Science.gov

Sample records for agency international trade

  1. 75 FR 1029 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... International Trade Administration AGENCY: Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Statement Medical..., International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service is organizing a Medical Trade Mission to... from international accreditation organizations such as the Joint Commission International...

  2. International Trade and Protectionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  3. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders; Policy Bulletin, 63 FR 18871 (April 16, 1998). The Notice of... International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  4. The International Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, K.; Mukherjee, G.; Manna, S. S.

    Bilateral trade relationships in the international level between pairs of countries in the world give rise to the notion of the International Trade Network (ITN). This network has attracted the attention of network researchers as it serves as an excellent example of the weighted networks, the link weight being defined as a measure of the volume of trade between two countries. In this paper we analyzed the international trade data for 53 years and studied in detail the variations of different network related quantities associated with the ITN. Our observation is that the ITN has also a scale invariant structure like many other real-world networks.

  5. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercom, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focusing mainly on United States-Japan relations, this issue provides 11 lesson plans and student handouts dealing with international trade topics such as protective tariffs, currency exchange rates, unofficial trade barriers, causes of unemployment, the balance of payments and the internationalization of the automobile industry. (JDH)

  6. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  7. Fair trade international surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Humbyrd, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers. PMID:19508290

  8. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  9. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups. PMID:11193639

  10. International nuclear trade and nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, W.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this book, the culmination of one phase of an ongoing international research project on nuclear suppliers and nonproliferation, is to explore the international political and economic dimensions of nuclear trade, especially as they pertain to the behavior of eleven emerging nuclear-supplier states. More specifically, the book sets forth a conceptual framework for analyzing international nuclear trade; details the domestic and external factors that shape the nuclear export policies of Argentina, Brazil, India, Israel, Japan, Pakistan, the People's Republic of China, South Korea, South Africa, Spain and Taiwan; and identifies and assesses alternative strategies for containing the new proliferation risks posed by these emerging suppliers. The book also describes an innovative effort to utilize a computer-based system for tracking international nuclear trade.

  11. Geologic report and recommendations for the cobalt mission to Morocco sponsored by The Trade and Development Program of the International Development Cooperation Agency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; Rossman, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    A mission sponsored by the Trade and Development Program (TDP) of the International Development Cooperation Agency (IDCA) went to Morocco to evaluate the possibility of finding additional sources of cobalt in that country, as well as other types of mineralization. Information obtained during this trip shows Morocco to be a country for which much geologic information is available and in which there are many favorable target areas for future exploration. Work in the Bou Azzer district (Morocco's principal cobalt district) shows that much excellent geologic work has been done in searching for additional deposits. However, a number of useful approaches to locate cobalt have not been tried, and their use might be successful. The potential for undiscovered deposits in the Bou Azzer region seems very high. The cobalt mineralization in the Siroua uplift is different from that in the Bou Azzer district. However, geologic similarities between the two areas suggest that a genetic link may exist between the two types of mineralization. This further indicates that cobalt deposits of the Bou Azzer types might be present in the Siroua region. Examination of the Bleida copper mine shows it to be a well-exposed volcanic hosted stratabound copper deposit. Large unexplored areas containing similar rocks occur near this deposit and may contain as yet undiscovered copper mineralization.

  12. 75 FR 54352 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements... other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning: Free Trade... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Free...

  13. 78 FR 23280 - Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ...-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department... collection requirement concerning the United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA). This... Rulings, Office of International Trade, 90 K Street NE., 10th Floor, Washington, DC 20229- 1177, at...

  14. 78 FR 15351 - International Trade Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Civil Nuclear Trade Policy Mission to Hanoi, Vietnam & Beijing and... organizing an executive-led Civil Nuclear Trade Policy Mission to Hanoi, Vietnam and to Beijing and Sanmen... Civil Nuclear Trade Policy Mission offers a timely and cost- effective means for U.S. firms to...

  15. 75 FR 68808 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Free Trade Agreements. This is a proposed...: Free Trade Agreements. OMB Number: 1651-0117. Form Number: None. Abstract: Free trade agreements...

  16. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  17. Teaching International Economics and Trade--Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; DeBoer, Dale; Pettit, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to introduce students to real-life issues in international economics. The sections of the book are: (1) The Advantages of Trade; (2) Judging NAFTA; (3) Does Globalization Benefit Poor Countries?; (4) Pocket Guide to International Financial Institutions; (5) What Do You Know about the WTO?; (6) Free Trade and Shifting…

  18. Prospects of international trade in irradiated foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    Irradiation is gaining recognition as a physical process for reducing food losses, enhancing hygienic quality of food and facilitating food trade. At present, 36 countries have approved the use of irradiation for processing collectively over 40 food items either on an unconditional or restricted basis. Commercial use of irradiated foods and food ingredients is being carried out in 22 countries. Technology transfer on food irradiation is being intensified to local industry in different regions. worldwide, a total of 40 commercial/demonstration irradiators available for treating foods have been or are being constructed. Acceptance and control of international trade in irradiated foods were discussed at the International Conference on the Acceptance, Control of and Trade in Irradiated Food, jointly convened by FAO, IAEA, WHO and ITC-UNCTAD/GATT in Geneva, Switzerland, 12-16 December 1988. An "International Document on Food Irradiation" was adopted by consensus at this Conference which will facilitate wider acceptance and control of international trade in irradiated foods.

  19. Statistical mechanics of the international trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Analyzing real data on international trade covering the time interval 1950-2000, we show that in each year over the analyzed period the network is a typical representative of the ensemble of maximally random weighted networks, whose directed connections (bilateral trade volumes) are only characterized by the product of the trading countries' GDPs. It means that time evolution of this network may be considered as a continuous sequence of equilibrium states, i.e., a quasistatic process. This, in turn, allows one to apply the linear response theory to make (and also verify) simple predictions about the network. In particular, we show that bilateral trade fulfills a fluctuation-response theorem, which states that the average relative change in imports (exports) between two countries is a sum of the relative changes in their GDPs. Yearly changes in trade volumes prove that the theorem is valid.

  20. Statistical mechanics of the international trade network.

    PubMed

    Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2012-05-01

    Analyzing real data on international trade covering the time interval 1950-2000, we show that in each year over the analyzed period the network is a typical representative of the ensemble of maximally random weighted networks, whose directed connections (bilateral trade volumes) are only characterized by the product of the trading countries' GDPs. It means that time evolution of this network may be considered as a continuous sequence of equilibrium states, i.e., a quasistatic process. This, in turn, allows one to apply the linear response theory to make (and also verify) simple predictions about the network. In particular, we show that bilateral trade fulfills a fluctuation-response theorem, which states that the average relative change in imports (exports) between two countries is a sum of the relative changes in their GDPs. Yearly changes in trade volumes prove that the theorem is valid. PMID:23004827

  1. International standards in mitigating trade risks.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), as a science-based and democratic standard-setting organisation that provides guidance on preventing the spread of animal diseases, including zoonoses, in international trade. The World Trade Organization is identified as the international institution with the legal power to encourage adherence to international standards and mediate trade disputes. The importance of assuring good governance and the credibility of national Veterinary Services through a process of official certification is identified as an essential component in the safety of trade. Private-public partnerships and the evolution of responsibilities are also identified as essential for the implementation of health guarantees such as compartmentalisation. The rapid emergence of private standards is described as a potential complement to the implementation of sanitary standards, as long as they are applied globally and in support of the OIE standards. Ultimately, the biggest challenge is for the international community to create the incentives and generate the political will for fair trade and for the universal recognition and application of the established international sanitary standards. PMID:21809769

  2. 28 CFR 0.48 - International trade litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false International trade litigation. 0.48... Division § 0.48 International trade litigation. The Attorney-in-Charge, International Trade Field Office... and all other papers filed in the Court of International Trade, when the United States is an...

  3. 28 CFR 0.48 - International trade litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International trade litigation. 0.48... Division § 0.48 International trade litigation. The Attorney-in-Charge, International Trade Field Office... and all other papers filed in the Court of International Trade, when the United States is an...

  4. 28 CFR 0.48 - International trade litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International trade litigation. 0.48... Division § 0.48 International trade litigation. The Attorney-in-Charge, International Trade Field Office... and all other papers filed in the Court of International Trade, when the United States is an...

  5. 28 CFR 0.48 - International trade litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false International trade litigation. 0.48... Division § 0.48 International trade litigation. The Attorney-in-Charge, International Trade Field Office... and all other papers filed in the Court of International Trade, when the United States is an...

  6. 28 CFR 0.48 - International trade litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false International trade litigation. 0.48... Division § 0.48 International trade litigation. The Attorney-in-Charge, International Trade Field Office... and all other papers filed in the Court of International Trade, when the United States is an...

  7. 77 FR 64462 - Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries AGENCY: Manufacturing... December 4, 2012 the Office of Transportation and Machinery will hold a one-day conference on bi-lateral and multi-lateral international trade issues impacting the U.S. machinery manufacturing...

  8. International trade: Know your buyer

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, L.M. )

    1994-04-01

    One of the most difficult problems U.S companies encounter when they seek to participate in the international independent power market is selling power to foreign utilities. In developing and financing independent power projects in the United States, the power purchaser's creditworthiness is rarely an issue, since U.S. purchasers traditionally have been seen as strong credit risks. Some foreign utilities are also strong enough to support project financings. However, other foreign utilities are far weaker credit risks, with the source of their weakness varying from country to country. Typically, utilities that have recently defaulted on their own international debt obligations are particularly difficult from a credit perspective.

  9. [Globalization, international trade, and health equity].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cesar

    2002-01-01

    Globalization and international trade are having an increasingly evident impact on the day-to-day duties of the health sector, and the phenomenon has aroused a great deal of interest among governments, nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, and the mass media. Up to this point the heated and polemical debate on the subject has seriously hindered objective discourse on the health implications of globalization and international trade. This piece examines the possible impact of the two processes on health in the Region of the Americas, in order to foster policies for equity that are adopted within the framework of public health in the Americas. The piece considers the relationships among globalization, trade, and health in general and then focuses on the special case of trade in health goods and services. The piece looks at the possible impact on health equity of the agreements for integration and free trade that are being negotiated in the Americas. The piece concludes with a summary of the activities that the Pan American Health Organization has been carrying out in this area. PMID:12162840

  10. 77 FR 69613 - International Energy Agency Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meeting AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: A meeting involving members of the Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA)...

  11. 78 FR 16665 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on March 25 and 26,...

  12. 77 FR 16826 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy, DoE. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on March 28 and 29,...

  13. 75 FR 67711 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on November 16, 2010,...

  14. 75 FR 34724 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on June 29, 2010, at...

  15. 76 FR 35869 - International Energy Agency meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on June 28, 2011, at...

  16. 75 FR 12532 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on March 23, 2010, at...

  17. 78 FR 36542 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on June 24, 2013, at...

  18. 76 FR 69714 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on November 16-17,...

  19. 77 FR 36271 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on June 26, 2012, at...

  20. 76 FR 14003 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on March 22, 2011, at...

  1. 77 FR 61583 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on October 17 and 18,...

  2. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services. PMID:15346681

  3. 75 FR 6679 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Andean Trade Preferences

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Register (74 FR 65543) on December 10, 2009, allowing for a 60- day comment period. This notice allows for... officers to document preferential tariff treatment under the provisions of the Andean Trade Preferences Act... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Andean...

  4. The Perspectives of the International Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Astrid

    2005-01-01

    An Inter-agency Panel of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) experts, drawn from seven United Nations and other international agencies, was one of the highlights in the programme of UNESCO's International Experts Meeting "Learning for Work, Citizenship and Sustainability" (Bonn, Germany, 25-28 October 2004). The Panel was…

  5. International Trade Seminar (Austin, Texas, December 2, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Selected presentations from a 1988 seminar on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC) are included in this report. Designed to direct west Texas businesses toward diversification and to prepare them for international trade and business opportunities, the seminar featured speakers in the field of international trade, including bank…

  6. The Application of Simulated Experimental Teaching in International Trade Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Wen

    2009-01-01

    International Trade Practice is a professional basic course for specialty of International Economy and Trade. As the core of International Trade Practice, it is extremely related to foreign affairs and needs much practical experience. This paper puts forward some suggestions on how to improve the performance of teaching in order to educate the…

  7. A synthesis of carbon in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, G. P.; Davis, S. J.; Andrew, R. M.

    2012-03-01

    In a globalised world, the transfer of carbon between regions, either physically or embodied in production, represents a substantial fraction of global carbon emissions. The resulting emission transfers are important for balancing regional carbon budgets and for understanding the drivers of regional emissions. In this paper we synthesise current understanding in two parts: (1) embodied CO2 emissions from the production of goods and services produced in one country but consumed in others, (2) physical carbon flows in fossil fuels, petroleum-derived products, harvested wood products, crops, and livestock. We describe the key differences between studies and provide a consistent set of estimates using the same definitions, modelling framework, and consistent data. We find the largest trade flows of carbon in international trade in 2004 were fossil fuels (2673 MtC, 37% of global emissions), CO2 embodied in traded goods and services (1661 MtC, 22% of global emissions), livestock (651 MtC, 20% of total livestock carbon), crops (522 MtC, 31% of total harvested crop carbon), petroleum-based products (183 MtC, 50% of their total production), and harvested wood products (149 MtC, 40% of total roundwood extraction). We find that for embodied CO2 emissions estimates from independent studies are robust. We found that differences between individual studies is not representative of the uncertainty in consumption-based estimates as different studies use different production-based emission estimates as input and different definitions of allocating emissions to international trade. After adjusting for these issues, results across independent studies converge to give less uncertainty than previously assumed. For physical carbon flows there are relatively few studies to be synthesised, but differences between existing studies are due to the method of allocating to international trade with some studies using "apparent consumption" as opposed to "final consumption" in more comprehensive

  8. A synthesis of carbon in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, G. P.; Davis, S. J.; Andrew, R.

    2012-08-01

    In a globalised world, the transfer of carbon between regions, either physically or embodied in production, represents a substantial fraction of global carbon emissions. The resulting emission transfers are important for balancing regional carbon budgets and for understanding the drivers of emissions. In this paper we synthesise current understanding in two parts: (1) CO2 emissions embodied in goods and services that are produced in one country but consumed in others, and (2) carbon physically present in fossil fuels, petroleum-derived products, harvested wood products, crops, and livestock products. We describe the key differences between studies and provide a consistent set of estimates using the same definitions, modelling framework, and consistent data. We find the largest trade flows of carbon in international trade in 2004 were fossil fuels (2673 MtC, 37 % of global emissions), CO2 embodied in traded goods and services (1661 MtC, 22 % of global emissions), crops (522 MtC, 31 % of total harvested crop carbon), petroleum-based products (183 MtC, 50 % of their total production), harvested wood products (149 MtC, 40 % of total roundwood extraction), and livestock products (28 MtC, 22 % of total livestock carbon). We find that for embodied CO2 emissions, estimates from independent studies are robust, and that differences between individual studies are not a reflection of the uncertainty in consumption-based estimates, but rather these differences result from the use of different production-based emissions input data and different definitions for allocating emissions to international trade. After adjusting for these issues, results across independent studies converge to give less uncertainty than previously assumed. For physical carbon flows there are relatively few studies to be synthesised, but differences between existing studies are due to the method of allocating to international trade, with some studies using "apparent consumption" as opposed to "final

  9. The Use of Decompositions in International Trade Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highfill, Jannett K.; Weber, William V.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that international trade, as compared with international finance or even international economics, is primarily an applied microeconomics field. Discusses decomposition analysis in relation to international trade and tariffs. Reports on an evaluation of the treatment of this topic in eight college-level economics textbooks. (CFR)

  10. US agency for international development

    SciTech Connect

    Pumfrey, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

  11. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  12. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  13. International Trade of CITES Listed Bird Species in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  14. On the New International Communication Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Charles W., III

    The International Communication Agency (ICA) was created in April 1978 to help facilitate relations between the United States and other nations. Its main function is to enrich the supplies of information among peoples in order to enhance understanding. An examination of the international context in which the ICA will operate reveals the urgent…

  15. The evolution of communities in the international oil trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weiqiong; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Sun, Xiaoqi

    2014-11-01

    International oil trade is a subset of global trade and there exist oil trade communities. These communities evolve over time and provide clues of international oil trade patterns. A better understanding of the international oil trade patterns is necessary for governments in policy making. To study the evolution of trade communities in the international oil trade network, we set up unweighted and weighted oil trade network models based on complex network theory using data from 2002 to 2011. We detected the communities in the oil trade networks and analyzed their evolutionary properties and stabilities over time. We found that the unweighted and weighted international oil trade networks show many different features in terms of community number, community scale, distribution of countries, quality of partitions, and stability of communities. Two turning points occurred in the evolution of community stability in the international oil trade network. One is the year 2004-2005 which correlates with changes in demand and supply in the world oil market after the Iraq War, and the other is the year 2008-2009 which is connected to the 2008 financial crisis. Different causations of instability show different features and this should be considered by policy makers.

  16. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  17. Religion, Education, and Secularism in International Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambach, Amy; Marshall, Katherine; Nelson, Matthew J.; Andreescu, Liviu; Kwayu, Aikande C.; Wexler, Philip; Hotam, Yotam; Fischer, Shlomo; El Bilawi, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    During the interwar years of the early twentieth century, and through at least the 1980s, education was seen by scholars, state leaders, and international agency representatives alike as a way to modernize and secularize underdeveloped communities. Arguments about the modernizing power of education did not erase or discount the presence of…

  18. 76 FR 66912 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: This... (OEEI), International Trade Administration, Room 4053, 1401 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington,...

  19. Networks of military alliances, wars, and international trade.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Matthew O; Nei, Stephen

    2015-12-15

    We investigate the role of networks of alliances in preventing (multilateral) interstate wars. We first show that, in the absence of international trade, no network of alliances is peaceful and stable. We then show that international trade induces peaceful and stable networks: Trade increases the density of alliances so that countries are less vulnerable to attack and also reduces countries' incentives to attack an ally. We present historical data on wars and trade showing that the dramatic drop in interstate wars since 1950 is paralleled by a densification and stabilization of trading relationships and alliances. Based on the model we also examine some specific relationships, finding that countries with high levels of trade with their allies are less likely to be involved in wars with any other countries (including allies and nonallies), and that an increase in trade between two countries correlates with a lower chance that they will go to war with each other. PMID:26668370

  20. Networks of military alliances, wars, and international trade

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Matthew O.; Nei, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of networks of alliances in preventing (multilateral) interstate wars. We first show that, in the absence of international trade, no network of alliances is peaceful and stable. We then show that international trade induces peaceful and stable networks: Trade increases the density of alliances so that countries are less vulnerable to attack and also reduces countries’ incentives to attack an ally. We present historical data on wars and trade showing that the dramatic drop in interstate wars since 1950 is paralleled by a densification and stabilization of trading relationships and alliances. Based on the model we also examine some specific relationships, finding that countries with high levels of trade with their allies are less likely to be involved in wars with any other countries (including allies and nonallies), and that an increase in trade between two countries correlates with a lower chance that they will go to war with each other. PMID:26668370

  1. International trade, animal health and veterinary epidemiology: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, C; Salman, M; Ruppanner, R

    2001-03-29

    The link between international trade, animal health and epidemiology has been recognized for a long time and has taken an additional importance in the aftermath of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and of the inception of the World Trade Organization. The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization demands that sanitary and phytosanitary measures be scientifically based, placing epidemiology at the center of decisions related animal health and trade. This paper analyses the interactions between international trade of animals (and animal products) and epidemiology with discussion on the inputs of epidemiology in surveillance, risk analysis and regionalization. PMID:11259819

  2. The role of science in international trade law.

    PubMed

    Lugard, Maurits; Smart, Michael

    2006-02-01

    While the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade addressed overt barriers to international trade, the current focus of international trade rules has shifted to less obvious, but in many cases no less restrictive, barriers to trade, such as protectionist measures adopted under the guise of health and safety standards. The new agreements established under the World Trade Organization ("WTO"), including the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ("SPS Agreement"), the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade ("TBT Agreement"), provide important tools that can be invoked by governments and used by stakeholders to address regulatory barriers that were once thought outside the purview of international trade rules. Non-science based regulations can be and have been successfully challenged under the SPS and TBT Agreements, which prohibit WTO Members from maintaining laws or regulations that adversely affect trade unless such measures are scientifically justified. Stakeholders should use to the fullest extent possible international trade rules to eliminate non-science based regulations that adversely affect trade in the goods that they produce. PMID:16213075

  3. International Trade in a Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the world market and trade deficits and surpluses are used to examine global economics. The GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) is discussed and presented with the various perspectives on the agreement. A forecast for economics of the '90s and a quiz are included. (EH)

  4. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  5. Complex Networks and Minimal Spanning Trees in International Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeng, Seong Eun; Choi, Hyung Wooc; Lee, Jae Woo

    The wealth of a nation is changed by the internal economic growth of a nation and by the international trade among countries. Trade between countries are one of their most important interactions and thus expects to affect crucially the wealth distribution over countries. We reviewed the network properties of the international trade networks (ITN). We analyzed data sets of world trade. The data set include a total number of 190 countries from 1950 to 2000. We observed that the world trade network showed the uneven trading relationships which are measured by the disparity. The effective disparity followed a power law, < D(k) > tδ, for the import and export network. We also construct the minimal spanning tree(MST) of international trade network, where each node is a country and directed links connecting them represent money flow from a source node to a target one. The topology of the MST shows the flow patterns of the international trades. From the MST we can identify the sub-economic zone if we delete the hub node. We observed that the cumulative degree distribution functions follow the power law, P>(k) k-α, with the average exponent α = 1.1(1)). We also calculated the betweenness centrality(BC) of the MST. The cumulative probability distribution of the betweenness centrality follows the power law, P>(BC) BC-β, with the average exponent β = 1.09(7).

  6. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Book Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the U.S. and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; calendar, 2002-2009; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  7. Turmoil: A Simulation Game Dealing With International Oil Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Robert

    1976-01-01

    This simulation game is intended to help secondary students understand the complexities of the international oil trade. Students represent nations involved in trading oil and other commodities. The game takes about five classroom periods to teach. The article includes all essential materials. (Author/RM)

  8. 78 FR 66899 - International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...''). These Rules were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 1994 (59 FR 8686). The panel review... International Trade Administration, North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel... duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which...

  9. 75 FR 6678 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs and Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs and Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning the Customs and Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). This request for...

  10. 78 FR 30934 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs And Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT). This request for comment...

  11. 77 FR 34037 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Trade Secret...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Trade Secret... Secret Claims for Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Information. ICR number: EPA ICR No.... Frequency of response: Trade secret claims are submitted by facilities either annually with...

  12. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, E; Brenner, J; Houston, T

    2005-01-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritise the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health. PMID:16046697

  13. Inter-Industry Trade and Intra-Industry Trade: Some Recent Developments in International Trade Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenaway, David

    1978-01-01

    Contends that the analysis of intra-industry trade supplements the subject of trade theory in undergraduate economics courses. Intra-industry trade is the situation in which a country both exports and imports the products of a particular industry, e.g. automobiles. Questions for discussion are included. (KC)

  14. Confluence of climate change policies and international trade

    SciTech Connect

    Vickery, R.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes market information on energy conservation and renewable energy industries in the U.S., and highlights activities of the International Trade Administration. International treaties agreements on environmental issues are examined with respect to their influence on U.S. trade promotion and job creation. A sectoral analysis of the economic impact of greenhouse gas emissions reductions on industries is very briefly summarized. Finally, the need for a climate change treaty in spite of possible adverse impacts is discussed. 1 tab.

  15. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  16. International Trade: Tennessee's Window on the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Miriam; And Others

    The activities and discussion questions in this unit can be used in secondary social studies classes to teach students about world trade and its role in their personal lives. Although designed for Tennessee classrooms, the unit can be easily adapted for use elsewhere. Many of the activities are self-contained. However, some require the use of…

  17. Effect of market structure on international coal trade

    SciTech Connect

    Kolstad, C.D.; Abbey, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the determinants of international steam-coal trade. Most work in projecting coal trade has been either qualitative (a consensus of experts) or, if quantitative, has been based on competitive spatial-equilibrium models. Unfortunately, the competitive model of trade does not appear to account for observed and anticipated trade flows. This is consistent with findings in the commodity trade literature that, although markets may behave in a rational economic fashion, market concentration among producers, traders, and consumers leads to trade patterns significantly different than those associated with competitive markets. The purpose of this paper is to explore the significance and effect on patterns of steam-coal trade of several deviations from the simple competitive model. In addition to perfect competition, we examine monopoly (South Africa) and duopoly (South Africa, Australia) with a competitive fringe (US, Canada, Poland, China and Columbia). Using a simple equilibrium model of coal trade, we examine these market structures and evaluate the extent to which they can explain existing and anticipated trade patterns.

  18. International Trade and Global Economic Growth: The Critical Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    In this address, the president of the World Bank and the International Finance Corporation indicates that all countries, industrial and developing, have a stake in an open international trading system. The experience of the World Bank in working closely with its developing member countries has demonstrated that healthy and sustained economic…

  19. Information Asymmetries as Trade Barriers: ISO 9000 Increases International Commerce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoski, Matthew; Prakash, Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Spatial, cultural, and linguistic barriers create information asymmetries between buyers and sellers that impede international trade. The International Organization for Standardization's ISO 9000 program is designed to reduce these information asymmetries by providing assurance about the product quality of firms that receive its certification.…

  20. International Trade in Educational Services: Good or Bad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Kurt; Vincent-Lancrin, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the challenges and opportunities that international trade in educational services represents for higher education systems in industrialized and developing countries and shows the importance of international quality assurance in education. Makes the case that the lifelong learning sector is most likely to be affected by developments…

  1. 78 FR 57408 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2013 East Coast Trade Symposium: “Increasing Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... Symposium: ``Increasing Economic Competitiveness Through Global Partnership and Innovation'' AGENCY: U.S... trade community and other government agencies, on the agency's role in international trade initiatives... international trade and transportation communities and other interested parties are encouraged to attend....

