federal Facility Compliance Act and associated Agreement; National Environmental Policy Act coverage; cost; budget impacts; public perception; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Combustion Strategy; Independent Technical Review {open_quotes}Red{close_quotes} Team review; waste treatment alternative technologies; the New Mexico Environment Department; and future options and issues.

  15. The local public health agency workforce: research needs and practice realities.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    There is a paucity of information about the nation's local governmental public health agency (LPHA) workforce. Without additional research, crucial questions about the individuals providing front-line public health services remain unanswered. Current national efforts to develop a public health workforce research agenda must include strategies for collecting basic data on local governmental public health workers. The work of enumerating and classifying LPHA staff is complicated, but not impossible. Projects to improve LPHA performance and discussions of the certification of public health workers are incomplete without current and accurate data on the individuals comprising our nation's public health system. The need to describe basic facets of the LPHA workforce is not trivial. As city and county budgets are cut and LPHAs are left scrambling to cover lost positions, data are needed to inform important decisions about what kinds of LPHA staff are needed to keep a community healthy. PMID:14606188

  16. Urban storm-induced discharge impacts: US Environmental Protection Agency research program review

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.; Pitt, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Fecal coliform bacteria (and pathogens), high flow rates, sediment, toxic heavy metals, and organic pollutants are most commonly associated with urban receiving-water problems. Most beneficial uses have been shown to be adversely affected by urban runoff, including shell-fish harvesting, fish and aquatic-life propagation, drinking-water supplies, aesthetics and recreation. Most of the problems occur over long periods of time and are not associated with individual runoff events, making cause-and-effect relationships difficult to study. The storm and Combined Sewer Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has sponsored several long-term research projects to investigate these problems, along with data reviews to identify urban-runoff problems from available information. Current research efforts are stressing sources and controls for toxicants in urban runoff.

  17. Research Institute for State Educational Agency Personnel. (March 25- April 7, 1967 and May 1-12, 1967). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Univ., CO. Bureau of Educational Research.

    This report describes an institute designed to train State educational agency personnel in measurement in educational research, research design, program evaluation, Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT), and automatic data processing. The institute also provided for a general orientation and overview of Educational Research Information…

  18. 77 FR 23244 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Request; NSPS for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... 1320.12. On May 9, 2011 (76 FR 26900), EPA sought comments on this ICR pursuant to 5 CFR 1320.8(d). EPA...: NSPS for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units (Renewal). ICR Numbers: EPA ICR Number 2163.04,...

  19. 75 FR 13274 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., 2009 (74 FR 38004), EPA sought comments on this ICR pursuant to 5 CFR 1320.8(d). EPA received no... Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units (Renewal). ICR Numbers: EPA ICR Number 1926.05, OMB Control...

  20. INVENTORY ANALYSIS AND COST ACCOUNTING OF FACILITY MAINTANANCE IN WASTE INCINERATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Tohru; Ozaki, Taira; Kitazume, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Tsukasa

    A solid waste incineration plant consists of so many facilities and mechanical parts that it requires periodic careful maintenance of them for stable solid waste management. The current research investigates maintenance costs of the stoker type incinerator and continuous firing plants in detail and develops an accounting model for maintenance of them. This model is able to distinguish among the costs of inspection, repair and renewal by plant with seven process flaw s and three common factors. Parameters based on real data collected by questionnaire surveys give appropriate results in comparison with other plants and enable to apply the model to plants which incinerates 500 - 600 ton solid waste per day.

  1. NOAA Inter-Agency Networking for Open Data and Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2015-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) generates tens of terabytes of data per day from hundreds of sensors on satellites, radars, aircraft, ships, and buoys, and from numerical models. With rare exceptions, all of these data should be made publicly accessible in a usable fashion. NOAA has long been both an advocate and a practitioner of open data, and has observations going back 150 years in its archives. The NOAA data management community therefore welcomed the White House mandates on Open Data and Open Research, and has striven to improve standardization internally and in collaboration with other organizations. This paper will summarize the state of inter-agency networking by NOAA, and will discuss future perspectives, in particular the need to achieve a state where the appropriate technology choices for particular classes of geospatial data are obvious and beyond discussion, and where data sharing and metadata creation are built into agency workflows for project planning, approval, and execution, so that instead of writing and enforcing mandates we can focus on actually using data from multiple sources to improve understanding and decision-making.

  2. The early days of incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Landfills reaching capacity, beaches fouled with trash, neighborhood residents protesting waste disposal sites in their backyards, and municipalities forced to recycle. Sound familiar? These issues might have been taken from today`s headlines, but they were also problems facing mechanical engineers a century ago. Conditions such as these were what led engineers to design the first incinerators for reducing the volume of municipal garbage, as well as for producing heat and electricity. The paper discusses these early days.

  3. PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS FROM THE HOT SPOT OF THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Testing was performed at the EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) to determine the incinerability of contaminated marine sediment from the Hot Spot in the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site. he contaminants at this site were PCBs, at concentration up to >200,000 mg/kb, and m...

  4. PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS FROM THE NEW BEDFORD HARBOR HOT SPOT SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Testing was performed at the EPA's Incineration Research Facility (IRF) to determine the incinerability of contaminated marine sediment from the Hot Spot in the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site. he contaminants at this site were PCBs, at concentrations up to >200,000 mg/kg, and ...

  5. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A STATE-OF-THE-ART WET SCRUBBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over a six-week period, 11 tests were performed at the U.S. EPA Incineration Research Facility (IRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas to evaluate the fate of trace metals fed to a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with a Calvert Flux-Forcer/Condensation Scrubber pilot plant as the primary a...

  6. 8. Front (east) side of incinerator and glove boxes. Ash ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Front (east) side of incinerator and glove boxes. Ash canning hood to the left, combustion chamber in the middle, incinerator hood to the right. Looking west. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  7. 16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  8. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location.

  9. Potential Collaborative Research topics with Korea’s Agency for Defense Development

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles R.; Todd, Michael D.

    2012-08-23

    This presentation provides a high level summary of current research activities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)-University of California Jacobs School of Engineering (UCSD) Engineering Institute that will be presented at Korea's Agency for Defense Development (ADD). These research activities are at the basic engineering science level with different level of maturity ranging from initial concepts to field proof-of-concept demonstrations. We believe that all of these activities are appropriate for collaborative research activities with ADD subject to approval by each institution. All the activities summarized herein have the common theme that they are multi-disciplinary in nature and typically involved the integration of high-fidelity predictive modeling, advanced sensing technologies and new development in information technology. These activities include: Wireless Sensor Systems, Swarming Robot sensor systems, Advanced signal processing (compressed sensing) and pattern recognition, Model Verification and Validation, Optimal/robust sensor system design, Haptic systems for large-scale data processing, Cyber-physical security for robots, Multi-source energy harvesting, Reliability-based approaches to damage prognosis, SHMTools software development, and Cyber-physical systems advanced study institute.

  10. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF FULL-SCALE HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS. VOLUME 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is Volume I, Executive Summary, of a series of extensive performance data EPA obtained through eight (8) field tests of actual industrial/commercial incinerators, was prepared in response to the Agency's need to conduct a regulatory impact analysis (RIA) for hazardous...

  11. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE LINDE OXYGEN COMBUSTION SYSTEM ON THE EPA MOBILE INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the various system performance tests and the long-term operating experience of the LINDE(r) Oxygen Combustion System (OCS) installed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Mobile Incineration System (MIS) when it was in operation at the Denney F...

  12. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE LINDE OXYGEN COMBUSTION SYSTEM ON THE EPA MOBILE INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the various system performance tests and the long-term operating experience of the LINDE Oxygen Combustion System installed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mobile Incineration System (MIS) when it was in operation at the Denney Farm site in sou...

  13. EVALUATION OF THE FEASIBILITY OF INCINERATING HAZARDOUS WASTE IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the search for disposal alternatives, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating the potential use of high-temperature processes for the incineration of hazardous wastes. Many kinds of waste have already been disposed of in boilers and cement kilns; this report con...

  14. EPA MOBILE INCINERATION SYSTEM MODIFICATIONS, TESTING AND OPERATIONS - FEBRUARY 1986 TO JUNE 1989

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the field demonstration activities of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mobile Incineration System (MIS) from February 1986 to June 1989 at the Denney Farm Site, Missouri. hese activities were the culmination of a project sponsored by the Office of Res...

  15. 40 CFR 270.19 - Specific part B information requirements for incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific part B information requirements for incinerators. 270.19 Section 270.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Permit Application § 270.19 Specific part...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2870 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2870 Section 60.2870 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators? 60.2260 Section 60.2260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance...

  18. 78 FR 54766 - Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed On or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 62 RIN 2060-AR-11 and RIN 2060-A004 Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed On or Before December 1, 2008, and Standards...

  19. EPA MOBILE INCINERATION SYSTEM MODIFICATIONS, TESTING AND OPERATIONS - FEBRUARY 1986 TO JUNE 1989

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report covers the field demonstration activities of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mobile Incineration System (MIS) from February 1986 to June 1989 at the Denney Farm Site, Missouri. The activities discussed in the current report include: modifications made to the...

  20. Chemical inhibition of PCDD/F formation in incineration processes.

    PubMed

    Ruokojärvi, Päivi H; Asikainen, Arja H; Tuppurainen, Kari A; Ruuskanen, Juhani

    2004-06-01

    This review summarises results of our pilot-scale experiments to find suitable inhibitors for preventing the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) during waste incineration and to specify the role of the main factors affecting the inhibition process, and is based on doctoral dissertation of Ruokojaärvi (2002). Results of previous experiments reported by other researchers are also presented and compared with ours. The detailed aims of our experiments were (1) to compare the effects of different inhibitors on PCDD/F formation during incineration in a pilot plant, (2) to investigate the role of the particle size distribution of the flue gas on the inhibition of PCDD/Fs, and (3) to find the main parameters affecting PCDD/F inhibition in waste incineration. Prevention of the formation of PCDD/Fs with chemical inhibitors and the effects of different supply points, feed temperatures and process parameters were studied in a pilot scale incinerator (50 kW) using light heating oil and refuse-derived fuel as test fuels. Various concentrations of the gaseous inhibitors (sulfur dioxide, ammonia, dimethylamine and methyl mercaptan) were sprayed into the flue gases after the furnace, in addition to which urea was dissolved in water and injected in at different concentrations. The residence time of the flue gas between the furnace and the PCDD/F sampling point was varied in the tests. In another set of urea tests, urea-water solutions at three concentrations were mixed with the RDF prior to incineration. PCDD/F and chlorophenol concentrations, together with other flue gas parameters (e.g. temperature, O2, CO, CO2 and NO), were analysed in the cooling flue gases. The gaseous and liquid inhibitors both notably reduced PCDD/F concentrations in the flue gas, the reductions achieved with the gaseous inhibitors varying from 50 to 78%, with dimethyl amine the most effective, while that produced with urea was up to 90%. The PCDD/F reductions were

  1. Transformation of silver nanoparticles in fresh, aged, and incinerated biosolids.

    PubMed

    Impellitteri, Christopher A; Harmon, Stephen; Silva, R Gune; Miller, Bradley W; Scheckel, Kirk G; Luxton, Todd P; Schupp, Donald; Panguluri, Srinivas

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the chemical transformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aged, fresh, and incinerated biosolids in order to provide information for AgNP life cycle analyses. Silver nanoparticles were introduced to the influent of a pilot-scale wastewater (WW) treatment system consisting of a primary clarifier (PC), aeration basin, and secondary clarifier. The partitioning of the AgNPs between the aqueous and solid phases in the system was monitored. Less than 3% of the total AgNPs introduced into the PC were measured at the overflow of the PC. Biosolids were collected from the pilot-scale system for silver analyses, including Ag concentration and speciation. Additionally, biosolids were collected from a publically owned treatment works (POTW). The POTW biosolids were spiked with AgNPs, AgNO3, and Ag2S. One set of the spiked POTW biosolids was aged for one month, and another set was analyzed within 24 h via X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) in order to determine Ag chemical speciation and elemental associations. Replicates of the aged and 24-h samples were also incinerated at 850 °C for 4 h. The residual ash was analyzed by XAS and SEM-EDX. The results show that AgNPs are converted to Ag-sulfur (as sulfide and sulfhydryl) species in fresh and aged biosolids, which is in agreement with other studies on AgNPs in biosolids. Results from linear combination fitting of the XAS data for incinerated biosolids show that a significant proportion of the spiked silver (30-50%) is converted to elemental Ag in the incineration process. In addition to elemental Ag, the results suggest the presence of additional Ag-S complexes such as Ag2SO4 (up to 25%), and silver associated with sulfhydryl groups (26-50%) in the incinerated biosolids. Incinerated biosolids spiked with AgNO3 and Ag2S exhibited similar transformations. These transformations of AgNPs should be

  2. The relationship between passibility, agency and social interaction and its relevance for research and pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirch, Susan A.; Ma, Jasmine Y.

    2016-02-01

    The interaction analysis presented by Kim and Roth examines nine students, their teachers, the learning task and materials in a mixed second and third grade science classroom during the school day. In the research narrative readers are introduced to two resourceful and creative groups of students as they work on a task assigned by their teacher—to cantilever a pizza box over the edge of a student desk. Readers are given glimpses (through images and transcripts) of the inventive ways each group solved the cantilever problem. Sometimes the children disregarded the design constraints, but even after compliance they managed to successfully solve the problem. The point of the learning task was not clearly stated, but readers are told the unit focused on investigating forces, forces in equilibrium, and structures as well as different forces (push, pull, etc.), properties of materials, and the relations between weight and balance while building structures. Kim and Roth were specifically interested in using this session to investigate and resolve the problem of learning as described by socio-cultural theorists as, how does a learner orient toward a learning outcome when they cannot do that until they have learned it? To answer this question Kim and Roth argued that learners (in engineering design) learn when and because: (1) they are open to be affected by the responses of materials to student action (i.e. student and material agency and physical touch) (2) their bodies are endowed with the capacity to be affected (i.e. passibility), and (3) knowledge and understanding emerge as and in social relations first. In their analysis, Kim and Roth argued that knowledge and knowing-how depend on these three universal processes. The authors further theorized the concept of passibility. Included in their theory of passibility was the claim that passibility is necessary for agency. After reading this paper we found we had many questions about Kim and Roth's analysis, context, and

  3. LAND DISPOSAL, REMEDIAL ACTION, INCINERATION AND TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL RESEARCH SYNPOSIUM (14TH) HELD AT CINCINNATI, OHIO, MAY 9-11, 1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Symposium was to present the latest significant research findings from ongoing and recently completed projects funded by the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). These Proceedings are organized in four sections: Session A, Hazardous Waste Land Disposal...

  4. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Projects on Structural Integrity of Reactor Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Server, W. L.; Nanstad, Randy K

    2009-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted a series of Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) that have focused on irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel fracture toughness properties and approaches for assuring structural integrity of RPVs throughout operating life. A series of nine CRPs have been sponsored by the IAEA, starting in the early 1970s, focused on neutron radiation effects on RPV steels. The purpose of the CRPs was to develop comparisons and correlations to test the uniformity of irradiated results through coordinated international research studies and data sharing. Consideration of dose rate effects, effects of alloying (nickel, manganese, silicon, etc.) and residual elements (eg., copper and phosphorus), and drop in upper shelf toughness are also important for assessing neutron embrittlement effects. The ultimate use of embrittlement understanding is assuring structural integrity of the RPV under current and future operation and accident conditions. Material fracture toughness is the key ingredient needed for this assessment, and many of the CRPs have focused on measurement and application of irradiated fracture toughness. This paper presents an overview of the progress made since the inception of the CRPs in the early 1970s. The chronology and importance of each CRP have been reviewed and put into context for continued and long-term safe operation of RPVs.

  5. Dioxin formation from waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Shibamoto, Takayuki; Yasuhara, Akio; Katami, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    There has been great concern about dioxins-polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-causing contamination in the environment because the adverse effects of these chemicals on human health have been known for many years. Possible dioxin-contamination has received much attention recently not only by environmental scientists but also by the public, because dioxins are known to be formed during the combustion of industrial and domestic wastes and to escape into the environment via exhaust gases from incinerators. Consequently, there is a pressing need to investigate the formation mechanisms or reaction pathways of these chlorinated chemicals to be able to devise ways to reduce their environmental contamination. A well-controlled small-scale incinerator was used for the experiments in the core references of this review. These articles report the investigation of dioxin formation from the combustion of various waste-simulated samples, including different kinds of paper, various kinds of wood, fallen leaves, food samples, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride, polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET), and various kinds of plastic products. These samples were also incinerated with inorganic chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CuCI2, MgCl2, MnCl2, FeCl2, CoCl2, fly ash, and seawater) or organic chlorides (PVC, chlordane, and pentachlorophenol) to investigate the role of chlorine content and/or the presence of different metals in dioxin formation. Some samples, such as newspapers, were burned after they were impregnated with NaCl or PVC, as well as being cocombusted with chlorides. The roles of incineration conditions, including chamber temperatures, O2 concentrations, and CO concentrations, in dioxin formation were also investigated. Dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar-PCBs) formed in the exhaust gases from a controlled small-scale incinerator, where experimental waste

  6. 20. VIEW OF THE INCINERATOR. DURING ROUTINE BUILDING OPERATIONS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF THE INCINERATOR. DURING ROUTINE BUILDING OPERATIONS IN DECEMBER 1988, A HEAT PLUME WAS GENERATED THAT WAS REGISTERED ON FILM BY A PASSING AIRCRAFT. OFFICIALS WITH THE UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (USEPA) BELIEVED THAT ILLEGAL OPERATIONS WERE BEING CONDUCTED. THE USEPA USED THIS OPPORTUNITY TO CONVINCE AUTHORITIES TO ISSUE A WARRANT TO ENTER THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT AND INVESTIGATE THE ALLEGATION. (4/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Study monitors health effects of incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Messer, M.E.

    1993-02-01

    Waste-burning facilities could face tougher EPA regulations if a study of complying incinerators find stack emissions contribute to respiratory disease. A study is underway to determine what, if any, are the adverse health effects on humans resulting from waste burning. Volunteers living in a 2 mile radius of an incinerator were chosen for microscopic examination of cells flushed from their nasal passages.

  8. BEHAVIOUR OF METALS IN MUNICIPAL SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emission of toxic metals from sewage sludge incinerators can present a risk to human health and the environment. ignificant base of data on the behaviour of metals in sludge incinerators has been compiled. hese data were examined in detail to identify the mechanisms responsib...

  9. METAL BEHAVIOR DURING MEDICAL WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Medical waste contains toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury. onsequently, the incineration of medical waste may result in the emissions of trace metals into the environment, if incinerators are not properly designed and operated. PA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laborat...

