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Sample records for agency lakes oregon

  1. Water Quality Conditions in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoilman, Gene R.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2008-01-01

    During June-October 2005, water quality data were collected from Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes in Oregon, and meteorological data were collected around and within Upper Klamath Lake. Data recorded at two continuous water quality monitors in Agency Lake showed similar temperature patterns throughout the field season, but data recorded at the northern site showed more day-to-day variability for dissolved oxygen concentration and saturation after late June and more day-to-day variability for pH and specific conductance values after mid-July. Data recorded from the northern and southern parts of Agency Lake showed more comparable day-to-day variability in dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH from September through the end of the monitoring period. For Upper Klamath Lake, seasonal (late July through early August) lows of dissolved oxygen concentrations and saturation were coincident with a seasonal low of pH values and seasonal highs of ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations, specific conductance values, and water temperatures. Patterns in these parameters, excluding water temperature, were associated with bloom dynamics of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Aphanizomenon flos-aquae in Upper Klamath Lake. In Upper Klamath Lake, water temperature in excess of 28 degrees Celsius (a high stress threshold for Upper Klamath Lake suckers) was recorded only once at one site during the field season. Large areas of Upper Klamath Lake had periods of dissolved oxygen concentration of less than 4 milligrams per liter and pH value greater than 9.7, but these conditions were not persistent throughout days at most sites. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in Upper Klamath Lake on time scales of days and months appeared to be influenced, in part, by bathymetry and prevailing current flow patterns. Diel patterns of water column stratification were evident, even at the deepest sites. This diel pattern of stratification was attributable to diel wind speed patterns and the shallow

  2. Technical evaluation of a total maximum daily load model for Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Wherry, Susan A.; Carter, James L.; Kuwabara, James S.; Simon, Nancy S.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed a mass balance model developed in 2001 that guided establishment of the phosphorus total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon. The purpose of the review was to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the model and to determine whether improvements could be made using information derived from studies since the model was first developed. The new data have contributed to the understanding of processes in the lakes, particularly internal loading of phosphorus from sediment, and include measurements of diffusive fluxes of phosphorus from the bottom sediments, groundwater advection, desorption from iron oxides at high pH in a laboratory setting, and estimates of fluxes of phosphorus bound to iron and aluminum oxides. None of these processes in isolation, however, is large enough to account for the episodically high values of whole-lake internal loading calculated from a mass balance, which can range from 10 to 20 milligrams per square meter per day for short periods. The possible role of benthic invertebrates in lake sediments in the internal loading of phosphorus in the lake has become apparent since the development of the TMDL model. Benthic invertebrates can increase diffusive fluxes several-fold through bioturbation and biodiffusion, and, if the invertebrates are bottom feeders, they can recycle phosphorus to the water column through metabolic excretion. These organisms have high densities (1,822–62,178 individuals per square meter) in Upper Klamath Lake. Conversion of the mean density of tubificid worms (Oligochaeta) and chironomid midges (Diptera), two of the dominant taxa, to an areal flux rate based on laboratory measurements of metabolic excretion of two abundant species suggested that excretion by benthic invertebrates is at least as important as any of the other identified processes for internal loading to the water column. Data from sediment cores collected around Upper Klamath Lake since the development of the

  3. Water Quality Conditions in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindenberg, Mary K.; Hoilman, Gene; Wood, Tamara M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Klamath Lake water quality monitoring program gathered information from multiparameter continuous water quality monitors, physical water samples, dissolved oxygen production and consumption experiments, and meteorological stations during the June-October 2006 field season. The 2006 study area included Agency Lake and all of Upper Klamath Lake. Seasonal patterns in water quality were similar to those observed in 2005, the first year of the monitoring program, and were closely related to bloom dynamics of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) in the two lakes. High dissolved oxygen and pH conditions in both lakes before the bloom declined in July, which coincided with seasonal high temperatures and resulted in seasonal lows in dissolved oxygen and decreased pH. Dissolved oxygen and pH in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes increased again after the bloom recovered. Seasonal low dissolved oxygen and decreased pH coincided with seasonal highs in ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations. Seasonal maximum daily average temperatures were higher and minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations were lower in 2006 than in 2005. Conditions potentially harmful to fish were influenced by seasonal patterns in bloom dynamics and bathymetry. Potentially harmful low dissolved oxygen and high un-ionized ammonia concentrations occurred mostly at the deepest sites in the Upper Klamath Lake during late July, coincident with a bloom decline. Potentially harmful pH conditions occurred mostly at sites outside the deepest parts of the lake in July and September, coincident with a heavy bloom. Instances of possible gas bubble formation, inferred from dissolved oxygen data, were estimated to occur frequently in shallow areas of Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes simultaneously with potentially harmful pH conditions. Comparison of the data from monitors in nearshore areas and monitors near the surface of the water column in the open waters of

  4. Water-Quality Data from Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannarr, Kristofor E.; Tanner, Dwight Q.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2010-01-01

    Significant Findings The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Klamath Lake water-quality monitoring program collected data from multiparameter continuous water-quality monitors, weekly water-quality samples, and meteorological stations during May-November 2007 and 2008. The results of these measurements and sample analyses are presented in this report for 29 stations on Upper Klamath Lake and 2 stations on Agency Lake, as well as quality-assurance data for the water-quality samples. Some of the significant findings from 2007 and 2008 are listed below. In 2007-08, ammonia concentrations were at or near the detection limit at all stations during the second week in June, after which they began to increase, with peak concentrations occurring from July through November. The concentration of un-ionized ammonia, which can be toxic to aquatic life, first began to increase in mid-June and peaked in July or August at most sites. Concentrations of un-ionized ammonia measured in the Upper Klamath Lake in 2007-08 did not reach concentrations that would have been potentially lethal to suckers. Samples collected for the analysis of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) late in the 2007 season showed no evidence of an increase in DOC subsequent to the breaching of the Williamson River Delta levees on October 30. In 2007-08, the lakewide daily median of dissolved oxygen concentration began to increase in early June, and peaked in mid- to late June. The lakewide daily median pH began to increase from early June and peaked in late June (2007) or early July (2008). Lakewide daily median pH slowly decreased during the rest of both seasons. The 2007 lakewide daily median specific conductance values first peaked on July 1, coincident with a peak in dissolved oxygen concentration and pH, followed by a decrease through mid-July. Specific conductance then remained relatively stable until mid-October when a sharp increase began that continued until the end of the season. Lakewide specific conductance

  5. Transition of Benthic Nutrient Sources after Engineered Levee Breaches Adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, J. S.; Topping, B. R.; Carter, J. L.; Parchaso, F.; Cameron, J. M.; Asbill, J. R.; Carlson, R. A.; Fend, S. V.; Engelstad, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    Nonmetallic pore-water profilers were deployed during four sampling trips between November 2007 and July 2009 after engineered levee breaches on 30 October 2007, hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. Centimeter-scale measurements of the vertical dissolved-nutrient concentration gradients from the profilers served as the basis for diffusive-flux determinations. Wetland areas undergoing restoration and those being used for water storage around these lakes function very differently than nearby established wetlands within the Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge. Consistent with previous results from Upper Klamath Lake, benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) in the wetlands was consistently positive, and when areally and seasonally averaged over the 13 km2 newly restored wetlands, an SRP flux to the overlying water column (~87,000 kg over the 3-month cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA)) exceeded the magnitude of riverine inputs (42,000 kg for that season). SRP benthic flux at a site within the restored wetland area ~0.5 km from the breach was elevated relative to all other lake and wetland sites (including another wetland site <0.1 km from the breached levee) in 2009 suggests that the restored wetlands, at least chemically, remain in a transition period following the hydrologic reconnection of the lake and wetland environments. Ammonium fluxes to the water column remained consistently positive throughout the sampling period, generating a toxicological concern for endangered fish populations at elevated summer pH. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations were lower than detection limits (<0.03 mg-P/L) at all lake and wetland sites following the levee breaches. As indicated in previous studies, SRP concentrations for 2009 sampling trips indicated higher concentrations at the end of the annual AFA bloom relative to its beginning, suggesting a limiting factor or factors other

  6. Water-quality data from Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 2009-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eldridge, D. Blake; Caldwell Eldridge, Sara L.; Schenk, Liam N.; Tanner, Dwight Q.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Klamath Lake water-quality monitoring program collected data from multiparameter continuous water-quality monitors, weekly water-quality samples, and meteorological stations during 2009 and 2010 from May through November each year. The results of these measurements and sample analyses, as well as quality-control data for the water-quality samples, are presented in this report for 14 sites on Upper Klamath Lake and 2 sites on Agency Lake. These 2 years of data demonstrate a contrast in the seasonal bloom of the dominant cyanobacterium, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, that can be related to differences in the measured water quality and meteorological variables. Some of the significant findings from 2009 and 2010 are listed below. * Both 2009 and 2010 were characterized by two cyanobacteria blooms, but the blooms differed in timing and intensity. The first bloom in 2009 peaked in late June and at higher chlorophyll a concentrations at most sites than the first bloom in 2010, which peaked in mid-July. A major decline in the first 2009 bloom occurred in late July and was followed by a second bloom that peaked at most sites in mid-August and persisted through September. The decline of the weaker first bloom in 2010 occurred in early August and was followed by a more substantial second bloom that peaked between late August and early September at most sites. * Dissolved oxygen minima associated with bloom declines occurred approximately 2 weeks earlier in 2009 (mid-July) than in 2010 (early August). pH maxima associated with rapid bloom growth occurred in late June and again in mid-August in 2009 and in mid-July and late August in 2010. * In both years, the maxima for total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations coincided with the chlorophyll a maximum. The maxima for dissolved nutrient concentrations (orthophosphate, ammonia, and nitrite plus nitrate) coincided with the declines of the first blooms. * Total particulate carbon, total

  7. The Transition of Benthic Nutrient Sources after Planned Levee Breaches Adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Fend, Steven V.; Duff, John H.; Engelstad, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    Four sampling trips were coordinated after planned levee breaches that hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. Sets of nonmetallic pore-water profilers were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, and July 2009. Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Profilers, typically deployed in triplicate at each lake or wetland site, provided high-resolution (centimeter-scale) estimates of the vertical concentration gradients for diffusive-flux determinations. Estimates based on molecular diffusion may underestimate benthic flux because solute transport across the sediment-water interface can be enhanced by processes including bioturbation, bioirrigation and groundwater advection. Water-column and benthic samples were also collected to help interpret spatial and temporal trends in diffusive-flux estimates. Data from these samples complement taxonomic and geochemical analyses of bottom-sediments taken from Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in prior studies. This ongoing study provides information necessary for developing process-interdependent solute-transport models for the watershed (that is, models integrating physical, geochemical, and biological processes) and supports efforts to evaluate remediation or load-allocation strategies. To augment studies funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the Department of the Interior supported an additional full deployment of pore-water profilers in November 2007 and July 2009, immediately following the levee breaches and after the crash of the annual summer AFA bloom. As observed consistently since 2006, benthic flux of 0.2-micron filtered, soluble reactive phosphorus (that is, biologically available phosphorus, primarily as orthophosphate; SRP) was consistently positive (that is, out of the sediment into the overlying water column) and

  8. Nitrogen and phosphorus loading from drained wetlands adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Morace, Jennifer L.

    1997-01-01

    The results of this study could be useful in helping to prioritize which drained wetlands may provide the greatest benefits with regard to reducing nutrient loads to the lake if restoration or land-use modifications are instituted. Recent acquisition and planned restoration of drained wetland areas at the Wood River and Williamson River North properties may produce significant reduction in the quantity of nutrients released by the decomposition of peat soils of these areas. If the water table rises to predrainage levels, the peats soils may become inundated most of the year, resulting in the continued long-term storage of nutrients within the peat soils by reducing aerobic decomposition. The maximum benefit, in terms of decreasing potential nutrient loss due to peat decomposition, could be the reduction of total nitrogen and total phosphorus loss to about one-half that of the 1994–95 annual loss estimated for all the drained wetlands sampled for this study.

  9. Relation between selected water-quality variables and lake level in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Morace, Jennifer L.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the analysis of data that they have been collecting for several years, the Klamath Tribes recently recommended that the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) modify the operating plan for the dam to make the minimum lake levels for the June-August period more closely resemble pre-dam conditions (Jacob Kann, written commun., 1995). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to analyze the available data for the lake and to assess whether the evidence exists to conclude that year-to-year differences in certain lake water-quality variables are related to year-to-year differences in lake level. The results of the analysis will be used as scientific input in the process of developing an operating plan for the Link River Dam.

  10. Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

    2012-01-01

    Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the

  11. Relation Between Selected Water-Quality Variables, Climatic Factors, and Lake Levels in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 1990-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morace, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Growth and decomposition of dense blooms of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae in Upper Klamath Lake frequently cause extreme water-quality conditions that have led to critical fishery concerns for the region, including the listing of two species of endemic suckers as endangered. The Bureau of Reclamation has asked the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to examine water-quality data collected by the Klamath Tribes for relations with lake level. This analysis evaluates a 17-year dataset (1990-2006) and updates a previous USGS analysis of a 5-year dataset (1990-94). Both univariate hypothesis testing and multivariable analyses evaluated using an information-theoretic approach revealed the same results-no one overarching factor emerged from the data. No single factor could be relegated from consideration either. The lack of statistically significant, strong correlations between water-quality conditions, lake level, and climatic factors does not necessarily show that these factors do not influence water-quality conditions; it is more likely that these conditions work in conjunction with each other to affect water quality. A few different conclusions could be drawn from the larger dataset than from the smaller dataset examined in 1996, but for the most part, the outcome was the same. Using an observational dataset that may not capture all variation in water-quality conditions (samples were collected on a two-week interval) and that has a limited range of conditions for evaluation (confined to the operation of lake) may have confounded the exploration of explanatory factors. In the end, all years experienced some variation in poor water-quality conditions, either in timing of occurrence of the poor conditions or in their duration. The dataset of 17 years simply provided 17 different patterns of lake level, cumulative degree-days, timing of the bloom onset, and poor water-quality conditions, with no overriding causal factor emerging from the variations. Water-quality conditions were

  12. SKY LAKES ROADLESS AREA AND MOUNTAIN LAKES WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James G.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Based on a mineral survey of the Sky Lakes Roadless Area and the Mountain Lakes Wilderness, Oregon, the areas have little or no promise for the occurrence of metallic-mineral resources or geothermal energy resources. Nonmetallic resources exist in the areas, but other areas outside the roadless area and wilderness also contain resources of volcanic cinders, scoria, ash, breccia, and sand and gravel which are easier to obtain and closer to markets. The roadless area and wilderness are not geologically favorable for metallic deposits, or for coal, oil, or gas resources.

  13. Growth and diet of fish in Waldo Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Nicola L.; Liss, W.J.; Ziller, Jeffrey S.; Wade, M.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Waldo Lake, located in the Oregon Cascades, is considered to be one of the most dilute lakes in the world. Even with low nutrient concentrations and sparse populations of zooplankton, introduced fish in the lake are large in size and in good condition when compared to fish from other lakes. This apparent anomaly is due to the availability of benthic macroinvertebrates. Taxa found in the stomach contents offish captured in Waldo Lake consist primarily of Chironomidae larvae and pupae, Trichoptera larvae and pupae, amphipods, Ephemeroptera larvae, and Odonata larvae.

  14. Detecting long-term hydrological patterns at Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.L.; Silsbee, D.G.; Redmond, Kelly T.

    1999-01-01

    Tree-ring chronologies for mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) were used to reconstruct the water level of Crater Lake, a high-elevation lake in the southern Cascade Range of Oregon. Reconstructions indicate that lake level since the late 1980s has been lower than at any point in the last 300 years except the early 1930s to mid 1940s. Lake level was consistently higher during the Little Ice Age than during the late 20th century; during the late 17th century, lake level was up to 9 m higher than recent (1980s and 1990s) low levels, which is consistent with paleoclimalic reconstructions of regional precipitation and atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, instrumental data available for the 20th century suggest that there are strong teleconnections among atmospheric circulation (e.g., Pacific Decadal Oscillation), tree growth, and hydrology in southern Oregon. Crater Lake is sensitive to interannual, interdecadal and intercentenary variation in precipitation and atmospheric circulation, and can be expected to track both short-term and longterm variation in regional climatic patterns that may occur in the future.

  15. Representative freshwater bacterioplankton isolated from Crater Lake, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Page, Kathleen A; Connon, Stephanie A; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2004-11-01

    High-throughput culturing (HTC) methods that rely on dilution to extinction in very-low-nutrient media were used to obtain bacterial isolates from Crater Lake, Oregon. 16S rRNA sequence determination and phylogenetic reconstruction were used to determine the potential ecological significance of isolated bacteria, both in Crater Lake and globally. Fifty-five Crater Lake isolates yielded 16 different 16S rRNA gene sequences. Thirty of 55 (55%) Crater Lake isolates had 16S rRNA gene sequences with 97% or greater similarity to sequences recovered previously from Crater Lake 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Furthermore, 36 of 55 (65%) Crater Lake isolates were found to be members of widely distributed freshwater groups. These results confirm that HTC is a significant improvement over traditional isolation techniques that tend to enrich for microorganisms that do not predominate in their environment and rarely correlate with 16S rRNA gene clone library sequences. Although all isolates were obtained under dark, heterotrophic growth conditions, 2 of the 16 different groups showed evidence of photosynthetic capability as assessed by the presence of puf operon sequences, suggesting that photoheterotrophy may be a significant process in this oligotrophic, freshwater habitat.

  16. Diatom data from Bradley Lake, Oregon: downcore analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Lewis, Roger C.

    2003-01-01

    Displaced marine diatoms provide biostratigraphic evidence for tsunami inundation at Bradley Lake, a small freshwater lake on the south-central Oregon coast. During the past 7,200 years, fine-grained lacustrine deposits in the deep axis of the lake were disturbed 17 times by the erosion and emplacement of coarse-grained gyttja and, in some cases, sand. By identifying diatoms in closely spaced core samples, we determined that 13 of the 17 events (termed idisturbance eventsi) record prehistoric tsunamis in Bradley Lake. We consider the evidence strong for 11 events, based on numbers and diversity of marine taxa: De1, De2, De4, De5, De6, De7, De8, De11, De12, De13, and De17. The evidence is less compelling for an additional 2 events (De9 and De10), although tsunami inundation is likely. Finally, we identified 4 events (De3, De14, De15 and De16) in which there were no marine diatoms to support tsunami inundation, although stratigraphic data shows that the lake bottom was disturbed. Freshwater diatoms dominate throughout the Bradley Lake record, showing that the lake has remained a freshwater habitat throughout its existence. However, anomalous occurrences of three species of brackish diatoms (Thalassiosira bramaputrae, Cyclotella meneghiniana, and Mastogloia smithii) may be evidence for short-lived periods of slightly elevated salinities in the lake following De16, De13, De12, De11, De9, De8, and De5. With the exception of De12, increased abundances of one or more of the brackish species is coincident with decreased numbers of freshwater diatoms. A temporary rise in salinity, as evidenced by short-lived increases in abundances of brackish species and decreases in abundances of freshwater species, is consistent with tsunami inundation into the lake.

  17. Holocene tephra stratigraphy in four lakes in southeastern Oregon and northwestern Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foit, Franklin F.; Mehringer, Peter J.

    2016-03-01

    To better understand the regional tephra stratigraphy and chronology of northern Nevada and southern Oregon, tephras in archived cores, taken as part of the Steens Mountain Prehistory Project from four lakes, Diamond Pond, Fish and Wildhorse lakes in southeastern Oregon and Blue Lake in northwestern Nevada, were reexamined using more advanced electron microprobe analytical technology. The best preserved and most complete core from Fish Lake along with Wildhorse Lake hosted two tephras from Mt. Mazama (Llao Rock and the Climactic Mazama), a mid-Holocene basaltic tephra from Diamond Craters, Oregon, two Medicine Lake tephras and an unexpected late Holocene Chaos Crags (Mt. Lassen volcanic center) tephra which was also found in the other lakes. Blue Lake was the only lake that hosted a Devils Hill tephra from the Three Sisters volcano in west central Oregon. Another tephra from the Three Sisters Volcano previously reported in sediments of Twin Lakes in NE Oregon, has now been confirmed as Rock Mesa tephra. The Chaos Crags, Devils Hill and Rock Mesa tephras are important late Holocene stratigraphic markers for central and eastern Oregon and northwestern Nevada.

  18. Empirical models of wind conditions on Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman L.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2010-01-01

    Upper Klamath Lake is a large (230 square kilometers), shallow (mean depth 2.8 meters at full pool) lake in southern Oregon. Lake circulation patterns are driven largely by wind, and the resulting currents affect the water quality and ecology of the lake. To support hydrodynamic modeling of the lake and statistical investigations of the relation between wind and lake water-quality measurements, the U.S. Geological Survey has monitored wind conditions along the lakeshore and at floating raft sites in the middle of the lake since 2005. In order to make the existing wind archive more useful, this report summarizes the development of empirical wind models that serve two purposes: (1) to fill short (on the order of hours or days) wind data gaps at raft sites in the middle of the lake, and (2) to reconstruct, on a daily basis, over periods of months to years, historical wind conditions at U.S. Geological Survey sites prior to 2005. Empirical wind models based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Multivariate-Adaptive Regressive Splines (MARS) algorithms were compared. ANNs were better suited to simulating the 10-minute wind data that are the dependent variables of the gap-filling models, but the simpler MARS algorithm may be adequate to accurately simulate the daily wind data that are the dependent variables of the historical wind models. To further test the accuracy of the gap-filling models, the resulting simulated winds were used to force the hydrodynamic model of the lake, and the resulting simulated currents were compared to measurements from an acoustic Doppler current profiler. The error statistics indicated that the simulation of currents was degraded as compared to when the model was forced with observed winds, but probably is adequate for short gaps in the data of a few days or less. Transport seems to be less affected by the use of the simulated winds in place of observed winds. The simulated tracer concentration was similar between model results when

  19. Ultraviolet radiation and bio-optics in Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hargreaves, B.R.; Girdner, S.F.; Buktenica, M.W.; Collier, R.W.; Urbach, E.; Larson, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    Crater Lake, Oregon, is a mid-latitude caldera lake famous for its depth (594 m) and blue color. Recent underwater spectral measurements of solar radiation (300-800 nm) support earlier observations of unusual transparency and extend these to UV-B wavelengths. New data suggest that penetration of solar UVR into Crater Lake has a significant ecological impact. Evidence includes a correlation between water column chlorophyll-a and stratospheric ozone since 1984, the scarcity of organisms in the upper water column, and apparent UV screening pigments in phytoplankton that vary with depth. The lowest UV-B diffuse attenuation coefficients (K d,320) were similar to those reported for the clearest natural waters elsewhere, and were lower than estimates for pure water published in 1981. Optical proxies for UVR attenuation were correlated with chlorophyll-a concentration (0-30 m) during typical dry summer months from 1984 to 2002. Using all proxies and measurements of UV transparency, decadal and longer cycles were apparent but no long-term trend since the first optical measurement in 1896. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. Preliminary Study of the Effect of the Proposed Long Lake Valley Project Operation on the Transport of Larval Suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.

    2009-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model of Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, was used to explore the effects of the operation of proposed offstream storage at Long Lake Valley on transport of larval suckers through the Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes system during May and June, when larval fish leave spawning sites in the Williamson River and springs along the eastern shoreline and become entrained in lake currents. A range in hydrologic conditions was considered, including historically high and low outflows and inflows, lake elevations, and the operation of pumps between Upper Klamath Lake and storage in Long Lake Valley. Two wind-forcing scenarios were considered: one dominated by moderate prevailing winds and another dominated by a strong reversal of winds from the prevailing direction. On the basis of 24 model simulations that used all combinations of hydrology and wind forcing, as well as With Project and No Action scenarios, it was determined that the biggest effect of project operations on larval transport was the result of alterations in project management of the elevation in Upper Klamath Lake and the outflow at the Link River and A Canal, rather than the result of pumping operations. This was because, during the spring time period of interest, the amount of water pumped between Upper Klamath Lake and Long Lake Valley was generally small. The dominant effect was that an increase in lake elevation would result in more larvae in the Williamson River delta and in Agency Lake, an effect that was enhanced under conditions of wind reversal. A decrease in lake elevation accompanied by an increase in the outflow at the Link River had the opposite effect on larval concentration and residence time.

  1. Mercury and fish tissue -- Status of Oregon reservoirs and lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, D.; Stifel, B.; DiDomenico, G.; McCartney, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality monitors contaminants in fish and sediment. Total mercury was analyzed in fish tissue taken from ten water bodies in 1993 and 1994. Mercury was measured in bass (Micropterus salmoides, M. dolomieui), salmonids (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss, O. clarki) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, I. nebulosus) in support of health department consumption advisories. Elevated mercury concentrations above the EPA screening value of 0.6 mg/kg wet were found in fish from watersheds with cinnabar geology or historical mining activity. Established bioaccumulation correlations between mercury and species, age, and length were also observed. Results from East Lake, a popular recreational fishery that had not previously been studied, were found to have fish mercury concentrations approaching 3.0 mg/kg wet. Regulatory and fish management issues will also be presented.

  2. A Holocene paleomagnetic record from Fish Lake, Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, L. B.; Stoner, J. S.; Abbott, M. B.; Finkenbinder, M. S.; Hatfield, R. G.; Konyndyk, D.; Reilly, B.; Hillman, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Paleo-geomagnetic observations provide fundamental models of the core and the geodynamo that cannot other- wise be obtained. Data and modeling studies are beginning to show that regions of concentrated magnetic flux (flux lobes) on the Core-Mantle boundary, those observed historically and others only hinted at from the short historical record, impose a structure on the geomagnetic field that may govern at least some components of geo- magnetic change. Accumulating evidence suggests that this structure reflects the influence of the lower mantle, yet this structure and the evolution of the geomagnetic field within it, even for the Holocene, are only beginning to be- come apparent. Comparison of specific, well-dated Holocene timeseries of PSV (sedimentary and archeomagnetic) inclination, declination, and paleointensity at key locations can provide intriguing insight when viewed through the lens of the known historical and assumed millennial flux lobes. A limiting factor for these studies is the uneven distribution of high quality data with independent chronologies, with Europe and the North Atlantic having better constrained data sets than North America. To begin to fill this data gap, we present initial results from an ongoing study of the paleomagnetic record from Fish Lake, Oregon. Initial evaluation of directions and intensity along with the construction of an independent chronology allow us to assess and build upon prior results to constrain the evolution of the North American flux lobe and refine our understanding of paleo-geomagnetic change during the Holocene.

  3. Crater Lake Revealed: Using GIS to Visualize and Analyze Postcaldera Volcanoes Beneath Crater Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, D. W.; Robinson, J. E.; Dartnell, P.; Bacon, C. R.; Gardner, J. V.; Mayer, L. A.; Buktenica, M. W.

    2001-12-01

    Crater Lake, Oregon, partially fills the caldera that formed ~7,700 years ago by the eruption of 50 km3 of mainly rhyodacitic magma and collapse of Mount Mazama. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000-year eruptive history, much of which was like those of other Cascade volcanic centers such as Mount Shasta. Since the climactic eruption, there have been several less violent, smaller eruptions within the caldera itself. Until a recent bathymetric survey, relatively little was known about the character and timing of these eruptions because their products are obscured beneath Crater Lake's surface. In the summer of 2000, the lake bottom was mapped with a high-resolution multibeam echo sounder (Gardner et. al., 2001), providing a 2m/pixel view of the lake floor from its deepest basins virtually to the shoreline. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, the bathymetric data has been visualized and analyzed (aided by images and samples obtained with the manned submersible Deep Rover, sediment cores and dredged rocks, and detailed geologic mapping of Mount Mazama) to determine a geologic map of the lake bottom, a history of lake filling (Nathenson et. al., 2001), and volumes, times, and rates of postcaldera eruptions. These calculations have been used to assemble a geologic history for Crater Lake from the time of caldera formation to present day. Postcaldera eruptions have been both subareal and subaqueous, and were well underway within about 90 years after the climactic eruption, beginning with andesitic lava flows from the Wizard Island and central platform volcanoes. The eruptive history of the Wizard Island volcano is divided into three periods defined by former shorelines where subaerial flows entered the lake, quenched rapidly, and fractured, forming lobate deltas and breccia slopes. The shorelines are visible in slope and shaded-relief images of the lake floor created with GIS. The lake filling model suggests that these shorelines

  4. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  5. Water Quality and optical properties of Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Hoffman, Robert L.; McIntire, C.D.; Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, Scott

    2007-01-01

    We examine observations of key limnological properties (primarily temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen), measured over a 14-year period in Crater Lake, Oregon, and discuss variability in the hypolimnion on time scales of days to a decade. During some years (e.g., 1994a??1995), higher-than-average wintertime deep convection and ventilation led to the removal of significant amounts of heat and salt from the hypolimnion, while dissolved oxygen concentrations increase. In other years, such as the winter of 1996a??1997, heat and salt concentrations increase throughout the year and dissolved oxygen levels drop, indicating conditions were dominated by the background geothermal inputs and dissolved oxygen consumption by bacteria (i.e., minimal deep convection). Over the entire 14 year period, no statistically significant trend was observed in the annual hypolimnetic heat and salt content. Measurements from several thermistors moored in the hypolimnion provide new insight into the time and space scales of the deep convection events. For some events, cool water intrusions are observed sequentially, from shallower depths to deeper depths, suggesting vertical mixing or advection from above. For other events, the cooling is observed first at the deepest sensors, suggesting a thin, cold water pulse that flows along the bottom and mixes more slowly upwards into the basin. In both cases, the source waters must originate from the epilimnion. Conditions during a strong ventilation year (1994a??1995) and a weak ventilation year (1996a??1997) were compared. The results suggest the major difference between these 2 years was the evolution of the stratification in the epilimnion during the first few weeks of reverse stratification such that thermobaric instabilities were easier to form during 1995 thana?#1997. Thus, the details of surface cooling and wind-driven mixing during the early stages ofa?#reverse stratification may determine the neta?#amount of ventilation possible during

  6. Gravity Survey on the Glass Buttes Geothermal Exploration Project Lake County, Oregon

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Akerley

    2011-10-12

    This report covers data acquisition, instrumentation and processing of a gravity survey performed on the Glass Buttes Geothermal Exploration Project, located in Lake County, Oregon for ORMAT Technologies Inc. The survey was conducted during 21 June 2010 to 26 June 2010. The survey area is located in T23S, R21-23E and lies within the Glass Buttes, Hat Butte, and Potato Lake, Oregon 1:24,000 topographic sheets. A total of 180 gravity stations were acquired along five profile lines.

  7. Oxygen Isotope Character of the Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, T.; Strickland, A.; Valley, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Oxygen isotope analyses of zircons from lavas and tuffs from the Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field (LOVF) of east central Oregon unequivocally demonstrate the presence of mid-Miocene low-δ18O magmas (δ18Ozrc<4.7 ‰). Despite the growing data set of low-δ18O melts within, and proximal to, the Snake River Plain (SRP) Large Igneous Province, debate persists regarding both the mechanisms for low-δ18O magma petrogenesis, and their relative influence in the SRP. The LOVF is associated with widespread silicic volcanism roughly concurrent with the eruption of the Steens-Columbia River Basalt Group between ~17-15Ma. Silicic activity in the LOVF is limited to 16-15Ma, when an estimated 1100km3 of weakly peralkaline to metaluminous rhyolitic lavas and ignimbrites erupted from a series of fissures and calderas. Geographically, the LOVF overlaps the Oregon-Idaho Graben (OIG), and straddles the 87Sr/86Sr= 0.704 line which, together with the 0.706 line to the east, delineate the regional transition from the North American Precambrian continental crust to the east to younger Phanerozoic accreted terranes to the west. Here we report high accuracy ion microprobe analyses of δ18O in zircons using a 10-15μm spot, with average spot-to-spot precision ±0.28‰ (2SD), to investigate intra-grain and intra-unit δ18Ozrc trends for LOVF rhyolites. Due to its high closure temperature, chemical and physical resistance, and slow oxygen diffusion rates, zircon offers a robust record of magmatic oxygen isotope ratios during crystallization and provides constraints on the petrogenesis of Snake River Plain (SRP) low-δ18O melts. Individual zircons from LOVF rhyolites show no evidence of core-rim δ18O zoning, and populations exhibit ≤0.42‰ (2SD) intra-unit variability. Unit averages range from 2.2 to 4.3‰, with the lowest values in caldera-forming ignimbrites, but all units show evidence of crystallization from low-δ18O melts. Quartz and feldspar analyses by laser fluorination (precision

  8. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  9. Models for the Filling of Crater Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathenson, M.; Bacon, C. R.; Gardner, J. V.

    2001-12-01

    Crater Lake partially fills, to a depth of 593 m, the 10-km-diameter, 1200-m-deep caldera formed by collapse of Mount Mazama volcano. The lake receives water from direct precipitation and inflow from the caldera walls and loses water by surface evaporation and leakage. No streams flow from Crater Lake. A high-resolution multibeam echo sounding survey of the lake floor conducted in 2000 (Gardner et al., 2001) revealed seven drowned beaches between 1849 and 1878 m elevation (reference lake elevation is 1883 m). The beaches are thought to reflect drier periods in the lake's history since the climactic, caldera-forming eruption of Mount Mazama, approximately 7,700 years ago. The shallowest drowned beach at 1878 m represents the deepest part of a wave-cut platform up to 100 m wide, substantially wider than any of the beaches, where erodible talus or intensely altered rocks are present. The great width of the platform compared to the width of the drowned beaches indicates that the lake has mostly been near its current level during the lake's history. Unambiguous evidence of former highstands above 1883 m has not been reported. In order to explain the occurrence of the drowned beaches and their relatively narrow depth range, leakage through the caldera walls must vary with depth and cannot occur just at the lake bottom or at the modern lake level. A reasonable model is that leakage is proportional to elevation above the bottom of the lake. Recognition that there is a thick layer of relatively permeable debris resting on glaciated lava in the northeast caldera wall above an elevation of 1845 m suggests a variant of this model where leakage is proportional to elevation above 1845 m. Climate studies indicate that Crater Lake began to fill during a dry period. Assuming that precipitation at that time was 70% of modern and that the beach at 1853 m (the deeper beach is somewhat suspect) corresponds to this amount of precipitation, a combination of the above leakage models is

  10. Dependence of flow and transport through the Williamson River Delta, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, on wind, river inflow, and lake elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrodynamic model of Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, was used to run 384 realizations of a numerical tracer experiment in order to understand the relative effects of wind, lake elevation, and Williamson River inflow on flow and transport (the movement of water and passively transported constituents) through the Williamson River Delta. Significant findings from this study include: * The replacement rate of water increased in Tulana and Goose Bay with increasing lake elevation, Williamson River inflow, and wind speed. * The fraction of Williamson River inflow passing through either side of the Delta increased with lake elevation and Williamson River inflow. * The partial replacement rate of water in Goose Bay with water from the Williamson River increased with wind speed. * The partial replacement rate of water in Tulana with water from the Williamson River decreased with wind speed. * Strong wind forcing at the water surface caused more of the Williamson River inflow to pass through Goose Bay than through Tulana. * Westerly to northwesterly winds result in more of the Williamson River inflow passing through the Goose Bay side of the Delta than through the Tulana side. * Regression models developed from the tracer experiments can be used to quantify the dependencies between transport and the independent variables to obtain rough estimates of useful quantities such as residence time and steady-state solute concentrations.

  11. Thermal, chemical, and optical properties of Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.L.; McIntire, D.C.; Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.

    2007-01-01

    Crater Lake covers the floor of the Mount Mazama caldera that formed 7700 years ago. The lake has a surface area of 53 km2 and a maximum depth of 594 m. There is no outlet stream and surface inflow is limited to small streams and springs. Owing to its great volume and heat, the lake is not covered by snow and ice in winter unlike other lakes in the Cascade Range. The lake is isothermal in winter except for a slight increase in temperature in the deep lake from hyperadiabatic processes and inflow of hydrothermal fluids. During winter and spring the water column mixes to a depth of about 200-250 m from wind energy and convection. Circulation of the deep lake occurs periodically in winter and spring when cold, near-surface waters sink to the lake bottom; a process that results in the upwelling of nutrients, especially nitrate-N, into the upper strata of the lake. Thermal stratification occurs in late summer and fall. The maximum thickness of the epilimnion is about 20 m and the metalimnion extends to a depth of about 100 m. Thus, most of the lake volume is a cold hypolimnion. The year-round near-bottom temperature is about 3.5??C. Overall, hydrothermal fluids define and temporally maintain the basic water quality characteristics of the lake (e.g., pH, alkalinity and conductivity). Total phosphorus and orthophosphate-P concentrations are fairly uniform throughout the water column, where as total Kjeldahl-N and ammonia-N are highest in concentration in the upper lake. Concentrations of nitrate-N increase with depth below 200 m. No long-term changes in water quality have been detected. Secchi disk (20-cm) clarity varied seasonally and annually, but was typically highest in June and lowest in August. During the current study, August Secchi disk clarity readings averaged about 30 m. The maximum individual clarity reading was 41.5 m in June 1997. The lowest reading was 18.1 m in July 1995. From 1896 (white-dinner plate) to 2003, the average August Secchi disk reading was

  12. Subaqueous geology and a filling model for Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, M.; Bacon, C.R.; Ramsey, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Results of a detailed bathymetric survey of Crater Lake conducted in 2000, combined with previous results of submersible and dredge sampling, form the basis for a geologic map of the lake floor and a model for the filling of Crater Lake with water. The most prominent landforms beneath the surface of Crater Lake are andesite volcanoes that were active as the lake was filling with water, following caldera collapse during the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama 7700 cal. yr B.P. The Wizard Island volcano is the largest and probably was active longest, ceasing eruptions when the lake was 80 m lower than present. East of Wizard Island is the central platform volcano and related lava flow fields on the caldera floor. Merriam Cone is a symmetrical andesitic volcano that apparently was constructed subaqueously during the same period as the Wizard Island and central platform volcanoes. The youngest postcaldera volcanic feature is a small rhyodacite dome on the east flank of the Wizard Island edifice that dates from 4800 cal. yr B.P. The bathymetry also yields information on bedrock outcrops and talus/debris slopes of the caldera walls. Gravity flows transport sediment from wall sources to the deep basins of the lake. Several debris-avalanche deposits, containing blocks up to 280 m long, are present on the caldera floor and occur below major embayments in the caldera walls. Geothermal phenomena on the lake floor are bacterial mats, pools of solute-rich warm water, and fossil subaqueous hot spring deposits. Lake level is maintained by a balance between precipitation and inflow versus evaporation and leakage. High-resolution bathymetry reveals a series of up to nine drowned beaches in the upper 30 m of the lake that we propose reflect stillstands subsequent to filling of Crater Lake. A prominent wave-cut platform between 4 m depth and present lake level that commonly is up to 40 m wide suggests that the surface of Crater Lake has been at this elevation for a very long time

  13. Geologic Map of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    Crater Lake partly fills one of the most spectacular calderas of the world, an 8-by-10-km basin more than 1 km deep formed by collapse of the volcano known as Mount Mazama (fig. 1) during a rapid series of explosive eruptions about 7,700 years ago. Having a maximum depth of 594 m, Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States. Crater Lake National Park, dedicated in 1902, encompasses 645 km2 of pristine forested and alpine terrain, including the lake itself, virtually all of Mount Mazama, and most of the area of the geologic map. The geology of the area was first described in detail by Diller and Patton (1902) and later by Williams (1942), whose vivid account led to international recognition of Crater Lake as the classic collapse caldera. Because of excellent preservation and access, Mount Mazama, Crater Lake caldera, and the deposits formed by the climactic eruption constitute a natural laboratory for study of volcanic and magmatic processes. For example, the climactic ejecta are renowned among volcanologists as evidence for systematic compositional zonation within a subterranean magma chamber. Mount Mazama's climactic eruption also is important as the source of the widespread Mazama ash, a useful Holocene stratigraphic marker throughout the Pacific Northwest, adjacent Canada, and offshore. A detailed bathymetric survey of the floor of Crater Lake in 2000 (Bacon and others, 2002) provides a unique record of postcaldera eruptions, the interplay between volcanism and filling of the lake, and sediment transport within this closed basin. Knowledge of the geology and eruptive history of the Mount Mazama edifice, greatly enhanced by the caldera wall exposures, gives exceptional insight into how large volcanoes of magmatic arcs grow and evolve. Lastly, the many smaller volcanoes of the High Cascades beyond the limits of Mount Mazama are a source of information on the flux of mantle-derived magma through the region. General principles of magmatic and eruptive

  14. Volcano and earthquake hazards in the Crater Lake region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, Charles R.; Mastin, Larry G.; Scott, Kevin M.; Nathenson, Manuel

    1997-01-01

    Crater Lake lies in a basin, or caldera, formed by collapse of the Cascade volcano known as Mount Mazama during a violent, climactic eruption about 7,700 years ago. This event dramatically changed the character of the volcano so that many potential types of future events have no precedent there. This potentially active volcanic center is contained within Crater Lake National Park, visited by 500,000 people per year, and is adjacent to the main transportation corridor east of the Cascade Range. Because a lake is now present within the most likely site of future volcanic activity, many of the hazards at Crater Lake are different from those at most other Cascade volcanoes. Also significant are many faults near Crater Lake that clearly have been active in the recent past. These faults, and historic seismicity, indicate that damaging earthquakes can occur there in the future. This report describes the various types of volcano and earthquake hazards in the Crater Lake area, estimates of the likelihood of future events, recommendations for mitigation, and a map of hazard zones. The main conclusions are summarized below.

  15. Modeling hydrodynamics, temperature and water quality in Henry Hagg Lake, Oregon, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annette B.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2004-01-01

    The two-dimensional model CE-QUAL-W2 was used to simulate hydrodynamics, temperature, and water quality in Henry Hagg Lake, Oregon, for the years 2000 through 2003. Input data included lake bathymetry, meteorologic conditions, tributary inflows, tributary temperature and water quality, and lake outflows. Calibrated constituents included lake hydrodynamics, water temperature, orthophosphate, total phosphorus, ammonia, algae, chlorophyll a, zooplankton, and dissolved oxygen. Other simulated constituents included nitrate, dissolved and particulate organic matter, dissolved solids, and suspended sediment. Two algal groups (blue-green algae, and all other algae) were included in the model to simulate the lakes algal communities. Measured lake stage data were used to calibrate the lakes water balance; calibration of water temperature and water quality relied upon vertical profile data taken in the deepest part of the lake near the dam. The model initially was calibrated with data from 200001 and tested with data from 200203. Sensitivity tests were performed to examine the response of the model to specific parameters and coefficients, including the light-extinction coefficient, wind speed, tributary inflows of phosphorus, nitrogen and organic matter, sediment oxygen demand, algal growth rates, and zooplankton feeding preference factors.

  16. Morphology, volcanism, and mass wasting in Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Gardner, J.V.; Mayer, L.A.; Buktenica, M.W.; Dartnell, P.; Ramsey, D.W.; Robinson, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Crater Lake was surveyed nearly to its shoreline by high-resolution multibeam echo sounding in order to define its geologic history and provide an accurate base map for research and monitoring surveys. The bathymetry and acoustic backscatter reveal the character of landforms and lead to a chronology for the concurrent filling of the lake and volcanism within the ca. 7700 calibrated yr B.P. caldera. The andesitic Wizard Island and central-plattform volcanoes are composed of sequences of lava deltas that record former lake levels and demonstrate simultaneous activity at the two vents. Wizard Island eruptions ceased when the lake was ~80 m lower than at present. Lava streams from prominent channels on the surface of the central platform descended to feed extensive subaqueous flow fields on the caldera floor. The Wizard Island and central-platform volcanoes, andesitic Merriam Cone, and a newly discovered probable lava flow on the eastern floor of the lake apparently date from within a few hundred years of caldera collapse, whereas a small rhydacite dome was emplaced on the flank of Wizard Island at ca. 4800 cal. yr B.P. Bedrock outcrops on the submerged caldera walls are shown in detail and, in some cases, can be correlated with exposed geologic units of Mount Mazama. Fragmental debris making up the walls elsewhere consists of narrow talus cones forming a dendritic pattern that leads to fewer, wider ridges downslope. Hummocky topography and scattered blocks up to ~280 m long below many of the embayments in the caldera wall mark debris-avalanche deposits that probably formed in single events and commonly are affected by secondary failures. The flat-floored, deep basins contain relatively fine-grained sediment transported from the debris aprons by sheet-flow turbidity currents. Crater Lake apparently filled rapidly (ca. 400-750 yr) until reaching a permeable layer above glaciated lava identified by the new survey in the northeast caldera wall at ~1845 m elevation

  17. Under trees and water at Crater Lake National Park, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Joel E.; Bacon, Charles R.; Wayne, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago during the eruption of a 12,000-ft-high volcano known as Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming, or climactic, eruption of Mount Mazama devastated the surrounding landscape, left a thick deposit of pumice and ash in adjacent valleys, and spread a blanket of volcanic ash as far away as southern Canada. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000-year history of volcanic activity similar to other large Cascade volcanoes such as Mounts Shasta, Hood, and Rainier. Since the caldera formed, many smaller, less violent eruptions occurred at volcanic vents below Crater Lake's surface, including Wizard Island. A survey of Crater Lake National Park with airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) resulted in a digital elevation map of the ground surface beneath the forest canopy. The average resolution is 1.6 laser returns per square meter yielding vertical and horizontal accuracies of ±5 cm. The map of the floor beneath the surface of the 1,947-ft-deep (593-m-deep) Crater Lake was developed from a multibeam sonar bathymetric survey and was added to the map to provide a continuous view of the landscape from the highest peak on Mount Scott to the deepest part of Crater Lake. Four enlarged shaded-relief views provide a sampling of features that illustrate the resolution of the LiDAR survey and illustrate its utility in revealing volcanic landforms and subtle features of the climactic eruption deposits. LiDAR's high precision and ability to "see" through the forest canopy reveal features that may not be easily recognized-even when walked over-because their full extent is hidden by vegetation, such as the 1-m-tall arcuate scarp near Castle Creek.

  18. Condition of Lakes in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in collaboration with state agencies conduct monitoring of various aquatic resources to answer questions on the condition of the Nation’s waters. This series of surveys is conducted under EPA’s National Aquatic Resources Surveys (NARS) pr...

  19. Benthic nutrient sources to hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Topping, B.R.; Lynch, D.D.; Carter, J.L.; Essaid, H.I.