  2. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.73 How can I trade internationally... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in...

  3. The Effects of International Trade on Water Use.

    PubMed

    Kagohashi, Kazuki; Tsurumi, Tetsuya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The growing scarcity of water resources worldwide is conditioned not only by precipitation changes but also by changes to water use patterns; the latter is driven by social contexts such as capital intensity, trade openness, and income. This study explores the determinants of water use by focusing on the effect of trade openness on the degree to which water is withdrawn and consumed. Previous studies have conducted analyses on the determinants of water use but have ignored the endogeneity of trade openness. To deal with this endogeneity problem, we adopt instrumental variable estimation and clarify the determinants of water use. The determinants of water use are divided into scale, technique, and composition effects. Calculating each trade-induced effect, we examine how trade openness affects the degree of water use. Our results show that while trade has a positive effect on water withdrawal/consumption through trade-induced scale effects and direct composition effects, the trade-induced technique and the indirect composition effect, both of which exhibit a negative sign, counteract the scale effect and the direct composition effect, resulting in reduced water withdrawal/consumption. The overall effect induced by trade is calculated as being in the range of -1.00 to -1.52; this means that the overall effect of a 1% increase in the intensity of trade openness reduces the degree of water withdrawal/consumption by roughly 1.0-1.5%, on average. This result indicates that international bilateral trade would promote efficient water use through the diffusion of water-saving technologies and the reformation of industry composition. PMID:26168045

  4. The Effects of International Trade on Water Use

    PubMed Central

    Kagohashi, Kazuki; Tsurumi, Tetsuya; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The growing scarcity of water resources worldwide is conditioned not only by precipitation changes but also by changes to water use patterns; the latter is driven by social contexts such as capital intensity, trade openness, and income. This study explores the determinants of water use by focusing on the effect of trade openness on the degree to which water is withdrawn and consumed. Previous studies have conducted analyses on the determinants of water use but have ignored the endogeneity of trade openness. To deal with this endogeneity problem, we adopt instrumental variable estimation and clarify the determinants of water use. The determinants of water use are divided into scale, technique, and composition effects. Calculating each trade-induced effect, we examine how trade openness affects the degree of water use. Our results show that while trade has a positive effect on water withdrawal/consumption through trade-induced scale effects and direct composition effects, the trade-induced technique and the indirect composition effect, both of which exhibit a negative sign, counteract the scale effect and the direct composition effect, resulting in reduced water withdrawal/consumption. The overall effect induced by trade is calculated as being in the range of –1.00 to –1.52; this means that the overall effect of a 1% increase in the intensity of trade openness reduces the degree of water withdrawal/consumption by roughly 1.0–1.5%, on average. This result indicates that international bilateral trade would promote efficient water use through the diffusion of water-saving technologies and the reformation of industry composition. PMID:26168045

  5. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y.; Ni, R.; Lin, J.; Pan, D.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now one of the most polluted regions worldwide. Much attention has been paid to the global impacts of Chinese pollution via atmospheric transport processes. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. International trade allows for separation of regions producing and consuming the products, altering the spatial distribution of associated emissions and leading to substantial changes in regional air pollution and global transport. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Our previous work has shown considerable variability in the contributions of export-related emissions to Chinese total emissions from 2000 to 2009. Here, we attempt to assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and global impacts, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model. Given the distinctive contributions of different economic sectors to pollutant emissions, we also attempt to investigate the sectoral contributions to pollution loadings and transport. Our study will help understand the role of international trade in the trends and variability of Chinese pollution.

  6. 77 FR 58356 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: This... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International...

  7. A Study and Simulation of International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilke, Eileen Veronica; Skrentny, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Illustrates a fifth grade teaching unit on international economics. Gives suggestions for use at the lower elementary and primary grades and points out that incorporation of economics into the elementary education curriculum can produce economically literate citizens in a cost-effective way. (GG)

  8. Survey of International Trade/Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucier, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews 14 international economics textbooks to help instructors with selection. Includes organization and structure, topics covered, and characteristics of the texts. Suggests considerations such as course length, level of abstraction desired, opinion of numerically based graphical analysis, extensiveness of examples and applications, and whether…

  9. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade.

    PubMed

    Ababouch, Lahsen

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US 58.2 billion dollars in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US 17.4 billion dollars in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building. PMID:17052733

  10. 50 CFR 23.72 - How can I trade internationally in plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in plants... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.72 How can I trade...

  11. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in timber... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.73 How can I trade...

  12. NAFTA literature at the International Trade Commission library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Root, Elizabeth A.

    1994-01-01

    Most of the US official materials regarding NAFTA originate in the Executive Office of the President, especially the Office of the United States Trade Representative. These materials can be purchased from the U.S.G.P.O. There were also numerous Congressional hearings; many of which are probably now out of print, government agencies and the public are welcome to make copies of the ones in the collections of the ITC libraries. One of the most important sources of materials available in electronic format is the National Trade Data Base, produced by the Department of Commerce. This is a collection of at least 120 separate files containing documents relating to trade. It includes several files specifically on NAFTA, including the text of the treaty. It is available as two CD-ROM's, issued monthly, or on Internet.

  13. The Language & International Trade Program at Clemson University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Jose I.

    Clemson University (South Carolina) has developed an undergraduate Language and International Trade program designed to train students to meet the needs of American firms doing business overseas. Program aims are that graduates know one foreign language, be attuned to cultural differences, have a business training foundation, and have experience…

  14. On Quality Education Reform in International Trade Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Jing; Xiao, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing problems of quality education of specialization of international trade in current colleges and universities of China, and then propose several pieces of corresponding suggestion on educational reform. According to the characteristics of college and university education, we shall emphasize on the…

  15. International Trade. U.S. Metric Study Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gerald F.

    In order to evaluate the potential effects of U.S. conversion to SI (Systems International) units on U.S. foreign trade, 188 export product classes and 155 import product classes were selected from 1,166 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) product classes and questionnaires were mailed to a total of 510 firms, utilizing separate forms for…

  16. Trading in Education: The "Agreement on Internal Trade," Labour Mobility and Teacher Certification in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley, Dick; Young, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Canada's provincial and territorial governments are committed to implement the Labour Mobility chapter of the "Agreement on Internal Trade" (AIT) in 2009. This article examines the implications of this agreement for teacher certification and teacher education programs. It argues that the full impact of AIT will not be immediately apparent, but…

  17. 78 FR 44961 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Register (78 FR 30934) on May 23, 2013, allowing for a 60-day comment period. This notice allows for an... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of...

  18. 78 FR 15031 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Andean Trade Preferences Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Andean Trade Preferences Act AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60... Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13; 44 U.S.C. 3505(c)(2)). DATES: Written comments should be received...

  19. 75 FR 32959 - Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (75 FR 15446) on March 29, 2010... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of...

  20. 75 FR 1590 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Environmental Technologies Trade... technologies trade liberalization, industry competitiveness issues, and general Committee administrative...

  1. 75 FR 70215 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC), Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    .... The ETTAC shall advise on matters including: Trade policy development and negotiations relating to U.S... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC), Request for Nominations AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice of solicitation of nominations...

  2. 76 FR 36080 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign-Trade Zone Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... can involve issues related to domestic industry and trade policy impact. Such applications must... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign-Trade Zone Application AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department...

  3. 77 FR 50987 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee, Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...: Advisory Committee. The ETTAC shall advise on matters including: trade policy development and negotiations... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee, Request for Nominations AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Solicitation of...

  4. 78 FR 57838 - North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice... to the Decision and Order of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Binational Panel...

  5. International trade network: fractal properties and globalization puzzle.

    PubMed

    Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata

    2014-12-12

    Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, the box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade. PMID:25541810

  6. International Trade Network: Fractal Properties and Globalization Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata

    2014-12-01

    Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, the box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade.

  7. United States Agency for International Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... Economic Growth and Trade Education Ending Extreme Poverty Environment and Global Climate Change Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment Global Health Water and Sanitation Working in Crises and Conflict U.S. Global Development Lab Where We Work back Where We Work ...

  8. International Agencies as Social Work Settings: Opportunity, Capability, and Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Lynne M.

    1987-01-01

    Explores questions about the practice roles of social work profession in international relief and development agencies. Reviews findings of a survey of international agencies on practices which found that planning and management skills, previous overseas experience, and personal characteristics were among most important hiring credentials.…

  9. International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, M; Moran, D; Kanemoto, K; Foran, B; Lobefaro, L; Geschke, A

    2012-06-01

    Human activities are causing Earth's sixth major extinction event-an accelerating decline of the world's stocks of biological diversity at rates 100 to 1,000 times pre-human levels. Historically, low-impact intrusion into species habitats arose from local demands for food, fuel and living space. However, in today's increasingly globalized economy, international trade chains accelerate habitat degradation far removed from the place of consumption. Although adverse effects of economic prosperity and economic inequality have been confirmed, the importance of international trade as a driver of threats to species is poorly understood. Here we show that a significant number of species are threatened as a result of international trade along complex routes, and that, in particular, consumers in developed countries cause threats to species through their demand of commodities that are ultimately produced in developing countries. We linked 25,000 Animalia species threat records from the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List to more than 15,000 commodities produced in 187 countries and evaluated more than 5 billion supply chains in terms of their biodiversity impacts. Excluding invasive species, we found that 30% of global species threats are due to international trade. In many developed countries, the consumption of imported coffee, tea, sugar, textiles, fish and other manufactured items causes a biodiversity footprint that is larger abroad than at home. Our results emphasize the importance of examining biodiversity loss as a global systemic phenomenon, instead of looking at the degrading or polluting producers in isolation. We anticipate that our findings will facilitate better regulation, sustainable supply-chain certification and consumer product labelling. PMID:22678290

  10. EFFECTIVE COLLECTION AGENCY USE: THE IMPORTANCE OF INTERNAL POLICIES.

    PubMed

    Scroggins, Robert C

    2014-11-25

    Increasing patient accountability for the cost of healthcare means physician practices likely will need to improve their internal collection processes and consider contracting with an outside collection agency. But choosing a good collection agency is the second priority. The first is establishing well-thought-out and specific internal procedures for collecting as much as possible before turning to an outside collection agency. PMID:26242061

  11. The International Trade Network: weighted network analysis and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, K.; Mukherjee, G.; Saramäki, J.; Kaski, K.; Manna, S. S.

    2008-02-01

    Tools of the theory of critical phenomena, namely the scaling analysis and universality, are argued to be applicable to large complex web-like network structures. Using a detailed analysis of the real data of the International Trade Network we argue that the scaled link weight distribution has an approximate log-normal distribution which remains robust over a period of 53 years. Another universal feature is observed in the power-law growth of the trade strength with gross domestic product, the exponent being similar for all countries. Using the 'rich-club' coefficient measure of the weighted networks it has been shown that the size of the rich-club controlling half of the world's trade is actually shrinking. While the gravity law is known to describe well the social interactions in the static networks of population migration, international trade, etc, here for the first time we studied a non-conservative dynamical model based on the gravity law which excellently reproduced many empirical features of the ITN.

  12. 77 FR 71012 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Parties at the meetings. On November 9, 2012, we published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 67390... Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Sixteenth Regular Meeting; Public Meeting AGENCY: Fish..., as a Party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and...

  13. 76 FR 26247 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International...

  14. 78 FR 21911 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International...

  15. 78 FR 57620 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... FR 22237, April 15, 2013, regarding the education industry trade mission to Manila, Philippines and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International...

  16. China's international trade and air pollution: 2000 - 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Wang, Jingxu; Yan, Yingying; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    As the world's top trading country, China is now the most polluted country. However, a large portion of pollution produced in China is associated with its production of goods for foreign consumption via international trade. Along with China's rapid economic growth in recent years, its economic-trade structure and volume has been changing all the time, resulting in large changes in total emissions and the shares of trade-related emissions. Here, we assess the influence of China's changing total and export-related emissions between 2000 and 2009 on its atmospheric pollution loadings and transport, by exploiting simulations of a global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. We find that both air pollution related to Chinese exports (PRE) which including nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA), and its share in total Chinese pollution have experienced continuous rapid growth until 2007, exposing more and more people to severely polluted air. After 2007, PRE decreases due to strengthened emission controls accompanied by declined exports as a result of the global financial crisis. Although production for exports contribute less than 35% SO2 over China in any year, the increasing trend of trade-related SO2 contributes 51% of integral trend. The changing PRE of China also affects its downwind regions such as the western United States. The contribution of export-related Chinese pollution to surface sulfate concentrations over the western United States has increased from 3% in 2000 to 12% in 2007. Overall, we find that the interannual variation of trade and associated production is a critical factor driving the trend of pollution over China and its downwind regions.

  17. 19 CFR 176.11 - Transmission of records to Court of International Trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEEDINGS IN THE COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE Transmission of Records § 176.11 Transmission of records to Court of International Trade. Upon receipt of service of a summons in an action initiated in the Court of International Trade the following items...

  18. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.71 How can I... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I trade internationally...

  19. 50 CFR 23.20 - What CITES documents are required for international trade?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... international trade? 23.20 Section 23.20 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... CITES documents are required for international trade? (a) Purpose. Articles III, IV, and V of the...

  20. 78 FR 8550 - Relocation of Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... change in office location. SUMMARY: Regulations and Rulings, in the Office of International Trade, of the... correspondence directed to the Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade, including mailed comments... International Trade, (202) 325-0118. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Regulations and Rulings, Office...

  1. 19 CFR 176.11 - Transmission of records to Court of International Trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEEDINGS IN THE COURT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE Transmission of Records § 176.11 Transmission of records to Court of International Trade. Upon receipt of service of a summons in an action initiated in the Court of International Trade the following items...

  2. Multinetwork of international trade: A commodity-specific analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barigozzi, Matteo; Fagiolo, Giorgio; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2010-04-01

    We study the topological properties of the multinetwork of commodity-specific trade relations among world countries over the 1992-2003 period, comparing them with those of the aggregate-trade network, known in the literature as the international-trade network (ITN). We show that link-weight distributions of commodity-specific networks are extremely heterogeneous and (quasi) log normality of aggregate link-weight distribution is generated as a sheer outcome of aggregation. Commodity-specific networks also display average connectivity, clustering, and centrality levels very different from their aggregate counterpart. We also find that ITN complete connectivity is mainly achieved through the presence of many weak links that keep commodity-specific networks together and that the correlation structure existing between topological statistics within each single network is fairly robust and mimics that of the aggregate network. Finally, we employ cross-commodity correlations between link weights to build hierarchies of commodities. Our results suggest that on the top of a relatively time-invariant “intrinsic” taxonomy (based on inherent between-commodity similarities), the roles played by different commodities in the ITN have become more and more dissimilar, possibly as the result of an increased trade specialization. Our approach is general and can be used to characterize any multinetwork emerging as a nontrivial aggregation of several interdependent layers.

  3. Combating hidden hunger: the role of international agencies.

    PubMed

    Dalmiya, Nita; Schultink, Werner

    2003-12-01

    The importance of micronutrient deficiencies or "hidden hunger" was clearly emphasized by the inclusion of specific goals on iron, vitamin A, and iodine deficiency at the 1990 World Summit for Children and other major international nutrition conferences. Significant progress has since been made toward eliminating vitamin A and iodine deficiencies, with less progress made toward reducing the burden of iron-deficiency anemia. The role of international agencies, such as the World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, Food and Agricultural Organization, and World Bank in assisting countries to make progress toward the World Summit for Children goals has been very important. International agencies have played a critical role in advocating for and raising awareness of these issues at the international, regional, and national levels among policymakers and the general population. Using a rights-based approach, UNICEF and other agencies have been instrumental in elevating to the highest political level the discussion of every child's right to adequate nutrition. International agencies have also been very supportive at the national level in providing technical guidance for programs, including monitoring and evaluation. These agencies have played a critical role in engaging the cooperation of other partners, including bilateral donors, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector for micronutrient programs. Furthermore, international agencies provide financial and material support for micronutrient programs. In the future, such agencies must continue to be heavily involved in programs to achieve the newly confirmed goals for 2010. The present paper focuses on the role of international agencies in combating micronutrient deficiencies, drawing on the lessons learned over the last decade. The first section of the paper summarizes the progress achieved since 1990, and the second section describes the specific role of international agencies in contributing

  4. Vocational Instructional Materials for Trade and Industrial Occupations Available from Federal Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This annotated bibliography lists curriculum materials for trade and industrial education which were produced by Federal agencies and are appropriate for 36 subject matter areas, including: (1) air conditioning, (2) appliance repair, (3) automotive services, (4) aviation, (5) blueprint reading, (6) commercial arts, (7) construction and…

  5. 77 FR 47429 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... concerning the Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones. This request for comment is being made... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Petroleum Refineries... CBP is soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title:...

  6. 77 FR 63320 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade Sub-zones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Petroleum Refineries in Foreign Trade... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Petroleum Refineries... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 47429) on August 8, 2012, allowing for...

  7. 76 FR 13204 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Commercial...: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey. ] This request for comment is being made pursuant to the... collected; (d) ways to minimize the burden including the use of automated collection techniques or the...

  8. 76 FR 28801 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR 13204) on March 10, 2011... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Commercial... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Automated Commercial Environment Trade...

  9. On International Trade in Educational Services: An Interpretation of the Regulations and China's WTO Commitments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers educational trade services. Hence, all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services. Having acceded to the WTO, China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by completely…

  10. International trade and waste and fuel managment issue, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2006-01-15

    The focus of the January-February issue is on international trade and waste and fuel managment. Major articles/reports in this issue include: HLW management in France, by Michel Debes, EDF, France; Breakthroughs from future reactors, by Jacques Bouchard, CEA, France; 'MOX for peace' a reality, by Jean-Pierre Bariteau, AREVA Group, France; Swedish spent fuel and radwaste, by Per H. Grahn and Marie Skogsberg, SKB, Sweden; ENC2005 concluding remarks, by Larry Foulke, 'Nuclear Technology Matters'; Fuel crud formation and behavior, by Charles Turk, Entergy; and, Plant profile: major vote of confidence for NP, by Martti Katka, TVO, Finland.

  11. 76 FR 58774 - Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-- Asia AGENCY... Winds--Asia business forum (which is also open to U.S. companies not participating in the trade mission) in Singapore next May. U.S. trade mission members will participate in the Trade Winds-- Asia...

  12. The International Atomic Energy Agency and world nuclear order

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinman, L.

    1987-01-01

    In this book, the author assesses the structure and functions of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), identifies key issues confronting the agency today, and offers recommendations for dealing with the challenges it faces. The author traces the background and origins of the IAEA from the Baruch Plan, through Atoms for Peace, to negotiations resulting in the establishment of the agency. He also describes special structural characteristics of the agency and their evolution - in particular, the board of governors, the general conference, and the secretariat.

  13. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... various opportunities, and (4) to educate the participants about trade policy and regulatory matters... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing...

  14. 76 FR 17621 - Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    .... Since these trade policy issues are frequent topics of high-level bilateral discussions between the U.S... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing...

  15. The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.

    PubMed

    Lupien, John R

    2002-07-01

    International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made. PMID:12180779

  16. Trade and Development: Proceedings of the Winter 1986 Meeting of the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (Texcoco, Mexico, December 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Mathew D., Ed.

    Three levels of papers are contained in this proceedings. The first set contains full research papers presented during the theme day of the meeting. The following papers were given: "International Trade and Factor Movements in Development Theory, Policy, and Experience" (T. N. Srinivasan); "Government in the Process of Trade and Development"…

  17. Characteristics of current international trade of live salmonid eggs.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M; McLeary, R

    1996-06-01

    World trade in live salmonid embryos (eyed eggs) has grown in response to increased global salmon production, particularly in South America, and parallels international trade in farmed salmonid products. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) are the most commercially important species. In 1992, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated world production of rainbow trout at 300,000 tonnes, while the production of Atlantic salmon was estimated at 250,000 tonnes and coho salmon at 50,000 tonnes. One can estimate that roughly 3 billion, 150 million and 30 million eggs, respectively, were required to produce this yield. Broodstock are cultivated world-wide, using a wide variety of water sources, including the marine environment, riverine water containing anadromous fish, and ground water free of migrating fish. As many as 70% of all coho eggs are derived from feral fish. Approximately 50% of all commercial salmonid eyed eggs are produced in Europe, and approximately 15% are produced in the state of Washington, United States of America. Conditions which are ideal for commercial salmonid grow-out are not necessarily ideal for the cultivation of salmonid broodstock; this is one reason why international egg trade is necessary. The trend of current salmonid health regulations is towards facilitating egg commerce on a regional level, in an attempt to control disease transmission. Regulations controlling egg importation often include pathogens which are not vertically transmitted. This serves only to increase egg prices, in compensation for the cost of laboratory tests. Genetic improvements have been the cornerstone of increasing commercial production of all agricultural commodities. Fish health regulations are sometimes instituted in an effort to protect the local industry, but in fact they act more often to restrict the flow of genetic material and may actually serve to reduce industry

  18. 75 FR 75952 - U.S. Agency for International Mandatory Declassification Review Address

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT U.S. Agency for International Mandatory Declassification Review Address AGENCY: U.S. Agency for International Development. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... provides the U.S. Agency for International Developments address to which Mandatory Declassification...

  19. 78 FR 23954 - U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement: Advice on the Probable Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE... Effect of Providing Duty- Free Treatment for Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... Commission's hearing rooms, are located in the United States International Trade Commission Building, 500...

  20. 76 FR 44606 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE...; Institution of Investigation and Scheduling of Public Hearing AGENCY: United States International Trade...)), the U.S. International Trade Commission (Commission) instituted investigation No....

  1. 75 FR 65031 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade..., are located in the United States International Trade Commission Building, 500 E Street,...

  2. 75 FR 9615 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs: Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: March 16, 2010; 10:30 a.m.-11....S. trade policy. Potential U.S. negotiating objectives and bargaining positions in current...

  3. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January 12, 2011; 10 a.m.-11....S. trade policy. Potential U.S. negotiating objectives and bargaining positions in current...

  4. 76 FR 31641 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28, 2011; 3 p.m.-4:30 p.... trade policy. Potential U.S. negotiating objectives and bargaining positions in current and...

  5. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade

    PubMed Central

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo–Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to “hitchhikers” associated with the ornamental trade. PMID:27221025

  6. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade.

    PubMed

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo-Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to "hitchhikers" associated with the ornamental trade. PMID:27221025

  7. Does Human Migration Affect International Trade? A Complex-Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mastrorillo, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960–2000. Next, we ask whether pairs of countries that are more central in the migration network trade more. We show that: (i) the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated, and such correlation can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; (ii) centrality in the international-migration network boosts bilateral trade; (iii) intensive forms of country centrality are more trade enhancing than their extensive counterparts. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries, but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration. PMID:24828376

  8. The health policy implications of international trade in alcohol and tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Powell, M

    1989-10-01

    The aim of national alcohol and tobacco preventive health policy is to reduce consumption in order to reduce harm. However, the level of domestic consumption depends upon the interaction of international demand and supply and the development of international trade policy. Trade policy may conflict with or act as a constraint on the implementation of preventive health policy. Trends in alcohol and tobacco trade and developments in international trade policy affecting these products are examined in this paper in relation to health policy goals. Economic models of the links between trade flows, quantities consumed and health effects are then outlined as a preliminary step towards identifying the complex interaction between alcohol and tobacco trade and production, consumption, health and welfare. It is shown that consideration of the economic trade links are an important factor in the development of international and domestic health policy. PMID:2819273

  9. International trade and waste and fuel managment issue, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2007-01-15

    The focus of the January-February issue is on international trade and waste and fuel managment. Major articles/reports in this issue include: New plants with high safety and availability, by Bill Poirier, Westinghouse Electric Company; Increased reliability and competitiveness, by Russell E. Stachowski, GE Energy, Nuclear; Fuel for long-term supply of nuclear power, by Kumiaki Moriya, Hitachi, Ltd., Japan; Super high burnup fuel, By Noboru Itagaki and Tamotsu Murata, Nuclear Fuel Industries LTD., Japan; Zero fuel failures by 2010, by Tom Patten, AREVA NP Inc.; Decommissioning opportunities in the UK, by David Brown and William Thorn, US Department of Commerce; Industry's three challenges, by Dale E. Klein, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and, A step ahead of the current ABWR's, compiled by Claire Zurek, GE Energy.

  10. International trade and waste and fuel managment issue, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2008-01-15

    The focus of the January-February issue is on international trade and waste and fuel managment. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A global solution for clients, by Yves Linz, AREVA NP; A safer, secure and economical plant, by Andy White, GE Hitachi Nuclear; Robust global prospects, by Ken Petrunik, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited; Development of NPPs in China, by Chen Changbing and Li Huiqiang, Huazhong University of Science and Technology; Yucca Mountain update; and, A class of its own, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear. The Industry Innovation articles in this issue are: Fuel assembly inspection program, by Jim Lemons, Tennessee Valley Authority; and, Improved in-core fuel shuffle for reduced refueling duration, by James Tusar, Exelon Nuclear.

  11. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer’s market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer’s willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 − DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market. PMID:26244778

  12. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    PubMed

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market. PMID:26244778

  13. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (78 FR 4383, 1-22-2013). The FTZ Board has... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 117--Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Shipbuilding), Orange, TX On January 10, 2013, the Foreign Trade Zone of...

  14. 78 FR 49254 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas; Application for Subzone; Toshiba International Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 84--Houston, Texas; Application for Subzone; Toshiba International Corporation; Houston, Texas An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board by the Port of Houston Authority, grantee of FTZ 84, requesting subzone status for the...