  10. 46 CFR 63.25-9 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1). Incinerators in compliance with ISO 13617 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1), are considered to meet IMO MEPC.76(40). Incinerators in compliance with both ASTM F 1323 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1) and Annexes A1-A3 of IMO MEPC.76(40)...

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-9 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1). Incinerators in compliance with ISO 13617 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1), are considered to meet IMO MEPC.76(40). Incinerators in compliance with both ASTM F 1323 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1) and Annexes A1-A3 of IMO MEPC.76(40)...

  12. 46 CFR 63.25-9 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1). Incinerators in compliance with ISO 13617 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1), are considered to meet IMO MEPC.76(40). Incinerators in compliance with both ASTM F 1323 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1) and Annexes A1-A3 of IMO MEPC.76(40)...

  13. 46 CFR 63.25-9 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1). Incinerators in compliance with ISO 13617 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1), are considered to meet IMO MEPC.76(40). Incinerators in compliance with both ASTM F 1323 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1) and Annexes A1-A3 of IMO MEPC.76(40)...

  14. 46 CFR 63.25-9 - Incinerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1). Incinerators in compliance with ISO 13617 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1), are considered to meet IMO MEPC.76(40). Incinerators in compliance with both ASTM F 1323 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 63.05-1) and Annexes A1-A3 of IMO MEPC.76(40)...

  15. Method and apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Korenberg, Jacob

    1990-01-01

    An incineration apparatus and method for disposal of infectious hazardous waste including a fluidized bed reactor containing a bed of granular material. The reactor includes a first chamber, a second chamber, and a vertical partition separating the first and second chambers. A pressurized stream of air is supplied to the reactor at a sufficient velocity to fluidize the granular material in both the first and second chambers. Waste materials to be incinerated are fed into the first chamber of the fluidized bed, the fine waste materials being initially incinerated in the first chamber and subsequently circulated over the partition to the second chamber wherein further incineration occurs. Coarse waste materials are removed from the first chamber, comminuted, and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. Any partially incinerated waste materials and ash from the bottom of the second chamber are removed and recirculated to the second chamber for further incineration. This process is repeated until all infectious hazardous waste has been completely incinerated.

  16. FUEL-EFFICIENT SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed to evaluate the status of incineration with low fuel use as a sludge disposal technology. The energy requirements, life-cycle costs, operation and maintenance requirements, and process capabilities of four sludge incineration facilities were evaluated. These...

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to provide data on the quantities and characteristics of solid and liquid discharges from hazardous waste incineration facilities. A total of 10 facilities were sampled comprising major incineration designs and flue gas treatment devices. All inlet an...

  18. Pilot-scale incineration test burn of TCDD-contaminated trichlorophenol production waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.W.; Backhouse, T.H.; Vocque, R.H.; Lee, J.W.; Waterland, L.R.

    1986-12-01

    A series of three tests directed at evaluating the incinerability of the toluene stillbottoms waste from trichlorophenol production previously generated by the Vertac Chemical Company were performed in the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) rotary kiln incineration system. This waste contained 37 ppm 2,3,7,8-TCDD as its principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC). Flue gas 2,3,7,8-TCDD levels were less than detectable at all locations sampled. Corresponding incinerator destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) were greater than 99.9997 percent, based on individual sampling train analyses. By analyzing combined extracts from four simultaneous sampling trains, it was concluded that 2,3,7,8-TCDD DRE was indeed greater than 99.9999 percent. These results suggest that incineration of the Vertac waste is capable of achieving the required DRE and should be considered a treatment option for this waste.

  19. Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment.

    PubMed

    Blacksher, Erika; Lovasi, Gina S

    2012-03-01

    Built environment characteristics have been linked to health outcomes and health disparities. However, the effects of an environment on behavior may depend on human perception, interpretation, motivation, and other forms of human agency. We draw on epidemiological and ethical concepts to articulate a critique of research on the built environment and physical activity. We identify problematic assumptions and enumerate both scientific and ethical reasons to incorporate subjective perspectives and public engagement strategies into built environment research and interventions. We maintain that taking agency seriously is essential to the pursuit of health equity and the broader demands of social justice in public health, an important consideration as studies of the built environment and physical activity increasingly focus on socially disadvantaged communities. Attention to how people understand their environment and navigate competing demands can improve the scientific value of ongoing efforts to promote active living and health, while also better fulfilling our ethical obligations to the individuals and communities whose health we strive to protect. PMID:21940195

  20. Electrochemical incineration of wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, R. C.; Sharma, D. K.; Bockris, J. Om.

    1990-08-01

    The novel technology of waste removal in space vehicles by electrochemical methods is presented to convert wastes into chemicals that can be eventually recycled. The important consideration for waste oxidation is to select a right kind of electrode (anode) material that should be stable under anodic conditions and also a poor electrocatalyst for oxygen and chlorine evolution. On the basis of long term electrolysis experiments on seven different electrodes and on the basis of total organic carbon reduced, two best electrodes were identified. The effect of redox ions on the electrolyte was studied. Though most of the experiments were done in mixtures of urine and waste, the experiments with redox couples involved 2.5 M sulfuric acid in order to avoid the precipitation of redox ions by urea. Two methods for long term electrolysis of waste were investigated: (1) the oxidation on Pt and lead dioxide electrodes using the galvanostatic methods; and (2) potentiostatic method on other electrodes. The advantage of the first method is the faster rate of oxidation. The chlorine evolution in the second method is ten times less then in the first. The accomplished research has shown that urine/feces mixtures can be oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, but current densities are low and must be improved. The perovskite and Ti4O7 coated with RuO2 are the best electrode materials found. Recent experiment with the redox agent improves the current density, however, sulphuric acid is required to keep the redox agent in solution to enhance oxidation effectively. It is desirable to reduce the use of acid and/or find substitutes.

  1. Electrochemical incineration of wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, R. C.; Sharma, D. K.; Bockris, J. OM.

    1990-01-01

    The novel technology of waste removal in space vehicles by electrochemical methods is presented to convert wastes into chemicals that can be eventually recycled. The important consideration for waste oxidation is to select a right kind of electrode (anode) material that should be stable under anodic conditions and also a poor electrocatalyst for oxygen and chlorine evolution. On the basis of long term electrolysis experiments on seven different electrodes and on the basis of total organic carbon reduced, two best electrodes were identified. The effect of redox ions on the electrolyte was studied. Though most of the experiments were done in mixtures of urine and waste, the experiments with redox couples involved 2.5 M sulfuric acid in order to avoid the precipitation of redox ions by urea. Two methods for long term electrolysis of waste were investigated: (1) the oxidation on Pt and lead dioxide electrodes using the galvanostatic methods; and (2) potentiostatic method on other electrodes. The advantage of the first method is the faster rate of oxidation. The chlorine evolution in the second method is ten times less then in the first. The accomplished research has shown that urine/feces mixtures can be oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, but current densities are low and must be improved. The perovskite and Ti4O7 coated with RuO2 are the best electrode materials found. Recent experiment with the redox agent improves the current density, however, sulphuric acid is required to keep the redox agent in solution to enhance oxidation effectively. It is desirable to reduce the use of acid and/or find substitutes.

  2. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Robert C. W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluidtight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC (about 1" WC) higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes.

  3. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    DOEpatents

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  4. 33 CFR 159.131 - Safety: Incinerating device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety: Incinerating device. 159... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.131 Safety: Incinerating device. An incinerating device must not incinerate unless the combustion chamber is closed,...

  5. ROLE OF VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY AT THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY IN ATHENS, GEORGIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens GA, is best known by vibrational spectroscopists as the laboratory where much of the pioneering work on the development of a sensitive, real-time gas chromatograph/Fourier transform infrared syste...

  6. 34 CFR 350.41 - What State agency review must an applicant under the Disability and Rehabilitation Research...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What State agency review must an applicant under the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program obtain? 350.41 Section 350.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  7. Promoting Supervisory Practice Change in Public Child Welfare: Lessons from University/Agency Collaborative Research in Four States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Millar, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This article describes qualitative findings regarding lessons learned from research and demonstration projects in four states focused on the implementation of clinical supervision within their public child welfare agencies. This was part of a larger mixed methods study of the effectiveness of these new clinical supervision models on practice,…

  8. State Library Agencies and Member Libraries of the Association of Research Libraries. Final Report of Two Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chobot, Mary C.

    State Library Agencies (SLAs) and library members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) were surveyed to collect data from potential audiences for American Memory products to assist the planners for this Library of Congress (LC) project. This summary report briefly explains the purpose of the surveys; describes the survey methodology and…

  9. Environmental Media Systems: Innovations at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costelloe-Kuehn, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    This multi-sited ethnography analyzes challenges and opportunities in the design and development of digital media systems in the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Drawing heavily from interviews conducted over the course of three years, primarily with scientists at the ORD's…

  10. Evaluation of medical waste incinerators in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Labib, Ossama A; Hussein, Ahmed H; El-Shall, Waffaa I; Zakaria, Adel; Mohamed, Mona G

    2005-01-01

    Medical establishments play important roles in different activities by using of modern technology to serve the humans and the environment through different departments in the establishment and its firms. Medical wastes are considered as a hazardous waste because they contain toxic materials, infectious, or non-infectious wastes and they are considered as a hazard to millions of patients, health care workers, and visitors. Treatment processes for medical wastes comprise autoclaving, microwaving, chemical disinfection, irradiation, plasma system, and incineration. Incineration is a thermal process, which destroys most of the waste including microorganisms. Combustion process must be under controlled conditions to convert wastes containing hazardous materials into mineral residues and gases. Hospital waste incinerators may emit a number of pollutants depending on the waste being incinerated. These pollutants include particulate matter, acid gases, toxic metals, and toxic organic compounds products of incomplete combustion, e.g., dioxins, furans, and carbon monoxide, as well as sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. So, there should be a reduction of emissions of most of these pollutants by air pollution control devices. This study was conducted in 51 medical establishments (ME) in Alexandria. To evaluate its incinerators. It was found that only 31.4% of total ME have their own incinerators to treat their medical waste. Also, the incinerators conditions were poor with incomplete combustion. So, the study recommend handling of all medical wastes of ME in Alexandria by the company which is responsible now for management of domestic solid wastes of the city. PMID:16900615

  11. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants. PMID:19423581

  12. Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge mixed waste incinerator: Emissions test for August 27, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L.

    1990-12-01

    On August 27, 1990, a special emissions test was performed at the K-1435 Toxic Substance Control Act Mixed Waste Incinerator. A sampling and analysis plan was implemented to characterize the incinerator waste streams during a 6 hour burn of actual mixed waste. The results of this characterization are summarized in the present report. Significant among the findings is the observation that less than 3% of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln was discharged as stack emission. This value is consistent with the estimate of 4% or less derived from long-term mass balance of previous operating experience and with the value assumed in the original Environmental Impact Statement. Approximately 1.4% of the total uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the aqueous scrubber blowdown; about 85% of the total uranium in the aqueous waste was insoluble (i.e., removable by filtration). The majority of the uranium fed to the incinerator kiln appeared in the ash material, apparently associated with phosphorous as a sparingly-soluble species. Many other metals of potential regulatory concern also appeared to concentrate in the ash as sparingly-soluble species, with minimal partition to the aqueous waste. The aqueous waste was discharged to the Central Neutralization Facility where it was effectively treated by coprecipitation with iron. The treated, filtered aqueous effluent met Environmental Protection Agency interim primary drinking water standards for regulated metals.

  13. Operation and maintenance of hospital medical-waste incinerators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Neulicht, R.M.; Turner, M.B.; Chaput, L.S.; Wallace, D.D.; Smith, S.G.

    1989-03-01

    This document identifies the operation and maintenance (O M) procedures that should be practiced on hospital medical-waste incinerators and associated air pollution control equipment to minimize air emissions. Proper O M, in addition to reducing air emissions, improves equipment reliability and performance, prolongs equipment life, and helps to ensure proper ash burnout. The document provides general guidance on proper O M procedures with the intention of identifying good operating practices. The document is intended as a technical guide for use by federal, state, and local agency personnel, hospital waste management personnel, and hospital-incinerator operators. The document presents background information on hospital medical-waste incineration systems including a summary of combustion principles and descriptions of the types of incinerators typically used for hospital medical wastes. Background information on add-on air pollution-control systems is presented. Key operating parameters and good operating practices for the incineration and air pollution systems are identified and discussed. General guidance on maintenance of the systems is provided.

  14. Environmental performance evaluation of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators using data envelopment analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chang, Ni-Bin; Chen, Jeng-Chung; Tsai, Shu-Ju

    2010-07-01

    Limited to insufficient land resources, incinerators are considered in many countries such as Japan and Germany as the major technology for a waste management scheme capable of dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment in urban regions. The evaluation of these municipal incinerators in terms of secondary pollution potential, cost-effectiveness, and operational efficiency has become a new focus in the highly interdisciplinary area of production economics, systems analysis, and waste management. This paper aims to demonstrate the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA)--a production economics tool--to evaluate performance-based efficiencies of 19 large-scale municipal incinerators in Taiwan with different operational conditions. A 4-year operational data set from 2002 to 2005 was collected in support of DEA modeling using Monte Carlo simulation to outline the possibility distributions of operational efficiency of these incinerators. Uncertainty analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation provides a balance between simplifications of our analysis and the soundness of capturing the essential random features that complicate solid waste management systems. To cope with future challenges, efforts in the DEA modeling, systems analysis, and prediction of the performance of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators under normal operation and special conditions were directed toward generating a compromised assessment procedure. Our research findings will eventually lead to the identification of the optimal management strategies for promoting the quality of solid waste incineration, not only in Taiwan, but also elsewhere in the world. PMID:20181468

  15. Environmental performance evaluation of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators using data envelopment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.-W.; Chang, N.-B.; Chen, J.-C.; Tsai, S.-J.

    2010-07-15

    Limited to insufficient land resources, incinerators are considered in many countries such as Japan and Germany as the major technology for a waste management scheme capable of dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment in urban regions. The evaluation of these municipal incinerators in terms of secondary pollution potential, cost-effectiveness, and operational efficiency has become a new focus in the highly interdisciplinary area of production economics, systems analysis, and waste management. This paper aims to demonstrate the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) - a production economics tool - to evaluate performance-based efficiencies of 19 large-scale municipal incinerators in Taiwan with different operational conditions. A 4-year operational data set from 2002 to 2005 was collected in support of DEA modeling using Monte Carlo simulation to outline the possibility distributions of operational efficiency of these incinerators. Uncertainty analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation provides a balance between simplifications of our analysis and the soundness of capturing the essential random features that complicate solid waste management systems. To cope with future challenges, efforts in the DEA modeling, systems analysis, and prediction of the performance of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators under normal operation and special conditions were directed toward generating a compromised assessment procedure. Our research findings will eventually lead to the identification of the optimal management strategies for promoting the quality of solid waste incineration, not only in Taiwan, but also elsewhere in the world.

  16. Pilot-scale evaluation of the thermal-stability POHC incinerability anking

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Whitworth, W.E.; Waterland, L.R.

    1992-04-01

    A test series were performed at the U.S. EPA Incineration Research Facility (IRF) to evaluate the thermal-stability-based principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) incinerability ranking. Mixtures of twelve POHCs with predicted incinerabilities spanning the range of most- to least-difficult-to-incinerate classes were combined with a clay-based sorbent matrix and fed to the facility's pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator. Kiln operating conditions were varied to include a baseline operating condition, three modes of attempted incineration failure, and a worst-case combination of the three failure modes. Kiln-exit POHC destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) were in the 99.99% range for the volatile POHCs during the baseline, mixing failure and matrix failure tests. Semivolatile POHCs were not detected at the kiln exit for these tests; corresponding DREs were generally greater than 99.999%. The thermal failure and worst-case tests resulted in substantially decreased kiln-exit POHC DREs, ranging from less than 99% to greater than 99.999%. General agreement between measured and predicted relative kiln-exit POHC DREs was observed for those two tests.

  17. 48 CFR 12.202 - Market research and description of agency need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... standards issued by the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board at 36 CFR part 1194 (see... establishes the foundation for the agency description of need (see part 11), the solicitation, and...

  18. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Technical Nuclear Forensics Research and Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Technical Nuclear Forensics (TNF) Research and Development (R&D) Program's overarching goal is to design, develop, demonstrate, and transition advanced technologies and methodologies that improve the interagency operational capability to provide forensics conclusions after the detonation of a nuclear device. This goal is attained through the execution of three focus areas covering the span of the TNF process to enable strategic decision-making (attribution): Nuclear Forensic Materials Exploitation - Development of targeted technologies, methodologies and tools enabling the timely collection, analysis and interpretation of detonation materials.Prompt Nuclear Effects Exploitation - Improve ground-based capabilities to collect prompt nuclear device outputs and effects data for rapid, complementary and corroborative information.Nuclear Forensics Device Characterization - Development of a validated and verified capability to reverse model a nuclear device with high confidence from observables (e.g., prompt diagnostics, sample analysis, etc.) seen after an attack. This presentation will outline DTRA's TNF R&D strategy and current investments, with efforts focusing on: (1) introducing new technical data collection capabilities (e.g., ground-based prompt diagnostics sensor systems; innovative debris collection and analysis); (2) developing new TNF process paradigms and concepts of operations to decrease timelines and uncertainties, and increase results confidence; (3) enhanced validation and verification (V&V) of capabilities through technology evaluations and demonstrations; and (4) updated weapon output predictions to account for the modern threat environment. A key challenge to expanding these efforts to a global capability is the need for increased post-detonation TNF international cooperation, collaboration and peer reviews.

  19. IOW refuse incinerator to warm prisoners

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, D.

    1981-09-22

    Talks are underway for the possible construction of an incinerator on the Isle of Wight that would serve the prisons with heat. Construction would start in January 1985 and after a six-month trial period, the incinerator would be in full operation by 1987. Annual saving in energy terms would be as much as 1 million gallons of oil a year if a local hospital would also be linked to the heating scheme. The estimated cost of processing refuse by the incinerator is 7 pounds/tonne as opposed to the present 6 pounds/tonne by landfill disposal.

  20. Characterization of hazardous-waste incineration residuals

    SciTech Connect

    Van Buren, D.; Poe, G.; Castaldini, C.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide data on the quantities and characteristics of solid and liquid discharges from hazardous-waste-incineration facilities. A total of 10 facilities were sampled comprising major incineration designs and flue-gas-treatment devices. All inlet and outlet liquid and solid streams were sampled and subjected to extensive analyses for organic and inorganic pollutant concentrations. Laboratory analyses for solid discharge streams also included leachate evaluations using standard EPA toxicity tests for metals and a draft TCLP toxicity procedure for volatile and semivolatile organics and metals. Monitored data on incinerator facility operation were then used to determine the discharge rates of detected pollutants.