    2009-01-01

    Three collecting trips were coordinated in April, May, and August 2006 to sample the water column and benthos of hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake (OR, USA) through the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. A porewater profiler was designed and fabricated to obtain the first high-resolution (centimeter-scale) estimates of the vertical, concentration gradients of macro- and micronutrients for diffusive-flux determinations. A consistently positive benthic flux for soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was observed with solute release from the sediment, ranging between 0.4 and 6.1 mg/m2/d. The mass flux over an approximate 200-km2 lake area was comparable in magnitude to riverine inputs. An additional concern, related to fish toxicity was identified when dissolved ammonium also displayed consistently positive benthic fluxes of 4 to 134 mg/m2/d, again, comparable to riverine inputs. Although phosphorus was a logical initial choice by water quality managers for the limiting nutrient when nitrogen-fixing cyanophytes dominate, initial trace-element results from the lake and major inflowing tributaries suggested that the role of iron limitation on primary productivity should be investigated. Dissolved iron became depleted in the lake water column during the course of the algal bloom, while dissolved ammonium and SRP increased. Elevated macroinvertebrate densities, at least of the order of 104 individuals/m2, suggested, that the diffusive-flux estimates may be significantly enhanced, by bioturbation. In addition, heat-flux modeling indicated that groundwater advection of nutrients could also significantly contribute to internal nutrient loading. Accurate environmental assessments of lentic systems and reasonable expectations for point-source management require quantitative consideration of internal solute sources ?? 2009 SETAC.

  20. Evaluating the potential for watershed restoration to reduce nutrient loading to Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Paul V.; Campbell, Sharon G.

    2007-01-01

    A literature review of best management practices to reduce nutrient loading was performed to provide information for resource managers in the Klamath Basin, Oregon. Although BMPs have already been implemented in the watershed, some sense of their effectiveness in reducing phosphorus loading and their cost for installation and maintenance is still lacking. This report discusses both causes of nutrient loading and a wide-variety of BMPs used to treat or reduce causal factors. We specifically focused on cattle grazing as the principal land-use and causal factor for nutrient loading in the Klamath Basin above Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Several BMP types, including stream corridor fencing, riparian buffer strips and constructed wetlands, seem to have potential for reducing phosphorus loading that may result from cattle grazing. However, no single BMP is likely to be the most effective in all locations or situations.

  1. Vertical distribution of a deep-water moss and associated epiphytes in Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntire, C.D.; Phinney, H.K.; Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    A one-person submersible was used to examine the vertical distribution of the deep-water moss Drepanocladus aduncus (Hedw.) Warnst in Crater Lake (Oregon). Living specimens were found attached to sediment and rocks at depths between 25 m and 140 m. Dense beds of the moss were observed at depths between 30 m and 80 m, a region that corresponded roughly to the zone of maximum primary production by phytoplankton. The moss population supported a diverse assemblage of epiphytic algae, of which the most abundant genera included Cladophora,Oedogonium, Rhizoclonium, Tribonema, Vaucheria, and the diatoms Cocconeis, Cymbella, Epithemia, Fragilaria, Gomphonema, Melosira, Navicula, and Synedra. Chemical and physical data supported the hypothesis that the lower limit of distribution of the moss is determined by light limitation, whereas the upper limit is related to the availability of nutrients, particularly nitrate-nitrogen and trace elements. Deep-water videotapes of the moss population indicated that D. aduncus with its epiphytic algae was abundant enough in regions associated with the metalimnion and upper hypolimnion to have a potential influence on the nutrient dynamics of the Crater Lake ecosystem. Although the maximum depth at which living bryophytes occur in Crater Lake is similar to that found for Lake Tahoe, conditions in Lake Tahoe allow the growth and survival of a much more diverse assemblage of bryophytes and charophytes than is present in Crater Lake.

  2. Chronology of sediment deposition in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Bradbury, J.P.; McGeehin, J.P.; Holmes, C.W.; Edginton, D.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    A combination of tephrochronology and 14C, 210Pb, and 137Cs measurements provides a robust chronology for sedimentation in Upper Klamath Lake during the last 45 000 years. Mixing of surficial sediments and possible mobility of the radio-isotopes limit the usefulness of the 137Cs and 210Pb data, but 210Pb profiles provide reasonable average sediment accumulation rates for the last 100-150 years. Radiocarbon ages near the top of the core are somewhat erratic and are too old, probably as a result of detrital organic carbon, which may have become a more common component in recent times as surrounding marshes were drained. Below the tops of the cores, radiocarbon ages in the center of the basin appear to be about 400 years too old, while those on the margin appear to be accurate, based on comparisons with tephra layers of known age. Taken together, the data can be combined into reasonable age models for each site. Sediments have accumulated at site K1, near the center of the basin, about 2 times faster than at site CM2, on the margin of the lake. The rates are about 0.10 and 0.05 cm/yr, respectively. The chronological data also indicate that accumulation rates were slower during the early to middle Holocene than during the late Holocene, consistent with increasing wetness in the late Holocene.

  3. Distribution and abundance of zooplankton populations in Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, G.L.; McIntire, C.D.; Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.; Truitt, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    The zooplankton assemblages in Crater Lake exhibited consistency in species richness and general taxonomic composition, but varied in density and biomass during the period between 1988 and 2000. Collectively, the assemblages included 2 cladoceran taxa and 10 rotifer taxa (excluding rare taxa). Vertical habitat partitioning of the water column to a depth of 200 m was observed for most species with similar food habits and/or feeding mechanisms. No congeneric replacement was observed. The dominant species in the assemblages were variable, switching primarily between periods of dominance of Polyarthra-Keratella cochlearis and Daphnia. The unexpected occurrence and dominance of Asplanchna in 1991 and 1992 resulted in a major change in this typical temporal shift between Polyarthra-K. cochlearis and Daphnia. Following a collapse of the zooplankton biomass in 1993 that was probably caused by predation from Asplanchna, Kellicottia dominated the zooplankton assemblage biomass between 1994 and 1997. The decline in biomass of Kellicottia by 1998 coincided with a dramatic increase in Daphnia biomass. When Daphnia biomass declined by 2000, Keratella biomass increased again. Thus, by 1998 the assemblage returned to the typical shift between Keratella-Polyarthra and Daphnia. Although these observations provided considerable insight about the interannual variability of the zooplankton assemblages in Crater Lake, little was discovered about mechanisms behind the variability. When abundant, kokanee salmon may have played an important role in the disappearance of Daphnia in 1990 and 2000 either through predation, inducing diapause, or both. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. 75 FR 362 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Great Lakes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Great Lakes... the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Great Lakes Accountability System, Attn: Rita Cestaric, EPA, Great Lakes National Program Office, 77 W. Jackson St., Chicago, Illinois 60604....

  5. Norovirus outbreak associated with a natural lake used for recreation - Oregon, 2014.

    PubMed

    Zlot, Amy; Simckes, Maayan; Vines, Jennifer; Reynolds, Laura; Sullivan, Amy; Scott, Agdalena Kendall; McLuckie, J Michael; Kromer, Dan; Hill, Vincent R; Yoder, Jonathan S; Hlavsa, Michele C

    2015-05-15

    In July 2014, Multnomah County public health officials investigated a norovirus outbreak among persons visiting Blue Lake Regional Park in Oregon. During the weekend of the reported illnesses (Friday, July 11-Sunday, July 13) approximately 15,400 persons visited the park. The investigation identified 65 probable and five laboratory-confirmed cases of norovirus infection (70 total cases). No hospitalizations or deaths were reported. Analyses from a retrospective cohort study revealed that swimming at Blue Lake during July 12-13 was significantly associated with illness during July 13-14 (adjusted relative risk = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-64.9). Persons who swam were more than twice as likely to become ill compared with those who did not swim in the lake. To control the outbreak, Blue Lake was closed for 10 days to prevent further illness. This investigation underscores the need for guidance for determining when to reopen untreated recreational water venues (e.g., lakes) associated with outbreaks, and communication tools to inform the public about the risks associated with swimming in untreated recreational water venues and measures that can prevent illness.

  6. Modeling Hydrodynamics, Water Temperature, and Suspended Sediment in Detroit Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Bragg, Heather M.

    2007-01-01

    Detroit Lake is a large reservoir on the North Santiam River in west-central Oregon. Water temperature and suspended sediment are issues of concern in the river downstream of the reservoir. A CE-QUAL-W2 model was constructed to simulate hydrodynamics, water temperature, total dissolved solids, and suspended sediment in Detroit Lake. The model was calibrated for calendar years 2002 and 2003, and for a period of storm runoff from December 1, 2005, to February 1, 2006. Input data included lake bathymetry, meteorology, reservoir outflows, and tributary inflows, water temperatures, total dissolved solids, and suspended sediment concentrations. Two suspended sediment size groups were modeled: one for suspended sand and silt with particle diameters larger than 2 micrometers, and another for suspended clay with particle diameters less than or equal to 2 micrometers. The model was calibrated using lake stage data, lake profile data, and data from a continuous water-quality monitor on the North Santiam River near Niagara, about 6 kilometers downstream of Detroit Dam. The calibrated model was used to estimate sediment deposition in the reservoir, examine the sources of suspended sediment exiting the reservoir, and examine the effect of the reservoir on downstream water temperatures.

  7. Long-term limnological research and monitoring at Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, G.L.; Collier, R.; Buktenica, M.

    2007-01-01

    Crater Lake is located in the caldera of Mount Mazama in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon. The lake has a surface area of about 53 km2at an elevation of 1882 m and a maximum depth of 594 m. Limited studies of this ultraoligotrophic lake conducted between 1896 and 1981, lead to a 10-year limnological study to evaluate any potential degradation of water quality. No long-term variations in water quality were observed that could be attributed to anthropogenic activity. Building on the success of this study, a permanent limnological program has been established with a long-term monitoring program to insure a reliable data base for use in the future. Of equal importance, this program serves as a research platform to develop and communicate to the public a better understanding of the coupled biological, physical, and geochemical processes in the lake and its surrounding environment. This special volume represents our current state of knowledge of the status of this pristine ecosystem including its special optical properties, algal nutrient limitations, pelagic bacteria, and models of the inter-relationships of thermal properties, nutrients, phytoplankton, deep-water mixing, and water budgets. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  8. Pb210 geochronology and trace metal concentrations of sediments from Upper Klamath Lake and Lake Euwana, Oregon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, E.A.; Rice, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Rates of sedimentation calculated from analyses of 210Pb activities in cores from two shallow lakes whose mean depths are 2.4m, Upper Klamath Lake and Lake Euwana (Klamath County, Oregon), indicate that they are filling at approximately 3.0mm/yr. Average sedimentation rates for compaction-corrected cores range from 0.9mm/yr to 8.5mm/yr or from 0.03g/cm2/yr to 0.48g/cm2/yr, respectively. Plots of excess 210Pb activity versus depth show a mixing layer due to biological activity and other physical mixing that ranges in thickness from 5-20cm, and that is found below the sediment-water inferface at all coring locations. Trace metal analyses performed to establish baseline levels of selected elements show very low concentrations of all metals measured in cores from Upper Klamath Lake (Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Pb, Mn and Zn) when compared with concentrations of these metals found in other North American lacustrine environments.-Authors

  9. Hydrology of Crater, East and Davis Lakes, Oregon; with section on Chemistry of the Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Kenneth N.; Van Denburgh, A.S.

    1968-01-01

    Crater, East, and Davis Lakes are small bodies of fresh water that occupy topographically closed basins in Holocene volcanic terrane. Because the annual water supply exceeds annual evaporation, water must be lost by seepage from each lake. The seepage rates vary widely both in volume and in percentage of the total water supply. Crater Lake loses about 89 cfs (cubic feet per second), equivalent to about 72 percent of its average annual supply. East Lake loses about 2.3 cfs, or about 44 percent of its estimated supply. Davis Lake seepage varies greatly with lake level, but the average loss is about 150 cfs, more than 90 percent of its total supply. The destination of the seepage loss is not definitely known for any of the lakes. An approximate water budget was computed for stationary level for each lake, by using estimates 'by the writer to supplement the hydrologic data available. The three lake waters are dilute. Crater Lake contains about 80 ppm, (parts per million) of dissolved solids---mostly silica, sodium, and bicarbonate, and lesser amounts of calcium, sulfate, and chloride. Much of the dissolved-solids content of Crater Lake---especially the sulfate and chloride---may be related to fumarole and thermal-spring activity that presumably followed the collapse of Mount Mazama. Although Grater Lake loses an estimated 7,000 tons of its 1.5million-ton salt content each year by leakage, the chemical character of the lake did not change appreciably between 1912 and 1964. East Lake contains 200 ppm of dissolved solids, which includes major proportions of calcium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate, but almost no chloride. The lake apparently receives much of its dissolved solids from subsurface thermal springs. Annual solute loss from East Lake by leakage is about 450 tons, or 3 percent of the lake's 15,000-ton estimated solute content. Davis Lake contains only 48 ppm of dissolved solids, much of which is silica and bicarbonate; chloride is almost completely absent

  10. Nests and eggs of colonial birds nesting in Malheur Lake, Oregon, with notes on DDE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornely, J.E.; Thompson, S.P.; Henny, C.J.; Littlefield, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the nests and eggs of 7 species of colonial birds that nested on Malheur Lake in Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon, in 1980 and 1981. All nests were constructed over water in stands of hardstem bulrush (Scirpus acutus). We compared nest measurements among species and found significant differences. Nest size was highly correlated with bird body mass. The heavier the bird, the larger the nest and the higher the nest crown was above water. Egg volume was also highly correlated with body mass. We found evidence of shell thinning and DDE residues in great egret eggs and low levels of pesticide residues in eggs of Franklin's Gull. We summarize all available DDE and shell thickness data from colonial bird eggs collected from Malheur Lake.

  11. Role of storms and forestry practices in sedimentation in an Oregon Coast Range Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, F. J.; Richardson, K.; Hatten, J. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Contemporary harvesting practices have been shown to reduce sediment transport rates relative to historic practices; however, it is not well understood how these practices interact with climate to influence sediment flux and source. We are currently studying sedimentation rates in Loon Lake, in the Oregon Coast Range. The watershed of Loon Lake is 80% privately owned, and is therefore an ideal system for examining the effect of policy affected management shifts on water quality and sediment transport. We analyzed one 690cm core that represents about 1500yrs of sedimentation in the lake. We measured accumulation by layer thickness and character by proxies of elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, particle size, and bulk density. Radionuclides and radiocarbon dates provide an age model with depth downcore. Our preliminary results show that there is some evidence that the sedimentation rate in the lake decreased around the time of passing of the Oregon Forest Practices Act when climate is taken into account; pre-OFPA, the estimated mean sedimentation rate was 1.0 cm/year, and post-OFPA, the estimated mean sedimentation rate was 0.76 cm/year. Both of these sedimentation rates appear to be different than pre-European settlement period which averaged about 0.40 cm/year; however, this conclusion is preliminary. In general, it seems there is some evidence that the Best Management Practices instituted with OFPA are associated with lower sedimentation rates. In our presentation we will discuss the role of forestry and climate in changing these sedimentation rates and compare these modern sedimentation rates with sedimentation in the pre-settlement period.

  12. Debris flow from 2012 failure of moraine-dammed lake, Three Fingered Jack volcano, Mount Jefferson Wilderness, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Wills, Barton B.

    2014-01-01

    The Three Fingered Jack debris flow is one of several that have issued from moraine-dammed lakes in the Oregon Cascade Range. A thorough summary of those lakes and the hazards associated with them was published in 2001, based largely on fieldwork by Jim O’Connor and Jasper Hardison in the early 1990s. Described here are details of the 2012 event, an update to the O’Connor story begun earlier.

  13. Multibeam Sonar Mapping and Modeling of a Submerged Bryophyte Mat in Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Collier, Robert; Buktenica, Mark; Jessup, Steven; Girdner, Scott; Triezenberg, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, multibeam data have been used to map sea floor or lake floor morphology as well as the distribution of surficial facies in order to characterize the geologic component of benthic habitats. In addition to using multibeam data for geologic studies, we want to determine if these data can also be used directly to map the distribution of biota. Multibeam bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data collected in Crater Lake, Oregon, in 2000 are used to map the distribution of a deep-water bryophyte mat, which will be extremely useful for understanding the overall ecology of the lake. To map the bryophyte's distribution, depth range, acoustic backscatter intensity, and derived bathymetric index grids are used as inputs into a hierarchical decision-tree classification model. Observations of the bryophyte mat from over 23 line kilometers of lake-floor video collected in the summer of 2006 are used as controls for the model. The resulting map matches well with ground-truth information and shows that the bryophyte mat covers most of the platform surrounding Wizard Island as well as on outcrops around the caldera wall.

  14. Hydroclimatic and landscape controls on phosphorus loads to hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Records, R.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Arabi, M.; Duffy, W. G.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated total phosphorus (P) loading into Upper Klamath Lake, southern Oregon, United States has caused hypereutrophic conditions impacting endangered lake fish species. Increases in P loading have been attributed to land use changes, such as timber harvest and wetland drainage. The contribution of P to Upper Klamath Lake has been estimated from each major tributary, yet little research has explored what land use or other variables have most influence on P loading within the tributaries. In addition, previous work has shown a range of potential hydroclimatic shifts by the 2040s, with potential to alter P loading mechanisms. In this study, we use statistical methods including principle component analysis and multiple linear regression to determine what hydroclimatic and landscape variables best explain flow-weighted P concentration in the Sprague River, one of three main tributaries to Upper Klamath Lake. Identification of key variables affecting P loading has direct implications for management decisions in the Upper Klamath River Basin. Increases in P loading related to sediment loading are due to bank and upslope erosion. The former is more prevalent in areas of historic channel alteration and cattle grazing, while the latter is more dominant in areas of heavy timber harvesting and more precipitation as rain.

  15. Neotectonic analysis of upper klamath lake, oregon: New insights from seismic reflection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liberty, L.M.; Pratt, T.L.; Lyle, M.; Madin, I.P.

    2009-01-01

    We present marine high-resolution seismic reflection data from Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, to discern the underlying structure and estimate Quaternary slip rates in this actively extending Basin and Range system. The sediment patterns and structures imaged on our seismic profiles reveal a complex geologic system that reflects a changing climate record, shallow water conditions, growth faulting, contrasting sediment sources, and high slip rates. We observe that Upper Klamath Lake is a sedimentsaturated environment, and sediment accumulation rates are therefore controlled by basin subsidence rather than sediment supply. Published slip rates for Holocene extension are greater than our determined late Quaternary slip rates, assuming reasonable rates of deposition. The apparent increased Holocene fault-slip rates may be in part an artifact of long recurrence intervals between major earthquakes, with recent seismicity accommodating long-term strain. The quantity of observed faults below the lake is at least an order of magnitude greater than those mapped outside the lake, suggesting that many hidden faults throughout the region may be unaccounted for when estimating Basin and Range extension rates. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation of Deep Water Renewal in Crater Lake, Oregon, USA under Current and Future Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Wood, T. M.; Wherry, S.; Girdner, S.

    2015-12-01

    We applied a 1-dimensional lake model developed to simulate deep mixing related to thermobaric instabilities in temperate lakes to Crater Lake, a 590-m deep caldera lake in Oregon's Cascade Range known for its stunning deep blue color and extremely clear water, in order to determine the frequency of deep water renewal in future climate conditions. The lake model was calibrated with 6 years of water temperature profiles, and then simulated 10 years of validation data with an RMSE ranging from 0.81°C at 50 m depth to 0.04°C at 350-460 m depth. The simulated time series of heat content in the deep lake accurately captured extreme years characterized by weak and strong deep water renewal. The lake model uses wind speed and lake surface temperature (LST) as boundary conditions. LST projections under six climate scenarios from the CMIP5 intermodel comparison project (2 representative concentration pathways X 3 general circulation models) were evaluated with air2water, a simple lumped model that only requires daily values of downscaled air temperature. air2water was calibrated with data from 1993-2011, resulting in a RMSE between simulated and observed daily LST values of 0.68°C. All future climate scenarios project increased water temperature throughout the water column and a substantive reduction in the frequency of deepwater renewal events. The least extreme scenario (CNRM-CM5, RCP4.5) projects the frequency of deepwater renewal events to decrease from about 1 in 2 years in the present to about 1 in 3 years by 2100. The most extreme scenario (HadGEM2-ES, RCP8.5) projects the frequency of deepwater renewal events to be less than 1 in 7 years by 2100 and lake surface temperatures never cooling to less than 4°C after 2050. In all RCP4.5 simulations the temperature of the entire water column is greater than 4°C for increasing periods of time. In the RCP8.5 simulations, the temperature of the entire water column is greater than 4°C year round by the year 2060 (HadGEM2

  17. Role of storms and forest practices in sedimentation of an Oregon Coast Range lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, K.; Hatten, J. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Guerrero, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The design of better management practices in forested watersheds to face climate change and the associated increase in the frequency of extreme events requires a better understanding of watershed responses to extreme events in the past and also under management regimes. One of the most sensitive watershed processes affected is sediment yield. Lake sediments record events which occur in a watershed and provide an opportunity to examine the interaction of storms and forest management practices in the layers of the stratigraphy. We hypothesize that timber harvesting and road building since the 1900s has resulted in increases in sedimentation; however, the passage of the Oregon Forest Practices Act (OFPA) in 1972 has led to a decrease in sedimentation. Sediment cores were taken at Loon Lake in the Oregon Coast Range. The 32-m deep lake captures sediment from a catchment highly impacted by recent land use and episodic Pacific storms. We can use sedimentological tools to measure changes in sediment production as motivated by extreme floods before settlement, during a major timber harvesting period, and after installation of forestry Best Management Practices. Quantification of changes in particle size and elemental composition (C, N, C/N) throughout the cores can elucidate changes in watershed response to extreme events, as can changes in layer thickness. Age control in the cores is being established by Cesium-137 and radiocarbon dating. Given the instrumental meteorological data and decadal climate reconstructions, we will disentangle climate driven signals from changes in land use practices. The sediment shows distinct laminations and varying thickness of layers throughout the cores. Background deposition is composed of thin layers (<0.5 cm) of fine silts and clays, punctuated by thicker layers (3-25 cm) every 10 to 75 cm. These thick layers consist of distinctly textured units, generally fining upward. We interpret the thick layers in Loon Lake to be deposited by

  18. Particle-tracking investigation of the retention of sucker larvae emerging from spawning grounds in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Wherry, Susan A.; Simon, David C.; Markle, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) to use the results of an individual-based particle-tracking model of larval sucker dispersal through the Williamson River delta and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, to interpret field data collected throughout Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, and (2) to use the model to investigate the retention of sucker larvae in the system as a function of Williamson River flow, wind, and lake elevation. This is a follow-up study to work reported in Wood and others (2014) in which the hydrodynamic model of Upper Klamath Lake was combined with an individual-based, particle-tracking model of larval fish entering the lake from spawning areas in the Williamson River. In the previous study, the performance of the model was evaluated through comparison with field data comprising larval sucker distribution collected in 2009 by The Nature Conservancy, Oregon State University (OSU), and the U.S. Geological Survey, primarily from the (at that time) recently reconnected Williamson River Delta and along the eastern shoreline of Upper Klamath Lake, surrounding the old river mouth. The previous study demonstrated that the validation of the model with field data was moderately successful and that the model was useful for describing the broad patterns of larval dispersal from the river, at least in the areas surrounding the river channel immediately downstream of the spawning areas and along the shoreline where larvae enter the lake. In this study, field data collected by OSU throughout the main body of Upper Klamath Lake, and not just around the Williamson River Delta, were compared to model simulation results. Because the field data were collected throughout the lake, it was necessary to include in the simulations larvae spawned at eastern shoreline springs that were not included in the earlier studies. A complicating factor was that the OSU collected data throughout the main body of the lake in 2011 and 2012, after the end of several years of larval drift

  19. Limnological and climatic environments at Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon during the past 45 000 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, J.P.; Colman, Steven M.; Dean, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    Upper Klamath Lake, in south-central Oregon, contains long sediment records with well-preserved diatoms and lithological variations that reflect climate-induced limnological changes. These sediment archives complement and extend high resolution terrestrial records along a north-south transect that includes areas influenced by the Aleutian Low and Subtropical High, which control both marine and continental climates in the western United States. The longest and oldest core collected in this study came from the southwest margin of the lake at Caledonia Marsh, and was dated by radiocarbon and tephrochronology to an age of about 45 ka. Paleolimnological interpretations of this core, based upon geochemical and diatom analyses, have been augmented by data from a short core collected from open water environments at nearby Howards Bay and from a 9-m core extending to 15 ka raised from the center of the northwestern part of Upper Klamath Lake. Pre- and full-glacial intervals of the Caledonia Marsh core are characterized and dominated by lithic detrital material. Planktic diatom taxa characteristic of cold-water habitats (Aulacoseira subarctica and A. islandica) alternate with warm-water planktic diatoms (A. ambigua) between 45 and 23 ka, documenting climate changes at millennial scales during oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 3. The full-glacial interval contains mostly cold-water planktic, benthic, and reworked Pliocene lacustrine diatoms (from the surrounding Yonna Formation) that document shallow water conditions in a cold, windy environment. After 15 ka, diatom productivity increased. Organic carbon and biogenic silica became significant sediment components and diatoms that live in the lake today, indicative of warm, eutrophic water, became prominent. Lake levels fell during the mid-Holocene and marsh environments extended over the core site. This interval is characterized by high levels of organic carbon from emergent aquatic vegetation (Scirpus) and by the Mazama ash (7.55 ka

  20. Fate and behavior of rotenone in Diamond Lake, Oregon, USA following invasive tui chub eradication.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Brian J; Eilers, Joseph M; Huchko, Holly A

    2014-07-01

    In September 2006, Diamond Lake (OR, USA) was treated by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife with a mixture of powdered and liquid rotenone in the successful eradication of invasive tui chub Gila bicolor. During treatment, the lake was in the middle of a phytoplankton (including cyanobacteria Anabaena sp.) bloom, resulting in an elevated pH of 9.7. Dissipation of rotenone and its major metabolite rotenolone from water, sediment, and macrophytes was monitored. Rotenone dissipated quickly from Diamond Lake water; approximately 75% was gone within 2 d, and the average half-life (t½) value, estimated by using first-order kinetics, was 4.5 d. Rotenolone persisted longer (>46 d) with a short-term t½ value of 16.2 d. Neither compound was found in groundwater, sediments, or macrophytes. The dissipation of rotenone and rotenolone appeared to occur in 2 stages, which was possibly the result of a release of both compounds from decaying phytoplankton following their initial dissipation. Fisheries managers applying rotenone for fish eradication in lentic environments should consider the following to maximize efficacy and regulatory compliance: 1) treat at a minimum of twice the minimum dose demonstrated for complete mortality of the target species and possibly higher depending on the site's water pH and algae abundance, and 2) implement a program that closely monitors rotenone concentrations in the posttreatment management of a treated water body. PMID:24733691

  1. Effects of ambient water quality on the endangered Lost River sucker in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, B.A.; Saiki, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    Populations of the Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus have declined so precipitously in the Upper Klamath Basin of Oregon and California that this fish was recently listed for federal protection as an endangered species. Although Upper Klamath Lake is a major refuge for this species, fish in the lake occasionally experience mass mortalities during summer and early fall. This field study was implemented to determine if fish mortalities resulted from degraded water quality conditions associated with seasonal blooms of phytoplankton, especially Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Our results indicated that fish mortality did not always increase as water temperature, pH, and un-ionized ammonia concentration increased in Upper Klamath Lake. Little or no mortality occurred when these water quality variables attained their maximum values. On the other hand, an inverse relation existed between fish mortality and dissolved oxygen concentration. High mortality (>90%) occurred whenever dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased to 1.05 mg/L, whereas mortality was usually low (< 10%) when dissolved oxygen concentrations equaled or exceeded 1.58 mg/L. Stepwise logistic regression also indicated that the minimum concentration of dissolved oxygen measured was the single most important determinant of fish mortality.

  2. Algal Toxins in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: Linking Water Quality to Juvenile Sucker Health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Burdick, S.M.; Echols, K.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Rosen, B.H.; Wood, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    As the lead science agency for the Department of Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey is actively involved in resource issues in the Klamath River basin. Activities include research projects on endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers, threatened coho salmon, groundwater resources, seasonal runoff forecasting, water quality in Upper Klamath Lake and the Klamath River, nutrient cycling in wetlands, and assessment of land idling programs to reduce water consumption. Many of these studies are collaborations with various partners including Department of Interior agencies, Indian Tribes, and State agencies.

  3. Simulation of deep ventilation in Crater Lake, Oregon, 1951–2099

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Wherry, Susan A.; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Girdner, Scott F

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of deep ventilation events in Crater Lake, a caldera lake in the Oregon Cascade Mountains, was simulated in six future climate scenarios, using a 1-dimensional deep ventilation model (1DDV) that was developed to simulate the ventilation of deep water initiated by reverse stratification and subsequent thermobaric instability. The model was calibrated and validated with lake temperature data collected from 1994 to 2011. Wind and air temperature data from three general circulation models and two representative concentration pathways were used to simulate the change in lake temperature and the frequency of deep ventilation events in possible future climates. The lumped model air2water was used to project lake surface temperature, a required boundary condition for the lake model, based on air temperature in the future climates.The 1DDV model was used to simulate daily water temperature profiles through 2099. All future climate scenarios projected increased water temperature throughout the water column and a substantive reduction in the frequency of deep ventilation events. The least extreme scenario projected the frequency of deep ventilation events to decrease from about 1 in 2 years in current conditions to about 1 in 3 years by 2100. The most extreme scenario considered projected the frequency of deep ventilation events to be about 1 in 7.7 years by 2100. All scenarios predicted that the temperature of the entire water column will be greater than 4 °C for increasing lengths of time in the future and that the conditions required for thermobaric instability induced mixing will become rare or non-existent.The disruption of deep ventilation by itself does not provide a complete picture of the potential ecological and water quality consequences of warming climate to Crater Lake. Estimating the effect of warming climate on deep water oxygen depletion and water clarity will require careful modeling studies to combine the physical mixing processes affected by

  4. Simulation of deep ventilation in Crater Lake, Oregon, 1951–2099

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Wherry, Susan A.; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Girdner, Scott F

    2016-05-04

    The frequency of deep ventilation events in Crater Lake, a caldera lake in the Oregon Cascade Mountains, was simulated in six future climate scenarios, using a 1-dimensional deep ventilation model (1DDV) that was developed to simulate the ventilation of deep water initiated by reverse stratification and subsequent thermobaric instability. The model was calibrated and validated with lake temperature data collected from 1994 to 2011. Wind and air temperature data from three general circulation models and two representative concentration pathways were used to simulate the change in lake temperature and the frequency of deep ventilation events in possible future climates. The lumped model air2water was used to project lake surface temperature, a required boundary condition for the lake model, based on air temperature in the future climates.The 1DDV model was used to simulate daily water temperature profiles through 2099. All future climate scenarios projected increased water temperature throughout the water column and a substantive reduction in the frequency of deep ventilation events. The least extreme scenario projected the frequency of deep ventilation events to decrease from about 1 in 2 years in current conditions to about 1 in 3 years by 2100. The most extreme scenario considered projected the frequency of deep ventilation events to be about 1 in 7.7 years by 2100. All scenarios predicted that the temperature of the entire water column will be greater than 4 °C for increasing lengths of time in the future and that the conditions required for thermobaric instability induced mixing will become rare or non-existent.The disruption of deep ventilation by itself does not provide a complete picture of the potential ecological and water quality consequences of warming climate to Crater Lake. Estimating the effect of warming climate on deep water oxygen depletion and water clarity will require careful modeling studies to combine the physical mixing processes affected by

  5. Particle-tracking investigation of the retention of sucker larvae emerging from spawning grounds in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Wherry, Susan A.; Simon, David C.; Markle, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) to use the results of an individual-based particle-tracking model of larval sucker dispersal through the Williamson River delta and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, to interpret field data collected throughout Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, and (2) to use the model to investigate the retention of sucker larvae in the system as a function of Williamson River flow, wind, and lake elevation. This is a follow-up study to work reported in Wood and others (2014) in which the hydrodynamic model of Upper Klamath Lake was combined with an individual-based, particle-tracking model of larval fish entering the lake from spawning areas in the Williamson River. In the previous study, the performance of the model was evaluated through comparison with field data comprising larval sucker distribution collected in 2009 by The Nature Conservancy, Oregon State University (OSU), and the U.S. Geological Survey, primarily from the (at that time) recently reconnected Williamson River Delta and along the eastern shoreline of Upper Klamath Lake, surrounding the old river mouth. The previous study demonstrated that the validation of the model with field data was moderately successful and that the model was useful for describing the broad patterns of larval dispersal from the river, at least in the areas surrounding the river channel immediately downstream of the spawning areas and along the shoreline where larvae enter the lake. In this study, field data collected by OSU throughout the main body of Upper Klamath Lake, and not just around the Williamson River Delta, were compared to model simulation results. Because the field data were collected throughout the lake, it was necessary to include in the simulations larvae spawned at eastern shoreline springs that were not included in the earlier studies. A complicating factor was that the OSU collected data throughout the main body of the lake in 2011 and 2012, after the end of several years of larval drift

  6. Statistical analysis of the water-quality monitoring program, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and optimization of the program for 2013 and beyond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eldridge, Sara L. Caldwell; Wherry, Susan A.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2014-01-01

    Upper Klamath Lake in south-central Oregon has become increasingly eutrophic over the past century and now experiences seasonal cyanobacteria-dominated and potentially toxic phytoplankton blooms. Growth and decline of these blooms create poor water-quality conditions that can be detrimental to fish, including two resident endangered sucker species. Upper Klamath Lake is the primary water supply to agricultural areas within the upper Klamath Basin. Water from the lake is also used to generate power and to enhance and sustain downstream flows in the Klamath River. Water quality in Upper Klamath Lake has been monitored by the Klamath Tribes since the early 1990s and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 2002. Management agencies and other stakeholders have determined that a re-evaluation of the goals for water-quality monitoring is warranted to assess whether current data-collection activities will continue to adequately provide data for researchers to address questions of interest and to facilitate future natural resource management decisions. The purpose of this study was to (1) compile an updated list of the goals and objectives for long-term water-quality monitoring in Upper Klamath Lake with input from upper Klamath Basin stakeholders, (2) assess the current water-quality monitoring programs in Upper Klamath Lake to determine whether existing data-collection strategies can fulfill the updated goals and objectives for monitoring, and (3) identify potential modifications to future monitoring plans in accordance with the updated monitoring objectives and improve stakeholder cooperation and data-collection efficiency. Data collected by the Klamath Tribes and the USGS were evaluated to determine whether consistent long-term trends in water-quality variables can be described by the dataset and whether the number and distribution of currently monitored sites captures the full range of environmental conditions and the multi-scale variability of water

  7. Modeling water quality effects of structural and operational changes to Scoggins Dam and Henry Hagg Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2006-01-01

    To meet water quality targets and the municipal and industrial water needs of a growing population in the Tualatin River Basin in northwestern Oregon, an expansion of Henry Hagg Lake is under consideration. Hagg Lake is the basin's primary storage reservoir and provides water during western Oregon's typically dry summers. Potential modifications include raising the dam height by 6.1 meters (20 feet), 7.6 meters (25 feet), or 12.2 meters (40 feet); installing additional outlets (possibly including a selective withdrawal tower); and adding additional inflows to provide greater reliability of filling the enlarged reservoir. One method of providing additional inflows is to route water from the upper Tualatin River through a tunnel and into Sain Creek, a tributary to the lake. Another option is to pump water from the Tualatin River (downstream of the lake) uphill and into the reservoir during the winter--the 'pump-back' option. A calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 model of Henry Hagg Lake's hydrodynamics, temperature, and water quality was used to examine the effect of these proposed changes on water quality in the lake and downstream. Most model scenarios were run with the calibrated model for 2002, a typical water year; a few scenarios were run for 2001, a drought year. More...

  8. Late Pleistocene outburst flooding from pluvial Lake Alvord into the Owyhee River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, D.T.; Ely, L.L.; O'Connor, J. E.; Fenton, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    At least one large, late Pleistocene flood traveled into the Owyhee River as a result of a rise and subsequent outburst from pluvial Lake Alvord in southeastern Oregon. Lake Alvord breached Big Sand Gap in its eastern rim after reaching an elevation of 1292 m, releasing 11.3 km3 of water into the adjacent Coyote Basin as it eroded the Big Sand Gap outlet channel to an elevation of about 1280 m. The outflow filled and then spilled out of Coyote Basin through two outlets at 1278 m and into Crooked Creek drainage, ultimately flowing into the Owyhee and Snake Rivers. Along Crooked Creek, the resulting flood eroded canyons, stripped bedrock surfaces, and deposited numerous boulder bars containing imbricated clasts up to 4.1 m in diameter, some of which are located over 30 m above the present-day channel. Critical depth calculations at Big Sand Gap show that maximum outflow from a 1292- to 1280-m drop in Lake Alvord was ??? 10,000 m3 s- 1. Flooding became confined to a single channel approximately 40 km downstream of Big Sand Gap, where step-backwater calculations show that a much larger peak discharge of 40,000 m3 s- 1 is required to match the highest geologic evidence of the flood in this channel. This inconsistency can be explained by (1) a single 10,000 m3 s- 1 flood that caused at least 13 m of vertical incision in the channel (hence enlarging the channel cross-section); (2) multiple floods of 10,000 m3 s- 1 or less, each producing some incision of the channel; or (3) an earlier flood of 40,000 m3 s- 1 creating the highest flood deposits and crossed drainage divides observed along Crooked Creek drainage, followed by a later 10,000 m3 s- 1 flood associated with the most recent shorelines in Alvord and Coyote Basins. Well-developed shorelines of Lake Alvord at 1280 m and in Coyote Basin at 1278 m suggest that after the initial flood, postflood overflow persisted for an extended period, connecting Alvord and Coyote Basins with the Owyhee River of the Columbia River

  9. Late Pleistocene outburst flooding from pluvial Lake Alvord into the Owyhee River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Deron T.; Ely, Lisa L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Fenton, Cassandra R.

    2006-05-01

    At least one large, late Pleistocene flood traveled into the Owyhee River as a result of a rise and subsequent outburst from pluvial Lake Alvord in southeastern Oregon. Lake Alvord breached Big Sand Gap in its eastern rim after reaching an elevation of 1292 m, releasing 11.3 km 3 of water into the adjacent Coyote Basin as it eroded the Big Sand Gap outlet channel to an elevation of about 1280 m. The outflow filled and then spilled out of Coyote Basin through two outlets at 1278 m and into Crooked Creek drainage, ultimately flowing into the Owyhee and Snake Rivers. Along Crooked Creek, the resulting flood eroded canyons, stripped bedrock surfaces, and deposited numerous boulder bars containing imbricated clasts up to 4.1 m in diameter, some of which are located over 30 m above the present-day channel. Critical depth calculations at Big Sand Gap show that maximum outflow from a 1292- to 1280-m drop in Lake Alvord was ˜ 10,000 m 3 s - 1 . Flooding became confined to a single channel approximately 40 km downstream of Big Sand Gap, where step-backwater calculations show that a much larger peak discharge of 40,000 m 3 s - 1 is required to match the highest geologic evidence of the flood in this channel. This inconsistency can be explained by (1) a single 10,000 m 3 s - 1 flood that caused at least 13 m of vertical incision in the channel (hence enlarging the channel cross-section); (2) multiple floods of 10,000 m 3 s - 1 or less, each producing some incision of the channel; or (3) an earlier flood of 40,000 m 3 s - 1 creating the highest flood deposits and crossed drainage divides observed along Crooked Creek drainage, followed by a later 10,000 m 3 s - 1 flood associated with the most recent shorelines in Alvord and Coyote Basins. Well-developed shorelines of Lake Alvord at 1280 m and in Coyote Basin at 1278 m suggest that after the initial flood, postflood overflow persisted for an extended period, connecting Alvord and Coyote Basins with the Owyhee River of the

  10. Optical dating of tsunami-laid sand from an Oregon coastal lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ollerhead, J.; Huntley, D.J.; Nelson, A.R.; Kelsey, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Optical ages for five samples of tsunami-laid sand from an Oregon coastal lake were determined using an infrared optical-dating method on K-feldspar separates and, as a test of accuracy, compared to ages determined by AMS 14C dating of detrital plant fragments found in the same beds. Two optical ages were about 20% younger than calibrated 14C ages of about 3.1 and 4.3 ka. Correction of the optical ages using measured anomalous fading rates brings them into agreement with the 14C ages. The approach used holds significant promise for improving the accuracy of infrared optical-dating methods. Luminescence data for the other three samples result in optical age limits much greater than the 14C ages. These data provide a textbook demonstration of the correlation between scatter in the luminescence intensity of individual sample aliquots and their normalization values that is expected when the samples contain sand grains not adequately exposed to daylight just prior to or during deposition and burial. Thus, the data for these three samples suggest that the tsunamis eroded young and old sand deposits before dropping the sand in the lake. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feeding ecology of Gila boraxobius (Osteichthyes: Cyprindae) endemic to a thermal lake in southeastern Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.E.; Williams, C.D.

    1980-06-30

    Gila boraxobius is a dwarf species of cyprinid endemic to a thermal lake in southeastern Oregon. Despite a relatively depauperate fauna and flora in the lake, 24 food items were found in intestines of G. boraxobius. Ten of the 24 foods, including six insects, were of terrestrial origin. The relative importance of food items fluctuated seasonally. Diatoms, chironomid larvae, microcrustaceans, and dipteran adults were the primary foods during spring. In summer, diatoms decreased and terrestrial insects increased in importance. During autumn important foods were terrestrial insects, chironomid larvae, and diatoms. Diatoms and microcrustaceans increased in importance during winter. Chironomid larvae were of importance in winter, when the importance of terrestrial food items decreased substantially. Similar food habits were observed between juveniles and adults, except that adults consumed more gastropods and diatoms and juveniles consumed more copepods and terrestrial insects. Gila boraxobius feeds opportunistically with individuals commonly containing mostly one food item. Fish typically feed by picking foods from soft bottom sediments or from rocks. However, fish will feed throughout the water column or on the surface if food is abundant there. Gila boraxobius feeds throughout the day, with a peak in feeding activity just after sunset. A daily ration of 11.1 percent body weight was calculated for the species during June. A comparison of food habits among G. boraxobius and populations of G. alvordensis during the summer shows that all are opportunistic in feeding, but that G. boraxobius relies more heavily on terrestrial foods.

  12. High-resolution digital elevation dataset for Crater Lake National Park and vicinity, Oregon, based on LiDAR survey of August-September 2010 and bathymetric survey of July 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Joel E.

    2012-01-01

    Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago during the eruption of a 12,000-foot volcano known as Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming or climactic eruption of Mount Mazama devastated the surrounding landscape, left a thick deposit of pumice and ash in adjacent valleys, and spread a blanket of volcanic ash as far away as southern Canada. Because the Crater Lake region is potentially volcanically active, knowledge of past events is important to understanding hazards from future eruptions. Similarly, because the area is seismically active, documenting and evaluating geologic faults is critical to assessing hazards from earthquakes. As part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey was awarded funding for high-precision airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data collection at several volcanoes in the Cascade Range through the Oregon LiDAR Consortium, administered by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI). The Oregon LiDAR Consortium contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc., to conduct the data collection surveys. Collaborating agencies participating with the Oregon LiDAR Consortium for data collection in the Crater Lake region include Crater Lake National Park (National Park Service) and the Federal Highway Administration. In the immediate vicinity of Crater Lake National Park, 798 square kilometers of LiDAR data were collected, providing a digital elevation dataset of the ground surface beneath forest cover with an average resolution of 1.6 laser returns/m2 and both vertical and horizontal accuracies of ±5 cm. The LiDAR data were mosaicked in this report with bathymetry of the lake floor of Crater Lake, collected in 2000 using high-resolution multibeam sonar in a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, Crater Lake National Park, and the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping at the University of New Hampshire. The bathymetric survey

  13. Modeling Hydrodynamics and Heat Transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Implications for Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Cheng, Ralph T.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Hoilman, Gene R.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Wellman, Roy E.

    2008-01-01

    The three-dimensional numerical model UnTRIM was used to model hydrodynamics and heat transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, between mid-June and mid-September in 2005 and between mid-May and mid-October in 2006. Data from as many as six meteorological stations were used to generate a spatially interpolated wind field to use as a forcing function. Solar radiation, air temperature, and relative humidity data all were available at one or more sites. In general, because the available data for all inflows and outflows did not adequately close the water budget as calculated from lake elevation and stage-capacity information, a residual inflow or outflow was used to assure closure of the water budget. Data used for calibration in 2005 included lake elevation at 3 water-level gages around the lake, water currents at 5 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) sites, and temperature at 16 water-quality monitoring locations. The calibrated model accurately simulated the fluctuations of the surface of the lake caused by daily wind patterns. The use of a spatially variable surface wind interpolated from two sites on the lake and four sites on the shoreline generally resulted in more accurate simulation of the currents than the use of a spatially invariant surface wind as observed at only one site on the lake. The simulation of currents was most accurate at the deepest site (ADCP1, where the velocities were highest) using a spatially variable surface wind; the mean error (ME) and root mean square error (RMSE) for the depth-averaged speed over a 37-day simulation from July 26 to August 31, 2005, were 0.50 centimeter per second (cm/s) and 3.08 cm/s, respectively. Simulated currents at the remaining sites were less accurate and, in general, underestimated the measured currents. The maximum errors in simulated currents were at a site near the southern end of the trench at the mouth of Howard Bay (ADCP7), where the ME and RMSE in the depth-averaged speed were 3.02 and 4.38 cm

  14. Lakeview uranium area, Lake County, Oregon - constraints on genetic modelling from a district-scale perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenburger, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    Extent-of-outcrop geologic mapping (1:12,000) on the Cox Flat 7.5-minute quadrangle establishes the stratigraphy and structure near the White King uranium mine, about 25 km northwest of Lakeview, Lake County, Oregon. Bedrock includes an Oligocene andesitic volcanic/sedimentary section, four late Oligocene rhyodacitic ignimbrite sequences, a late Oligocene/Miocene tuffaceous section, locally thick early to late Miocene basaltic flows, and an interbedded sequence of late Miocene (about 7-8 Ma old) felsic tuffs and thin basalt flows. Relatively intense down-to-the northeast normal faulting and southwestward stratal tilting resulted from a pre-Basin-and-Range extensional tectonic regime with an ENE least-principal stress orientation. This faulting and tilting began after the late Oligocene ignimbrite volcanism and before the spread of Coleman Rim-equivalent basalt flows. The interpreted geology constrains genetic models, resource estimates, and exploration strategies for uranium occurrences in the Lakeview area. Fault- and fracture-controlled hydrothermal uranium deposits are restricted to favorable stratigraphic horizons of the Miocene section with the important exception of porous and permeable upper portions of the late Oligocene section. Previous models have stressed the importance of intrusive rhyolite plug domes as sources of uranium and/or heat in ore genesis and targeted exploration efforts at dome contacts. Mass balance and other arguments show that an association with rhyolite domes is not a necessary criterion for ore formation or exploration.