  15. 75 FR 52716 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) will hold its quarterly meeting to discuss environmental technologies...

  16. 77 FR 6064 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries,...

  17. 76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment...

  18. International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, A. J.

    This trip was undertaken to participate in and represent the United States Industry at the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) Task 14 Workshop. The meeting took place at the A1 Bani Hotel in Rome Italy.

  19. 75 FR 60736 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Water Technology Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. ] Water Technology Trade Mission to India; February 28... Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS), is organizing a Water Technology Trade Mission to...

  20. 75 FR 36634 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... status of Civil Nuclear Trade Initiative 3. Update on civil nuclear trade policy with India 4. Discussion... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: This...

  1. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal... Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14, 2012; 2 p.m.-4 p.m... policy. Potential U.S. negotiating objectives and bargaining positions in current and anticipated...

  2. 77 FR 59690 - Titan Resources International, Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Titan Resources International, Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading September 26, 2012. It... concerning the securities of Titan Resources International, Corp. (``Titan''). Titan is a Wyoming...

  3. International Trade and Education: Issues and Programs. AACJC Issues Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, James R., Ed.; Sakamoto, Clyde, Ed.

    This technical assistance monograph on international trade education was designed to give college officials insights into programs and services offered by a number of postsecondary institutions; to identify problems experienced by program administrators; and to share the perspectives of leaders in international trade education. First, introductory…

  4. 77 FR 15019 - Revision of Regulations Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 14200), we published a proposed rule to revise the regulations that implement CITES... Implementing the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES... implement the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)...

  5. Design and Implementation of a Simulation-Based Learning System for International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Guo-Heng; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Yuan, Shyan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In the traditional instructional method used in international trade, teachers provide knowledge to learners by lecturing using slides and setting assignments; however, these methods merely deliver international trade knowledge rather than facilitating student development of relevant skills. To solve these problems, we proposed a simulation-based…

  6. 78 FR 18318 - U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Turkey AGENCY: International Trade....--Turkey Healthcare Trade Mission to Ankara, Istanbul, and Izmir on May 4-8, 2014. The trade mission to.../Defense trade missions in December 2011 and December 2012 respectively. Turkey has a compelling...

  7. International Geoscience Workforce Trends: More Challenges for Federal Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groat, C. G.

    2005-12-01

    Concern about the decreasing number of students entering undergraduate geoscience programs has been chronic and, at times, acute over the past three decades. Despite dwindling populations of undergraduate majors, graduate programs have remained relatively robust, bolstered by international students. With Increasing competition for graduate students by universities in Europe, Japan, Australia, and some developing countries, and with procedural challenges faced by international students seeking entry into the United States and its universities, this supply source is threatened. For corporations operating on a global scale, the opportunity to employ students from and trained in the regions in which they operate is generally a plus. For U.S. universities that have traditionally supplied this workforce, the changing situation poses challenges, but also opportunities for creative international partnerships. Federal government science agencies face more challenges than opportunities in meeting workforce needs under both present and changing education conditions. Restrictions on hiring non-U.S. citizens into the permanent workforce have been a long-standing issue for federal agencies. Exceptions are granted only where they can document the absence of eligible U.S.-citizen candidates. The U.S. Geological Survey has been successful in doing this in its Mendenhall Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program, but there has been no solution to the broader limitation. Under current and forecast workforce recruitment conditions, creativity, such as that evidenced by the Mendenhall program,will be necessary if federal agencies are to draw from the increasingly international geoscience talent pool. With fewer U.S. citizens in U.S. geoscience graduate programs and a growing number of advanced-degreed scientists coming from universities outside the U.S., the need for changes in federal hiring policies is heightened. The near-term liklihood of this is low and combined with the decline in

  8. International trade and waste and fuel management issue, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2009-01-15

    The focus of the January-February issue is on international trade and waste and fuel managment. Major articles/reports in this issue include: Innovative financing and workforce planning, by Donna Jacobs, Entergy Nuclear; Nuclear power - a long-term need, by John C. Devine, Gerald Goldsmith and Michael DeLallo, WorleyParsons; Importance of loan guarantee program, by Donald Hintz; EPC contracts for new plants, by Dave Barry, Shaw Power Group; GNEP and fuel recycling, by Alan Hanson, AREVA NC Inc.; Safe and reliable reactor, by Kiyoshi Yamauchi, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.; Safe, small and simple reactors, by Yoshi Sakashita, Toshiba Corporation; Nuclear power in Thailand, by Tatchai Sumitra, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology; and, Nuclear power in Vietnam, by Tran Huu Phat, Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission. The Industry Innovation article this issue is Rectifying axial-offset-anomaly problems, by Don Adams, Tennessee Valley Authority. The Plant Profile article is Star of Stars Excellence, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.

  9. Globalization of agricultural pollution due to international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, C.; Carr, J.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2014-02-01

    Almost 90% of freshwater resources consumed globally are used to produce plant and animal commodities. Water-scarce countries can balance their water needs by importing food from other countries. This process, known as virtual water transfer, represents the externalization of water use. The volume and geographic reach of virtual water transfers is increasing, but little is known about how these transfers redistribute the environmental costs of agricultural production. The grey water footprint quantifies the environmental costs of virtual water transfers. The grey water footprint is calculated as the amount of water necessary to reduce nitrogen concentrations from fertilizers and pesticides released into streams and aquifers to allowed standards. We reconstructed the global network of virtual grey water transfers for the period 1986-2010 based on international trade data and grey water footprints for 309 commodities. We tracked changes in the structure of the grey water transfer network with network and inequality statistics. Pollution is increasing and is becoming more strongly concentrated in only a handful of countries. The global external grey water footprint, the pollution created by countries outside of their borders, increased 136% during the period. The extent of externalization of pollution is highly unequal between countries, and most of this inequality is due to differences in social development status. Our results demonstrate a growing globalization of pollution due to virtual water transfers.

  10. 76 FR 25302 - Executive-Led Eurasian Trade Mission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-Led Eurasian Trade Mission AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Update. Mission Description The United States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S....

  11. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  12. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2005-11-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  13. 75 FR 19654 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs-Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (75 FR 6678) on February 10, 2010, allowing for a... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of...

  14. Wood products: International trade and foreign markets. Irregular report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report provides timely, reliable information on the production, trade, supply and demand situation in countries around the world for wood products. It highlights the latest trade policy developments, export statistics and marketing information of interest to U.S. exporters.

  15. International Trade: A Small Business Primer. Growing Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axtell, Roger E.

    The United States' declining share of world trade is connected with the fact that hundreds of thousands of medium- and small-sized businesses are ignoring trade and exports. The cure for their fear of the unknown is information and education. Exports have a number of advantages: increased profits, spread of overhead costs, smooth seasonal…

  16. The QAP weighted network analysis method and its application in international services trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Helian; Cheng, Long

    2016-04-01

    Based on QAP (Quadratic Assignment Procedure) correlation and complex network theory, this paper puts forward a new method named QAP Weighted Network Analysis Method. The core idea of the method is to analyze influences among relations in a social or economic group by building a QAP weighted network of networks of relations. In the QAP weighted network, a node depicts a relation and an undirect edge exists between any pair of nodes if there is significant correlation between relations. As an application of the QAP weighted network, we study international services trade by using the QAP weighted network, in which nodes depict 10 kinds of services trade relations. After the analysis of international services trade by QAP weighted network, and by using distance indicators, hierarchy tree and minimum spanning tree, the conclusion shows that: Firstly, significant correlation exists in all services trade, and the development of any one service trade will stimulate the other nine. Secondly, as the economic globalization goes deeper, correlations in all services trade have been strengthened continually, and clustering effects exist in those services trade. Thirdly, transportation services trade, computer and information services trade and communication services trade have the most influence and are at the core in all services trade.

  17. 78 FR 4155 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Foreign Trade Zone and/or Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Foreign Trade Zone and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade Zone Activity Permit... Application for Foreign Trade Zone Admission and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade Zone... Foreign Trade Zone Admission and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade......

  18. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries’ roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading “trophic levels” have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows. PMID:26569618

  19. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows. PMID:26569618

  20. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-01

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  1. Energy's role in international trade: Structural changes and competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The role of energy in the competitive position of US goods in foreign trade is the topic of this study. It is obvious that energy is important in US trade because we import and export energy commodities. It is less obvious, but true, that energy plays an indirect role in trade because the energy embodied in traded goods is an element of their costs. The objective of this report is to identify how important energy is in the production of domestic goods, the role of energy in US trade, and how energy use and the structure of the economy have changed over time. Subsequent reports in this study will examine the role of energy in US trade with other countries. This first report was motivated by four objectives: understand the changes in the structure of the US economy that result from higher energy prices and other economic shocks, assess the effects of these structural changes on US energy use, present a research design that will allow a better understanding of the role that energy plays in the competitiveness of US goods in world trade, and explain how macroeconomic and microeconomic factors can affect structural change in the economy, and how energy is linked to these factors. 34 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  2. Incomplete coexistence systems and international food trade impacts.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2015-12-01

    Trade disruptions have been both common and costly for the few GM crops that are produced and marketed. We use a range of adoption studies (compiled by Smyth et al. in Handbook on Agriculture, Biotechnology and Development, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, 2014a), regulatory data and production and trade data to quantify the scale for low level presence incidents. To gain a full perspective on the potential scale of this problem in coming years, we use a combination of recent GM trait commercialization studies and corporate pipeline analysis to identify which traits are planned for which products and the countries in which the technology is likely to be commercialized. Their potential impact will be a result of the intended markets, the regulatory process (especially asynchronous decisions) and the scale and scope of trade in those products. Finally, the article examines the potential for some existing trade and industry institutions to manage the inherent risks of uncertain markets and market impacts. PMID:26249847

  3. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Rangi, R.; Ancona, D.

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  4. International trade versus public health during the FCTC negotiations, 1999-2003

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine why the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control did not include an explicit trade provision and delineate the central arguments in the debate over trade provision during the negotiations. Methods Triangulate interviews with participants in the FCTC negotiations, the FCTC negotiations documents, and tobacco industry documents. Results An explicit FCTC trade provision on relation between international trade and public health became a contentious issue during the negotiations. As a result, two conflicting positions, health-over-trade and opposition to health-over-trade emerged. Opposition to explicit trade language giving health priority was by both tobacco industry and countries that generally supported strong FCTC provisions because of concerns over ‘disguised protectionism’ and setting a precedent whereby governments could forfeit their obligations under pre-existing treaties. Owing to lack of consensus among political actors involved in the negotiations, a compromise position eliminating any mention of trade emerged, which was predicated on belief among some in the public health community that public health would prevail in future trade versus health conflicts. Conclusion The absence of an explicit FCTC trade provision was due to a political compromise rather than the impact of international trade agreements and decisions on public health and lack of consensus among health advocates. This failure to include an explicit trade provision in the FCTC suggests that the public health community should become more involved in trade and health issues at all levels of governance and press the FCTC Conference of the Parties for clarification of this critical issue. PMID:20943828

  5. 76 FR 59741 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; National Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... through the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) that will be included in the second Biennial... statements in response to this notice to Paula Church Albertson, Office of Trade and Labor Affairs, ILAB,...

  6. Methods for ensuring compliance in an international greenhouse gas trading system

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrave, T.; Helme, E.A.

    1998-12-31

    At the third Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change held in December, 1997, the international community established binding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions obligations for industrialized countries. The Parties to the new Kyoto Protocol also agreed on the use of a number of market-based mechanisms, including international GHG emissions trading. These market mechanisms were of critical to the importance because they have the potential to significantly reduce the costs of treaty compliance. In principle, an international cap-and-trade system appears to be one of the most cost-effective means of reducing GHG emissions. Maintaining the integrity of the trading system is of primary importance in ensuring that trading helps countries to meet their GHG commitments. This paper explores methods for ensuring compliance in an international greenhouse gas trading system, starting with a discussion of preconditions for participation in trading and then moving to features of an international compliance system. Achieving maximum compliance with international requirements may best be accomplished by limiting participation in trading to Annex I countries that maintain strong domestic compliance systems. Prior to the climate negotiations in Kyoto in December 1997, the US Administration proposed a number of preconditions for participation in trading, including the adoption of international measurement standards and the establishment of domestic compliance and enforcement programs. This paper explores these and other preconditions, including the establishment of tough domestic financial penalties on companies that exceed allowed emissions and seller responsibility for the delivery of real reductions. The paper also discusses several necessary features of the international compliance system.

  7. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led... Indian market. The cosmetics/ beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with...

  8. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led.... The cosmetics/beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with very strong...

  9. 76 FR 11203 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Water Technology Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Water Technology Trade Mission to India from February 28 to March 4, 2011. The purpose of the mission is to expose U.S. firms to India's rapidly expanding water and waste water market and to assist...

  10. 78 FR 59005 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: International Trade... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda for a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws...

  11. 77 FR 5770 - Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... International Trade Administration Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Russia AGENCY: International Trade... Energy (DOE) are organizing an Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Moscow and St. Petersburg on June 4-7... market for the sale of U.S. energy efficiency products and services. Russia presents...

  12. 75 FR 54087 - Education Trade Mission to Indonesia and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... International Trade Administration Education Trade Mission to Indonesia and Vietnam AGENCY: International Trade... education trade mission to Indonesia and Vietnam, April 3-8, 2011. Led by a senior Department of Commerce... accredited U.S. education institutions. However, the emphasis will be on community colleges,...

  13. 75 FR 51243 - Trade Mission to the Port of Veracruz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... the port; --Digital signature systems; --Equipment for refrigerated warehouses; --Machinery/equipment... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to the Port of Veracruz AGENCY: International Trade... executive-led trade mission to the Port of Veracruz, Mexico, for December 6-9, 2010. This mission...

  14. 75 FR 43939 - The Americas Business Trade Mission to Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... International Trade Administration The Americas Business Trade Mission to Mexico AGENCY: International Trade... trade mission to Mexico City with an optional second stop in Monterrey, October 25-28, 2010. This... locations, there will be an in-depth commercial briefing on the local business climate. In Mexico...

  15. International Trade Professional Curriculum System Innovation and Personnel Training Model Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yang

    With the rapid development of China's foreign trade, now many universities have set up the International Trade major one after another; The University must be based on our own resources superiority to have the scientific orientation of personnel training objectives, which can make trained students meet needs of society and enterprises better. This paper based on the characteristics of International Trade major in University proposes to take the personnel training model combining with "Work, Certificate and Learning" as the objective, proceeding the orientation of professional personnel and settings of certificate testing module and teaching module, to construct the curriculum system from the innovation of theoretical and practical teaching.

  16. A Global Connection: Foreign Enrollment, International Education and World Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, John C.

    1996-01-01

    New England is experiencing globalization at a rapid pace, including enrollment of foreign college and university students. If the area is to reap the economic and cultural advantages of foreign enrollment, it must maintain a hospitable climate for both foreign trade and foreign students. This process can be enhanced by the admissions and alumni…

  17. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... those entities authorized under 19 CFR 141.18. A resident agent or resident corporate surety provider, as specified under 19 CFR 141.18, must possess a valid trade permit when acting on behalf of a... governing permit sanctions and denials are found at subpart D of 15 CFR part 904. (j) Fees. NMFS may...

  18. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... those entities authorized under 19 CFR 141.18. A resident agent or resident corporate surety provider, as specified under 19 CFR 141.18, must possess a valid trade permit when acting on behalf of a... governing permit sanctions and denials are found at subpart D of 15 CFR part 904. (j) Fees. NMFS may...

  19. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... those entities authorized under 19 CFR 141.18. A resident agent or resident corporate surety provider, as specified under 19 CFR 141.18, must possess a valid trade permit when acting on behalf of a... governing permit sanctions and denials are found at subpart D of 15 CFR part 904. (j) Fees. NMFS may...

  20. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... those entities authorized under 19 CFR 141.18. A resident agent or resident corporate surety provider, as specified under 19 CFR 141.18, must possess a valid trade permit when acting on behalf of a... governing permit sanctions and denials are found at subpart D of 15 CFR part 904. (j) Fees. NMFS may...

  1. 50 CFR 300.182 - HMS international trade permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... those entities authorized under 19 CFR 141.18. A resident agent or resident corporate surety provider, as specified under 19 CFR 141.18, must possess a valid trade permit when acting on behalf of a... governing permit sanctions and denials are found at subpart D of 15 CFR part 904. (j) Fees. NMFS may...

  2. 76 FR 35244 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... States Free Trade Agreement. 71 FR 76691 (2006). The same Federal Register notice informed the public of...--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Determination Regarding Review of Submission 2011-01 AGENCY... Free Trade Agreement. The submission was filed with OTLA on April 21, 2011, by the American...

  3. 78 FR 16701 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Foreign Trade Zone and/or Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Foreign Trade Zone and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade Zone Activity Permit... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Application for Foreign Trade Zone Admission and/or Status Designation, and Application for Foreign Trade Zone Activity Permit (CBP Forms 214,...

  4. Convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora. 1987 annual report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-15

    Five tables present all reported 1987 data on international trade, involving the United States, in wildlife and plant species listed on the appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Data on species, quantities, countries involved, purpose of trade, and description of products or specimens are provided.

  5. Frameworks for comparing emissions associated with production, consumption, and international trade.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Lenzen, Manfred; Peters, Glen P; Moran, Daniel D; Geschke, Arne

    2012-01-01

    While the problem of climate change is being perceived as increasingly urgent, decision-makers struggle to agree on the distribution of responsibility across countries. In particular, representatives from countries hosting emissions-intensive exporting industries have argued that the importers of emissions-intensive goods should bear the responsibility, and ensuing penalties. Indeed, international trade and carbon leakage appear to play an increasingly important role in the carbon emissions debate. However, definitions of quantities describing the embodiment of carbon emissions in internationally traded products, and their measurement, have to be sufficiently robust before being able to underpin global policy. In this paper we critically examine a number of emissions accounting concepts, examine whether the ensuing carbon balances are compatible with monetary trade balances, discuss their different interpretations, and highlight implications for policy. In particular, we compare the emissions embodied in bilateral trade (EEBT) method which considers total trade flows with domestic emission intensities, with the multi-regional input-output (MRIO) method which considers trade only into final consumption with global emission intensities. If consumption-based emissions of different countries were to be compared, we would suggest an MRIO approach because of the global emissions coverage inherent in this method. If trade-adjusted emission inventories were to be compared, we would suggest an EEBT approach due to the consistency with a monetary trade balance. PMID:22077096

  6. Proposal for the International Atomic Energy Agency Training Course

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site has hosted similar activities, including both Hanford Summits I and II. The Hanford Summits were two-day televised events to discuss the commitment of the current Presidential administration to the environmental restoration of the Hanford Site. Public involvement and strategic issues established from Hanford Summit I include: Regulatory issues, training and education, economic development and partnership, and technology transfer. Hanford Summit II provided a summary of how Secretary of Energy O`Leary is proceeding on the above strategic issues. The DOE and Westinghouse School for Environmental Excellence frequently offers a six-week course for environmental professionals and workers. Approximately thirty to forty individuals attend the training course, which provides training in environmental regulation compliance. The Hanford Site has hosted two previous International Atomic Energy Agency training courses. The courses lasted two weeks and had approximately eight to ten participants. Nuclear Material Management and Neutron Monitoring were the courses hosted by the Hanford Site.

  7. International Trade Curriculum. A Joint Vocational Education Curriculum Project of Alaska, Oregon & Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Technical Education.

    This document is intended to help instructors and administrators develop secondary and postsecondary instructional programs on international trade that are based on competencies identified as those needed in international business by companies in Alaska, Oregon, and Washington. The first section introduces competency-based curriculum and includes…

  8. International Trade in Commerce with Liberal Arts: One Instructor's Dual Pursuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trendota, Kristina

    1982-01-01

    The need for and opportunities presented by foreign language aptitude in international trade are noted, and a program in executive German at the College of Saint Catherine is described. The program emphasizes developing language skills, especially in correspondence, and learning to observe certain international conventions and courtesies. (MSE)

  9. 76 FR 54520 - Somerset International Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Somerset International Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading August 30, 2011. It appears to... concerning the securities of Somerset International Group, Inc. The Commission is of the opinion that...

  10. 77 FR 65438 - MedLink International, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION MedLink International, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading October 24, 2012. It appears to the... securities of MedLink International, Inc. (``MedLink''). Questions have arisen concerning the accuracy...

  11. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supplement to IUCN Bulletin, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Concern for the endangered species of wild animals and plants of the world prompted the drafting of this international convention regulating the import, export, and re-export of such species. Nations signing this document are required to impose strict controls on the international trade of these plants and animals or their recognizable parts. The…

  12. The Persistence of Structural Inequality?: A Network Analysis of International Trade, 1965-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahutga, Matthew C.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports results from a network analysis of international trade from 1965 through 2000. It addresses the impact of changes associated with globalization and the "new international division of labor" (NIDL) on structural inequality in the world economy. To assess this impact, I ask three specific questions. (1) Do patterns of…

  13. Focus on the 1990's: International Trade Opportunities for the Permian Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midland Coll., TX. Business and Economic Development Center.

    Designed to highlight business opportunities of the 1990s as well as available educational programs relating to international business, this report contains six presentations from a 1990 conference on international trade hosted by Midland College (MC). The first article, "Texas in the Global Economy: Attitude and Opportunity," by John A. Adams,…

  14. 78 FR 47478 - In the Matter of Zenergy International, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Zenergy International, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading August 1, 2013. It... concerning the securities of Zenergy International, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  15. 76 FR 12967 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Channels of Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Channels of Trade Policy for Commodities With Residues of Pesticide Chemicals... information collection provisions of FDA's guidance for industry entitled ``Channels of Trade Policy for... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Channels of Trade Policy for Commodities With...

  16. 75 FR 78726 - Agency Information Collection Activities: North American Free Trade Agreement Duty Deferral

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... requirement concerning the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Duty Deferral. This request for comment...: 1651-0071. Abstract: The provisions of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) were adopted by the U.S. with the enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1993...

  17. 78 FR 46921 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies...

  18. 76 FR 51001 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies...

  19. 78 FR 63963 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a ] meeting of the Environmental Technologies...

  20. 78 FR 4834 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY...: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental...

  1. 75 FR 56506 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To Participate Changed to First-Come First- Serve Basis AGENCY: International...

  2. 78 FR 23233 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IEPS International Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IEPS International Resource Information System (IRIS) AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education (OPE), Department of Education (ED). ACTION:...

  3. 78 FR 38957 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Trends in International Mathematics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS): 2015 Recruitment and Field Test AGENCY: National Center for Education...

  4. International service trade and its implications for human resources for health: a case study of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wibulpolprasert, Suwit; Pachanee, Cha-aim; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan; Hempisut, Pintusorn

    2004-01-01

    This study aims at analysing the impact of international service trade on the health care system, particularly in terms of human resources for health (HRH), using Thailand as a case study. Information was gathered through a literature review and interviews of relevant experts, as well as a brainstorming session. It was found that international service trade has greatly affected the Thai health care system and its HRH. From 1965 to 1975 there was massive emigration of physicians from Thailand in response to increasing demand in the United States of America. The country lost about 1,500 physicians, 20% of its total number, during that period. External migration of health professionals occurred without relation to agreements on trade in services. It was also found that free trade in service sectors other than health could seriously affect the health care system and HRH. Free trade in financial services with free flow of low-interest foreign loans, which started in 1993 in Thailand, resulted in the mushrooming of urban private hospitals between 1994 and 1997. This was followed by intensive internal migration of health professionals from rural public to urban private hospitals. After the economic crisis in 1997, with the resulting downturn of the private health sector, reverse brain drain was evident. At the same time, foreign investors started to invest in the bankrupt private hospitals. Since 2001, the return of economic growth and the influx of foreign patients have started another round of internal brain drain. PMID:15225376

  5. International trade inoperability input-output model (IT-IIM): theory and application.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jeesang; Santos, Joost R; Haimes, Yacov Y

    2009-01-01

    The inoperability input-output model (IIM) has been used for analyzing disruptions due to man-made or natural disasters that can adversely affect the operation of economic systems or critical infrastructures. Taking economic perturbation for each sector as inputs, the IIM provides the degree of economic production impacts on all industry sectors as the outputs for the model. The current version of the IIM does not provide a separate analysis for the international trade component of the inoperability. If an important port of entry (e.g., Port of Los Angeles) is disrupted, then international trade inoperability becomes a highly relevant subject for analysis. To complement the current IIM, this article develops the International Trade-IIM (IT-IIM). The IT-IIM investigates the resulting international trade inoperability for all industry sectors resulting from disruptions to a major port of entry. Similar to traditional IIM analysis, the inoperability metrics that the IT-IIM provides can be used to prioritize economic sectors based on the losses they could potentially incur. The IT-IIM is used to analyze two types of direct perturbations: (1) the reduced capacity of ports of entry, including harbors and airports (e.g., a shutdown of any port of entry); and (2) restrictions on commercial goods that foreign countries trade with the base nation (e.g., embargo). PMID:18808394

  6. Quebec and the United States: A Cross-Cultural Case Study of International Trade and International Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughrin-Sacco, Steven J.