  1. DETECTING WASTE COMBUSTION EMISSIONS: SEVERAL ADVANCED METHODS ARE USEFUL FOR SAMPLING AIR CONTAMINANTS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR STACKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of sampling methods being recommended to EPA regulatory programs, to EPA engineering research and development projects, and to interested parties in the industrial community. The methods discussed are generally applicable to both incineration and processe...

  2. Raising the bar for reproducible science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development.

    PubMed

    George, Barbara Jane; Sobus, Jon R; Phelps, Lara P; Rashleigh, Brenda; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Hines, Ronald N

    2015-05-01

    Considerable concern has been raised regarding research reproducibility both within and outside the scientific community. Several factors possibly contribute to a lack of reproducibility, including a failure to adequately employ statistical considerations during study design, bias in sample selection or subject recruitment, errors in developing data inclusion/exclusion criteria, and flawed statistical analysis. To address some of these issues, several publishers have developed checklists that authors must complete. Others have either enhanced statistical expertise on existing editorial boards, or formed distinct statistics editorial boards. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, already has a strong Quality Assurance Program, an initiative was undertaken to further strengthen statistics consideration and other factors in study design and also to ensure these same factors are evaluated during the review and approval of study protocols. To raise awareness of the importance of statistical issues and provide a forum for robust discussion, a Community of Practice for Statistics was formed in January 2014. In addition, three working groups were established to develop a series of questions or criteria that should be considered when designing or reviewing experimental, observational, or modeling focused research. This article describes the process used to develop these study design guidance documents, their contents, how they are being employed by the Agency's research enterprise, and expected benefits to Agency science. The process and guidance documents presented here may be of utility for any research enterprise interested in enhancing the reproducibility of its science. PMID:25795653

  3. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials.

  4. Does incineration turn infectious waste aseptic?

    PubMed

    Kanemitsu, K; Inden, K; Kunishima, H; Ueno, K; Hatta, M; Gunji, Y; Watanabe, I; Kaku, M

    2005-08-01

    Incineration of infectious waste is considered to be biologically safe. We performed basic experiments to confirm that bacillus spores are killed by incineration in a muffle furnace. Biological samples containing 10(6) spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus were placed in stainless steel Petri dishes and then into hot furnaces. The furnace temperature and duration of incineration were 300 degrees C for 15 min, 300 degrees C for 30 min, 500 degrees C for 15 min, 500 degrees C for 30 min and 1100 degrees C for 3 min. We confirmed that all spores of B. stearothermophilus were killed at each of these settings. The effect of incineration seems to be equivalent to that of sterilization, based on the satisfactory sterilization assurance level of 10(-6). PMID:15963601

  5. THERMODYNAMIC FUNDAMENTALS USED IN HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermodynamics is the basic foundation of many engineeringpractices. nvironmental engineering is no exception, it is usingthermodynamic principles in many applications. n particular,those who are involved in the incineration of various wastes suchas hazardous and municipal wastes...

  6. Consolidated Incineration Facility metals partitioning test. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.

    1993-08-31

    Test burns were conducted at Energy and Environmental Research Corporation`s rotary kiln simulator, the Solid Waste Incineration Test Facility, using surrogate CIF wastes spiked with hazardous metals and organics. The primary objective for this test program was measuring heavy metals partition between the kiln bottom ash, scrubber blowdown solution, and incinerator stack gas. Also, these secondary waste streams were characterized to determine waste treatment requirements prior to final disposal. These tests were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on metals partitioning: incineration temperature; waste chloride concentration; waste form (solid or liquid); and chloride concentration in the scrubber water. Tests were conducted at three kiln operating temperatures. Three waste simulants were burned, two solid waste mixtures (paper, plastic, latex, and one with and one without PVC), and a liquid waste mixture (containing benzene and chlorobenzene). Toxic organic and metal compounds were spiked into the simulated wastes to evaluate their fate under various combustion conditions. Kiln offgases were sampled for volatile organic compounds (VOC), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC), polychlorinated dibenz[p]dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), metals, particulate loading and size distribution, HCl, and combustion products. Stack gas sampling was performed to determine additional treatment requirements prior to final waste disposal. Significant test results are summarized below.

  7. Health-risk assessment of incinerator stack emissions: Trace metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jinhong.

    1990-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation centers on the development of a method for health risk assessment of incinerator stack emissions within the context of multiple exposure pathways and on its application to a problem of contemporary interest. The emphasis is on toxic metal emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. A comparison of the amount of metal emissions shows that toxic metal emissions from MSW incinerators are generally of the same order of magnitude as those from hazardous waste incinerators. A hazard index for stack emitted metals based on toxicity and quantity are developed in this dissertation to screen metals which are important from a risk view-point. From this hazard index, lead and mercury are added to the known carcinogenic metals, i.e., arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, and nickel as candidates for the assessment. The method presented in this dissertation consists of hazard identification and hazard quantification. If a substance is identified as a potential human carcinogen, the carcinogenicity may be related to the chemical form of a substance and the route of exposure. Regarding the carcinogenic potency of a pollutant, the chemical form of a substance and the route of exposure is investigated. This type of information with regard to carcinogenic uncertainty is incorporated into hazard quantification. The appropriate carcinogenic group of a pollutant is also identified. In order to quantify the human health risks for the 7 metals, the following are determined in this dissertation: emission factors; mass particle-size distributions; air dispersion models; exposure assessment models; population data; and unit risks or cancer potency factors.

  8. Behavior of cesium in municipal solid waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Shiota, Kenji; Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan radioactive nuclides, primarily (134)Cs and (137)Cs were released, contaminating municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in the area. Although stabilizing the waste and reducing its volume is an important issue differing from Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, secondary emission of radioactive nuclides as a result of any intermediate remediation process is of concern. Unfortunately, there is little research on the behavior of radioactive nuclides during waste treatment. This study focuses on waste incineration in an effort to clarify the behavior of radioactive nuclides, specifically, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with added (133)Cs (stable nuclide) or (134)Cs (radioactive nuclide) was incinerated in laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments. Next, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) of stable Cs compounds, as well as an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis of Cs concentrated in the ashes were performed to validate the behavior and chemical forms of Cs during the combustion. Our results showed that at higher temperatures and at larger equivalence ratios, (133)Cs was distributed to the bottom ash at lower concentration, and the influence of the equivalence ratio was more significant at lower temperatures. (134)Cs behaved in a similar fashion as (133)Cs. We found through TG-DTA and XAFS analysis that a portion of Cs in RDF vaporizes and is transferred to fly ash where it exists as CsCl in the MSW incinerator. We conclude that Cs-contaminated municipal solid wastes could be incinerated at high temperatures resulting in a small amount of fly ash with a high concentration of radioactive Cs, and a bottom ash with low concentrations. PMID:25697082

  9. Report of the Advisory Committee on Asbestos Cancers to the Director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer

    PubMed Central

    1973-01-01

    In 1964 the Geographical Pathology Committee of the International Union against Cancer (UICC) set up a working group on asbestos and cancer and later issued a Report and Recommendations (1965). A further meeting was held at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France, on 5 and 6 October 1972. This was organized jointly with the Medical Research Council Pneumoconiosis Research Unit. The report and recommendations given here will also be published by IARC in 1973, together with the complete proceedings of the meeting. The Committee consisted of three panels—Epidemiology, Pathology, and Physics and Chemistry. PMID:4574040

  10. Phosphate bonded solidification of radioactive incinerator wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B. W.; Langton, C. A.; Singh, D.

    1999-12-03

    The incinerator at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site burns low level radioactive and hazardous waste. Ash and scrubber system waste streams are generated during the incineration process. Phosphate Ceramic technology is being tested to verify the ash and scrubber waste streams can be stabilized using this solidification method. Acceptance criteria for the solid waste forms include leachability, bleed water, compression testing, and permeability. Other testing on the waste forms include x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  11. 78 FR 38314 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Request; Emission Guidelines for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units (Renewal) AGENCY... according to the procedures prescribed in 5 CFR 1320.12. On October 17, 2012 (77 FR 63813), EPA sought... and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units (Renewal). ICR Numbers: EPA ICR Number 1927.06,...

  12. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national network of research centers: A case study in socio-political influences on research

    SciTech Connect

    Morehouse, K.

    1995-12-01

    During the 15 years that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has supported university-based research centers, there have been many changes in mission, operating style, funding level, eligibility, and selection process. Even the definition of the term {open_quotes}research center{close_quotes} is open to debate. Shifting national priorities, political realities, and funding uncertainties have powered the evolution of research centers in EPA, although the agency`s basic philosophy on the purpose and value of this approach to research remains essentially unchanged. Today, EPA manages 28 centers, through the Office of Exploratory Research. These centers are administered under three distinct programs. Each program has its own mission and goals which guide the way individual centers are selected and operated. This paper will describe: (1) EPA`s philosophy of reserach centers, (2) the complicated history of EPA research centers, (3) coordination and interaction among EPA centers and others, (4) opportunities for collaboration, and (5) plans for the future.

  13. Subjective Variables Affecting Funding Decisions by Federal Research & Development Agencies: The Grantsmanship Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapek, Raymond A.

    1984-01-01

    There are many misconceptions about how funding decisions are made within federal agencies. Observations of how bias creeps into an otherwise objective evaluation process are presented, and hints are offered on improving the probability of receiving federal support. (Author/MLW)

  14. Professional Learning within Multi-Agency Children's Services: Researching into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadbetter, Jane; Daniels, Harry; Edwards, Anne; Martin, Deirdre; Middleton, David; Popova, Anna; Warmington, Paul; Apostolov, Apostol; Brown, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Background: This article is concerned with professional learning within multi-agency settings. Since the publication of the government document "Every child matters" in 2003, professionals involved in working with children and young people have been moving into newly organized services that are required to deliver improved services for vulnerable…

  15. Applying Research to Licensing Agency Screening of Seniors for Fitness to Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderstrom, Carl A.

    2008-01-01

    The aging process is associated with medical conditions that can negatively affect medical fitness to drive. Traditional licensing agency methods to identify at-risk drivers have significant limitations. These include testing of visual acuity and driving tests. Recently, methods have been developed to allow for screening for cognitive decline in…

  16. 48 CFR 12.202 - Market research and description of agency need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contract. (b) The description of agency need must contain sufficient detail for potential offerors of...) Requirements documents for electronic and information technology must comply with the applicable accessibility standards issued by the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board at 36 CFR part 1194...

  17. 40 CFR 60.2250 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incinerators? (a) Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the charge rate at which it will... for air curtain incinerators? Within 60 days after your air curtain incinerator reaches the...

  18. The Extent and Determinants of the Utilization of University Research in Government Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Rejean; Lamari, Moktar; Amara, Nabil

    2003-01-01

    Of 833 Canadian government officials surveyed, 12% always/often and 16% never receive relevant university research; 53% of research results have rarely or never influenced decisions. Multivariate regression analyses identified these predictors of research use: users' efforts to find and adapt research, organizational context, and researcher-user…

  19. Experimental incineration of low level radioactive samples.

    PubMed

    Yumoto, Y; Hanafusa, T; Nagamatsu, T; Okada, S

    2000-08-01

    To determine the volume reduction potential for incineration of radioactivity in low-level radioactive waste, an incineration experiment was performed at the Okayama University Radioisotope Center (OURIC). Solid low-level radioactive samples (LLRS) were prepared for 15 routinely used radionuclides (45Ca, 1251, 32p, 33p, 35S, 59Fe, 123I, 131I, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 3H, 14C, 51Cr, and 201Tl). For each radionuclide, incinerated one at a time, the smoke duct radioisotope concentration was less than 1/10 of the regulatory concentration limit (The Japanese law concerning prevention of radiation hazard due to radioisotopes, etc.). The radionuclide-containing combustible and semi-combustible LLRS were incinerated at the AP-1 50R furnace erected at OURIC, and the distribution of radioactivity inside and outside the furnace was measured. In the experimental incineration of LLRS containing these 15 radionuclides, the fractions released (RF) in the gas phase of the final smoke duct ranged from 0.165 to 0.99. The radioactivities remaining in the incineration residue were 99mTc, 87%; 59Fe, 83.1%; 45Ca, 75%; 51Cr, 62.1%; 33P, 62.0%; 32P, 61.1%; 67Ga, 57.7%; 35S, 26.0%; 111In, 21.1%; 201Tl, 16.6%; 123I, 11.9%; 131I, 8.2%; 125I, 2.4%; 14C, 0.39%; 3H, 0.04%. In the incineration of LLR S containing 35S, the rate of adhesion to the furnace wall was lower at high-temperature (809 degrees C) incineration than at low-temperature (376 degrees C) incineration. For LLRS containing one of the three radioiodines, 123I, 125I, or 131I, no such difference was observed between low (372 degrees C) and high (827 degrees C) temperature incineration (RF varied from 0.82 to 0.94). PMID:10910400

  20. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Brogaard, L.K.; Riber, C.; Christensen, T.H.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Materials and energy used for the construction of waste incinerators were quantified. • The data was collected from five incineration plants in Scandinavia. • Included were six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. • The capital goods contributed 2–3% compared to the direct emissions impact on GW. - Abstract: Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000–26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14 kg CO{sub 2} per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO{sub 2} per tonne of waste combusted.

  1. Kiln control for incinerating waste

    SciTech Connect

    Byerly, H.L.; Kuhn, B.R.; Matter, D.C.; Vassiliou, E.

    1993-07-20

    An incinerating kiln device is described capable of controlling the viscosity of molten slag contained within and discharged from the kiln, the device comprising a rotary kiln having a substantially cylindrical shape, an outside skin, a center axis, an inlet, and an outlet opposite the inlet, the kiln being inclined so that the slag exits from the outlet at a discharge position, and wherein the center axis and a line crossing the center axis and having the direction of gravity define a plane of zero position, the distance between the discharge position and the plane of zero position being an indirect measure of the angular viscosity of the slag, the higher said distance the higher the angular viscosity; first detection means at the outlet of the kiln for detecting the distance between the discharge position and the plane of zero position, thus determining the angular viscosity of the slag; and means for correcting the viscosity of the slag, if the distance between the plane of zero position and the discharge position deviates from a desired value, by feeding an additive to the inlet of the kiln.

  2. Raising the Bar for Reproducible Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development

    PubMed Central

    George, Barbara Jane; Sobus, Jon R.; Phelps, Lara P.; Rashleigh, Brenda; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Hines, Ronald N.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable concern has been raised regarding research reproducibility both within and outside the scientific community. Several factors possibly contribute to a lack of reproducibility, including a failure to adequately employ statistical considerations during study design, bias in sample selection or subject recruitment, errors in developing data inclusion/exclusion criteria, and flawed statistical analysis. To address some of these issues, several publishers have developed checklists that authors must complete. Others have either enhanced statistical expertise on existing editorial boards, or formed distinct statistics editorial boards. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, already has a strong Quality Assurance Program, an initiative was undertaken to further strengthen statistics consideration and other factors in study design and also to ensure these same factors are evaluated during the review and approval of study protocols. To raise awareness of the importance of statistical issues and provide a forum for robust discussion, a Community of Practice for Statistics was formed in January 2014. In addition, three working groups were established to develop a series of questions or criteria that should be considered when designing or reviewing experimental, observational, or modeling focused research. This article describes the process used to develop these study design guidance documents, their contents, how they are being employed by the Agency’s research enterprise, and expected benefits to Agency science. The process and guidance documents presented here may be of utility for any research enterprise interested in enhancing the reproducibility of its science. PMID:25795653

  3. 40 CFR 63.1203 - What are the standards for hazardous waste incinerators that are effective until compliance with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What are the standards for hazardous waste incinerators that are effective until compliance with the standards under § 63.1219? 63.1203 Section 63.1203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... yard waste? 62.14825 Section 62.14825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14825 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... yard waste? 62.14825 Section 62.14825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14825 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... yard waste? 62.14825 Section 62.14825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14825 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  7. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... yard waste? 62.14825 Section 62.14825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14825 What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste?...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1930 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1930 Section 60.1930 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1455 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1455 Section 60.1455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY...

  10. 40 CFR 60.2973 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2973 Section 60.2973 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE...

  11. 40 CFR 62.14825 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators that burn 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... yard waste? 62.14825 Section 62.14825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That... Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or Yard Waste § 62.14825 What are the recordkeeping and reporting...

  12. 77 FR 24451 - Direct Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators State Plan for Designated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ...EPA is proposing to approve, through direct final rulemaking, Illinois' revised State Plan to control air pollutants from Hazardous/ Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators (HMIWI). The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency submitted the revised State Plan on November 8, 2011 and supplemented it on December 28, 2011, following the required public process. The revised State Plan is consistent......

  13. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, L K; Riber, C; Christensen, T H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000-240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000-26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000-5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7-14 kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2-3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted. PMID:23561797

  14. Technology documentation for selected radwaste incineration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-12-01

    Several incineration systems have been developed and demonstrated on a production scale for combustion of radioactive waste from contractor operated Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Demonstrated operating information and engineered design information is documented in this report on four of these systems; the Cyclone Incinerator (CI), Fluidized Bed Incinerator (FBI), Controlled-Air Incinerator (CAI) and Electric Controlled Air Incinerator (ECAI). The CI, FBI and CAI have been demonstrated with actual contaminated plant waste and the ECAI has been demonstrated with simulated waste using dysprosium oxide as a stand-in for plutonium oxide. The weight and volume reduction that can be obtained by each system processing typical solid plant transuranic (TRU) waste has been presented. Where a given system has been tested for other applications, such as combustion of resins, TBP-solvent mixtures, organic liquids, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), resuts of these experiments have been included. This document is a compilation of reports prepared by the operating contractor personnel responsible for development of each of the systems. In addition, as a part of the program management responsibility, the Transuranic Waste System Office (TWSO) has provided an overview of the contractor supplied information.

  15. Incinerator air emissions: Inhalation exposure perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, H.W.

    1995-12-01

    Incineration is often proposed as the treatment of choice for processing diverse wastes, particularly hazardous wastes. Where such treatment is proposed, people are often fearful that it will adversely affect their health. Unfortunately, information presented to the public about incinerators often does not include any criteria or benchmarks for evaluating such facilities. This article describes a review of air emission data from regulatory trial burns in a large prototype incinerator, operated at design capacity by the US Army to destroy chemical warfare materials. It uses several sets of criteria to gauge the threat that these emissions pose to public health. Incinerator air emission levels are evaluated with respect to various toxicity screening levels and ambient air levels of the same pollutants. Also, emission levels of chlorinated dioxins and furans are compared with emission levels of two common combustion sources. Such comparisons can add to a community`s understanding of health risks associated with an incinerator. This article focuses only on the air exposure/inhalation pathway as related to human health. It does not address other potential human exposure pathways or the possible effects of emissions on the local ecology, both of which should also be examined during a complete analysis of any major new facility.