  15. Hydrologic hazards along Squaw Creek from a hypothetical failure of the glacial moraine impounding Carver Lake near Sisters, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius; Scott, K.M.; Costa, J.E.; Orzol, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrologic hazard exists that could create a large-magnitude, but short-duration, flood in the Squaw Creek drainage and inundate areas in and around the community of Sisters, Oregon. There is a 1 to 5% probability that Carver Lake, located at elevation 7,800 ft above sea level on the east slope of South Sister mountain, Oregon, could catastrophically empty. At the U.S. Geological Survey gage (14075000) on Squaw Creek between Carver Lake and Sisters, the magnitude of the breakout flood would be 10 times that of a 1% probability meteorological flood. In Sisters, the magnitude of the breakout flood would be about five times that of a 1% probability meteorological flood. Several conditions at Carver Lake indicate the potential hazard: (1) The lake is very deep for its size; the lake contains 740 acre-ft of water and is more than 100 ft deep; (2) There is a probability that a large magnitude avalanche and consequent overtopping of the lake could occur. There are steep slopes of unstable volcanic rock and an extensively cravassed glacier located above the lake; (3) The moraine dam confining the lake is steep-faced, rendering the dam unstable, and unvegetated making it highly erodible; (4) Large amounts of readily erodible material available for transport would increase the magnitude of a large flood and keep the flood from attenuating in the steep reaches of the Squaw Creek channel; (5) and, Geologically, there is a greater than normal possibility for the area to become seismically active. Earthquakes could cause rock and ice to fall into the lake. A one-dimensional unsteady-state streamflow model was used to route a hypothetical flood down the Squaw Creek drainage. This scenario creates a starting hydrograph with a peak of 180,000 cu ft/sec. The ensuing hypothetical flood would incorporate readily erodible debris and sediments in the steep canyons, increasing the total volume of the flood by a factor of two. As the peak emerges from the steeper slopes into a more

  16. 78 FR 21937 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Request: Comment Request; Great Lakes Accountability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... AGENCY Proposed Agency Information Collection Request: Comment Request; Great Lakes Accountability System... Protection Agency is planning to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Great Lakes Accountability...- 2009-0932 online using www.regulations.gov (our preferred method) or by mail to: Great...

  17. Chronology and climatic controls of late Quaternary lake-level fluctuations in Chewaucan, Fort Rock and Alkali basins, south-central Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Freidel, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, lake-level chronologies of three closed-basin lakes in south-central Oregon were developed and compared with the chronologies of Lakes Bonneville and Lahontan in Utah and Nevada. Geomorphic and stratigraphic study of shoreline features, and radiocarbon dating of rock varnish and gastroped shells associated with high shorelines indicate that the three Oregon paleolakes reached their most recent high stands synchronously before 18,000 to 17,000 radiocarbon yrs B.P., three thousand to forty-five hundred years earlier than the high stands of Lakes Lahontan and Bonneville. Levels of the Oregon paleolakes began to drop at a time when Lakes Lahontan and Bonneville were still rising. This study employed water balance modelling to evaluate several climatic scenarios that would generate high stands in the three Oregon lakes. Latitudinal shifts in the polar jet stream and associated westerlies, that occurred in response to the growth and decay of the continental ice sheets, have been proposed as a mechanism for the timing and magnitude of the Northern Great Basin paleolake high stands. General circulation model simulations and paleoenvironmental evidence indicate that at 18,000 radiocarbon yrs B.P. colder and moister than present conditions prevailed in the Northern Great Basin, while very cold, arid climatic conditions prevailed in the Northwest due to strong, glacial anticyclonic circulation generated by the continental ice sheet. Water balance modelling in this study indicates that colder and moister than present climatic conditions caused the Oregon lakes to rise to their highest level. Climatic conditions of south-central Oregon at 18,000 radiocarbon yrs B.P. were probably influenced more by the westerlies associated with the jet stream to the south than by the glacial anticylonic circulation to the north.

  18. Geochemistry of Apatite in Climactic and Pre-Climactic Tephra from Mt. Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeville, C. W.; Langstaff, M.

    2007-12-01

    predict that most Mazama apatites in Cleetwood and climactic pumices should contain 0.4 wt.% or more SO3. Most apatites in Cleetwood and climactic rhyodacites contain less than 0.20 wt.% SO3 indicating crystallization from rhyodacitic melt that exsolved a sulfur-rich vapor prior to eruption that drastically reduced melt sulfur concentration. Apatites with SO3 greater than 0.60 wt.% most probably were derived from more mafic oxidized magmas with dissolved sulfur contents of 2000 ppm or more that have been measured in high-Sr andesitic scoria melt inclusions. Mole fraction fluorapatite in Mazama apatites ranges from 0.20 to 0.96 and based on comparison to recent experimental data predicts melt F concentrations of 200 to 1800 ppm that agrees with measured F in melt inclusions of 200 to 1300 ppm. Mole fraction chlorapatite ranges from 0.11 to 0.19 and based on recent experimental data predicts Cl concentrations in rhyodacitic melt of 0.3 to 0.4 wt.% in reasonable agreement with Cl concentrations in melt inclusions ranging from 0.18 to 0.39 wt.%. References Bacon C.R., and Druitt T.H. (1988) Compositional evolution of the zoned calcalkaline magma chamber of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 98:224-256. Druitt T.H., and Bacon C.R. (1989) Petrology of the zoned calcalkaline magma chamber of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 101:245-259. Peng G., Luhr J.F. and McGee J.J. (1997) Factors controlling sulfur concentrations in volcanic apatite. Am. Mineral. 82:1210-1224.

  19. Demographic analysis of Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janney, E.C.; Shively, R.S.; Hayes, B.S.; Barry, P.M.; Perkins, D.

    2008-01-01

    We used 13 years (1995-2007) of capture-mark-recapture data to assess population dynamics of endangered Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The Cormack-Jolly-Seber method was used to estimate survival, and information theoretic modeling was used to assess variation due to time, gender, species, and spawning subpopulations. Length data were used to detect multiple year-class failures and events of high recruitment into adult spawning populations. Average annual survival probability was 0.88 for Lost River suckers and 0.76 for shortnose suckers. Mean life span estimates based on these survival rates indicated that Lost River suckers survived long enough on average to attempt reproduction eight times, whereas shortnose suckers only survived to spawn three to four times. Shortnose sucker survival was not only poor in years of fish kills (1995-1997) but also was low in years without fish kills (i.e., 2002 and 2004). This suggests that high mortality occurs in some years but is not necessarily associated with fish kills. Annual survival probabilities were not only different between the two species but also differed between two spawning subpopulations of Lost River suckers. Length composition data indicated that recruitment into spawning populations only occurred intermittently. Populations of both species transitioned from primarily old individuals with little size diversity and consistently poor recruitment in the late 1980s and early 1990s to mostly small, recruit-sized fish by the late 1990s. A better understanding of the factors influencing adult survival and recruitment into spawning populations is needed. Monitoring these vital parameters will provide a quantitative means to evaluate population status and assess the effectiveness of conservation and recovery efforts.

  20. Os and U-Th isotope signatures of arc magmatism near Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankney, Meagan E.; Shirey, Steven B.; Hart, Garret L.; Bacon, Charles R.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2016-03-01

    Interaction of mantle melts with the continental crust can have significant effects on the composition of the resulting melts as well as on the crust itself, and tracing this interaction is key to our understanding of arc magmatism. Lava flows and pyroclastic deposits erupted from ∼50 to 7.7 ka at Mt. Mazama (Crater Lake, Oregon) were analyzed for their Re/Os and U-Th isotopic compositions. Mafic lavas from monogenetic vents around Mt. Mazama that erupted during the buildup to its climactic eruption have lower 187Os/188Os ratios (0.1394 to 0.1956) and high 230Th excess ((230Th/238U)0 of 1.180 to 1.302), whereas dacites and rhyodacites tend to have higher 187Os/188Os ratios (0.2292 to 0.2788) and significant 238U excess ((230Th/238U)0 of 0.975 to 0.989). The less radiogenic Os isotope compositions of the mafic lavas can be modeled by assimilation of young (∼2.5 to 7 Ma), mafic lower crust that was modified during regional extension, whereas the more radiogenic Os isotope compositions of the dacites and rhyodacites can be attributed to assimilation of older (∼10 to 16 Ma), mid to upper crust that acquired its composition during an earlier period of Cascade magmatism. Production of Th excesses in the lower crust requires very young garnet formation accompanying dehydration melting in the lower crust at less than a few 100 ka by heat from recent basaltic magma injection. The results from this study suggest that the combination of Os and Th isotopes may be used to provide insights into the timescales of evolution of the continental crust in arc settings, as well as the influence of the crust on erupted magmas, and suggest a link between the age and composition of the lower and upper crust to regional tectonic extension and/or earlier Cascade magmatism.

  1. Geophysical Characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, Southeastern Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, S.; Paul, C.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Clement, W.; Liberty, L.; Myers, R.; Donaldson, P.

    2003-12-01

    We are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system as part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs, is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. As a result of Basin and Range extension, the Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We are using several geophysical techniques to generate both basin-wide and high-resolution local characterizations of the Alvord Basin and the BLHS. To date we have completed two scales of seismic reflection surveys: an east-west trending basin scale survey and a shallow (~10 - 300 m depth) 3D survey of the BLHS. The basin scale seismic survey consists of 11 km of 2D, 60 fold CMP data acquired with a 200 lb accelerated weight drop. We acquired the 3D survey of the BLHS using a 7.62x39 mm SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The 3D patch covers ~ 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. Additionally, we have completed a regional total-field magnetic survey for a large portion of the Alvord Basin and a 3D transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey of the BLHS. The 3D TEM survey covers the central portion of the 3D seismic survey. Initial results from the regional magnetic and seismic surveys indicate a mid-basin basement high. The basement high appears to correlate with the northeast trending BLHS. Additionally, the cross-basin seismic profile clearly shows that recent deformation has primarily been along an eastward dipping normal fault that bounds the basement high to the east. This suggests that both spatial and temporal characteristics of deformation control hydrothermal activity

  2. Climate inferences between paleontological, geochemical, and geophysical proxies in Late Pleistocene lacustrine sediments from Summer Lake, Oregon, western Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, Eric; Thompson, Greg; Negrini, Rob; Wigand, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Paleontological, geochemical, and geophysical data from western Great Basin pluvial Summer Lake, Oregon have established a high resolution paleoclimate record during the late Pleistocene Mono Lake Excursion (~34.75 ka), Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials 6-8, and the end of Heinrich Even 4 (~38 ka). Proxies of grain-size, magnetic susceptibility, carbon/nitrogen ratio, ostracode analysis and palynology from a depocenter core show new results with improved age control regarding high amplitude, high frequency changes in lake level, lake temperature, and regional precipitation and temperature which correspond directly with colder/warmer and respectively drier/wetter climates as documented with Northern Atlantic Greenland ice core data. Results from geophysical and geochemical analysis, and the presence of ostracode Cytherissa lacustris consistently demonstrate the correspondence of low lake conditions and colder water temperatures during Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials and the Mono Lake Excursion. The opposite holds true during interstadials. Smaller grain size, increases in carbon/nitrogen ratio and consistent absence of C. lacustris suggest periods of increased discharge into the lake, increased lake level, and warmer water temperatures. Warmer/wetter climate conditions are confirmed during interstadials 7 and 8 from pollen analysis. Existence of Atriplex, Rosaceae, Chrysothamnus and Ambrosia, and pollen ratios of Juniperus/Dip Pinus and (Rosaceae+Atriplex+Poaceae+Chrysothamnus+Ambrosia)/(Pinus+Picea+T. mertensiana+Sarcobatus) suggest warmer/wetter semi-arid woodland conditions during interstadials 7 and 8. This contrasts with absences in these pollens and pollen ratios indicating colder/drier continental montane woodland conditions during stadials and the Mono Lake Excursion. Increases in Juniper/Dip Pinus ratio suggest a warmer/wetter climate during interstadial 6 however additional proxies do not demonstrate comparative warmer/wetter climate, deeper lake level or

  3. Water Quality of a Drained Wetland, Caledonia Marsh on Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, after Flooding in 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindenberg, Mary K.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2009-01-01

    The unexpected inundation of Caledonia Marsh, a previously drained wetland adjacent to Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, provided an opportunity to observe nutrient release from sediments into the water column of the flooded area and the resulting algal growth. Three sites, with differing proximity to the levee breach that reconnected the area to Upper Klamath Lake, were selected for water sample collection in the marsh. Chlorophyll a concentrations (an indicator of algal biomass) were lowest and dissolved nutrient concentrations were highest at the site farthest from the breach. At the site where chlorophyll a concentrations were lowest, dissolved organic carbon concentrations were highest, and the presence of tannic compounds was indicated by the dark brown color of the water. Both DOC and specific conductance was higher at the site farthest from the breach, which indicated less mixing with Upper Klamath Lake water at that site. Dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH were lowest at the beginning of the sampling period at the site farthest from the levee breach, coincident with the lowest algal growth. Phosphorus concentrations measured in the flooded Caledonia Marsh were greater than median concentrations in Upper Klamath Lake, indicating that phosphorus likely was released from the previously drained wetland soils of the marsh when they were flooded. However, a proportional increase in algal biomass was not measured either in the marsh or in the adjacent bay of the lake. Nitrogen to phosphorus ratios indicated that phosphorus was not limiting to algal growth at the marsh sites, and possibly was not limiting in the adjacent bay either. In terms of nutrient dynamics, wetlands normally function as nutrient sinks. In contrast, the drained wetlands around Upper Klamath Lake cannot be expected to provide that function in the short term after being flooded and may, in fact, be a source of nutrients to the lake instead. The consequences for algal growth in the lake, however

  4. Digital Geologic Map of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, C. R.; Ramsey, D. W.

    2002-12-01

    Crater Lake caldera formed ~7700 cal yr B.P. by the eruption of 50 km3 of mainly rhyodacitic magma and the resulting collapse of Mount Mazama. A new 1:24,000-scale digital geologic map compiled in ArcInfo depicts the geology of this volcanic center, peripheral volcanoes, the caldera walls and floor, and superjacent pyroclastic, talus, and glacial deposits. The geology of the caldera walls was mapped in the field on photographs taken from the lake (see accompanying abstract and poster, "Geologic panoramas of the walls of Crater Lake caldera,Oregon"); the geology of the flanks of Mount Mazama and the surrounding area was mapped on aerial photographs; and features of the caldera floor were mapped on a multibeam echo-sounding bathymetric map (Gardner et al., 2001; Bacon et al., 2002). Volcanic map units are defined on the basis of chemical composition and petrographic characteristics. Map unit colors were chosen to indicate the compositions of volcanic rocks, cooler colors for mafic units and warmer colors for silicic units. Map unit color intensity indicates age, with more intense coloring for younger units. Ages of many units have been determined by K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating by M.A. Lanphere. Several undated units have been correlated using paleomagnetic secular variation measurements by D.E. Champion. Crystallization facies of some of the larger lava flows are mapped separately (e.g., vitrophyre, felsite, carapace), as are breccia and lava facies of submerged postcaldera volcanoes. Also shown on the caldera floor are landslide (debris avalanche) and sediment gravity-flow deposits. A major north-south normal fault system traverses the map area west of the caldera and displaces dated late Pleistocene lava flows, allowing determination of a long-term slip rate of ~0.3 mm/yr (Bacon et al., 1999). Faults bounding large downdropped blocks of the south caldera wall are also shown. Where practical, lava flow margins are represented as intra-unit contacts. A number of small

  5. Tsunami history of an Oregon coastal lake reveals a 4600 yr record of great earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelsey, H.M.; Nelson, A.R.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Witter, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Bradley Lake, on the southern Oregon coastal plain, records local tsunamis and seismic shaking on the Cascadia subduction zone over the last 7000 yr. Thirteen marine incursions delivered landward-thinning sheets of sand to the lake from nearshore, beach, and dune environments to the west. Following each incursion, a slug of marine water near the bottom of the freshwater lake instigated a few-year-to-several-decade period of a brackish (??? 4??? salinity) lake. Four additional disturbances without marine incursions destabilized sideslopes and bottom sediment, producing a suspension deposit that blanketed the lake bottom. Considering the magnitude and duration of the disturbances necessary to produce Bradley Lake's marine incursions, a local tsunami generated by a great earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone is the only accountable mechanism. Extreme ocean levels must have been at least 5-8 m above sea level, and the cumulative duration of each marine incursion must have been at least 10 min. Disturbances without marine incursions require seismic shaking as well. Over the 4600 yr period when Bradley Lake was an optimum tsunami recorder, tsunamis from Cascadia plate-boundary earthquakes came in clusters. Between 4600 and 2800 cal yr B.P., tsunamis occurred at the average frequency of ??? 3-4 every 1000 yr. Then, starting ???2800 cal yr B.P., there was a 930-1260 yr interval with no tsunamis. That gap was followed by a ???1000 yr period with 4 tsunamis. In the last millennium, a 670-750 yr gap preceded the A.D. 1700 earthquake and tsunami. The A.D. 1700 earthquake may be the first of a new cluster of plate-boundary earthquakes and accompanying tsunamis. Local tsunamis entered Bradley Lake an average of every 390 yr, whereas the portion of the Cascadia plate boundary that underlies Bradley Lake ruptured in a great earthquake less frequently, about once every 500 yr. Therefore, the entire length of the subduction zone does not rupture in every earthquake, and Bradley

  6. Structure and physical characteristics of pumice from the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama (Crater Lake), Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klug, C.; Cashman, K.; Bacon, C.

    2002-01-01

    The vesicularity, permeability, and structure of pumice clasts provide insight into conditions of vesiculation and fragmentation during Plinian fall and pyroclastic flow-producing phases of the ???7,700 cal. year B.P. climactic eruption of Mount Mazama (Crater Lake), Oregon. We show that bulk properties (vesicularity and permeability) can be correlated with internal textures and that the clast structure can be related to inferred changes in eruption conditions. The vesicularity of all pumice clasts is 75-88%, with >90% interconnected pore volume. However, pumice clasts from the Plinian fall deposits exhibit a wider vesicularity range and higher volume percentage of interconnected vesicles than do clasts from pyroclastic-flow deposits. Pumice permeabilities also differ between the two clast types, with pumice from the fall deposit having higher minimum permeabilities (???5??10-13 m2) and a narrower permeability range (5-50??10-13 m2) than clasts from pyroclastic-flow deposits (0.2-330??10-13 m2). The observed permeability can be modeled to estimate average vesicle aperture radii of 1-5 ??m for the fall deposit clasts and 0.25-1 ??m for clasts from the pyroclastic flows. High vesicle number densities (???109 cm-3) in all clasts suggest that bubble nucleation occured rapidly and at high supersaturations. Post-nucleation modifications to bubble populations include both bubble growth and coalescence. A single stage of bubble nucleation and growth can account for 35-60% of the vesicle population in clasts from the fall deposits, and 65-80% in pumice from pyroclastic flows. Large vesicles form a separate population which defines a power law distribution with fractal dimension D=3.3 (range 3.0-3.5). The large D.value, coupled with textural evidence, suggests that the large vesicles formed primarily by coalescence. When viewed together, the bulk properties (vesicularity, permeability) and textural characteristics of all clasts indicate rapid bubble nucleation followed by

  7. Cruise report R/V Surf Surveyor cruise S1-00-CL, mapping the bathymetry of Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Mayer, Larry A.; Buktenica, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    During the Spring of 1999, the US Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project (PSMP) was contacted by the US National Park Service Crater Lake National Park (CLNP) to inquire about the plausibility of producing a high-resolution multibeam bathymetric map of Crater Lake. The purpose was to generate a much higher-resolution and more geographically accurate bathymetric map than was produced in 1959, the last time the lake had been surveyed. Scientific interest in various aspects of Crater Lake (aquatic biology, geochemistry, volcanic processes, etc.) has increased during the past decade but the basemap of bathymetry was woefully inadequate. Funds were gathered during the early part of 2000 and the mapping began in late July, 2000. Crater Lake (see fig. 1 in report) is located in south central Oregon (see fig. 2 in report) within the Cascades Range, a chain of volcanoes that stretches from northern California to southern British Columbia. Crater Lake is the collapsed caldera of Mt. Mazama from a climatic eruption about 7700-yr ago (Nelson et al., 1988; Bacon and Lanphere, 1990; Bacon et al., 1997). The floor of Crater Lake has only been mapped three times since the lake was first stumbled upon by gold prospectors in the 1853. The first survey was carried by out by William G. Steel during a joint USGS-US Army expedition under the direction of Maj. Clarence E. Dutton in 1886 (Dutton, 1889). Steel�s mapping survey collected 186 soundings using a Millers lead-line sounding machine (see fig.3 in report). The resulting map (see fig.4 in report) shows only soundings and no attempts were made to generate contours. The second survey, conducted in 1959 by the US Coast and Geodetic Survey, mapped the bathymetry of Crater Lake with an acoustic echo sounder using radar navigation and collected 4000 soundings. The data were contoured by Williams (1961) and Byrne (1962) and the result is a fairly detailed map of the large-scale features of Crater Lake (see fig. 5

  8. Recent desiccation of Western Great Basin Saline Lakes: Lessons from Lake Abert, Oregon, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Moore, Johnnie N

    2016-06-01

    Although extremely important to migrating waterfowl and shorebirds, and highly threatened globally, most saline lakes are poorly monitored. Lake Abert in the western Great Basin, USA, is an example of this neglect. Designated a critical habitat under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, the lake is at near record historic low levels and ultra-high salinities that have resulted in ecosystem collapse. Determination of the direct human effects and broader climate controls on Lake Abert illustrates the broader problem of saline lake desiccation and suggests future solutions for restoration of key habitat values. A 65-year time series of lake area was constructed from Landsat images and transformed to lake volume and salinity. "Natural" (without upstream withdrawals) conditions were calculated from climate and stream flow data, and compared to measured volume and salinity. Under natural conditions the lake would have higher volume and lower salinities because annual water withdrawals account for one-third of mean lake volume. Without withdrawals, the lake would have maintained annual mean salinities mostly within the optimal range of brine shrimp and alkali fly growth. Even during the last two years of major drought, the lake would have maintained salinities well below measured values. Change in climate alone would not produce the recent low lake volumes and high salinities that have destroyed the brine shrimp and alkali fly populations and depleted shorebird use at Lake Abert. Large scale withdrawal of water for direct human use has drastically increased the imbalance between natural runoff and evaporation during periods of drought in saline lakes worldwide but could be offset by establishing an "environmental water budget" to lay a foundation for the conservation of saline lake habitats under continued threats from development and climate change. PMID:26950628

  9. Recent desiccation of Western Great Basin Saline Lakes: Lessons from Lake Abert, Oregon, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Moore, Johnnie N

    2016-06-01

    Although extremely important to migrating waterfowl and shorebirds, and highly threatened globally, most saline lakes are poorly monitored. Lake Abert in the western Great Basin, USA, is an example of this neglect. Designated a critical habitat under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, the lake is at near record historic low levels and ultra-high salinities that have resulted in ecosystem collapse. Determination of the direct human effects and broader climate controls on Lake Abert illustrates the broader problem of saline lake desiccation and suggests future solutions for restoration of key habitat values. A 65-year time series of lake area was constructed from Landsat images and transformed to lake volume and salinity. "Natural" (without upstream withdrawals) conditions were calculated from climate and stream flow data, and compared to measured volume and salinity. Under natural conditions the lake would have higher volume and lower salinities because annual water withdrawals account for one-third of mean lake volume. Without withdrawals, the lake would have maintained annual mean salinities mostly within the optimal range of brine shrimp and alkali fly growth. Even during the last two years of major drought, the lake would have maintained salinities well below measured values. Change in climate alone would not produce the recent low lake volumes and high salinities that have destroyed the brine shrimp and alkali fly populations and depleted shorebird use at Lake Abert. Large scale withdrawal of water for direct human use has drastically increased the imbalance between natural runoff and evaporation during periods of drought in saline lakes worldwide but could be offset by establishing an "environmental water budget" to lay a foundation for the conservation of saline lake habitats under continued threats from development and climate change.

  10. An aem-tem study of weathering and diagenesis, Abert Lake, Oregon: I. Weathering reactions in the volcanics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banfield, J.F.; Jones, B.F.; Veblen, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Abert Lake in south-central Oregon provides a site suitable for the study of sequential weathering and diagenetic events. In this first of two papers, transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the igneous mineralogy, subsolidus alteration assemblage, and the structural and chemical aspects of silicate weathering reactions that occur in the volcanic rocks (basalts, basaltic andesites, and dacitic/ rhyolitic extrusive and pyroclastics) that outcrop around the lake. Olivine and pyroxene replacement occurred topotactically, whereas feldspar and glass alteration produced randomly oriented smectite in channels and cavities. The tetrahedral, octahedral, and interlayer compositions of the weathering products, largely dioctahedral smectites, varied with primary mineral composition, rock type, and as the result of addition of elements released from adjacent reaction sites. Weathering of the highly evolved, Fe-rich Jug Mountain complex at the north end of the lake produced a homogeneous smectite assemblage that contrasts with the heterogeneous smectite assemblage replacing the volcanics along the eastern margin of the lake. The variability within and between the smectite assemblages highlights the microenvironmental diversity, fluctuating redox conditions, and variable solution chemistry associated with mineral weathering reactions in the surficial environment. Late-stage exhalative and aqueous alteration of the volcanics redistributed many components and formed a variety of alkali and alkali-earth carbonate, chloride, sulfate, and fluoride minerals in vugs and cracks. Overall, substantial Mg, Si, Na, Ca, and K are released by weathering reactions that include the almost complete destruction of the Mg-smectite that initially replaced olivine. The leaching of these elements from the volcanics provides an important source of these constituents in the lake water. The nature of subsequent diagenetic reactions resulting from the interaction between the materials

  11. The Holocene History of the North American Flux lobe: New Constraints From Fish Lake, Harney County, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoner, J. S.; Abbott, M. B.; Ziegler, L. B.; Reilly, B. T.; Finkenbinder, M. S.; Hatfield, R. G.; Hillman, A. L.; Konyndyk, D.

    2015-12-01

    To constrain the Holocene history of the North American flux lobe we present new relative paleointensity (RPI) and paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) data from Fish Lake, Harney County Oregon. Located high on Steens Mt, Fish Lake (42° 44' 15" N, 118° 38' 57" W, 2,246.7 m) is the largest of several lakes in the Fish Lake glacial valley. Cored along with Pate Lake in the summer of 2012, sediment from four offset holes were cored to a maximum depth of 9 m using a UWITEC coring system. Field based magnetic susceptibility insured that a completely duplicated sediment sequence was recovered. Computer tomographic scans confirmed the quality of the recovered sediment and allowed precise mapping of overlapping sequences. Additional physical properties data, along with Pb-210, radiocarbon dating and discrete tephra layers, including Mazama, tightly constrain this sequence from -0.06 to 14 ka. Progressive alternating field demagnetization of u-channel samples demonstrate that a consistently strong, stable, and low coercivity magnetization is preserved, with low MAD values both before and after deconvolution. Inclinations vary around expected values for the site latitude, with no evidence for inclination shallowing as suggested in previous studies. Declination was reconstructed by initially rotating the declination of each drive to a mean of zero, then further rotating to achieve maximum alignment of overlapping sections, followed by a final rotation of the entire sequence base upon a 400 yr historical model calibration. Remanence is normalized using ARM acquisition, ARM demagnetization, and IRM demagnetization and agreement between these suggests that RPI is preserved. RPI from Fish Lake provides a previously missing proxy for the North American flux lobe that invites comparison with other high quality, high resolution, and independently dated paleomagnetic and archeomagnetic records from the NE Pacific to Europe; allowing us to tease out modes of variability of a large

  12. Phosphorus and nitrogen legacy in a restoration wetland, upper Klamath lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duff, J.H.; Carpenter, K.D.; Snyder, D.T.; Lee, Karl K.; Avanzino, R.J.; Triska, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of sediment, ground-water, and surface-water processes on the timing, quantity, and mechanisms of N and P fluxes were investigated in the Wood River Wetland 57 years after agricultural practices ceased and seasonal and permanent wetland hydrologies were restored. Nutrient concentrations in standing water largely reflected ground water in winter, the largest annual water source in the closed-basin wetland. High concentrations of total P (22 mg L -1) and total N (30 mg L-1) accumulated in summer when water temperature, air temperature, and evapotranspiration were highest. High positive benthic fluxes of soluble reactive P and ammonium (NH4-N) were measured in two sections of the study area in June and August, averaging 46 and 24 mg m-2 d-1, respectively. Nonetheless, a wetland mass balance simultaneously indicated a net loss of P and N by assimilation, denitrification (1.110.1 mg N m-2 h-1), or solute repartitioning. High nutrient concentrations pose a risk for water quality management. Shifts in the timing and magnitude of water inflows and outflows may improve biogeochemical function and water quality by optimizing seed germination and aquatic plant distribution, which would be especially important if the Wood River Wetland was reconnected with hyper-eutrophic Agency Lake. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  13. Evapotranspiration from marsh and open-water sites at Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2008--2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stannard, David I.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Polette, Danial J.; Cameron, Jason M.; Waibel, M. Scott; Spears, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    begins each growing season submerged, emerges from the dead litter mat around late May or early June, reaches a maximum height of about 2.2 meters (m) during summer, senesces in October, and subsequently lodges over, contributing to the dead litter mat from previous years. Hydroperiods last about 5 to 6 months, typically beginning in January or February and ending in July or August, and have a minor influence on the annual ET cycle. These hydroperiods result from lake levels that typically vary about 1.3 m, from around 0.6 to 0.9 m above the wetland surface, to around 0.4 to 0.7 m below the wetland surface. An estimate of 3-year annual wetland ET, made by substituting early- and late-season data measured during 2009 for the missing periods in early 2008 and late 2010, is 0.938 meter per year (m/yr). Daily values of alfalfa-based reference ET (ETr) were retrieved from the Bureau of Reclamation AgriMet Web site (http://www.usbr.gov/pn/agrimet/index.html) and are aggregated into biweekly, annual, and 3-year values (for consistency, the 3-year values are also computed using substitute data from 2009 for early 2008 and late 2010). These ETr values are computed from weather data measured at the nearby Agency Lake weather station (AGKO), and are based on the assumption that the alfalfa crop is green and vigorous year-round. The 3-year value of ETr is 1.145 m/yr, about 22 percent greater than wetland ET. A comparison of 2008–2010 alfalfa and pasture growing season actual ET with wetland ET is made using data from the more distant Klamath Falls AgriMet weather station (KFLO) because actual alfalfa and pasture ET are not computed for the AGKO site. During the 190-day average alfalfa growing season, wetland ET (0.779 m) is about 7 percent less than alfalfa ET (0.838 m). During the 195-day average pasture growing season, wetland ET (0.789 m) is about 18 percent greater than pasture ET (0.671 m). Assuming alfalfa and pasture ET are equal to wetland ET during the non-growing season

  14. Building a large magma chamber at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, H. M.; Karlstrom, L.; Bacon, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Crater Lake caldera, Oregon, a structure produced by the 50 km3 eruption of Mount Mazama ~7.7 ka, is one of only three identified Quaternary calderas in the Cascades volcanic chain (Hildreth 2007). What were the conditions necessary to build a large volume magma chamber capable of producing this caldera-forming eruption at Mount Mazama? Using the well-documented >400,000 year volcanic history at Mazama (Bacon and Lanphere 2006), an approximation of vent locations for each eruptive unit (Bacon 2008), and a compilation of over 900 whole-rock compositions from Mount Mazama and regional volcanic rocks, we examine questions of magma chamber assembly in an active volcanic arc. These questions include: (1) is magmatic input approximately constant in composition between Mazama and regional monogenetic volcanic centers? (2) how did melt evolution differ in the two cases (Mazama vs. regional volcanism)? (3) is there spatiotemporal evidence in eruption data (including eruptive volume and chemistry) for a growing magma chamber at depth? and (4) does stability of that chamber require pre-warming of the surrounding country rock? An assumption of approximately constant major-element composition magmatic input is consistent with observed compositional overlap between basaltic to basaltic andesitic eruptive products at Mount Mazama and its vicinity (within 15 km of the volcano). MELTS modeling (Ghiorso and Sack 1995) from an initial composition of magnesian basaltic andesite of monogenetic Red Cone (erupted at a distance of ~8 km from the climactic vent) is consistent with water-saturated magmatic evolution at relatively shallow depths (<500 MPa, with the caveat that shallow pressure calibration data are largely lacking from MELTS models). Within this pressure range, differences in whole-rock compositions indicate that regional magmatic rocks evolved at shallower depths and/or drier conditions than those at the Mazama center. Observations of eruptive ages, compositions, vent

  15. Mercury bioaccumulation in fishes from subalpine lakes of the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, northeastern Oregon and western Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herring, Garth; Johnson, Branden L.; Graw, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally distributed pollutant that poses considerable risks to human and wildlife health. Over the past 150 years since the advent of the industrial revolution, approximately 80 percent of global emissions have come from anthropogenic sources, largely fossil fuel combustion. As a result, atmospheric deposition of Hg has increased by up to 4-fold above pre-industrial times. Because of their isolation, remote high-elevation lakes represent unique environments for evaluating the bioaccumulation of atmospherically deposited Hg through freshwater food webs, as well as for evaluating the relative importance of Hg loading versus landscape influences on Hg bioaccumulation. The increase in Hg deposition to these systems over the past century, coupled with their limited exposure to direct anthropogenic disturbance make them useful indicators for estimating how changes in Hg emissions may propagate to changes in Hg bioaccumulation and ecological risk. In this study, we evaluated Hg concentrations in fishes of high-elevation, sub-alpine lakes in the Wallowa-Whitman National Forest in northeastern Oregon and western Idaho. Our goals were to (1) assess the magnitude of Hg contamination in small-catchment lakes to evaluate the risk of atmospheric Hg to human and wildlife health, (2) quantify the spatial variability in fish Hg concentrations, and (3) determine the ecological, limnological, and landscape factors that are best correlated with fish total mercury (THg) concentrations in these systems. Across the 28 study lakes, mean THg concentrations of resident salmonid fishes varied as much as 18-fold among lakes. Importantly, our top statistical model explained 87 percent of the variability in fish THg concentrations among lakes with four key landscape and limnological variables— catchment conifer density (basal area of conifers within a lake’s catchment), lake surface area, aqueous dissolved sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon. The basal area of conifers

  16. Assessment of Mercury in Fish Tissue from Select Lakes of Northeastern Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fish tissue study was conducted in five northeastern Oregon reservoirs to evaluate mercury concentrations in an area where elevated atmospheric mercury deposition had been predicted by a national EPA model, but where tissue data were sparse. The study targeted resident predator...

  17. Evapotranspiration from marsh and open-water sites at Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2008--2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stannard, David I.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Polette, Danial J.; Cameron, Jason M.; Waibel, M. Scott; Spears, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    begins each growing season submerged, emerges from the dead litter mat around late May or early June, reaches a maximum height of about 2.2 meters (m) during summer, senesces in October, and subsequently lodges over, contributing to the dead litter mat from previous years. Hydroperiods last about 5 to 6 months, typically beginning in January or February and ending in July or August, and have a minor influence on the annual ET cycle. These hydroperiods result from lake levels that typically vary about 1.3 m, from around 0.6 to 0.9 m above the wetland surface, to around 0.4 to 0.7 m below the wetland surface. An estimate of 3-year annual wetland ET, made by substituting early- and late-season data measured during 2009 for the missing periods in early 2008 and late 2010, is 0.938 meter per year (m/yr). Daily values of alfalfa-based reference ET (ETr) were retrieved from the Bureau of Reclamation AgriMet Web site (http://www.usbr.gov/pn/agrimet/index.html) and are aggregated into biweekly, annual, and 3-year values (for consistency, the 3-year values are also computed using substitute data from 2009 for early 2008 and late 2010). These ETr values are computed from weather data measured at the nearby Agency Lake weather station (AGKO), and are based on the assumption that the alfalfa crop is green and vigorous year-round. The 3-year value of ETr is 1.145 m/yr, about 22 percent greater than wetland ET. A comparison of 2008–2010 alfalfa and pasture growing season actual ET with wetland ET is made using data from the more distant Klamath Falls AgriMet weather station (KFLO) because actual alfalfa and pasture ET are not computed for the AGKO site. During the 190-day average alfalfa growing season, wetland ET (0.779 m) is about 7 percent less than alfalfa ET (0.838 m). During the 195-day average pasture growing season, wetland ET (0.789 m) is about 18 percent greater than pasture ET (0.671 m). Assuming alfalfa and pasture ET are equal to wetland ET during the non-growing season

  18. Water quality of the Malheur Lake system and Malheur River, and simulated water-quality effects of routing Malheur Lake water into Malheur River, Oregon, 1984-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuste, L.A.; McKenzie, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Above average precipitation and runoff between 1980 and 1985 have raised the water-surface elevation of Harney, Mud, and Malheur Lakes in eastern Oregon to the highest levels recorded and have caused mixing and interflow of water among the three lakes. A 50% increase in specific conductance throughout Malheur Lake from 1984 to 1985 resulted from an increase in sodium and chloride concentrations, probably caused by the flow of saline water from Harvey Lake and dissolution of evaporites in flooded areas around it. Arsenic and boron concentrations increased during the two years. Algal productivity was highest towards the center of Malheur Lake. Concentrations of major ions in the Malheur River during the 1985 irrigation season were dilute in upstream reaches because of flow releases from reservoirs; increasing in a downstream direction because of irrigation-return flow. Concentrations also increased with time during irrigation season, with the highest concentrations occurring in October after most diversions for irrigation were discontinued. Mass-balance equations were used to simulate mixing of Malheur Lake with Malheur River water to estimate the water quality that would occur at different points along Malheur River. Simulations of sodium and chloride concentrations and specific conductance values based on August river-flows during irrigation season, show a gradual increase from the headwaters downstream to Hope and greater increases downstream of Hope. After irrigation ceases, the simulated water quality becomes uniform throughout the river, because proposed lake flows are then the principal source of Malheur River flows. Arsenic and boron concentrations increase much more than expected between Namorf and Little Valley; thermal springs could be the source of arsenic and boron in this reach. Groundwater coming in contact with arsenic rich soils may also contribute to the elevated arsenic levels found in the river. At the end of the irrigation season, arsenic

  19. Exploring the Use of Historic Earthquake Information to Differentiate Between Deposit Triggers for the High-resolution Stratigraphy from Squaw Lakes, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey, A. E.; Gavin, D. G.; Goldfinger, C.; Nelson, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    The unique setting and high-resolution stratigraphy at Squaw Lakes, Oregon provides an opportunity to apply lake paleoseismology to southern Cascadia forearc lakes. These lakes were formed when a landslide dammed Squaw Creek located ~100 km from the Oregon coast at the Oregon/California border separating the drainages at the confluence of Squaw and Slickear Creeks. The upper lake contains evidence of disturbance events much too frequent to be the result of earthquakes alone. A link to historic events provides information that may be used to differentiate between deposit triggers and improve the interpretation of the prehistoric portion of the sedimentary record. Regional newspapers published historic accounts of earthquakes experienced by the local people, the most notable of which is the November 23 (or 22nd), 1873 Crescent City, CA earthquake. Although the 1906 San Francisco earthquake was also felt in this region, reports indicate that shaking was much stronger near Jacksonville, Oregon (only 25 miles to the north of Squaw Lakes) as a result of the 1873 earthquake. The depth range that most likely contains sediment deposited within a few years of 1873 can be determined using a new high-resolution age model for the Upper Squaw Lake sediment core (Gavin et al., in prep). This depth range in the core contains a thick deposit that is similar in structure to deposits deeper in the core that have been proposed to correlate with the marine record of Cascadia great earthquakes. These disturbance event deposits are thicker, graded deposits, where grading is dominated by the percentage of organic content as compared to those interpreted to be a result of watershed disturbances. Recently acquired radiocarbon ages for the Lower Squaw Lake core suggests the thicker Upper Squaw Lake deposits correlate to those recorded in the lower-resolution sedimentary record at Lower Squaw Lake. The character of the likely contemporaneous deposits from the lower lake show grading more

  20. Use of Selected Goodness-of-Fit Statistics to Assess the Accuracy of a Model of Henry Hagg Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rounds, S. A.; Sullivan, A. B.

    2004-12-01

    Assessing a model's ability to reproduce field data is a critical step in the modeling process. For any model, some method of determining goodness-of-fit to measured data is needed to aid in calibration and to evaluate model performance. Visualizations and graphical comparisons of model output are an excellent way to begin that assessment. At some point, however, model performance must be quantified. Goodness-of-fit statistics, including the mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error, and coefficient of determination, typically are used to measure model accuracy. Statistical tools such as the sign test or Wilcoxon test can be used to test for model bias. The runs test can detect phase errors in simulated time series. Each statistic is useful, but each has its limitations. None provides a complete quantification of model accuracy. In this study, a suite of goodness-of-fit statistics was applied to a model of Henry Hagg Lake in northwest Oregon. Hagg Lake is a man-made reservoir on Scoggins Creek, a tributary to the Tualatin River. Located on the west side of the Portland metropolitan area, the Tualatin Basin is home to more than 450,000 people. Stored water in Hagg Lake helps to meet the agricultural and municipal water needs of that population. Future water demands have caused water managers to plan for a potential expansion of Hagg Lake, doubling its storage to roughly 115,000 acre-feet. A model of the lake was constructed to evaluate the lake's water quality and estimate how that quality might change after raising the dam. The laterally averaged, two-dimensional, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers model CE-QUAL-W2 was used to construct the Hagg Lake model. Calibrated for the years 2000 and 2001 and confirmed with data from 2002 and 2003, modeled parameters included water temperature, ammonia, nitrate, phosphorus, algae, zooplankton, and dissolved oxygen. Several goodness-of-fit statistics were used to quantify model accuracy and bias. Model

  1. Effect of water-column pH on sediment-phosphorus release rates in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Lawrence H.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2004-01-01

    Sediment-phosphorus release rates as a function of pH were determined in laboratory experiments for sediment and water samples collected from Shoalwater Bay in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, in 2001. Aerial release rates for a stable sediment/water interface that is representative of the sediment surface area to water column volume ratio (1:3) observed in the lake and volumetric release rates for resuspended sediment events were determined at three different pH values (8.1, 9.2, 10.2). Ambient water column pH (8.1) was maintained by sparging study columns with atmospheric air. Elevation of the water column pH to 9.2 was achieved through the removal of dissolved carbon dioxide by sparging with carbon dioxide-reduced air, partially simulating water chemistry changes that occur during algal photosynthesis. Further elevation of the pH to 10.2 was achieved by the addition of sodium hydroxide, which doubled average alkalinities in the study columns from about 1 to 2 milliequivalents per liter. Upper Klamath Lake sediments collected from the lake bottom and then placed in contact with lake water, either at a stable sediment/water interface or by resuspension, exhibited an initial capacity to take up soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from the water column rather than release phosphorus to the water column. At a higher pH this initial uptake of phosphorus is slowed, but not stopped. This initial phase was followed by a reversal in which the sediments began to release SRP back into the water column. The release rate of phosphorus 30 to 40 days after suspension of sediments in the columns was 0.5 mg/L/day (micrograms per liter per day) at pH 8, and 0.9 mg/L/day at pH 10, indicating that the higher pH increased the rate of phosphorus release by a factor of about two. The highest determined rate of release was approximately 10% (percent) of the rate required to explain the annual internal loading to Upper Klamath Lake from the sediments as calculated from a lake-wide mass balance

  2. A description of aquifer units in western Oregon for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Underground Injection Control Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrogeologic information for western Oregon was compiled to aid the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in evaluating proposals for underground injection of waste fluid. Geologic formations were grouped into seven aquifer units according to hydraulic and geologic similarities. The bedrock aquifer units in the Klamath Mountains, Coast Range, and Western Cascade Range all have low permeabilities and yield only small quantities of water to wells for domestic and stock uses. The Columbia River Basalt Group aquifer unit, which crops out along the Columbia River and the northern Willamette Valley, also has overall low permeability; however, the basalt supplies water for public, domestic, and stock, and some irrigation uses in western Oregon. The most important aquifer unit, and generally most permeable is the Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary deposits that occur in lowlands throughout the area and provide water for irrigation, industry, public supplies and domestic and stock uses. All aquifer units generally contain water with low concentrations of dissolved solids at shallow depths. In the Tertiary marine rocks of the Coast Range, analyses from a limited number of deep wells indicated that water with more than 10,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids is widespread at depths greater than about 2 ,000 feet. (USGS)

  3. Development of a CE-QUAL-W2 temperature model for Crystal Springs Lake, Portland, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman L.; Stonewall, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Model simulations (scenarios) were run with lower water surface elevations in Crystal Springs Lake and increased shading to the lake to assess the relative effect the lake and pond characteristics have on water temperature. The Golf Pond was unaltered in all scenarios. The models estimated that lower lake elevations would result in cooler water downstream of the Golf Pond and shorter residence times in the lake. Increased shading to the lake would also provide substantial cooling. Most management scenarios resulted in a decrease in 7-day average of daily maximum values by about 2.0– 4.7 °F (1.1 –2.6 °C) for outflow from Crystal Springs Lake during the period of interest. Outflows from the Golf Pond showed a net temperature reduction of 0.5–2.7 °F (0.3–1.5 °C) compared to measured values in 2014 because of solar heating and downstream warming in the Golf Pond resulting from mixing with inflow from Reed Lake.

  4. Development of a CE-QUAL-W2 temperature model for Crystal Springs Lake, Portland, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman L.; Stonewall, Adam J.