    This paper comments on the lack of attention given to cross-cultural relationships between the United States and Quebec, Canada despite the growing trade relationship, and offers information on Quebec to use as cross-cultural examples in international business communication classes. The paper dispels myths concerning Quebec and its inhabitants,…

  7. Globalization of agricultural pollution due to international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, C.; Carr, J.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2013-08-01

    Almost 90% of freshwater resources consumed globally are used to produce plant and animal commodities. Water scarce countries can balance their water needs by importing food from other countries. This process, known as virtual water transfer, represents the externalization of water use. The volume and geographic reach of virtual water transfers is increasing, but little is known about how these transfers redistribute the environmental costs of agricultural production. The grey water footprint quantifies the environmental costs of virtual water transfers. The grey water footprint is calculated as the amount of water necessary to reduce the concentrations of fertilizers and pesticides released in streams and aquifers to the allowed standards. We reconstructed the global network of virtual grey water transfers for the period 1986-2010 based on global trade data and grey water footprints for 309 commodities. We tracked changes in the structure of the grey water transfer network with network and inequality statistics. Pollution is increasing and is becoming more strongly concentrated in only a handful of countries. The global external grey water footprint, the pollution created by countries outside of their borders, increased 136% during the period. The extent of externalization of pollution is highly unequal between countries and most of this inequality is due to differences in social development status. Our results demonstrate a growing globalization of pollution due to virtual water transfers.

  8. 78 FR 4124 - Foreign-Trade Zone 68-El Paso, TX, Application for Subzone, Expeditors International of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 68--El Paso, TX, Application for Subzone, Expeditors International of Washington, Inc., El Paso, TX An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the City of El Paso, grantee of FTZ 68, requesting special-purpose subzone...

  9. NSSDC index of international scientific rocket launches ordered by sponsering country/agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    International scientific rocket launches are listed by discipline codes and by sponsoring country/agencies identifications. Launch sites, experiments, approximate apogee, success and principle experimenters are also shown.

  10. CH4 and N2O emissions embodied in international trade of meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro, Dario; LoPresti, Anna; Davis, Steven J.; Bastianoni, Simone; Caldeira, Ken

    2014-11-01

    Although previous studies have quantified carbon dioxide emissions embodied in products traded internationally, there has been limited attention to other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Following IPCC guidelines, we estimate non-CO2 emissions from beef, pork and chicken produced in 237 countries over the period 1990-2010, and assign these emissions to the country where the meat is ultimately consumed. We find that, between 1990 and 2010, an average of 32.8 Mt CO2-eq emissions (using 100 year global warming potentials) are embodied in beef, pork and chicken traded internationally. Further, over the 20 year period, the quantity of CO2-eq emissions embodied in traded meat increased by 19%. The largest trade flows of emissions embodied in meat were from Brazil and Argentina to Russia (2.8 and 1.4 Mt of CO2-eq, respectively). Trade flows within the European region are also substantial: beef and pork exported from France embodied 3.3 Mt and 0.4 Mt of CO2-eq, respectively. Emissions factor of meat production (i.e. CO2-eq emissions per kg of meat) produced depend on ambient temperature, development level, livestock category (e.g. cattle, pork, and chicken) and livestock management practices. Thus, trade may result in an overall increase of GHG emissions when meat-consuming countries import meat from countries with a greater emissions intensity of meat production rather than producing the meat domestically. Comparing the emissions intensity of meat production of trading partners, we assess trade flows according to whether they tend to reduce or increase global emissions from meat production.

  11. CCSDS - A forum to facilitate international cooperation among space agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Edward P.; Delmas, Georges

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) in its role as a promoter the development and utilization of compatible data-systems standards among the principal space agencies of the world. Attention is also given to the CCSDS affiliation categories comprising member agencies, observer agencies, and associates. Consideration is given to the CCSDS organization, the technical panels, and current CCSDS recommendations.

  12. Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Glen P.; Minx, Jan C.; Weber, Christopher L.; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    Despite the emergence of regional climate policies, growth in global CO2 emissions has remained strong. From 1990 to 2008 CO2 emissions in developed countries (defined as countries with emission-reduction commitments in the Kyoto Protocol, Annex B) have stabilized, but emissions in developing countries (non-Annex B) have doubled. Some studies suggest that the stabilization of emissions in developed countries was partially because of growing imports from developing countries. To quantify the growth in emission transfers via international trade, we developed a trade-linked global database for CO2 emissions covering 113 countries and 57 economic sectors from 1990 to 2008. We find that the emissions from the production of traded goods and services have increased from 4.3 Gt CO2 in 1990 (20% of global emissions) to 7.8 Gt CO2 in 2008 (26%). Most developed countries have increased their consumption-based emissions faster than their territorial emissions, and non–energy-intensive manufacturing had a key role in the emission transfers. The net emission transfers via international trade from developing to developed countries increased from 0.4 Gt CO2 in 1990 to 1.6 Gt CO2 in 2008, which exceeds the Kyoto Protocol emission reductions. Our results indicate that international trade is a significant factor in explaining the change in emissions in many countries, from both a production and consumption perspective. We suggest that countries monitor emission transfers via international trade, in addition to territorial emissions, to ensure progress toward stabilization of global greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:21518879

  13. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.

    2012-09-04

    Since 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked to ensure the safe and responsible promotion of nuclear technology throughout the world. The IAEA operates at the intersection of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’s (NPT) fourth and third articles, which guarantee Parties to the Treaty the right to peaceful uses of nuclear technology, provided those activities are placed under safeguards verified by the IAEA. However, while the IAEA has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is a concern that its resources are being stretched to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As noted by the Director General (DG) in 2008, demographics suggest that every aspect of the IAEA’s operations will be in higher demand due to increasing reliance on non-carbon-based energy and the concomitant nonproliferation, safety, and security risks that growth entails. In addition to these nuclear energy concerns, the demand for technical developmental assistance in the fields of food security, resource conservation, and human health is also predicted to increase as the rest of the world develops. Even with a 100% value-for-money rating by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and being described as an “extraordinary bargain” by the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, real budget growth at the Agency has been limited to zero-real growth for a better part of the last two decades. Although the 2012 regular budget (RB) received a small increase for most programs, the 2013 RB has been set at zero-real growth. As a result, the IAEA has had to defer infrastructure investments, which has hindered its ability to provide the public goods its Members seek, decreased global security and development opportunities, and functionally transformed the IAEA into a charity, dependent on extrabudgetary (EB) contributions to sustain

  14. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.68 How can I... be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild. For artificially propagated ginseng, a.... (c) U.S. application process. Application forms and a list of States and Tribes with approved...

  15. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.68 How can I... be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild. For artificially propagated ginseng, a.... (c) U.S. application process. Application forms and a list of States and Tribes with approved...

  16. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.68 How can I... be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild. For artificially propagated ginseng, a.... (c) U.S. application process. Application forms and a list of States and Tribes with approved...

  17. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.68 How can I... be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild. For artificially propagated ginseng, a.... (c) U.S. application process. Application forms and a list of States and Tribes with approved...

  18. The Historical Influence of International Trade and Religion on the Arts, Crafts and Architecture of Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brissette, Paul

    This document outlines a slide presentation on Southeast Asia with primary emphasis on Indonesia. How international trade has influenced the design and development of Indonesian arts, crafts, and architecture are main points of interest. A geographical overview of Indonesia is described along with its natural resources, population, and religious…

  19. Ecological Unequal Exchange: International Trade and Uneven Utilization of Environmental Space in the World System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, James

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the argument that international trade influences disproportionate cross-national utilization of global renewable natural resources. Such uneven dynamics are relevant to the consideration of inequitable appropriation of environmental space in particular and processes of ecological unequal exchange more generally. Using OLS regression…

  20. Exploration on the Evaluation Mode of "International Trade Practice" in Higher Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yamin

    2011-01-01

    Considering the employment-oriented positioning of higher vocational education which is put by the education ministry and the features of higher vocational schools students, this paper indicates that the disadvantages in the evaluation mode of higher vocational school international trade course. Therefore, a reformed suggestion is given for the…

  1. International Children's Trade Books: Building Blocks for Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Terrell A.; Hadaway, Nancy L.; Ward, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of character education has been emphasized since ancient times across cultures and religions as a way to develop morals and values of the younger generations. In this article, the authors highlight several award-winning international children's trade books that reflect the core values recurring in literature and scriptures…

  2. The Distribution of Talent and the Pattern and Consequences of International Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Gene M.

    2004-01-01

    The author studies the interaction between imperfect labor contracts and international trade in a setting in which workers have private information about their own abilities. When an individual's contribution to firm output can be measured accurately in some activities but not in others, the most able workers select occupations in which their pay…

  3. Using Nonlinear Programming in International Trade Theory: The Factor-Proportions Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John

    2004-01-01

    Students at all levels benefit from a multi-faceted approach to learning abstract material. The most commonly used technique in teaching the pure theory of international trade is a combination of geometry and algebraic derivations. Numerical simulation can provide a valuable third support to these approaches. The author describes a simple…

  4. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? (a) U.S. and foreign provisions. For the purposes of this section, sturgeon caviar or caviar means the processed roe of any species of sturgeon or paddlefish...

  5. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For the purposes of this section, sturgeon caviar means the processed roe of any species of sturgeon, including...

  6. 50 CFR 23.71 - How can I trade internationally in sturgeon caviar?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sturgeon caviar? 23.71 Section 23.71 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... trade internationally in sturgeon caviar? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. For the purposes of this section, sturgeon caviar means the processed roe of any species of sturgeon, including...

  7. 76 FR 33377 - In The Matter of: Artfest International, Inc; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION : In The Matter of: Artfest International, Inc; Order of Suspension of Trading JUNE 6, 2011. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate...

  8. 75 FR 10332 - In the Matter of Xtreme Motorsports International, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Xtreme Motorsports International, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading March 3, 2010. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of current and...

  9. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  10. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  11. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  12. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  13. 50 CFR 23.74 - How can I trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... personal sport-hunted trophies? 23.74 Section 23.74 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... trade internationally in personal sport-hunted trophies? (a) U.S. and foreign general provisions. Except as provided for personal and household effects in § 23.15, the import, export, or re-export of...

  14. 22 CFR 208.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the U.S. Agency for International Development agrees to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Agency for International Development agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 208.645 Section 208.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... if the U.S. Agency for International Development agrees to a voluntary exclusion? (a) Yes, we...

  15. 22 CFR 208.645 - Do other Federal agencies know if the U.S. Agency for International Development agrees to a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Agency for International Development agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 208.645 Section 208.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... if the U.S. Agency for International Development agrees to a voluntary exclusion? (a) Yes, we...

  16. An Introduction to International Trade: Focus on Japan and the United States. A Secondary Teaching Unit. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This five-part unit, intended for secondary students, uses an activity-oriented approach in order to involve students in the workings of international trade. Part 1 introduces students to basic terms. Part 2 explores what would be missing from U.S. lifestyle if there were no international trade. Part 3 introduces students to the reasons why trade…

  17. Proceedings of the Clemson Conference on Language and International Trade (Clemson, South Carolina, March 9-11, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, S. Carl, Ed.; Torres, Sixto E., Ed.

    Eleven papers cover the Language and International Trade Program at Clemson University, similar foreign language programs at other universities, and the role of government funding in the development of such programs. The papers include the following: (1) "The Language and International Trade Program at Clemson University: Remarks on Program Impact…

  18. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  19. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  20. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  1. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  2. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  3. 78 FR 57619 - Legal Services Trade Mission to China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... FR 20893, April 8, 2013, regarding the Executive-Led Legal Services Trade Mission to China scheduled... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Legal Services Trade Mission to China AGENCY: International...

  4. 77 FR 12008 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International.... SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws...

  5. 75 FR 42690 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United States regulations, including advice...

  6. 76 FR 61669 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United States laws and regulations,...

  7. 76 FR 23568 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  8. 76 FR 7816 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  9. 75 FR 48643 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  10. 75 FR 29988 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the next meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... administration of ] programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in...

  11. 75 FR 16077 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the ] next meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... development and administration of programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and...

  12. 76 FR 35405 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable United...

  13. 75 FR 8922 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: International... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of the first meeting of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... administration of programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance...

  14. 76 FR 77776 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental Industries (OEEI), International...

  15. 76 FR 14904 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan AGENCY: International Trade..., Afghanistan in September 2011. This mission will be led by a Senior Commerce Department official....

  16. 76 FR 66692 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan AGENCY: International Trade..., Afghanistan in February 2012. This mission will be led by a Senior Commerce Department official....

  17. 75 FR 21597 - Business Development Trade Mission to Baghdad, Iraq

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Business Development Trade Mission to Baghdad, Iraq AGENCY: International..., 2010. Iraq continues to improve its security and to build an environment that is more conducive to trade and economic development. In November 2009, the Iraq Parliament passed an amendment to...

  18. 77 FR 60966 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International... Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia. Recruitment for this mission will conclude no...

  19. 77 FR 66581 - Notice of Renewal of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... International Trade Administration Notice of Renewal of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Renewal of the Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory... September 16, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: David Kincaid, Office of Energy and...

  20. Analysis and Design of International Emission Trading Markets Applying System Dynamics Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Pickl, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    The design and analysis of international emission trading markets is an important actual challenge. Time-discrete models are needed to understand and optimize these procedures. We give an introduction into this scientific area and present actual modeling approaches. Furthermore, we develop a model which is embedded in a holistic problem solution. Measures for energy efficiency are characterized. The economic time-discrete "cap-and-trade" mechanism is influenced by various underlying anticipatory effects. With a systematic dynamic approach the effects can be examined. First numerical results show that fair international emissions trading can only be conducted with the use of protective export duties. Furthermore a comparatively high price which evokes emission reduction inevitably has an inhibiting effect on economic growth according to our model. As it always has been expected it is not without difficulty to find a balance between economic growth and emission reduction. It can be anticipated using our System Dynamics model simulation that substantial changes must be taken place before international emissions trading markets can contribute to global GHG emissions mitigation.

  1. Testing the Effectiveness of an International Conservation Agreement: Marketplace Forensics and CITES Caviar Trade Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Rothschild, Anna; DeSalle, Rob; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2012-01-01

    Background The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. Methodology/Principal Findings We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006–2008; 10%; n = 90) compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995–1996; 19%; n = 95). Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail). Conclusions/Significance Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing. PMID:22848410

  2. Toward a new modeling of international economics: An attempt to reformulate an international trade model based on real option theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yasunori

    2007-09-01

    Reformulation of economics by physics has been carried out intensively to reveal many features of the asset market, which were missed in the classical economic theories. The present paper attempts to shed new light on this field. That is, this paper aims at reformulating the international trade model by making use of the real option theory. Based on such a stochastic dynamic model, we examine how the fluctuation of the foreign exchange rate makes effect on the welfare of the exporting country.

  3. 78 FR 38068 - Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... previously published in the Federal Register (78 FR 23280) on April 18, 2013, allowing for a 60-day comment... the U.S. with the enactment of the Trade and Development Act of 2000 (PL. 106-200). The objective...

  4. 77 FR 1949 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...; Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grant Program Reporting Requirements... Assistance Community College and Career Training Grant Program Reporting Requirements'' to the Office of... Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grant program. The ETA will require grantees to...

  5. Building a Collaborative Network for Education and Training in International Trade Facilitation Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clendenin, John A.; Petrova, Nadya N.; Gill, Joshua K.

    The authors present the benefits of collaboration rather than competition in developing educational and training resources for international trade within a geographic region and explore the challenges for business partners, governments and educational institutions. The paper indicates that flexibility in the 21st Century is critical, particularly when striving for virtual implementations of the solution services. It is essential, say the authors, for educators, governments and business executives to focus on performance and the careful orchestration and integration of business, policy and information technology for “Networking” that successfully stimulates inter-governmental cooperation and innovative policies that foster Regional trade facilitation. An innovative way to enhance 21st Century Trade Facilitation is offered with Supply Chain Centers of Regional Excellence (SCcORE).

  6. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Books Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations; National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; Calendar, 2003-2012; Acronyms; Index of Organizations; Subject Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the United States and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) standards; calendar, 2003-2012; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  7. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system. PMID:26994788

  8. Why nafta failed and what's needed to protect workers' health and safety in international trade treaties.

    PubMed

    Brown, Garrett

    2005-01-01

    Labor standards, including occupational health and safety regulations and enforcement, are being subjected to intense downward pressures as a result of fundamental shifts in the global economy. The 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was the first trade treaty that attempted to promote and protect workplace health and safety through a "labor side agreement." NAFTA failed to protect workers' health and safety due to the weaknesses of the side agreement's text; the political and diplomatic considerations limiting its implementation; and the failure to recognize and address the economic context, and political consequences of this context, in which the agreement was implemented. Subsequent trade treaties, both bilateral and regional, have not overcome the weaknesses of NAFTA. The treaty components needed to protect workers' health in future trade agreements are: 1) a minimum floor of occupational health and safety regulations; 2) an "upward harmonization" of regulatory standards and actual practice; 3) inclusion of employers so that they have formal responsibility and liability for violations of the standards; 4) effective enforcement of national regulations and international standards; 5) transparency and public participation; and 6) recognition of disparate economic conditions among trading partners and provision of financial and technical assistance to overcome economic disincentives and lack of resources. Also required are continued actions by non-governmental actors, including the workers themselves and civil society organizations. PMID:17208827

  9. Estimation of virtual water contained in international trade products using nighttime imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Naizhuo; Samson, Eric L.

    2012-08-01

    Freshwater that is consumed in the process of producing a commodity is called virtual water - it represents all water use contained in that commodity. In social systems, water resources can flow when commodities are traded from one region to another. Quantitative monitoring and assessing virtual water flow related to international trade products is an important issue to comprehensively understand the balance of global water resources. In this study we tested the potential of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime images in conjunction with the LandScan population dataset for estimation of virtual water contained in international trade products. Lit area (areal extent of night lights) and urban population were selected as proxies to estimate export virtual water (EVW), import virtual water (IVW), and traded virtual water (TVW) (summed EVW and IVW), respectively, on the national level. The results showed that IVW can be more accurately estimated than EVW regardless of lit area or urban population. Lit area is normally more appropriate for estimation of the virtual water of developed countries than those of developing countries, but urban population is more appropriate for estimation of the virtual water of developing countries than those of developed countries. Urban population is a better proxy than total population for estimations of virtual water. This study makes a negative finding in that there are relatively large underestimations for developed countries. Another negative finding is that neither lit area nor urban population can be used to estimate net import virtual water (NIVW).

  10. Exploring the utility of institutional theory in analysing international health agency stasis and change.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2013-10-01

    Of recent interest is the capacity of international health agencies to adapt to changes in the global health environment and country needs. Yet, little is known about the potential benefits of using social science institutional theory, such as path dependency and institutional change theory, to explain why some international agencies, such as the WHO and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, fail to adapt, whereas others, such as the World Bank and UNAIDS, have. This article suggests that these institutional theories can help to better understand these differences in international agency adaptive capacity, while highlighting new areas of policy research and analysis. PMID:23161586

  11. The Rise of China in the International Trade Network: A Community Core Detection Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Theory of complex networks proved successful in the description of a variety of complex systems ranging from biology to computer science and to economics and finance. Here we use network models to describe the evolution of a particular economic system, namely the International Trade Network (ITN). Previous studies often assume that globalization and regionalization in international trade are contradictory to each other. We re-examine the relationship between globalization and regionalization by viewing the international trade system as an interdependent complex network. We use the modularity optimization method to detect communities and community cores in the ITN during the years 1995–2011. We find rich dynamics over time both inter- and intra-communities. In particular, the Asia-Oceania community disappeared and reemerged over time along with a switch in leadership from Japan to China. We provide a multilevel description of the evolution of the network where the global dynamics (i.e., communities disappear or reemerge) and the regional dynamics (i.e., community core changes between community members) are related. Moreover, simulation results show that the global dynamics can be generated by a simple dynamic-edge-weight mechanism. PMID:25136895

  12. The rise of China in the International Trade Network: a community core detection approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Theory of complex networks proved successful in the description of a variety of complex systems ranging from biology to computer science and to economics and finance. Here we use network models to describe the evolution of a particular economic system, namely the International Trade Network (ITN). Previous studies often assume that globalization and regionalization in international trade are contradictory to each other. We re-examine the relationship between globalization and regionalization by viewing the international trade system as an interdependent complex network. We use the modularity optimization method to detect communities and community cores in the ITN during the years 1995-2011. We find rich dynamics over time both inter- and intra-communities. In particular, the Asia-Oceania community disappeared and reemerged over time along with a switch in leadership from Japan to China. We provide a multilevel description of the evolution of the network where the global dynamics (i.e., communities disappear or reemerge) and the regional dynamics (i.e., community core changes between community members) are related. Moreover, simulation results show that the global dynamics can be generated by a simple dynamic-edge-weight mechanism. PMID:25136895

  13. Analyses of impacts of China's international trade on its water resources and uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Yang, H.; Shi, M. J.; Zehnder, A. J. B.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2011-09-01

    This study provides an insight into the impact of China's international trade of goods and services on its water resources and uses. Virtual water flows associated with China's international trade are quantified in an input-output framework. The analysis is scaled down to the sectoral and provincial levels to trace the origins and destinations of virtual water flows associated with the international trade. The results show that China is a net virtual water exporter of 4.8 × 1010 m3 yr-1, accounting for 2.1% of its renewable water resources and 8.6% of the total water use. Water scarce regions tend to have higher percentages of virtual water export relative to their water resources and water uses. In the water scarce Huang-Huai-Hai region, the net virtual water export accounts for 8.0% of the region's water resources and 11.3% of its water uses. For individual sectors, major net virtual water exporters are those where agriculture provides raw materials in the initial process of the production chain. The results suggest that China's economic gains from being a world "manufacture factory" have come at a high cost to its water resources.

  14. Analyses of impacts of China's international trade on its water resources and uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. Y.; Yang, H.; Shi, M. J.; Zehnder, A. J. B.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2011-04-01

    This study provides an insight into the impact of China's international trade of goods and services on its water resources and uses. Virtual water flows associated with China's international trade are quantified in an input-output framework. The analysis is scaled down to the sectoral and provincial levels to trace the origins and destinations of virtual water flows associated with the international trade. The results reveal that China is a net virtual water exporter of 4.7 × 1010 m3 year-1, accounting for 2.1% of its total water resources and 8.9% of the total water use. Water scarce regions tend to have higher percentages of virtual water export relative to their water resources and water uses. In the water scarce Huang-Huai-Hai region, the net virtual water export accounts for 7.9% of the region's water resources and 11.2% of its water uses. For individual sectors, major net virtual water exporters are those where agriculture provides raw materials in the initial process of the production chain and/or pollution intensity is high. The results suggest that China's economic gains from being a world "manufacture factory" have come at a high cost to its water resources and through pollution to its environment.

  15. 77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description: The U.S. Department of Commerce's International...

  16. Vocational Instructional Materials for Trade and Industrial Education Available from Federal Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carol L., Comp.

    This listing of federally produced curriculum and instructional materials for trade and industrial education is one of eight annotated bibliographies that provide information for vocational educators at the secondary, postsecondary, and adult levels. Introductory information given includes a description of how to use the listing and sources and…

  17. Curriculum Materials for "Trade and Industrial Occupations." Annotated Listing of Materials Available from Public Education Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    This annotated listing of curriculum materials for Trade and Industrial Occupations provides planners, administrators, vocational educators, and others with information as to available curriculum materials developed by the various States. The materials are identified with the instructional titles and codes from the classification system of the…

  18. The relationship between international trade and non-nutritional health outcomes: A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Burns, Darren K; Jones, Andrew P; Suhrcke, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Markets throughout the world have been reducing barriers to international trade and investment in recent years. The resulting increases in levels of international trade and investment have subsequently generated research interest into the potential population health impact. We present a systematic review of quantitative studies investigating the relationship between international trade, foreign direct investment and non-nutritional health outcomes. Articles were systematically collected from the SCOPUS, PubMed, EconLit and Web of Science databases. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the evidence considered, the 16 included articles were subdivided into individual level data analyses, selected country analyses and international panel analyses. Articles were then quality assessed using a tool developed as part of the project. Nine of the studies were assessed to be high quality, six as medium quality, and one as low quality. The evidence from the quantitative literature suggests that overall, there appears to be a beneficial association between international trade and population health. There was also evidence of the importance of foreign direct investment, yet a lack of research considering the direction of causality. Taken together, quantitative research into the relationship between trade and non-nutritional health indicates trade to be beneficial, yet this body of research is still in its infancy. Future quantitative studies based on this foundation will provide a stronger basis on which to inform relevant national and international institutions about the health consequences of trade policies. PMID:26820112

  19. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    PubMed

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. PMID:21269674

  20. 78 FR 14518 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Program for the International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Adult Competencies (PIAAC) National Supplement Data Collection 2013-2014 AGENCY: Institute for Education... of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) National Supplement Data Collection 2013- 2014. OMB Control Number... Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) National Supplement data...

  1. A Participatory Outcome Evaluation on the Impact of BSW Interns on Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallory, Drew; Cox, Shirley Elizabeth; Panos, Patrick T.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the findings of an exploratory study investigating the perceived benefits and costs of BSW interns for host agencies. The qualitative study included surveys from over 100 agency student supervisors, colleagues, and administrative personnel assessing the perceived effects students had on a range of categories. It also included…

  2. International Aid Agencies, Learner-Centred Pedagogy and Political Democratisation: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabulawa, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Since 1989, international aid agencies have shown a marked interest in and preference for learner-centered pedagogy. This change follows a shift in agency ideology from modernization theory to neoliberalism, which sees democratic social relations as a prerequisite to free-market capitalism. Thus, the pedagogy represents a process of Westernization…

  3. 75 FR 54299 - Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International Development; Comments Requested SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is making...

  4. 75 FR 54298 - Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International Development; Comments Requested SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is making...

  5. 77 FR 75105 - Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International Development; Comments Requested SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is making efforts to reduce the paperwork burden. USAID invites the general public...

  6. A Geovisual Analytic Approach to Understanding Geo-Social Relationships in the International Trade Network

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly ‘balkanized’ (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above. PMID:24558409

  7. A geovisual analytic approach to understanding geo-social relationships in the international trade network.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly 'balkanized' (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above. PMID:24558409

  8. Crisis Communication Practices at an International Relief Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genova, Gina L.