  16. Cumulative Risk Assessment: Overview of Agency Guidance, Practice and Current Major Research Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Powerpoint presentation that includes the EPA's definition of CRA, relevant publications already in existence, the CRA Guidelines effort, science issues where research is still needed, program office practices related to CRA, and EPA research activities.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION IN CFC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the collection of combustion emission characterization data from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) incineration. A bench scale test program to provide emission characterization data from CFC incineration was developed and performed, with emphasis on the format...

  18. Environmental, health and safety issues: Incinerator filters nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, Mark R.; Plata, Desiree L.

    2012-08-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles introduced into a full-scale incinerator are properly filtered and remain in ash residues, but other risks from nanoparticles generated or altered by incinerators should not be overlooked.

  19. 13. Southwest corner of burning hood and incinerator. North wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Southwest corner of burning hood and incinerator. North wall of scrubber cell room. Looking southwest. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  20. BEHAVIOR OF ARSENIC IN A ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in waste disposal patterns prompted by newly enacted legislation has resulted in a significant change in the composition of hazardous wastes presented for incineration. etal containing wastes that were historically landfilled are now being incinerated with increasing freq...

  1. OBSERVATIONS ON WASTE DESTRUCTION IN LIQUID INJECTION INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various factors affecting the performance of a subscale liquid injection incinerator simulator are discussed. The mechanisms by which waste escapes incineration within the spray flame are investigated for variations in atomization quality, flame stoichiometry. and the initial was...

  2. Enhancing Baccalaureate Student Learning in Research and Gerontology through Partnership with an Area Agency on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laurie A.; McCaslin, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Designing an effective research learning experience for undergraduate social work students is challenging. Similarly, although content on elderly adults is a natural fit in many parts of the undergraduate curriculum, doing so in a research course can be a difficult challenge. Described in this article is an undergraduate research course that has…

  3. How State Education Agencies Acquire and Use Research in School Improvement Strategies. Policy Brief. RB-55

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goertz, Margaret E.; Barnes, Carol; Massell, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Although studies of districts' and schools' use of research exist, little is known about how SEAs search for, select, and use research and other kinds of evidence in their school improvement strategies. While one might assume similarities in research use behaviors, both the organizational structures of SEAs and the population of external…

  4. OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) ELECTROSTATIC PARTICULATE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's particulate research and development program, divided between an in-house laboratory effort and extramural work at various research institutes, makes use of electrostatics in most of the work associated with stack or ducted emissions. Research facilities which offe...

  5. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Cr. In comparison to bottom ash, in fly ash 10-fold more Zn was present (8070 ppm), 4-fold more Sn (540 ppm) and also 2-fold more Ti (1.1 wt%), Pb (460 ppm) and Sn (540 ppm). Although APC residue is the material produced in the smallest quantities, in its composition some high concentrations of metallic elements were also present. Contents of Zn (>1 wt%), Pb (2560 ppm) and Sn (875 ppm) were much higher than in bottom and fly ash. Obtained results confirmed that fractionation of elements occurs during the municipal waste incineration and further detailed study of the residues may allow better understanding of the process. Acknowledgment: Research was funded by Polish National Science Centre (NCN). Scientific grant No. UMO-2014/15/B/ST10/04171.

  6. Towards a Cooperation Between the Arts, Space Science Research and the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, Anna Barbara; Waldvogel, Christian; Kotler, J. Michelle; Pell, Sarah Jane; Peljhan, Marko

    2013-02-01

    The arts offer alternative insights into reality — which is explored by science in general, and broadened by the activities conducted by the European Space Agency (ESA) and other space agencies. Similar to the way the members of ESA are ambassadors for spaceflight and science, artists and cultural professionals are ambassadors for human expression, experimentation, and exploration. In June 2011, the ESA Topical Team Arts & Sciences (ETTAS), held a three-day workshop at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. During this workshop, topics and ideas were discussed to develop cooperations between the arts, sciences and ESA to foster and expand the human and cultural aspects of space exploration, and at the same time offer a means of communication, which would aim to reach audiences beyond the scope of traditional space related channels. The preliminary findings and consensus of the team was that establishing and sustaining a transdisciplinary professional community consisting of ESA representatives, scientists and artists would fuel knowledge transfer, and mutual inspiration.

  7. Solidification of ash from incineration of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, W A; Albenesius, E L; Becker, G W

    1983-01-01

    The safe disposal of both high-level and low-level radioactive waste is a problem of increasing national attention. A full-scale incineration and solidification process to dispose of suspect-level and low-level beta-gamma contaminated combustible waste is being demonstrated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The stabilized wasteform generated by the process will meet or exceed all future anticipated requirements for improved disposal of low-level waste. The incineration process has been evaluated at SRL using nonradioactive wastes, and is presently being started up in SRP to process suspect-level radioactive wastes. A cement solidification process for incineration products is currently being evaluated by SRL, and will be included with the incineration process in SRP during the winter of 1984. The GEM alumnus author conducted research in a related disposal solidification program during the GEM-sponsored summer internship, and upon completion of the Masters program, received full-time responsibility for developing the incineration products solidification process.

  8. Incinerator thermal release valve risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.B.

    1998-12-31

    Human health risk assessments were conducted on emissions from several types of incinerators--a hazardous waste combustor, a medical waste/tire combustor, and a refuse derived fuel combustor in three different states. As part of these studies, the short-term emissions from thermal release valves operating during upset conditions were additionally evaluated. The latter assessments addressed two specific risk-related questions: (1) what are the incremental long-term risks/hazards associated with these short-term emissions; (2) what are the acute health hazards associated with these emissions? For each study, emission estimates for both the incinerator stack and the thermal release valve were obtained from the facility. Stack testing was utilized to obtain stack gas concentrations of emissions at one facility; engineering estimates were used to ascertain emissions from the thermal release valve. The two facilities were proposed incinerators, so literature-derived emissions were used throughout.

  9. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. PMID:23756039

  10. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  11. Consolidated Incineration Facility, Savannah River Site. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential impacts associated with the siting, construction, and operation of the proposed Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF), at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. The text of the document is unchanged from the EA issued in June 1992, with the following three exceptions: (1) Section 2.1 refers to recent solid waste forecast information; (2) Section 4.5.1 deletes the reference to dioxin emission standards; and (3) a footnote to Section 4.6.2 includes the results of a morr, conservative risk factor. An additional appendix has also been added to the EA. Appendix B presents comments received on the June 1992 EA and the Proposed FONSI from federal, state, and local agencies, interest groups, and individuals. Appendix B also contains both general and specific DOE responses to these comments.

  12. Risks of municipal solid waste incineration: an environmental perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, R.A.; Silbergeld, E.K.

    1988-09-01

    The central focus of the debate over incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) has shifted from its apparent management advantages to unresolved risk issues. This shift is a result of the lack of comprehensive consideration of risks associated with incineration. We discuss the need to expand incinerator risk assessment beyond the limited view of incinerators as stationary air pollution sources to encompass the following: other products of incineration, ash in particular, and pollutants other than dioxins, metals in particular; routes of exposure in addition to direct inhalation; health effects in addition to cancer; and the cumulative nature of exposure and health effects induced by many incinerator-associated pollutants. Rational MSW management planning requires that the limitations as well as advantages of incineration be recognized. Incineration is a waste-processing--not a waste disposal--technology, and its products pose substantial management and disposal problems of their own. Consideration of the nature of these products suggests that incineration is ill-suited to manage the municipal wastestream in its entirety. In particular, incineration greatly enhances the mobility and bioavailability of toxic metals present in MSW. These factors suggest that incineration must be viewed as only one component in an integrated MSW management system. The potential for source reduction, separation, and recycling to increase the safety and efficiency of incineration should be counted among their many benefits. Risk considerations dictate that alternatives to the use of toxic metals at the production stage also be examined in designing an effective, long-term MSW management strategy.

  13. Recommendations for continuous emissions monitoring of mixed waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, G.P.

    1992-02-01

    Considerable quantities of incinerable mixed waste are being stored in and generated by the DOE complex. Mixed waste is defined as containing a hazardous component and a radioactive component. At the present time, there is only one incinerator in the complex which has the proper TSCA and RCRA permits to handle mixed waste. This report describes monitoring techniques needed for the incinerator.

  14. FUEL EFFICIENT INCINERATION FOR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstrated that 34 to 70 percent of the fuel used for sewage sludge incineration could be saved. These savings were the result of study of how sewage sludge incineration in a multiple hearth incinerator works, adding instrumentation and contro...

  15. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of a... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator...

  16. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  17. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  18. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  19. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of...

  20. Conceptual process description of M division incinerator project

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.K.

    1989-04-13

    This interoffice memorandum describes an incineration system to be used for incinerating wood. The system is comprised of a shredder and an incinerator. The entire process is described in detail. A brief study of particulates, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides emission is presented.

  1. SUMMARY OF DRILLING FLUID RESEARCH ACTIVITIES, U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, GULF BREEZE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drilling-fluid related research at the U.S. EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, is summarized. The program is conducted primarily through contracts, grants, and some inhouse projects designed to assess the potential hazard to the marine environment from fluids dis...

  2. Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavruska, J. S.; Stretz, L. A.; Borduin, L. C.

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology was modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood.

  3. 77 FR 24221 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Research To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) ACTION: 30-Day Notice of new collection. The Department of Justice... methodological research on the National Crime Victimization Survey continuing beyond June 30, 2012. Generic clearance for future methodological research on the National Crime Victimization Survey. (2) Title of...

  4. THE DENTAL RESEARCH CLINIC IN FLORIDA (AS AN EDUCATIONAL AND SERVICE AGENCY).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Technical and Health Occupations Education Section.

    GUIDELINES FOR ORGANIZING AND OPERATING A DENTAL RESEARCH CLINIC WERE DEVELOPED BY THE DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND ADULT EDUCATION, THE FLORIDA DENTAL SOCIETY'S SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION OF THE DENTAL ASSISTANT, AND OTHER DENTISTS WORKING CLOSELY WITH DENTAL ASSISTANT PROGRAMS. THE PURPOSES OF THE DENTAL RESEARCH CLINICS ARE TO…

  5. Putting Educational Research to Use through Knowledge Transformation. The Agency Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desforges, Charles

    Educational research is distinctive inasmuch as it shares the moral objective of education, which is to help people make the best of themselves through processes of learning. Educational research is a service industry for education. As such, its contribution to the efficiency and effectiveness of educational processes can be increased by focusing…

  6. Challenging Lifelong Learning Policy Discourse: Where Is Structure in Agency in Narrative-Based Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Simon; Webb, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Can adult educational research on learning and identity counter the individualising of neoliberal government policy that seeks to constrain educational "choices" to those that contribute to government economic agendas? This article notes the recent move within post-compulsory education research towards an engagement with Bourdieu because of…

  7. NASA upper atmosphere research program: Research summaries, 1990 - 1991. Report to the Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) are presented. The topics covered include the following: balloon-borne in situ measurements; balloon-borne remote measurements; ground-based measurements; aircraft-borne measurements; rocket-borne measurements; instrument development; reaction kinetics and photochemistry; spectroscopy; stratospheric dynamics and related analysis; stratospheric chemistry, analysis, and related modeling; and global chemical modeling.

  8. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center, Ada, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar-Nagy, S.; Voss, P.; Van Geet, O.

    2006-10-01

    U.S. EPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center, Ada, Oklahoma, has reduced its annual energy consumption by 45% by upgrading its building mechanical system and incorporating renewable energy.

  9. An overview of the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: Chapter 1 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Turner, Kent; Raish, Carol B.; Ostoja, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    discusses the Science and Research Strategy developed by the SNAP agencies, the Science and Research Report, and need for science-based management in southern Nevada.

  10. A PRELIMINARY FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR AN OFFSHORE HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes a feasibility study of using an existing offshore oil platform, being offered to the Government, as a site for incineration of hazardous wastes and related research. The platform, located in the Gulf of Mexico about 100 km south of Mobile, AL, has potential ...

  11. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF AN INCINERABILITY RANKING SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subject study was conducted to evaluate an incinerability ranking system developed by teh University of Dayton Research Institute under contract to the EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. Fixtures of organic compounds were prepared and combined with a clay-based sorben...

  12. TRIAL BURN TESTING OF THE EPA-ORD MOBILE INCINERATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This summary describes the initial trial burn testing of the mobile incineration system that was developed through the EPA Office of Research and Development for destroying organic hazardous materials at spills and abandoned landfill sites. The trial burn test program consisted o...

  13. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF AN INCINERABILITY RANKING SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subject study was conducted to evaluate an incinerability ranking system developed by the University of Dayton Research Institute under contract to the EPA Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. ixtures of organic compounds were prepared and combined with a clay-based sorbent...

  14. Development of an incineration system for pulverized spent charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Osamu; Shibata, Minoru; Kani, Koichi

    1995-12-31

    In the existing charcoal treatment system granular charcoal is charged directly into an incinerator together with other combustible waste. Since the combustion rate of the charcoal is slow in this system, there is a problem that unburnt charcoal accumulates at the bottom of the incinerator, when incineration is performed for an extended period of time. To prevent this difficulty, the combustion rate of the charcoal must be limited to 6 kg/h. To increase the incineration rate of charcoal, the authors have developed a system in which the charcoal is pulverized and incinerated while it is mixed with propane gas. The operational performance of this system was tested using an actual equipment.

  15. Investigation of novel incineration technology for hospital waste.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangsheng; Ma, Lanlan; Liu, Yushan; Kong, Guoxing

    2006-10-15

    Conventional incineration systems for hospital waste (HW) emit large amounts of particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, as well as dioxins, due to the large excess air ratio. Additionally, the final process residues--bottom and fly ashes containing high levels of heavy metals and dioxins--also constitute a serious environmental problem. These issues faced by HW incineration processes are very similar to those confronted by conventional municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. In our previous work, we developed a novel technology integrating drying, pyrolysis, gasification, combustion, and ash vitrification (DPGCV) in one step, which successfully solved these issues in MSW incineration. In this study, many experiments are carried out to investigate the feasibility of employing the DPGCV technology to solve the issues faced by HW incineration processes, although there was no MSW incinerator used as a HW incinerator till now. Experiments were conducted in an industrial HW incineration plant with a capacity of 24 tons per day (TPD), located in Zhenzhou, Henan Province. Results illustrated that this DPGCV technology successfully solved these issues as confronted by the conventional HW incinerators and achieved the expected results for HW incineration as it did for MSW incineration. The outstanding performance of this DPGCV technology is due to the fact that the primary chamber acted as both gasifier for organic matter and vitrifying reactor for ashes, and the secondary chamber acted as a gas combustor. PMID:17120573

  16. Incineration of LWR-type waste in the Mound Cyclone Incinerator: a feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, B.M.

    1980-12-23

    The Mound Cyclone Incinerator has been demonstrated for several years for combustion of radwaste containing plutonium. It is now being developed for volume reduction of radwaste from light water reactor (LWR) facilities containing mixed beta- and gamma-emitters. To this end, a laboratory-scale feasibility study has been developed and executed. Development of the feasibility study was based on known characteristics of LWR waste and on operating data compiled for the Mound Cyclone Incinerator since 1975. Feed spiked with several isotopes found in LWR waste was burned in the laboratory-scale cyclone incinerator, and samples collected and analyzed. From these data, the applicability of cyclone incineration was demonstrated, and an efficient scrub liquor composition was chosen for the offgas treatment system. A Health Physics survey of the incinerator system after incineration of 220 ..mu..Ci of beta/gamma activity showed no exposure readings above background levels. Supplemental experiments were also performed to determine the effect of the chemical form of iodine on its volatility, as well as to calculate the cost-benefit relationship for the addition of potassium iodide to scrub liquor.

  17. Use plan for demonstration radioactive-waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, L.R.; McCampbell, M.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1982-04-01

    The University of Maryland at Baltimore was awarded a grant from the Department of Energy to test a specially modified incinerator to burn biomedical radioactive waste. In preparation for the incinerator, the Radiation Safety Office devised a comprehensive plan for its safe and effective use. The incinerator plan includes a discussion of regulations regarding on-site incineration of radioactive waste, plans for optimum use in burning four principal waste forms, controlled air incineration technology, and standard health physics safety practices; a use plan, including waste categorization and segregation, processing, and ash disposition; safety procedures, including personnel and area monitoring; and methods to evaluate the incinerator's effectiveness by estimating its volume reduction factors, mass and activity balances, and by determining the cost effectiveness of incineration versus commercial shallow land burial.

  18. SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOR FUEL REDUCTION, HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field demonstration project was conducted at Hartford, Connecticut, which showed that the supplemental fuel usage for sewage sludge incineration could be reduced 83%. This was accomplished by using a belt press filter for dewatering which reduced fuel usage 65% and then fuel ef...

  19. FIELD EXPERIENCE IN SAMPLING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper is for presentation at the 77th annual meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, June 24-29, 1984. The paper contains much useful, pragmatic information gained through numerous hazardous waste incinerator trial burn-type investigations performed for EPA by the ...

  20. Burial, incineration solve Alaskan PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, J.A. ); Young, D.T. )

    1989-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) remediation at Alaska's Swanson River has excavated more than 80,000 tons of PCB-contaminated soil and isolated it in bermed and lined stock-piles. In addition, incineration of other PCB-contaminated materials has been carried out safely. This article on the site reviews its history and part of its remediation approaches.

  1. FRP equipment for treating waste incineration gases

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, D.H. )

    1994-01-01

    Pollution control equipment made from fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) has performed outstandingly in industrial waste incineration since the mid-1970s. This success has been due primarily to continuous improvement in FRP chemical and thermal resistance. Recent improvements, such as increased resistance to sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen fluoride and the ability to tolerate higher operating temperatures, are discussed in case histories.

  2. System for Removing Pollutants from Incinerator Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David t.; Bahr, James; Dubovik, Rita; Gebhard, Steven C.; Lind, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    A system for removing pollutants -- primarily sulfur dioxide and mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx) -- from incinerator exhaust has been demonstrated. The system is also designed secondarily to remove particles, hydrocarbons, and CO. The system is intended for use in an enclosed environment, for which a prior NOx-and-SO2-removal system designed for industrial settings would not be suitable.

  3. Using Research to Enhance Staff Development: A Collaboration between a State Education Agency and an Independent Research Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappa, Joseph B.; Brown, Patricia P.

    In 1981, TDR Associates, a private, independent research organization in Newton, Massachusetts, began a two and one-half year study of "Knowledge Utilization and School Improvement Through Staff Initiated Inservice Programs." This study was funded by a grant from the National Institute of Education and conducted under an arrangement with the…

  4. Increasing Research Capacity in Ontario Child Welfare Organizations: A Unique University-Child Welfare Agency Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocmé, Nico; Van Wert, Melissa; Budau, Krista; Ballantyne, Mary; Lwin, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the successes and challenges of a unique knowledge mobilization initiative that was funded through the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. This initiative focused on promoting knowledge mobilization by increasing the capacity of child welfare organizations in Ontario to conduct…

  5. Evaluation Research in Child Welfare: Improving Outcomes through University-Public Agency Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine, Ed.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy, Ed.