    2016-05-19

    Model simulations (scenarios) were run with lower water surface elevations in Crystal Springs Lake and increased shading to the lake to assess the relative effect the lake and pond characteristics have on water temperature. The Golf Pond was unaltered in all scenarios. The models estimated that lower lake elevations would result in cooler water downstream of the Golf Pond and shorter residence times in the lake. Increased shading to the lake would also provide substantial cooling. Most management scenarios resulted in a decrease in 7-day average of daily maximum values by about 2.0– 4.7 °F (1.1 –2.6 °C) for outflow from Crystal Springs Lake during the period of interest. Outflows from the Golf Pond showed a net temperature reduction of 0.5–2.7 °F (0.3–1.5 °C) compared to measured values in 2014 because of solar heating and downstream warming in the Golf Pond resulting from mixing with inflow from Reed Lake.

  5. Water Velocity and Suspended Solids Measurements by In-situ Instruments in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Wellman, Roy E.; Wood, Tamara M.; Cheng, Ralph T.

    2007-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey conducted hydrodynamic measurements in Upper Klamath Lake during four summer seasons (approximately mid-June to mid-September) during 2003 to 2006. Measurements included water current profiles made by acoustic Doppler current profilers at a number of fixed locations in the lake during all four years as well as from a moving boat during 2005 and 2006. Measurements of size distribution of suspended material were made at four locations in the lake during 2004-2006. Raw (unfiltered) data are presented as time series of measurements. In addition, water-velocity data have been filtered to remove wind-induced variations with periods less than thirty hours from the measurements. Bar graphs of horizontal and vertical water speed and acoustic backscatter have been generated to discern diurnal variations, especially as they relate to wind patterns over the lake. Mean speeds of the horizontal currents in the lake range between about 3.5 to 15 cm/s with the higher speeds at the deep locations in the trench on the west side of the lake. Current directions generally conform to the lake's bathymetry contours and the water circulation pattern is usually in a clockwise direction around the lake as established by the prevailing north to northwesterly surface winds in the region. Diurnal patterns in horizontal currents probably relate to diurnal wind patterns with minimum wind speeds near noon and maximum wind speeds near 2100. Diurnal variations in vertical velocities do not appear to be related to wind patterns; they do appear to be related to expected patterns of vertical migration of Aphanizomenon flos aquae, (AFA) the predominant species of blue-green algae in the lake. Similarly, diurnal variations in acoustic backscatter, especially near the lake's surface, are probably related to the vertical migration of AFA.

  6. Comparative physiographic diagrams of Mount St. Helens, Washington, and Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpha, Tau Rho; Morley, Jim M.

    1983-01-01

    These physiographic diagrams provide a visual comparison of two Cascade Range volcanoes which have had their tops destroyed in different ways -- Mount St. Helens in 1980, Mount Mazama (whose site is now occupied by Crater Lake) about 6,800 years ago. Both volcanoes are viewed from the north from 30 degrees above the horizon, with no vertical exaggeration. The ground area portrayed in each diagram is equal; the south edge of the Mount St. Helens drawing is lower than that of Crater Lake drawing because elevations drop away toward the south, whereas elevations are more constant at the north and south edges of the Crater Lake diagram. 

  7. An 11 000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history at Beaver Lake, Oregon, central Willamette Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Megan K.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Whitlock, Cathy; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Worona, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution macroscopic charcoal and pollen analysis were used to reconstruct an 11??000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history from Beaver Lake, Oregon, the first complete Holocene paleoecological record from the floor of the Willamette Valley. In the early Holocene (ca 11??000-7500 calendar years before present [cal??yr??BP]), warmer, drier summers than at present led to the establishment of xeric woodland of Quercus, Corylus, and Pseudotsuga near the site. Disturbances (i.e., floods, fires) were common at this time and as a result Alnus rubra grew nearby. High fire frequency occurred in the early Holocene from ca 11??200-9300??cal??yr??BP. Riparian forest and wet prairie developed in the middle Holocene (ca 7500??cal??yr??BP), likely the result of a decrease in the frequency of flooding and a shift to effectively cooler, wetter conditions than before. The vegetation at Beaver Lake remained generally unchanged into the late Holocene (from 4000??cal??yr??BP to present), with the exception of land clearance associated with Euro-American settlement of the valley (ca 160??cal??yr BP). Middle-to-late Holocene increases in fire frequency, coupled with abrupt shifts in fire-episode magnitude and charcoal composition, likely indicate the influence anthropogenic burning near the site. The paleoecological record from Beaver Lake, and in particular the general increase in fire frequency over the last 8500??years, differs significantly from other low-elevation sites in the Pacific Northwest, which suggests that local controls (e.g., shifts in vegetation structure, intensification of human land-use), rather than regional climatic controls, more strongly influenced its environmental history. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Convective heat discharge of Wood River group of springs in the vicinity of Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel; Mariner, Robert H.; Thompson, J. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Data sets for spring and stream chemistry are combined to estimate convective heat discharge and discharge anomalous amounts of sodium and chloride for the Wood River group of springs south of Crater Lake. The best estimate of heat discharge is 87 MWt based on chloride inventory; this value is 3-5 times the heat input to Crater Lake itself. Anomalous discharges of sodium and chloride are also larger that into Crater Lake. Difference between the chemical and thermal characteristics of the discharge into Crater Lake and those from the Wood River group of springs suggest that the heat sources for the two systems may be different, although both ultimately related to the volcanic system.

  9. Hydrologic data and description of a hydrologic monitoring plan for the Borax Lake area, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Tiffany Rae; McFarland, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Information from field visits was used to develop a monitoring plan. The plan would include monitoring Borax Lake by measuring discharge, stage, evaporation, temperature, and specific conductance; water-quality sampling and analysis; and monitoring shallow ground-water levels near Borax Lake using shallow piezometers. Minimally, one hot spring in North Borax Lake Spring Group 1 would be monitored for temperature and specific conductance and sampled for water-quality analysis. In addition, two flowing wells would be monitored for water levels, temperature, specific conductance, and discharge and sampled for water-quality analysis. The construction characteristics of these wells must be verified before long-term data collection begins. In the future, it may be helpful to monitor shallow and (or) deep observation wells drilled into the thermal aquifer to understand the possible effects of geothermal development on Borax Lake and nearby springs.

  10. Water-quality data for Smith and Bybee Lakes, Portland, Oregon, June to November, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifton, Daphne G.

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality monitoring at Smith and Bybee Lakes included measurement of water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration and percent saturation, pH, specific conductance, lake depth, alkalinity, dissolved carbon, total dissolved solids, secchi disk light transparency, nutrients, and chlorophyll a and b. In addition, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthic invertebrate populations were identified and enumerated. Lakebed sediment was analyzed for particle size, volatile solids, immediate oxygen demand, trace metals, total organic carbon, nutrients, and organic constituents. (USGS)

  11. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards in the Crater Lake Region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Bacon, C.R.; Mastin, L.G.; Scott, K.E.; Nathenson, M.

    2008-01-01

    Crater Lake lies in a basin, or caldera, formed by collapse of the Cascade volcano known as Mount Mazama during a violent, climactic eruption about 7,700 years ago. This event dramatically changed the character of the volcano so that many potential types of future events have no precedent there. This potentially active volcanic center is contained within Crater Lake National Park, visited by 500,000 people per year, and is adjacent to the main transportation corridor east of the Cascade Range. Because a lake is now present within the most likely site of future volcanic activity, many of the hazards at Crater Lake are different from those at most other Cascade volcanoes. Also significant are many faults near Crater Lake that clearly have been active in the recent past. These faults, and historic seismicity, indicate that damaging earthquakes can occur there in the future. The USGS Open-File Report 97-487 (Bacon and others, 1997) describes the various types of volcano and earthquake hazards in the Crater Lake area, estimates of the likelihood of future events, recommendations for mitigation, and a map of hazard zones. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layers used to produce the Crater Lake earthquake and volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-487 are included in this data set. USGS scientists created one GIS data layer, c_faults, that delineates these faults and one layer, cballs, that depicts the downthrown side of the faults. Additional GIS layers chazline, chaz, and chazpoly were created to show 1)the extent of pumiceous pyroclastic-flow deposits of the caldera forming Mount Mazama eruption, 2)silicic and mafic vents in the Crater Lake region, and 3)the proximal hazard zone around the caldera rim, respectively.

  12. Ribosomal DNA identification of Nosema/Vairimorpha in freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa, from Oregon/California and the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malakauskas, David M.; Altman, Emory C.; Malakauskas, Sarah J.; Thiem, Suzanne M.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined Manayunkia speciosa individuals from the Klamath River, Oregon/California and Lake Erie, Michigan, USA for the presence of Microsporidia. We identified microsporidian spores and sequenced their SSU, ITS, and part of the LSU rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA indicated spores from both populations belonged to the Nosema/Vairimorpha clade. PCR showed an infection prevalence in Lake Erie M. speciosa of 0.6% (95% CI = 0.5%, 0.7%). This represents the first known example of molecularly characterized Nosema/Vairimorpha isolates infecting a non-arthropod host.

  13. Effects of groundwater pumping on agricultural drains in the Tule Lake subbasin, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pischel, Esther M.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2015-07-24

    To better define the effect of increased pumping on drain flow and on the water balance of the groundwater system, the annual water volume pumped from drains in three subareas of the Tule Lake subbasin was estimated and a fine-grid, local groundwater model of the Tule Lake subbasin was constructed. Results of the agricultural-drain flow analysis indicate that groundwater discharge to drains has decreased such that flows in 2012 were approximately 32,400 acre-ft less than the 1997–2000 average flow. This decrease was concentrated in the northern and southeastern parts of the subbasin, which corresponds with the areas of greatest groundwater pumping. Model simulation results of the Tule Lake subbasin groundwater model indicate that increased supplemental pumping is the dominant stress to the groundwater system in the subbasin. Simulated supplemental pumping and decreased recharge from irrigation between 2000 and 2010 totaled 323,573 acre-ft, 234,800 acre-ft (73 percent) of which was from supplemental pumping. The response of the groundwater system to this change in stress included about 180,500 acre-ft (56 percent) of decreased groundwater discharge to drains and a 126,000 acre-ft (39 percent) reduction in aquifer storage. The remaining 5 percent came from reduced groundwater flow to other model boundaries, including the Lost River, the Tule Lake sumps, and interbasin flow.

  14. Effects of groundwater pumping on agricultural drains in the Tule Lake subbasin, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pischel, Esther M.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2015-01-01

    To better define the effect of increased pumping on drain flow and on the water balance of the groundwater system, the annual water volume pumped from drains in three subareas of the Tule Lake subbasin was estimated and a fine-grid, local groundwater model of the Tule Lake subbasin was constructed. Results of the agricultural-drain flow analysis indicate that groundwater discharge to drains has decreased such that flows in 2012 were approximately 32,400 acre-ft less than the 1997–2000 average flow. This decrease was concentrated in the northern and southeastern parts of the subbasin, which corresponds with the areas of greatest groundwater pumping. Model simulation results of the Tule Lake subbasin groundwater model indicate that increased supplemental pumping is the dominant stress to the groundwater system in the subbasin. Simulated supplemental pumping and decreased recharge from irrigation between 2000 and 2010 totaled 323,573 acre-ft, 234,800 acre-ft (73 percent) of which was from supplemental pumping. The response of the groundwater system to this change in stress included about 180,500 acre-ft (56 percent) of decreased groundwater discharge to drains and a 126,000 acre-ft (39 percent) reduction in aquifer storage. The remaining 5 percent came from reduced groundwater flow to other model boundaries, including the Lost River, the Tule Lake sumps, and interbasin flow.

  15. Age-0 Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker nearshore habitat use in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: A patch occupancy approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, S.M.; Hendrixson, H.A.; VanderKooi, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    We examined habitat use by age-0 Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris over six substrate classes and in vegetated and nonvegetated areas of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. We used a patch occupancy approach to model the effect of physical habitat and water quality conditions on habitat use. Our models accounted for potential inconsistencies in detection probability among sites and sampling occasions as a result of differences in fishing gear types and techniques, habitat characteristics, and age-0 fish size and abundance. Detection probability was greatest during mid- to late summer, when water temperatures were highest and age-0 suckers were the largest. The proportion of sites used by age-0 suckers was inversely related to depth (range = 0.4-3.0 m), particularly during late summer. Age-0 suckers were more likely to use habitats containing small substrate (64 mm) and habitats with vegetation than those without vegetation. Relatively narrow ranges in dissolved oxygen, temperature, and pH prevented us from detecting effects of these water quality features on age-0 sucker nearshore habitat use.

  16. Revision and proposed modification for a total maximum daily load model for Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wherry, Susan A.; Wood, Tamara M.; Anderson, Chauncey W.

    2015-01-01

    Using the extended 1991–2010 external phosphorus loading dataset, the lake TMDL model was recalibrated following the same procedures outlined in the Phase 1 review. The version of the model selected for further development incorporated an updated sediment initial condition, a numerical solution method for the chlorophyll a model, changes to light and phosphorus factors limiting algal growth, and a new pH-model regression, which removed Julian day dependence in order to avoid discontinuities in pH at year boundaries. This updated lake TMDL model was recalibrated using the extended dataset in order to compare calibration parameters to those obtained from a calibration with the original 7.5-year dataset. The resulting algal settling velocity calibrated from the extended dataset was more than twice the value calibrated with the original dataset, and, because the calibrated values of algal settling velocity and recycle rate are related (more rapid settling required more rapid recycling), the recycling rate also was larger than that determined with the original dataset. These changes in calibration parameters highlight the uncertainty in critical rates in the Upper Klamath Lake TMDL model and argue for their direct measurement in future data collection to increase confidence in the model predictions.

  17. Modeling and model validation of wind-driven circulation in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.; Wood, T.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrodynamics in the Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) plays a significant role in the water quality conditions of the lake. In order to provide a quantitative evaluation of the impacts of hydrodynamics on water quality in UKL, a detailed hydrodynamic model was implemented using an unstructured grid 3-D hydrodynamic model known as the UnTRIM model. The circulation in UKL is driven primarily by wind. Wind speed and direction time-series records were used as input, the numerical model reproduced the wind "set-up" and "set-down" at down wind and upwind ends of the lake, respectively. Of the two acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) records, the UnTRIM model reproduced the measured velocity at the deep station. At the shallow station, the model results showed diurnal patterns that correlated well with wind variations, but the measured velocity showed water velocity sustained at 3 to 5 cm/sec or above. Discrepancies between the model results and observations at the shallow ADCP station is discussed on the basis of correct physics. If the field measurements are inconsistent with the known physics, there exists the possibility that the field data are suspect or the field data are revealing some physical processes that are not yet understood. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  18. Comparison of historical streamflows to 2013 Streamflows in the Williamson, Sprague, and Wood Rivers, Upper Klamath Lake Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Glen W.; Stonewall, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the Upper Klamath Lake Basin, Oregon, experienced a dry spring, resulting in an executive order declaring a state of drought emergency in Klamath County. The 2013 drought limited the water supply and led to a near-total cessation of surface-water diversions for irrigation above Upper Klamath Lake once regulation was implemented. These conditions presented a unique opportunity to understand the effects of water right regulation on streamflows. The effects of regulation of diversions were evaluated by comparing measured 2013 streamflow with data from hydrologically similar years. Years with spring streamflow similar to that in 2013 measured at the Sprague River gage at Chiloquin from water years 1973 to 2012 were used to define a Composite Index Year (CIY; with diversions) for comparison to measured 2013 streamflows (no diversions). The best-fit 6 years (1977, 1981, 1990, 1991, 1994, and 2001) were used to determine the CIY. Two streams account for most of the streamflow into Upper Klamath Lake: the Williamson and Wood Rivers. Most streamflow into the lake is from the Williamson River Basin, which includes the Sprague River. Because most of the diversion regulation affecting the streamflow of the Williamson River occurred in the Sprague River Basin, and because of uncertainties about historical flows in a major diversion above the Williamson River gage, streamflow data from the Sprague River were used to estimate the change in streamflow from regulation of diversions for the Williamson River Basin. Changes in streamflow outside of the Sprague River Basin were likely minor relative to total streamflow. The effect of diversion regulation was evaluated using the “Baseflow Method,” which compared 2013 baseflow to baseflow of the CIY. The Baseflow Method reduces the potential effects of summer precipitation events on the calculations. A similar method using streamflow produced similar results, however, despite at least one summer precipitation event. The

  19. 2000 Multibeam Sonar Survey of Crater Lake, Oregon - Data, GIS, Images, and Movies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Dartnell, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In the summer of 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project in cooperation with the National Park Service, and the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping, University of New Hampshire used a state-of-the-art multibeam sonar system to collect high-resolution bathymetry and calibrated, co-registered acoustic backscatter to support both biological and geological research in the Crater Lake area. This interactive CD-ROM contains the multibeam bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data, along with an ESRI ArcExplorer project (and software), images, and movies.

  20. Distribution and condition of larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Brown, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined. They were extirpated from several lakes in the 1920s and may no longer reproduce in others. Poor recruitment to the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable or high quality rearing habitat. In addition, larval suckers may be swept downstream from suitable rearing areas in Upper Klamath Lake into Keno Reservoir, which is seasonally anoxic. The Nature Conservancy flooded about 3,600 acres (1,456 hectares) to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana Unit) in October 2007 and about 1,400 acres (567 hectares) to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Unit) a year later to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat, and improve water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey joined a long-term research and monitoring program in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. The primary objectives of the research were to describe habitat colonization and use by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fishes and to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report summarizes data collected in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey as a part of this monitoring effort. The Williamson River Delta appeared to provide suitable rearing habitat for endangered larval Lost River and shortnose suckers in 2008 and 2009. Larval suckers captured in this delta typically were

  1. Nitrogen and phosphorus loading from drained wetlands adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Morace, Jennifer L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, soil-coring activities were undertaken to ascertain the nature and extent of the organic soils in the drained and undrained wetlands. The present-day nutrient mass was calculated for each drained wetland using the nutrient content (concentration) and the present-day peat mass. The initial nutrient mass prior to drainage was estimated for each drained wetland by using the initial nutrient content (assumed to be equal to the nutrient content of the undrained wetlands) and the initial peat mass as determined using the amount of accumulated decom

  2. Dispersal of larval suckers at the Williamson River Delta, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Hendrixson, Heather A.; Markle, Douglas F.; Erdman, Charles S.; Burdick, Summer M.; Ellsworth, Craig M.; Buccola, Norman L.

    2012-01-01

    An advection/diffusion modeling approach was used to simulate the transport of larval suckers from spawning areas in the Williamson River, through the newly restored Williamson River Delta, to Upper Klamath Lake. The density simulations spanned the years of phased restoration, from 2006/2007 prior to any levee breaching, to 2008 when the northern part of the delta was reconnected to the lake, and 2009 when levees on both sides of the delta had been breached. Model simulation results from all four years were compared to field data using rank correlation. Spearman ρ correlation coefficients were usually significant and in the range 0.30 to 0.60, providing moderately strong validation of the model. The correlation coefficients varied with fish size class in a way that suggested that the model best described the distribution of smaller fish near the Williamson River channel, and larger fish away from the channel. When Lost River and shortnose/Klamath largescale suckers were simulated independently, the correlation results suggested that the model better described the transport and dispersal of the latter species. The incorporation of night-time-only drift behavior in the Williamson River channel neither improved nor degraded correlations with field data. The model showed that advection by currents is an important factor in larval dispersal.

  3. Quantifying the Benthic Source of Nutrients to the Water Column of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Lynch, Dennis D.; Topping, Brent R.; Murphy, Fred; Carter, James L.; Simon, Nancy S.; Parcheso, Francis; Wood, Tamara M.; Lindenberg, Mary K.; Wiese, Katryn; Avanzino, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Five sampling trips were coordinated in April, May and August 2006, and May and July 2007 to sample the water column and benthos of Upper Klamath Lake, OR (Fig. 1; Table 1), before, during and after the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA). A pore-water profiler was designed and fabricated to obtain the first high-resolution (centimeter-scale) estimates of the vertical concentration gradients for diffusive-flux determinations. Estimates based on molecular diffusion may underestimate benthic flux because solute transport across the sediment-water interface can be enhanced by processes including bioturbation, bioirrigation and ground-water advection. Water-column and benthic samples were also collected to help interpret spatial and temporal trends in diffusive-flux estimates. Data from these samples complement geochemical analyses of bottom-sediments taken from Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in 2005. This ongoing study provides information necessary for developing process-interdependent solute-transport models for the watershed (that is, models integrating physical, geochemical and biological processes), and supports efforts to evaluate remediation or load-allocation strategies. To augment studies funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the Department of Interior supported an additional full deployment of pore-water profilers in July 2007, during the summer AFA bloom. Results from this recent field trip are not fully completed. Data not presented herein will be included in a subsequent publication, scheduled for March 2009.

  4. Geothermal exploration assessment and interpretation, Upper Klamah Lake Area, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, M.; Goldstein, N.E.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1980-09-01

    Data from public and private sources on the Klamath Basin geothermal resource are reviewed, synthesized, and reinterpreted. In this, the second and final phase of the work, geological, remote sensing, geochemical, temperature gradient, gravity, aeromagnetic, and electrical resistivity data sets are examined. These data were derived from surveys concentrated on the east and west shores of Upper Klamath Lake. The geological, remote sensing, and potential field data suggest a few northeast-trending discontinuities, which cross the regional north-westerly strike. The near-surface distribution of warm water appears to be related to the intersections of these lineaments and northwest-trending faults. The groundwater geochemical data are reviewed and the various reservoir temperature estimates compared. Particular attention is given to specific electrical conductivities of waters as an interpretational aid to the subsurface resistivity results. A clear trend emerges in the Klamath Falls/Olene Gap area; hotter waters are associated with higher specific conductivities. In the Nuss Lake/Stukel Mountain area the opposite trend prevails, although the relationship is somewhat equivocal.

  5. Multiple isotopic components in Quaternary volcanic rocks of the Cascade Arc near Crater lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Gunn, S.H.; Lanphere, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Quaternary lavas and pyroclastic rocks of Mount Mazama, Crater lake caldera, and the surrounding area have variable Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions. High-alumina olivine tholeiites have 87Ar/86Ar ratios of 0.70346-0.70364; basaltic andesite, 0.70349-0.70372; shoshonitic basaltic andesite, 0.70374-0.70388; and andesite, 0.70324-0.70383. Dacites of Mount Mazama have 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of 0.70348-0.70373. Most rhyodacites converge on 0.7037. Andesitic to mafic-cumulate scoriae of the climatic eruption, and enclaves in pre-climactic rhyodacites, cluster in two groups but show nearly the entire 87Sr/86Sr range of the data set, confirming previously suggested introduction of diverse parental magmas into the growing climactic chamber. Magma evolution is described. -from Authors

  6. Forms and accumulation of soil P in natural and recently restored peatlands - Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, S.A.; Craft, C.B.; McCormick, P.V.; Aldous, A.

    2005-01-01

    Forms, amounts, and accumulation of soil phosphorus (P) were measured in natural and recently restored marshes surrounding Upper Klamath Lake located in south-central Oregon, USA to determine rates of P accumulation in natural marshes and to assess changes in P pools caused by long-term drainage in recently restored marshes. Soil cores were collected from three natural marshes and radiometrically dated to determine recent (l37Cs-based) and long-term (210Pb-based) rates of peat accretion and P accumulation. A second set of soil cores collected from the three natural marshes and from three recently restored marshes was analyzed using a modification of the Hedley procedure to determine the forms and amounts of soil P. Total P in the recently restored marshes (222 to 311 ??g cm-3) was 2-3 times greater than in the natural marshes (103 to 117 ??g cm-3), primarily due to greater bulk density caused by soil subsidence, a consequence of long-term marsh drainage. Occluded Fe- and Al-bound Pi, calcium-bound Pi and residual P were 4 times, 22 times, and 5 times greater, respectively, in the recently restored marshes. More than 67% of the P pool in both the natural and recently restored marshes was present in recalcitrant forms (humic-acid P o and residual P) that provide long-term P storage in peat. Phosphorus accumulation in the natural marshes averaged 0.45 g m-2 yr-1 (137Cs) and 0.40 g m-2 yr-1 (210Pb), providing a benchmark for optimizing P sequestration in the recently restored marshes. Effective P sequestration in the recently restored marshes, however, will depend on re-establishing equilibrium between the P-enriched soils and the P concentration of floodwaters and a hydrologie regime similar to the natural marshes. ?? 2005, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  7. Uranium and minor-element partitioning in Fe-Ti oxides and zircon from partially melted granodiorite, Crater Lake, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    La Tourrette, T.Z.; Burnett, D.S. ); Bacon C.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Crystal-liquid partitioning in Fe-Ti oxides and zircon was studied in partially melted granodiorite blocks ejected during the climactic eruption of Mt. Mazama (Crater Lake), Oregon. The blocks, which contain up to 33% rhyolite glass (75 wt% SiO{sub 2}), are interpreted to be portions of the magma chamber walls that were torn off during eruption. The glass is clear and well homogenized for all measured elements except Zr. Results for Fe-Ti oxides give D{sub U}{sup oxide/liq} {approx} 0.1. Partitioning of Mg, Mn, Al, Si, V, and Cr in Fe-Ti oxides indicates that grains surrounded by glass are modestly well equilibrated with the melt for many of the minor elements, while those that are inclusions in relict plagioclase are not. Uranium and ytterbium inhomogeneities in zircons indicate that the zircons have only partially equilibrated with the melt and that uranium appears to have been diffusing out of the zircons have only partially equilibrated with the melt and that uranium appears to have been diffusing out of the zircons faster that the zircons were dissolving. Based on the authors measurements and given their low abundances in most rocks, Fe-Ti oxides probably do not play a major role in U-Th fractional during partial melting. The partial melts were undersaturated with zircon and apatite, but both phases are present in the authors samples. This demonstrates an actual case of nonequilibrium source retention of accessory phases, which in general could be an important trace element fractionation mechanism. Their results do not support the hypothesis that liquid structure is the dominant factor controlling trace-element partitioning in high-silica rhyolites.

  8. Uranium and minor-element partitioning in Fe-Ti oxides and zircon from partially melted granodiorite, Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tourrette, T.Z.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Bacon, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    Crystal-liquid partitioning in Fe-Ti oxides and zircon was studied in partially melted granodiorite blocks ejected during the climactic eruption of Mt. Mazama (Crater Lake), Oregon. The blocks, which contain up to 33% rhyolite glass (75 wt% SiO2), are interpreted to be portions of the magma chamber walls that were torn off during eruption. The glass is clear and well homogenized for all measured elements except Zr. Results for Fe-Ti oxides give DUoxide/liq ??? 0.1. Partitioning of Mg, Mn, Al, Si, V, and Cr in Fe-Ti oxides indicates that grains surrounded by glass are moderately well equilibrated with the melt for many of the minor elements, while those that are inclusions in relict plagioclase are not. Uranium and ytterbium inhomogeneities in zircons indicate that the zircons have only partially equilibrated with the melt and that uranium appears to have been diffusing out of the zircons faster than the zircons were dissolving. Minimum U, Y, and P concentrations in zircons give maximum DUzrc/liq = 13,DYzrc/liq = 23, and DPzrc/liq = 1, but these are considerably lower than reported by other workers for U and Y. Based on our measurements and given their low abundances in most rocks, Fe-Ti oxides probably do not play a major role in U-Th fractionation during partial melting. The partial melts were undersaturated with zircon and apatite, but both phases are present in our samples. This demonstrates an actual case of non-equilibrium source retention of accessory phases, which in general could be an important trace-element fractionation mechanism. Our results do not support the hypothesis that liquid structure is the dominant factor controlling trace-element partitioning in high-silica rhyolites. Rough calculations based on Zr gradients in the glass indicate that the samples could have been partially molten for 800 to 8000 years. ?? 1991.

  9. 3D Seismic and Magnetic characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, southeastern Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, S.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Routh, P.; Liberty, L.; Donaldson, P.

    2004-05-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems, we are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs. BLHS is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. The Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben in the Northern Great Basin bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We conducted a 2D seismic survey to characterize the geologic structure of the basin, a high-resolution 3D seismic survey to characterize the geologic structure of the BLHS, and a high-resolution 3D magnetic survey to characterize any lineaments in the bedrock that might control fluid flow in the BLHS. Previous results from the 2D seismic survey show a mid-basin basement high aligned approximately with the hot springs. In this study we present the results from the high-resolution 3D seismic and magnetic survey of the BLHS. We acquired the 3D seismic data using an SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The seismic survey covers approximately 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. The coincidental magnetic survey was collected using a Geometrics 858G cesium vapor magnetometer. We designed both surveys to span nearly 100 active hydrothermal springs, including an approximately 50 m stepover in the trend of the surface expression of the hot springs. After preliminary processing, the 3D seismic data show continuous reflections up to 300 ms (~ 480 m). The initial interpretation of features seen in the 3D data cube include: normal faults dipping to the east and west, near-surface disturbances that are consistent with the trend of the hot springs, and significant near surface velocity anomalies

  10. 76 FR 24479 - In the Matter of the Taylor Lumber and Treating Superfund Site, Sheridan, Oregon, Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Agreement and Covenant Not To Sue, Pacific Wood Preserving of Oregon AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency.... Environmental Protection Agency (``EPA'') and Pacific Wood Preserving of Oregon (``PWPO''). In accordance...

  11. Combining 14C/U-Th Series Geochronology and Stable/Clumped Isotope Geochemistry of MIS 2 Lake Tufas of Lake Chewaucan, Oregon, USA to Reconstruct Deglacial Climate in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, A. M.; Quade, J.; Ali, G.; Boyle, D. P.; Bassett, S.; Huntington, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    Shoreline deposits surrounding closed-basin lake remnants in the Great Basin of North America have been critical to defining the timing and extent of lake highstands during Marine Isotope Stage 2, recording the wettest climate conditions during the last glacial cycle. We present 14C and U-Th series ages and stable and clumped isotope results from MIS 2 microbialite tufas of pluvial Lake Chewaucan, southern Oregon. At ~42.5°N latitude, the Chewaucan basin is the one of the northernmost lake systems in the Great Basin, a critical location for investigating regional climate. Dating of modern tufa and DIC indicates no 14C reservoir effect. Low lake depth is observed for peak LGM conditions (21.0 ka, +11 m above modern), consistent with regional records and climate model results. In contrast with other Great Basin lake reconstructions for deglacial MIS 2, Lake Chewaucan was deepest during the Bølling/Ållerod (B/A; 14.5-13.0 ka, +50 m) and early Holocene (10.9-9.5 ka +15 m) warm periods, with lowstands during Heinrich Event 1 (+0-1 m) and Younger Dryas cold periods (+0 m). This supports previous evidence for wet interstadials in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) during MIS 2-3, the opposite of the central/southern Great Basin, where stadials correlate with wet conditions. δ18O values of tufas (-0.9 to -4.4‰ PDB) reflect high evaporation relative to inflowing meteoric water (-13.6‰ SMOW), and lake water (-6.7 SMOW). δ13C values (+1.7 to +4.5‰ PDB) are consistent with equilibrium with lake DIC (+1.5‰ PDB) and atmospheric CO2, supporting atmospheric 14C equilibrium. Clumped isotope temperatures for modern tufa (20±7°C) are consistent with summer lake surface temperature for modern lake remnant, Abert Lake (17.7-22.0°C), supporting previous clumped isotope results for tufas as summer temperature indicators. Clumped temperatures for the B/A highstand are 19±4°C, indicating near modern lake temperatures during deepest lake conditions. 13±4°C is indicated for the

  12. Late Pleistocene granodiorite beneath Crater Lake caldera, Oregon, dated by ion microprobe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Persing, H.M.; Wooden, J.L.; Ireland, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Variably melted granodiorite blocks ejected during the Holocene caldera-forming eruption of Mount Mazama were plucked from the walls of the climactic magma chamber ~15 km depth. Ion-microprobe U-Pb dating of zircons from two unmelted granodiorite blocks with SHRIMP RG (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry) gives a nominal 238U/206Pb age of 101+78-80 ka, or 174+89-115 ka when adjusted for an initial 230Th deficit. SHRIMP RG U-Th measurements on a subset of the zircons yield a 230Th/238U isochron age of 112 ?? 24 ka, considered to be the best estimate of the time of solidification of the pluton. These results suggest that the granodiorite is related to andesite and dacite of Mount Mazama and not to magmas of the climactic eruption. The unexposed granodiorite has an area of at least 28 km2. This young, shallow pluton was emplaced in virtually the same location where a similarly large magma body accumulated and powered violent explosive eruptions ~7700 yr ago, resulting in collapse of Crater Lake caldera.

  13. Deformation of the Wineglass Welded Tuff and the timing of caldera collapse at Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kamata, H.; Suzuki-Kamata, K.; Bacon, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Four types of deformation occur in the Wineglass Welded Tuff on the northeast caldera rim of Crater Lake: (a) vertical tension fractures; (b) ooze-outs of fiamme: (c) squeeze-outs of fiamme; and (d) horizontal pull-apart structures. The three types of plastic deformation (b-d) developed in the lower part of the Wineglass Welded Tuff where degree of welding and density are maximum. Deformation originated from concentric normal faulting and landsliding as the caldera collapsed. The degree of deformation of the Wineglass Welded Tuff increases toward the northeast part of the caldera, where plastic deformation occurred more easily because of a higher emplacement temperature probably due to proximity to the vent. The probable glass transition temperature of the Wineglass Welded Tuff suggests that its emplacement temperature was ???750??C where the tuff is densely welded. Calculation of the conductive cooling history of the Wineglass Welded Tuff and the preclimactic Cleetwood (lava) flow under assumptions of a initially isothermal sheet and uniform properties suggests that (a) caldera collapse occurred a maximum of 9 days after emplacement of the Wineglass Welded Tuff, and that (b) the period between effusion of the Cleetwood (lava) flow and onset of the climactic eruption was <100 years. If cooling is controlled more by precipitation during quiescent periods than by conduction, these intervals must be shorter than the calculated times. ?? 1993.

  14. Water-quality conditions in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2002-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Hoilman, Gene R.; Lindenberg, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    Eleven (2002) to 14 (2003 and 2004) continuous water-quality monitors that measured pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and specific conductance, were placed in Upper Klamath Lake to support a telemetry tracking study of endangered adult shortnose and Lost River suckers. Samples for the analysis of chlorophyll a and nutrients were collected at a subset of the water-quality monitor sites in each year. The seasonal pattern in the occurrence of supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations and high pH associated with photosynthetic activity, as well as the undersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations associated with oxygen demand through respiration and decay in excess of photosynthetic production, were well described by the dynamics of the massive blooms of Aphanizomenon flos aquae (AFA) that occur each year. Data from the continuous monitors provided a means to quantify the occurrence, duration, and spatial extent of water-quality conditions potentially harmful to fish (dissolved- oxygen concentration less than 4 milligrams per liter, pH greater than 9.7, and temperature greater than 28 degrees Celsius) in the northern part of the lake, where the preferred adult sucker habitat is found. There were few observations of temperature greater than 28 degrees Celsius, suggesting that temperature is not a significant source of chronic stress to fish, although its role in the spread of disease is harder to define. Observations of pH greater than 9.7 were common during times when the AFA bloom was growing rapidly, so pH may be a source of chronic stress to fish. Dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 4 milligrams per liter were common in all 3 years at the deeper sites, in the lower part of the water column and for short periods during the day. Less common were instances of widespread low dissolved oxygen, throughout the water column and persisting through the entire day, but this was the character of a severe low dissolved oxygen event (LDOE) that culminated in the

  15. Eruptive history and geochronology of Mount Mazama and the Crater Lake region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, Charles R.; Lanphere, Marvin A.

    2006-01-01

    Geologic mapping, K-Ar, and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations, supplemented by paleomagnetic measurements and geochemical data, are used to quantify the Quaternary volcanic history of the Crater Lake region in order to define processes and conditions that led to voluminous explosive eruptions. The Cascade arc volcano known as Mount Mazama collapsed during its climactic eruption of ∼50 km3 of mainly rhyodacitic magma ∼7700 yr ago to form Crater Lake caldera. The Mazama edifice was constructed on a Pleistocene silicic lava field, amidst monogenetic and shield volcanoes ranging from basalt to andesite similar to parental magmas for Mount Mazama. Between 420 ka and 35 ka, Mazama produced medium-K andesite and dacite in 2:1 proportion. The edifice was built in many episodes; some of the more voluminous occurred approximately coeval with volcanic pulses in the surrounding region, and some were possibly related to deglaciation following marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS) 12, 10, 8, 6, 5.2, and 2. Magmas as evolved as dacite erupted many times, commonly associated with or following voluminous andesite effusion. Establishment of the climactic magma chamber was under way when the first preclimactic rhyodacites vented ca. 27 ka. The silicic melt volume then grew incrementally at an average rate of 2.5 km3 k.y.−1 for nearly 20 k.y. The climactic eruption exhausted the rhyodacitic magma and brought up crystal-rich andesitic magma, mafic cumulate mush, and wall-rock granodiorite. Postcaldera volcanism produced 4 km3 of andesite during the first 200–500 yr after collapse, followed at ca. 4800 yr B.P. by 0.07 km3 of rhyodacite. The average eruption rate for all Mazama products was ∼0.4 km3 k.y.−1, but major edifice construction episodes had rates of ∼0.8 km3 k.y.−1. The long-term eruption rate for regional monogenetic and shield volcanoes was d∼0.07 km3 k.y.−1, but only ∼0.02 km3 k.y.−1 when the two major shields are excluded. Plutonic xenoliths and evidence for

  16. Late Pleistocene granodiorite source for recycled zircon and phenocrysts in rhyodacite lava at Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    Rhyodacite tephra and three lavas erupted ???27 ka, interpreted to be early leaks from the climactic magma chamber of Mount Mazama, contain ubiquitous resorbed crystals (antecrysts) that were recycled from young granodiorite and related plutonic rocks of the same magmatic system. The shallow composite pluton is represented by blocks ejected in the 7.7-ka climactic eruption that formed Crater Lake caldera. Plagioclase crystals in both rhyodacite and granodiorites commonly have cores with crystallographically oriented Fe-oxide needles exsolved at subsolidus conditions. At least 80% of plagioclase crystals in the rhyodacite are antecrysts derived from plutonic rocks. Other crystals in the rhyodacite, notably zircon, also were recycled. SIMS 238U- 230Th dating indicates that zircons in 4 granodiorite blocks crystallized at various times between ???20 ka and ???300 ka with concentrations of analyses near 50-70, ???110, and ???200 ka that correspond to periods of dacitic volcanism dated by K- Ar. U-Th ages of zircon from a rhyodacite sample yield similar results. No analyzed zircons from the granodiorite or rhyodacite are pre-Quaternary. Zircon minimum ages in blocks from different locations around the caldera reflect ages of nearby volcanic vents and may map the distribution of intrusions within a composite pluton. Survival of zircon in zircon-undersaturated hydrous magma and of Fe-oxide needles in plagioclase suggests that little time elapsed from entrainment of antecrysts to the ???27-ka eruption of the rhyodacite. The ???27-ka rhyodacite is an example of young silicic magma that preserved unstable antecrysts from a known source early during growth of a large high-level magma chamber. In contrast, the voluminous 7.7-ka climactic rhyodacite pumice is virtually lacking in zircon, indicating dissolution of any granodioritic debris in the intervening period. Mineralogical evidence of assimilation may be destroyed in hot, vigorously growing silicic magma bodies such as

  17. Inconsistent Climate Inferences between Pollen and other Paleontological, Geochemical, and Geophysical Proxies in Late Pleistocene Lacustrine Sediments from Summer Lake, Oregon, Western Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, E.; Thompson, G.; Negrini, R. M.; Wigand, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    This study has established a high resolution paleoclimate record from western Great Basin pluvial Summer Lake, Oregon during the late Pleistocene Mono Lake Excursion (~34 ka), Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) interstadials 7 and 8, and the end of Heinrich Even 4 (~38 ka). Proxies of grain-size, carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, ostracode analysis and palynology from a depocenter core show new results regarding high amplitude, high frequency changes in lake level, precipitation and temperature which correspond directly with colder/warmer and respectively drier/wetter climates as documented with Northern Atlantic Greenland ice core data. The granulometry, geochemical, and ostracode results consistently demonstrate the correspondence of low lake conditions and colder water temperatures during D-O stadials and warmer/wetter climate during interstadials. These results are contradicted by the pollen results. Existence of cold temperature spores Botrychium and Selaginella coincide with increases in Artemisia, Atriplex, Sarcobatus, Cyperaceae and decreases in Pinus, also suggesting periods of colder/drier climate and shallower lake levels but the timing does not match that of those conditions inferred by the other methods. Granulometry, geochemical, and ostracode proxies denote cold periods and low lake levels roughly between 37.5-35.6 ka and 34.6-33.8 ka. Pollen analysis suggests near-opposite time intervals with cold periods roughly 38-37.5 ka, 35.6-35 ka. This pollen inconsistency suggests the possibility of (1) a millennial-scale lag response of vegetation to climate change, (2) runoff from stadial precipitation causing influx in pollen abundances and variety found in the depocenter core, or (3) turbulent mixing from shallow lake level causing resuspension and redeposition of pollen (Bradley 1999).

  18. Lithic breccia and ignimbrite erupted during the collapse of Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druitt, T.H.; Bacon, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The climactic eruption of Mount Mazama (6845 y.B.P.) vented a total of ???50 km3 of compositionally zoned rhyodacitic to basaltic magma from: (a) a single vent as a Plinian pumice fall deposit and the overlying Wineglass Welded Tuff, and (b) ring vents as ignimbrite and coignimbrite lithic breccia accompanying the collapse of Crater Lake caldera. New field and grain-size data for the ring-vent products are presented in this report. The coarse-grained, poorly bedded, clast-supported lithic breccia extends as far as 18 km from the caldera center. Like the associated ignimbrite, the breccia is compositionally zoned both radially and vertically, and silicic, mixed, and mafic types can be recognized, based on the proportion of rhyodacitic pumice. Matrix fractions in silicic breccias are depleted of fines and are lithic- and crystal-enriched relative to silicic ignimbrite due to vigorous gas sorting during emplacement. Ignimbrite occurs as a proximal veneer deposit overlying the breccia, a medial (??? 8 to ??? 25 km from the caldera center), compositionally zoned valley fill as much as > 110 m thick, and an unzoned distal ({slanted equal to or greater-than} 20 km) facies which extends as far as 55 km from the caldera. Breccia within ??? 9 km of the caldera center is interpreted as a coignimbrite lag breccia formed within the deflation zone of the collapsing ring-vent eruption columns. Expanded pyroclastic flows of the deflation zone were probably vertically graded in both size and concentration of blocks, as recently postulated for some turbidity currents. An inflection in the rate of falloff of lithic-clast size within the lithic breccia at ??? 9 km may mark the outer edge of the deflation zone or may be an artifact of incomplete exposure. The onset of ring-vent activity at Mt. Mazama was accompanied by a marked increase in eruptive discharge. Pyroclastic flows were emplaced as a semicontinuous stream, as few ignimbrite flow-unit boundaries are evident. As eruption from

  19. Compositional evolution of the zoned calcalkaline magma chamber of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Druitt, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    The climactic eruption of Mount Mazama has long been recognized as a classic example of rapid eruption of a substantial fraction of a zoned magma body. Increased knowledge of eruptive history and new chemical analyses of ???350 wholerock and glass samples of the climactic ejecta, preclimactic rhyodacite flows and their inclusions, postcaldera lavas, and lavas of nearby monogenetic vents are used here to infer processes of chemical evolution of this late Pleistocene - Holocene magmatic system. The 6845??50 BP climactic eruption vented ???50 km3 of magma to form: (1) rhyodacite fall deposit; (2) welded rhyodacite ignimbrite; and (3) lithic breccia and zoned ignimbrite, these during collapse of Crater Lake caldera. Climactic ejecta were dominantly homogeneous rhyodacite (70.4??0.3% SiO2), followed by subordinate andesite and cumulate scoriae (48-61% SiO2). The gap in wholerock composition reflects mainly a step in crystal content because glass compositions are virtually continuous. Two types of scoriae are distinguished by different LREE, Rb, Th, and Zr, but principally by a twofold contrast in Sr content: High-Sr (HSr) and low-Sr (LSr) scoriae. HSr scoriae were erupted first. Trace element abundances indicate that HSr and LSr scoriae had different calcalkaline andesite parents; basalt was parental to some mafic cumulate scoriae. Parental magma compositions reconstructed from scoria wholerock and glass data are similar to those of inclusions in preclimactic rhyodacites and of aphyric lavas of nearby monogenetic vents. Preclimactic rhyodacite flows and their magmatic inclusions give insight into evolution of the climactic chamber. Evolved rhyodacite flows containing LSr andesite inclusions were emplaced between ???30000 and ???25000 BP. At 7015??45 BP, the Llao Rock vent produced a zoned rhyodacite pumice fall, then rhyodacite lava with HSr andesite inclusions. The Cleetwood rhyodacite flow, emplaced immediately before the climactic eruption and compositionally

  20. Simulation and validation of larval sucker dispersal and retention through the restored Williamson River Delta and Upper Klamath Lake system, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Hendrixson, Heather A.; Markle, Douglas F.; Erdman, Charles S.; Burdick, Summer M.; Ellsworth, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model with particle tracking was used to create individual-based simulations to describe larval fish dispersal through the restored Williamson River Delta and into Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The model was verified by converting particle ages to larval lengths and comparing these lengths to lengths of larvae in net catches. Correlations of simulated lengths with field data were moderate and suggested a species-specific difference in model performance. Particle trajectories through the delta were affected by wind speed and direction, lake elevation, and shoreline configuration. Once particles entered the lake, transport was a function of current speed and whether behavior enhanced transport (swimming aligned with currents) or countered transport through greater dispersal (faster random swimming). We tested sensitivity to swim speed (higher speeds led to greater dispersal and more retention), shoreline configuration (restoration increased retention relative to pre-restoration conditions), and lake elevation (retention was maximized at an intermediate elevation). The simulations also highlight additional biological questions, such as the extent to which spatially heterogeneous mortality or fish behavior and environmental cues could interact with wind-driven currents and contribute to patterns of dispersal.

  1. Health and condition of endangered juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers relative to water quality and fish assemblages in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Clear Lake Reservoir, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Conway, Carla M.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Hoy, Marshal S.; Feltz, Kevin P.; Echols, Kathy R.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sucker health and condition between lakes were considered the most promising clues to the causes of differential juvenile sucker morality between lakes. A low prevalence of petechial hemorrhaging of the skin (16 percent) and deformed opercula (8 percent) in Upper Klamath Lake suckers may indicate exposure to a toxin other than microcystin. Suckers grew slower in their first year of life, but had similar or greater triglyceride and glycogen levels in Upper Klamath Lake compared to Clear Lake Reservoir. These findings do not suggest a lack of prey quantity but may indicate lower prey quality in Upper Klamath Lake.