    2006-01-01

    When a disaster strikes, the affected population relies upon the swift response and aid rendered by relief organizations such as the California-based Direct Relief International. Since 1948, Direct Relief's mission has been to provide essential material resources to locally run health programs in areas affected by natural disasters, wars, and…

  9. 76 FR 33783 - Public Availability of the U.S. International Trade Commission's FY 2010 Service Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... . The U.S. International Trade Commission has posted its inventory on its homepage at the following link... 202-205-3131 or Stephen.McLaughlin@usitc.gov . By order to the Commission. Dated: June 6, 2011....

  10. Impacts of international trade, services and investment treaties on alcohol regulation.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber-Otto, J; Sinclair, S; Schacter, N

    2000-12-01

    There is an underlying incompatibility between government efforts to minimize the harm associated with alcohol, particularly by regulating its supply, and international commercial treaties that promote the freer flow of goods, services and investment. These treaties have already forced changes to many government measures affecting alcohol availability and control, primarily by constraining the activities of government alcohol monopolies and by altering taxation regimes. The North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization agreements open new avenues for challenges against alcohol control measures. Some of these agreements extend beyond trade, border measures and differential taxation and allow challenges that intrude into areas of non-discriminatory domestic regulation affecting market access, intellectual property, investment and services. Effective protection from these agreements for vital public health measures has rarely been obtained, although it is increasingly essential. The WTO "services" agreement, basically unknown to the public, is currently being re-negotiated and poses the gravest new challenge to policies designed to influence patterns of alcohol use and minimize alcohol-related harm. In future, these international agreements will probably affect adversely those alcohol approaches considered to be the most effective or promising. These include: maintaining effective state monopolies, restricting the number and locations of retail outlets, taxing and regulating beverages according to alcohol strength, restricting commercial advertising, and maintaining and enhancing public alcohol education and treatment programs. These effects can, in turn, be expected to increase the availability and access to alcohol, to lower alcohol taxes, and to increase advertising and promotion, resulting in increased alcohol consumption and associated health problems. Until more balanced international rules are developed, the challenge facing alcohol

  11. Proceedings of the International Energy Agency workshop on separation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L.L.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.

    1989-07-01

    An international separations workshop was held to review current international research and development (R and D) activities in separation technologies and to identify important R and D needs. Participants represented government, academia, and industry from Austria, Canada, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States, and West Germany. Workshop activities included an identification of broad areas of R and D that are needed to advance the state of the art in separations science and technology, and some of the more focused, key research efforts needed. Participants, working in groups, developed more detailed R and D recommendations and identified example projects that address knowledge gaps in three major technology areas: (1)membranes, (2) drying, evaporation, distillation, dewatering, and freeze crystallization, and (3) solvent/supercritical fluid extraction. Also, as background for the technical discussions, members of each country represented at the workshop made formal presentations.

  12. War on Hunger: A Report from the Agency for International Development, December 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoad, David L., Ed.

    Produced by the Agency for International Development, this magazine presents articles and speeches on international development. Published monthly, the articles focus on developing nations and problems and areas of development. Typical issues offer articles on food and nutrition, education, disaster and humanitarian relief, U.S. government policy,…

  13. Engaging International Students: An Analysis of the Australian Universities Quality Agency (AUQA) Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Jane; Crossman, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Australia has enjoyed two decades of growth in international student enrolments. This phenomenon, combined with the evolution of quality assurance policy frameworks, has stimulated interest in the social and academic experiences of international students and their educational outcomes. The Australian Universities Quality Agency's (AUQA)…

  14. Animal origins of SARS coronavirus: possible links with the international trade in small carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Diana; Roberton, Scott; Hunter, Paul R

    2004-01-01

    The search for animal host origins of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus has so far remained focused on wildlife markets, restaurants and farms within China. A significant proportion of this wildlife enters China through an expanding regional network of illegal, international wildlife trade. We present the case for extending the search for ancestral coronaviruses and their hosts across international borders into countries such as Vietnam and Lao People's Democratic Republic, where the same guilds of species are found on sale in similar wildlife markets or food outlets. The three species that have so far been implicated, a viverrid, a mustelid and a canid, are part of a large suite of small carnivores distributed across this region currently overexploited by this international wildlife trade. A major lesson from SARS is that the underlying roots of newly emergent zoonotic diseases may lie in the parallel biodiversity crisis of massive species loss as a result of overexploitation of wild animal populations and the destruction of their natural habitats by increasing human populations. To address these dual threats to the long-term future of biodiversity, including man, requires a less anthropocentric and more interdisciplinary approach to problems that require the combined research expertise of ecologists, conservation biologists, veterinarians, epidemiologists, virologists, as well as human health professionals. PMID:15306396

  15. 76 FR 77776 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental...

  16. 78 FR 21909 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee; Public Meeting AGENCY... notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade... information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Todd DeLelle, Office of Energy & Environmental...

  17. 77 FR 14734 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY... Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The meeting is scheduled for Thursday, April 27, 2012, at... programs; and issues related to innovation in the environmental technology sector. Background: The ETTAC...

  18. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States.... International Trade Commission (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-523, U.S.-Korea Free Trade... Trade Act of 2002 (19 U.S.C. 3804(f)), assessing the likely impact of the U.S.-Korea Free...

  19. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership.

    PubMed

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally. PMID:23788606

  20. International trade law, plain packaging and tobacco industry political activity: the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are increasingly turning to trade and investment agreements to challenge measures aimed at reducing tobacco use. This study examines their efforts to influence the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a major trade and investment agreement which may eventually cover 40% of the world's population; focusing on how these efforts might enhance the industry's power to challenge the introduction of plain packaging. Specifically, the paper discusses the implications for public health regulation of Philip Morris International's interest in using the TPP to: shape the bureaucratic structures and decision-making processes of business regulation at the national level; introduce a higher standard of protection for trademarks than is currently provided under the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; and expand the coverage of Investor-State Dispute Settlement which empowers corporations to litigate directly against governments where they are deemed to be in breach of investment agreements. The large number of countries involved in the TPP underlines its risk to the development of tobacco regulation globally. PMID:23788606

  1. 76 FR 39893 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Register of December 22, 2010 (75 FR 80542). Below we provide the U.S. International Trade Commission's... for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: U.S. International Trade... streamline the process to seek feedback from the public on service delivery, the U.S. International...

  2. International food trade reduces environmental effects of nitrogen pollution in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yaxing; Wu, Shaohua; Zhou, Shenglu; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The globalization of agricultural trade has dramatically altered global nitrogen flows by changing the spatial pattern of nitrogen utilization and emissions at a global scale. As a major trading country, China uses a large amount of nitrogen, which has a profound impact on global nitrogen flows. Using data on food production and trade between China and 26 other countries and regions, we calculated nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production ecosystem in each country. We estimated nitrogen flows in international food trade and analyzed their impact on nitrogen pollution in China. We divided nitrogen flows into embodied and virtual nitrogen flows. Embodied nitrogen is taken up by the plant and incorporated into the final food product, whereas virtual nitrogen is lost to the environment throughout the food production process and is not contained in the final food product. Our results show that China mainly imports food products from America and Asia, accounting for 95 % of all imported food. Asia (mainly Japan) and Europe are the main exporters of food from China, with Japan and the EU accounting for 17 and 10 % of all exported food, respectively. Total nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production in China were 55,400 and 61,000 Gg respectively, which were much higher than in other countries. About 1440 and 950 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow into China through the food trade, mainly from food-exporting countries such as the USA, Argentina, and Brazil. Meanwhile, 177 and 160 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow out of China from the export of food products, mainly to Japan. China's net food imports have reduced 720 and 458 Gg for nitrogen utilization and outputs, respectively, which accounted for 1.3 and 0.78 % of total nitrogen inputs and outputs in China. These results suggest that food trade in China has a profound effect on nitrogen flows and has greatly reduced environmental impacts on nitrogen pollution in China

  3. A GDP-driven model for the binary and weighted structure of the International Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almog, Assaf; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Recent events such as the global financial crisis have renewed the interest in the topic of economic networks. One of the main channels of shock propagation among countries is the International Trade Network (ITN). Two important models for the ITN structure, the classical gravity model of trade (more popular among economists) and the fitness model (more popular among networks scientists), are both limited to the characterization of only one representation of the ITN. The gravity model satisfactorily predicts the volume of trade between connected countries, but cannot reproduce the missing links (i.e. the topology). On the other hand, the fitness model can successfully replicate the topology of the ITN, but cannot predict the volumes. This paper tries to make an important step forward in the unification of those two frameworks, by proposing a new gross domestic product (GDP) driven model which can simultaneously reproduce the binary and the weighted properties of the ITN. Specifically, we adopt a maximum-entropy approach where both the degree and the strength of each node are preserved. We then identify strong nonlinear relationships between the GDP and the parameters of the model. This ultimately results in a weighted generalization of the fitness model of trade, where the GDP plays the role of a ‘macroeconomic fitness’ shaping the binary and the weighted structure of the ITN simultaneously. Our model mathematically explains an important asymmetry in the role of binary and weighted network properties, namely the fact that binary properties can be inferred without the knowledge of weighted ones, while the opposite is not true.

  4. New dimensions in nonproliferation -- An International Atomic Energy Agency view

    SciTech Connect

    Pelland, B. )

    1994-10-01

    Four years ago, Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait with the intention of annexing it as Iraq's 19th state. The disclosure of the Iraqi nuclear weapons program in the aftermath of the Gulf War--through the IAEA inspections--signaled the end of one proliferation era and the start of the next. In the author's remarks here, he has found it useful to identify four distinct proliferation eras, each with different features, each calling for different emphasis in international nonproliferation efforts. They provide a convenient way to look at the history of nonproliferation, and to look into the future and to the new dimensions in nonproliferation that are slowly emerging. Since the Gulf War, the nuclear world experienced a series of events of fundamental significance that changed the nature of nonproliferation, forcing changes in the mission of the IAEA and its methods. Certainly some of these events came in the form of unpleasant surprises, such as in Iraq, but very positive progress was also made on other fronts. He would like to share some perceptions of the events creating the present situation, and some views anticipating the requirements most likely to emerge in the coming years.

  5. The structures and the role of an international agency for the control of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupuy, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Legal questions involved in the liability of a proposed agency which would control internationally owned satellites for monitoring worldwide compliance with arms control agreements are discussed. Difficulties in acquiring the signed consent of all the relevant nations, and guaranteeing satisfactory compliance with the terms of such an agreement are noted. Additional problems to be solved comprise the construction of the ground based facilities and the satellites, the funding for the venture, and the reconciliation of the functions of the proposed agency with the sovereignty of individual states. The agency would gather, treat, and format data for signatories of arms control agreements and provide technical assistance in crisis conditions. It is concluded that the existence and functioning of the agency would reduce the amount of classified information and would consequently reduce the level of international tensions.

  6. International energy trade impacts on water resource crises: an embodied water flows perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. C.; Zhong, R.; Zhao, P.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, Y.; Mao, G. Z.

    2016-07-01

    Water and energy are coupled in intimate ways (Siddiqi and Anadon 2011 Energy Policy 39 4529–40), which is amplified by international energy trade. The study shows that the total volume of energy related international embodied water flows averaged 6298 Mm3 yr‑1 from 1992–2010, which represents 10% of the water used for energy production including oil, coal, gas and electricity production. This study calculates embodied water import and export status of 219 countries from 1992 to 2010 and embodied water flow changes of seven regions over time (1992/2000/2010). In addition, the embodied water net export risk-crisis index and net embodied water import benefit index are established. According to the index system, 33 countries export vast amounts of water who have a water shortage, which causes water risk and crisis related to energy trade. While 29 countries abate this risk due to their rich water resource, 45 countries import embodied water linked to energy imports. Based on the different status of countries studied, the countries were classified into six groups with different policy recommendations.

  7. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 201 - Supplier's Certificate and Agreement With the Agency for International Development (AID 282)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Agency for International Development (AID 282) A Appendix A to Part 201 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Pt. 201, App. A Appendix A to Part 201—Supplier's Certificate and Agreement With the Agency for...

  8. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 201 - Supplier's Certificate and Agreement With the Agency for International Development (AID 282)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Agency for International Development (AID 282) A Appendix A to Part 201 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Pt. 201, App. A Appendix A to Part 201—Supplier's Certificate and Agreement With the Agency for...

  9. 77 FR 49476 - Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period for the Proposed New International Trade Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period for the Proposed New International Trade Crossing (NITC) Presidential Permit Application In response to requests, the Department of State is extending the public comment period for the New International...

  10. A Businessman's Guide to the Economic Geography and International Trade of the People's Republic of China: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, James Joseph, Comp.; Madden, Gregory J., Comp.

    Intended to support undergraduate curricula in international business, this annotated listing cites English-language materials dealing mainly with international trade and the economic geography of China. Also included are materials dealing with demography, public health, historical geography, and the geography of cities. All materials included are…

  11. Coastline Community College World Trade Center Institute Business and International Education Program. Final Performance Report: A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Chet; Secord, Debra A.

    Under a Title VI-B grant, California's Coastline Community College (CCC) conducted a needs assessment survey establishing a database of international training needs, developed five courses and 10 workshops in international business, and formed the World Trade Center Institute (WTCI). This report provides information on the activities and…

  12. 78 FR 60993 - In the Matter of China Ruitai International Holdings Co., Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of China Ruitai International Holdings Co., Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading... accurate information concerning the securities of China Ruitai International Holdings Co., Ltd....

  13. Hungarian intelligent road information system (IRIS) Technical Development Agency (TDA) project inception report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The report provides an overview of the Hungarian Intelligent Road Information System (IRIS), which is designed to apply the latest technologies and transportation skills to provide Hungarians and international road users with the best possible service on the Hungarian roadway system.

  14. International cooperation in the field of space life sciences: European Space Agency's (ESA) perspectives.

    PubMed

    Oser, H

    1989-08-01

    International cooperation in life sciences, as in any other of the space research fields, takes place at two distinct levels: scientist to scientist, or agency to agency. This article is more concerned with the agency to agency level, which involves the arrangements made between two partners for the flying of experiments and/or hardware on space missions. International cooperation is inherent to the European Space Agency (ESA), since it consists of 13 member states (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and West Germany) and one associated member, Finland. ESA also has special cooperative arrangements with Canada. Life sciences research in ESA is carried out within the Microgravity Research Program, an optional program to which member states (in this case all but Austria and Ireland) contribute "a la carte," and receive their "share" accordingly. Therefore, many of the activities are naturally linked to international arrangements within the member states, and also to arrangements between the agencies, with life sciences being the dominant activity between NASA and ESA. PMID:11592293

  15. 78 FR 34344 - Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan and Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Travel and Tourism Trade Mission to Taiwan, Japan and Korea AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United States Department of Commerce,...

  16. 22 CFR 208.635 - May the U.S. Agency for International Development settle a debarment or suspension action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May the U.S. Agency for International... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 208.635 May the U.S. Agency for International...

  17. 75 FR 39204 - Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International Development; Comments Requested SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is making efforts... International Development, Room 2.07-106, RRB, Washington, DC 20523, (202) 712-1365 or via e-mail at...

  18. 76 FR 19740 - Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International Development; Comments Requested SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is making efforts to reduce the paperwork burden. USAID invites the general public...

  19. 75 FR 39204 - Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International Development; Comments Requested SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is making efforts... International Development, Ronald Reagan Building, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20523,...

  20. 10 CFR 95.36 - Access by representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Access by representatives of the International Atomic... Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other international agreements. (a) Based upon written... an authorized representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other...

  1. 10 CFR 95.36 - Access by representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Access by representatives of the International Atomic... Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other international agreements. (a) Based upon written... an authorized representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other...

  2. 75 FR 62366 - Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International Development; Comments Requested SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is making efforts... International Development, Room 2.07-106, RRB, Washington, DC 20523, (202) 712-1365 or via e-mail...

  3. 10 CFR 95.36 - Access by representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Access by representatives of the International Atomic... Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other international agreements. (a) Based upon written... an authorized representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other...

  4. 10 CFR 95.36 - Access by representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Access by representatives of the International Atomic... Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other international agreements. (a) Based upon written... an authorized representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other...

  5. 10 CFR 95.36 - Access by representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Access by representatives of the International Atomic... Atomic Energy Agency or by participants in other international agreements. (a) Based upon written... an authorized representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other...

  6. 22 CFR 208.635 - May the U.S. Agency for International Development settle a debarment or suspension action?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the U.S. Agency for International... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 208.635 May the U.S. Agency for International...

  7. 15 CFR 2002.2 - Trade Policy Staff Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 23620, December 11, 1971 (15 CFR 2002.2, and 2002.3, respectively) are abolished and there is hereby... the International Trade Commission. Each Secretary or head of an agency or office and the Chairman of... acting chairmen of the Committee. The representative of the International Trade Commission shall be...

  8. Quantitative Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Carbon Transferred by International Trade

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Moore, John; Yan, Qing; Song, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Wenping; Chou, Jieming; Cui, Xuefeng; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shili; Tian, Di; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Song; Wen, Zhiping; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Feng, Guolin; Jiang, Yundi; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Juan; Wei, Xin; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Dong, Juan; Li, Yexin; Chen, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Carbon transfer via international trade affects the spatial pattern of global carbon emissions by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services. It has potential impacts on attribution of the responsibility of various countries for climate change and formulation of carbon-reduction policies. However, the effect of carbon transfer on climate change has not been quantified. Here, we present a quantitative estimate of climatic impacts of carbon transfer based on a simple CO2 Impulse Response Function and three Earth System Models. The results suggest that carbon transfer leads to a migration of CO2 by 0.1–3.9 ppm or 3–9% of the rise in the global atmospheric concentrations from developed countries to developing countries during 1990–2005 and potentially reduces the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol by up to 5.3%. However, the induced atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes (e.g., in temperature, ocean heat content, and sea-ice) are very small and lie within observed interannual variability. Given continuous growth of transferred carbon emissions and their proportion in global total carbon emissions, the climatic effect of traded carbon is likely to become more significant in the future, highlighting the need to consider carbon transfer in future climate negotiations. PMID:27329411

  9. Quantitative Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Carbon Transferred by International Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Moore, John; Yan, Qing; Song, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Wenping; Chou, Jieming; Cui, Xuefeng; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shili; Tian, Di; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Song; Wen, Zhiping; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Feng, Guolin; Jiang, Yundi; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Juan; Wei, Xin; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Dong, Juan; Li, Yexin; Chen, Deliang

    2016-06-01

    Carbon transfer via international trade affects the spatial pattern of global carbon emissions by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services. It has potential impacts on attribution of the responsibility of various countries for climate change and formulation of carbon-reduction policies. However, the effect of carbon transfer on climate change has not been quantified. Here, we present a quantitative estimate of climatic impacts of carbon transfer based on a simple CO2 Impulse Response Function and three Earth System Models. The results suggest that carbon transfer leads to a migration of CO2 by 0.1–3.9 ppm or 3–9% of the rise in the global atmospheric concentrations from developed countries to developing countries during 1990–2005 and potentially reduces the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol by up to 5.3%. However, the induced atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes (e.g., in temperature, ocean heat content, and sea-ice) are very small and lie within observed interannual variability. Given continuous growth of transferred carbon emissions and their proportion in global total carbon emissions, the climatic effect of traded carbon is likely to become more significant in the future, highlighting the need to consider carbon transfer in future climate negotiations.

  10. Quantitative Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Carbon Transferred by International Trade.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Moore, John; Yan, Qing; Song, Yi; Yang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Wenping; Chou, Jieming; Cui, Xuefeng; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Guo, Yan; Yang, Shili; Tian, Di; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Song; Wen, Zhiping; Lin, Hui; Chen, Min; Feng, Guolin; Jiang, Yundi; Zhu, Xian; Chen, Juan; Wei, Xin; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Zhiguo; Dong, Juan; Li, Yexin; Chen, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Carbon transfer via international trade affects the spatial pattern of global carbon emissions by redistributing emissions related to production of goods and services. It has potential impacts on attribution of the responsibility of various countries for climate change and formulation of carbon-reduction policies. However, the effect of carbon transfer on climate change has not been quantified. Here, we present a quantitative estimate of climatic impacts of carbon transfer based on a simple CO2 Impulse Response Function and three Earth System Models. The results suggest that carbon transfer leads to a migration of CO2 by 0.1-3.9 ppm or 3-9% of the rise in the global atmospheric concentrations from developed countries to developing countries during 1990-2005 and potentially reduces the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol by up to 5.3%. However, the induced atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes (e.g., in temperature, ocean heat content, and sea-ice) are very small and lie within observed interannual variability. Given continuous growth of transferred carbon emissions and their proportion in global total carbon emissions, the climatic effect of traded carbon is likely to become more significant in the future, highlighting the need to consider carbon transfer in future climate negotiations. PMID:27329411

  11. Student Agency and Language-Learning Processes and Outcomes in International Online Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basharina, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on the kinds of learning afforded by asynchronous international computer-mediated communication (I-CMC) among Japanese, Mexican, and Russian English language learners and the role of student agency in learning. To find learning evidence, the discourse analysis and content analysis of interaction protocols were conducted in…

  12. Role of IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards in confidence building

    SciTech Connect

    Augustson, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, I will examine some attributes of confidence building and connect them with how the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) interacts with its member states in carrying out its safeguards function. These interactions and the structure set up to define them help maintain and strengthen confidence between the IAEA and the member states and among these states. 3 refs.

  13. Prediction in complex systems: The case of the international trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmer, Alexandre; Zeng, An; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Predicting the future evolution of complex systems is one of the main challenges in complexity science. Based on a current snapshot of a network, link prediction algorithms aim to predict its future evolution. We apply here link prediction algorithms to data on the international trade between countries. This data can be represented as a complex network where links connect countries with the products that they export. Link prediction techniques based on heat and mass diffusion processes are employed to obtain predictions for products exported in the future. These baseline predictions are improved using a recent metric of country fitness and product similarity. The overall best results are achieved with a newly developed metric of product similarity which takes advantage of causality in the network evolution.

  14. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade.

    PubMed

    Kendra, David F; Dyer, Rex B

    2007-10-20

    basis of inconclusive or unknown potential hazards of a contaminant which may significantly impact global trade because mycotoxin residues vary widely between countries. This paper describes the current economic and heath impact of these regulations and their impact on international trade. PMID:17727996

  15. 78 FR 45969 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... European Union; Institution of Investigation and Scheduling of Hearing AGENCY: United States International.... International Trade Commission (Commission) instituted investigation No. 332-541, Trade Barriers that U.S....

  16. The application of risk analysis to international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Kellar, J A

    1993-12-01

    In an era when arduous land and sea journeys separated exporting and recipient nations, the duration and stress of transport dictated localised sourcing of stock and provided an implicit quarantine. Clinically latent infection, which remained undetected prior to embarkation, often surfaced and was eliminated before reaching the importing country. Many nations which would not accept the risk of importation, on clinical grounds, could effectively isolate themselves by prohibiting entry. Passive acceptance characterised much of the response of industry to the perceived wisdom behind such decisions. Advances in transportation technology now permit the accumulation of an export consignment from across an entire country. The assembled shipment is a sentinel for the infection experience of the national herd. The journey to the final destination is measured in hours, rather than weeks. Parallel diagnostic and epidemiological advances face the challenge of compensating for the risks attendant in such widespread and rapid sourcing of stock. Nations which judge the risks as unacceptable face a concerted legal challenge on a series of levels, both domestic and international. Refusal of legal importation can be circumvented easily through the smuggling of germ plasm. National Veterinary Services must respond to the economic, social and political realities of this new international trading environment. The means of facing this challenge through quantitative risk analysis are described. The theory of risk analysis, as well as the qualitative and quantitative evolution of the import applications of this analysis, is explained. Current challenges and potential solutions are discussed. PMID:8312609

  17. International trade causes large net economic losses in tropical countries via the destruction of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junning; Symes, William S; Lim, Felix; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-05-01

    Despite the large implications of the use of tropical land for exports ("land absorption") on ecosystem services (ES) and global biodiversity conservation, the magnitude of these externalities is not known. We quantify the net value of ES lost in tropical countries as a result of cropland, forestland and pastureland absorption for exports after deducting ES gains through imports ("land displacement"). We find that net ES gains occur only in 7 out of the 41 countries and regions considered. We estimate global annual net losses of over 1.7 x 10(12) international dollars (I$) (I$1.1 x 10(12) if carbon-related services are not considered). After deducting the benefits from agricultural, forest and livestock rents in land replacing tropical forests, the net annual losses are I$1.3 and I$0.7 x 10(12), respectively. The results highlight the large magnitude of tropical ES losses through international trade that are not compensated by the rents of land uses in absorbed land. PMID:26961010

  18. 78 FR 77141 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2014 East Coast Trade Symposium: “Increasing Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2014 East Coast Trade Symposium: ``Increasing Economic Competitiveness Through Global Partnership and Innovation'' AGENCY: U.S... community and other government agencies, on the agency's role in international trade initiatives...

  19. Integrating English for Specific Purposes Courseware into Task-Based Learning in a Context of Preparing for International Trade Fairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Chiao

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on integrating courseware for participating in international trade fairs into English for specific purposes (ESP) instruction at a technical university in Taiwan. An Information and Communication Technology (ICT) approach combining courseware integration with Task Based Learning (TBL), was adopted. Evaluation of implementing…

  20. 50 CFR 23.70 - How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and products? 23.70 Section 23.70 Wildlife and... in Certain Specimens § 23.70 How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other... section, crocodilian means all species of alligator, caiman, crocodile, and gavial of the order...

  1. 50 CFR 23.70 - How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and products? 23.70 Section 23.70 Wildlife and... in Certain Specimens § 23.70 How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other... section, crocodilian means all species of alligator, caiman, crocodile, and gavial of the order...