    While research shows that trained social workers were better prepared to produce more effective outcomes in child welfare than those with other degrees, only an estimated 3 to 28 percent of the public child welfare workforce comprised trained social workers. A social work effort to promote workforce development and to promote professional social…

  6. CURRENT RESEARCH OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ON AUTOMOTIVE CRITERIA POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HERL conducts a variety of investigations of the health effects of air pollutants to serve as criteria for the reevaluation of National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Human clinical studies include research on the effects of: (1) ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on exerc...

  7. Creative Expressions of Agency: Contemplating Youth Voice and Adult Roles in Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Vanessa; Stewart, Carmine; Galletta, Anne; Ayala, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The chapter examines youth participation within three intergenerational collectives using participatory action research (PAR) to address educational policies youth viewed as counterproductive to their education. Outlining the complexity of youth voice, the multiple vehicles within the arts through which youth voice is expressed, and the different…

  8. A Paper on Critical Issues Facing State Education Agencies in Supporting Educational Research: One Chief's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shedd, Mark R.

    To reflect the changing technological and social demands of the society in which it exists, education must develop and alter its goals. Critical to this process is educational research in the areas of program evaluation, environmental influences and resource availability. Federal investment in National Institute of Education (NIE) activities and…

  9. Global climate change research at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The science surrounding global climate change is complex and has been interpreted in many ways. The concept of the Greenhouse Effect—viewed as the cause of global climate change—is quite simple, but the Earth’s response is not. After more than two decades of intensive research, s...

  10. Power, Agency and Participatory Agendas: A Critical Exploration of Young People's Engagement in Participative Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Sally; Renold, Emma; Ross, Nicola J.; Hillman, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This article critically explores data generated within a participatory research project with young people in the care of a local authority, the (Extra)ordinary Lives project. The project involved ethnographic multi-media data generation methods used in groups and individually with eight participants (aged 10-20) over a school year and encouraged…

  11. The Structure and Agency Dilemma in Identity and Intercultural Communication Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    2013-01-01

    Against a backdrop of rapid global transformations, the ever-increasing migration of people across nation-state borders and a wide array of language practices, applied linguists, and language and intercultural communication researchers in particular, often include identity as a key construct in their work. Most adopt a broadly poststructuralist…

  12. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH PROGRAM GUIDE, FY-1989, OCTOBER 1, 1988-SEPTEMBER 30, 1989

    EPA Science Inventory

    The free and open exchange of knowledge both stimulates and provides quality control for the progress of science. The report provides information on the research which EPA is planning for the fiscal year, on how much the office intends to spend on each program area, and on it to ...

  13. Social Justice in Practice? Exploring Teacher Candidates' Commitment toward Change Agency through Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell Storms, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have criticized teacher education programs for using action research (AR) to improve candidates' technical skills rather than promote its emancipatory goals. The author argues candidates who conduct critical AR promote its emancipatory goals and indicate a commitment to act as change agents for social justice through education. This…

  14. Research by pathologists not funded by external grant agencies: a success story.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, A; Berman, J J; Moore, G W

    1992-09-01

    The paradigm of pathology research as an endeavor among grant-funded principal investigators resulting in first-author publications is unsupported by quantitative examination of author profiles extracted from the scientific literature. Publications in six pathology journals (Modern Pathology, American Journal of Surgical Pathology, Human Pathology, Acta Cytologica, Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, and American Journal of Clinical Pathology) and three general science journals (Science, New England Journal of Medicine, and Proceedings of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences) were reviewed. Twenty articles per journal from each of three years (1987, 1989, and 1991) were examined (a total of 520 articles). Of these, 295 articles were first-authored by a member of a department of pathology. Of the 295 articles first-authored by a member of a pathology department, 47 (16%) articles listed competitive grant support. Of the grant-supported articles, 20 articles listed NIH support, but only four had an NIH-supported principle investigator as the first author of the article. Unfunded research represented the vast majority (84%) of work produced by pathologists. A review of the ISI Citation Index showed that those articles written by funded pathologists averaged 8.7 (S.D. 7.8) citations per article, compared to 10.4 (S.D. 12.1) citations per article for unfunded pathologists. Results suggest that unfunded research accounts for the majority of pathology research activity as well as their resulting literature citations. PMID:1344824

  15. A Federal Arts Agency at the Center of Reading Research: How We Got Here

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyengar, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author offers a short summary of the findings of the National Endowment for the Arts report on the status of reading, "To Read or Not to Read: A Question of National Consequence", and an explanation of the guiding rationale for the study and some future areas of research that seem warranted in light of public responses to the…

  16. How Do I Review Thee? Let Me Count the Ways: A Comparison of Research Grant Proposal Review Criteria Across US Federal Funding Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Falk-Krzesinski, Holly J.; Tobin, Stacey C.

    2016-01-01

    While Elizabeth Barrett Browning counted 25 ways in which she loves her husband in her poem, “How Do I Love Thee? Let me Count the Ways,” we identified only eight ways to evaluate the potential for success of a federal research grant proposal. This may be surprising, as it seems upon initial glance of the review criteria used by various federal funding agencies that each has its own distinct set of “rules” regarding the review of grant proposals for research and scholarship. Much of the grantsmanship process is dependent upon the review criteria, which represent the funders’ desired impact of the research. But since most funders that offer research grants share the overarching goals of supporting research that (1) fits within its mission and (2) will bring a strong return on its financial investment, the review criteria used to evaluate research grant proposals are based on a similar set of fundamental questions. In this article, we compare the review criteria of 10 US federal agencies that support research through grant programs, and demonstrate that there are actually only a small and finite number of ways that a grant proposal can be evaluated. Though each funding agency may use slightly different wording, we found that the majority of the agencies’ criteria address eight key questions. Within the highly competitive landscape of research grant funding, new researchers must find support for their research agendas and established investigators and research development offices must consider ways to diversify their funding portfolios, yet all may be discouraged by the apparent myriad of differences in review criteria used by various funding agencies. Guided by research administrators and research development professionals, recognizing that grant proposal review criteria are similar across funding agencies may help lower the barrier to applying for federal funding for new and early career researchers, or facilitate funding portfolio diversification for

  17. Endocrine disrupting chemicals research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: summary of a peer-review report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, Anna K.; Daston, George P.; Boyd, Glen R.; Lucier, George W.; Safe, Stephen H.; Stewart, Juarine; Tillitt, Donald E.; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2006-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development, a subcommittee of the Board of Scientific Counselors Executive Committee conducted an independent and open peer review of the Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Research Program (EDC Research Program) of the U.S. EPA. The subcommittee was charged with reviewing the design, relevance, progress, scientific leadership, and resources of the program. The subcommittee found that the long-term goals and science questions in the EDC Program are appropriate and represent an understandable and solid framework for setting research priorities, representing a combination of problem-driven and core research. Long-term goal (LTG) 1, dealing with the underlying science surrounding endocrine disruptors, provides a solid scientific foundation for conducting risk assessments and making risk management decisions. LTG 2, dealing with defining the extent of the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has shown greater progress on ecologic effects of EDCs compared with that on human health effects. LTG 3, which involves support of the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program of the U.S. EPA, has two mammalian tests already through a validation program and soon available for use. Despite good progress, we recommend that the U.S. EPA a) strengthen their expertise in wildlife toxicology, b) expedite validation of the Endocrine Disruptors Screening and Testing Advisory Committee tests, c) continue dependable funding for the EDC Research Program, d) take a leadership role in the application of “omics” technologies to address many of the science questions critical for evaluating environmental and human health effects of EDCs, and e) continue to sponsor multidisciplinary intramural research and interagency collaborations.

  18. Current research of the Environmental Protection Agency on automotive-criteria pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.A.; Horstman, D.H.; Benignus, V.A.; Dyer, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The HERL conducts a variety of investigations of the health effects of air pollutants to serve as criteria for the reevaluation of National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Human clinical studies include research on the effects of: (1) ozone (O/sub 3/) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) on exercising healthy adults, asthmatics, males vs. females, and blacks vs. whites; (2) O/sub 3/ and NO/sub 2/ on pulmonary cell biology and immunology; (3) carbon monoxide (CO) on cardiovascular physiology of patients with ischemic heart disease; and (4) CO on neurophysiology. Human research also includes investigation of the mechanisms of the effects of O/sub 3/ and NO/sub 2/ and the relationship between rate of exposure to CO and the level of carboxyhemoglobin formation and effects. The neurophysiological effects of lead are being investigated in humans and monkeys. Animal studies with O/sub 3/ and NO/sub 2/ include: (1) evaluation of the progression of chronic lung disease during chronic exposure, (2) determination of the effects on antiviral lung diseases, and (3) investigation of the mechanisms of effects. Quantitative animal-to-man extrapolation models for O/sub 3/ and NO/sub 2/ focused on dosimetry and species sensitivity, are under development.

  19. Carbon monoxide formation and emissions during waste incineration in a grate-circulating fluidized bed incinerator.

    PubMed

    Yanguo Zhang; Qinghai Li; Aihong Meng; Changhe Chen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of carbon monoxide (CO) formation and emissions in both grate drying bed incinerators and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerators to simulate the two key parts of a combined grate and circulating fluidized bed (grate-CFB) incinerator in order to investigate pollutant emission control in municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion that occurs in a grate-CFB incinerator utilizing a patented technology. Polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, kitchen waste, paper, textile, etc. were chosen to simulate the MSW. The effects of temperature, air staging, and moisture on the CO formation and emissions were analysed for both the grate drying bed combustion and the CFB combustion. In the grate drying bed, the low temperatures increased the carbon to CO conversion rate which also increased slightly with the moisture content. Industrial field tests in a commercial grate-CFB incinerator showed that the CO concentration at the grate drying bed exit was very high and decreased along furnace height. The carbon to CO conversion rates were 0-20% for the grate drying bed which exceeded the range of 0.8-16% measured in a grate drying bed exit of the commercial grate-CFB incinerator tests. In the commercial grate-CFB incinerator tests, at excess air ratios ranging from 1.5-2.0 or more, the CO emissions decreased to a low and stable level, whose corresponding carbon to CO conversion rates were far lower than 0-10%. The low CO emission is one of the factors enabling the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran emissions to satisfy the Chinese national regulations. PMID:20421246

  20. Summary of research on microbiological processes. International Energy Agency Subtask D, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  1. Carcinogenicity of trace elements with reference to evaluations made by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P

    1993-01-01

    The monograph program of the International Agency for Research of on Cancer has evaluated many trace elements for their carcinogenicity to humans. Five groups of compounds were considered human carcinogens: arsenic and arsenic compounds, beryllium and beryllium compounds, cadmium and cadmium compounds, hexavalent chromium compounds, and nickel compounds. Antimony trioxide, cobalt and cobalt compounds, lead and inorganic lead compounds, methylmercury compounds, and metallic nickel were considered possibly carcinogenic to humans. Antimony trisulfide, trivalent chromium compounds, metallic chromium, ferric oxide, organolead compounds, metallic mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, selenium and selenium compounds, and titanium dioxide were not classifiable. Trace elements studied to a limited extent include copper, manganese, tin, vanadium, and zinc. Among the problems are the lack of relevant data, the definition of active species, the extrapolation of the results of experimental studies to humans, the methodological problems of epidemiologic studies, and the possible anticarcinogenic activity of some trace elements. PMID:8159977

  2. How Are the Interests of Incapacitated Research Participants Protected through Legislation? An Italian Study on Legal Agency for Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gainotti, Sabina; Fusari Imperatori, Susanna; Spila-Alegiani, Stefania; Maggiore, Laura; Galeotti, Francesca; Vanacore, Nicola; Petrini, Carlo; Raschetti, Roberto; Mariani, Claudio; Clerici, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with dementia may have limited capacity to give informed consent to participate in clinical research. One possible way to safeguard the patients' interests in research is the involvement of a proxy in the recruitment process. In Italy, the system of proxy is determined by the courts. In this study we evaluate the timing for appointment of a legal proxy in Italy and identify predictive variables of appointment. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects were recruited among the outpatients seeking medical advice for cognitive complaints at the Centre for Research and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunctions, University of Milan, “Luigi Sacco” Hospital. The Centre was participating to the AdCare Study, a no-profit randomised clinical trial coordinated by the Italian National Institute of Health. The requirement that informed consent be given by a legal representative dramatically slowed down the recruitment process in AdCare, which was prematurely interrupted. The Centre for Research and Treatment of Cognitive Dysfunctions collected data on the timing required to appoint the legal representatives. Patients diagnosed with dementia and their caregivers were provided information on the Italian law on legal agency (law 6/2004). At each scheduled check-up the caregiver was asked whether she/he had applied to appoint a legal proxy for the patient and the time interval between the presentation of the law, the registration of the application at the law court chancellery and the sentence of appointment was registered. The study involved 169 demented patients. Seventy-eight patients (46.2%) applied to appoint a legal proxy. These subjects were usually younger, had been suffering from dementia for a longer time, had less than two children and made more use of memantine. The mean interval time between the presentation of the law and the patients' application to the law court chancellery was two months. The mean interval time between the patient's application to

  3. Hazardous waste incineration in industrial processes: cement and lime kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Mournighan, R.E.; Peters, J.A.; Branscome, M.R.; Freeman, H.

    1985-07-01

    With more liquid wastes due to be banned from land disposal facilities, expanding hazardous waste incineration capacity becomes increasingly important. At the same time, industrial plants are increasingly seeking to find new sources of lower cost fuel, specifically from the disposal of hazardous wastes with heating value. The Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) is currently evaluating the disposal of hazardous wastes in a wide range of industrial processes. The effort includes sampling stack emissions at cement, lime and aggregate plants, asphalt plants and blast furnaces, which use waste as a supplemental fuel. This research program is an essential part of EPA's determination of the overall environmental impact of various disposal options available to industry. This paper summarizes the results of the HWERL program of monitoring emissions from cement and lime kilns burning hazardous wastes as fuel.

  4. Ohio incinerator given the go-ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Kemezis, P.

    1992-11-25

    A federal judge has denied a request for an injunction against the startup of the long-stalled Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) commercial hazardous waste incinerator in East Liverpool, OH. The $140-million plant, owned by a US subsidiary of Swiss engineering group Von Roll Ltd. (Zuerich), will go through a startup stage and a seven-day trial burn during the next two months, according to WTI. In testimony in federal court in Huntington, WV, WTI had said it was losing $115,000/day in fixed costs because of the plant's startup delay. The company also said that long-term contracts with Chemical Waste Management (CWM; Oak Brook, IL), Du Pont (Wilmington, DE), and BASF Corp. (Parsippany, NJ) to use plant services could be jeopardized by the delay. WTI is believed to have 10-year service contracts with the three companies and also will use CWM to dispose of the ash from the incinerator.

  5. Court upholds lawsuit on incinerator hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    In the opinion of many environmentalists in Michigan, the world's largest municipal trash burner, Detroit's 4000 tpd facility is oversized, was built without serious consideration of recycling, emits unacceptable levels of toxic air pollutants, and lacks a plan for proper handling of ash. For those reasons, the Environmental Defense Fund sued Detroit in 1987 after the city ignored its written warnings about handling incinerator ash. The suit sought stricter air pollution controls, proper ash disposal, a smaller facility and serious focus on recycling. Recently, in a 2 to 1 decision, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reinstated the EDF suit that had been dismissed by a lower court. The two-year effort to protect public health and the environment from hazards at the Detroit Incinerator has been upheld.

  6. Compact, closed-loop controlled waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Schadow, K.C.; Seeker, W.R.

    1999-07-01

    Technologies for solid and liquid waste destruction in compact incinerators are being developed in collaboration between industry, universities, and a Government laboratory. This paper reviews progress on one technology, namely active combustion control to achieve efficient and controlled afterburning of air-starved reaction products. This technology which uses synchronized waste gas injection into acoustically stabilized air vortices was transitioned to a simplified afterburner design and practical operational conditions. The full-scale, simplified afterburner, which achieved CO and NO{sub x} emissions of about 30 ppm with a residence time of less than 50 msec, was integrated with a commercially available marine incinerator to increase throughput and reduce emissions. Closed-loop active control with diode laser sensors and novel control strategies was demonstrated on a sub-scale afterburner.

  7. Development of a plutonium-239 recovery incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S; Charlesworth, D L

    1988-01-01

    A Plutonium-239 Recovery Incinerator is being developed for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to reduce the volume of solid glovebox waste and to allow recovery of Pu-239 from the waste. The process will also allow treatment of some waste materials that are not certifiable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). It will consist of two electrically heated combustion chambers (furnace and afterburner) and a dry filtration off-gas system. A unique feature of the process is that it uses pyrohydrolysis to produce an ash that is amenable to Pu recovery through nitric acid/HF dissolution. A series of thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses have been performed to characterize potential incinerator feed materials. A functioning furnace mockup was built and operated to demonstrate electrically-heated pyrohydrolysis operation. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Numerical simulation of synthesis gas incineration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, A. V.; Khaustov, S. A.; Tabakaev, R. B.; Belousova, Y. A.

    2016-04-01

    The authors have analysed the expediency of the suggested low-grade fuels application method. Thermal processing of solid raw materials in the gaseous fuel, called synthesis gas, is investigated. The technical challenges concerning the applicability of the existing gas equipment developed and extensively tested exclusively for natural gas were considered. For this purpose computer simulation of three-dimensional syngas-incinerating flame dynamics was performed by means of the ANSYS Multiphysics engineering software. The subjects of studying were: a three-dimensional aerodynamic flame structure, heat-release and temperature fields, a set of combustion properties: a flare range and the concentration distribution of burnout reagents. The obtained results were presented in the form of a time-averaged pathlines with color indexing. The obtained results can be used for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of complex multicomponent gas incineration singularities.

  9. Mutagenicity of combustion emissions from a biomedical-waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, J.H.; Rogers, H.W.; Claxton, L.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Ames Salmonella typhimurium (TA98) assay was used to determine the mutagenicity of stack fly ash from a medical/pathological waste incinerator. Stack fly ash also collected from a boiler plant adjacent to the incinerator and ambient air particles (upwind and downwind of the incinerator and boiler facilities) were collected and bioassayed. Downwind particulate mutagenicity (revertants per cubic meter of air) was significantly greater than upwind particulate mutagenicity. Mutagenic emission-rate estimates (revertants per kilogram waste feed) for the incinerator and boiler were less than estimates for ash and downwind ambient-air particulate samples collected during incinerator auxiliary burner failure and demonstrated significant increase in mutagenicity compared to samples collected during routine incinerator operation.