  2. Health and condition of endangered juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers relative to water quality and fish assemblages in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Clear Lake Reservoir, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Conway, Carla M.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Hoy, Marshal S.; Feltz, Kevin P.; Echols, Kathy R.

    2015-11-25

    Differences in sucker health and condition between lakes were considered the most promising clues to the causes of differential juvenile sucker morality between lakes. A low prevalence of petechial hemorrhaging of the skin (16 percent) and deformed opercula (8 percent) in Upper Klamath Lake suckers may indicate exposure to a toxin other than microcystin. Suckers grew slower in their first year of life, but had similar or greater triglyceride and glycogen levels in Upper Klamath Lake compared to Clear Lake Reservoir. These findings do not suggest a lack of prey quantity but may indicate lower prey quality in Upper Klamath Lake.

  3. Assessment of suspended-sediment transport, bedload, and dissolved oxygen during a short-term drawdown of Fall Creek Lake, Oregon, winter 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Liam N.; Bragg, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    The drawdown of Fall Creek Lake resulted in the net transport of approximately 50,300 tons of sediment from the lake during a 6-day drawdown operation, based on computed daily values of suspended-sediment load downstream of Fall Creek Dam and the two main tributaries to Fall Creek Lake. A suspended-sediment budget calculated for 72 days of the study period indicates that as a result of drawdown operations, there was approximately 16,300 tons of sediment deposition within the reaches of Fall Creek and the Middle Fork Willamette River between Fall Creek Dam and the streamgage on the Middle Fork Willamette River at Jasper, Oregon. Bedload samples collected at the station downstream of Fall Creek Dam during the drawdown were primarily composed of medium to fine sands and accounted for an average of 11 percent of the total instantaneous sediment load (also termed sediment discharge) during sample collection. Monitoring of dissolved oxygen at the station downstream of Fall Creek Dam showed an initial decrease in dissolved oxygen concurrent with the sediment release over the span of 5 hours, though the extent of dissolved oxygen depletion is unknown because of extreme and rapid fouling of the probe by the large amount of sediment in transport. Dissolved oxygen returned to background levels downstream of Fall Creek Dam on December 18, 2012, approximately 1 day after the end of the drawdown operation.

  4. Evidence for millennial-scale climate change during marine isotope stages 2 and 3 at Little Lake, Western Oregon, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grigg, L.D.; Whitlock, C.; Dean, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    Pollen and geochemical data from Little Lake, western Oregon, suggest several patterns of millennial-scale environmental change during marine isotope stage (MIS) 2 (14,100-27,600 cal yr B.P.) and the latter part of MIS 3 (27,600-42,500 cal yr B.P.). During MIS 3, a series of transitions between warm- and cold-adapted taxa indicate that temperatures oscillated by ca. 2??-4??C every 1000-3000 yr. Highs and lows in summer insolation during MIS 3 are generally associated with the warmest and coldest intervals. Warm periods at Little Lake correlate with warm sea-surface temperatures in the Santa Barbara Basin. Changes in the strength of the subtropical high and the jet stream may account for synchronous changes at the two sites. During MIS 2, shifts between mesic and xeric subalpine forests suggest changes in precipitation every 1000-3000 yr. Increases in Tsuga heterophylla pollen at 25,000 and 22,000 cal yr B.P. imply brief warmings. Minimum summer insolation and maximum global ice-volumes during MIS 2 correspond to cold and dry conditions. Fluctuations in precipitation at Little Lake do not correlate with changes in the Santa Barbara Basin and may be explained by variations in the strength of the glacial anticyclone and the position of the jet stream. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  5. Sixty thousand years of magmatic volatile history before the caldera-forming eruption of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Heather M.; Bacon, Charles R.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Sisson, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented eruptive history of Mount Mazama, Oregon, provides an excellent opportunity to use pre-eruptive volatile concentrations to study the growth of an explosive silicic magmatic system. Melt inclusions (MI) hosted in pyroxene and plagioclase crystals from eight dacitic–rhyodacitic eruptive deposits (71–7.7 ka) were analyzed to determine variations in volatile-element concentrations and changes in magma storage conditions leading up to and including the climactic eruption of Crater Lake caldera. Temperatures (Fe–Ti oxides) increased through the series of dacites, then decreased, and increased again through the rhyodacites (918–968 to ~950 to 845–895 °C). Oxygen fugacity began at nickel–nickel-oxide buffer (NNO) +0.8 (71 ka), dropped slightly to NNO +0.3, and then climbed to its highest value with the climactic eruption (7.7 ka) at NNO +1.1 log units. In parallel with oxidation state, maximum MI sulfur concentrations were high early in the eruptive sequence (~500 ppm), decreased (to ~200 ppm), and then increased again with the climactic eruption (~500 ppm). Maximum MI sulfur correlates with the Sr content (as a proxy for LREE, Ba, Rb, P2O5) of recharge magmas, represented by basaltic andesitic to andesitic enclaves and similar-aged lavas. These results suggest that oxidized Sr-rich recharge magmas dominated early and late in the development of the pre-climactic dacite–rhyodacite system. Dissolved H2O concentrations in MI do not, however, correlate with these changes in dominant recharge magma, instead recording vapor solubility relations in the developing shallow magma storage and conduit region. Dissolved H2O concentrations form two populations through time: the first at 3–4.6 wt% (with a few extreme values up to 6.1 wt%) and the second at ≤2.4 wt%. CO2 concentrations measured in a subset of these inclusions reach up to 240 ppm in early-erupted deposits (71 ka) and are below detection in climactic deposits (7.7 ka). Combined H2O and

  6. 75 FR 53735 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on East Lake Sammamish Master Plan Trail in King County, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on East Lake Sammamish Master Plan Trail in King County, WA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  7. Temporal and spatial distribution of endangered juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in relation to environmental variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2009 annual data summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bottcher, Jared L.; Burdick, Summer M.

    2010-01-01

    Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were listed as endangered in 1988 for a variety of reasons including apparent recruitment failure. Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and its tributaries are considered the most critical remaining habitat for these two species. Age-0 suckers are often abundant in Upper Klamath Lake throughout the summer months, but catches decline dramatically between late August and early September each year. Similar declines of age-1 suckers between spring and late summer also occur annually. These rapid declines in catch rates and a lack of substantial recruitment into adult sucker populations in recent years suggests sucker populations experience high mortality between their first summer and first spawn. Summer age-0 sucker habitat use and distribution have been studied extensively, but many uncertainties remain about age-1 and older juvenile habitat use, distribution, and movement patterns within Upper Klamath Lake. This study was designed to examine seasonal changes in distribution of age-1 suckers in Upper Klamath Lake as they relate to depth and water quality. The results of our third annual spring and summer sampling effort are presented in this report. Catch data collected in 2009 indicate seasonal changes in age-1 and older juvenile sucker habitat use coincident with changes in water quality. Although age-1 sucker catch rates were again concentrated along the western shore in June and early July, as they were in 2007 and 2008, very few age-1 suckers were captured in Eagle Ridge Trench in 2009 - a deepwater area along the western shore extending from Howard Bay to Eagle Ridge Point. Instead, suckers in 2009 were concentrated in the relatively shallow bays along the western shore. Nevertheless, as dissolved-oxygen concentrations decreased in mid-July below sublethal thresholds around the Eagle Ridge Trench, age-1 suckers apparently moved away from the western shore, and subsequently were captured

  8. Seasonal Distribution and Abundance of Larval and Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Hanks Marsh, Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2007 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Greer O.; Wilkens, Alexander X.; Burdick, Summer M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, we undertook an assessment of larval and juvenile sucker use of Hanks Marsh in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. This 1,200-acre marsh on the southeastern shoreline of the lake represents part of the last remaining natural emergent wetland habitat in the lake. Because of the suspected importance of this type of habitat to larval and juvenile endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers, it was thought that sucker abundance in the marsh might be comparatively greater than in other non-vegetated areas of the lake. It also was hoped that Hanks Marsh would serve as a reference site for wetland restoration projects occurring in other areas of the lake. Our study had four objectives: to (1) examine seasonal distribution and relative abundance of larval suckers in and adjacent to Hanks Marsh in relation to habitat features such as depth, vegetation, water quality, and relative abundance of non-sucker species; (2) determine the presence or absence and describe the distribution of juvenile suckers [35 to 80 mm standard length (SL)] along the periphery of Hanks Marsh; (3) assess spatial and temporal overlap between larval suckers and their potential predators; and (4) assess suitability of water quality throughout the summer for young-of-the-year suckers. Due to the low number of suckers found in the marsh and our inability to thoroughly sample all marsh habitats due to declining lake levels during the summer, we were unable to completely address these objectives in this pilot study. The results, however, do give some indication of the relative use of Hanks Marsh by sucker and non-sucker species. Through sampling of larval and juvenile suckers in various habitat types within the marsh, we determined that sucker use of Hanks Marsh may be very low in comparison with other areas of the lake. We caught only 42 larval and 19 juvenile suckers during 12 weeks of sampling throughout the marsh. Sucker catches were rare in Hanks Marsh, and were lower than catch rates

  9. Record of late Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation in the southern Cascade Range. I. Petrological evidence from lacustrine sediment in Upper Klamath Lake, southern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R.L.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Rapp, J.; Kerwin, M.W.; Bradbury, J.P.; Colman, S.; Adam, D.

    2004-01-01

    Petrological and textural properties of lacustrine sediments from Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, reflect changing input volumes of glacial flour and thus reveal a detailed glacial history for the southern Cascade Range between about 37 and 15 ka. Magnetic properties vary as a result of mixing different amounts of the highly magnetic, glacially generated detritus with less magnetic, more weathered detritus derived from unglaciated parts of the large catchment. Evidence that the magnetic properties record glacial flour input is based mainly on the strong correlation between bulk sediment particle size and parameters that measure the magnetite content and magnetic mineral freshness. High magnetization corresponds to relatively fine particle size and lower magnetization to coarser particle size. This relation is not found in the Buck Lake core in a nearby, unglaciated catchment. Angular silt-sized volcanic rock fragments containing unaltered magnetite dominate the magnetic fraction in the late Pleistocene sediments but are absent in younger, low magnetization sediments. The finer grained, highly magnetic sediments contain high proportions of planktic diatoms indicative of cold, oligotrophic limnic conditions. Sediment with lower magnetite content contains populations of diatoms indicative of warmer, eutrophic limnic conditions. During the latter part of oxygen isotope stage 3 (about 37-25 ka), the magnetic properties record millennial-scale variations in glacial-flour content. The input of glacial flour was uniformly high during the Last Glacial Maximum, between about 21 and 16 ka. At about 16 ka, magnetite input, both absolute and relative to hematite, decreased abruptly, reflecting a rapid decline in glacially derived detritus. The decrease in magnetite transport into the lake preceded declines in pollen from both grass and sagebrush. A more gradual decrease in heavy mineral content over this interval records sediment starvation with the growth of marshes at the margins

  10. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1995. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, K.L.; Anderson, S.W.; Rockwell, G.L.; Friebel, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1995 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 181 gaging stations, stage and contents for 47 lakes and reservoirs, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 6 stations. Also included is one low-flow partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  11. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1987. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and The Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Simpson, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1987 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 154 gaging stations; stage and contents for 33 lakes and reservoirs; water precipitation data for 2 stations; and water quality for 5 stations. Also included is one low-flow partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  12. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1997. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, G.L.; Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.; Anderson, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1997 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 176 gaging stations and 1 partial-record station, stage and contents for 45 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 3 stations, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality data for 14 stations and 6 waterquality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  13. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1993. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullen, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Markham, K.L.; Anderson, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1993 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 190 gaging stations, stage and contents for 41 lakes and reservoirs, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 8 stations. Also included are two low-flow partialrecord stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  14. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1998. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.; Anderson, S.W.; Rockwell, G.L.; Smithson, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 176 gaging stations and 1 partial-record station, stage and contents for 45 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 1 station, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 14 stations and 7 waterquality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  15. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1985. Volume 4. Northern California Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Simpson, R.G.; Grillo, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1985 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 155 gaging stations; stage and contents for 29 lakes and reservoirs; water precipitation data for 2 stations; and water quality for 16 stations. Also included are 7 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  16. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1990. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Markham, K.L.; Anderson, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1990 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 182 gaging stations; stage and contents for 34 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation data for 3 stations; and water quality. for 12 stations. Also included is one low-flow partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  17. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1991. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, K.L.; Anderson, S.W.; Mullen, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 183 gaging stations; stage and contents for 36 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation data for 3 stations; and water quality for 10 stations. Also included are two low-flow partialrecord stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  18. Water resources data-California, water year 2004. volume 4. northern central valley basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake basin to Oregon state line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, M.D.; Rockwell, G.L.; Friebel, M.F.; Brockner, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 188 gaging stations, stage and contents for 62 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 1 station, water quality for 20 streamflow-gaging stations and 1 partial-record stations. Also included are 4 miscellaneous partial-record sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  19. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1989. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.W.; Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1989 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 177 gaging stations; stage and contents for 34 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation data for 3 stations; and water quality for 9 stations. Also included is one low-flow partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  20. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2002, Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and The Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smithson, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.; Rockwell, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 191 gaging stations, stage and contents for 60 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, and water quality for 21 stations. Also included are 4 miscellaneous partial-record sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  1. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1996. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.W.; Rockwell, G.L.; Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1996 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 180 gaging stations, stage and contents for 45 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 5 stations, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 15 stations. Also included is 1 low-flow partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  2. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and The Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, W.F.; Anderson, S.W.; Mullen, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wellso Volume 4 contains discharge records for 160 gaging stations; stage and contents for 35 lakes and reservoirs; water precipitation data for 2 stations; and water quality for 9 stations Also included is one low-flow partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  3. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2001. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and The Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, G.L.; Smithson, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 191 gaging stations, stage and contents for 53 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 1 station, and water quality for 18 stations. Also included are 3 miscellaneous partial-record sites, and 3 parital-record water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  4. Water Resources Data -- California, Water Year 2003, Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and The Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.; Rockwell, G.L.; Smithson, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 195 gaging stations, stage and contents for 62 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 1 station, water quality for 33 streamflow-gaging stations and 8 partial-record stations. Also included are 4 miscellaneous partial-record sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  5. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1986. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Simpson, R.G.; Grillo, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1986 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 156 gaging stations; stage and contents for 37 lakes and reservoirs; water precipitation data for 2 stations; and water quality for 8 stations. Also included is one water-quality partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  6. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1994. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friebel, M.F.; Markham, K.L.; Anderson, S.W.; Rockwell, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1994 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 187 gaging stations, stage and contents for 47lakes and reservoirs, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 6 stations. Also included are two low-flow partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  7. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2000. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and The Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.W.; Rockwell, G.L.; Smithson, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 190 gaging stations and 5 partial-record stations, stage and contents for 60 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 1 station, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 10 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  8. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1992. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.W.; Mullen, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Markham, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 190 gaging stations; stage and contents for 44 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation data for 3 stations; and water quality for 10 stations. Also included are two low-flow partialrecord stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  9. Assessing movement and sources of mortality of juvenile catostomids using passive integrated transponder tags, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon - Summary of 2012 effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2013-01-01

    Survival of juvenile endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers is thought to limit recruitment into the adult populations and ultimately limit the recovery of these species in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Although many hypotheses exist about the sources of mortality, the contribution of each speculated source of mortality has not been examined. To examine causes of mortality, validate estimated age to maturity, and examine movement patterns for juvenile suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and remote tag detection systems were used. Age-1 suckers were opportunistically tagged in 2009 and 2010 during another study on juvenile sucker distribution. After the distribution study concluded in 2010, USGS redirected sampling efforts to target age-1 suckers for tagging. Tags were redetected using an existing infrastructure of remote PIT tag readers and tag scanning surveys at American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) breeding and loafing areas. Individual fish histories are used to describe the distance, direction, and timing of juvenile sucker movement. Sucker PIT tag detections in the Sprague and Williamson Rivers in mid-summer and in autumn indicate tagged juvenile suckers use these tributaries outside of the known spring spawning season. PIT tags detected in bird habitats indicate predation by birds was a cause of mortality.

  10. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Endangered Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Relation to Environmental Variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2008 Annual Data Summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were listed as endangered in 1988 for a variety of reasons including apparent recruitment failure. Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and its tributaries are considered the most critical remaining habitat for these two species. Age-0 suckers are often abundant in Upper Klamath Lake throughout the summer months, but catches decline dramatically between late August and early September each year and age-1 and older sub-adult suckers are rare. These rapid declines in catch rates and a lack of substantial recruitment into adult sucker populations in recent years suggests sucker populations experience high mortality between their first summer and first spawn. A lack of access to, or abundance of, optimal rearing habitat may exacerbate juvenile sucker mortality or restrict juvenile growth or development. Summer age-0 sucker habitat use and distribution has been studied extensively, but many uncertainties remain about age-1 and older juvenile habitat use, distribution, and movement patterns within Upper Klamath Lake. We designed a study to examine seasonal changes in distribution of age-1 suckers in Upper Klamath Lake as they relate to depth and water quality. In this document, which meets our annual data summary and reporting obligations, we discuss the results of our second annual spring and summer sampling effort. Catch data collected in 2007 and 2008 indicate seasonal changes in age-1 and older juvenile sucker habitat use coincident with changes in water quality, which were previously undocumented. In both years during April and May, age-1 and older juvenile suckers were found in shallow water environments. Then, as water temperatures began to warm throughout Upper Klamath Lake in June, age-1 and older juvenile suckers primarily were captured along the western shore in some of the deepest available environments. Following a dramatic decrease in dissolved oxygen concentrations in Eagle Ridge

  11. Spatial and temporal dynamics of cyanotoxins and their relation to other water quality variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2007–09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eldridge, Sara L. Caldwell; Wood, Tamara M.; Echols, Kathy R.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms dominated by cyanobacteria that occur annually in hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, produce microcystins at concentrations that may contribute to the decline in populations of endangered Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers. During 2007–09, water samples were collected from Upper Klamath Lake to determine the presence and concentrations of microcystins and cylindrospermopsins and to relate the spatial and temporal occurrences of microcystins to water quality and other environmental variables. Samples were analyzed for intracellular (particulate) and extracellular (dissolved) microcystins and cylindrospermopsins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Samples contained the highest and most variable concentrations of microcystins in 2009, the year in which an earlier and heavier Aphanizomenon flos-aquae-dominated phytoplankton bloom occurred. Concentrations were lowest in 2008 when the bloom was lighter, overall, and delayed by nearly 1 month. Microcystins occurred primarily in dissolved and large (> 63 μm) particulate forms in all years of the study, and overall, concentrations were highest at MDT (the deepest site in the study) and HDB, although HDB was sampled only in 2007 and MDT was not sampled in 2008. Comparisons among daily median total microcystin concentrations; chlorophyll a concentrations; total, dissolved, and particulate nutrient concentrations; and nutrient ratios measured in 2009 and between 2007 and 2009 indicate that microcystin concentrations generally increase following the decline of the first A. flos-aquae-dominated bloom of each season in response to an increase in bioavailable nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen fixation by A. flos-aquae early in the sample season appears to provide new nitrogen for growth of toxigenic Microcystis aeruginosa, whereas, later in the season, these species appear to co-exist. Understanding the ecological interactions between these

  12. Basis for paleoenvironmental interpretation of magnetic properties of sediment from Upper Klamath Lake (Oregon): Effects of weathering and mineralogical sorting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbaum, J.G.; Reynolds, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of magnetic properties enable reconstruction of environmental conditions that affected magnetic minerals incorporated in sediments from Upper Klamath Lake. Analyses of stream sediment samples from throughout the catchment of Upper Klamath Lake show that alteration of Fe-oxide minerals during subaerial chemical weathering of basic volcanic rocks has significantly changed magnetic properties of surficial deposits. Titanomagnetite, which is abundant both as phenocrysts and as microcrystals in fresh volcanic rocks, is progressively destroyed during weathering. Because fine-grained magnetite is readily altered due to large surface-to-volume ratios, weathering causes an increase in average magnetic grain size as well as reduction in the quantity of titanomagnetite both absolutely and relative to hematite. Hydrodynamic mineralogical sorting also produces differences in magnetic properties among rock and mineral grains of differing sizes. Importantly, removal of coarse silicate and Fe-oxide grains by sorting concentrated extremely fine-grained magnetite in the resulting sediment. The effects of weathering and sorting of minerals cannot be completely separated. These processes combine to produce the magnetic properties of a non-glacial lithic component of Upper Klamath Lake sediments, which is characterized by relatively low magnetite content and coarse magnetic grain size. Hydrodynamic sorting alone causes significant differences between the magnetic properties of glacial flour in lake sediments and of fresh volcanic rocks in the catchment. In comparison to source volcanic rocks, glacial flour in the lake sediment is highly enriched in extremely fine-grained magnetite.

  13. Engineered nano materials and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research at the Western Ecology Division in Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanoparticles represent a unique hazard to human health and the environment because their inherent characteristics differ significantly from commonly used chemicals and bulk forms of materials. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for protecti...

  14. A Network for Educational Change in the Great Lakes Region: A View through the Lens of Educational Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Randal E.; Svedkauskaite, Asta

    2008-01-01

    The major purpose of this descriptive report is to provide an overview of the structure, capacity, and roles of educational service agencies (ESAs) across five states--Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin--in the Great Lakes region, within the context of the broader statewide systems of support for educational improvement and progress.…

  15. Water Resources Data for California Water Year 1982, Volume 4. Northern California Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogelman, R.P.; Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Simpson, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1982 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 163 gaging stations; stage and contents for 27 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation data for 2 stations; water quality for 7 stations; and water levels for 54 observation wells, Also included are 4 crest-stage partial-record stations and 4 low-flow partial-record stations. Additional wator data are collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data collection program, and are published as special investigations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the u.s. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  16. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1983, Volume 4. Northern California Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogelman, R.P.; Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Simpson, R.G.; Grillo, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1983 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 153 gaging stations; stage and contents for 25 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation data for 2 stations; water quality for 7 stations; and water levels for 147 observation wells. Also included is one low-flow partial-record station. Additional water data are collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data collection program, and are published as special investigations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  17. Water Resources Data California, Water Year 1981: Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1982-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1981 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 167 gaging stations; stage and contents for 26 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation data for 2 stations; water quality for 17 stations; water levels for 55 observation wells, and water quality for 18 wells. Also included are 4 crest-stage partial-record stations and 7 low-flow partial-record stations. Additional water data are collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data collection program, and are published as special investigations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  18. Water Resources Data for California, water year 1984. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogelman, R.P.; Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Simpson, R.G.; Grillo, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1984 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 152 gaging stations; stage and contents for 25 lakes and reservoirs; water precipitation data for 2 stations; water quality for 9 stations; water levels for 12 and water quality for 46 observation wells. Also included is one low-flow partialrecord station and 19 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and federal agencies in California.

  19. The application of magnetic susceptibility and grain-size in a lithostratigraphic study of Middle to Late Pleistocene lacustrine sediments near Summer Lake Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Erbes, D.B.; Negrini, R.M. . Dept. of Physics and Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Positive results have been attained using volume magnetic susceptibility and sedimentological data for intrabasinal correlation of outcrop and core from a Great Basin style lacustrine sequence. The known sedimentary record from Pluvial Lke Chewaucan in south-central Oregon contains more than 70 laterally continuous and distinct tephra layers which enable high resolution intrabasinal correlation of outcrop and core. This phenomenon has allowed us to test the effectiveness of magnetic volume susceptibility data and sedimentological records as correlation tools. Preliminary results from this study indicate that magnetic susceptibility records can be correlated throughout the entire sampled interval to within a few cm of stratigraphic depth between exposures separated by one kilometer. Similar results have been obtained correlating laterally distinct sands, pebble lags, and carbonate layers. Grain-size data is currently being collected via standard pipette and Sedigraph methods to investigate its relationship to these correlations. The authors will also compare the magnetic susceptibility and sedimentological data with high resolution paleoenvironmental and paleosalinity records now available for the Lake Chewaucan sequence.

  20. Does the Mantle Impose a Structure on the Geodynamo That Dictates Paleo-Geomagnetic Behavior? New Results from Fish Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoner, Joseph; Ziegler, Leah; Abbott, Mark; Finkenbinder, Matthew; Hatfield, Robert; Strano, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    Paleo-geomagnetic observations provide fundamental models of the core and the geodynamo that cannot otherwise be obtained. Data and modeling studies are beginning to show that regions of concentrated magnetic flux (flux lobes) on the Core-Mantle boundary, those observed historically and others only hinted at from the short historical record, impose a structure on the geomagnetic field that may govern at least some components of geomagnetic change. Accumulating evidence suggests that this structure reflects the influence of the lower mantle, yet this structure and the evolution of the geomagnetic field within it, even for the Holocene, are only beginning to become apparent. Comparison of specific, well-dated Holocene timeseries of PSV (sedimentary and archeomagnetic) inclination, declination, and paleointensity at key locations can provide intriguing insight when viewed through the lens of the known historical and assumed millennial flux lobes. A limiting factor for these studies is the uneven distribution of high quality data with independent chronologies, with Europe and the North Atlantic having better constrained data sets than North America. To begin to fill this data gap, we present initial results from an ongoing study of the paleomagnetic record from Fish Lake, Oregon. Initial evaluation of directions and intensity along with the construction of an independent chronology allow us to assess and build upon prior results to constrain the evolution of the North American flux lobe and refine our understanding of paleo-geomagnetic change during the Holocene.

  1. Water resources data for California, water year 1979; Volume 4: North Central Valley basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake basin to Oregon state line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1979 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; records of water levels in selected observation wells; and selected chemical analyses of ground water. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. These data, a contribution to the National Water Data System, were collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  2. Aeolian sand as a tool for understanding Mars: Thermal infrared remote sensing of volcaniclastic Mars-analog sand dunes in Christmas Lake Valley, Oregon, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    1996-10-01

    INTRODUCTION: On Earth, aeolian sand dunes are used as tools of scientific inquiry. Holocene and Pleistocene dunes preserve clues about Quaternary climate variations and human activities ranging from Ice Age hunting practices to Twentieth Century warfare. Modern dunes contain the sedimentary textures and structures necessary for interpreting ancient sandstones, and they provide natural laboratories for investigation of aeolian physics and desertification processes. The dunes of Mars can likewise be used as scientific tools. Dunes provide relatively dust-free surfaces. From a remote sensing perspective, martian dunes have much potential for providing clues about surface mineralogy and the interaction between the surface and atmosphere. Such information can in turn provide insights regarding crust composition, volcanic evolution, present and past climate events, and perhaps weathering rates. The Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) is expected to reach the planet in September 1997. TES will provide 6 to 50 micrometer spectra of the martian surface at ground resolutions of 3 to 9 km. Sandy aeolian environments on Mars might provide key information about bedrock composition. To prepare for the TES investigation, I have been examining a thermal infrared image of a Mars-composition analog dune field in Christmas Lake Valley, Oregon. COMPOSITION AND GEOLOGIC SETTING: The "Shifting Sand Dunes" dune field is located at the eastern end of Christmas Lake Valley, in what was once the Pleistocene Fort Rock Lake [1]. Much of the sand that makes up the Shifting Sand Dunes dune field is reworked Mt. Mazama airfall from its terminal eruption 6,800 years ago, plus material deflated from the lake bed [1, 2]. The main constituents of the dunes are volcanic glass and devitrified glass fragments, plagioclase crystals, basalt lithic fragments, aggregates of silt and clay-size volcanic ash, pyroxenes, opaque oxide minerals (mostly magnetite), and trace occurrences of

  3. Geology of the Mid-Miocene Rooster Comb Caldera and Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field, eastern Oregon: Silicic volcanism associated with Grande Ronde flood basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Thomas R.; Mahood, Gail A.

    2016-01-01

    The Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field (LOVF) of eastern Oregon consists of rhyolitic caldera centers and lava fields contemporaneous with and spatially related to Mid-Miocene Columbia River flood basalt volcanism. Previous studies delineated two calderas in the southeastern part of LOVF near Owyhee Reservoir, the result of eruptions of two ignimbrites, the Tuff of Leslie Gulch and the Tuff of Spring Creek. Our new interpretation is that these two map units are differentially altered parts of a single ignimbrite produced in a major phreatomagmatic eruption at ~ 15.8 Ma. Areas previously mapped as Tuff of Spring Creek are locations where the ignimbrite contains abundant clinoptilolite ± mordenite, which made it susceptible to erosion. The resistant intracaldera Tuff of Leslie Gulch has an alteration assemblage of albite ± quartz, indicative of low-temperature hydrothermal alteration. Our new mapping of caldera lake sediments and pre- and post-caldera rhyolitic lavas and intrusions that are chemically similar to intracaldera Tuff of Leslie Gulch point to a single ~ 20 × 25 km caldera, which we name the Rooster Comb Caldera. Erosion of the resurgently uplifted southern half of the caldera created dramatic exposures of intracaldera Tuff of Leslie Gulch cut by post-caldera rhyolite dikes and intrusions that are the deeper-level equivalents of lava domes and flows that erupted into the caldera lake preserved in exposures to the northeast. The Rooster Comb Caldera has features in common with more southerly Mid-Miocene calderas of the McDermitt Volcanic Field and High Rock Caldera Complex, including formation in a basinal setting shortly after flood basalt eruptions ceased in the region, and forming on eruption of peralkaline ignimbrite. The volcanism at Rooster Comb Caldera postdates the main activity at McDermitt and High Rock, but, like it, begins ~ 300 ky after flood basalt volcanism begins in the area, and while flood basalts don't erupt through the silicic focus, are

  4. Water Resources Data for Oregon, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrett, T.A.; Hess, G.W.; House, J.G.; Ruppert, G.P.; Courts, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    The annual Oregon hydrologic data report is one of a series of annual reports that document hydrologic data gathered from the U.S. Geological Survey's surface- and ground-water data-collection networks in each State, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territories. These records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and quality of water provide the hydrologic information needed by State, local and Federal agencies, and the private sector for developing and managing our Nation's land and water resources. This report includes records on both surface and ground water in Oregon and contains discharge records for 199 stream-gaging stations, 25 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, and 8 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; stage-only records for 6 gaging stations; stage and content records for 26 lakes and reservoirs; and water-quality records collected at 127 streamflow-gaging stations, 2 atmospheric deposition stations, and 11 ground-water sites.

  5. Hydrogeologic setting and preliminary estimates of hydrologic components for Bull Run Lake and the Bull Run Lake drainage basin, Multnomah and Clackamas counties, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Brownell, Dorie L.

    1996-01-01

    Suggestions for further study include (1) evaluation of the surface-runoff component of inflow to the lake; (2) use of a cross-sectional ground-water flow model to estimate ground-water inflow, outflow, and storage; (3) additional data collection to reduce the uncertainties of the hydrologic components that have large relative uncertainties; and (4) determination of long-term trends for a wide range of climatic and hydrologic conditions.

  6. Aerolian erosion, transport, and deposition of volcaniclastic sands among the shifting sand dunes, Christmas Lake Valley, Oregon: TIMS image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ramsey, Michael S.; Christensen, Philip R.

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing is a tool that, in the context of aeolian studies, offers a synoptic view of a dune field, sand sea, or entire desert region. Blount et al. (1990) presented one of the first studies demonstrating the power of multispectral images for interpreting the dynamic history of an aeolian sand sea. Blount's work on the Gran Desierto of Mexico used a Landsat TM scene and a linear spectral mixing model to show where different sand populations occur and along what paths these sands may have traveled before becoming incorporated into dunes. Interpretation of sand transport paths and sources in the Gran Desierto led to an improved understanding of the origin and Holocene history of the dunes. With the anticipated advent of the EOS-A platform and ASTER thermal infrared capability in 1998, it will become possible to look at continental sand seas and map sand transport paths using 8-12 mu m bands that are well-suited to tracking silicate sediments. A logical extension of Blount's work is to attempt a similar study using thermal infrared images. One such study has already begun by looking at feldspar, quartz, magnetite, and clay distributions in the Kelso Dunes of southern California. This paper describes the geology and application of TIMS image analysis of a less-well known Holocene dune field in south central Oregon using TIMS data obtained in 1991.

  7. Feedback between deglaciation and volcanism in arc settings: the example of the Mount Mazama volcanic system, Crater Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branecky, C.; Farner, M. J.; Keller, T.; Lanza, F.; Siravo, G.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Huybers, P. J.; Manga, M.; van der Wal, W.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have found correlations between glacial cycles and volcanism. Any such feedback mechanisms could have important implications for climate through variations in volcanic outgassing. Although decompression melting has been established as a cause for increased volcanism during deglaciation at mid-ocean ridge systems (Jull and McKenzie, 1996), it has not been determined how changes in glacial loading affect other settings such as volcanic arcs. We examine the Mount Mazama volcanic system, Oregon, where pulses of volcanism have been suggested to follow major deglaciations (Bacon et al. 2006). A statistical test regarding the timing of eruptions is first developed, and its application to eruption dates demonstrates statistically significant clustering of eruptions following deglaciation. To explore potential causes for the identified changes in probability of eruptions, the effects of glacial unloading on melt production are computed using a 1D mantle melting model, and the effect of ice unloading on shallow crustal stress conditions is tested with a viscoelastic stress model. Combining these effects into a simple eruption model, we propose that variations in melt supply rates from the mantle and changing stress conditions around a shallow crustal magma reservoir modulate eruption probability during glacial cycles. This model illustrates the physical plausibility of glacial variability causing the identified changes in eruption rates at Mt Mazama.

  8. An AEM-TEM study of weathering and diagenesis, Abert Lake, Oregon: II. Diagenetic modification of the sedimentary assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banfield, J.F.; Jones, B.F.; Veblen, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper compares the mineralogy and chemistry of clay minerals in sediments from various depths and positions in Abert Lake and surrounding playa with those of the weathered materials entering the lake in order to reveal the nature and extent of post-depositional mineralogical modification. Analytical electron microscope (AEM) data from individual clay particles reveal that each sample is comprised of a highly inhomogeneous smectite assemblage. The thin clay flakes (commonly less than 10 nm wide) display a complete range in octahedral sheet compositions from nearly dioctahedral to nearly trioctahedral. The very abundant Mg-rich lake smectites with an estimated composition K0.29(Al0.23-Mg2.16Fe0.30)Si3.80Al0.20O10(OH)2 are not formed by weathering. This confirms the importance of diagenetic Mg uptake. Lattice-fringe imaging failed to reveal distinct brucite-like or vermiculite-like layers, suggesting that interstratifications of this type are rare or absent. Siliceous coatings on clay particles (identified by silica excess in smectite analyses) seem to favor topotactic overgrowth of stevensite rather than addition of brucite-like layers to the dioctahedral nuclei. The growth of K-stevensite dilutes the Al content of the crystal, and thus the increasing diagenetic modification reduces rather than supplements its illite component. Smectite compositions within individual samples were highly variable, yet source-related characteristics such as the abundance of Fe-rich smectite were apparent. Little evidence for systematic K or Mg enrichment with depth was identified in samples from depths of down to 16 feet below the sediment-water interface. The most magnesian assemblages are associated both with weathering sources of Mg-rich smectite and playa environments subjected to repeated wetting and drying cycles. Thus, the observations suggest that clay compositions primarily reflect changes in lake levels, brine composition, and source characteristics, rather than time and

  9. A review of possible causes of nutrient enrichment and decline of endangered sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Fretwell, Marvin O.

    1993-01-01

    Ten possible causes for this excessive enrichment in nutrients are described. Three of these hypotheses are suggested for immediate testing because of large-scale changes in nutrient loading that may have occurred as a result of man’s activities. These three hypotheses relate nutrient enrichment to (1) conversion of marshland to agricultural land, (2) agricultural drainage from the basin, and (3) reservoir regulation. Eleven possible hypothetical causes for the decline in sucker populations also are described. The decline in sucker population may be related to excessive nutrient enrichment (eutrophication) of the lake.

  10. Distribution and condition of larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined. They were extirpated from several lakes in the 1920s and may no longer reproduce in other lakes. Poor recruitment to the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable or high-quality rearing habitat. In addition, larval suckers may be swept downstream from suitable rearing areas in Upper Klamath Lake into Keno Reservoir, where they are assumed lost to Upper Klamath Lake populations. The Nature Conservancy flooded about 3,600 acres (1,456 hectares) to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres (567 hectares) to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Farms) in October 2008, in order to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat, and improve water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey joined a long-term research and monitoring program in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. The primary objectives of the research were to describe habitat colonization and use by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fishes and to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report summarizes data collected in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey as a part of this monitoring effort and follows two annual reports on data collected in 2008 and 2009. Restoration modifications made to the Williamson River Delta appeared to provide

  11. Chemical Composition of Magnetic Minerals in the Sedimentary Interval Containing the Mono Lake Excursion from Summer Lake, Oregon, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, R. A.; Lopez, J.; Thompson, G. R.; Soto, C.; Herrera, I. S.; Sevier, K. L.; Negrini, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Oriented piston cores were taken from Summer Lake for the purpose of obtaining a high-resolution paleomagnetic record of the Mono Lake Excursion. McCuan (2011) reported that the main magnetic carrier mineral is consistent throughout the cores and is composed principally of pseudo-single domain titanomagnetite. This result is based on XRD scans of magnetic mineral separates and modified Day plots of bulk sediment hysteresis parameters. In addition, small amounts of maghemite, hematite, and ilmenite were identified using reflected light microscopy though these did not show up in the XRD patterns or bulk hysteresis analyses. In contrast to the above results, preliminary SIRM unmixing results suggest the presence of at least three different significant magnetic carriers with moderately low coercivities. To test the unmixing results, magnetic separates were obtained from core samples and prepared into polished sections for analysis using the SEM-EDS at CSUB. Grains in excess of 10 um were randomly analyzed (N = 646). The vast majority of grains were titanomagnetites with atomic Fe:Ti ranging from 7.5:2.5 to 8.5:1.5, but there are also small amounts of ulvospinel, magnetite, and occasionally Fe-rich chromite, and most grains contain small amounts of Mg, Al, and Cr. Ternary plots of Fe-Ti-Cr show multiple wide but similar compositional ranges at all depths. These compositional data generally support the SIRM unmixing results suggesting three or so families of magnetic minerals.

  12. The effect of pressurized magma chamber growth on melt migration and pre-caldera vent locations through time at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Wright, Heather M.; Bacon, Charles R.

    2015-02-01

    The pattern of eruptions at long-lived volcanic centers provides a window into the co-evolution of crustal magma transport, tectonic stresses, and unsteady magma generation at depth. Mount Mazama in the Oregon Cascades has seen variable activity over the last 400 ky, including the 50 km3 climactic eruption at ca. 7.7 ka that produced Crater Lake caldera. The physical mechanisms responsible for the assembly of silicic magma reservoirs that are the precursors to caldera-forming eruptions are poorly understood. Here we argue that the spatial and temporal distribution of geographically clustered volcanic vents near Mazama reflects the development of a centralized magma chamber that fed the climactic eruption. Time-averaged eruption rates at Mount Mazama imply an order of magnitude increase in deep magma influx prior to the caldera-forming event, suggesting that unsteady mantle melting triggered a chamber growth episode that culminated in caldera formation. We model magma chamber-dike interactions over ∼50 ky preceding the climactic eruption to fit the observed distribution of surface eruptive vents in space and time, as well as petrologically estimated deep influx rates. Best fitting models predict an expanding zone of dike capture caused by a growing, oblate spheroidal magma chamber with 10-30 MPa of overpressure. This growing zone of chamber influence causes closest approaching regional mafic vent locations as well as more compositionally evolved Mazama eruptions to migrate away from the climactic eruptive center, returning as observed to the center after the chamber drains during the caldera-forming eruption.

  13. The effect of pressurized magma chamber growth on melt migration and pre-caldera vent locations through time at Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlstrom, Leif; Wright, Heather M.; Bacon, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of eruptions at long-lived volcanic centers provides a window into the co-evolution of crustal magma transport, tectonic stresses, and unsteady magma generation at depth. Mount Mazama in the Oregon Cascades has seen variable activity over the last 400 ky, including the 50 km3 climactic eruption at ca. 7.7 ka that produced Crater Lake caldera. The physical mechanisms responsible for the assembly of silicic magma reservoirs that are the precursors to caldera-forming eruptions are poorly understood. Here we argue that the spatial and temporal distribution of geographically clustered volcanic vents near Mazama reflects the development of a centralized magma chamber that fed the climactic eruption. Time-averaged eruption rates at Mount Mazama imply an order of magnitude increase in deep magma influx prior to the caldera-forming event, suggesting that unsteady mantle melting triggered a chamber growth episode that culminated in caldera formation. We model magma chamber–dike interactions over ∼50 ky preceding the climactic eruption to fit the observed distribution of surface eruptive vents in space and time, as well as petrologically estimated deep influx rates. Best fitting models predict an expanding zone of dike capture caused by a growing, oblate spheroidal magma chamber with 10–30 MPa of overpressure. This growing zone of chamber influence causes closest approaching regional mafic vent locations as well as more compositionally evolved Mazama eruptions to migrate away from the climactic eruptive center, returning as observed to the center after the chamber drains during the caldera-forming eruption.

  14. An evaluation and review of water-use estimates and flow data for the Lower Klamath and Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuges, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John C.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2006-01-01

    The Lower Klamath and Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuges, located in the upper Klamath Basin of Oregon and California, encompass approximately 46,700 and 39,100 acres, respectively. Demand for water in the semiarid upper Klamath Basin has increased in recent years, resulting in the need to better quantify water availability and use in the refuges. This report presents an evaluation of water-use estimates for both refuges derived on the basis of two approaches. One approach used evaporation and evapotranspiration estimates and the other used measured inflow and outflow data. The quality of the inflow and outflow data also was assessed. Annual water use in the refuges, using evapotranspiration estimates, was computed with the use of different rates for each of four land-use categories. Annual water-use rates for grain fields, seasonal wetlands, permanently flooded wetlands with emergent vegetation, and open-water bodies were 2.5, 2.9, 2.63, and 4.07 feet per year, respectively. Total water use was estimated as the sum of the products of each rate and the number of acres in its associated land-use category. Mean annual (2003-2005) water use for the Lower Klamath and Tule Lake refuges was approximately 124,000 and 95,900 acre-feet, respectively. To estimate water deliveries needed for each refuge, first, annual precipitation for 2003-2005 was subtracted from the annual water use for those years. Then, an adjusted total was obtained by adding 20 percent to the difference to account for salinity flushing. Resulting estimated mean annual adjusted needed water deliveries in 2003-2005 for the Lower Klamath and Tule Lake refuges were 107,000 and 82,800 acre-feet, respectively. Mean annual net inflow to the refuges for 2003-2005 was computed by subtracting estimated and measured surface-water outflows from inflows. Mean annual net inflow during the 3-year period for the Lower Klamath refuge, calculated for a subsection of the refuge, was approximately 73,700 acre-feet. The

  15. Distribution and condition of larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined. They were extirpated from several lakes in the 1920s and may no longer reproduce in other lakes. Poor recruitment to the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable or high-quality rearing habitat. In addition, larval suckers may be swept downstream from suitable rearing areas in Upper Klamath Lake into Keno Reservoir, where they are assumed lost to Upper Klamath Lake populations. The Nature Conservancy flooded about 3,600 acres (1,456 hectares) to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres (567 hectares) to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Farms) in October 2008, in order to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat, and improve water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey joined a long-term research and monitoring program in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. The primary objectives of the research were to describe habitat colonization and use by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fishes and to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report summarizes data collected in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey as a part of this monitoring effort and follows two annual reports on data collected in 2008 and 2009. Restoration modifications made to the Williamson River Delta appeared to provide

  16. 75 FR 34049 - FM Table of Allotments (The Dalles, Tualatin, Eugene, Albany, Lebanon, Paisley, and Diamond Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments (The Dalles, Tualatin, Eugene, Albany, Lebanon, Paisley, and Diamond Lake, Oregon and Goldendale, WA) AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Final...

  17. Survival, movement, and health of hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers within a mesocosm in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, Danielle M.; Burdick, Summer M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Conway, Carla M.; Harris, Alta C.

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) in Upper Klamath Lake is limited by poor juvenile survival and failure to recruit into the adult population. Poor water quality, degradation of rearing habitat, and toxic levels of microcystin are hypothesized to contribute to low juvenile survival. Studies of wild juvenile suckers are limited in that capture rates are low and compromised individuals are rarely captured in passive nets. The goal of this study was to assess the use of a mesocosm for learning about juvenile survival, movement, and health. Hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers were PIT (passive integrated transponder) tagged and monitored by three vertically stratified antennas. Fish locations within the mesocosm were recorded at least every 30 minutes and were assessed in relation to vertically stratified water-quality conditions. Vertical movement patterns were analyzed to identify the timing of mortality for each fish. Most mortality occurred from July 28 to August 16, 2014. Juvenile suckers spent daylight hours near the benthos and moved throughout the entire water column during dark hours. Diel movements were not in response to dissolved-oxygen concentrations, temperature, or pH. Furthermore, low dissolved-oxygen concentrations, high temperatures, high pH, high un-ionized ammonia, or high microcystin levels did not directly cause mortality, although indirect effects may have occurred. However, water-quality conditions known to be lethal to juvenile Lost River suckers did not occur during the study period. Histological assessment revealed severe gill hyperplasia and Ichthyobodo sp. infestations in most moribund fish. For these fish, Ichthyobodo sp. was likely the cause of mortality, although it is unclear if this parasite originated in the rearing facility because fish were not screened for this parasite prior to introduction. This study has demonstrated that we can effectively use a mesocosm equipped with antennas to learn

  18. Survival, movement, and health of hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers within a mesocosm in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, Danielle M.; Burdick, Summer M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Conway, Carla M.; Harris, Alta C.