  2. 50 CFR 23.70 - How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and products? 23.70 Section 23.70 Wildlife and... in Certain Specimens § 23.70 How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other... section, crocodilian means all species of alligator, caiman, crocodile, and gavial of the order...

  3. 50 CFR 23.70 - How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and products? 23.70 Section 23.70 Wildlife and... in Certain Specimens § 23.70 How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other... section, crocodilian means all species of alligator, caiman, crocodile, and gavial of the order...

  4. 50 CFR 23.70 - How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... American alligator and other crocodilian skins, parts, and products? 23.70 Section 23.70 Wildlife and... in Certain Specimens § 23.70 How can I trade internationally in American alligator and other... section, crocodilian means all species of alligator, caiman, crocodile, and gavial of the order...

  5. 50 CFR 23.17 - What are the requirements for CITES specimens traded internationally by diplomatic, consular...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for CITES... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.17 What are the requirements for CITES specimens traded internationally by diplomatic, consular, military,...

  6. An Empirical Study on the Curriculum Construction of Business English for International Trade Based on the Case of GDUFS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzhong, Zhu; Cheng, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Business English education concern is of great significance. Business English for International Trade in Guangdong University of Foreign Studies (GDUFS) is widely acclaimed, and it is also a popular major. GDUFS has adopted the slogan "Learn from East and West, moral integrity and direct behavior". It is a famous cradle of learning,…

  7. Foreign Language and Cross-Cultural Education in the Promotion of International Trade: PEEP, A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peniche, Eduardo A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the Piedmont Export Expansion Program that was formed to establish a cooperative program between businesses engaged in foreign commerce and regional institutions of higher education. The purpose is to further develop, through a series of seminars, workshops, and regular academic instruction, international trade for the Piedmont area of…

  8. 50 CFR 23.75 - How can I trade internationally in vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... United States of raw wool sheared from live vicuña, see the labeling requirements in 50 CFR 17.40(m). ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.75 How can...

  9. 78 FR 76818 - U.S. Healthcare Education Trade Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India, January 27...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Education Trade Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India, January 27-February 1, 2014; Correction AGENCY: International Trade Administration... the Federal Register of July 16, 2013, in 78 FR 42505, title, note a top of page, correct the...

  10. 77 FR 77035 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia and Panama City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Register of December 4, 2012, in FR Doc. 2012-29306 on page 71778, first column, correct the subject... International Trade Administration U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia and Panama City, Panama, May 13-16, 2012; Correction AGENCY: International Trade...

  11. 78 FR 38687 - Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil, October 7-10, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil, October 7-10, 2013 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United...

  12. 77 FR 11157 - Remanufactured Goods: An Overview of the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade; Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... the U.S. and Global Industries, Markets, and Trade (76 FR 44606). Public Hearing: In order to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... Start Time of Public Hearing AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  13. 75 FR 10207 - Notice of Public Information Collections being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collections being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International Development; Comments Requested SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)--is making efforts... Development, Room 2.07-106, RRB, Washington, DC 20523. (202) 712-1365 or via e-mail...

  14. 76 FR 19740 - Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International Development; Comments Requested SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is making efforts... Development, Room 2.07C, RRB, Washington, DC 20523, (202) 712-5007 or via e-mail sjoyner@usaid.gov ....

  15. 48 CFR 470.202 - Acquisition of commodities for United States Agency for International Development (USAID) programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for United States Agency for International Development (USAID) programs. 470.202 Section 470.202... ACQUISITIONS 470.202 Acquisition of commodities for United States Agency for International Development (USAID...) and (e)(2) of this section, with respect to the acquisition of agricultural commodities for...

  16. 77 FR 73611 - Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International Development; Comments Requested SUMMARY: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is making efforts... Development, Room 2.07C, RRB, Washington, DC, 20523, (202) 712-5007 or via email sjoyner@usaid.gov ....

  17. Health system strengthening in Myanmar during political reforms: perspectives from international agencies.

    PubMed

    Risso-Gill, Isabelle; McKee, Martin; Coker, Richard; Piot, Peter; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2014-07-01

    Myanmar has undergone a remarkable political transformation in the last 2 years, with its leadership voluntarily transitioning from an isolated military regime to a quasi-civilian government intent on re-engaging with the international community. Decades of underinvestment have left the country underdeveloped with a fragile health system and poor health outcomes. International aid agencies have found engagement with the Myanmar government difficult but this is changing rapidly and it is opportune to consider how Myanmar can engage with the global health system strengthening (HSS) agenda. Nineteen semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with representatives from international agencies working in Myanmar to capture their perspectives on HSS following political reform. They explored their perceptions of HSS and the opportunities for implementation. Participants reported challenges in engaging with government, reflecting the disharmony between actors, economic sanctions and barriers to service delivery due to health system weaknesses and bureaucracy. Weaknesses included human resources, data and medical products/infrastructure and logistical challenges. Agencies had mixed views of health system finance and governance, identifying problems and also some positive aspects. There is little consensus on how HSS should be approached in Myanmar, but much interest in collaborating to achieve it. Despite myriad challenges and concerns, participants were generally positive about the recent political changes, and remain optimistic as they engage in HSS activities with the government. PMID:23749651

  18. Strength of weak layers in cascading failures on multiplex networks: case of the international trade network.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K-I

    2016-01-01

    Many real-world complex systems across natural, social, and economical domains consist of manifold layers to form multiplex networks. The multiple network layers give rise to nonlinear effect for the emergent dynamics of systems. Especially, weak layers that can potentially play significant role in amplifying the vulnerability of multiplex networks might be shadowed in the aggregated single-layer network framework which indiscriminately accumulates all layers. Here we present a simple model of cascading failure on multiplex networks of weight-heterogeneous layers. By simulating the model on the multiplex network of international trades, we found that the multiplex model produces more catastrophic cascading failures which are the result of emergent collective effect of coupling layers, rather than the simple sum thereof. Therefore risks can be systematically underestimated in single-layer network analyses because the impact of weak layers can be overlooked. We anticipate that our simple theoretical study can contribute to further investigation and design of optimal risk-averse real-world complex systems. PMID:27211291

  19. Strength of weak layers in cascading failures on multiplex networks: case of the international trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K.-I.

    2016-05-01

    Many real-world complex systems across natural, social, and economical domains consist of manifold layers to form multiplex networks. The multiple network layers give rise to nonlinear effect for the emergent dynamics of systems. Especially, weak layers that can potentially play significant role in amplifying the vulnerability of multiplex networks might be shadowed in the aggregated single-layer network framework which indiscriminately accumulates all layers. Here we present a simple model of cascading failure on multiplex networks of weight-heterogeneous layers. By simulating the model on the multiplex network of international trades, we found that the multiplex model produces more catastrophic cascading failures which are the result of emergent collective effect of coupling layers, rather than the simple sum thereof. Therefore risks can be systematically underestimated in single-layer network analyses because the impact of weak layers can be overlooked. We anticipate that our simple theoretical study can contribute to further investigation and design of optimal risk-averse real-world complex systems.

  20. Pakistan's experience with kidney transplantation and trade: a call for international solidarity.

    PubMed

    Moazam, Farhat; Jafarey, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan has taken a long and tortuous road towards curbing the trade in organs within its borders. Yet, despite the phenomenal gains, several challenges remain in this area. For example, robust and sustainable deceased donor programmes must be established to meet the needs of a country which has a high prevalence of kidney disease and failure. Further, it is necessary to offer an alternative source of organs for transplantation to desperate patients who resort to buying these from the "market". Cultural factors and religious beliefs about the sanctity and inviolability of the corpse, as well as the lack of public and professional education regarding the procurement of organs from the deceased, pose considerable barriers that must be surmounted. We believe it is equally important that transplant professionals and the governments of affluent countries consider measures to discourage, if not prevent, their citizens from travelling to impoverished countries such as Pakistan to buy organs. Without a commitment, ethical and legal, to international solidarity in this matter, the goals that are already difficult for developing countries to achieve, ie, establishing deceased donor programmes and bringing an end to organ trafficking, will be even harder to achieve. PMID:25160967

  1. Strength of weak layers in cascading failures on multiplex networks: case of the international trade network

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K.-I.

    2016-01-01

    Many real-world complex systems across natural, social, and economical domains consist of manifold layers to form multiplex networks. The multiple network layers give rise to nonlinear effect for the emergent dynamics of systems. Especially, weak layers that can potentially play significant role in amplifying the vulnerability of multiplex networks might be shadowed in the aggregated single-layer network framework which indiscriminately accumulates all layers. Here we present a simple model of cascading failure on multiplex networks of weight-heterogeneous layers. By simulating the model on the multiplex network of international trades, we found that the multiplex model produces more catastrophic cascading failures which are the result of emergent collective effect of coupling layers, rather than the simple sum thereof. Therefore risks can be systematically underestimated in single-layer network analyses because the impact of weak layers can be overlooked. We anticipate that our simple theoretical study can contribute to further investigation and design of optimal risk-averse real-world complex systems. PMID:27211291

  2. 73 FR 68411 - Notice and call for applications for the Environmental and Clean Energy Technologies Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-11-18

    ... Technologies Trade Mission to Croatia, Italy, and Greece, March 30 to April 5, 2009 AGENCY: International Trade... Energy Technologies Trade Mission to Croatia, Italy, and Greece, March 30 to April 5, 2009. Mission... Zagreb, Croatia; Milan, Italy; and Athens, Greece, from March 30 to April 4, 2009. All three fast...

  3. 74 FR 8503 - Notice and Call for Applications for the Environmental and Clean Energy Technologies Trade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-02-25

    ... Technologies Trade Mission to Croatia, Italy, and Greece, March 30 to April 4, 2009 AGENCY: International Trade... Energy Technologies Trade Mission to Croatia, Italy, and Greece, March 30 to April 4, 2009. Mission... Zagreb, Croatia; Milan, Italy; and Athens, Greece, from March 30 to April 4, 2009. All three fast...

  4. How research funding agencies support science integration into policy and practice: An international overview

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Funding agencies constitute one essential pillar for policy makers, researchers and health service delivery institutions. Such agencies are increasingly providing support for science implementation. In this paper, we investigate health research funding agencies and how they support the integration of science into policy, and of science into practice, and vice versa. Methods We selected six countries: Australia, The Netherlands, France, Canada, England and the United States. For 13 funding agencies, we compared their intentions to support, their actions related to science integration into policy and practice, and the reported benefits of this integration. We did a qualitative content analysis of the reports and information provided on the funding agencies’ websites. Results Most funding agencies emphasized the importance of science integration into policy and practice in their strategic orientation, and stated how this integration was structured. Their funding activities were embedded in the push, pull, or linkage/exchange knowledge transfer model. However, few program funding efforts were based on all three models. The agencies reported more often on the benefits of integration on practice, rather than on policy. External programs that were funded largely covered science integration into policy and practice at the end of grant stage, while overlooking the initial stages. Finally, external funding actions were more prominent than internally initiated bridging activities and training activities on such integration. Conclusions This paper contributes to research on science implementation because it goes beyond the two community model of researchers versus end users, to include funding agencies. Users of knowledge may be end users in health organizations like hospitals; civil servants assigned to decision making positions within funding agencies; civil servants outside of the Ministry of Health, such as the Ministry of the Environment; politicians deciding

  5. The Effectiveness of Web-Based Foreign Exchange Trading Simulation in an International Finance Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chen-Huei; Liu, Hao-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study if trading simulation is an effective tool to increase students' knowledge of the foreign exchange market. We developed a real-time multiuser web-based trading system that replicates an electronic brokerage foreign exchange market. To assess the effectiveness of the program, we conducted surveys in…

  6. 22 CFR 208.610 - What procedures does the U.S. Agency for International Development use in suspension and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... International Development use in suspension and debarment actions? 208.610 Section 208.610 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General... International Development use in suspension and debarment actions? In deciding whether to suspend or debar...

  7. 22 CFR 208.610 - What procedures does the U.S. Agency for International Development use in suspension and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... International Development use in suspension and debarment actions? 208.610 Section 208.610 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General... International Development use in suspension and debarment actions? In deciding whether to suspend or debar...

  8. Gonadal development in a giant threatened reef fish, the humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus, and its relationship to international trade.

    PubMed

    Sadovy de Mitcheson, Y; Liu, M; Suharti, S

    2010-08-01

    An opportunity arose to obtain humphead wrasse Cheilinus undulatus specimens between 2006 and 2009 from Indonesia, the major source and exporting country of this species, making study on its early gonad development possible for the first time. Protogynous hermaphroditism, previously proposed for this species, was confirmed in this study. Based on histological examination of 178 specimens, mainly <500 mm total length (L(T)) and ranging from 208 to 1290 mm L(T) (119.1 g to 43.0 kg whole body mass), the minimum body sizes for female and male sexual maturation were determined to be 650 and 845 mm L(T), respectively. Primary male development through juvenile sexual differentiation was not detected. A unique blind pouch, with a possible sperm storage function and associated with the testis, was reported for the first time in the Labridae. In Hong Kong retail markets, the global trading centre for this valuable species, live C. undulatus on sale for food were dominated by body sizes <500 mm L(T) between 1995 and 2009, reflecting an international trade largely focused on juveniles. In consideration of these findings, and given the threatened status of this species, management for C. undulatus capture and trade nationally and internationally are discussed with recommendations for ensuring sufficient spawning biomass in exploited populations and for sustainable trade. PMID:20701649

  9. A review of trends in the distribution of vector-borne diseases: is international trade contributing to their spread?

    PubMed

    de La Rocque, S; Balenghien, T; Halos, L; Dietze, K; Claes, F; Ferrari, G; Guberti, V; Slingenbergh, J

    2011-04-01

    It is difficult to determine the part that international trade has played in the expansion of vector-borne diseases, because of the multitude of factors that affect the transformation of habitats and the interfaces between vectors and hosts. The introduction of pathogens through trade in live animals or products of animal origin, as well as the arrival of arthropod vectors, is probably quite frequent but the establishment of an efficient transmission system that develops into a disease outbreak remains the exception. In this paper, based on well-documented examples, the authors review the ecological and epidemiological characteristics of vector-borne diseases that may have been affected in their spread and change of distribution by international trade. In addition, they provide a detailed analysis of the risks associated with specific trade routes and recent expansions of vector populations. Finally, the authors highlight the importance, as well as the challenges, of preventive surveillance and regulation. The need for improved monitoring of vector populations and a readiness to face unpredictable epidemiological events are also emphasised, since this will require rapid reaction, not least in the regulatory context. PMID:21809758

  10. Spatial Dynamics of the Communities and the Role of Major Countries in the International Rare Earths Trade: A Complex Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xibo; Ge, Jianping; Wei, Wendong; Li, Hanshi; Wu, Chen; Zhu, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Rare earths (RE) are critical materials in many high-technology products. Due to the uneven distribution and important functions for industrial development, most countries import RE from a handful of suppliers that are rich in RE, such as China. However, because of the rapid growth of RE exploitation and pollution of the mining and production process, some of the main suppliers have gradually tended to reduce the RE production and exports. Especially in the last decade, international RE trade has been changing in the trade community and trade volume. Based on complex network theory, we built an unweighted and weighted network to explore the evolution of the communities and identify the role of the major countries in the RE trade. The results show that an international RE trade network was dispersed and unstable because of the existence of five to nine trade communities in the unweighted network and four to eight trade communities in the weighted network in the past 13 years. Moreover, trade groups formed due to the great influence of geopolitical relations. China was often associated with the South America and African countries in the same trade group. In addition, Japan, China, the United States, and Germany had the largest impacts on international RE trade from 2002 to 2014. Last, some policy suggestions were highlighted according to the results. PMID:27137779

  11. Spatial Dynamics of the Communities and the Role of Major Countries in the International Rare Earths Trade: A Complex Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xibo; Ge, Jianping; Wei, Wendong; Li, Hanshi; Wu, Chen; Zhu, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Rare earths (RE) are critical materials in many high-technology products. Due to the uneven distribution and important functions for industrial development, most countries import RE from a handful of suppliers that are rich in RE, such as China. However, because of the rapid growth of RE exploitation and pollution of the mining and production process, some of the main suppliers have gradually tended to reduce the RE production and exports. Especially in the last decade, international RE trade has been changing in the trade community and trade volume. Based on complex network theory, we built an unweighted and weighted network to explore the evolution of the communities and identify the role of the major countries in the RE trade. The results show that an international RE trade network was dispersed and unstable because of the existence of five to nine trade communities in the unweighted network and four to eight trade communities in the weighted network in the past 13 years. Moreover, trade groups formed due to the great influence of geopolitical relations. China was often associated with the South America and African countries in the same trade group. In addition, Japan, China, the United States, and Germany had the largest impacts on international RE trade from 2002 to 2014. Last, some policy suggestions were highlighted according to the results. PMID:27137779

  12. International funding agencies: potential leaders of impact evaluation in protected areas?

    PubMed

    Craigie, Ian D; Barnes, Megan D; Geldmann, Jonas; Woodley, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Globally, protected areas are the most commonly used tools to halt biodiversity loss. Yet, some are failing to adequately conserve the biodiversity they contain. There is an urgent need for knowledge on how to make them function more effectively. Impact evaluation methods provide a set of tools that could yield this knowledge. However, rigorous outcome-focused impact evaluation is not yet used as extensively as it could be in protected area management. We examine the role of international protected area funding agencies in facilitating the use of impact evaluation. These agencies are influential stakeholders as they allocate hundreds of millions of dollars annually to support protected areas, creating a unique opportunity to shape how the conservation funds are spent globally. We identify key barriers to the use of impact evaluation, detail how large funders are uniquely placed to overcome many of these, and highlight the potential benefits if impact evaluation is used more extensively. PMID:26460135

  13. Beyond a Band-Aid Approach: An Internal Agency Solution to Nurse Staffing.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jewel; Kaplow, Roberta; Dominy, Janet; Stroud, Bridgett

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) affirmed that the employment of temporary or per diem nurses augments risk to patient safety. The IOM recommends health care facilities avoid hiring nurses working from a temporary external agency. The IOM recognizes the need for health care facilities to have a plan in place for situations when confronted with short staffing, higher acuity, and increased patient census. Based on recommendations from the IOM, an internal agency was developed in a university-based health care system. Cost savings were realized because of the collaborative efforts of human resources to fill vacancies, unit management managing their respective budgets by flexing staff based on patient census, and the development and implementation of the Enterprise Staffing Pool. PMID:26214939

  14. China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J.; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Guan, Dabo

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3–10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5–1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12–24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution. PMID:24449863

  15. International trade, and land use intensification and spatial reorganization explain Costa Rica’s forest transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadin, I.; Meyfroidt, P.; Lambin, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    While tropical deforestation remains widespread, some countries experienced a forest transition—a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Costa Rica had one of the highest deforestation rates in the 1980s and is now considered as a model of environmental sustainability, despite being a major producer of bananas and pineapples. We tested three land use processes that are thought to facilitate forest transitions. First, forest transitions may be accompanied by land use displacement through international trade of land-based products, which may undermine the global-scale environmental benefits of national forest protection. Second, reforestation is often associated with land use intensification in agriculture and forestry, allowing for land sparing. Third, this intensification may partly result from a geographical redistribution of land use at the sub-national scale to better match land use with land suitability. These hypotheses were verified for Costa Rica’s forest transition. We also tested whether forest increased mainly in regions with a low ecological value and agriculture expanded in regions with a high ecological value. Intensification and land use redistribution accounted for 76% of land spared during the forest transition, with 32% of this spared area corresponding to net reforestation. Decreasing meat exports led to a contraction of pastures, freeing an area equivalent to 80% of the reforested area. The forest transition in Costa Rica was environmentally beneficial at the global scale, with the reforested area over 1989–2013 corresponding to 130% of the land use displaced abroad through imports of agricultural products. However, expansion of export-oriented cropland caused deforestation in the most ecologically valuable regions of Costa Rica. Moreover, wood extraction from forest plantations increased to produce the pallets needed to export fruits. This highlights the importance of a multi-scale analysis when evaluating causes and impacts of

  16. 75 FR 18482 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... ETTAC is mandated by Public Law 103-392. It was created to advise the U.S. government on environmental... Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Environmental Technologies...

  17. 77 FR 35941 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY...: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a meeting of the Environmental Technologies... innovation in the environmental technology sector. Background: The ETTAC is mandated by Public Law...

  18. 78 FR 69648 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Meeting AGENCY: ITA, DOC... administration of programs to expand United States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws and regulations, including advice on how U.S. civil nuclear goods and services...

  19. 78 FR 44535 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Meeting AGENCY: ITA, DOC... States exports of civil nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws and regulations, including advice on how U.S. civil nuclear goods and services export policies, programs,...

  20. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy. PMID:22560564

  1. A vast range of opportunities for feeding the world in 2050: trade-off between diet, N contamination and international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, Gilles; Lassaletta, Luis; Garnier, Josette

    2015-02-01

    Through a detailed analysis of the FAO database, we have constructed a generalized representation of the nitrogen transfers characterizing the current agro-food system (GRAFS) of 12 macro-regions of the world in terms of functional relationships between crop farming, livestock breeding and human nutrition. Based on this model, and maintaining the current cropland areas and the performance of cropping and livestock systems in each region, we have assessed the possibilities of meeting the protein requirements of the estimated world population in 2050, according to various combinations of three critical drivers namely human diet (total amount of protein consumed and share of animal protein in this total), regional livestock production and crop fertilization intensity, in each region. The results show that feeding the projected 2050 world population would generally imply higher levels of inter-regional trade and of environmental nitrogen contamination than the current levels, but that the scenarios with less recourse to inter-regional trade generally produce less N losses to the environment. If an equitable human diet (in terms of protein consumption) is to be established globally (the same in all regions of the world), the fraction of animal protein should not exceed 40% of a total ingestion of 4 kgN capita-1 yr-1, or 25% of a total consumption of 5 kgN capita-1 yr-1. Our results show that slightly improving the agronomical performance in the most deficient regions (namely Maghreb, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and India) would make it possible not only to meet the global protein requirements with much less international trade (hence more food sovereignty), but also to reduce N environmental contamination the most efficiently.

  2. 76 FR 80334 - U.S. Medical Trade Mission to India; Mumbai, New Delhi and Hyderabad March 2-8, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Medical Trade Mission to India; Mumbai, New Delhi and Hyderabad March 2-8, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United States Department...

  3. International Atomic Energy Agency Bulletin, volume 22, no. 5 and 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    The assessment of benefits and risks associated with various energy sources and systems is considered in relation to human needs. Particular emphasis is given to occupational hazards connected with coal mining, the handling of natural and liquified petroleum gases, and the use of nuclear energy for electric power generation. A method of energy risk comparison is examined as well as the approach of a regulatory agency to the concept of risk. Reports of international conferences on the management of alpha contaminated waste and on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research are included.

  4. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 233 - Application for Compensation United States Agency for International Development Washington, DC 20523

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE FURTHER... $___Principal Amount of Notes issued by Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (the “Borrower”) held by the undersigned....

  5. Assessment of the safety of aquatic animal commodities for international trade: the OIE Aquatic Animal Health code.

    PubMed

    Oidtmann, B; Johnston, C; Klotins, K; Mylrea, G; Van, P T; Cabot, S; Martin, P Rosado; Ababouch, L; Berthe, F

    2013-02-01

    Trading of aquatic animals and aquatic animal products has become increasingly globalized during the last couple of decades. This commodity trade has increased the risk for the spread of aquatic animal pathogens. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognized as the international standard-setting organization for measures relating to international trade in animals and animal products. In this role, OIE has developed the Aquatic Animal Health Code, which provides health measures to be used by competent authorities of importing and exporting countries to avoid the transfer of agents pathogenic for animals or humans, whilst avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers. An OIE ad hoc group developed criteria for assessing the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for any purpose from a country, zone or compartment not declared free from a given disease 'X'. The criteria were based on the absence of the pathogenic agent in the traded commodity or inactivation of the pathogenic agent by the commercial processing used to produce the commodity. The group also developed criteria to assess the safety of aquatic animals or aquatic animal products for retail trade for human consumption from potentially infected areas. Such commodities were assessed considering the form and presentation of the product, the expected volume of waste tissues generated by the consumer and the likely presence of viable pathogenic agent in the waste. The ad hoc group applied the criteria to commodities listed in the individual disease chapters of the Aquatic Animal Health Code (2008 edition). Revised lists of commodities for which no additional measures should be required by the importing countries regardless of the status for disease X of the exporting country were developed and adopted by the OIE World Assembly of Delegates in May 2011. The rationale of the criteria and their application will be explained and demonstrated using examples. PMID:22335835

  6. 75 FR 30772 - Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the U.S. Agency for International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ...U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is making efforts to reduce the paperwork burden. USAID invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on the following proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act for 1995. Comments are requested concerning: (a) Whether the proposed or continuing......

  7. 22 CFR 208.135 - May the U.S. Agency for International Development exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May the U.S. Agency for International... Section 208.135 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 208.135 May the U.S. Agency for International Development exclude...

  8. 22 CFR 208.135 - May the U.S. Agency for International Development exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the U.S. Agency for International... Section 208.135 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 208.135 May the U.S. Agency for International Development exclude...

  9. 77 FR 31574 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International... Mission to South Africa and Zambia November 26--November 30, 2012, to help U.S. firms find business partners and sell equipment and services in Johannesburg and Cape Town, South Africa, and Lusaka,...

  10. 75 FR 8040 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an... Trading Company Affairs (``ETCA'') unit, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade..., Director, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, by telephone...

  11. 78 FR 59004 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an... Trading Company Affairs (``ETCA'') unit, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade..., Director, Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, by telephone...