  10. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. PMID:26060198

  11. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, Holger Svensson, Malin

    2008-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2{sup 6-1} experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO{sub 2} until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  12. Risks of municipal solid waste incineration: an environmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Denison, R A; Silbergeld, E K

    1988-09-01

    The central focus of the debate over incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) has shifted from its apparent management advantages to unresolved risk issues. This shift is a result of the lack of comprehensive consideration of risks associated with incineration. We discuss the need to expand incinerator risk assessment beyond the limited view of incinerators as stationary air pollution sources to encompass the following: other products of incineration, ash in particular, and pollutants other than dioxins, metals in particular; routes of exposure in addition to direct inhalation; health effects in addition to cancer; and the cumulative nature of exposure and health effects induced by many incinerator-associated pollutants. Rational MSW management planning requires that the limitations as well as advantages of incineration be recognized. Incineration is a waste-processing--not a waste disposal--technology, and its products pose substantial management and disposal problems of their own. Consideration of the nature of these products suggests that incineration is ill-suited to manage the municipal wastestream in its entirety. In particular, incineration greatly enhances the mobility and bioavailability of toxic metals present in MSW. These factors suggest that incineration must be viewed as only one component in an integrated MSW management system. The potential for source reduction, separation, and recycling to increase the safety and efficiency of incineration should be counted among their many benefits. Risk considerations dictate that alternatives to the use of toxic metals at the production stage also be examined in designing an effective, long-term MSW management strategy. PMID:3201012

  13. Assessment of combustion products of medical waste incinerators in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Adel M; Labib, Ossama A; Mohamed, Mona G; El-Shall, Waffaa I; Hussein, Ahmed H

    2005-01-01

    The emissions and ashes from medical waste incinerators might perform a threat to the environment and the public health. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the emissions and ashes of six medical wastes incinerators in six hospitals in Alexandria. Five air pollutants were sampled and analyzed in the emissions comprising smoke, lead, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide . Ash samples were analyzed for bacterial count, volatile substances, lead and cadmium. Shape and color of ash were observed visually. The results of the present study have revealed that all the average values of gases in the six incinerators were within the limits stated in Egyptian environmental law, where as carbonaceous particulate (smoke) averages of the six incinerators have exceeded the maximum allowable limit in the law. On the other hand, lead concentration in emissions were far below the maximum allowable limit in the law. Incinerator No 6 emissions have been significantly higher in CO, NO2, SO2 and smoke concentration than the other five incinerators P<0.001, P<0.0006, P<0.0001, and P<0.002 respectively. There was no significant variation in bacterial count of ash samples at 20 degrees C and 37 degrees C between the six studied incinerators. Volatile substance percentage of ash samples in the six incinerators were much higher than the recommended percentage. There was a highly significant variation between the six incinerators (p<0.005). Lead and cadmium concentrations in ash samples were much higher than those in developed countries, meanwhile, more or less as those in developing countries. It is recommended to state specific realistic emissions limits for medical waste incinerators and to substitute sporadic incinerators in hospitals by two central incinerators in proper places outside the city. PMID:16900616

  14. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, Danielle C.; Fuller, Gary W.; Toledano, Mireille B.; Font, Anna; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L.; de Hoogh, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure) as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of <0.01 μg/m3. Proximity and modelled PM10 concentrations for both MSWIs at postcode level were highly correlated when using continuous measures (Spearman correlation coefficients ~ 0.7) but showed poor agreement for categorical measures (deciles or quintiles, Cohen's kappa coefficients ≤ 0.5). Conclusion. To provide the most appropriate estimate of ambient exposure from MSWIs, it is essential that incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks. PMID:23935644

  15. Removal and speciation of mercury compounds in flue gas from a waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Hee; Minoya, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2016-11-01

    The management and control of mercury emissions from waste incinerators have become more significant, because waste incinerators are sinks to treat mercury-containing consumer products. This study investigated the effects of mercury concentrations and waste incineration temperatures on mercury speciation using a lab-scale experimental instrument. The removal characteristics of different mercury species were also investigated using an apparatus to simulate the fabric filter with a thin layer of additives such as Ca(OH)2 and NaHCO3, activated carbon (AC), and fly ash. HgCl2 generation rates peaked at 800°C for initial Hg(0) concentrations of 0.08-3.61 mg/Nm(3) in the presence of 400 ppm HCl. A linear relationship was established between the generation rate of HgCl2 and the logarithmic value of initial mercury concentration. Fly ash proved highly efficient in mercury removal, being equal or superior to AC. On the other hand, Ca(OH)2 and NaHCO3 were shown to have no effects on mercury removal. In the dry-scrubbing process, alkali agent is often sprayed in amounts beyond those stoichiometrically required to aid acidic gas removal. The research suggests, however, that this may hinder mercury removal from the flue gas of solid waste incinerators. PMID:27031438

  16. Numerical study of radiation effect on the municipal solid waste combustion characteristics inside an incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jingfu Xue, Yanqing; Zhang, Xinxin; Shu, Xinran

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A 3-D model for the MSW incinerator with preheated air was developed. • Gas radiative properties were obtained from a statistical narrow-band model. • Non-gray body radiation model can provide more accurate simulation results. - Abstract: Due to its advantages of high degree volume reduction, relatively stable residue, and energy reclamation, incineration becomes one of the best choices for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal. However, detailed measurements of temperature and gas species inside a furnace are difficulty by conventional experimental techniques. Therefore, numerical simulation of MSW incineration in the packed bed and gas flow field was applied. In this work, a three dimensional (3-D) model of incinerator system, including flow, heat transfer, detailed chemical mechanisms, and non-gray gas models, was developed. Radiation from the furnace wall and the flame formed above the bed is of importance for drying and igniting the waste. The preheated air with high temperature is used for the MSW combustion. Under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure, MSW combustion produces a variety of radiating gases. The wavelength-depend radiative properties of flame adopted in non-gray radiation model were obtained from a statistical narrow-band model. The influence of radiative heat transfer on temperature, flow field is researched by adiabatic model (without considering radiation), gray radiation model, and non-gray radiation model. The simulation results show that taking into account the non-gray radiation is essential.

  17. Site selection for installing plasma incinerator reactor using the GIS in Rudsar county, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abedi-Varaki, Mehdi; Davtalab, Mehri

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, the urban waste disposal and the proper location for doing so is considered as one of the most important urban service issues, which has the potential of causing environmental hazards for the citizens, if not done properly. One of the newest methods of waste burial is using plasma incinerator reactors. Using the advanced technology of plasma reactors in waste disposal has been the subject of study for a considerable number of researchers in the last few years. Moreover, insignificant emissions of environmental pollutants and high efficiency in these reactors have led to a high incentive for using them in the area of urban services. Therefore, finding the proper location for the plasma incinerator reactor in order to minimize environmental hazards is considered as a very important issue. In the present study, different parts of this reactor and its working procedure are presented at first. Then, quantitative and qualitative criteria effective on locating plasma incinerator reactor are presented, and these criteria are given proper weights using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) multi-criteria decision making method. Next, the data were collected for the studying area, and then, weighting, analysis, and presentation of geospatial data were performed using the geographic information system (GIS). Finally, the output map for installing location of the plasma incinerator reactor was developed in three classes of good, average, and bad. PMID:27188303

  18. Life cycle assessment of a national policy proposal - The case of a Swedish waste incineration tax

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerklund, Anna E. Finnveden, Goeran

    2007-07-01

    At the core of EU and Swedish waste policy is the so-called waste hierarchy, according to which waste should first be prevented, but should otherwise be treated in the following order of prioritisation: reuse, recycling when environmentally motivated, energy recovery, and last landfilling. Some recent policy decisions in Sweden aim to influence waste management in the direction of the waste hierarchy. In 2001 a governmental commission assessed the economic and environmental impacts of introducing a weight-based tax on waste incineration, the purpose of which would be to encourage waste reduction and increase materials recycling and biological treatment. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the waste incineration tax proposal. It was done in the context of a larger research project concerning the development and testing of a framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The aim of this paper is to assess the life cycle environmental impacts of the waste incineration tax proposal, and to investigate whether there are any possibilities of more optimal design of such a tax. The proposed design of the waste incineration tax results in increased recycling, but only in small environmental improvements. A more elaborate tax design is suggested, in which the tax level would partly be related to the fossil carbon content of the waste.

  19. Recent progress on tritium technology research and development for a fusion reactor in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Iwai, Y.; Isobe, K.; Yamada, M.; Kurata, R.; Edao, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Oyaizu, M.; Yamanishi, T.

    2015-03-15

    JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) manages 2 tritium handling laboratories: Tritium Processing Laboratory (TPL) in Tokai and DEMO-RD building in Rokkasho. TPL has been accumulating a gram level tritium safety handling experiences without any accidental tritium release to the environment for more than 25 years. Recently, our activities have focused on 3 categories, as follows. First, the development of a detritiation system for ITER. This task is the demonstration test of a wet Scrubber Column (SC) as a pilot scale (a few hundreds m{sup 3}/h of processing capacity). Secondly, DEMO-RD tasks are focused on investigating the general issues required for DEMO-RD design, such as structural materials like RAFM (Reduced Activity Ferritic/Martensitic steels) and SiC/SiC, functional materials like tritium breeder and neutron multiplier, and tritium. For the last 4 years, we have spent a lot of time and means to the construction of the DEMO-RD facility and to its licensing, so we have just started the actual research program with tritium and other radioisotopes. This tritium task includes tritium accountancy, tritium basic safety research such as tritium interactions with various materials, which will be used for DEMO-RD and durability. The third category is the recovery work from the Great East Japan earthquake (2011 earthquake). It is worth noting that despite the high magnitude of the earthquake, TPL was able to confine tritium properly without any accidental tritium release.

  20. The role of clinical informatics in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's efforts to improve patient safety.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, E; Meyer, G; Burstin, H

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) issued a report on medical errors, which estimated that up to 98,000 people die in U.S. hospitals each year from errors. This report raised concerns that medical errors have become a national public health problem that should be addressed in the same manner as other epidemics such as heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. In 2001, the IOM released a follow-up report encompassing a broader range of quality issues. They concluded that the U.S. healthcare system is outmoded and incapable of providing consistent, high-quality care. They outlined a strategy for redesigning U.S. healthcare delivery to achieve safe, dependable, high-quality care, which emphasizes information technology as an integral part of the solution. AHRQ's fiscal year 2001 appropriation included an increase of $50 million dollars for initiatives to reduce medical errors and improve patient safety. AHRQ responded to this mandate by developing a series of research solicitations that form an integrated set of activities to design and test best practices for reducing errors in multiple health care settings. This paper discusses the components of this program and the central role of medical informatics research in the Agency's efforts to improve the safety of medical care in America. PMID:11825240

  1. Waste incineration industry and development policies in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Xingang; Li, Yanbin; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The growing pollution from municipal solid waste due to economic growth and urbanization has brought great challenge to China. The main method of waste disposal has gradually changed from landfill to incineration, because of the enormous land occupation by landfills. The paper presents the results of a study of the development status of the upstream and downstream of the waste incineration industry chain in China, reviews the government policies for the waste incineration power industry, and provides a forecast of the development trend of the waste incineration industry. PMID:26303653

  2. Solvated Electron Technology{sup TM}. Non-Thermal Alternative to Waste Incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; Rogers, J.E.; Mather, J.D.

    2008-07-01

    Solvated Electron Technology (SET{sup TM}) is a patented non-thermal alternative to incineration for treating Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and other mixed waste by destroying organic hazardous components. SET{sup TM} is a treatment process that destroys the hazardous components in mixed waste by chemical reduction. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In application, contaminated materials are placed into a treatment cell and mixed with the solvated electron solution. In the case of PCBs or other halogenated contaminants, chemical reactions strip the halogen ions from the chain or aromatic ring producing sodium chloride and high molecular weight hydrocarbons. At the end of the reaction, ammonia within the treatment cell is removed and recycled. The reaction products (such as sodium salts) produced in the process remain with the matrix. The SET{sup TM} process is 99.999% effective in destroying: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethene (TCE); dioxins; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX); pesticides; fungicides; herbicides; chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), explosives and chemical-warfare agents; and has successfully destroyed many of the wastes listed in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 261. In September 2007, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Research and Development permit for SET for chemical destruction of 'pure' Pyranol, which is 60% PCBs. These tests were completed in November 2007. SET{sup TM} is recognized by EPA as a non-thermal process equivalent to incineration and three SET{sup TM} systems have been permitted by EPA as commercial mobile PCB destruction units. This paper describes in detail the results of select bench-, pilot-, and commercial-scale treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes for EPA, Department of Energy (DOE), and the Department of Defense(DoD), and the

  3. Chemical-Stockpile Disposal Program. Evaluation of multiple-incinerator air-quality impacts, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Final report, November 1986-May 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term additive ambient impact of certain toxic air pollutants that will potentially be emitted from the Chemical Agent Incinerator (AI) proposed for the Edgewood Area (EA) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland and from three additional planned or existing incinerators also located on the EA. This impact was determined in consideration of the existence and operation of three additional planned or existing incinerators also located on EA. Based on air-dispersion modeling conducted as part of an original analysis, emissions were estimated of chlorinated organics from the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center Decontamination/Detoxification Municipal Waste Incinerator (MWI), for downwind distances as great as the distance to the nearest boundary of the EA. Consequently, for this evaluation, only the MWI is considered to emit chlorinated organics.

  4. Research and Development in State Government Agencies. Fiscal Years 1972 and 1973. Surveys of Science Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Eleanor; And Others

    A survey to elicit data on R&D expenditures of state government agencies for fiscal years 1972 and 1973 is covered in this document. In 1973 total R&D expenditures by all sectors of the economy were $30,427 million. The R&D expenditures of State government agencies amounted to 0.9 percent of this total. Expenditures of state government agencies to…

  5. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Incinerators on and After [Date to be specified in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Incinerators on and After a 6 Table 6 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Incinerators Before [Date to be specified in state...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Incinerators Before b 2 Table 2 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and...

  7. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Small, Remote Incinerators After May 20, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Model Rule-Emission Limitations That Apply to Small, Remote Incinerators After May 20, 2011 9 Table 9 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES...

  8. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Cccc of... - Emission Limitations for Incinerators That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission Limitations for Incinerators That Commenced Construction After June 4, 2010, or That Commenced Reconstruction or Modification After September 21, 2011 5 Table 5 to Subpart CCCC of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  9. Priority pollutant pah analysis of incinerator emission particles using HPLC and optimized fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.; Meares, J.; Brooks, L.; Watts, R.; Lemieux, P.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has investigated particle emissions from the incineration of various waste feeds. Emission particles from the incineration of municipal, medical/pathological, plastic and mixed wastes were captured and subsequently tested for biological activity. An ion-exchange fractionation of emission extracts yielded a base/neutral subfraction that contained a large portion of the total biological activity found. This subfraction was known to contain nonpolar neutrals, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are known mutagens and carcinogens. A modified version of U.S. EPA Method 610 for PAHs was utilized to quantify 15 of the 16 priority-pollutant PAHs found in emission particle extracts. Modification of Method 610 consisted of time-programmed excitation and emission wavelength selection for fluorescence detection. Only the PAH acenaphthylene, which has a low fluorescence intensity, could not be quantified at the desired levels using optimized fluorescent detection. PAH detection limits from 0.001 to 0.07 ng/mL extract were obtained. Emission rates based upon extractable organic matter, stack gas, mass of combusted waste and heating potential were calculated for each PAH and incinerator.

  10. EPA ensures oversight of worker safety and health at Superfund incinerator sites. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    In response to increasing concern over the safety and health of hazardous waste workers at Superfund incinerator sites, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently established a joint EPA-Labor Superfund Health and Safety Task Force to coordinate activities designed to ensure vigorous oversight of occupationl safety and health at these sites. As a result of EPA/Labor Task Force-sponsored inspections, operators of the inspected incinerators have agreed to address the team's findings and to improve their safety and health programs. The EPA/Labor Task Force also has developed a draft 'Protocol for Safety and Health Inspections at Superfund Sites' to be used for inspections of all types of Superfund sites. In 1993, the EPA/Labor Task Force will continue to conduct additional Superfund incinerator site inspections. EPA believes that the initiaties launched with the EPA/Labor Task Force will ensure that the safety and health of workers engaged in hazardous waste cleanup activities is a top priority at these sites.

  11. Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of resource recovery from waste incineration residues--the case of zinc.

    PubMed

    Fellner, J; Lederer, J; Purgar, A; Winterstetter, A; Rechberger, H; Winter, F; Laner, D

    2015-03-01

    Solid residues generated at European Waste to Energy plants contain altogether about 69,000 t/a of Zn, of which more than 50% accumulates in air pollution control residues, mainly boiler and filter ashes. Intensive research activities aiming at Zn recovery from such residues recently resulted in a technical scale Zn recovery plant at a Swiss waste incinerator. By acidic leaching and subsequent electrolysis this technology (FLUREC) allows generating metallic Zn of purity>99.9%. In the present paper the economic viability of the FLUREC technology with respect to Zn recovery from different solid residues of waste incineration has been investigated and subsequently been categorised according to the mineral resource classification scheme of McKelvey. The results of the analysis demonstrate that recovery costs for Zn are highly dependent on the costs for current fly ash disposal (e.g. cost for subsurface landfilling). Assuming current disposal practice costs of 220€/ton fly ash, resulting recovery costs for Zn are generally higher than its current market price of 1.6€/kg Zn. With respect to the resource classification this outcome indicates that none of the identified Zn resources present in incineration residues can be economically extracted and thus cannot be classified as a reserve. Only for about 4800 t/a of Zn an extraction would be marginally economic, meaning that recovery costs are only slightly (less than 20%) higher than the current market price for Zn. For the remaining Zn resources production costs are between 1.5 and 4 times (7900 t/a Zn) and 10-80 times (55,300 t/a Zn) higher than the current market value. The economic potential for Zn recovery from waste incineration residues is highest for filter ashes generated at grate incinerators equipped with wet air pollution control. PMID:25458759

  13. Neonicotinoids impact bumblebee colony fitness in the field; a reanalysis of the UK's Food & Environment Research Agency 2012 experiment.