    2016-01-28

    The recovery of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) in Upper Klamath Lake is limited by poor juvenile survival and failure to recruit into the adult population. Poor water quality, degradation of rearing habitat, and toxic levels of microcystin are hypothesized to contribute to low juvenile survival. Studies of wild juvenile suckers are limited in that capture rates are low and compromised individuals are rarely captured in passive nets. The goal of this study was to assess the use of a mesocosm for learning about juvenile survival, movement, and health. Hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers were PIT (passive integrated transponder) tagged and monitored by three vertically stratified antennas. Fish locations within the mesocosm were recorded at least every 30 minutes and were assessed in relation to vertically stratified water-quality conditions. Vertical movement patterns were analyzed to identify the timing of mortality for each fish. Most mortality occurred from July 28 to August 16, 2014. Juvenile suckers spent daylight hours near the benthos and moved throughout the entire water column during dark hours. Diel movements were not in response to dissolved-oxygen concentrations, temperature, or pH. Furthermore, low dissolved-oxygen concentrations, high temperatures, high pH, high un-ionized ammonia, or high microcystin levels did not directly cause mortality, although indirect effects may have occurred. However, water-quality conditions known to be lethal to juvenile Lost River suckers did not occur during the study period. Histological assessment revealed severe gill hyperplasia and Ichthyobodo sp. infestations in most moribund fish. For these fish, Ichthyobodo sp. was likely the cause of mortality, although it is unclear if this parasite originated in the rearing facility because fish were not screened for this parasite prior to introduction. This study has demonstrated that we can effectively use a mesocosm equipped with antennas to learn

  19. Record of middle Pleistocene climate change from Buck Lake, Cascade Range, southern Oregon - Evidence from sediment magnetism, trace-element geochemistry, and pollen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbaum, J.G.; Reynolds, R.L.; Adam, D.P.; Drexler, J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Whitney, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of systematic variations in sediment magnetic properties to changes in pollen assemblages in middle Pleistocene lake sediments from Buck Lake indicates that the magnetic properties are sensitive to changes in climate. Buck Lake is located in southern Oregon just east of the crest of the Cascade Range. Lacustrine sediments, from 5.2 to 19.4 m in depth in core, contain tephra layers with ages of ???300-400 ka at 9.5 m and ???400-470 ka at 19.9 m. In these sediments magnetic properties reflect the absolute amount and relative abundances of detrital Fe-oxide minerals, titanomagnetite and hematite. The lacustrine section is divided into four zones on the basis of magnetic properties. Two zones (19.4-17.4 m and 14.5-10.3 m) of high magnetic susceptibility contain abundant Fe oxides and correspond closely to pollen zones that are indicative of cold, dry environments. Two low-susceptibility zones (17.4-14.5 m and 10.3-5.3 m) contain lesser amounts of Fe oxides and largely coincide with zones of warm-climate pollen. Transitions from cold to warm climate based on pollen are preceded by sharp changes in magnetic properties. This relation suggests that land-surface processes responded to these climate changes more rapidly than did changes in vegetation as indicated by pollen frequencies. Magnetic properties have been affected by three factors: (1) dissolution of Fe oxides, (2) variation in heavy-mineral content, and (3) variation in abundance of fresh volcanic rock fragments. Trace-element geochemistry, employing Fe and the immobile elements Ti and Zr, is utilized to detect postdepositional dissolution of magnetic minerals that has affected the magnitude of magnetic properties with little effect on the pattern of magnetic-property variation. Comparison of Ti and Zr values, proxies for heavy-mineral content, to magnetic properties demonstrates that part of the variation in the amount of magnetite and nearly all of the variation in the amount of hematite are due to

  20. Spring and Summer Spatial Distribution of Endangered Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Relation to Environmental Variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2007 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Anderson, Greer O.

    2009-01-01

    Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus and shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris were listed as endangered in 1988 for a variety of reasons including apparent recruitment failure. Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and its tributaries are considered the most critical remaining habitat for these two species. Age-0 suckers are often abundant in Upper Klamath Lake throughout the summer months, but catches decline dramatically between late August and early September each year, and age-1 and older subadult suckers are rare. These rapid declines in catch rates and a lack of substantial recruitment into adult sucker populations in recent years suggests sucker populations experience high mortality between their first summer and first spawn. A lack of optimal rearing habitat may exacerbate juvenile sucker mortality or restrict juvenile growth or development. In 2007, we continued research on juvenile sucker habitat use begun by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2001. Age-0 catch rates in 2006 were more than an order of magnitude greater than in previous years, which prompted us to refocus our research from age-0 suckers to age-1 sucker distributions and habitat use. We took a two-phased approach to our research in 2007 that included preliminary spring sampling and intense summer sampling components. Spring sampling was a pilot study designed to gather baseline data on the distribution of age-1 suckers as they emerge from winter in shoreline environments throughout Upper Klamath Lake (Chapter 1). Whereas, summer sampling was designed to quantitatively estimate the influence of environmental variables on age-0 and age-1 sucker distribution throughout Upper Klamath Lake, while accounting for imperfect detection (Chapter 2). In addition to these two components, we began a project to evaluate passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag loss and the effects of PIT tags on mortality of age-1 Lost River suckers (Chapter 3). The spring pilot study built the foundation for future research

  1. Stable isotope and petrologic evidence for open-system degassing during the climactic and pre-climactic eruptions of Mt. Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mandeville, C.W.; Webster, J.D.; Tappen, C.; Taylor, B.E.; Timbal, A.; Sasaki, A.; Hauri, E.; Bacon, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of the extent of volatile element recycling in convergent margin volcanism requires delineating likely source(s) of magmatic volatiles through stable isotopic characterization of sulfur, hydrogen and oxygen in erupted tephra with appropriate assessment of modification by degassing. The climactic eruption of Mt. Mazama ejected approximately 50 km3 of rhyodacitic magma into the atmosphere and resulted in formation of a 10-km diameter caldera now occupied by Crater Lake, Oregon (lat. 43??N, long. 122??W). Isotopic compositions of whole-rocks, matrix glasses and minerals from Mt. Mazama climactic, pre-climactic and postcaldera tephra were determined to identify the likely source(s) of H2O and S. Integration of stable isotopic data with petrologic data from melt inclusions has allowed for estimation of pre-eruptive dissolved volatile concentrations and placed constraints on the extent, conditions and style of degassing. Sulfur isotope analyses of climactic rhyodacitic whole rocks yield ??34S values of 2.8-14.8??? with corresponding matrix glass values of 2.4-13.2???. ??34S tends to increase with stratigraphic height through climactic eruptive units, consistent with open-system degassing. Dissolved sulfur concentrations in melt inclusions (MIs) from pre-climactic and climactic rhyodacitic pumices varies from 80 to 330 ppm, with highest concentrations in inclusions with 4.8-5.2 wt% H2O (by FTIR). Up to 50% of the initial S may have been lost through pre-eruptive degassing at depths of 4-5 km. Ion microprobe analyses of pyrrhotite in climactic rhyodacitic tephra and andesitic scoria indicate a range in ??34S from -0.4??? to 5.8??? and from -0.1??? to 3.5???, respectively. Initial ??34S values of rhyodacitic and andesitic magmas were likely near the mantle value of 0???. Hydrogen isotope (??D) and total H2O analyses of rhyodacitic obsidian (and vitrophyre) from the climactic fall deposit yielded values ??f -103 to -53??? and 0.23-1.74 wt%, respectively. Values of

  2. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  3. Use of wetlands under USEPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) Region 5 Clean Lakes Program. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, J.C.

    1989-05-01

    The EPA's Region V Clean Lakes Program uses several wetlands for controlling degradation of publicly owned, freshwater lakes. The study seeks to determine if the objectives of the Clean Lakes Program are being met by this use of wetlands, and if appropriate institutional arrangements and management techniques are being implemented to manage the wetlands. Conclusions regarding Revion V's use and management of wetlands include: wetland projects are not being monitored adequately for effectiveness and potential negative impacts on ecosystems; other mechanisms which may help to protect wetlands are being employed; management of most wetland projects is decentralized appropriately; most of the wetland projects provide for adequate short-term mass balance studies, prior sedimentation, plant species diversity, water level, retention time, uniform flow of water, and upland pollutant management; and existing evidence suggests that the Clean Lakes wetland projects are instrumental in meeting Program goals and objectives. Based on these conclusions several recommendations for improving wetlands management are reviewed.

  4. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and short nose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a long-term capture-recapture program were used to assess the status and dynamics of populations of two long-lived, federally endangered catostomids in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) have been captured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during their spawning migrations in each year since 1995. In addition, beginning in 2005, individuals that had been previously PIT-tagged were re-encountered on remote underwater antennas deployed throughout sucker spawning areas. Captures and remote encounters during spring 2012 were used to describe the spawning migrations in that year and also were incorporated into capture-recapture analyses of population dynamics. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population capture-recapture models were used to estimate annual survival probabilities, and a reverse-time analog of the CJS model was used to estimate recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations. In addition, data on the size composition of captured fish were examined to provide corroborating evidence of recruitment. Model estimates of survival and recruitment were used to derive estimates of changes in population size over time and to determine the status of the populations in 2011. Separate analyses were conducted for each species and also for each subpopulation of Lost River suckers (LRS). Shortnose suckers (SNS) and one subpopulation of LRS migrate into tributary rivers to spawn, whereas the other LRS subpopulation spawns at groundwater upwelling areas along the eastern shoreline of the lake. In 2012, we captured, tagged, and released 749 LRS at four lakeshore spawning areas and recaptured an additional 969 individuals that had been tagged in previous years. Across all four areas, the remote antennas detected 6,578 individual LRS during the spawning season. Spawning activity peaked in April and most individuals were encountered at Cinder Flats and

  5. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Hayes, Brian S.; Janney, Eric C.; Harris, Alta C.; Koller, Justin P.; Johnson, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Data from a long-term capture-recapture program were used to assess the status and dynamics of populations of two long-lived, federally endangered catostomids in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) have been captured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during their spawning migrations in each year since 1995. In addition, beginning in 2005, individuals that had been previously PIT-tagged were re-encountered on remote underwater antennas deployed throughout the spawning areas. Captures and remote encounters during spring 2009 were used to describe the spawning migrations in that year and also were incorporated into capture-recapture analyses of population dynamics over the last decade. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population capture-recapture models were used to estimate annual survival probabilities, and a reverse-time analog of the CJS model was used to estimate recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations. In addition, data on the size composition of captured fish was examined for any additional evidence of recruitment. Survival and recruitment estimates were combined to estimate changes in population size over time and to determine the status of the populations through 2007. Separate analyses were conducted for each species and also for each subpopulation of Lost River suckers (LRS). One subpopulation of LRS migrates into tributaries to spawn, similar to shortnose suckers (SNS), whereas the other subpopulation spawns at upwelling areas along the eastern shoreline of the lake. In 2009, we captured and tagged 781 LRS at four shoreline areas and recaptured an additional 638 individuals that had been tagged in previous years. Across all four areas, the remote antennas detected 6,056 individual LRS during the spawning season. Spawning activity peaked in April and most individuals were encountered at Sucker Springs and Cinder Flats. In the Williamson

  6. Workforce: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet states that in 2006, a good education is no longer just a way for an individual to get ahead. It is also the best way a state can get ahead -- and therefore a real economic priority. A state must ensure that all of its citizens have access to a college education. In Oregon, a state recovering from the 2000-03 recession, the demand…

  7. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and short nose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a long-term capture-recapture program were used to assess the status and dynamics of populations of two long-lived, federally endangered catostomids in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) have been captured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during their spawning migrations in each year since 1995. In addition, beginning in 2005, individuals that had been previously PIT-tagged were re-encountered on remote underwater antennas deployed throughout sucker spawning areas. Captures and remote encounters during spring 2012 were used to describe the spawning migrations in that year and also were incorporated into capture-recapture analyses of population dynamics. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population capture-recapture models were used to estimate annual survival probabilities, and a reverse-time analog of the CJS model was used to estimate recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations. In addition, data on the size composition of captured fish were examined to provide corroborating evidence of recruitment. Model estimates of survival and recruitment were used to derive estimates of changes in population size over time and to determine the status of the populations in 2011. Separate analyses were conducted for each species and also for each subpopulation of Lost River suckers (LRS). Shortnose suckers (SNS) and one subpopulation of LRS migrate into tributary rivers to spawn, whereas the other LRS subpopulation spawns at groundwater upwelling areas along the eastern shoreline of the lake. In 2012, we captured, tagged, and released 749 LRS at four lakeshore spawning areas and recaptured an additional 969 individuals that had been tagged in previous years. Across all four areas, the remote antennas detected 6,578 individual LRS during the spawning season. Spawning activity peaked in April and most individuals were encountered at Cinder Flats and

  8. 78 FR 20073 - Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY... modification to the State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA... certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 14, 2012, Oregon submitted...

  9. Eighth year projects and activities of the Environmental Remote Sensing Applications Laboratory (ERSAL). [Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, A. J.; Isaacson, D. L.; Schrumpf, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Projects completed for the NASA Office of University Affairs include the application of remote sensing data in support of rehabilitation of wild fire damaged areas and the use of LANDSAT 3 return beam vidicon in forestry mapping applications. Continuing projects for that office include monitoring western Oregon timber clearcut; detecting and monitoring wheat disease; land use monitoring for tax assessment in Umatilla, Lake, and Morrow Counties; and the use of Oregon Air National Guard thermal infrared scanning data. Projects funded through other agencies include the remote sensing inventory of elk in the Blue Mountains; the estimation of burned agricultural acreage in the Willamette Valley; a resource inventory of Deschutes County; and hosting a LANDSAT digital workshop.

  10. 77 FR 72245 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Processed Pear Committee (Committee) established under the Oregon-Washington pear marketing order....

  11. The Oregon Geothermal Planning Conference

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-02

    Oregon's geothermal resources represent a large portion of the nation's total geothermal potential. The State's resources are substantial in size, widespread in location, and presently in various stages of discovery and utilization. The exploration for, and development of, geothermal is presently dependent upon a mixture of engineering, economic, environmental, and legal factors. In response to the State's significant geothermal energy potential, and the emerging impediments and incentives for its development, the State of Oregon has begun a planning program intended to accelerate the environmentally prudent utilization of geothermal, while conserving the resource's long-term productivity. The program, which is based upon preliminary work performed by the Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, will be managed by the Oregon Department of Energy, with the assistance of the Departments of Economic Development, Geology and Mineral Industries, and Water Resources. Funding support for the program is being provided by the US Department of Energy. The first six-month phase of the program, beginning in July 1980, will include the following five primary tasks: (1) coordination of state and local agency projects and information, in order to keep geothermal personnel abreast of the rapidly expanding resource literature, resource discoveries, technological advances, and each agency's projects. (2) Analysis of resource commercialization impediments and recommendations of incentives for accelerating resource utilization. (3) Compilation and dissemination of Oregon geothermal information, in order to create public and potential user awareness, and to publicize technical assistance programs and financial incentives. (4) Resource planning assistance for local governments in order to create local expertise and action; including a statewide workshop for local officials, and the formulation of two specific community resource development plans. (5) Formulation and

  12. 40 CFR 81.338 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Urban Growth Boundary Medford Area Jackson County (part) 9/23/02 Attainment Medford Urban Growth... Study Marion County (part) 3/2/09 Polk County (part) 3/2/09 AQCR 190 Remainder of Central Oregon... County (part) area outside Urban Growth Boundary Lake County Sherman County Wasco County AQCR 191...

  13. Water Resources Data for Oregon, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrett, T.A.; Hess, G.W.; House, J.G.; Ruppert, G.P.; Courts, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The annual Oregon hydrologic data report is one of a series of annual reports that document hydrologic data gathered from the U.S. Geological Survey's surface- and ground-water data-collection networks in each State, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territories. These records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and quality of water provide the hydrologic information needed by State, local and Federal agencies, and the private sector for developing and managing our Nation's land and water resources. This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State and contains discharge records for 181 stream-gaging stations, 47 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, and 8 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; stage-only records for 6 gaging stations; stage and content records for 26 lakes and reservoirs; and water-quality records for 127 streamflow-gaging stations, 2 atmospheric deposition stations, and 11 ground-water sites.

  14. Distribution, Health, and Development of Larval and Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in the Williamson River Delta Restoration Project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2008 Annual Data Summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Ottinger, Christopher; Brown, Daniel T.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Robertson, Laura; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus and shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined; they have been extirpated from several lakes, and may no longer reproduce in others. Poor recruitment into the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species, and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable rearing habitat. Within Upper Klamath Lake, a lack of marshes also may allow larval suckers to be swept from suitable rearing areas downstream into the seasonally anoxic waters of the Keno Reservoir. The Nature Conservancy (TNC) flooded about 3,600 acres to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana Unit) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Unit) a year later, to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat for suckers, and improve water quality. In collaboration with TNC, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University, we began a long-term collaborative research and monitoring program in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. Our approach includes two equally important aspects. One component is to describe habitat use and colonization processes by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fish species. The second is to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report contains a summary of the first year of data collected as a part of this monitoring effort.

  15. Seismic facies, sedimentology, and significance of a lacustrine delta in Neogene Lake Idaho' deposits: Western Snake River Plain, Idaho and Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.H. )

    1993-04-01

    The top of a buried fine-grained delta system of paleo- Lake Idaho' is detected by high-resolution seismic profiles, 300 m beneath the western Snake River Plain near Caldwell, Idaho. Characteristic 3--5[degree] dip of seismic reflectors in the prodelta-mud facies plus electrical-resistivity logs and cuttings from a 670-m well show a 150-m coarsening-upward prodelta sequence overlain by well-sorted fine sand and thin mud layers. Slope and vertical relief (compaction corrected) of prodelta clinoforms indicate the delta was prograding north into a lake basin 250-m deep. Elevation of the top of the delta front is a measure of a paleolake stand. The detected buried delta front is presently at 405 m elevation, about 500 m below what is regarded as the last high lake stand (elev. 850--975 m). The present low elevation of the delta front is partly explained by about 300 m of downward tectonic movement on faults and about 200 m of subsidence by basin-sediment compaction with respect to the basin margins. Distribution of lake deposits around the northwest end of the lake indicates the lake level reached 850--975 m elevation about 2 million years ago. Location of the former outlet of Lake Idaho' and the ancestral Snake River is still a puzzle. Present geomorphology suggests that about 2 million years ago a southward-migrating, ancestral Hells Canyon tributary of the Columbia-Salmon Rivers system captured the lake drainage by overflow of a sill at Dead Indian Ridge near Weiser, Idaho. Hells Canyon and the enlarged Snake River subsequently cut down about 215 m to the present river elevation of 635 m at Dead Indian Ridge.

  16. 75 FR 17950 - Notice of Intent To Prepare Amendments to the Southeastern Oregon Resource Management Plan (RMP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Management Plan (RMP), Malheur County, OR, and the Lakeview RMP, Lake County, OR, and Associated..., Lake, Harney, and Grant Counties in Oregon and encompass approximately 4.6 million acres of public...

  17. Use of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity to estimate concentration and dynamics of suspended solids in Upper Klamath Lake, south-central Oregon: Implications for Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    dispersal of colonies throughout the water column when the water column mixed more easily. RB was used to estimate suspended solids concentrations (SSC). Correlations of depth-integrated SSC with currents or air temperatures suggest that depth-integrated water column mass decreased under conditions of greater water column stability and weaker currents. Results suggest that the use of measured vertical velocity and acoustic backscatter as a surrogate for suspended material has the potential to contribute significant additional insight into dynamics of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae colonies in Upper Klamath Lake, south-central Oregon.

  18. 78 FR 37124 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oregon: Heat Smart Program and Enforcement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oregon: Heat Smart Program and... Heat Smart program, rules for enforcement procedures and civil penalties, and contain minor revisions... revisions relate to Oregon's Heat Smart program in Oregon Administrative Rules (OAR) Chapter 340,...

  19. Oregon Directory of American Indian Resources, 1999-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Gladine G., Comp.

    This directory provides information on tribes, organizations, public agencies, schools, and centers offering a variety of services of interest to American Indians in Oregon. Introductory sections discuss tribal sovereignty and the federal trust relationship; define Indian ancestry and eligibility for tribal benefits; list Oregon statutes relating…

  20. 75 FR 13252 - Oregon Coast Provincial Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Oregon Coast Provincial Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Oregon Coast Province Advisory Committee will meet at the Siuslaw National...

  1. Status and trends of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2015-10-02

    Despite relatively high survival in most years, we conclude that both species have experienced substantial decreases in the abundance of spawning adults because losses from mortality have not been balanced by recruitment of new individuals. Although capture-recapture data indicate substantial recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations for SNS and river spawning LRS in some years, size data do not corroborate these estimates. As a result, the status of the endangered sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake remains worrisome, especially for shortnose suckers. Our monitoring program provides a robust platform for estimating vital population parameters, evaluating the status of the populations, and assessing the effectiveness of conservation and recovery efforts.

  2. Water quality and algal conditions in the North Umpqua River, Oregon, 1995-2007, and their response to Diamond Lake restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Jones, Mikeal E.

    2014-01-01

    This study also provided an opportunity to examine changes in stream conditions in the main stem North Umpqua River and its tributaries, which were previously sampled in July 1995. The 1995 study was designed to provide background data during relicensing of the upstream hydroelectric facilities, and was partly motivated by anecdotal concerns about increase periphyton growth and reduced water clarity. As part of the 2005–07 study associated with the Diamond Lake restoration project, we repeated the 1995 basinwide synoptic survey in 2005, before the rotenone treatment. Although both samplings were just a snapshot of conditions, these data were evaluated for possible changes between 1995 and 2005.

  3. Direct evidence for the origin of low-18O silicic magmas: quenched samples of a magma chamber's partially-fused granitoid walls, Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Adami, L.H.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Partially fused granitoid blocks were ejected in the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama, which was accompanied by collapse of Crater Lake caldera. Quartz, plagioclase, and glass in the granitoids have much lower ??18O values (-3.4 to +4.9???) than any fresh lavas of Mount Mazama and the surrounding region (+5.8 to +7.0???). Oxygen isotope fractionation between phases in granitoids is consistent with equilibrium at T ??? 900??C following subsolidus exchange with hydrothermal fluids of meteoric origin. Assimilation of ??? 10-20% of material similar to these granitoids can account for the O and Sr isotopic compositions of lavas and juvenile pyroclasts derived from the climactic magma chamber, many of which have ??18O values ??? 0.5??? or more lower than comparable lavas of Mount Mazama. The O isotope data provide the only clear evidence for such assimilation because the mineralogy and chemical and radiogenic isotopic compositions of the granitoids (dominantly granodiorite) are similar to those of erupted juvenile magmas. The granitoid blocks from Crater Lake serve as direct evidence for the origin of 18O depletion in large, shallow silicic magma bodies. ?? 1989.

  4. 77 FR 14853 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oregon Disaster OR-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  5. 76 FR 11835 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oregon Disaster OR-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street,...

  6. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite relatively high survival in most years, both species have experienced substantial declines in the abundance of spawning fish because losses from mortality have not been balanced by recruitment of new individuals. Although capture-recapture data indicate substantial recruitment of new individuals into the adult spawning populations for SNS and river spawning LRS in some years, size data do not corroborate these estimates. In fact, fork length data indicate that all populations are largely comprised of fish that were present in the late 1990s and early 2000s. As a result, the status of the endangered sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake remains worrisome, and the situation is most dire for shortnose suckers. Future investigations should explore the connections between sucker recruitment and survival and various environmental factors, such as water quality and disease. Our monitoring program provides a robust platform for estimating vital population parameters, evaluating the status of the populations, and assessing the effectiveness of conservation and recovery efforts.

  7. Physical and chemical characteristics including total and geochemical forms of phosphorus in sediment from the top 30 centimeters of cores collected in October 2006 at 26 sites in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, Nancy S.; Ingle, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    μThis study of phosphorus (P) cycling in eutrophic Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Lakebed sediments from the upper 30 centimeters (cm) of cores collected from 26 sites were characterized. Cores were sampled at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm. Prior to freezing, water content and sediment pH were determined. After being freeze-dried, all samples were separated into greater than 63-micron (μm) particle-size (coarse) and less than 63-μm particle-size (fine) fractions. In the surface samples (0.5 to 4.5 cm below the sediment water interface), approximately three-fourths of the particles were larger than 63-μm. The ratios of the coarse particle-size fraction (>63 μm) and the fine particle-size fraction (<63 μm) were approximately equal in samples at depths greater than 10 cm below the sediment water interface. Chemical analyses included both size fractions of freeze-dried samples. Chemical analyses included determination of total concentrations of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), carbon (C), iron (Fe), poorly crystalline Fe, nitrogen (N), P, and titanium (Ti). Total Fe concentrations were the largest in sediment from the northern portion of UKL, Howard Bay, and the southern portion of the lake. Concentrations of total Al, Ca, and Ti were largest in sediment from the northern, central, and southernmost portions of the lake and in sediment from Howard Bay. Concentrations of total C and N were largest in sediment from the embayments and in sediment from the northern arm and southern portion of the lake in the general region of Buck Island. Concentrations of total C were larger in the greater than 63-μm particle-size fraction than in the less than 63-μm particle-size fraction. Sediments were sequentially extracted to determine concentrations of inorganic forms of P, including loosely sorbed P, P associated with poorly crystalline Fe oxides, and P

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  9. 40 CFR 81.219 - Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Oregon: Crook County, Deschutes County, Hood River County, Jefferson County, Klamath County, Lake County, Sherman County, Wasco County....

  10. 40 CFR 81.219 - Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Oregon: Crook County, Deschutes County, Hood River County, Jefferson County, Klamath County, Lake County, Sherman County, Wasco County....

  11. 40 CFR 81.219 - Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Oregon: Crook County, Deschutes County, Hood River County, Jefferson County, Klamath County, Lake County, Sherman County, Wasco County....

  12. 40 CFR 81.219 - Central Oregon Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Oregon: Crook County, Deschutes County, Hood River County, Jefferson County, Klamath County, Lake County, Sherman County, Wasco County....

  13. Development of an Interactive Shoreline Management Tool for the Lower Wood River Valley, Oregon - Phase I: Stage-Volume and Stage-Area Relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haluska, Tana L.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the parcel and inundation area geographic information system (GIS) layers for various surface-water stages. It also presents data tables containing the water stage, inundation area, and water volume relations developed from analysis of detailed land surface elevation derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data recently collected for the Wood River Valley at the northern margin of Agency Lake in Klamath County, Oregon. Former shoreline wetlands that have been cut off from Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes by dikes might in the future be reconnected to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes by breaching the dikes. Issues of interest associated with restoring wetlands in this way include the area that will be inundated, the volume of water that may be stored, the change in wetland habitat, and the variation in these characteristics as surface-water stage is changed. Products from this analysis can assist water managers in assessing the effect of breaching dikes and changing surface-water stage. The study area is in the approximate former northern margins of Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes in the Wood River Valley.

  14. Biological science in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Fishing is an important part of Oregon's culture. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research in Oregon for many years to provide information that can be used by managers to help keep fish and other parts of the ecosystem healthy. Below are examples of some of WFRC's studies.

  15. Oregon Trail Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The road to the U.S. West, known as the Oregon Trail, had its first real traffic in 1843 when a group of about 1000 people left Independence, Missouri and traveled west. This teacher's guide contains short descriptions of the main landmarks and stopping points that were significant along the northwest portion of the Oregon Trail. The guide is…

  16. Wyoming big sagebrush associations of eastern Oregon; vegetation attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report provides a synopsis of several vegetative characteristics for the Wyoming big sagebrush complex in eastern Oregon covering the High Desert , Snake River, and Owyhee Ecological Provinces in Harney, Lake, and Malheur Counties. The complex has been grouped into six associations defined by t...

  17. Estimating the designated use attainment decision error rates of US Environmental Protection Agency's proposed numeric total phosphorus criteria for Florida, USA, colored lakes.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Douglas B

    2012-01-01

    The utility of numeric nutrient criteria established for certain surface waters is likely to be affected by the uncertainty that exists in the presence of a causal link between nutrient stressor variables and designated use-related biological responses in those waters. This uncertainty can be difficult to characterize, interpret, and communicate to a broad audience of environmental stakeholders. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a systematic planning process to support a variety of environmental decisions, but this process is not generally applied to the development of national or state-level numeric nutrient criteria. This article describes a method for implementing such an approach and uses it to evaluate the numeric total P criteria recently proposed by USEPA for colored lakes in Florida, USA. An empirical, log-linear relationship between geometric mean concentrations of total P (a potential stressor variable) and chlorophyll a (a nutrient-related response variable) in these lakes-that is assumed to be causal in nature-forms the basis for the analysis. The use of the geometric mean total P concentration of a lake to correctly indicate designated use status, defined in terms of a 20 µg/L geometric mean chlorophyll a threshold, is evaluated. Rates of decision errors analogous to the Type I and Type II error rates familiar in hypothesis testing, and a 3rd error rate, E(ni) , referred to as the nutrient criterion-based impairment error rate, are estimated. The results show that USEPA's proposed "baseline" and "modified" nutrient criteria approach, in which data on both total P and chlorophyll a may be considered in establishing numeric nutrient criteria for a given lake within a specified range, provides a means for balancing and minimizing designated use attainment decision errors.

  18. Earthquake history of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Although situated between two States (California and Washington) that have has many violent earthquakes, Oregon is noticeably less active seismically. the greatest damage experienced resulted from a major shock near Olympia, Wash., in 1949. During the short history record available (since 1841), 34 earthquakes of intensity V, Modified Mercalli Scale, or greater have centered within Oregon or near its borders. Only 13 of the earthquakes had an intensity above V, and many of the shocks were local. However, a 1936 earthquake in the eastern Oregon-Washington region caused extensive damage and was felt over an area of 272,000 square kilometers. 

  19. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal Power Generation at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Site in Lakeview, Oregon. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Lakeview Uranium Mill site in Lakeview, Oregon, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide technical assistance for the project. The purpose of this report is to describe an assessment of the site for possible development of a geothermal power generation facility and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts for the facility. In addition, the report recommends development pathways that could assist in the implementation of a geothermal power system at the site.

  20. Oregon: Biscuit Wildfire

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  The Biscuit Wildfire     View Larger Image ... consumed almost 500,000 acres in outhern Oregon and northern California. This image pair from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ...

  1. Water resources data for Oregon, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrett, Thomas A.; Hess, Glenn W.; House, Jon G.; Ruppert, Gregory P.; Courts, Mary-Lorraine

    2005-01-01

    The annual Oregon water data report is one of a series of annual reports that document hydrologic data gathered from the U.S. Geological Survey's surface- and ground-water data-collection networks in each State, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territories. These records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and quality of water provide the hydrologic information needed by State, local, Tribal, and Federal agencies and the private sector for developing and managing our Nation's land and water resources. This report contains water year 2004 data for both surface and ground water, including discharge records for 209 streamflow-gaging stations, 42 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, and 9 crest-stage partial-record streamflow stations; stage-only records for 6 gaging stations; stage and content records for 15 lakes and reservoirs; water-level records from 12 long-term observation wells; and water-quality records collected at 133 streamflow-gaging stations and 1 atmospheric deposition station.

  2. 75 FR 14461 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... History/Oregon State Museum of Anthropology, Eugene, OR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... State Museum of Anthropology, Eugene, OR. The human remains and associated funerary object were removed... Museum of Natural and Cultural History/Oregon State Museum of Anthropology professional staff...

  3. 76 FR 8917 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible Oregon and Washington pear growers to... Oregon and Washington. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from February 26 through March 11,...

  4. Crater Lake: blue through time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

  5. Rural Oregon Community Perspectives:

    PubMed Central

    Young-Lorion, Julia; Davis, Melinda M.; Kirks, Nancy; Hsu, Anna; Slater, Jana Kay; Rollins, Nancy; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Community Health Improvement Partnership (CHIP) model has supported community health development in more than 100 communities nationally. In 2011, four rural Oregon CHIPs collaborated with investigators from the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN), a component of the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), to obtain training on research methods, develop and implement pilot research studies on childhood obesity, and explore matches with academic partners. This article summarizes the experiences of the Lincoln County CHIP, established in 2003, as it transitioned from CHIP to Community Health Improvement and Research Partnership (CHIRP). Our story and lessons learned may inform rural community-based health coalitions and academicians who are engaged in or considering Community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Utilizing existing infrastructure and relationships in community and academic settings provides an ideal starting point for rural, bidirectional research partnerships. PMID:24056513

  6. Oregon trails revisted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, A. J.; Alexander, C. J.; Hall, M. J.; Isaacson, D. L.; Murray, R. J.; Schrumpf, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Oregon State University's Environmental Remote Sensing Applications Laboratory (ERSAL) has six full-time researchers with expertise in a variety of biological, Earth, atmospheric and computer sciences as well as image interpretation and statistical techniques. The primary emphasis of the ERSAL research and demonstration program is the development and application of remote sensing technology in operational resource management programs. LANDSAT multi-spectral, multi-date digital data and imagery are utilized in concert with high altitude NASA-acquired photography, low altitude ERSAL-acquired photography, and field observations and data to provide customized, inexpensive and useful final products. Synopses are given of 9 applications projects conducted in Oregon.

  7. 75 FR 64243 - Umatilla National Forest, Walla Walla Ranger District; Oregon Tollgate Fuels Reduction Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Umatilla National Forest, Walla Walla Ranger District; Oregon Tollgate Fuels Reduction Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Forest Service proposes fuels reduction on approximately...

  8. Pygmy Rabbit Surveys on State Lands in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagar, Joan; Lienkaemper, George

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) is classified by the federal government as a species of concern (i.e., under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for consideration as a candidate for listing as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act) because of its specialized habitat requirements and evidence of declining populations. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) lists pygmy rabbits as 'sensitive-vulnerable,' meaning that protective measures are needed if sustainable populations are to be maintained over time (Oregon Natural Heritage Program, 2001). The Oregon Natural Heritage Program considers this species to be threatened with extirpation from Oregon. Pygmy rabbits also are a species of concern in all the other states where they occur (NatureServe, 2004). The Washington population, known as the Columbia Basin pygmy rabbit, was listed as endangered by the federal government in 2003. Historically, pygmy rabbits have been collected from Deschutes, Klamath, Crook, Lake, Grant, Harney, Baker, and Malheur Counties in Oregon. However, the geographic range of pygmy rabbit in Oregon may have decreased in historic times (Verts and Carraway, 1998), and boundaries of the current distribution are not known. Not all potentially suitable sites appear to be occupied, and populations are susceptible to rapid declines and local extirpation (Weiss and Verts, 1984). In order to protect and manage remaining populations on State of Oregon lands, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife needs to identify areas currently occupied by pygmy rabbits, as well as suitable habitats. The main objective of this survey was document to presence or absence of pygmy rabbits on state lands in Malheur, Harney, Lake, and Deschutes counties. Knowledge of the location and extent of pygmy rabbit populations can provide a foundation for the conservation and management of this species in Oregon. The pygmy rabbit is just one of a suite of species of

  9. Oregon State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Rebecca A.; Ketcham, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) is located in Corvallis, a community of 53,000 people situated in the heart of the Willamette Valley between Portland and Eugene. Approximately 15,700 undergraduate and 3,400 graduate students, including 2,600 U.S. students of color and 950 international students, are currently enrolled at OSU across 11 academic…

  10. Oregon's first wind park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The bringing on-line of the 1.25 MW wind park at Whiskey Run, Oregon, is reported. The park features twenty-five 50 KW wind turbine generators and is expected to produce about three million kilowatt-hours per year for the Pacific Power and Light system.

  11. Oregon hydrologic landscape regions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individuals who spend time working with streams intuitively come to understand that stream hydrologic and ecological characteristics are related to the attributes of the watersheds in which they occur. This is easy to see in Oregon with its large climatic and geologic variations ...

  12. The Oregon Walkabout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Dale

    1974-01-01

    Too often American schools aim to satisfy the self-actualizing and higher-level needs in Maslow's hierarchy, while ignoring survival and security needs. The new State curriculum seeks to correct that deficit. To graduate, an Oregon student in the Class of 1978 will be expected to demonstrate the competencies to function effectively on the job, as…

  13. Osprey distribution, abundance, and status in western North America: II. The Oregon population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Collins, J.A.; Deibert, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    An estimated 308 ? 23 pairs of Ospreys nested in the survey area in Oregon in 1976. Major concentration centers include Crane Prairie Reservoir and the adjacent Deschutes National Forest, the coastal lakes and reservoirs between Florence and North Bend, the Rogue River, the Lane County reservoirs, and the Umpqua River. An estimated 47 percent of the Oregon population is nesting at reservoirs. Limited information is available concerning the long-term status of the Oregon population; however, the ability of the species to pioneer newly created reservoirs emphasizes that the population is utilizing new habitats.

  14. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, F.L.; Wells, F.C.; Shelby, W.J.; McPherson, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are impoundments on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and are a source of water for municipal industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Small vertical temperature variations in both lakes were attributed to shallow depths in the lakes and short retention times of water in the lakes during the summer months. The largest areal variations in dissolved oxygen generally occur in Lake Austin during the summer as a result of releases of water from below the thermocline in Lake Travis. Except for iron, manganese, and mercury, dissolved concentrations of trace elements in water collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake did not exceed the primary or secondary drinking water standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Little or no effect of stormwater runoff on temperature, dissolved oxygen, or minor elements could be detected in either Lake Austin or Town Lake. Little seasonal or areal variation was noted in nitrogen concentrations in Lake Austin or Town lake. Total phosphorus concentrations generally were small in both lakes. Increased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were detected after storm runoff inflow in Town Lake, but not in Lake Austin; densities of fecal-coliform bacteria increased in Lake Austin and Town Lake, but were substantially greater in Town Lake than in Lake Austin. 18 refs., 38 figs., 59 tabs.

  15. 75 FR 62690 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Grants Pass, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Grants Pass, Oregon AGENCY: Federal Communications...(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed...--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for Part 73 continues to read as follows:...

  16. 40 CFR 282.87 - Oregon State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Waste and Hazardous Materials II (Oil Storage Tanks): Sections 466.750; 466.783 through 466.787; 466.858....87 Section 282.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Oregon obtains approval for the...

  17. 40 CFR 282.87 - Oregon State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Waste and Hazardous Materials II (Oil Storage Tanks): Sections 466.750; 466.783 through 466.787; 466.858....87 Section 282.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Oregon obtains approval for the...

  18. 40 CFR 282.87 - Oregon State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Waste and Hazardous Materials II (Oil Storage Tanks): Sections 466.750; 466.783 through 466.787; 466.858....87 Section 282.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Oregon obtains approval for the...

  19. SITE CHARACTERIZATION USING BIRD SPECIES COMPOSITION IN EASTERN OREGON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted riparian bird surveys at 25 randomly selected stream reaches in the John Day River Basin of eastern Oregon as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). At each reach along a kilometer-length transect, ...

  20. Coordination of Continuing Education and Community Services in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Educational Coordinating Council, Salem.

    This report suggests ways to better provision of adult education and community service programs in the state of Oregon, and to avoidance of conflict and duplication. The increasing involvement of private and community colleges and other agencies will make duplication likely and informal coordination difficult. There are areas in the state not…

  1. Child and Family Resource Program (Salem, Oregon). Program Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Successful coordination of social service agencies, aimed at serving eligible families with children from the prenatal period to age 8, has been the focus of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP) in Salem, Oregon, one of 11 sites in this Head Start affiliated program. The Salem program also includes an infant-toddler program emphasizing…

  2. Large scale wetland restoration of an inland, freshwater river delta in southern Oregon and the response of two endangered fish species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrixson, H.; Stern, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The mouth of the Williamson River historically flowed through ~2,200 hectares of contiguous emergent marsh wetlands that were bisected by the Williamson River and connected to Upper Klamath and Agency Lake at the headwaters of the Klamath River in southern Oregon. Beginning in the 1940’s, levees were built and the wetlands were drained and converted to cropland, and the Williamson River flowed directly to Upper Klamath Lake with no access to floodplain or delta wetlands. The wetlands historically provided habitat to endemic fish species, and acted as a nutrient sink for the Williamson River before flowing into Upper Klamath Lake. The Nature Conservancy and partners recently breached and degraded over 22 miles of levees, moved over 2 million cubic yards of material and reconnected 5500 acres of historic deltaic wetlands to the adjacent Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes and along 5.6 miles of the lower Williamson River. The goals of the restoration were to improve water quality in Upper Klamath Lake and provide habitat for Lost River and shortnose suckers, two federally listed, endemic species of fish inhabiting the lake. Two years of fisheries monitoring since restoration has shown that these two species utilize the restored riparian and wetland habitats. It appears that wetlands act to retain fish and also provide them with food and protection during this young life stage, enhancing fitness and survival of young suckers. Restoration is expected to improve early survival of suckers, leading to increased recruitment to adult spawning stages and contributing to the recovery of these species.

  3. Geothermal research, Oregon Cascades: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.R.; Black, G.L.

    1988-10-27

    Previous USDOE-funded geothermal studies have produced an extensive temperature gradient and heat flow data base for the State of Oregon. One of the important features identified as a result of these studies is a rapid transition from heat flow values on the order of 40 mW/m/sup 2/ in the Willamette Valley and Western Cascades to values of greater than or equal to100 mW/m/sup 2/ in the High Cascades and the eastern portion of the Western Cascades. These data indicate that the Cascade Range in Oregon has potential as a major geothermal province and stimulated much of the later work completed by government agencies and private industry. Additional data generated as a result of this grant and published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-86-2 further define the location and magnitude of this transition zone. In addition, abundant data collected from the vicinity of Breitenbush and Austin Hot Springs have permitted the formulation of relatively detailed models of these hydrothermal systems. These models are published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-88-5. Task 1.2 of the Deliverables section of Amendment M001 is fulfilled by DOGAMI publication GMS-48, Geologic map of the McKenzie Bridge quadrangle, Lane County, Oregon. This map was printed in October, 1988, and is part of the final submission to USDOE. 8 refs.

  4. Water resources data for California, water year 1995. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley basins and the great basin from Honey Lake basin to Oregon State line. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1994-30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Markham, K.L.; Anderson, S.W.; Rockwell, G.L.; Friebel, M.F.

    1996-04-01

    Volume 4 contains discharge records for 181 gaging stations, stage and contents for 47 lakes and reservoirs, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 6 stations. Also included is one low-flow partial-record station.

  5. THREE SISTERS WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacLeod, Norman S.; Causey, J. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Three Sisters Wilderness, Oregon indicated little promise for the occcurrence of metallic mineral resources. Block pumice suitable for commercial uses occurs at an undeveloped claim at Rock Mesa in the wilderness, but numerous other sources occur outside the wilderness closer to markets. A broad area centered around South Sister volcano is among the most favorable targets for geothermal resources in the Oregon Cascade Range, based on the very young age and large volume of silicic volcanic rocks that occur in this area. Deep exploration holes could be drilled in areas outside the wilderness south of South Sister to provide data on the subsurface thermal and hydrologic regimes in the southern part of the area most likely to contain geothermal resources.

  6. Water resources data for California water year 1994. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake basin to Oregon state line. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1993-30 September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Friebel, M.F.; Markham, K.L.; Anderson, S.W.; Rockwell, G.L.

    1995-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1994 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 187 gaging stations, stage and contents for 47 lakes and reservoirs, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 6 stations. Also included are two low-flow partial-record stations.

  7. Water resources data for California, water year 1993. Volume 4. Northern Central valley basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake basin to Oregon State line. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1992-30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Markham, K.L.; Anderson, S.W.

    1994-04-01

    Water-resources data for the 1993 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 190 gaging stations, stage and contents for 41 lakes and reservoirs, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 8 stations. Also included are two low-flow partial-record stations.

  8. Water resources data for California, water year 1992. Volume 4. Northern central valley basins and the great basin from Honey Lake basin to Oregon state line. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1991-30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.W.; Mullen, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Markham, K.L.

    1993-05-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 190 gaging stations; stage and contents for 44 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation data for 3 stations; and water quality for 10 stations. Also included are two low-flow partial-record stations.

  9. DIAMOND PEAK WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Moyle, Phillip R.

    1984-01-01

    No metallic mineral resources were identified during a mineral survey of the Diamond Peak Wilderness in Oregon. Cinder cones within the wilderness contain substantial cinder resources, but similar deposits that are more accessible occur outside the wilderness. The area could have geothermal resources, but available data are insufficient to evaluate their potential. Several deep holes could be drilled in areas of the High Cascades outside the wilderness, from which extrapolations of the geothermal potential of the several Cascade wilderness could be made.

  10. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  11. Indians In Oregon Today. Oregon Middle School - High School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Floy

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this publication is to provide current, accurate information to teachers and students about the Indian tribes living in the state of Oregon. Too often information about Indian tribes is stereotypic, inaccurate, and outdated. A number of Indian tribes have worked on the development of this document, using the "Oregon Indians:…

  12. 77 FR 9652 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake Linden... administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake..., Chicago, Illinois, C-14J, 60604, (312) 886-6609. Comments should reference the Lake Linden Superfund...

  13. 78 FR 70571 - Notice of Availability of the Oregon Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan Amendments and Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Oregon Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan Amendments and Draft Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... (BLM) has prepared Oregon Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan (LUP) Amendments and a...

  14. 78 FR 77104 - Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program: Intent To Find That Oregon Has Failed To Submit an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... public comment on their proposal to approve, with conditions, the Oregon program (62 FR 6216). The... specified in the letter (63 FR 11655). Over time, Oregon made incremental changes to its program in order to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Coastal Nonpoint...

  15. Geothermal Gradients in Oregon, 1985-1994

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    This data set is comprised of three groups of temperature-depth data. All the sites are located in southeastern Oregon. The first is a set of 7 wells logged during 1993 in south central Oregon in the Basin and Range province. All these wells, with the exception of the Blue Mountain Oil well, are water wells. These wells were part of a geothermal reconnaissance of this area. The Blue Mountain oil well of this set has been described by Sass et al. (1971) as well. Gannet in the vicinity of the Vale, Oregon (Bowen and Blackwell, 1972; Blackwell et al., 1978) geothermal system in Malheur County. These wells were logged in 1986 during a study of the area described by Gannett (1988). There are 17 wells (plus one relog) in this data set. All these wells are in a small area just east of the town of Vale in Malheur County. The second set of data consists of a group of wells that were logged by Marshall The third set of data represents the results of an exploration project in the general area of the Lake Owyhee thermal area in Malheur County. This data set is comprised of 16 wells. This data set was collected by Hunt Energy Corporation and made available though the efforts of Roger Bowers. A small scale map of the locations of the wells is shown in Figure 1. The well location and some pertinent information about the wells is shown in Table 1. The detailed lists of temperature-depth data and plots for each well, either individually or with a group, follow the list of references cited.