  12. Globalization of water and food through international trade: impacts on food security, resilience and justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, P.; Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.; Suweis, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of water resources in general depends on geographic conditions but can be (virtually) modified by humans through mechanisms of globalization, such as trade, that make food commodities available to populations living far from the production regions. While trade is expected to improve access to food and (virtual) water, its impact on the global food system and its vulnerability to shocks remains poorly understood. It is also unclear who benefits from trade and whether it contributes to inequality and justice in resource redistribution. We reconstruct the global patterns of food trade and show with a simple model how the ongoing intensification of imports and exports has eroded the resilience of the global food system. Drawing on human rights theory, we investigate the relationship between inequality and injustice in access to water and food. We assess the fulfillment of positive and negative water and food rights and evaluate the obligations arising from the need to ensure that these rights are met throughout the world. We find that trade enhances the vulnerability to shocks but overall increase the number of people whose water and food rights are met.

  13. How To Adopt Internationally: A Guide for Agency-Directed and Independent Adoptions. 2000-2002 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Erichsen, Jean; Erichsen, Heino R.

    Many potential adoptive parents seeking international adoption find the process to be extremely complex. This guide details the international adoption process, including organizing a home study and fulfilling state requirements as well as selecting a country from which to adopt, working through emigration and immigration agencies, and traveling…

  14. 75 FR 22121 - Request for Public Comment on the Scope of Viewpoints Represented on the Industry Trade Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... States industry and agriculture and foreign enterprise in international trade, (ii) The character of the... Comment on the Scope of Viewpoints Represented on the Industry Trade Advisory Committees AGENCIES: Office... Representative (USTR) and the Department of Commerce have initiated a joint review of the Industry Trade...

  15. 78 FR 14770 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Barriers to the U.S. Environmental Industry AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION.... One aspect of increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI works... maintain a current, up-to- date list of non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports...

  16. 75 FR 8300 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Barriers to the U.S. Environmental Industry AGENCY: International Trade Administration. ACTION: Notice... of increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI works closely with... maintain a current, up-to-date list of non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports...

  17. 75 FR 3489 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement: Advice on Probable Economic Effect of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement: Advice on Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free Treatment for Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION.... TA-131-034 and TA-2104-026, U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement: Advice on...

  18. Review for the Korean Health Professionals and International Cooperation Doctors Dispatched to Peru by the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Bongyoung

    2015-04-01

    South Korea dispatches Korean nationals to partner developing countries as an Official Development Assistance (ODA) project through the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). In the health sector, KOICA dispatches international cooperation doctors (ICDs), nurses, physical therapists, radiologic technologists, nutritionists, medical laboratory technologists, occupational therapists, and dental hygienists. A total of 216 ICDs were dispatched over 19 times from 1995 until 2013. There were 19 areas of specialties among the ICDs. The most common specialty was internal medicine (61/216, 28.2%), the second most common specialty was general surgery (43/216, 19.9%), followed by oriental medicine (27/216, 12.5%), pediatrics (17/216, 7.9%), orthopedics (16/216, 7.4%), family medicine (16/216, 7.4%), and odontology (14/216, 6.5%). The ICDs have worked in 21 countries. KOICA dispatched the highest number of ICDs to Asia (97/216, 44.9%), followed by Africa (50/216, 23.1%), Latin America (34/216, 15.7%), the commonwealth of independent states (31/216, 14.4%), and Oceania (4/216, 1.9%). Nobody was dispatched to the Middle East. A total of 134 KOICA health professionals were dispatched to Peru from 1996 until October 1, 2014. Of these, 19.4% (26/134) were ICDs, 44.8% (60/216) were nurses, 20.1% (27/134) were physical therapists, 6.7% (9/134) were radiologic technologists, 2.2% (3/134) were nutritionists, and 6.7% (9/134) were medical laboratory. ICDs' specialties comprised internal medicine (13/26, 50%), family medicine (8/26, 30.8%), pediatrics (2/26, 7.7%), otorhinolaryngology (1/26, 3.8%), orthopedics (1/26, 3.8%), and oriental medicine (1/26, 3.8%). Most of the dispatched health professionals worked at institutions that were supported by KOICA. For this reason, the proportion of health professionals who worked at public health centers (PHCs) was the highest (58.2%, 78/134) when classified by workplace type. Other KOICA health professionals worked at hospitals

  19. Social Enterprise with International Impact: The Case for Fair Trade Certification of Volunteer Tourism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mdee, Anna; Emmott, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Social enterprise and fair trade are seen increasingly as redefining capitalist relationships through revaluing social impact and ownership in enterprise activities. One of the dilemmas in such activities is the tension between operating a viable and commercially-sustainable enterprise and maximising social and developmental impacts. This article…

  20. Access to generic antiretrovirals: inequality, intellectual property law, and international trade agreements.

    PubMed

    Castro, Arachu; Westerhaus, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The governments of numerous low- and middle-income countries are currently instituting rules that strengthen changes in domestic intellectual property legislation, often made to conform to the mandates of "free" trade agreements signed with the United States. These measures frequently include intellectual property provisions that extend beyond the patent law standards agreed upon in recent World Trade Organization negotiations, which promised to balance the exigencies of public health and patent holders. In this paper, we analyze the concern that this augmentation of patent law standards will curtail access to essential medicines, particularly as they relate to the AIDS pandemic. We critically examine the potential threats posed by trade agreements vis-à-vis efforts to provide universal access to antiretroviral medications and contend that the conditioning of economic development upon the strengthening of intellectual property law demands careful attention when public health is at stake. Finally, we examine advocacy successes in challenging patent law and conclude that greater advocacy and policy strategies are needed to ensure the protection of global health in trade negotiations. PMID:17308722

  1. Identifying the community structure of the international-trade multi-network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barigozzi, Matteo; Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mangioni, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    We study the community structure of the multi-network of commodity-specific trade relations among world countries over the 1992-2003 period. We compare structures across commodities and time by means of the normalized mutual information index (NMI). We also compare them with exogenous community structures induced by geography and regional trade agreements. We find that commodity-specific community structures are very heterogeneous and much more fragmented than that characterizing the aggregate ITN. This shows that the aggregate properties of the ITN may result (and be very different) from the aggregation of very diverse commodity-specific layers of the multi-network. We also show that commodity-specific community structures, especially those related to the chemical sector, are becoming more and more similar to the aggregate one. Finally, our findings suggest that geography-induced partitions of our set of countries are much more correlated with observed community structures than partitions induced by regional-trade agreements. This result strengthens previous findings from the empirical literature on trade.

  2. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  3. Testing the validity of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety culture model.

    PubMed

    López de Castro, Borja; Gracia, Francisco J; Peiró, José M; Pietrantoni, Luca; Hernández, Ana

    2013-11-01

    This paper takes the first steps to empirically validate the widely used model of safety culture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), composed of five dimensions, further specified by 37 attributes. To do so, three independent and complementary studies are presented. First, 290 students serve to collect evidence about the face validity of the model. Second, 48 experts in organizational behavior judge its content validity. And third, 468 workers in a Spanish nuclear power plant help to reveal how closely the theoretical five-dimensional model can be replicated. Our findings suggest that several attributes of the model may not be related to their corresponding dimensions. According to our results, a one-dimensional structure fits the data better than the five dimensions proposed by the IAEA. Moreover, the IAEA model, as it stands, seems to have rather moderate content validity and low face validity. Practical implications for researchers and practitioners are included. PMID:24076304

  4. Analytical progresses of the International Olympic Committee and World Anti-Doping Agency Olympic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulos, Costas; Saugy, Martial; Giraud, Sylvain; Robinson, Neil; Alsayrafi, Mohammed

    2012-07-01

    The Summer Olympic Games constitute the biggest concentration of human sports and activities in a particular place and time since 776 BCE, when the written history of the Olympic Games in Olympia began. Summer and Winter Olympic anti-doping laboratories, accredited by the International Olympic Committee in the past and the World Anti-Doping Agency in the present times, acquire worldwide interest to apply all new analytical advancements in the fight against doping in sports, hoping that this major human event will not become dirty by association with this negative phenomenon. This article summarizes the new analytical progresses, technologies and knowledge used by the Olympic laboratories, which for the vast majority of them are, eventually, incorporated into routine anti-doping analysis. PMID:22831472

  5. Status of the International Energy Agency, Annex 11, Subtask B. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnik, E.G.

    1997-04-01

    This document is meant to describe the status of the International Energy Agency (IEA), Annex 11 (Integrated Systems), Subtask B (Analytical Tools) effort being carried out by the Member Nations. The goal of this Annex is to identify, compile, and integrate models of hydrogen technology components into system models that will describe overall pathways. Examples would include: PV/electrolysis/pipeline transport/hydride storage/PEM fuel cell utilization or natural gas steam reforming/liquefaction/truck transport/hydrogen refueling station. Component models are developed by the Member Nations and integrated into the desired overall system. Subtask B is concerned with identifying and compiling existing component models from Member Nations, or developing these models from data supplied by the Member Nations via Subtask A.

  6. Status of the International Energy Agency, Annex 11, Subtask B. 2. interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnik, E.G.

    1997-07-01

    This document is meant to describe the status of the International Energy Agency (IEA), Annex 11 (Integrated Systems), Subtask B (Analytical Tools) effort being carried out by the Member Nations. This includes Canada, Japan, Italy (inactive at this time), the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. The Subtask status is taken as of the end of July 1997. The goal of this Annex is to identify, compile, and integrate models of hydrogen technology components into system models that will describe overall pathways. Examples would include: PV/electrolysis/pipeline transport/hydride storage/PEM fuel cell utilization or natural gas steam reforming/liquefaction/truck transport/hydrogen refueling station. Component models are developed by the Member Nations and integrated into the desired overall system. Subtask B is concerned with identifying and compiling existing component models from Member Nations, or developing these models from data supplied by the Member Nations via Subtask A.

  7. Quickening nature's pulse: atomic agriculture at the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Jacob Darwin

    2015-01-01

    Mutation breeders in the 1960s seemed poised to use atomic energy to speed up mutation rates in plants in order to develop new crop varieties, for the benefit of all people. Although skepticism had slowed this work in the United States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nurtured the scientific field, its community of experts, and an imagined version of the future that put humans in control of their destiny. The IAEA acted as a center of dissemination and support for experts and ideas even when they had fallen from favor elsewhere. Through the lens of the IAEA, plant breeding bore the appearance of a socially progressive, ultra-modern science destined to alleviate population pressures. Administrators at the IAEA also were desperate for success stories, hoping to highlight mutation plant breeding as a potential solution to the world's ills. The community of mutation plant breeders gained a lifeline from the consistent clarion call from the Vienna-based agency to use atomic energy to understand the natural world and quicken its pulse with radioisotopes. PMID:26775434

  8. 19 CFR 206.4 - Notification of other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of other agencies. 206.4 Section 206.4 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO GLOBAL AND BILATERAL SAFEGUARD ACTIONS, MARKET DISRUPTION, TRADE DIVERSION, AND...

  9. International Student Mobility in Hong Kong: Private Good, Public Good, or Trade in Services?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleksiyenko, Anatoly; Cheng, Kai-Ming; Yip, Hak-Kwong

    2013-01-01

    International student mobility has emerged as a key source of societal and educational transformations in the booming economies of East Asia. International competencies are increasingly valued by employees and employers alike. Given the uneven distribution of international student flows, and the inequitable levels of benefit that they bring to…

  10. 22 CFR 208.615 - How does the U.S. Agency for International Development notify a person of a suspension or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does the U.S. Agency for International... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 208.615 How does the U.S. Agency for...

  11. 22 CFR 208.615 - How does the U.S. Agency for International Development notify a person of a suspension or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does the U.S. Agency for International... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 208.615 How does the U.S. Agency for...

  12. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Projects on Structural Integrity of Reactor Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Server, W. L.; Nanstad, Randy K

    2009-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted a series of Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) that have focused on irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel fracture toughness properties and approaches for assuring structural integrity of RPVs throughout operating life. A series of nine CRPs have been sponsored by the IAEA, starting in the early 1970s, focused on neutron radiation effects on RPV steels. The purpose of the CRPs was to develop comparisons and correlations to test the uniformity of irradiated results through coordinated international research studies and data sharing. Consideration of dose rate effects, effects of alloying (nickel, manganese, silicon, etc.) and residual elements (eg., copper and phosphorus), and drop in upper shelf toughness are also important for assessing neutron embrittlement effects. The ultimate use of embrittlement understanding is assuring structural integrity of the RPV under current and future operation and accident conditions. Material fracture toughness is the key ingredient needed for this assessment, and many of the CRPs have focused on measurement and application of irradiated fracture toughness. This paper presents an overview of the progress made since the inception of the CRPs in the early 1970s. The chronology and importance of each CRP have been reviewed and put into context for continued and long-term safe operation of RPVs.

  13. Understanding the role of international trade in changing patterns of energy use in the United States manufacturing sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrence, Tamara R.

    1998-12-01

    This dissertation gives an empirical analysis of the linkage between international trade and changes in the energy inputs used by the U.S. manufacturing sector. The primary purpose of this dissertation is to assess over time whether there is any indication that the United States offsets energy consumption by importing goods that take large amounts of energy to produce, and whether energy-intensive imports are increasingly being produced by developing countries. This research is divided into three main parts. First, an input-output approach is used to analyze changes in the value of energy inputs effectively embodied in U.S. trade components over time. Changes in the origin of embodied energy imports are also analyzed. Second, changes in the embodied energy intensity of U.S. trade components are decomposed to estimate the role of changes in the composition of U.S. imports and exports, changes in intermediate goods used to produce final goods and changes in energy-efficiency. Third, the significance of offshore production of energy-intensive intermediate goods is estimated. The results of this dissertation surprisingly indicate when accounting for the trade balance that the United States is offsetting less rather than more of its industrial energy use over time. The structural decomposition of the embodied energy intensity of imports confirms that the composition of U.S. imports has steadily decreased in energy-intensity. Furthermore the geographical analysis of the production origin of U.S. imports shows that the most energy-intensive imports come from developed rather than developing regions of the world. There is no indication that the origin of energy-intensive goods is changing over time. Moreover, there is no indication that energy-intensive, yet low value-added intermediate goods are increasingly being produced in developing regions of the world.

  14. Modelling the introduction and spread of non-native species: international trade and climate change drive ragweed invasion.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Daniel S; Makra, László; Albertini, Roberto; Bonini, Maira; Páldy, Anna; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šikoparija, Branko; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta; Bullock, James M

    2016-09-01

    Biological invasions are a major driver of global change, for which models can attribute causes, assess impacts and guide management. However, invasion models typically focus on spread from known introduction points or non-native distributions and ignore the transport processes by which species arrive. Here, we developed a simulation model to understand and describe plant invasion at a continental scale, integrating repeated transport through trade pathways, unintentional release events and the population dynamics and local anthropogenic dispersal that drive subsequent spread. We used the model to simulate the invasion of Europe by common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a globally invasive plant that causes serious harm as an aeroallergen and crop weed. Simulations starting in 1950 accurately reproduced ragweed's current distribution, including the presence of records in climatically unsuitable areas as a result of repeated introduction. Furthermore, the model outputs were strongly correlated with spatial and temporal patterns of ragweed pollen concentrations, which are fully independent of the calibration data. The model suggests that recent trends for warmer summers and increased volumes of international trade have accelerated the ragweed invasion. For the latter, long distance dispersal because of trade within the invaded continent is highlighted as a key invasion process, in addition to import from the native range. Biosecurity simulations, whereby transport through trade pathways is halted, showed that effective control is only achieved by early action targeting all relevant pathways. We conclude that invasion models would benefit from integrating introduction processes (transport and release) with spread dynamics, to better represent propagule pressure from native sources as well as mechanisms for long-distance dispersal within invaded continents. Ultimately, such integration may facilitate better prediction of spatial and temporal variation in invasion

  15. Medical physics in Europe following recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Maria do Carmo; Drljević, Advan; Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical physics is a health profession where principles of applied physics are mostly directed towards the application of ionizing radiation in medicine. The key role of the medical physics expert in safe and effective use of ionizing radiation in medicine was widely recognized in recent European reference documents like the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (2014), and European Commission Radiation Protection No. 174, European Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert (2014). Also the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been outspoken in supporting and fostering the status of medical physics in radiation medicine through multiple initiatives as technical and cooperation projects and important documents like IAEA Human Health Series No. 25, Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists (2013) and the International Basic Safety Standards, General Safety Requirements Part 3 (2014). The significance of these documents and the recognition of the present insufficient fulfilment of the requirements and recommendations in many European countries have led the IAEA to organize in 2015 the Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe, where major issues in medical physics in Europe were discussed. Most important outcomes of the meeting were the recommendations addressed to European member states and the survey on medical physics status in Europe conducted by the IAEA and European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. Conclusions Published recommendations of IAEA Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe shall be followed and enforced in all European states. Appropriate qualification framework including education, clinical specialization, certification and registration of medical physicists shall be established and international recommendation regarding staffing levels in the field of medical physics shall be fulfilled in particular. European states have clear

  16. The Impact of International Trade and Investment on Employment. A Conference on the Department of Labor Research Results (Washington, D.C., December 2-3, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewald, William G., Ed.; And Others

    Taken from a December 1976, conference sponsored by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs, these proceedings present research reports on the impact of international trade and investment on U.S. employment. The research, produced or in some instances contracted and monitored by the Department of Labor, is intended to be of use to economists and…

  17. 78 FR 36523 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... 400) including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (78 FR 13857, 03-01-2013). The...; Toshiba International Corporation; (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors and Generators Production);...

  18. Integrating drivers influencing the detection of plant pests carried in the international cut flower trade.

    PubMed

    Areal, F J; Touza, J; MacLeod, A; Dehnen-Schmutz, K; Perrings, C; Palmieri, M G; Spence, N J

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyses the cut flower market as an example of an invasion pathway along which species of non-indigenous plant pests can travel to reach new areas. The paper examines the probability of pest detection by assessing information on pest detection and detection effort associated with the import of cut flowers. We test the link between the probability of plant pest arrivals, as a precursor to potential invasion, and volume of traded flowers using count data regression models. The analysis is applied to the UK import of specific genera of cut flowers from Kenya between 1996 and 2004. There is a link between pest detection and the Genus of cut flower imported. Hence, pest detection efforts should focus on identifying and targeting those imported plants with a high risk of carrying pest species. For most of the plants studied, efforts allocated to inspection have a significant influence on the probability of pest detection. However, by better targeting inspection efforts, it is shown that plant inspection effort could be reduced without increasing the risk of pest entry. Similarly, for most of the plants analysed, an increase in volume traded will not necessarily lead to an increase in the number of pests entering the UK. For some species, such as Carthamus and Veronica, the volume of flowers traded has a significant and positive impact on the likelihood of pest detection. We conclude that analysis at the rank of plant Genus is important both to understand the effectiveness of plant pest detection efforts and consequently to manage the risk of introduction of non-indigenous species. PMID:17761382

  19. 22 CFR 208.630 - May the U.S. Agency for International Development impute conduct of one person to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May the U.S. Agency for International... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 208.630 May the U.S. Agency for International...

  20. 48 CFR 719.273 - The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program. 719.273 Section 719.273 Federal Acquisition.... Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program 719.273 The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program....

  1. 48 CFR 719.273 - The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program. 719.273 Section 719.273 Federal Acquisition.... Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program 719.273 The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program....

  2. 48 CFR 719.273 - The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program. 719.273 Section 719.273 Federal Acquisition.... Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program 719.273 The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program....

  3. 48 CFR 719.273 - The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program. 719.273 Section 719.273 Federal Acquisition.... Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program 719.273 The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program....

  4. 48 CFR 719.273 - The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program. 719.273 Section 719.273 Federal Acquisition.... Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program 719.273 The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program....

  5. 22 CFR 208.630 - May the U.S. Agency for International Development impute conduct of one person to another?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the U.S. Agency for International... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 208.630 May the U.S. Agency for International...

  6. Ensuring safe international trade: how are the roles and responsibilities evolving and what will the situation be in ten years' time?

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K

    2011-04-01

    The roles of the international standard-setting bodies that are mandated to facilitate safe trade, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Plant Protection Convention and the World Trade Organization, are well documented, as are the roles of the international organisations responsible for global health issues: the OIE, the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. However, developments in international trade, such as accelerating globalisation and the frequent emergence and re-emergence of diseases affecting both humans and animals, have brought new challenges and the need to reconsider the future roles of such organisations. New participants and new demands have also emerged to challenge these mandates, leading to potential areas of conflict. The need for countries to establish themselves as new trade partners, or to strengthen their positions while still maintaining safe trade, poses a challenge to standard-setting organisations, which must meet these demands while still remaining sensitive to the needs of developing countries. In this paper, the author describes and discusses some of these challenges and suggests how international organisations could evolve to confront such issues. PMID:21809774

  7. 36 CFR 1256.48 - Information about internal agency rules and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... states or assesses an agency's vulnerability to outside interference or harm. NARA withholds records that... describing specific measures that can be used to counteract such agency vulnerabilities. (b) The Archivist...

  8. 36 CFR 1256.48 - Information about internal agency rules and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... states or assesses an agency's vulnerability to outside interference or harm. NARA withholds records that... describing specific measures that can be used to counteract such agency vulnerabilities. (b) The Archivist...

  9. 36 CFR 1256.48 - Information about internal agency rules and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... states or assesses an agency's vulnerability to outside interference or harm. NARA withholds records that... describing specific measures that can be used to counteract such agency vulnerabilities. (b) The Archivist...

  10. 36 CFR 1256.48 - Information about internal agency rules and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... states or assesses an agency's vulnerability to outside interference or harm. NARA withholds records that... describing specific measures that can be used to counteract such agency vulnerabilities. (b) The Archivist...

  11. 36 CFR 1256.48 - Information about internal agency rules and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... states or assesses an agency's vulnerability to outside interference or harm. NARA withholds records that... describing specific measures that can be used to counteract such agency vulnerabilities. (b) The Archivist...

  12. US scientific contributions to the water resources program of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, P. K.; Schneider, V. R.

    2007-12-01

    It is well recognized that a better understanding of the water cycle and increased availability of hydrological information for surface and groundwater resources are key factors in the ability to sustainably manage water resources. Since its inception in 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has played a critical role in developing isotope applications for hydrology and building scientific capacity in developing countries. Through an active technical cooperation program with a funding of nearly $8M per biennium, the IAEA assists developing countries in using isotope techniques for the assessment and monitoring of water resources, in particular, groundwater resources. In addition, substantial human resources and institutional capacity are built through the provision of training and appropriate equipment for monitoring. The water resources program of the IAEA is implemented with the support of a number of experts and the United States contributes extensively to this program. Although spanning the entire 50 year history of the IAEA, the contribution of US scientists, and particularly those from the US Geological Survey, has been substantial over the past 10 years. These contributions have included assistance in technical cooperation projects in Africa, Latin America and Asia, as well as internationally coordinated research projects in vadose zone hydrology, surface water - groundwater interactions, and regional aquifer studies. In Ethiopia, a national groundwater assessment program was formulated and a computer database was provided to manage hydrological information. A robust program of capacity building in cooperation with the USGS and Argonne National Laboratory has provided training to a number of IAEA-sponsored candidates from Africa and Latin America. This paper will describe the objectives and results of some of these cooperative efforts.

  13. Status of radiotherapy resources in Africa: an International Atomic Energy Agency analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Bourque, Jean-Marc; Pynda, Yaroslav; Iżewska, Joanna; Van der Merwe, Debbie; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Radiation therapy is an important component of cancer control programmes. The scarcity of radiation oncology resources in Africa is becoming more severe as cancer incidence increases in the continent. We did a longitudinal assessment of the status of radiation oncology resources in Africa to measure the extent of the problem and the effects of programmes designed to enhance radiation services in the continent. Radiation oncology departments in Africa were surveyed through the Directory of Radiotherapy Centres, and this information was supplemented by that available from International Atomic Energy Agency Regional African and Interregional project reports for 2010. Of 52 African countries included, only 23 are known to have teletherapy. These facilities are concentrated in the southern and northern states of the continent. Brachytherapy resources (high-dose rate or low-dose rate) were only available in 20 of the 52 African countries. Although progress has been made in the establishment of radiation oncology services in some countries, a large need still exists for basic radiation services, and much resource mobilisation is needed for services to keep pace with the burgeoning populations of many countries. PMID:23561748

  14. Justification of diagnostic medical exposures: some practical issues. Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency Consultation

    PubMed Central

    Malone, J; Guleria, R; Craven, C; Horton, P; Järvinen, H; Mayo, J; O’reilly, G; Picano, E; Remedios, D; Le Heron, J; Rehani, M; Holmberg, O; Czarwinski, R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The Radiation Protection of Patients Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerned about the effectiveness of justification of diagnostic medical exposures. Recent published work and the report of an initial IAEA consultation in the area gave grounds for such concerns. There is a significant level of inappropriate usage, and, in some cases, a poor level of awareness of dose and risk among some key groups involved. This article aims to address this. Methods The IAEA convened a second group of experts in November 2008 to review practical and achievable actions that might lead to more effective justification. Results This report summarises the matters that this group considered and the outcome of their deliberations. There is a need for improved communication, both within professions and between professionals on one hand, and between professionals and the patients/public on the other. Coupled with this, the issue of consent to imaging procedures was revisited. The need for good evidence-based referral guidelines or criteria of acceptability was emphasised, as was the need for their global adaptation and dissemination. Conclusion Clinical audit was regarded as a key tool in ensuring that justification becomes an effective, transparent and accountable part of normal radiological practice. In summary, justification would be facilitated by the “3 As”: awareness, appropriateness and audit. PMID:21343316

  15. Evaluation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Analytical Laboratory quality assurance program

    SciTech Connect

    Pietri, C.E.; Bracey, J.T.