    PubMed

    Goulson, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The causes of bee declines remain hotly debated, particularly the contribution of neonicotinoid insecticides. In 2013 the UK's Food & Environment Research Agency made public a study of the impacts of exposure of bumblebee colonies to neonicotinoids. The study concluded that there was no clear relationship between colony performance and pesticide exposure, and the study was subsequently cited by the UK government in a policy paper in support of their vote against a proposed moratorium on some uses of neonicotinoids. Here I present a simple re-analysis of this data set. It demonstrates that these data in fact do show a negative relationship between both colony growth and queen production and the levels of neonicotinoids in the food stores collected by the bees. Indeed, this is the first study describing substantial negative impacts of neonicotinoids on colony performance of any bee species with free-flying bees in a field realistic situation where pesticide exposure is provided only as part of normal farming practices. It strongly suggests that wild bumblebee colonies in farmland can be expected to be adversely affected by exposure to neonicotinoids. PMID:25825679

  14. Process engineering design of pathological waste incinerator with an integrated combustion gases treatment unit.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, A F

    2007-06-25

    Management of medical wastes generated at different hospitals in Egypt is considered a highly serious problem. The sources and quantities of regulated medical wastes have been thoroughly surveyed and estimated (75t/day from governmental hospitals in Cairo). From the collected data it was concluded that the most appropriate incinerator capacity is 150kg/h. The objective of this work is to develop the process engineering design of an integrated unit, which is technically and economically capable for incinerating medical wastes and treatment of combustion gases. Such unit consists of (i) an incineration unit (INC-1) having an operating temperature of 1100 degrees C at 300% excess air, (ii) combustion-gases cooler (HE-1) generating 35m(3)/h hot water at 75 degrees C, (iii) dust filter (DF-1) capable of reducing particulates to 10-20mg/Nm(3), (iv) gas scrubbers (GS-1,2) for removing acidic gases, (v) a multi-tube fixed bed catalytic converter (CC-1) to maintain the level of dioxins and furans below 0.1ng/Nm(3), and (vi) an induced-draft suction fan system (SF-1) that can handle 6500Nm(3)/h at 250 degrees C. The residence time of combustion gases in the ignition, mixing and combustion chambers was found to be 2s, 0.25s and 0.75s, respectively. This will ensure both thorough homogenization of combustion gases and complete destruction of harmful constituents of the refuse. The adequate engineering design of individual process equipment results in competitive fixed and operating investments. The incineration unit has proved its high operating efficiency through the measurements of different pollutant-levels vented to the open atmosphere, which was found to be in conformity with the maximum allowable limits as specified in the law number 4/1994 issued by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) and the European standards. PMID:17166659

  15. Prince Albert Four Agency Cooperative Speech Program. S.S.T.A. Research Centre Report No. 53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, William J.

    Three Prince Albert school districts and the Community Health Region cooperated to deliver speech therapy services to rural areas; the cooperative program provided services that could not have been funded by the agencies acting independently. The agencies shared responsibility for funding, administration, and implementation of the program. Goals…

  16. The Problematization of Agency in Postmodern Theory: As Feminist Educational Researchers, where Do We Go from Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gender and Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the discussion at a recent 'salon' on feminist agency. The views of the two invited speakers, who raised concerns about the impact of post-modernism on political projects, are reported. The content of the general discussion around subjectivity, agency and structure are then set out. The group struggled with the possibilities…

  17. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Dana; Huang, Wei; Chen, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population. PMID:24694836

  18. 10 CFR 20.2004 - Treatment or disposal by incineration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commission pursuant to § 20.2002. (b)(1) Waste oils (petroleum derived or synthetic oils used principally as... conditions other than effluent limits specifically related to incineration of waste oil. The licensee shall... procedures. (2) Solid residues produced in the process of incinerating waste oils must be disposed of...

  19. 10 CFR 20.2004 - Treatment or disposal by incineration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Commission pursuant to § 20.2002. (b)(1) Waste oils (petroleum derived or synthetic oils used principally as... conditions other than effluent limits specifically related to incineration of waste oil. The licensee shall... procedures. (2) Solid residues produced in the process of incinerating waste oils must be disposed of...

  20. 10 CFR 20.2004 - Treatment or disposal by incineration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Commission pursuant to § 20.2002. (b)(1) Waste oils (petroleum derived or synthetic oils used principally as... conditions other than effluent limits specifically related to incineration of waste oil. The licensee shall... procedures. (2) Solid residues produced in the process of incinerating waste oils must be disposed of...

  1. 10 CFR 20.2004 - Treatment or disposal by incineration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Commission pursuant to § 20.2002. (b)(1) Waste oils (petroleum derived or synthetic oils used principally as... conditions other than effluent limits specifically related to incineration of waste oil. The licensee shall... procedures. (2) Solid residues produced in the process of incinerating waste oils must be disposed of...

  2. Incineration of LWR-type waste at Mound Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, B.M.; Grimm, R.S.; Doty, J.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The Mound Cyclone Incinerator, demonstrated over several years for the combustion of radwaste containing plutonium, is now being developed for volume reduction of radwaste containing mixed beta- and gamma-emitters, from LWR facilities. To this end, a laboratory-scale feasibility study was developed and executed. Development of the feasibility study was based on known characteristics of LWR waste and on operating data compiled for the Mound Cyclone Incinerator since 1975. Feed spiked with several isotopes found in LWR waste was burned in the laboratory-scale cyclone incinerator, and samples were collected and analyzed. From these data, the applicability of cyclone incineration was demonstrated, and an efficient scrub liquor composition was chosen for the offgas treatment system. A Health Physics survey of the incinerator system after incineration of 220 ..mu..Ci of beta/gamma activity showed no exposure readings above background level. Future work planned includes incineration of simulated LWR waste in the full-scale Mound Cyclone Incinerator to begin later this year.

  3. MUTAGENICITY OF COMBUSTION EMISSIONS FROM A BIOMEDICAL WASTER INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ames Salmonella typhimurium (TA98) assay was used to determine the mutagenicity of stack fly ash from a medical/pathological waste incinerator. tack fly ash also collected from a boiler plant adjacent to the incinerator and ambient air particles (upwind and downwind of the in...

  4. 8. Historic view, Incinerator (Building 203). View to southeast, c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic view, Incinerator (Building 203). View to southeast, c. 1950's Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 9. Historic drawing, Incinerator (Building 203). Plant Expansion, 1942. Photographic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic drawing, Incinerator (Building 203). Plant Expansion, 1942. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION DURING CFC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments to assess: (1) the effect of residual copper retained in an incineration facility on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) formation during incineration of non-copper-containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); and (2) th...

  7. APPLICATION OF PULSE COMBUSTION TO SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the application of pulse combustion to solid and hazardous waste incineration. otary kiln incinerator simulator was retrofitted with a frequency-tunable pulse combustor to enhance the efficiency of combustion. he pulse combustor excites pulsations in the kiln ...

  8. EFFECT OF OXYGEN - ENHANCEMENT ON HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    How does the addition of oxygen improve the applicability of incineration? his paper addresses that question by evaluating the performance of oxygen enhanced hazardous waste incineration in three different applications. he cases studied include a laboratory study of the use of ox...

  9. EXPERIENCE IN INCINERATION APPLICABLE TO SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document can be used as a reference tool for hazardous waste site remediation where incineration is used as a treatment alternative. It provides the user with information garnered from the experiences of others who use incineration. The document presents useful lessons in ev...

  10. AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

    2003-04-01

    Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

  11. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    PubMed

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. PMID:19362462

  12. Investigation of waste incineration of fluorotelomer-based polymers as a potential source of PFOA in the environment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P H; Yamada, T; Striebich, R C; Graham, J L; Giraud, R J

    2014-09-01

    In light of the widespread presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the environment, a comprehensive laboratory-scale study has developed data requested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether municipal and/or medical waste incineration of commercial fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTBPs) at end of life is a potential source of PFOA that may contribute to environmental and human exposures. The study was divided into two phases (I and II) and conducted in accordance with EPA Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs) as described in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP) for each phase. Phase I testing determined that the PFOA transport efficiency across the thermal reactor system to be used in Phase II was greater than 90%. Operating at 1000°C over 2s residence time with 3.2-6.6mgdscm(-1) hydrogen fluoride (HF), corrected to 7% oxygen (O2), and continuously monitored exhaust oxygen of 13%, Phase II testing of the FTBP composites in this thermal reactor system yielded results demonstrating that waste incineration of fluorotelomer-based polymers does not result in the formation of detectable levels of PFOA under conditions representative of typical municipal waste combustor (MWC) and medical waste incinerator (MWI) operations in the U.S. Therefore, waste incineration of these polymers is not expected to be a source of PFOA in the environment. PMID:24880594

  13. Licensing retrofit incinerators at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.L.; Edwards, C.W.; Wilson, B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether or not a backfit incinerator could be licensed under the provisions of 10 CFR Part 50.59, Gilbert Associates, Inc., with support from the Department of Energy, prepared, on a generic basis, typical engineering design information, accident analysis data and other documentation necessary to apply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a license to backfit a low-level radioactive waste incinerator in an operating nuclear power plant. The Department of Energy, serving in the role of a typical utility organization, submitted this generic report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for review and comment in a mock demonstration of the licensing process. The ultimate goal of this effort is to identify and resolve any safety issues associated with backfit incinerators so that a sufficient level of confidence in the licensability of backfit incinerators can be installed in nuclear utility management, and to encourage the industry to actually proceed with plans to install incinerators on a retrofit basis.

  14. Combustion control of municipal incinerators by fuzzy neural network logic

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, N.B.; Chang, Y.H.

    1996-12-31

    The successful operation of mass burn waterwall incinerators involves many uncertain factors. Not only the physical composition and chemical properties of the refuse but also the complexity of combustion mechanism would significantly influence the performance of waste treatment. Due to the rising concerns of dioxin/furan emissions from municipal incinerators, improved combustion control algorithms, such as fuzzy and its fusion control technologies, have gradually received attention in the scientific community. This paper describes a fuzzy and neural network control logic for the refuse combustion process in a mass burn waterwall incinerator. It is anticipated that this system can also be easily applied to several other types of municipal incinerators, such as modular, rotary kiln, RDF and fluidized bed incinerators, by slightly modified steps. Partial performance of this designed controller is tested by computer simulation using identified process model in this analysis. Process control could be sensitive especially for the control of toxic substance emissions, such as dioxin and furans.

  15. JOINT EPA-EPRI (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE) COLD WEATHER PLUME STUDY (CWPS): OVERVIEW OF MEASUREMENTS AND DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cold Weather Plume Study (CWPS) was a field measurement program carried out in February 1981 under the joint sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Electric Power Research Institute. Its objective was to generate a data base suitable for quantitative ...

  16. AN OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SMALL SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER AT THE EPA TEST AND EVALUATION FACILITY IN CINCINNATI, OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) landmark Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 promised to bring and provide safe drinking water to all Americans. Since that time many have not understood or appreciated EPA involvement in the research and development (...

  17. High Performance Computing: Advanced Research Projects Agency Should Do More To Foster Program Goals. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Information Management and Technology Div.

    High-performance computing refers to the use of advanced computing technologies to solve highly complex problems in the shortest possible time. The federal High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative of the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) attempts to accelerate availability and use of high performance computers and networks.…

  18. Educational Preparation for Learning Disability Nursing: Outcomes Evaluation of the Contribution of Learning Disability Nurses within the Multi-Professional, Multi-Agency Team. Research Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English National Board for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting, London.

    A research project examined the current roles of learning disability nurses within multi-professional and multi-agency teams in a range of care settings in the United Kingdom (UK). It also studied the effectiveness of current educational provision for this branch of nursing, in terms of current roles and activities, and the perceived needs of…

  19. Comparison of green-house gas emission reductions and landfill gas utilization between a landfill system and an incineration system.

    PubMed

    Haibin Han; Jisheng Long; Shude Li; Guangren Qian

    2010-04-01

    Electricity generation and greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions were researched by making comparisons between municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill and incineration systems with three different electricity generation efficiencies - 10%, 21%, and 24.7%. For MSW landfill systems, it is shown that the total electricity generation is 198,747 MWh, and the total GHG emission reduction is 1,386,081 tonne CO( 2) during a 21-year operation period. For incineration systems, the total electricity generation is 611,801 MWh, and the total GHG emission reduction is 1,339,158 tonne CO(2) during a 10-year operation period even if the electricity generation efficiency is only 10%. It is also shown that electricity generation increases quicker than the GHG emission reductions with the increase of electricity generation efficiency. However, incineration systems show great superiority in LFG utilisation and GHG emission reductions. PMID:20124321

  20. Shredder and incinerator technology for treatment of commercial transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Oma, K.H.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Ross, W.A.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes the selection and evaluation of process equipment to accomplish the shredding and incineration of commercial TRU wastes. The primary conclusions derived from this study are: Shredding and incineration technology appears effective for converting simulated commercial TRU wastes to a noncombustible form. The gas-heated controlled-air incinerator received the highest technical ranking. On a scale of 1 to 10, the incinerator had a Figure-of-Merit (FOM) number of 7.0. This compares to an FOM of 6.1 for the electrically heated controlled-air incinerator and an FOM of 5.8 for the rotary kiln incienrator. The present worth costs of the incineration processes for a postulated commercial reprocessing plant were lowest for the electrically heated and gas-heated controlled-air incinerators with costs of $16.3 M and $16.9 M, respectively (1985 dollars). Due to higher capital and operating costs, the rotary kiln process had a present worth cost of $20.8 M. The recommended process from the three evaluated for the commercial TRU waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment. This process had the best cost-effectiveness ratio of 1.0 (normalized). The electrically heated controller-air incinerator had a rating of 1.2 and the rotary kiln rated a 1.5. Most of the simulated wastes were easily processed by the low-speed shredders evaluated. The HEPA filters proved difficult to process, however. Wood-framed HEPA filters tended to ride on the cutter wheels and spacers without being gripped and shredded. The metal-framed HEPA filters and other difficult to shred items caused the shredders to periodically reach the torque limit and go into an automatic reversal cycle; however, the filters were eventually processed by the units. All three incinerators were ineffective for oxidizing the aluminum metal used as spacers in HEPA filters.

  1. 78 FR 38713 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Requirements for Boilers and Industrial Furnaces AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice...), Information Requirements for Boilers and Industrial Furnaces (EPA ICR No. 1361.16, OMB Control No. 2050-0073... boilers, incinerators, and industrial furnaces (BIFs) under 40 CFR parts 63, 264, 265, 266 and 270....

  2. University Research: Most Federal Agencies Need to Better Protect Against Financial Conflicts of Interest. Report to the Honorable Richard C. Shelby, U.S. Senate. GAO-04-31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US General Accounting Office, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In fiscal year 2001, federal agencies provided $19 billion for university research, a vital part of the nation's research and development effort. GAO was asked to examine federal agencies' actions to ensure that (1) the results of the university research grants they fund are made available to the public and (2) universities receiving such grants…

  3. The hazardous waste management system--Environmental Protection Agency. Interim final amendments to interim final and final rules.

    PubMed

    1982-06-24

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires that EPA set regulatory standards for all facilities which treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste. In partial implementation of its requirement, on January 23, 1981, EPA set regulatory standards for incinerators that burn hazardous waste. These regulations were issued as "interim final," which means that, although they were issued in final form, the Agency invited public comment on them with a view to future amendment. Today, EPA is amending, on an interim final basis, certain of its regulations applicable to hazardous waste incineration facilities. Today's amendments include revisions to: the general standards for permitting hazardous waste incinerators (Part 264, Subpart O), published in the Federal Register on January 23, 1981; the interim status standards for hazardous waste incinerators (Part 265, Subpart O), revised on January 23, 1981; and the consolidated permit requirements for incinerators (Part 122), published on May 19, 1980 and January 23, 1981.U PMID:10255871

  4. SUPERFUND ENGINEERING ISSUE: CONSIDERATIONS FOR EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF METALS PARTITIONING DURING THE INCINERATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A significant amount of research has been conducted on the incineration of contaminated materials. lthough historically the primary focus has been on the destruction of organics, increased emphasis is being placed in the fate of metals. nlike the organic portion, the metal fracti...

  5. Effects of an incinerator project on a healthcare-waste management system.

    PubMed

    Khammaneechan, Patthanasak; Okanurak, Kamolnetr; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Tantrakarnapa, Kraichat; Norramit, Poonsup

    2011-10-01

    This evaluative research study aimed to assess the effects of the central healthcare incinerator project on waste management in Yala Province. The study data were collected twice: at baseline and during the operational phase. A combination of structured interview and observation were used during data collection. The study covered 127 healthcare facilities: government hospitals, healthcare centres, and private clinics. The results showed 63% of healthcare risk waste (HCRW) handlers attended the HCRW management training. Improvements in each stage of the HCRW management system were observed in all groups of facilities. The total cost of the HCRW management system did not change, however; the costs for hospitals decreased, whereas those for clinics increased significantly. It was concluded that the central healthcare waste incinerator project positively affected HCRW management in the area, although the costs of management might increase for a particular group. However, the benefits of changing to a more appropriately managed HCRW system will outweigh the increased costs. PMID:21690304

  6. Oxygen-enriched multiple-hearth sewage sludge incineration demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Oxygen-enhanced multiple-hearth sludge incineration was the focus of a five-month joint study by Praxair and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Testing and demonstration were conducted in Rochester NY, at Monroe County`s Frank E. Van Lare Sewage Treatment Plant. A simple retrofit of high-momentum oxygen lances created a convection hearth in which convective heat and mass transfer with the drying sludge were greatly enhanced, while hearth temperatures were moderated by the wet sludge to prevent overheating. Based on the results of short- and long-term controlled tests discussed in this report, oxygen enhancement of multiple-hearth sludge incinerators can be economically viable, with a savings between $30 and $60 per hour at Van Lare based upon increased sludge throughput and reduced fuel consumption.

  7. A Simulation Study Comparing Incineration and Composting in a Mars-Based Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, John; Kang, Sukwon; Cavazzoni, Jim; Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare incineration and composting in a Mars-based advanced life support (ALS) system. The variables explored include waste pre-processing requirements, reactor sizing and buffer capacities. The study incorporates detailed mathematical models of biomass production and waste processing into an existing dynamic ALS system model. The ALS system and incineration models (written in MATLAB/SIMULINK(c)) were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The composting process is modeled using first order kinetics, with different degradation rates for individual waste components (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, cellulose and lignin). The biomass waste streams are generated using modified "Eneray Cascade" crop models, which use light- and dark-cycle temperatures, irradiance, photoperiod, [CO2], planting density, and relative humidity as model inputs. The study also includes an evaluation of equivalent system mass (ESM).

  8. Incinerator ash bill supported by ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Municipal waste combustion facilities must be retained as an option for solving this nation's total solid waste management problems, John W. Norton, representing the Solid Waste Processing Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), told the House Subcommittee on Transportation and Hazardous Materials. Norton testified on H.R. 2162, the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Act of 1989. The bill would ensure environmentally sound disposal of incinerator ash residues while improving public confidence in the disposal of municipal waste through combustion. Although agreeing that the EPA should issue guidelines removing certain items (such as batteries) from the trash to be burned, Norton urged additional research to determine the impact of such actions. He cautioned that toxic components such as heavy metals are pervasive in wastes and, therefore, it is unlikely that removal of a few items will significantly affect the quality of either ash or air emissions. We believe recycling and reuse of municipal solid waste incinerator ash offers great promise to reduce the need for disposal in landfills, testified Norton. He urged that the bill authorize a substantial research program on ash recycling and reuse at EPA.

  9. New technologies; Building tetrapods from incinerator ash could save northeastern coast

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.P.