  16. Hispanics in Oregon's Workforce, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Brenda; Wood, Mary

    This report describes the Latino workforce in Oregon, outlining employment, income, education, and unemployment data. A brief history of Hispanics in the state notes that most of Oregon's Hispanics are of Mexican origin and that the state's Hispanic population grew 66 percent between 1990 and 1997. The history of migrant agricultural labor in…

  17. Debris flows from failures Neoglacial-age moraine dams in the Three Sisters and Mount Jefferson wilderness areas, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Hardison, J.H.; Costa, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The highest concentration of lakes dammed by Neoglacial moraines in the conterminous United States is in the Mount Jefferson and Three Sisters Wilderness Areas in central Oregon. Between 1930 and 1980, breakouts of these lakes have resulted in 11 debris flows. The settings and sequences of events leading to breaching and the downstream flow behavior of the resulting debris flows provide guidance on the likelihood and magnitude of future lake breakouts and debris flows.

  18. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  19. MOUNT WASHINGTON WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Edward M.; Causey, J. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, Mount Washington Wilderness, Oregon has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources. Abundant cinder resources occur in the wilderness, but other large volume cinder deposits are available outside the wilderness and closer to markets. Analysis of the geothermal potential of the High Cascades province cannot be made without data on the subsurface thermal and hydrologic regimes which can only be provided by deep drill holes. Several deep holes could be drilled in areas outside the wildernesses of the High Cascades, from which extrapolations of the geothermal potential of the wildernesses could be made.

  20. KALMIOPSIS WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Norman J; Miller, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, geophysical field and laboratory, and mine and prospect studies conducted in the Kalmiopsis Wilderness, Oregon indicate that areas within and immediately adjacent to the wilderness have substantiated mineral-resource potential. The types of mineral resources which occur in these areas include massive sulfide deposits containing copper, zinc, lead, silver and gold; podiform chromite deposits; laterite deposits containing nickel, cobalt, and chromium; lode gold deposits; and placer gold deposits. Past production from existing mines is estimated to have been at least 7000 troy oz of gold, 4000 long tons of chromite, and few tens of tons of copper ore.

  1. Water resources data for California, water year 1996. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.W.; Rockwell, G.L.; Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.

    1997-06-01

    Volume 4 contains discharge records for 180 gaging stations, stage and contents for 45 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 5 stations, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 15 stations. Also included is 1 low-flow partial-record station.

  2. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon.

  3. Shifting the paradigm in Oregon from teen pregnancy prevention to youth sexual health.

    PubMed

    Nystrom, Robert J; Duke, Jessica E A; Victor, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Oregon's work on teen pregnancy prevention during the previous 20 years has shifted from a risk-focused paradigm to a youth development model that places young people at the center of their sexual health and well-being. During 2005, the Oregon Governor's Office requested that an ad hoc committee of state agency and private partners develop recommendations for the next phase of teen pregnancy prevention. As a result of that collaborative effort, engagement of young people, and community input, the Oregon Youth Sexual Health Plan was released in 2009. The plan focuses on development of young people and embraces sexuality as a natural part of adolescent development. The plan's five goals and eight objectives guide the work of state agencies and partners addressing youth sexual health. Oregon's development of a statewide plan can serve as a framework for other states and entities to address all aspects of youth sexual health.

  4. 78 FR 37150 - Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a referendum be... of sweet onions produced in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted...

  5. 77 FR 58864 - Public Land Order No. 7800; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6947; Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... (57 FR 43618 (1992)), which withdrew 150 acres of National Forest System land from location and entry... Agate Beds located in the Fremont National Forest in Oregon, which would otherwise expire on September... continue protection of the Thunder Egg Lake Agate Beds in the Freemont National Forest. The...

  6. OLALLIE ROADLESS AREA, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Neumann, Terry R.

    1984-01-01

    The Olallie Roadless Area, Oregon, is devoid of mines and mineral prospects, and a mineral-resource evaluation of the area did not identify any mineral-resource potential. There is no evidence that fossil fuels are present in the roadless area. Nearby areas in Clackamas, Marion, Jefferson, and Wasco Counties are characterized by higher-than-normal heat flow and by numerous thermal springs, some of which have been partly developed. this may indicate that the region has some, as yet undefined, potential for the development of geothermal energy. Lack of thermal springs or other evidence of localized geothermal anomalies within the roadless area may be the result of masking by young, nonconductive rock units and by the flooding out and dilution of rising thermal waters by cool meteoric water.

  7. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.

    1997-10-01

    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  8. Newberry Volcano (Oregon, USA) Revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Grove, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Newberry Volcano (NV) located E. of the Cascades arc axis is often interpreted as (1) a High Lava Plains (NW Basin & Range -- B&R) volcano hosting rhyolites generated by a traveling plume, (2) a shield volcano built of basalt, or (3) an enigma unrelated to the adjacent High Cascades. Recent work shows that these interpretations are incorrect. Petrologic, geochemical, isotopic, drill hole, & seismic data indicate that the NV magma system results from arc-related processes at the NW corner of the B&R, where this major extensional province impinges on the Cascades arc. NV rhyolites are geochemically distinct and lower in SiO2 than those to the east where a general NW-younging trend of rhyolite ages has suggested a traveling hotspot -- a consequence instead of propagation of B&R extension. NV lies ~90 km above the downgoing slab based on seismic evidence (McCrory et al. 2012), ~15 km deeper than under the Three Sisters (TS) volcanic complex 60 km to the NW on the arc axis. NV & TS exhibit a range of compositions and both have generated rhyodacite with unusually high Na2O contents (~7 wt. %; Mandler et al. 2014), exhibiting similar petrogenetic processes. Silicic lavas and tuffs of the caldera-centric NV make up a significant component (~20% of drill core) of its 600 km3, although basaltic andesite is the dominant composition. Basalts of calcalkaline affinity erupted on the edifice as recently as early Holocene time. These basalts contain petrologic evidence for high pre-eruptive H2O contents, have strong arc-like trace element signatures, and are isotopically Cascadian and distinct from basalts to the east in the B&R that have much higher 3/4He (Graham et al. 2009). NV is one variety of Cascades arc volcano among which are a range of stratovolcanoes including Mt. Baker (15 km3) and Mt. Shasta (500 km3), a Holocene caldera (Crater Lake), and the many basaltic andesite shield volcanoes that make up most of the Oregon High Cascades.

  9. Increasing Diversity in the Earth Sciences (IDES) - An Oregon Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, S. L.; Duncan, R. A.; Wright, D. J.; de Silva, L.; Guerrero, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    The IDES (Increasing Diversity in Earth Sciences) Program is the first partnership of its kind in the state of Oregon targeted at broadening participation in the Earth Science enterprise. Funded by the National Science Foundation Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences program (NSF-OEDG), this partnership involves community colleges, a research university with major strengths in Earth Science research and education and an institutionalized commitment to enhancing diversity, state and federal agencies, centers of informal education, and the Oregon Space Grant Consortium, IDES has two integrated goals: 1) to increase the number of students from under-represented groups who pursue careers in Earth Science research and education, and 2) to strengthen the understanding of Earth Sciences and their relevance to society among broad and diverse segments of the population. Built around the best practices of tiered mentoring, interactive student cohort, research and education internships, and financial support, this 4-year program recruits 10 to 12 students (mainly rising juniors) each year from science majors at Oregon State University and five Oregon community colleges. The program is reaching its goals by: a) training participants in the application of geospatial to Earth Science problems of personal relevance b) immersing participants in a two-year mentored research project that involves summer internships with academic units, state and federal agencies, and centers for informal education in Oregon. c) exposing, educating, and involving participants in the breadth of Earth Science careers through contact with Earth Science professionals through mentors, a professional internship, and a learning community that includes a speaker series. d) instilling an understanding of context and relevance of the Earth Science Enterprise to the participants, their families, their communities, and the general public. We report on the first two years of this program during

  10. Simulating future water temperatures in the North Santiam River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Risley, John C.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-04-01

    A previously calibrated two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water-quality model (CE-QUAL-W2) of Detroit Lake in western Oregon was used in conjunction with inflows derived from Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic models to examine in-lake and downstream water temperature effects under future climate conditions. Current and hypothetical operations and structures at Detroit Dam were imposed on boundary conditions derived from downscaled General Circulation Models in base (1990-1999) and future (2059-2068) periods. Compared with the base period, future air temperatures were about 2 °C warmer year-round. Higher air temperature and lower precipitation under the future period resulted in a 23% reduction in mean annual PRMS-simulated discharge and a 1 °C increase in mean annual estimated stream temperatures flowing into the lake compared to the base period. Simulations incorporating current operational rules and minimum release rates at Detroit Dam to support downstream habitat, irrigation, and water supply during key times of year resulted in lower future lake levels. That scenario results in a lake level that is above the dam's spillway crest only about half as many days in the future compared to historical frequencies. Managing temperature downstream of Detroit Dam depends on the ability to blend warmer water from the lake's surface with cooler water from deep in the lake, and the spillway is an important release point near the lake's surface. Annual average in-lake and release temperatures from Detroit Lake warmed 1.1 °C and 1.5 °C from base to future periods under present-day dam operational rules and fill schedules. Simulated dam operations such as beginning refill of the lake 30 days earlier or reducing minimum release rates (to keep more water in the lake to retain the use of the spillway) mitigated future warming to 0.4 and 0.9 °C below existing operational scenarios during the critical autumn spawning period for endangered salmonids. A

  11. Fires Scorch Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In southwest Oregon, the Biscuit Fire continues to grow. This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image from August 14, 2002, shows the burn scar associated with the enormous blaze. The visualization uses ASTER's 30-meter-resolution, short-wave infrared bands to minimize smoke contamination and enhance the burn scar, which appears purple amid green vegetation. Actively burning areas of the fire appear very light purple. More than 6,000 fire personnel are assigned to the Biscuit Fire, which was 390, 276 acres as of Friday morning, August 15, and only 26 percent contained. Among the resources threatened are thousands of homes, three nationally designated wild and scenic rivers, and habitat for several categories of plants and animals at risk of extinction. Firefighters currently have no estimate as to when the fire might be contained. Credit: This image was acquired on an expedited basis as part of NASA Wildfire Response Team activities. Image courtesy Mike Abrams, Simon Hook, and the ASTER team at EROS Data Center DAAC.

  12. Measurements of slope distances and vertical angles at Mount Baker and Mount Rainier, Washington, Mount Hood and Crater Lake, Oregon, and Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, California, 1980-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    Personnel of the U.S.Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory established trilateration networks at Mount Baker, Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Crater Lake, Mount Shasta, and Lassen Peak in 1980-1984. These networks are capable of detecting changes in slope distance of several centimeters or more. The networks were established to provide baseline information on potentially active volcanoes and were designed along guidelines found useful at Mount St. Helens. Periodic reoccupation of the networks is planned as part of the overall monitoring program of Cascades volcanoes. Methodology, slope distance and vertical angle data, maps of the networks, and benchmark descriptions are presented in this report. Written benchmark descriptions are augmented by photographs, which we have found by experience to very useful in relocating the marks. All repeat measurements at the six volcanoes are probably within measurement error.

  13. Libraries in Oregon: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/oregon.html Libraries in Oregon To use the sharing features on ... Albany Samaritan Albany General Hospital Stanley K. Davis Library 1046 6th Ave. SW Albany, OR 97321 541- ...

  14. A Multi-Agency Effort for Assessing the Occurrence and Biological Impacts of CECs in Support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the detection of a variety of contaminants for which little is known regarding their potential impact(s) on Great Lakes ecosystems. These contaminants of emerging concern, or CECs, include an assortment of industrial (e.g....

  15. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)…

  16. 21 CFR 808.87 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oregon. 808.87 Section 808.87 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.87 Oregon. (a) The following Oregon medical device requriements...

  17. 21 CFR 808.87 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oregon. 808.87 Section 808.87 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.87 Oregon. (a) The following Oregon medical device requriements...

  18. 21 CFR 808.87 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oregon. 808.87 Section 808.87 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.87 Oregon. (a) The following Oregon medical device requriements...

  19. 21 CFR 808.87 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oregon. 808.87 Section 808.87 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.87 Oregon. (a) The following Oregon medical device requriements...

  20. 21 CFR 808.87 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oregon. 808.87 Section 808.87 Food and Drugs FOOD... EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.87 Oregon. (a) The following Oregon medical device requriements...

  1. Crater Lake revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, David W.; Dartnell, Peter; Bacon, Charles R.; Robinson, Joel E.; Gardner, James V.

    2003-01-01

    Around 500,000 people each year visit Crater Lake National Park in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon. Volcanic peaks, evergreen forests, and Crater Lake’s incredibly blue water are the park’s main attractions. Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago by the eruption and subsequent collapse of a 12,000-foot volcano called Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming or climactic eruption of Mount Mazama drastically changed the landscape all around the volcano and spread a blanket of volcanic ash at least as far away as southern Canada. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000 year history of cone building activity like that of other Cascade volcanoes such as Mount Shasta. Since the climactic eruption, there have been several less violent, smaller postcaldera eruptions within the caldera itself. However, relatively little was known about the specifics of these eruptions because their products were obscured beneath Crater Lake’s surface. As the Crater Lake region is still potentially volcanically active, understanding past eruptive events is important to understanding future eruptions, which could threaten facilities and people at Crater Lake National Park and the major transportation corridor east of the Cascades. Recently, the lake bottom was mapped with a high-resolution multibeam echo sounder. The new bathymetric survey provides a 2m/pixel view of the lake floor from its deepest basins virtually to the shoreline. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, the bathymetry data can be visualized and analyzed to shed light on the geology, geomorphology, and geologic history of Crater Lake.

  2. An update of Quaternary faults of central and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weldon, Ray J., II; Fletcher, D.K.; Weldon, E.M.; Scharer, K.M.; McCrory, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    This is the online version of a CD-ROM publication. We have updated the eastern portion of our previous active fault map of Oregon (Pezzopane, Nakata, and Weldon, 1992) as a contribution to the larger USGS effort to produce digital maps of active faults in the Pacific Northwest region. The 1992 fault map has seen wide distribution and has been reproduced in essentially all subsequent compilations of active faults of Oregon. The new map provides a substantial update of known active or suspected active faults east of the Cascades. Improvements in the new map include (1) many newly recognized active faults, (2) a linked ArcInfo map and reference database, (3) more precise locations for previously recognized faults on shaded relief quadrangles generated from USGS 30-m digital elevations models (DEM), (4) more uniform coverage resulting in more consistent grouping of the ages of active faults, and (5) a new category of 'possibly' active faults that share characteristics with known active faults, but have not been studied adequately to assess their activity. The distribution of active faults has not changed substantially from the original Pezzopane, Nakata and Weldon map. Most faults occur in the south-central Basin and Range tectonic province that is located in the backarc portion of the Cascadia subduction margin. These faults occur in zones consisting of numerous short faults with similar rates, ages, and styles of movement. Many active faults strongly correlate with the most active volcanic centers of Oregon, including Newberry Craters and Crater Lake.

  3. Lee v. State of Oregon.

    PubMed

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. District Court for the District of Oregon found unconstitutional the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, which allows a terminally ill patient to obtain a doctor's prescription for a fatal drug dosage in order to commit suicide. The court held that the state law, which classified competent terminally ill patients as a group and established procedures for them to opt for assisted suicide, was not rationally related to any legitimate state interest for purposes of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Ammendment. The law did not ensure rational and voluntary decision making by the terminally ill. PMID:11648436

  4. Simulating future water temperatures in the North Santiam River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman; Risley, John C.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    A previously calibrated two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water-quality model (CE-QUAL-W2) of Detroit Lake in western Oregon was used in conjunction with inflows derived from Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic models to examine in-lake and downstream water temperature effects under future climate conditions. Current and hypothetical operations and structures at Detroit Dam were imposed on boundary conditions derived from downscaled General Circulation Models in base (1990–1999) and future (2059–2068) periods. Compared with the base period, future air temperatures were about 2 °C warmer year-round. Higher air temperature and lower precipitation under the future period resulted in a 23% reduction in mean annual PRMS-simulated discharge and a 1 °C increase in mean annual estimated stream temperatures flowing into the lake compared to the base period. Simulations incorporating current operational rules and minimum release rates at Detroit Dam to support downstream habitat, irrigation, and water supply during key times of year resulted in lower future lake levels. That scenario results in a lake level that is above the dam’s spillway crest only about half as many days in the future compared to historical frequencies. Managing temperature downstream of Detroit Dam depends on the ability to blend warmer water from the lake’s surface with cooler water from deep in the lake, and the spillway is an important release point near the lake’s surface. Annual average in-lake and release temperatures from Detroit Lake warmed 1.1 °C and 1.5 °C from base to future periods under present-day dam operational rules and fill schedules. Simulated dam operations such as beginning refill of the lake 30 days earlier or reducing minimum release rates (to keep more water in the lake to retain the use of the spillway) mitigated future warming to 0.4 and 0.9 °C below existing operational scenarios during the critical autumn spawning period for endangered

  5. Cascade Mtns. Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The ground near one of the long-dormant Three Sisters volcanoes in the Cascade Mountains of west-central Oregon has risen approximately 10centimeters in a 10-by-20-km parcel since 1996, meaning that magma or underground lava is slowly flowing into the area, according to a research team from the U.S. Geological Survey. The Three Sisters area -- which contains five volcanoes -- is only about 170 miles from Mount St. Helens, which erupted in 1980. Both are part of the Cascades Range, a line of 27volcanoes stretching from British Columbia in Canada to northern California. This perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER image over digital topography from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical

  6. MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecoregions of Oregon have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a national, hierarchical ecoregi...

  7. Oregon Agriculture I Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum package was developed to be used as a guide for high school vocational agriculture teachers in Oregon preparing a curriculum to meet local community/regional needs. A second goal of this curriculum is to eliminate sex-bias or sex-role stereotyping in vocational agriculture classes. The curriculum contains 20 units. Topics covered…

  8. Life on the Oregon Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middle Level Learning: Teaching and Learning Social Studies in the Middle Grades, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This supplement to "Social Education" and "Social Studies & the Young Learner" seeks to support creative and rigorous social studies teaching in middle schools. The articles show how students can revisit the Oregon Trail through the diaries of children, learn about the five themes of geography (location, place, human/environment interaction,…

  9. Oregon Schools Begin Inspection, Cleanup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, James F.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the need for environmental health inspections in schools. Reports on the results of a survey of Clackamas County (Oregon) school kitchens, in relation to a high incidence of hepatitis A. Describes the variety of violations found and urges that schools no longer be exempt from state health division regulations. (TW)

  10. Record Conversion at Oregon State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Deane

    1985-01-01

    Describes the conversion of card catalog records at William Jasper Kerr Library, Oregon State University, to an online system. Discussion covers the use of OCLC and student assistants, procedures and specifications, and problems associated with massive retrospective conversion needs and uncertain budget allocations. Eight sources are recommended.…

  11. Oregon Trust Agreement Planning Project : Potential Mitigations to the Impacts on Oregon Wildlife Resources Associated with Relevant Mainstem Columbia River and Willamette River Hydroelectric Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-10-01

    A coalition of the Oregon wildlife agencies and tribes (the Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Coalition) have forged a cooperative effort to promote wildlife mitigation from losses to Oregon wildlife resources associated with the four mainstream Columbia River and the eight Willamette River Basin hydroelectric projects. This coalition formed a Joint Advisory Committee, made up of technical representatives from all of the tribes and agencies, to develop this report. The goal was to create a list of potential mitigation opportunities by priority, and to attempt to determine the costs of mitigating the wildlife losses. The information and analysis was completed for all projects in Oregon, but was gathered separately for the Lower Columbia and Willamette Basin projects. The coalition developed a procedure to gather information on potential mitigation projects and opportunities. All tribes, agencies and interested parties were contacted in an attempt to evaluate all proposed or potential mitigation. A database was developed and minimum criteria were established for opportunities to be considered. These criteria included the location of the mitigation site within a defined area, as well as other criteria established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Costs were established for general habitats within the mitigation area, based on estimates from certified appraisers. An analysis of the cost effectiveness of various types of mitigation projects was completed. Estimates of operation and maintenance costs were also developed. The report outlines strategies for gathering mitigation potentials, evaluating them, determining their costs, and attempting to move towards their implementation.

  12. The state of Lake Superior in 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community in 1992 is substantially different than it was a half century ago and is far from a state desired by management agencies. Fish-community objectives were established for Lake Superior in response to A Joint Strategic Plan for Management of Great Lakes Fisheries (Great Lakes Fishery Commission 1980) and are the template for this report on the state of the lake. Reporting on progress toward meeting stated goals and objectives will focus attention on critical fishery issues and enhance understanding among fishery- and environmental-management agencies, political bodies, and the public.

  13. 75 FR 22621 - Notice of Intent To Solicit Nominations, Western Oregon Resource Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Solicit Nominations, Western Oregon Resource Advisory Committees AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Call for Nominations. SUMMARY: The... Secretary, through the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), on the selection and prioritization of...

  14. 76 FR 55415 - Notice of Application for Withdrawal and Public Meeting; Oregon; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Application for Withdrawal and Public Meeting; Oregon; Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) published a notice in the Federal Register on August 1, 2011 (76 FR 45848) that contained...

  15. Library Services for State Government; An Evaluation of the Resources of the Oregon State Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Mildred M.

    This study outlines the types of library service required to furnish quality reference services to state agencies. The services provided by the Oregon State Library were evaluated according to the standards established by the American Library Association. Evaluation of the collection for scope and coverage in subject areas of automation,…

  16. 78 FR 24036 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Federal Register on December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72245). The Committee made copies of the proposed rule... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule....

  17. 76 FR 4254 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, Oregon; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a referendum be... handling of Irish potatoes grown in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from...

  18. 75 FR 4104 - Notice of Reestablishment of the National Historic Oregon Trail Interpretive Center Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Reestablishment of the National Historic Oregon Trail Interpretive Center Advisory Board AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice... is hereby given that the Secretary of the Interior has reestablished the Bureau of Land...

  19. 77 FR 76585 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00045 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oregon Disaster OR-00045 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the...'s EIDL declaration, applications for economic injury disaster loans may be filed at the...

  20. 78 FR 56979 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00051 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oregon Disaster OR-00051 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the... declaration, applications for economic injury disaster loans may be filed at the address listed above or...

  1. 78 FR 65745 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00051 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Oregon Disaster OR-00051 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for..., Washington, DC 20416. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The notice of the Economic Injury declaration for the...

  2. Elter v. Great Lakes Higher Education Corporation: State Agencies That Grant Educational Loans May Discriminate against Student Bankrupts Who Default on Prior Educational Loans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, John F.; Pedulla, Maria A.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of a ruling allowing state agencies to deny new educational loans to students with previous loans discharged in bankruptcy looks at the intent behind the Bankruptcy Code, specifically concerning the nature of educational loans and the "fresh start" policy. Potential conflicts between the state and federal statute is also discussed. (MSE)

  3. 40 CFR 35.1605-5 - Eutrophic lake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eutrophic lake. 35.1605-5 Section 35.1605-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Lakes § 35.1605-5 Eutrophic lake. A lake that exhibits any of the following characteristics:...

  4. 40 CFR 35.1605-5 - Eutrophic lake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eutrophic lake. 35.1605-5 Section 35.1605-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Lakes § 35.1605-5 Eutrophic lake. A lake that exhibits any of the following characteristics:...

  5. 40 CFR 35.1605-5 - Eutrophic lake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eutrophic lake. 35.1605-5 Section 35.1605-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Lakes § 35.1605-5 Eutrophic lake. A lake that exhibits any of the following characteristics:...

  6. 40 CFR 35.1605-5 - Eutrophic lake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eutrophic lake. 35.1605-5 Section 35.1605-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Lakes § 35.1605-5 Eutrophic lake. A lake that exhibits any of the following characteristics:...

  7. 40 CFR 35.1605-5 - Eutrophic lake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eutrophic lake. 35.1605-5 Section 35.1605-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Lakes § 35.1605-5 Eutrophic lake. A lake that exhibits any of the following characteristics:...

  8. Early chiropractic education in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2002-01-01

    Chiropractic education in the northwestern United States has its origins in the Marsh School & Cure in 1904. Most of the early schools were located in Portland, Oregon, including the D.D. Palmer College of Chiropractic (1908-1910), and several of these had merged by 1912 or 1913 to form the Pacific Chiropractic College, forerunner of today's Western States College. The latter was organized as a non-profit institution during the Great Depression, and struggled not only to survive but to create a higher standard. The early broad-scope of chiropractic training in the state probably encouraged the liberal scope of practice enjoyed in Oregon to this day. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 24

  9. Tsunami Preparedness in Oregon (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Oregon distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI).

  10. Lee v. State of Oregon.

    PubMed

    Devlin, M M

    1996-01-01

    HELD: Oregon's Death with Dignity Act, Measure 16, which legalizes physician-assisted suicide for certain terminally ill persons, violates the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment to the United States Constitution. Measure 16 fails to withstand even the lowest level of judicial scrutiny because the disparate treatment afforded the class of terminally ill persons does not further any legitimate state interest. PMID:8934861

  11. Data from geothermal test wells near Mount Hood, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.; Forcella, L.S.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    1981-01-01

    This report includes well specifications, drillers ' logs, and temperature logs of geothermal test wells drilled at 7 sites near Mt. Hood, Oreg. The wells were drilled in 1979 and 1980 under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. The project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, was part of an interagency effort to determine the geothermal potential of Mt. Hood. The agencies involved were, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries. (USGS)

  12. Arsenic levels in Oregon waters.

    PubMed

    Stoner, J C; Whanger, P D; Weswig, P H

    1977-08-01

    The arsenic content of well water in certain areas of Oregon can range up to 30 to 40 times the U.S.P.H.S. Drinking Water Standard of 1962, where concentrations in excess of 50 ppb are grounds for rejection. The elevated arsenic levels in water are postulated to be due to volcanic deposits. Wells in central Lane County, Oregon, that are known to contain arsenic rich water are in an area underlain by a particular group of sedimentary and volcanic rocks, which geologists have named the Fischer formation. The arsenic levels in water from wells ranged from no detectable amounts to 2,000 ppb. In general the deeper wells contained higher arsenic water. The high arsenic waters are characterized by the small amounts of calcium and magnesium in relation to that of sodium, a high content of boron, and a high pH. Water from some hot springs in other areas of Oregon was found to range as high as 900 ppb arsenic. Arsenic blood levels ranged from 32 ppb for people living in areas where water is low in arsenic to 250 ppb for those living in areas where water is known to contain high levels of arsenic. Some health problems associated with consumption of arsenic-rich water are discussed.

  13. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  14. 78 FR 72706 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Michigan State Police, Houghton Lake Post, Houghton Lake, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Michigan State Police, Houghton Lake Post, Houghton Lake, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Michigan State Police... Michigan State Police, Houghton Lake Post. If no additional requestors come forward, transfer of control...

  15. Evaluation of alternative groundwater-management strategies for the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Brian J.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2014-01-01

    The water resources of the upper Klamath Basin, in southern Oregon and northern California, are managed to achieve various complex and interconnected purposes. Since 2001, irrigators in the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Irrigation Project (Project) have been required to limit surface-water diversions to protect habitat for endangered freshwater and anadromous fishes. The reductions in irrigation diversions have led to an increased demand for groundwater by Project irrigators, particularly in drought years. The potential effects of sustained pumping on groundwater and surface-water resources have caused concern among Federal and state agencies, Indian tribes, wildlife groups, and groundwater users. To aid in the development of a viable groundwater-management strategy for the Project, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Klamath Water and Power Agency and the Oregon Water Resources Department, developed a groundwater-management model that links groundwater simulation with techniques of constrained optimization. The overall goal of the groundwater-management model is to determine the patterns of groundwater pumping that, to the extent possible, meet the supplemental groundwater demands of the Project. To ensure that groundwater development does not adversely affect groundwater and surface-water resources, the groundwater-management model includes constraints to (1) limit the effects of groundwater withdrawal on groundwater discharge to streams and lakes that support critical habitat for fish listed under the Endangered Species Act, (2) ensure that drawdowns do not exceed limits allowed by Oregon water law, and (3) ensure that groundwater withdrawal does not adversely affect agricultural drain flows that supply a substantial portion of water for irrigators and wildlife refuges in downslope areas of the Project. Groundwater-management alternatives were tested and designed within the framework of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (currently [2013

  16. 78 FR 59018 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board AGENCY: Environmental... federal Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) Task Force agencies, announces a public teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board (GLAB). The purpose of the teleconference is for the GLAB...

  17. Paleoseismology of latest Pleistocene and Holocene fault activity in central Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzopane, S.K.; Weldon, R.J. II . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Latest Pleistocene and Holocene fault activity in Oregon concentrates along four zones that splay northward from seismically active faults along the Central Nevada and Eastern California seismic zones. The Central Oregon fault zone is one of these zones, which splays northward from dextral faults of the Walker Lane, stretching across the flanks of several ranges in south-central Oregon along a N20[degree]W trend, and ultimately merges with the Cascade volcanic arc near Newberry volcano. Aerial-photo interpretations and field investigations reveal fault scarps with, on average about 4 m, but in places as much as [approximately]10 m of vertical expression across latest Pleistocene pluvial lake deposits and geomorphic surfaces. Trenches across three different faults in the Central Oregon zone reveal evidence for multiple episodes of faulting in the form of fault-related colluvial deposits and deformed horizons which have been cut by younger fault movements. Trench exposures reveal faults with relatively steep dips and anastomosing traces, which are interpreted locally as evidence for a small oblique-slip component. Vertical offsets measured in the trenches are [approximately]2 m or more for each event. Radiocarbon analyses and preliminary tephra correlations indicate that the exposed deposits are [approximately]30,000 yr in age and younger, and record the decline of latest Pleistocene pluvial lakes. Commonly, reworked or deformed lacustrine deposits and interlayered and faulted colluvial deposits mark the second and third events back, which probably occurred in the Latest Pleistocene, at a time during low to moderate lake levels. If offsets of the past 18,000 yr are representative of the long-term average, then faults along this zone have slip rates of from 0.2 mm/yr to 0.6 mm/yr and recurrence intervals that range from [approximately]4,000 yr to 11,000 yr.

  18. Sprague River geomorphology studies, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, P. F.; O'Connor, J. E.; Lind, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Sprague River drains 4050 square kilometers with a mean annual discharge of 16.3 m3/s before emptying into the Williamson River and then upper Klamath Lake in southcentral Oregon. The alternating wide alluvial segments and narrow canyon reaches of this 135-km-long westward flowing river provide for a variety of valued ecologic conditions and human uses along the river corridor, notably fisheries (including two endangered species of suckers, and formerly salmon), timber harvest, agriculture, and livestock grazing. The complex history of land ownership and landuse, water control and diversion structures, and fishery alterations, provides several targets for attributing historic changes to channel and floodplain conditions. Recently, evolving societal values (as well as much outside money) are inspiring efforts by many entities to 'restore' the Sprague River watershed. In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Klamath Tribes, and many local landowners, we are launching an analysis of Sprague River channel and floodplain processes. The overall objective is to guide restoration activities by providing sound understanding of local geomorphic processes and conditions. To do this we are identifying key floodplain and channel processes, and investigating how they have been affected by historic floodplain activites and changes to the watershed. This is being accomplished by analysis of historic aerial photographs and maps, stratigraphic analysis of floodplain soils and geologic units, mapping of riparian vegetation conditions and changes, and quantitative analysis of high resolution LiDAR topography acquired for the entire river course in December 2004. Preliminary results indicate (1) much of the coarser (and more erodible) floodplain soils are largely composed of pumice deposited in the basin by the 7700 year BP eruption of Mount Mazama; and (2) the LiDAR digital elevation models provide a ready means of subdividing the river into segments with

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oregon for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Oregon showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  20. Oregon Migrant Health Project, 1971 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Health, Portland.

    In its 9th year of providing migrant health services through a U.S. Public Health Service Continuing Migrant Health Act grant, this Oregon Migrant Health Project annual report is concerned with (1) the health services provided during the 1970-71 harvest season through a contractual arrangement between the Oregon State Health Division and 10 county…

  1. Oregon Migrant Health Project, 1970 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Health, Portland.

    The 1970 annual report on the Oregon Migrant Health Project discusses health services for migrant agricultural workers and their families (approximately 30,000 individuals) who worked and lived temporarily in various Oregon counties. As noted, some 9,000 of the 30,000 migrants were estimated to be in need of some type of medical service. Thus, the…

  2. Dissolved Oxygen Data for Coos Estuary (Oregon)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this product is the transmittal of dissolved oxygen data collected in the Coos Estuary, Oregon to Ms. Molly O'Neill (University of Oregon), for use in her studies on the factors influencing spatial and temporal patterns in dissolved oxygen in this estuary. These d...

  3. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  4. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  5. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  6. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  7. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  8. The Oregon Career and Technical Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Steven; Richards, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Oregon educators, policymakers, and business people are working together to increase the number and quality of Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs in secondary and postsecondary institutions. CTE is an integral component of Oregon's education and workforce development system and prepares students for careers in areas ranging from the…

  9. Endangered Plants in Oregon and Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Rhoda M.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a partial list of the 132 Oregon and Washington plants which have been proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Suggestions for student/citizen involvement in preserving these species and a description of a videotape about rare/endangered species of the Willamette Valley (Oregon) are included. (DH)

  10. Oregon University System Fact Book 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon University System, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This compendium of narrative and statistical information is an overview of the Oregon University System (OUS) and is the last Fact Book published under the auspices of the Oregon University System. The introduction includes a mission statement, a listing of OUS campuses and centers, a roster of the members of the State Board of Higher Education,…

  11. Steller Cove. Oregon Zoo Teacher Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kristin

    The goal of this teacher guide is to promote education by providing resources and information to aid classroom teachers in using the Oregon Zoo as an educational setting. The unit also emphasizes the integration of science, mathematics, reading, writing, speaking, and problem solving. It is designed for grades 3-5 and is based on the Oregon State…

  12. Directory and Statistics of Oregon Libraries 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheppke, Jim, Comp.; And Others.

    This directory and statistical information report provides data on 217 public libraries in Oregon, 64 academic libraries, and 172 special libraries within the state, as well as information on the Oregon State Library profiling each library within its appropriate type. Each of the four sections provides directory information (e..g, the library's…

  13. Oregon School Bond Manual. Seventh Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    To help school districts comply with Oregon's school bond laws, this manual provides guidelines for school district attorneys and personnel in the issuance and sale of school district bonds. The manual deals with the three primary types of Oregon school district borrowings: (1) general obligation bonds; (2) tax and revenue anticipation notes; and…

  14. Volcano hazards at Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Mastin, Larry G.; Scott, William E.; Schilling, Steven P.

    1997-01-01

    Newberry volcano is a broad shield volcano located in central Oregon. It has been built by thousands of eruptions, beginning about 600,000 years ago. At least 25 vents on the flanks and summit have been active during several eruptive episodes of the past 10,000 years. The most recent eruption 1,300 years ago produced the Big Obsidian Flow. Thus, the volcano's long history and recent activity indicate that Newberry will erupt in the future. The most-visited part of the volcano is Newberry Crater, a volcanic depression or caldera at the summit of the volcano. Seven campgrounds, two resorts, six summer homes, and two major lakes (East and Paulina Lakes) are nestled in the caldera. The caldera has been the focus of Newberry's volcanic activity for at least the past 10,000 years. Other eruptions during this time have occurred along a rift zone on the volcano's northwest flank and, to a lesser extent, the south flank. Many striking volcanic features lie in Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Forest Service. The monument includes the caldera and extends along the northwest rift zone to the Deschutes River. About 30 percent of the area within the monument is covered by volcanic products erupted during the past 10,000 years from Newberry volcano. Newberry volcano is presently quiet. Local earthquake activity (seismicity) has been trifling throughout historic time. Subterranean heat is still present, as indicated by hot springs in the caldera and high temperatures encountered during exploratory drilling for geothermal energy. This report describes the kinds of hazardous geologic events that might occur in the future at Newberry volcano. A hazard-zonation map is included to show the areas that will most likely be affected by renewed eruptions. In terms of our own lifetimes, volcanic events at Newberry are not of day-to-day concern because they occur so infrequently; however, the consequences of some types of eruptions can be severe. When Newberry

  15. Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, M.L.; Malone, S.D.; Moran, S.C.; Thelen, W.A.; Vidale, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath volcanoes. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near volcanoes in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon volcanoes. The six volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the locations coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, M. L.; Malone, S. D.; Moran, S. C.; Thelen, W. A.; Vidale, J. E.

    2011-03-01

    Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath volcanoes. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near volcanoes in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon volcanoes. The six volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the locations coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust.

  17. A new species of Helobdella (Hirudinida: Glossiphoniidae) from Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Moser, William E; Fend, Steven V; Richardson, Dennis J; Hammond, Charlotte I; Lazo-Wasem, Eric A; Govedich, Fredric R; Gullo, Bettina S

    2013-01-01

    Helobdella bowermani n. sp. is described from specimens collected in fine sediment of open water benthos of Upper Klamath Lake, Klamath County, Oregon. The new species has pale yellow/buff coloration with scattered chromatophore blotches throughout the dorsal surface, lateral extensions or papillae only on the a2 annulus, dorsal medial row of papillae with small papilla on al and larger papillae on a2 and a3, and a small oval scute (rarely triangular). Helobdella bowermani n. sp. is morphologically similar to Helobdella atli and Helobdella simplex. Molecular comparison of CO-I sequence data from H. bowermani n. sp. revealed differences of 10.6/--10.8% with Helobdella californica, differences of 12.2%-13.7% with H. atli, and differences of 12.7%-13.2% with H. simplex.

  18. A new species of Helobdella (Hirudinida: Glossiphoniidae) from Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moser, William E.; Fend, Steven V.; Richardson, Dennis J.; Hammond, Charlette I.; Lazo-Wasem, Eric A.; Govedich, Fredric R.; Gullo, Bettina S.

    2013-01-01

    Helobdella bowermani n. sp. is described from specimens collected in fine sediment of open water benthos of Upper Klamath Lake, Klamath County, Oregon. The new species has pale yellow/buff coloration with scattered chromatophore blotches throughout the dorsal surface, lateral extensions or papillae only on the a2 annulus, dorsal medial row of papillae with small papilla on a1 and larger papillae on a2 and a3, and a small oval scute (rarely triangular). Helobdella bowermani n. sp. is morphologically similar to Helobdella atli and Helobdella simplex. Molecular comparison of CO-I sequence data from H. bowermani n. sp. revealed differences of 10.6%–10.8% with Helobdella californica, differences of 12.2%–13.7% with H. atli, and differences of 12.7%–13.2% with H. simplex.

  19. Landslide assessment of Newell Creek Canyon, Oregon City, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Growney, L.; Burris, L.; Garletts, D.; Walsh, K. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    A study has been conducted in Newell Creek Canyon near Oregon City, Oregon, T3S, T2S, R2E. A landslide inventory has located 53 landslides in the 2.8 km[sup 2] area. The landslides range in area from approximately 15,000m[sup 2] to 10m[sup 2]. Past slides cover an approximate 7% of the canyon area. Landslide processes include: slump, slump-translational, slump-earthflow and earthflow. Hard, impermeable clay-rich layers in the Troutdale Formation form the failure planes for most of the slides. Slopes composed of Troutdale material may seem to be stable, but when cuts and fills are produced, slope failure is common because of the perched water tables and impermeable failure planes. Good examples of cut and fill failures are present on Highway 213 which passes through Newell Creek Canyon. Almost every cut and fill has failed since the road construction began. The latest failure is in the fill located at mile-post 2.1. From data gathered, a slope stability risk map was generated. Stability risk ratings are divided into three groups: high, moderate and low. High risk of slope instability is designated to all landslides mapped in the slide inventory. Moderate risk is designated to slopes in the Troutdale Formation greater than 8[degree]. Low risk is designated to slopes in the Troutdale Formation less than 8[degree].

  20. Copper corrosion in coastal Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S. Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is studying the atmospheric corrosion performance of copper and other metals along the Oregon coast. Only the copper results will be presented in this paper. Atmospheric corrosion measurements of copper samples were made at seven bridges, eight coastal communities, and three inland reference sites to quantify and understand the effect of high chloride environments on the corrosion performance of copper. The materials were atmospherically exposed for 1, 2, and 3 years to examine the effects of sheltering, orientation, distance from the ocean, and coastal microclimates on the rate of corrosion and the composition of the corrosion film.

  1. Chemical and isotopic data for water from thermal springs and wells of Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Swanson, J.R.; Orris, G.J.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal springs of Oregon range in composition from dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged NaCl-NaHCO/sub 3/ waters. Most of the thermal springs are located in southeastern or southcentral Oregon, with a few in northeastern Oregon and near the contact of the Western Cascades with the High Cascades. Thermal springs in the central and northern parts of the Cascades generally issue moderately saline NaCl waters. Farther south in the Cascades, the thermal waters are high in CO/sub 2/ as well as chloride. Most thermal springs in northeastern Oregon issue dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters of high pH (>8.5). These waters are similar to the thermal waters which issue from the Idaho batholith, farther east. Most of the remaining thermal waters are Na mixed-anion waters. Based on the chemical geothermometers, Mickey Srpings, Hot Borax Lake, Alvord Hot Springs, Neal Hot Springs, Vale Hot Springs, Crump Well, Hunters (Lakeview) Hot Springs, and perhaps some of the springs in the Cascades are associated with the highest temperature systems (>150/sup 0/C).

  2. 76 FR 10938 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock... a proposed highway project, Sunrise Project, I-205 to Rock Creek Junction, Clackamas County, Oregon..., NE., Suite 100, Salem, Oregon 97301, Telephone: (503) 587-4716. The Sunrise Project, I-205 to...

  3. Predation by Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) on Western toads (Bufo boreas) in Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Hayes, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toads of the genus Bufo co-occur with true frogs (family Ranidae) throughout their North American ranges. Yet, Bufo are rarely reported as prey for ranid frogs, perhaps due to dermal toxins that afford them protection from some predators. We report field observations from four different localities demonstrating that Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) readily consume juvenile western toads (Bufo boreas) at breeding sites in Oregon. Unpalatability thought to deter predators of selected taxa and feeding mode may not protect juvenile stages of western toads from adult Oregon spotted frogs. Activity of juvenile western toads can elicit ambush behavior by Oregon spotted frog adults. Our review of published literature suggests that regular consumption of toadlets sets Oregon spotted frogs apart from most North American ranid frogs. Importance of the trophic context of juvenile western toads as a seasonally important resource to Oregon spotted frogs needs critical investigation.

  4. Oregon: does physician-assisted suicide work?

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Alan

    2004-11-01

    Since November 1997, Oregon, a State in the United States of approximately 3.3 million people, has allowed physician-assisted suicide, although not euthanasia, by virtue of the Death with Dignity Act. Before the Act, physician-assisted suicide, as in Australia and other common law jurisdictions, was illegal. Under the Act, the Oregon Department of Human Services is required to collect information and provide an annual report. The Sixth Annual Report on Oregon's Death with Dignity Act was released on 10 March 2004. PMID:15575323

  5. Lake Eyre

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...   View Larger Image Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. ... the effect of sunglint at the nadir camera view angle. Dry, salt encrusted parts of the lake appear bright white or gray. Purple areas have ...

  6. Directory of Environmental Organizations for Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and the Province of British Columbia, February 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Seattle, WA.

    Organizations dedicated to protecting the environment through on-going, active programs are listed in this directory. Prepared by Region 10 of the Environmental Protection Agency to serve Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and the Province of British Columbia, the volume is an update of a 1972 edition. Generally included are: the name of the…

  7. Assisted Living and Residential Care in Oregon: Two Decades of State Policy, Supply, and Medicaid Participation Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The study describes Oregon state policy and supply developments for licensed long-term-care settings, particularly apartment-style assisted living facilities and more traditional residential care facilities. Design and Methods: Data came from a variety of sources, including state agency administrative records, other secondary data…

  8. A Profile of Oregon Counties: Human Resources, Educational, and Economic Indicators Associated with Young Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Student Services Section.

    This profile of counties in Oregon covers factors that may predispose youth to grow up at risk of dropping out of high school or not acquiring the skills needed for adult life. The profile presents data on human resources and educational and economic indicators that were collected from state agencies and organizations. For the state as a whole,…

  9. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Along its Oregon segment, the Cascade Range is almost entirely volcanic in origin. The volcanoes and their eroded remnants are the visible magmatic expression of the Cascadia subduction zone, where the offshore Juan de Fuca tectonic plate is subducted beneath North America. Subduction occurs as two lithospheric plates collide, and an underthrusted oceanic plate is commonly dragged into the mantle by the pull of gravity, carrying ocean-bottom rock and sediment down to where heat and pressure expel water. As this water rises, it lowers the melting temperature in the overlying hot mantle rocks, thereby promoting melting. The molten rock supplies the volcanic arcs with heat and magma. Cascade Range volcanoes are part of the Ring of Fire, a popular term for the numerous volcanic arcs that encircle the Pacific Ocean.

  10. Lee v. State of Oregon.

    PubMed

    1997-02-27

    The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ordered the dismissal of a challenge to Oregon's Death with Dignity Act because competent, terminally ill patients, physicians, and nursing homes all lacked standing. None were entitled to a judicial decision because all failed to assert an "injury in fact" resulting from violations against the Equal Protection or Due Process clauses, the Americans with Disabilities Act, or the Rehabilitation Act. The patient's claim of depression to the degree of being unable to make an informed decision about ending her life was too speculative. Nor would the conjectural nature of the claim have changed if it were asserted by either the doctors or the residential care facilities. PMID:11648316

  11. Oregon State University Governmental Impact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis.

    Interactions between the government and Oregon State University were assessed with attention to the following areas: employment and personnel administration (regulations regarding equal opportunity, affirmative action, and nondiscrimination); students and student life (regulations regarding admissions, financial aid, records management, special…

  12. Oregon Salt Marshes: How Blue are They?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two important ecosystem services of wetlands are carbon sequestration and filtration of nutrients and particulates. We quantified the carbon and nitrogen accumulation rates in salt marshes at 135 plots distributed across eight estuaries located in Oregon, USA. Net carbon and ...

  13. Water resources of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.; Laenen, Antonius

    1976-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1,000-square-mile Warm Springs Indian Reservation in north-central Oregon were obtained and evaluated. The area is bounded on the west by the crest of the Cascade Range and on the south and east by the Metolius and Deschutes Rivers. The mountainous western part is underlain by young volcanic rocks, and the plateaus and valleys of the eastern part are underlain by basalt, tuff, sand, and gravel of Tertiary and Quaternary ages. There are numerous springs, some developed for stock use, and about 50 domestic and community wells; yields are small, ranging from less than 1 to as much as 25 gallons per minute. Chemical quality of most ground water is suitable for stock or human consumption and for irrigation. Average flows of the Warm Springs River, Metolius River, and Deschutes River are 440, 1,400, and 4,040 cubic feet per second (cfs), respectively. Shitike Creek, which has an average flow of 108 cfs had a peak of 4,000 cfs in January 1974. Most streams have fewer than 100 milligrams per liter (mg/liter) of dissolved solids. Chemical and biological quality of the mountain lakes is also good; of 10 lakes studied, all had fewer than 50 mg/liter of dissolved solids and none had measurable fecal coliform bacteria. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Hydrology of the dunes area north of Coos Bay, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.