    1985-02-01

    Destructive analysis is used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through its Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) to verify, in part, the inventory of nuclear materials at nuclear facilities. The reliability and quality of these meassurements must be assured in a systematic manner. The Division of Safeguards Evaluation, IAEA, required assistance in developing and implementing the quality assurance measures for the analytical procedures used in the destructive analysis of these safeguards samples. To meet these needs an ISPO POTAS Task D.53 was instituted in which consultants would review with IAEA staff the procedures used (or proposed) at SAL for the destructive analysis of safeguards samples and the statistical evaluation of the resulting measurement data at Headquarters. The procedures included analytical methods, qualtiy control measures, and the treatment of data from these activities. Based on this review, modifications to the system, if required, would be recommended which would provide routine assurance to management that these procedures are functioning properly to achieve safeguards objectives. In the course of this review, the sample handling procedures, measurement control activities, analytical methods, reference materials, calibration procedures, statistical analysis of data, and data management system were studied and evaluated. The degree to which SAL (as a total system) achieved laboratory quality assurance was assessed by comparison to accepted standards of quality assurance. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Status of the International Energy Agency, Annex 11, Subtask B. 3. (and final) interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnik, E.G.

    1997-10-01

    This document is meant to describe the status of the International Energy Agency (IEA), Annex 11 (Integrated Systems), Subtask B (Analytical Tools) effort being carried out by the Member Nations. This includes Canada, Japan, Italy (inactive at this time), the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. The Subtask status is taken as of the end of September 1997, following the Fall Experts Meeting. This was held in Toronto, September 23--26. The goal of this Annex is to identify, compile, and integrate models of hydrogen technology components into system models that will describe overall pathways. Examples would include: PV/electrolysis/pipeline transport/hydride storage/PEM fuel cell utilization or natural gas steam reforming/liquefaction/truck transport/hydrogen refueling station. Component models are developed by the Member Nations and integrated into the desired overall system. Subtask B is concerned with identifying and compiling existing component models from Member Nations, or developing these models from data supplied by the Member Nations via Subtask A.

  17. 77 FR 72816 - Foreign-Trade Zone 20-Suffolk, VA; Authorization of Production Activity; Usui International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... International Corporation (Diesel Engine Fuel Lines); Chesapeake, VA On June 28, 2012, the Virginia Port... 400), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (77 FR 48127-48128,...

  18. 48 CFR 470.202 - Acquisition of commodities for United States Agency for International Development (USAID) programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquisition of commodities for United States Agency for International Development (USAID) programs. 470.202 Section 470.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS...

  19. 48 CFR 470.202 - Acquisition of commodities for United States Agency for International Development (USAID) programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquisition of commodities for United States Agency for International Development (USAID) programs. 470.202 Section 470.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS...

  20. 48 CFR 470.202 - Acquisition of commodities for United States Agency for International Development (USAID) programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition of commodities for United States Agency for International Development (USAID) programs. 470.202 Section 470.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS...

  1. Agencies for International Cooperation in Technical and Vocational Education and Training: A Guide to Sources of Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maintz, Julia; Kronner, Hans, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This guide provides an overview of technical backstopping opportunities for development projects and programmes. It focuses on support services for technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and skills development. Agencies for International Cooperation have different approaches, methodologies, planning horizons, communication levels,…

  2. 48 CFR 470.202 - Acquisition of commodities for United States Agency for International Development (USAID) programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition of commodities for United States Agency for International Development (USAID) programs. 470.202 Section 470.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.202 Acquisition of commodities...

  3. Global trade and assisted reproductive technologies: regulatory challenges in international surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    International surrogacy is an increasingly common phenomenon and an important global health challenge. Legal rules are a key consideration for the participants in international surrogacy arrangements. In some cases the law can help to resolve the complex issues that arise in this context, but it is important to consider the role played by law in contributing to the complex conflicts that such arrangements can generate. PMID:23581668

  4. The international trade in toxic waste: the case of Sihanoukville, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Hess, J; Frumkin, H

    2000-01-01

    In December 1998, 2,700 metric tons of industrial waste containing high levels of mercury and other metals and possibly other toxic compounds were shipped illegally from Taiwan to Sihanoukville, Cambodia. There the waste was unloaded and transferred to a nearby inland dumpsite. An estimated 2,000 Sihanoukville residents were exposed to the waste occupationally or environmentally, and at least six deaths and hundreds of injuries have been associated with the incident. The authors describe the human exposures and associated morbidity and mortality, recount the medical and public health response, and consider the issues complicating epidemiologic analysis of the incident. They also consider the major issues highlighted by the incident, including the trade in toxic waste between developed and less developed countries, the factors that shape emergency public health responses in resource-poor environments, and the importance of prevention and preparedness in containing emergencies in developing countries. PMID:11114126

  5. Global mercury emissions from combustion in light of international fuel trading.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yilin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Chen, Han; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The spatially resolved emission inventory is essential for understanding the fate of mercury. Previous global mercury emission inventories for fuel combustion sources overlooked the influence of fuel trading on local emission estimates of many countries, mostly developing countries, for which national emission data are not available. This study demonstrates that in many countries, the mercury content of coal and petroleum locally consumed differ significantly from those locally produced. If the mercury content in locally produced fuels were used to estimate emission, then the resulting global mercury emissions from coal and petroleum would be overestimated by 4.7 and 72%, respectively. Even higher misestimations would exist in individual countries, leading to strong spatial bias. On the basis of the available data on fuel trading and an updated global fuel consumption database, a new mercury emission inventory for 64 combustion sources has been developed. The emissions were mapped at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution for 2007 and at country resolution for a period from 1960 to 2006. The estimated global total mercury emission from all combustion sources (fossil fuel, biomass fuel, solid waste, and wildfires) in 2007 was 1454 Mg (1232-1691 Mg as interquartile range from Monte Carlo simulation), among which elementary mercury (Hg(0)), divalent gaseous mercury (Hg(2+)), and particulate mercury (Hg(p)) were 725, 548, and 181 Mg, respectively. The total emission from anthropogenic sources, excluding wildfires, was 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg), with coal combustion contributing more than half. Globally, total annual anthropogenic mercury emission from combustion sources increased from 285 Mg (263-358 Mg) in 1960 to 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg) in 2007, owing to an increased fuel consumption in developing countries. However, mercury emissions from developed countries have decreased since 2000. PMID:24433051

  6. 75 FR 6220 - Agency Form Submitted for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... COMMISSION Agency Form Submitted for OMB Review AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Commission has submitted a request for approval of a questionnaire to the Office of Management and Budget for... investigation to the USTR by October 6, 2010. Summary of Proposal 1. Number of forms submitted: 1. 2. Title...

  7. 75 FR 34481 - Agency Form Submitted to OMB for Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... COMMISSION Agency Form Submitted to OMB for Review AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...), the Commission has submitted a request for approval of survey forms to the Office of Management and... submitted: two (2) Title of form: 2010 USITC Survey Regarding Outstanding Sec. 337 Exclusion Orders (3)...

  8. Trade-Off between Thermal Link Solutions for the Cryosystem Cryocooler On-Board the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollier, T.; Ravex, A.; Aubry, C.; Seidel, A.; Stephan, H.; De Parolis, L.; Sirbi, A.; Kujala, R.

    2004-06-01

    AL/DTA has been selected by EADS in February 2002 for the delivery of the vial freezer for the ESA / CRYOSYSTEM project. CRYOSYSTEM is a set of facilities for ultra-rapid cooling, preservation and storage of biological samples and protein crystals at -180°C on-board the ISS. Flexure bearing Stirling cryocoolers from THALES are used to cool down the dewar storage magazine of the vial freezers. We present here some elements of the trade-offs performed between two potential solutions for the thermal link between the Stirling cold finger and the dewar magazine. The two solutions envisaged were a conventional Braids Thermal Link Assembly (BTLA) and an original Liquid Thermal Link Assembly (LTLA). The BTLA makes use of flexible copper braids, while the LTLA is based on an evaporation/condensation process of an appropriate fluid between the cold finger and the cold magazine. The trade-off is based on thermal and mechanical tests results performed on both links, combined with system impact analysis such as implementation, added parasitic heat losses and safety considerations for pressurized payloads on-board the International Space Station.

  9. Proposal of Classification Method of Time Series Data in International Emissions Trading Market Using Agent-based Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Tomohiro; Takadama, Keiki; Watanabe, Shigeyoshi

    This paper proposes the classification method using Bayesian analytical method to classify the time series data in the international emissions trading market depend on the agent-based simulation and compares the case with Discrete Fourier transform analytical method. The purpose demonstrates the analytical methods mapping time series data such as market price. These analytical methods have revealed the following results: (1) the classification methods indicate the distance of mapping from the time series data, it is easier the understanding and inference than time series data; (2) these methods can analyze the uncertain time series data using the distance via agent-based simulation including stationary process and non-stationary process; and (3) Bayesian analytical method can show the 1% difference description of the emission reduction targets of agent.

  10. 75 FR 80456 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (Application... Office of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of... of Competition and Economic Analysis, International Trade Administration, by telephone at (202)...

  11. Evaluation of commonly used methods for the analysis of acid-soluble phosphate in internationally traded inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Hall, William L; Siegel, Sanford

    2014-01-01

    Several methodologies are used throughout the world to determine phosphate concentration (measured as PO4 and expressed as % P2O5) in fertilizers. Concentrated phosphate materials, including diammonium phosphate (DAP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP), are traded in large volumes (millions of metric tons) internationally. The International Fertilizer Association (IFA) identified a need to assess the methods currently being used to measure the phosphate content for suitability (scope), accuracy, and repeatability. Even small discrepancies in the expressed P2O5 content can have a major financial impact on buyers and sellers as contracts are settled and import regulations are imposed. The IFA's Technical Committee selected a working group to address issues dealing with harmonization of fertilizer sampling and analytical methodologies. The working group identified phosphate content in DAP and MAP fertilizers as a major concern for commerce. The working group initiated a method screening and comparison project to assess method performance and to determine which methods, if any, could be considered best practice methods and, therefore, be deemed acceptable for use by the industry. In order to systematically review the acceptability of methods for consideration, the task force developed an assessment protocol outlined in a white paper involving three steps: (1) compile all known relevant methods practiced in global fertilizer trade, (2) review and evaluate methods based upon specific evaluation criteria, and (3) compare the methods that most closely fit the evaluation criteria by multilaboratory analysis of unknown materials for accuracy and repeatability. Six methods were evaluated for analysis of total phosphate in concentrated phosphate products. From these methods, four were determined to be acceptable as best practice methods. The study members proposed three of the methods, while a fourth method was commonly used among the participating laboratories. This publication

  12. Trading Places: The Role of Agents in International Student Recruitment from Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Moira; Thomson, Alex; Hulme, Rob; Doughty, Guy

    2014-01-01

    As state subsidies to higher education contract, the recruitment of international students is becoming a strategic priority for many UK universities. Academic roles are reconfigured as the commercialisation of higher education and the commodification of education services re-position the student as consumer, academic as entrepreneur, and…

  13. 50 CFR 23.20 - What CITES documents are required for international trade?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.20 What... species II CITES document indicating that the specimen was taken in accordance with provisions of the... the sea under a pre-existing treaty, convention, or international agreement for that species...

  14. 50 CFR 23.20 - What CITES documents are required for international trade?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.20 What... species II CITES document indicating that the specimen was taken in accordance with provisions of the... the sea under a pre-existing treaty, convention, or international agreement for that species...

  15. 50 CFR 23.20 - What CITES documents are required for international trade?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.20 What... species II CITES document indicating that the specimen was taken in accordance with provisions of the... the sea under a pre-existing treaty, convention, or international agreement for that species...

  16. Beta agonists in livestock feed: status, health concerns, and international trade.

    PubMed

    Centner, T J; Alvey, J C; Stelzleni, A M

    2014-09-01

    Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride in animal feeds, usage of those compounds has been a topic of worldwide debate. Ractopamine and zilpaterol are β-adrenergic agonists used as veterinary drugs to increase weight gain in certain animals raised for food. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) established maximum residue limits for ractopamine, which were adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex). No maximum residue limits for zilpaterol have been adopted by JECFA, and new reports of animal mobility issues confront the use of this feed additive. However, many countries disagree with the Codex standards and are restricting or banning meat products containing β agonists. The bans by major importers of U.S. meat products have prompted some to advocate that the United States use the World Trade Organization dispute settlement body. This paper looks at the developments to provide a fuller accounting of what the issues may mean to U.S. firms selling meat products containing residues of β agonists. PMID:25057027

  17. National greenhouse-gas accounting for effective climate policy on international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kander, Astrid; Jiborn, Magnus; Moran, Daniel D.; Wiedmann, Thomas O.

    2015-05-01

    National greenhouse-gas accounting should reflect how countries’ policies and behaviours affect global emissions. Actions that contribute to reduced global emissions should be credited, and actions that increase them should be penalized. This is essential if accounting is to serve as accurate guidance for climate policy. Yet this principle is not satisfied by the two most common accounting methods. Production-based accounting used under the Kyoto Protocol does not account for carbon leakage--the phenomenon of countries reducing their domestic emissions by shifting carbon-intensive production abroad. Consumption-based accounting (also called carbon footprinting) does not credit countries for cleaning up their export industries, and it also punishes some types of trade that could contribute to more carbon efficient production worldwide. We propose an improvement to consumption-based carbon accounting that takes technology differences in export sectors into account and thereby tends to more correctly reflect how national policy changes affect total global emissions. We also present empirical results showing how this new measure redraws the global emissions map.

  18. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. Methods We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects’ contributions to health system strengthening. Results The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Conclusions Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas. PMID:24053583

  19. A clinical audit programme for diagnostic radiology: the approach adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, K; Järvinen, H; Butler, P; McLean, I D; Pentecost, M; Rickard, M; Abdullah, B

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a mandate to assist member states in areas of human health and particularly in the use of radiation for diagnosis and treatment. Clinical audit is seen as an essential tool to assist in assuring the quality of radiation medicine, particularly in the instance of multidisciplinary audit of diagnostic radiology. Consequently, an external clinical audit programme has been developed by the IAEA to examine the structure and processes existent at a clinical site, with the basic objectives of: (1) improvement in the quality of patient care; (2) promotion of the effective use of resources; (3) enhancement of the provision and organisation of clinical services; (4) further professional education and training. These objectives apply in four general areas of service delivery, namely quality management and infrastructure, patient procedures, technical procedures and education, training and research. In the IAEA approach, the audit process is initiated by a request from the centre seeking the audit. A three-member team, comprising a radiologist, medical physicist and radiographer, subsequently undertakes a 5-d audit visit to the clinical site to perform the audit and write the formal audit report. Preparation for the audit visit is crucial and involves the local clinical centre completing a form, which provides the audit team with information on the clinical centre. While all main aspects of clinical structure and process are examined, particular attention is paid to radiation-related activities as described in the relevant documents such as the IAEA Basic Safety Standards, the Code of Practice for Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and related equipment and quality assurance documentation. It should be stressed, however, that the clinical audit does not have any regulatory function. The main purpose of the IAEA approach to clinical audit is one of promoting quality improvement and learning. This paper describes the background to

  20. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident--findings from the International Atomic Energy Agency Study.

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, H M

    1993-01-01

    In October 1989, more than 3 years after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl, in the Ukraine, the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics requested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) evaluate the medical and psychological health of residents living in areas identified as being contaminated with radioactive fallout. The IAEA designed and conducted a collaborative study to examine whether there were any measurable effects of exposure to the low levels of ionizing radiation resulting from the accident. The study, using structured interviews and IAEA laboratory equipment, collected data on more than 1,350 residents of 13 villages. IAEA clinical staff members concluded that they could not identify any health disorders in either the contaminated or nearby (uncontaminated) control villages that could be attributed directly to radiation exposure. The clinical staff, however, did note that the levels of anxiety and stress of the villagers appeared to be disproportionate to the biological significance of the levels of IAEA-measured radio-active contamination. Almost half the adults in all the villages were unsure if they had a radiation-related illness. More than 70 percent of persons in the contaminated villages wanted to move away, and approximately 83 percent believed that the government should relocate them. The IAEA effort indicates that the villagers need to be educated about their actual risks, and they need to understand what types of illnesses are, and are not, associated with exposure to radioactive contamination. Unfortunately, the villagers' needs may exceed the available resources of their local and central governments. PMID:8464974

  1. 77 FR 25961 - Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Trade Advisory Committee (CINTAC) Public Meeting AGENCY... nuclear goods and services in accordance with applicable U.S. laws and regulations, including advice on how U.S. civil nuclear goods and services export policies, programs, and activities will affect the...

  2. 75 FR 12737 - Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Applications To Export Electric Energy; Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... applications, Noble Energy Marketing and Trade Corp. (NEMT) has applied for authority to transmit electric... using international transmission facilities located at the United States borders with Mexico and...

  3. Internal and external green-blue agricultural water footprints of nations, and related water and land savings through trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Thammer, M.; Heinke, J.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Lucht, W.; Cramer, W.

    2011-01-01

    The need to increase food production for a growing world population makes an assessment of global agricultural water productivities and virtual water flows important. Using the hydrology and agro-biosphere model LPJmL, we quantify at 0.5° resolution the blue (irrigation water) and green (precipitation water) virtual water content, i.e. the inverse of water productivity, for 11 of the world's major crop types. Based on these, we also quantify the water footprints (WFP) of all countries, for the period 1998-2002, distinguishing internal and external WFP (virtual water imported from other countries) and their blue and green components, respectively. Moreover, we calculate water savings and losses, and for the first time also land savings and losses, through international trade with these products. The consistent separation of blue and green water flows and footprints, which is needed due to the different sources and opportunity costs of these two water pools, shows that green water globally dominates both the internal and external WFP (84% of the global WFP and 94% of the external WFP rely on green water). Accordingly, some of the major exporters of the crops considered here (e.g. Argentina, Canada) export mainly green virtual water, but traditional rice exporters such as India and Pakistan mainly export blue virtual water. The external WFPs are found to be relatively small (6% of the total global blue WFP, 16% of the total global green WFP). Nevertheless, current trade saves significant water volumes and land areas (~263 km3 and ~41 Mha, respectively, equivalent to 5% of the sowing area of the crops considered here and 3.5% of the annual precipitation on this area). Linking the proportions of external to internal blue/green WFP with the per capita WFPs allows recognizing that only a few countries consume more water from abroad than from their own territory and have at the same time above average WFPs. Thus, countries with high levels of per capita water consumption

  4. Trade and health: an agenda for action.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard D; Lee, Kelley; Drager, Nick

    2009-02-28

    The processes of contemporary globalisation are creating ever-closer ties between individuals and populations across different countries. The health of a population, and the systems in place to deliver health care, are affected increasingly by factors beyond the population and health system. The Lancet's Series on trade and health has provided an overview of these links between international trade, trade liberalisation, and health, and raised the key issues that face the health community. In this final paper in the Series, we call for a substantial and sustained effort by those within the health profession to engage with issues of trade, to strengthen institutional capacity in this area, and to place health higher on the agenda of trade negotiations. The rapid rise of trade agreements and treaties, as well as trade that occurs beyond these institutional boundaries, means that further action is required by a range of actors, including WHO, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), regional agencies, foundations, national governments, civil society, non-governmental organisations, and academics. The stewardship of a domestic health system in the 21st century requires a sophisticated understanding of how trade affects, and will affect, a country's health system and policy, to optimise opportunities to benefit health and health care while minimising the risks posed though the assertion of health goals in trade policy. To acheive this will place a premium on all those engaged in health to understand the importance of trade and to engage with their counterparts involved in trade and trade policy. We hope that this Series has prompted the reader to become involved in these efforts. PMID:19167056

  5. Trade and health: an agenda for action

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard D; Lee, Kelley; Drager, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The processes of contemporary globalisation are creating ever-closer ties between individuals and populations across different countries. The health of a population, and the systems in place to deliver health care, are affected increasingly by factors beyond the population and health system. The Lancet’s Series on trade and health has provided an overview of these links between international trade, trade liberalisation, and health, and raised the key issues that face the health community. In this final paper in the Series, we call for a substantial and sustained effort by those within the health profession to engage with issues of trade, to strengthen institutional capacity in this area, and to place health higher on the agenda of trade negotiations. The rapid rise of trade agreements and treaties, as well as trade that occurs beyond these institutional boundaries, means that further action is required by a range of actors, including WHO, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization (WTO), regional agencies, foundations, national governments, civil society, non-governmental organisations, and academics. The stewardship of a domestic health system in the 21st century requires a sophisticated understanding of how trade affects, and will affect, a country’s health system and policy, to optimise opportunities to benefit health and health care while minimising the risks posed though the assertion of health goals in trade policy. To acheive this will place a premium on all those engaged in health to understand the importance of trade and to engage with their counterparts involved in trade and trade policy. We hope that this Series has prompted the reader to become involved in these efforts. PMID:19167056

  6. Seeking a Balance in International Trade: Pacific Rim Import-Export Transactions. Grade 12 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Robert

    In this lesson, student teams roleplay an import-export company's purchasing department. Students consider the reasons for the U.S. trade deficit and develop a plan to help their company achieve an import-export balance. Teams will research international trade and economic issues that impact trade balance. Students are provided with background…

  7. 32 CFR 2004.11 - Agency Implementing Regulations, Internal Rules, or Guidelines [102(b)(3)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1 Implementation and Oversight § 2004.11 Agency Implementing..., as circumstances require. If a change in national policy necessitates a change in agency implementing... to the attention of the Director, ISOO, or after a change in national policy that impacts...

  8. 32 CFR 2004.11 - Agency Implementing Regulations, Internal Rules, or Guidelines [102(b)(3)].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL SECURITY PROGRAM DIRECTIVE NO. 1 Implementation and Oversight § 2004.11 Agency Implementing..., as circumstances require. If a change in national policy necessitates a change in agency implementing... to the attention of the Director, ISOO, or after a change in national policy that impacts...

  9. 76 FR 81984 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... provisions in free trade agreements, including the Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement. 71 FR 76691... at http://www.dol.gov/ilab/programs/otla/proceduralguidelines.htm . According to the...

  10. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear harvested in... trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf... of this section, CITES furbearers means bobcat (Lynx rufus), river otter (Lontra canadensis),...

  11. Report of the Advisory Committee on Asbestos Cancers to the Director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer

    PubMed Central

    1973-01-01

    In 1964 the Geographical Pathology Committee of the International Union against Cancer (UICC) set up a working group on asbestos and cancer and later issued a Report and Recommendations (1965). A further meeting was held at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France, on 5 and 6 October 1972. This was organized jointly with the Medical Research Council Pneumoconiosis Research Unit. The report and recommendations given here will also be published by IARC in 1973, together with the complete proceedings of the meeting. The Committee consisted of three panels—Epidemiology, Pathology, and Physics and Chemistry. PMID:4574040

  12. 78 FR 66950 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... on October 8, 2013 was published in the Federal Register of July 30, 2013 (78 FR 45969); the notice... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Rescheduling of Washington public...

  13. 78 FR 15047 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ...: International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Application ACTION: 60-Day Notice. The Department...) The title of the form/collection: International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program (ITVERP.... Government employees who are victims of acts of international terrorism that occur(red) outside of the...

  14. 78 FR 31578 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...: International Terrorism Victim Compensation Program Application ACTION: 30-Day Notice. The Department of Justice... collection for which approval has expired. (2) Title of Form/Collection: International Terrorism Victim.... nationals and U.S. government employees who become victims of acts of international terrorism that...

  15. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade.

    PubMed

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2012-10-16

    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater). PMID:23013466

  16. 75 FR 66358 - Trade Mission to Mexico in Conjunction With Trade Winds Forum-The Americas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Mexico in Conjunction With Trade Winds Forum-- The Americas... conjunction with the Trade Winds Forum--The Americas business forum in Mexico City, Mexico. U.S. trade mission... the Trade Winds Forum--The Americas. On April 11-12, 2011, trade mission participants will take...

  17. International Living With a Star - Contributions from the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opgenoorth, H. J.

    The new ILWS initiative aims at the understanding of the governing processes in Solar, heliospheric and Solar-terrrestrial physics, through which the variability of the Sun influences Earth, the human society and human equipment on Earth and in space. Any potentially successful approach to such a global enterprise demands simultaneous observations in all key regions of space - a task which is practically impossible to be carried out by one space agency alone. ESA, the European Space Agency has a number of missions in its present program, which are considered to make major contributions to the ILWS program. ESA also actively seeks for opportunities to support missions of other space agencies with payload, ground-stations or other logistical contributions, which might improve the scientific outcome and level of coordination for missions in the ILWS realm. In particular ESA seeks to identify synergistic effects of missions in the wider scientific realm of ILWS, in order to widen the scope and scientific applicability of the present program. In this presentation the key ESA missions for ILWS will be reviewed, and plans for dedicated ESA contributions to other missions of partner agencies will be described. Opportunites for synergistic missions with other research areas will be pointed out.

  18. EVALUATION OF A CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INTERNAL STANDARD FOR DETERMINING RECOVERY WITH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY METHOD 1623

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current benchmark method for detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in water is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Method 1623. Studies evaluating this method report that recoveries are highly variable and dependent upon laboratory, water sample, and analyst. Ther...

  19. 78 FR 42761 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Program for International Student...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... (PISA) Validation Study AGENCY: IES/NCES, Department of Education (ED). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... Assessments (PISA) Validation Study. OMB Control Number: 1850-NEW. Type of Review: New information collection... implemented as a cross- sectional study and, thus, the claim that PISA assesses key competencies for...

  20. 76 FR 30743 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Internal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... January 28, 2011 (76 FR 5212). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments to the OMB, Office of...; Internal Fraud Activities ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the revised..., ``Internal Fraud Activities,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval for...