    1988-12-01

    This paper reports on Hazmat tetrapods that could be the solution to a number of pressing environmental problems, according to scientists at the State University of New York (SUNY). The beginnings of 4-foot-by-4-foot, 6,000-pound tetrapods made from incinerator ash and cement are being studied at SUNY's Waste Management Institute of Marine Sciences Research Center (Long Island, N.Y.). One of the problems the research is aimed at solving is shoreline erosion, which is especially severe on the southern shores of Long Island. The tetrapod design was developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to alleviate erosion problems typical of the New York City metropolitan area. Another problem it night solve is the safe disposal of municipal waste. While incineration is an alternative to the fast-filling landfills, opponents claim that incinerator ash is hazardous to public health and the environment because of its heavy metal content, including zinc, nickel and cadmium, say industry observers.

  10. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (<10(-6)) both for children and workers. Exposure to ash increased workers' cancer risks and children's noncancer risks. Given the risk estimate is complex including toxicity/bioaccessibility of metals, the ways of exposure, and many uncertainties, further researches are required before any definite decisions on mitigating health risks caused by exposure to EDR incinerated ash are made. PMID:25249049

  11. Behavior of TiO₂ nanoparticles during incineration of solid paint waste: a lab-scale test.

    PubMed

    Massari, Andrea; Beggio, Marta; Hreglich, Sandro; Marin, Riccardo; Zuin, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    In order to assess the potential impacts posed by products containing engineered nanoparticles, it is essential to generate more data about the release of these particles from products' life cycle. Although first studies were performed to investigate the release of nanoparticles from use phase, very few data are available on the potential release from recycling or disposal of nano-enhanced products. In this work, we investigated the behavior of TiO2 nanoparticles from incineration of solid paint waste containing these particles. Solid paint debris with and without TiO2 nanoparticles were treated in a lab scale incineration plant at 950°C (combustion temperature) and in oxidizing atmosphere. The obtained ashes were also vitrified with additives and the release of Ti was finally evaluated by leaching test. From our incineration lab-scale experiment, we did not observe a release of TiO2 nanoparticles into the atmosphere, and Ti was attached to the surface of obtained solid residues (i.e. ashes). The characterization of ashes showed that TiO2 nanoparticles reacted during the incineration to give calcium titanate. Finally, a very low release of Ti was measured, less 1 mg/kg, during the leaching test of ashes vitrified with glass cullet and feldspathic inert. Our work suggests that TiO2 nanoparticles added in paints may undergo to physicochemical transformation during the incineration, and that Ti found in ashes may be strongly immobilized in glass matrix. Since this conclusion is based on lab-scale experiment, further research is required to identify which nanoparticles will be emitted to the environment from a real-word-incineration system of household hazardous waste. PMID:24929868

  12. Experimental investigation into the incineration of wool scouring sludges in a novel rotating fluidised bed.

    PubMed

    Wong, W Y; Lu, Y; Nasserzadeh, V S; Swithenbank, J; Shaw, T; Madden, M

    2000-04-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate the possibility of incineration of wool scouring sludges in a novel vertical axis rotating fluidized bed (RFB). A small-scale RFB was designed and constructed with an internal diameter (ID) of 200 mm and height of 50 mm to carry out the experiments. In phase one of the experiments, a cold test was conducted to investigate the fluidization performance of the RFB, which eventually led to the optimisation of the operating parameters, i.e., sand particle size, rotation speed and bed loading (bed thickness) which ensures complete fluidization and minimum particle elutriation. Sand particle size of 0.5 to 0.6 mm, rotation speed of 200 to 400 rpm and bed loading of 1 kg (equivalent to bed thickness of 27 mm) were found optimal. These information generated were useful for the second phase of the experiments, which was the hot test, in investigating the possibility of incinerating wool scouring sludges in the RFB. Nine wool sludges from different process routes generated from the wool scouring industries were analysed for their compositions. Most of these sludges were highly moist, had high volatile matter and high ash content with low level of fixed carbon. These characteristics made incineration difficult. Hence, the effect of varying the moisture content, rotation speed and sludge feed rate on the incineration of the three selected sludges were studied in the hot test. With 5% support methane, all sludges with a maximum moisture up to 70% as-received could be successfully burned in the RFB at rotating speeds of 200 and 300 rpm. The combustion was found to be intense with a high efficiency due to the good turbulence and mixing in the RFB. The combustion gases produced, i.e., CO, CO(2) and NO(x) were reasonably low due to the high combustion intensity and efficiency. To study the dynamics of the bed and freeboard region in the RFB, the velocity flow field was simulated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to

  13. [Effects of chlorides on Cd transformation in a simulated grate incinerator during sludge incineration process ].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-yong; Zhuo, Zhong-xu; Sun, Shui-yu; Luo, Guang-qian; Li, Xiao-ming; Xie, Wu-ming; Wang, Yu- jie; Yang, Zuo-yi; Zhao, Su-ying

    2014-09-01

    The effects of organic chloride-PVC and inorganic chloride-NaCl on Cd partitioning during sludge incineration with adding Cd(CH3COO)2 . 2H2O to the real sludge were investigated using a simulated tubular incineration furnace. And transformation and distribution of Cd were studied in different sludge incineration operation conditions. The results indicated that the partitioning of Cd tended to be enhanced in the fly ash and fule gas as the chloride content increasing. The migration and transformation of Cd-added sludge affected by different chloride were not obvious with the increasing of chloride content. With increasing temperature, organic chloride (PVC) and inorganic chloride (NaC1) can reduce the Cd distribution in the bottom ash. However, the effect of chlorides, the initial concentration and incineration time on Cd emissions had no significant differences. Using SEM-EDS and XRD technique, different Cd compounds including CdCl2, Na2CdCl4, K2CdCl6, K2CdSiO4 and NaCdO2 were formed in the bottom ash and fly ash after adding NaCl to the sludge. In contrast, after adding PVC to the sludge, the Na2CdCl4 and CdCl2 were the main forms of Cd compounds, at the same time, K4CdCI6 and K6CdO4 were also formed. The two different mechanisms of chlorides effects on Cd partitioning were affected by the products of Cd compound types and forms. PMID:25518686

  14. CIF---Design basis for an integrated incineration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.F.

    1991-12-31

    This paper discusses the evolution of chosen technologies that occurred during the design process of the US Department of Energy (DOE) incineration system designated the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) as the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The Plant is operated for DOE by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The purpose of the incineration system is to treat low level radioactive and/or hazardous liquid and solid wastes by combustion. The objective for the facility is to thermally destroy toxic constituents and volume reduce waste material. Design criteria requires operation be controlled within the limits of RCRA`s permit envelope.

  15. CIF---Design basis for an integrated incineration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of chosen technologies that occurred during the design process of the US Department of Energy (DOE) incineration system designated the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) as the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The Plant is operated for DOE by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The purpose of the incineration system is to treat low level radioactive and/or hazardous liquid and solid wastes by combustion. The objective for the facility is to thermally destroy toxic constituents and volume reduce waste material. Design criteria requires operation be controlled within the limits of RCRA's permit envelope.

  16. Flashback from waste gas incinerator into air supply piping

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.E.; Dowell, A.M. III; Mynaugh, J.B. )

    1992-04-01

    A waste gas incinerator experienced a flashback with a pressure wave in the Suction Vent Gas (SVG) system. Extensive damage resulted to the SVG flame arrestor, SVG fan, SVG valves, and incinerator piping. There were no injuries. The primary cause of the incident is believed to have been a fuel rich SVG stream that was rapidly introduced into the incinerator creating a puff.' This puff' allowed flame from the natural gas ring burner to blow back into the windbox igniting the fuel rich SVG. The combustion of gas in the ducting then created a pressure wave that blew apart the flame arrestor and caused the remainder of the damage.

  17. Chemical and sewage sludge co-incineration in a full-scale MSW incinerator: toxic trace element mass balance.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario; Giugliano, Michele; Campolunghi, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Co-incineration of sludges with MSW is a quite common practice in Europe. This paper illustrates a case of co-incineration of both sewage sludges and chemical sludges, the latter obtained from drinking water production, in a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant located in northern Italy and equipped with a grate furnace, and compares the toxic trace elements mass balance with and without the co-incineration of sludges. The results show that co-incineration of sewage and chemical sludges does not result in an increase of toxic trace elements the total release in environment, with the exception of arsenic, whose total release increases from 1 mg t(fuel) (-1) during standard operation to 3 mg t(fuel) (-1) when sludges are co-incinerated. The increase of arsenic release is, however, attributable to the sole bottom ashes, where its concentration is five times higher during sludge co-incineration. No variation is observed for arsenic release at the stack. This fact is a further guarantee that the co-incineration of sludges, when performed in a state-of-the-art WTE plant, does not have negative effects on the atmospheric environment. PMID:22584266

  18. Electric controlled air incinerator for radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.E.; Warren, J.H.

    1981-04-07

    A two-stage incinerator is provided which includes a primary combustion chamber and an afterburner chamber for off-gases. The latter is formed by a plurality of vertical tubes in combination with associated manifolds which connect the tubes together to form a continuous tortuous path. Electrically-controlled heaters surround the tubes while electrically-controlled plate heaters heat the manifolds. A gravity-type ash removal system is located at the bottom of the first afterburner tube while an air mixer is disposed in that same tube just above the outlet from the primary chamber. A ram injector in combination with rotary magazine feeds waste to a horizontal tube forming the primary combustion chamber.

  19. Use of incinerator bottom ash in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Pera, J.; Coutaz, L.; Ambroise, J.; Chababbet, M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to show if municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash could be an alternative aggregate for the production of building concrete presenting a characteristic 28-day compressive strength of 25 MPa. The aggregates passing the 20-mm sieve and retained on the 4-mm sieve were considered for investigation. They showed lower density, higher water absorption, and lower strength than natural gravel. They could be considered as average quality aggregates for use in concrete. When directly introduced in concrete, they led to swelling and cracking of specimens, due to the reaction between cement and metallic aluminium. Therefore, a treatment by sodium hydroxide was proposed to avoid such degradation, which made possible the partial replacement (up to 50%) of gravel in concrete without affecting the durability.

  20. Deflagration transient study of the CIF incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, T.

    2000-01-03

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) treats solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The transient responses of the CIF system to a deflagration, caused by an accidental charge of a modest quantity of solvent (e.g. toluene) into the rotary kiln, were a major safety concern. Using a dynamic computer model, a study was conducted to analyze the transient system responses to the rapid temperature and pressure surge in the kiln. The objective of the study was to determined the maximum pressure, temperature, and gas flow rate in each CIF component (rotary kiln, secondary combustion chamber, quencher, scrubber/cyclone, mist eliminator, reheaters, HEPAs, and ID fans). The resulting data provided a basis for the subsequent structural analysis. This paper will describe the CIF deflagration study in some detail, and present the results of the simulation scenarios.

  1. Transient phenomena in rotary-kiln incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Linak, W.P.; Kilgroe, J.D.; McSorley, J.A.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Dunn, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes results of an ongoing experimental investigation at the U.S. EPA into the waste properties and kiln parameters that determine both the instantaneous intensity and the total magnitude of transient puffs leaving the kiln. (NOTE: The batch introduction of waste-filled drums or containers into practical rotary-kiln incinerators can lead to transient overcharging conditions which, for brevity, are here denoted as 'puffs.') The experimental apparatus utilized was a 73-kW laboratory rotary-kiln simulator. Surrogate solid wastes (plastic rods) and surrogate liquid wastes (on corncob sorbent in cardboard containers) were investigated. A statistically designed parametric study was used to determine the extent to which waste and kiln variables (e.g., charge mass, charge surface area, charge composition, kiln temperature, and kiln rotation speed) affected the intensity (hydrocarbon peak height) and magnitude (hydrocarbon peak area) of puffs.

  2. Electric controlled air incinerator for radioactive wastes

    DOEpatents

    Warren, Jeffery H.; Hootman, Harry E.

    1981-01-01

    A two-stage incinerator is provided which includes a primary combustion chamber and an afterburner chamber for off-gases. The latter is formed by a plurality of vertical tubes in combination with associated manifolds which connect the tubes together to form a continuous tortuous path. Electrically-controlled heaters surround the tubes while electrically-controlled plate heaters heat the manifolds. A gravity-type ash removal system is located at the bottom of the first afterburner tube while an air mixer is disposed in that same tube just above the outlet from the primary chamber. A ram injector in combination with rotary magazine feeds waste to a horizontal tube forming the primary combustion chamber.

  3. Reactive Carbon from Life Support Wastes for Incinerator Flue Gas Cleanup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, J. W.; Pisharody, S.; Moran, M. J.; Wignarajah, K.; Shi, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a joint research initiative between NASA Ames Research Center and Lawrence Berkeley National lab. The objective of the research is to produce activated carbon from life support wastes and to use the activated carbon to adsorb and chemically reduce the NO(sub x) and SO(sub 2) contained in incinerator flue gas. Inedible biomass waste from food production is the primary waste considered for conversion to activated carbon. Results to date show adsorption of both NO(sub x) and SO(sub 2) in activated carbon made from biomass. Conversion of adsorbed NO(sub x) to nitrogen has also been observed.

  4. Reactive carbon from life support wastes for incinerator flue gas cleanup-System Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Moran, Mark J.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Xu, X.H.; Shi, Yao; Chang, Shih-Ger

    2002-05-14

    This paper presents the results from a joint research initiative between NASA Ames Research Center and Lawrence Berkeley National lab. The objective of the research is to produce activated carbon from life support wastes and to use the activated carbon to adsorb and chemically reduce the NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} contained in incinerator flue gas. Inedible biomass waste from food production is the primary waste considered for conversion to activated carbon. Results to date show adsorption of both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in activated carbon made from biomass. Conversion of adsorbed NO{sub x} to nitrogen has also been observed.

  5. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations.

  6. Forum Guide to Supporting Data Access for Researchers: A State Education Agency Perspective. NFES 2012-809

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Education Statistics, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This document recommends a set of "core" practices, operations, and templates that can be adopted and adapted by state education agencies (SEAs) as they consider how to respond to requests for data about the education enterprise, including data maintained in longitudinal data systems. These recommendations reflect core practices and principles for…

  7. The First Phase of the English Regional Development Agencies' Skills Work: A Report on a Small-Scale Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drodge, Stephen

    A study of three Regional Development Agencies (RDAs) traced development of the skills element of their RES [Regional Economic Strategy] and their progress toward an action plan for skills to implement their strategic objectives. The process involved creating a forum on skills; producing a consultation draft skills strategy; and producing a final…

  8. Forum Guide to Supporting Data Access for Researchers: A Local Education Agency Perspective. NFES 2014-801

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Education Statistics, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document recommends a set of core practices, operations, and templates that can be adopted and adapted by local education agencies (LEAs) as they consider how to respond to requests for both new and existing data about the education enterprise. These recommendations reflect core best practices for: (1) managing the flow of requests; (2)…

  9. 33 CFR 159.131 - Safety: Incinerating device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... temperature on surfaces adjacent to the incineration chamber higher than 67 °C nor produce a temperature on surfaces in normal body contact higher than 41 °C when operating in an ambient temperature of 25...

  10. 33 CFR 159.131 - Safety: Incinerating device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... temperature on surfaces adjacent to the incineration chamber higher than 67 °C nor produce a temperature on surfaces in normal body contact higher than 41 °C when operating in an ambient temperature of 25...

  11. 33 CFR 159.131 - Safety: Incinerating device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... temperature on surfaces adjacent to the incineration chamber higher than 67 °C nor produce a temperature on surfaces in normal body contact higher than 41 °C when operating in an ambient temperature of 25...

  12. 33 CFR 159.131 - Safety: Incinerating device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... temperature on surfaces adjacent to the incineration chamber higher than 67 °C nor produce a temperature on surfaces in normal body contact higher than 41 °C when operating in an ambient temperature of 25...

  13. AUTOMATION OF SLUDGE PROCESSING: CONDITIONING, DEWATERING, AND INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study developed and tested automated control strategies for municipal wastewater sludge processing. The strategies consisted of chemical conditioning vacuum filtration and incineration. The project was conducted at the St. Paul, Minnesota Metropolitan Waste Control Commission...

  14. CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE MONITORING TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study to determine the feasibility of utilizing realtime continuous exhaust measurements of combustion intermediates as a way to monitor incinerator performance. The key issue was to determine if a direct correlation exists between destruction efficiency (D...

  15. POTENTIAL EMISSIONS OF HAZARDOUS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory thermal decomposition studies were undertaken to evaluate potential organic emissions from sewage sludge incinerators. Precisely controlled thermal decomposition experiments were conducted on sludge spiked with mixtures of hazardous organic compounds, on the mixtures o...

  16. Diesel engine exhaust trap particulate distribution and incineration balancing system

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, G. S.; Parker, W. J.; Tendulkar, D. V.

    1981-09-22

    A diesel particulate trapping and incineration system is disclosed that includes a porous wall monolithic ceramic filter element having dual openended inlet passages separated from adjacent exhaust passages by particulate filtering porous walls. A balancing system for the distribution and incineration of particulates is provided including dual inlet ducts feeding exhaust gases to both ends of the inlet passages and valve means for controlling the amount of inlet gas flow entering the open opposite ends of the inlet ducts. In this way control is obtained of distribution of particulates over the length of the inlet duct walls as well as of the incineration of particulates upon heating of the exhaust gases to incineration temperature.

  17. Commercial cyclone incinerator demonstration program: October 1979-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, B.M.

    1980-05-21

    The commercial cyclone incinerator program was designed to study the effects of burning low-level waste contaminated with beta and gamma emitters in a cyclone system. The ultimate program goal is the demonstration of a cyclone incinerator at a nuclear power plant. During the past six months, progress was made toward achieving the second program objective, Complete Incinerator Feasibility Plan. Forty-one laboratory-scale experiments were completed, with five more experiments remaining to be performed. Sample analysis from completed experiments continues. A promising scrub liquor was identified and is now being used for improved absorption of iodide and chloride from incinerator offgas. Inconel 601 continues to perform well as the material of construction for the laboratory-scale burn chamber. 7 figures, 7 tables.

  18. Commercial cyclone incinerator demonstration program: October 1979-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, B.M.

    1980-05-21

    The commercial cyclone incinerator program was designed to study the effects of burning low-level waste contaminated with beta and gamma emitters in a cyclone system. The ultimate program goal is the demonstration of a cyclone incinerator at a nuclear power plant. During the past six months, progress was made toward achieving the second program objective, Complete Incinerator Feasibility Plan. Forty-one laboratory-scale experiments were completed, with five more experiments remaining to be performed. Sample analysis from completed experiments continues. A promising scrub liquor was identified and is now being used for improved absorption of iodide and chloride from incinerator offgas. Inconel 601 continues to perform well as the material of construction for the laboratory-scale burn chamber.

  19. 6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ANGLE VIEW OF ABANDONED INCINERATOR, INTERIOR OF BUILDING, 499 FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Fleet Accounting & Dispersing Center, 178 Main Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CFCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed concentrations. (NOTE: As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international...