    1973-01-01

    Hydrology of a 20-square-mile area of dunes along the central Oregon coast was studied. The area is underlain by 80 to 150 feet of Quaternary dune and marine sand which overlies Tertiary marine clay and shale. Ground water for industrial and municipal use is being withdrawn at a rate of 4 million gallons per day. Original plans to withdraw as much as 30 million gallons per day are evidently limited by the prospect of excessive lowering of levels in shallow lakes near the wells, and possibly sea-water intrusion, if water-level gradients are reversed. At the present stage of development there are 18 production wells, each capable of producing 200-300 gallons per minute from the lower part of the sand deposits. Except for thin layers of silt, clay, and organic matter, the deposits of sand are clean and uniform; horizontal permeability is two orders of magnitude times the vertical permeability. Because of the low vertical permeability, drawdown cones are not evident in the upper part of the aquifer adjacent to the wells. However, present pumping lowers general water levels in the lakes and the shallow ground-water zone as much as several feet. A two-layer electric analog model was built to analyze effects of present and projected development as well as any alternate plans. Model results were used to develop curves for short-term prediction of water levels.

  15. Ground water in selected areas in the Klamath Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, A.R.; Harris, A.B.

    1973-01-01

    GROUNDWATER FEATURES OF SIX LOWLAND AREAS IN THE KLAMATH BASIN OF OREGON--KLAMATH MARSH AREA, AND SPRAGUE RIVER, SWAN LAKE, YONNA, POE, AND LANGELL VALLEYS--ARE DESCRIBED. RUGGED MOUNTAINS AND RIDGES SURROUND AND SEPARATE THESE LOWLANDS WHERE FLOORS RANGE IN ALTITUDE FROM 4,100 FEET IN POE VALLEY TO 4,600 FEET NORTH OF KLAMATH MARSH. THE SIX AREAS EXTEND OVER A NORTH-SOUTH DISTANCE OF 70 MILES, AN EAST-WEST DISTANCE OF 40 MILES, AND INCLUDE AN AREA OF APPROXIMATELY 600 SQUARE MILES. THE AREA IS SEMIARID AND RECEIVED ABOUT 14 TO 18 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION A YEAR. EXTINCT VOLCANOES AND THEIR EXTRUSIONS CHARACTERIZE THE AREA. MOST WELLS TAP PERMEABLE BASALT OR CINDERY RUBBLE BENEATH THE LACUSTRINE BEDS. THE DEPTHS OF WELLS RANGE FROM LESS THAN 50 TO NEARLY 2,000 FEET--MOST ARE BETWEEN 100 AND 1,000 FEET DEEP. FLOWING WELLS OCCUR IN ALL AREAS EXCEPT SWAN LAKE VALLEY. THE MOST EXTENSIVE AREA OF FLOWING WELLS IS IN THE SPRAGUE RIVER VALLEY, WHERE ABOUT 25 WELLS, SOME FLOWING MORE THAN 2,000 GPM, SUPPLY WATER FOR IRRIGATION. WATER LEVELS IN WELLS FLUCTUATE SEASONALLY FROM 1 TO 4 FEET. GROUNDWATER IN THE BASIN IS OF EXCELLENT QUALITY FOR DRINKING, IRRIGATION, AND MOST INDUSTRIAL USES.

  16. Oregon Health Go Local: A Retrospective Look

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Emily; Hannon, Todd

    2010-01-01

    MedlinePlus® Go Local is the National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health's Internet resource that allows individuals to find health services in their local communities. Oregon Health Go Local recently joined the network of active Go Local projects. This paper describes the planning and development of Oregon Health Go Local, with a discussion of the success and challenges of initiating such a project. Funding, marketing, volunteer coordination, data acquisition, and taxonomy are discussed. PMID:20640231

  17. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) - Oregon supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, C.; Gifford, L.A.

    1994-04-01

    In response to the growing number of environmental laws and regulations worldwide, the U.S. Army has adopted an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in 1985, Major Army Commands (MACOMs) were required to conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle. The installations must also conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM was developing a separate assessment system, the Army mandated, through Army Regulation 200-1, one unified Army-wide assessment mechanism. The resulting system combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations, along with good management practices and risk management information, into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and specific items or operations to review. Each assessment protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review the checklist items as effectively as possible. The Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates existing checklists from USEPA and private industry. The Oregon Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the U.S. ECAS manual, using existing Oregon state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  18. 76 FR 12129 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup AGENCY: Fish and... (Service), announce a ] meeting of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup (Workgroup...: The meeting will be held at the Lake Champlain Basin Program/Vermont Fish and Wildlife...

  19. 78 FR 46258 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation Lake Washington, Seattle, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation Lake Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY... (State Route 520 across Lake Washington) at Seattle, WA. This deviation is necessary to accommodate the... the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (State Route 520 across Lake Washington) remain closed to...

  20. 77 FR 33228 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Request for applicants. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard seeks applications for membership on the Great Lakes... of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage,...

  1. 77 FR 57556 - Lake County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Forest Service Lake County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The Lake County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will hold a meeting. DATES: The... the Lake County Board of Supervisor's Chambers at 255 North Forbes Street, Lakeport or Conference...

  2. 75 FR 82061 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup AGENCY: Fish and... (Service), announce a meeting of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup (Workgroup... primary meeting date. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Lake Champlain Basin Program/Vermont...

  3. 78 FR 49544 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Request for applications. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard seeks applications for membership on the Great Lakes... of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage,...

  4. 76 FR 62085 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee... the Federal Register of October 4, 2011, a notice announcing a Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee... authority of the Great Lakes Pilotage program. If you have been adversely affected by the one-day delay...

  5. 76 FR 7531 - Lake County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... Forest Service Lake County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lake County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will hold a meeting. DATES: The... Lake County Board of Supervisor's Chambers at 255 North Forbes Street, Lakeport or Conference Room...

  6. 78 FR 9883 - Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Solicitation of nominees to the Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee... Department of Agriculture (USDA) announces solicitation of nominees to fill vacancies on the Lake Tahoe...

  7. 75 FR 22892 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Woolford, Environmental Program Manager, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake...

  8. 75 FR 9476 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bryan Dillon, Area Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, UT...

  9. Students Who Transfer between Oregon Community Colleges and Oregon University System Institutions: What the Data Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ. System, Eugene. Office of Academic Affairs.

    This report provides a follow-up to the 1999 "Plan for Course and Credit Transfer Between Oregon Community Colleges and Oregon University System Institutions" by specifically responding to its call for ongoing data-collection and research efforts. The purposes of this report are as follows: (1) to summarize the results of four years of…

  10. Research and its Role in Planning for Climate Change: The Oregon Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, M. R.

    2008-12-01

    Oregon has an aggressive plan to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the next decades. The state also helped lead the formation of the Western Climate Initiative as part of a comprehensive strategy of emission reductions, cap-and-trade, as well as adaptation to climate change. In support of these plans, state and local agencies as well as Oregon businesses are looking to the research community to provide a broad range of data services and predictive models. The recently-established Oregon Global Warming Commission is developing its research agenda with a focus on 1) developing baseline observing systems to monitor the effectiveness of GHG reduction strategies as well as detect changes in critical climate and ecosystem properties and 2) constructing integrated, regional-scale models for projecting the course of climate change and testing various scenarios. Climate research would be part of a comprehensive decision support system on local and regional scales. Aside from the scientific challenges of regional-scale monitoring and prediction, this approach will challenge the academic research community and its traditional reliance on federally-funded three-year grants that typically focus on the basic science of physical and natural systems. We can no longer separate discovery from application, science from engineering, and natural science from socioeconomic science. I will present some of the experiences in Oregon as we develop new approaches to confront both the climate research challenges and our institutional challenges.

  11. Preliminary Results of Subsurface Exploration and Monitoring at the Johnson Creek Landslide, Lincoln County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, William H.; Ellis, William L.

    2007-01-01

    The Johnson Creek landslide is a translational, primarily bedrock landslide located along the Oregon coast about 5 km north of Newport. The landslide has damaged U.S. Highway 101 many times since construction of the highway and at least two geological and geotechnical investigations of the landslide have been performed by Oregon State agencies. In cooperation with the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries and the Oregon Department of Transportation, the U.S. Geological Survey upgraded landslide monitoring systems and installed additional monitoring devices at the landslide beginning in 2004. Monitoring devices at the landslide measured landslide displacement, rainfall, air temperature, shallow soil-water content, and ground-water temperature and pressure. The devices were connected to automatic dataloggers and read at one-hour and, more recently, 15-minute intervals. Monitoring results were periodically downloaded from the dataloggers using cellular telemetry. The purposes of this report are to describe and present preliminary monitoring data from November 19, 2004, to March 31, 2007.

  12. 78 FR 70941 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board AGENCY: Environmental... public teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board (GLAB). The purpose of the teleconference is to conclude discussions that will inform the development of a draft Great Lakes Restoration Initiative FY...

  13. 78 FR 42944 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Great Lakes Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Meeting of the Great Lakes Advisory Board AGENCY: Environmental... public meeting and teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board (GLAB). The meeting will be held on... Cestaric, Designated Federal Officer (DFO) for the Great Lakes Advisory Board by telephone at (312)...

  14. 78 FR 32645 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board AGENCY: Environmental... public teleconference of the Great Lakes Advisory Board (GLAB). The purpose of the teleconference is to continue discussions that will inform the development of a draft Great Lakes Restoration Initiative FY...

  15. Status and future of Lake Huron fish communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebener, M.P.; Johnson, J.E.; Reid, D.M.; Payne, N.P.; Argyle, R.L.; Wright, G.M.; Krueger, K.; Baker, J.P.; Morse, T.; Weise, J.; Munawar, M.; Edsall, T.; Leach, J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, fishery management agencies with jurisdiction over Lake Huron fish populations developed draft fish community objectives in response to the Joint Strategic Plan for Management of Great Lakes Fisheries. The Joint Strategic Plan charged the Great Lakes Fishery Commission sponsored Lake Huron Committee to define objectives for what the fish community of Lake Huron should look like in the future, and to develop means for measuring progress toward the objectives. The overall management objective for Lake Huron is to 'over the next two decades restore an ecologically balanced fish community dominated by top predators and consisting largely of self-sustaining, indigenous and naturalized species and capable of sustaining annual harvests of 8.9 million kg'. This paper represents the first attempt at consolidating current biological information from different management agencies on a lake-wide basis for the purpose of assessing the current status and dynamics of Lake Huron fishes.

  16. An Examination of State Accreditation Practices for Education Service Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert

    1990-01-01

    Describes the state networks of education service agencies (ESAs) in Georgia, Nebraska, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, and Wisconsin. Compares state ESA accreditation programs with regard to intent, evaluation methods, standards employed, use of performance indicators, and sanctions for poor performance. Contains 12 references. (SV)

  17. Oregon state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  18. Oregon state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administater, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Oregon. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  19. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. 71. MYRTLE CREED BRIDGE, OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199, AT END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. MYRTLE CREED BRIDGE, OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199, AT END OF STOUT GROVE ROAD. JOSEPHINE COUNTY, OREGON. LOOKING WNW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  1. 36. MYRTLE CREEK BRIDGE, OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199, AT END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. MYRTLE CREEK BRIDGE, OREGON STATE HIGHWAY 199, AT END OF STOUT GROVE ROAD. JOSEPHINE COUNTY, OREGON LOOKING WNW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  2. 1. General view of Oregon Electric Railway, view looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Oregon Electric Railway, view looking north at Hedges Creek trestle. - Oregon Electric Railroad, Hedges Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 38.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  3. Overview of the limnology of crater lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Crater Lake occupies the collapsed caldera of volcanic Mount Mazama in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon. It is the deepest lake (589 m) in the United States and the 7th deepest lake in the world. The water column mixes to a depth of about 200 m in winter and spring from wind energy and cooling. The deep lake is mixed in winter and early spring each year when relatively cold water near the surface sinks and exchanges positions with water in the deep basins of the lake. The lake becomes thermally stratified in summer and early fall. The metalimnion extends to a depth of about 100 m; thus most of the water column is a cold hypolimnion. Secchi disk clarity measurements typically are in the upper-20-m range to the low-30-m range in summer and early fall. Concentrations of nutrients are low, although conductivity is relatively high owing to the inflow of hydrothermal fluids. Total chlorophyll is low in concentration, but typically maximal at a depth of 120 m during periods of thermal stratification. Primary production also is low, with the maximum levels occurring between the depth of 40 and 80 m. Phytoplankton taxa are spatially segregated from each other within the water column to a depth of 200 m in summer and early fall. The same generalization applies to the Zooplankton taxa. Water level, clarity, concentrations of total chlorophyll, primary production, and abundances of zooplankton and introduced kokanee salmon exhibit long-term fluctuations. Based primarily on a recent 10-year study of the lake, the lake is considered to be pristine, except for the consequences of fish introductions. ?? 1996 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Overview of the limnology of Crater Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    Crater Lake occupies the collapsed caldera of volcanic Mount Mazama in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon. It is the deepest lake (589 m) in the United States and the 7th deepest lake in the world. The water column mixes to a depth of about 200 m in winter and spring from wind energy and cooling. The deep lake is mixed in winter and early spring each year when relatively cold water near the surface sinks and exchanges positions with water in the deep basins of the lake. The lake becomes thermally stratified in summer and early fall. The metalimnion extends to a depth of about 100 m; thus most of the water column is a cold hypolimnion. Secchi disk clarity measurements typically are in the upper-20-m range to the low-30-m range in summer and early fall. Concentrations of nutrients are low, although conductivity is relatively high owing to the inflow of hydrothermal fluids. Total chlorophyll is low in concentration, but typically maximal at a depth of 120 m during periods of thermal stratification. Primary production also is low, with the maximum levels occurring between the depth of 40 and 80 m. Phytoplankton taxa are spatially segregated from each other within the water column to a depth of 200 m in summer and early fall. The same generalization applies to the zooplankton taxa. Water level, clarity, concentrations of total chlorophyll, primary production, and abundances of zooplankton and introduced kokanee salmon exhibit long-term fluctuations. Based primarily on a recent 10-year study of the lake, the lake is considered to be pristine, except for the consequences of fish introductions.

  5. Lake Constance

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Lake Constance, Europe     View ... This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Lake Constance covers an area measuring 355 kilometers x 287 kilometers, and ... wastewater and fertilizers. This leads to overproduction of algae and aquatic plants, exhaustion of available oxygen, loss of some fish ...

  6. Oregon School and District Report Card Policy and Technical Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The school and district report cards were created by the 1999 Oregon Legislature. The legislation requires that the Oregon Department of Education (ODE) produce and issue a report card to all public schools and districts in the state. The report cards are designed to: (1) Communicate the many good things occurring in Oregon's public schools; (2)…

  7. Oregon geology - parent of the soil, foundation for the vine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray

    2006-01-01

    This presentation describes USGS geologic mapping in western Oregon, geologic map products, a thumbnail sketch of geologic history, a discussion of new mapping in progress in northwest Oregon, a tour of northwest Oregon geologic units, their relation to new American Viticultural Areas, and online sources of information.

  8. 33 CFR 117.887 - Oregon Slough (North Portland Harbor).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oregon Slough (North Portland... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.887 Oregon Slough (North Portland Harbor). The draw of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad bridge, mile 3.2...

  9. 33 CFR 117.887 - Oregon Slough (North Portland Harbor).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oregon Slough (North Portland... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.887 Oregon Slough (North Portland Harbor). The draw of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad bridge, mile 3.2...

  10. Lake restoration technology transfer assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Daschbach, M.H.; Roe, E.M.; Sharpe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    Based upon a review of the eutrophication problem and its impact on lake restoration (LR) programs, treatment of the relatively new problem of acid deposition and its impact on LR activities, consideration of the LR programs of the Environmental Protection Agency and several states, and a review of individual LR technology transfer publications, it is recommended that new LR technology transfer programs be given a low priority until more new information is available on the restoration of acidified lakes. Both primary and secondary users of LR research, technology transfer documents, and public awareness documents were considered in this assessment. Primary users included the general public and recreationists, lakeshore property owners, lake/homeowner associations, lake/sanitary districts, and research and environmental organizations; secondary users included state/county/local officials who administer/manage water-related regulations/activities. 4 tables.

  11. Paleofire severity and vegetation change in the Cascade Range, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minckley, Thomas A.; Long, Colin J.

    2016-03-01

    Paleoecological research has expanded our knowledge of the relationships between climate, fire and vegetation. Fire can be a significant driver of forest composition and structure change, but identifying and quantifying fire regimes has been elusive. Using high-resolution charcoal analysis and pollen analysis we reconstructed a 13,200-year-old fire and vegetation history from Breitenbush Lake, Oregon, located in the central Cascade Range, USA. Our objective was to examine if fire occurrence and severity may have been a driver of Holocene forest-composition change. The data from this study suggests that while fire can create opportunities for successional process to occur, fire events were not significant catalysts for forest change. Instead, most major transitions at Breitenbush Lake occurred during prolonged fire-free intervals. Our results reinforce the view that climate is the major control of vegetation composition change in the Cascade Range.

  12. Stratigraphic development and hydrothermal activity in the central western Cascade Range, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, M.L.; Bull, M.K. ); Pollock, J.M. ); Thompson, G.D. )

    1990-11-10

    Two volcanic sequences bounded by erosional unconformities compose the stratigraphy of the North Santiam mining district, Western Cascade Range, Oregon. Diorite, grandodiorite, and leucocratic quartz porphyry dikes, stocks, and sills intrude the breccias, flows, and tuffs of a volcanic center in the older Sardine Formation. Tourmaline-bearing breccia pipes are associated with the porphyritic granodiorite intrusions. An erosional unconformity separates the Sardine Formation from the overlying Elk Lake formation. The alteration patterns in the two formations are consistent with the development of hydrothermal systems during the eruption of each formation. However, the development of the two hydrothermal systems is separated by a period of erosion of the older volcanic pile. Early formation of mineralization that resembles porphyry copper deposits occurred within the Sardine Formation, and later, after eruption of the Elk Lake formation, epithermal veins and alteration developed along faults, fractures, and the margins of dikes in the Sardine Formation.

  13. 76 FR 13508 - Ninth Coast Guard District Sector Realignment; Northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 3 RIN 1625-ZA29 Ninth Coast Guard District Sector Realignment; Northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final Rule. SUMMARY: This rule makes..., call or e-mail Mr. Doug McCann, Ninth District Resources Planning Branch, U.S. Coast Guard,...

  14. 77 FR 39638 - Safety Zone; Barbara Harder Wedding Fireworks, Lake Erie, Lake View, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Barbara Harder Wedding Fireworks, Lake Erie, Lake View, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  15. 75 FR 34934 - Safety Zone; Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a 700-foot radius safety zone on the navigable waters of Buggs Island...

  16. Chapter 6. Impacts of Climate Change on Oregon's Coasts and Estuaries in "Oregon Climate Change Assessment Report"

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2007 the Oregon legislature created a new Oregon Climate Change Research Institute (OCCRI), which is based at Oregon State University (OSU). As part of its charter, OCCRI is mandated to produce a biennial report for the state legislature synthesizing climate change impacts a...

  17. Creating Open Textbooks: A Unique Partnership between Oregon State University Libraries and Press and Open Oregon State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwell, Faye A.; Fisher, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents Oregon State University's experience launching an innovative Open Textbook initiative in spring 2014. The partners, Open Oregon State and the Oregon State University Libraries and Press, aimed to reduce the cost of course materials for students while ensuring the content created was peer-reviewed and employed multimedia…

  18. Oregon's Juvenile Psychiatric Security Review Board.

    PubMed

    Newman, Stewart S; Buckley, Mary Claire; Newman, Senia Pickering; Bloom, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the Oregon Legislature passed a bill modifying the existing Psychiatric Security Review Board (PRSB) statute, creating a juvenile panel for management of juvenile insanity acquittees. Dubbed the Juvenile PSRB (JPSRB), it borrows heavily from the 30 years of experience of its adult predecessor. Statutory language was also modified to create a plea of "responsible except for insanity" for juveniles in Oregon. The authors discuss the similarities of the JPSRB to the adult PSRB system and highlight the differences that take into account the unique needs of juvenile defendants. They go on to discuss potential problems foreseen with implementation of the JPSRB system and to recommend possible solutions.

  19. 78 FR 19523 - General Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... National Park Service General Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National Recreation Area and Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument, Texas AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Impact Statement for the General Management Plan, Lake Meredith National Recreation Area and......

  20. A SCREENING-LEVEL MODEL EVALUATION OF ATRAZINE IN THE LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine, a widely used herbicide in the agricultural regions of the Lake Michigan basin, was selected as a priority toxic chemical study in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) - sponsored Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project.

  1. Currents and Undercurrents: An Administrative History of Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Kathryn L.; Renk, Nancy F.

    The 1,259-mile Columbia River flows out of Canada and across eastern Washington state, forming the border between Washington and Oregon. In 1941 the federal government dammed the Columbia River at the north end of Grand Coulee, creating a man-made reservoir named Lake Roosevelt that inundated homes, farms, and businesses, and disrupted the lives…

  2. 40 CFR 81.338 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Study Marion County (part) 3/2/09 Polk County (part) 3/2/09 AQCR 190 Remainder of Central Oregon Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Crook County Deschutes County Hood River County Jefferson County Klamath...) Salem Area: Salem Area Transportation Study Marion County (part) (2) Nonattainment (2) Incomplete...

  3. 40 CFR 81.338 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Study Marion County (part) 3/2/09 Polk County (part) 3/2/09 AQCR 190 Remainder of Central Oregon Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Crook County Deschutes County Hood River County Jefferson County Klamath...) Salem Area: Salem Area Transportation Study Marion County (part) (2) Nonattainment (2) Incomplete...

  4. Marketing Cluster Brief. [Vocational Education in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamps, Margaret McDonnall

    This guide sets forth minimum approval criteria for marketing/distributive education programs in Oregon. The information in the guide is intended for use by district-level curriculum planners, teachers, regional coordinators, or state education department staff involved with new program development or revisions of existing programs. The guide…

  5. 40 CFR 81.425 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...,476 88-577 USDA-FS Gearhart Mountain Wild 18,709 88-577 USDA-FS Hells Canyon Wild 1 108,900 94-199... Hells Canyon Wilderness, 192,700 acres overall, of which 108,900 acres are in Oregon, and 83,800...

  6. 40 CFR 81.425 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...,476 88-577 USDA-FS Gearhart Mountain Wild 18,709 88-577 USDA-FS Hells Canyon Wild 1 108,900 94-199... Hells Canyon Wilderness, 192,700 acres overall, of which 108,900 acres are in Oregon, and 83,800...

  7. 40 CFR 81.425 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...,476 88-577 USDA-FS Gearhart Mountain Wild 18,709 88-577 USDA-FS Hells Canyon Wild 1 108,900 94-199... Hells Canyon Wilderness, 192,700 acres overall, of which 108,900 acres are in Oregon, and 83,800...

  8. 40 CFR 81.425 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...,476 88-577 USDA-FS Gearhart Mountain Wild 18,709 88-577 USDA-FS Hells Canyon Wild 1 108,900 94-199... Hells Canyon Wilderness, 192,700 acres overall, of which 108,900 acres are in Oregon, and 83,800...

  9. Oregon University System Fact Book 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon University System, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This compendium of narrative and statistical information is an overview of the Oregon University System (OUS) and is produced every two years. The introduction includes a mission and vision statement, OUS Governance Change Move, a listing of OUS campuses and centers, a roster of the members of the State Board of Higher Education, and Access and…

  10. Oregon University System Fact Book 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon University System, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This compendium of narrative and statistical information is an overview of the Oregon University System (OUS) and is produced every two years. The introduction includes a mission and vision statement, strategic priorities, a listing of OUS campuses and centers, a roster of the members of the State Board of Higher Education, OUS degree partnership…

  11. Oregon University System Fact Book 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon University System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This compendium of narrative and statistical information is an overview of the Oregon University System (OUS) and is produced every two years. The introduction includes a mission and vision statement, OUS Governance Change Proposal, a listing of OUS campuses and centers, a roster of the members of the State Board of Higher Education, and Access…

  12. Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse: Third Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Library, Salem. Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse.

    The Oregon Intellectual Freedom Clearinghouse received reports of formal challenges to 25 books and 1 recording during the time period between July 1, 1989, and June 30, 1990. It is noted that 17 of the challenged items were held by public libraries and 9 by school library media centers, with 21 items designated as children's and young adult…

  13. 76 FR 18288 - Oregon Disaster #OR-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... State of Oregon (FEMA-1964- DR), dated 03/25/2011. Incident: Tsunami Wave Surge. Incident Period: 03/11/2011. Effective Date: 03/25/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 05/24/2011. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date: 12/27/2011. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to:...

  14. Oregon Extension Volunteers: Partners in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braker, Marjorie J.; Leno, Janice R.; Pratt, Clara C.; Grobe, Deana

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 969 (of 2,552) Oregon Extension volunteers revealed personal benefits, including gains in knowledge, self-confidence, and interpersonal relationships. Community benefits were noted by more than one third. A few noted economic benefits (increased job skills and useful contacts). The costs of volunteering were perceived as low…

  15. Echoes of Oregon, 1837-1859.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Office of the Secretary of State, Salem. Archives Div.

    Teaching history with original documents is a stimulus for the inquiry method of learning. A curriculum packet produced by the Oregon State Archives contains 24 historical document facsimiles with an accompanying instructors manual. Selected from the state archives with an explanation of each document and questions for discussion provided, the…

  16. Oregon Students Help Prepare Impact Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Tom

    1973-01-01

    Describes a field-biology research project conducted at Coos Bay, Oregon by high school students attending the summer sessions at Terramar Field Science Facility during the summer of 1972. Discusses the value of this type of environmental survey for both the students and the community. (JR)

  17. 40 CFR 81.338 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... is a maintenance area for the 1-hour NAAQS for purposes of 40 CFR part 51 subpart X. Oregon—PM-10... otherwise noted. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 81.338 see the List of CFR... Remainder of Southwest Oregon Unclassifiable/Attainment Coos County Curry County Douglas County...

  18. Guiding RTI System Implementation: The Oregon Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, David L., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the factors that made their response to intervention (RTI) project in Oregon successful. Primarily, these include school-based factors such as the initial collective skill and knowledge in a district, the degree to which the foundations of a multi-tiered instructional model and data-based decision making are…

  19. 40 CFR 81.425 - Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...,476 88-577 USDA-FS Gearhart Mountain Wild 18,709 88-577 USDA-FS Hells Canyon Wild 1 108,900 94-199... Hells Canyon Wilderness, 192,700 acres overall, of which 108,900 acres are in Oregon, and 83,800...

  20. Directory and Statistics of Oregon Libraries 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheppke, Jim, Comp.; Vogt, Valerie, Comp.

    This report provides directory and statistical information that characterizes libraries in Oregon, profiling each library within its appropriate library type, i.e., public, academic, special, or state. Each of the four sections provides directory information (e.g., the library's address, telephone number, and contact librarian) and statistical…

  1. Ice and water on Newberry Volcano, central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.; O'Connor, Jim; Madin, Ian P.; Dorsey, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Newberry Volcano in central Oregon is dry over much of its vast area, except for the lakes in the caldera and the single creek that drains them. Despite the lack of obvious glacial striations and well-formed glacial moraines, evidence indicates that Newberry was glaciated. Meter-sized foreign blocks, commonly with smoothed shapes, are found on cinder cones as far as 7 km from the caldera rim. These cones also show evidence of shaping by flowing ice. In addition, multiple dry channels likely cut by glacial meltwater are common features of the eastern and western flanks of the volcano. On the older eastern flank of the volcano, a complex depositional and erosional history is recorded by lava flows, some of which flowed down channels, and interbedded sediments of probable glacial origin. Postglacial lava flows have subsequently filled some of the channels cut into the sediments. The evidence suggests that Newberry Volcano has been subjected to multiple glaciations.

  2. Geothermal aquaculture project: Real Property Systems Inc. , Harney Basin, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-14

    Real Property Systems Inc., (RPS) owns two parcels in the vicinity of Harney Lake, Oregon. One parcel is 120 acres in size, the other is 200 acres. A study concludes that the 200 acre parcel has the greater potential for geothermal development. RPS is interested in an aquaculture operation that produces fresh water prawns, (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) for the market. To supply the heat necessary to maintain the ideal temperature of 82/sup 0/F desired for these prawns, a geothermal resource having a 150/sup 0/F temperature or higher, is needed. The best estimate is that 150/sup 0/F water can be found from a minimum 1090 feet depth to 2625 feet, with no absolute assurances that sufficient quantities of geothermal waters exist without drilling for the same. This study undertakes the preliminary determination of project economics so that a decision can be made whether or not to proceed with exploratory drilling. The study is based on 10 acres of ponds, with a peak requirement of 2500 gpm of 150/sup 0/F geothermal water.

  3. Probabilistic, Seismically-Induced Landslide Hazard Mapping of Western Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, M. J.; Sharifi Mood, M.; Gillins, D. T.; Mahalingam, R.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake-induced landslides can generate significant damage within urban communities by damaging structures, obstructing lifeline connection routes and utilities, generating various environmental impacts, and possibly resulting in loss of life. Reliable hazard and risk maps are important to assist agencies in efficiently allocating and managing limited resources to prepare for such events. This research presents a new methodology in order to communicate site-specific landslide hazard assessments in a large-scale, regional map. Implementation of the proposed methodology results in seismic-induced landslide hazard maps that depict the probabilities of exceeding landslide displacement thresholds (e.g. 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 10 meters). These maps integrate a variety of data sources including: recent landslide inventories, LIDAR and photogrammetric topographic data, geology map, mapped NEHRP site classifications based on available shear wave velocity data in each geologic unit, and USGS probabilistic seismic hazard curves. Soil strength estimates were obtained by evaluating slopes present along landslide scarps and deposits for major geologic units. Code was then developed to integrate these layers to perform a rigid, sliding block analysis to determine the amount and associated probabilities of displacement based on each bin of peak ground acceleration in the seismic hazard curve at each pixel. The methodology was applied to western Oregon, which contains weak, weathered, and often wet soils at steep slopes. Such conditions have a high landslide hazard even without seismic events. A series of landslide hazard maps highlighting the probabilities of exceeding the aforementioned thresholds were generated for the study area. These output maps were then utilized in a performance based design framework enabling them to be analyzed in conjunction with other hazards for fully probabilistic-based hazard evaluation and risk assessment. a) School of Civil and Construction

  4. 75 FR 12563 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days... Management, 333 S.W. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. A person or party who wishes... the Oregon/Washington State Director, Bureau of Land Management, Portland, Oregon. FOR...

  5. 77 FR 57111 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days... Management, Oregon/Washington State Office, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment..., Portland, Oregon. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kyle Hensley, (503) 808-6124, Branch of...

  6. 77 FR 51822 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days.../Washington State Office, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. A person or party... address) with the Oregon/Washington State Director, Bureau of Land Management, Portland, Oregon....

  7. 76 FR 52012 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days..., 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. A person or party who wishes to... Oregon/Washington State Director, Bureau of Land Management, Portland, Oregon. FOR FURTHER...

  8. 75 FR 67767 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days..., 333 S.W. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. A person or party who wishes to... Oregon/Washington State Director, Bureau of Land Management, Portland, Oregon. FOR FURTHER...

  9. 78 FR 28239 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days from the... Room at the Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204... Geographic Sciences, Bureau of Land Management, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204. Persons who ]...

  10. 75 FR 28647 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days... Management, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. A person or party who wishes... the Oregon/Washington State Director, Bureau of Land Management, Portland, Oregon. FOR...

  11. 75 FR 78266 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days.../Washington State Office, 333 S.W. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. A person or... address) with the Oregon/Washington State Director, Bureau of Land Management, Portland, Oregon....

  12. 77 FR 1947 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days..., 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon ] required payment. A person or party who wishes to... Oregon/Washington State Director, Bureau of Land Management, Portland, Oregon. FOR FURTHER...

  13. 78 FR 19521 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days from the... of Land Management, Oregon State Office, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required..., Bureau of Land Management, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204. Persons who use...

  14. 78 FR 14352 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days from the... Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required..., Bureau of Land Management, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204. Persons who use...

  15. 75 FR 4103 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days..., Bureau of Land Management, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. A person or... address) with the Oregon/Washington State Director, Bureau of Land Management, Portland, Oregon....

  16. 78 FR 51206 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days from the... Land Management, Oregon State Office, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment... of Land Management, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204. Persons who use a...

  17. 75 FR 21344 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days... the Oregon/Washington State Office, Bureau of Land Management, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon... of Land Management, Portland, Oregon. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Chief, Branch of...

  18. 77 FR 66477 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office, ] Portland, Oregon, 30 days from the... Management, Oregon State Office, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. FOR... Management, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204. Persons who use a telecommunications device for...

  19. 77 FR 15796 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days... Management, Oregon/Washington State Office, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment..., Portland, Oregon. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kyle Hensley, (503) 808-6124, Branch of...

  20. 76 FR 12752 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days... State Office, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon ] required payment. A person or party who...) with the Oregon/Washington State Director, Bureau of Land Management, Portland, Oregon. FOR...

  1. 76 FR 66322 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days... Land Management, Oregon/Washington State Office, 333 SW., 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon... Management, Portland, Oregon. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kyle Hensley, (503) 808-6124, Branch...

  2. 76 FR 64101 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days..., 333 SW., 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. A person or party who wishes to... Oregon/Washington State Director, Bureau of Land Management, Portland, Oregon. FOR FURTHER...

  3. 76 FR 61114 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days..., 333 S.W. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. A person or party who wishes to... Oregon/Washington State Director, Bureau of Land Management, Portland, Oregon. FOR FURTHER...

  4. 77 FR 10555 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days.../Washington State Office, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. A person or party... address) with the Oregon/Washington State Director, Bureau of Land Management, Portland, Oregon....

  5. 77 FR 23749 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days... the Bureau of Land Management, Oregon/Washington State Office, 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon... of Land Management, Portland, Oregon. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kyle Hensley, (503)...

  6. 76 FR 41515 - Filing of Plats of Survey; Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days..., 333 SW. 1st Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204, upon required payment. A person or party who wishes to... Oregon/Washington State Director, Bureau of Land Management, Portland, Oregon. FOR FURTHER...

  7. The sulfur cycle in a permanently meromictic haloalkaline lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkart, Holly C.; Simonsen, Brita; Peyton, Brent; Mormile, Melanie

    2006-08-01

    Soap Lake is a haloalkaline lake located in central Washington. This lake is a remnant of the Missoula flood events that created the landscape of western Montana, the southeastern portion of Washington state, and much of Oregon. It is 15,000 - 20,000 years old, and has maintained a stable meromixis for the last 10,000 years. This carbonate lake is characterized by a brackish mixolimnion, and a monimolimnion with a salinity of ~14%. The pH of both layers of the lake is approximately 10. Both layers also have a high concentration of dissolved sulfate, with the mineral mirabilite (Na IISO 4•10H IIO) found in the monimolimnion sediments. Sulfide concentrations in the monimolimnion exceed 100 mM. As part of the mission of the NSF Soap Lake Microbial Observatory, microorganisms involved in the sulfur cycle in this lake were studied in terms of their diversity and function. High rates of sulfate reduction were measured in both layers of the lake, with new species of sulfate-reducing bacteria seen in both areas. A particularly novel psychrophilic sulfur oxidizer was isolated from the monimolimnion. This organism has the ability to induce the formation of mirabilite, which was assumed to be an abiotically deposited evaporite mineral. This is the first evidence for a biogenic origin of this mineral. This leads to the possibility that related sulfate minerals, such as those reported on the Mars surface, may have a biogenic origin.

  8. Principles of lake sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

  9. Directions for the Future: Summary of the Conference on Community Colleges-Community Schools (University of Oregon, July 24-28, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Dale

    The Directions for the Future Conference focused on the roles, responsibilities, and challenges of developing a working relationship among community colleges and community agencies in realizing the total mission of education. The conference was co-sponsored by the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges and the University of Oregon's…

  10. 76 FR 45605 - Notice of Application for a Recordable Disclaimer of Interest for Lands Underlying Whitefish Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Underlying Whitefish Lake and Its Outlet in Alaska AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... Whitefish Lake and its outlet in southwestern Alaska. The State asserts that Whitefish Lake and its outlet... to the State at the time of statehood (1959). The lake and its outlet are partially within...

  11. Lake Powell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The white ring around Lake Powell tells the story. The surface is down 98 feet. This is critical, because Powell, Lake Mead, and other lakes along the Colorado River provide water for millions of people in five states. We are in the eighth year of a drought on the Colorado River. This year was the driest year ever reported in Southern California, and there is a severe drought in Northern California, down to less than 30-percent of snow pack. This ASTER image of part of Lake Powell was acquired in 2001. The gray area depicts the shrunken, reduced 2007 lake extent compared to the extended, larger black area in 2001.

    The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km, and is centered near 37.1 degrees north latitude, 111.3 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Hydrology, water quality, and nutrient loads to Lake Catherine and Channel Lake, near Antioch, Lake County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Johnson, Gary P.; Schrader, David L.

    2000-01-01

    From April 21, 1998, through April 30, 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fox Waterway Agency, conducted an investigation designed to characterize the hydrology, water quality, hydrologic budget, sediment budget, and nutrient budget of Lake Catherine and Channel Lake, Lake County, Illinois. These lakes are the northernmost lakes of the Fox Chain of Lakes. Lake Catherine and Channel Lake are divided into two basins by a submerged ridge but are continuous at the surface. The lakes are marginally to moderately eutrophic. Lake Catherine and Channel Lake have a combined volume of 7,098 acre-feet at a stage of about 736.5 feet above sea level. Lake Catherine and Channel Lake are subject to thermal stratification. Although most of the water in the lakes is well oxidized, nearly anoxic conditions were present at the bottom of Lake Catherine and Channel Lake during part of the summer in 1998. Water enters Lake Catherine and Channel Lake as inflow from surface water in the watershed (61.9 percent), inflow through the State Highway 173 bridge openings (20.7 percent), direct precipitation (8.2 percent), inflow from storm drains (7.2 percent), and inflow of ground water (2.0 percent). Water exits Lake Catherine and Channel Lake as outflow through the State Highway 173 bridge openings (87.8 percent), evaporation (7.2 percent), and as outflow to ground water (5.0 percent). About 5,200 pounds of phosphorus and 107,200 pounds of nitrogen compounds were added to the lakes during the period of investigation. Phosphorus compounds were derived from primarily internal regeneration (40.2 percent), inflow from surface water in the watershed (30.9 percent), inflow from storm drains (12.5 percent), and inflow through the State Highway 173 bridge openings (9.8 percent). Inflowing ground water, waterfowl excrement, precipitation, and atmospheric deposition of particulate matter account for 6.6 percent of the phosphorus load. Nitrogen was derived from inflow of surface

  13. 75 FR 44975 - Notice of Intent To Solicit Nominations, Western Oregon Resource Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Pam Robbins, Oregon/Washington Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office, PO Box 2965, Portland, Oregon 97208, (503) 808-6306; pam_robbins@blm.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  14. Geology of Newberry National Volcanic Monument, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Jensen, R. A.; Robinson, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic geology is the dominant theme at Newberry National Volcanic Monument in central Oregon. Established almost 25 years ago, the NNVM (like the Mt. St. Helens National Volcanic Monument) is managed by the U.S. Forest Service. The monument encompasses some 90 square miles in Deschutes National Forest of the 1200-sq-mi Newberry Volcano, including the 4x5 mi scenic central caldera and the volcano's youngest lava flow, the 1300-yr-old Big Obsidian Flow. The seismically-monitored Newberry Volcano is considered by the USGS to be a very high threat volcano, with the potential to impact adjacent populations in Bend, Sunriver, and LaPine and damage infrastructure including highways, railroads, and power lines. Unspectacular from a distance, the broad shield shape of Newberry Volcano hides the abundance and youthfulness of volcanic activity. Included in NNVM are 7-ka basalt to andesite lavas of the Northwest Rift Zone (NWRZ) that erupted from spatter and cinder cones over a N-S distance of 20 miles and temporarily blocked the flow of the adjacent Deschutes River. These well-exposed lavas are post-Mazama in age, having erupted after a blanket of ash and pumice was deposited on the volcano when Mt. Mazama erupted at 7.7 ka to form Crater Lake. Images from lidar data obtained in 2011 clearly display the post-Mazama lavas, which not only are unmantled by the tephra, but also lack the thick forest that has grown in the tephra further obscuring many of the youthful volcanic features across this massive rear-arc Cascades volcano. NNVM features interpretive trails at the Big Obsidian Flow in the caldera and at Lava Cast Forest and Lava Butte flow along the NWRZ. Also within the monument are two of the premier drivable viewpoints in Oregon, on Lava Butte and at the 7984-ft top of Paulina Peak on the rim of the caldera. On a clear day, views from Paulina Peak encompass much of the High Cascades, extending from Mt. Shasta in California to Mt. Adams in Washington.

  15. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    This report is temporarily unavailableSummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  16. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  17. Unusual bacterioplankton community structure in ultra-oligotrophic Crater Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urbach, Ena; Vergin, Kevin L.; Morse, Ariel

    2001-01-01

    The bacterioplankton assemblage in Crater Lake, Oregon (U.S.A.), is different from communities found in other oxygenated lakes, as demonstrated by four small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene clone libraries and oligonucleotide probe hybridization to RNA from lake water. Populations in the euphotic zone of this deep (589 m), oligotrophic caldera lake are dominated by two phylogenetic clusters of currently uncultivated bacteria: CL120-10, a newly identified cluster in the verrucomicrobiales, and ACK4 actinomycetes, known as a minor constituent of bacterioplankton in other lakes. Deep-water populations at 300 and 500 m are dominated by a different pair of uncultivated taxa: CL500-11, a novel cluster in the green nonsulfur bacteria, and group I marine crenarchaeota. b-Proteobacteria, dominant in most other freshwater environments, are relatively rare in Crater Lake (<=16% of nonchloroplast bacterial rRNA at all depths). Other taxa identified in Crater Lake libraries include a newly identified candidate bacterial division, ABY1, and a newly identified subcluster, CL0-1, within candidate division OP10. Probe analyses confirmed vertical stratification of several microbial groups, similar to patterns observed in open-ocean systems. Additional similarities between Crater Lake and ocean microbial populations include aphotic zone dominance of group I marine crenarchaeota and green nonsulfur bacteria. Comparison of Crater Lake to other lakes studied by rRNA methods suggests that selective factors structuring Crater Lake bacterioplankton populations may include low concentrations of available trace metals and dissolved organic matter, chemistry of infiltrating hydrothermal waters, and irradiation by high levels of ultraviolet light.

  18. WENAHA TUCANNON WILDERNESS, WASHINGTON AND OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Donald A.; Munts, Steven R.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral survey conducted in the Wenaha Tucannon Wilderness, southeast Washington and northeast Oregon, indicates little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Thin seams of low-grade coal possibly occur in the subsurface in the southeast corner of the wilderness. Additional study of the pre-Tertiary rocks north of the wilderness might reveal important features to aid in further evaluating the pre-Tertiary rocks in the northern tip of the wilderness.

  19. Acid deposition: Processes of Lake Acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Panel on Processes of Lake Acidification was assembled by the National Research Council at the request of the Environmental Protection Agency. The panel was charged with discussing the processes that control the rate of acidification of streams and lakes and to suggest how EPA's research program might approach addressing current deficiencies in knowledge. The panel defined the acidification of lakes and streams as a decrease in alkalinity over time. Soil acidification is the decrease in the percent base saturation over time. The panel concurred that in forested watersheds that are underlain by granitic or other highly siliceous bedrock with acidic forest soils not receiving appreciable acid deposition, most lakes and streams have bicarbonate as the dominant anion and pH levels above 5.5. Generally, lakes and streams in similar habitats but in areas receiving appreciable acid deposition have sulfate as the dominant anion.

  20. Chemical and morphological comparison of erionite from Oregon, North Dakota, and Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowers, Heather; Adams, David T.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Nutt, Constance J.

    2010-01-01

    Erionite, a fibrous zeolite, occurs in pediment gravel deposits near Killdeer Mountain, North Dakota. Material from these pediment deposits has been excavated for use as roadbed throughout Dunn County, North Dakota. Erionite also occurs in the Cappadocian region of Turkey, where a link between malignant mesothelioma and inhalation of this mineral has been established. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compare the chemistry and morphology of erionite collected from the Killdeer Mountains to those collected from villages in Turkey and from Rome, Oregon, which has also been linked to disease in animal studies.

  1. Corrosion prevention of Oregon's reinforced coastal bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Cryer. C.B; Gallardo, M. L.

    2004-06-01

    The Oregon Department of Transportation (Oregon DOT) maintains more than 120 coastal bridges; many are reinforced concrete structures over 15 m (50 ft) in length. Twelve of these bridges are historic structures. Oregon DOT is concerned about the ongoing deterioration of these bridges, rising maintenance and repair costs, and the need to protect Oregon’s large investment in coastal bridges. Over 80,000 m2 (850,000 ft2) of coastal bridge surface have been repaired and protected from further chloride-induced corrosion damage by using conductive coating anodes. Most of the anode area is thermal-sprayed (TS) Zn. Other anode materials include TS Ti, Zn-hydrogel, and conductive carbon paint. TS Zn anodes are estimated to have a service life exceeding 25 years but exhibit increasing anode polarization with age. Catalyzed TS Ti anodes develop no significant anode polarization and have exhibited stable long-term performance over 8 years of service. Galvanic Zn-hydrogel anodes produce a stable protection current with no evidence of aging effects over 6 years of service. The conductive carbon paint anode operates at a low anode current density and consumption rate with a low rate of acidification at the anode-concrete interface, which has contributed to a stable protection current over 17 years of service.

  2. Petroleum potential of Oregon and Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The states of Oregon and Washington border the Pacific Ocean within an area of diverse topography, climate, and vegetation with altitudes ranging from sea level to more than 8,000 ft. The Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks are quasi-eugeosynclinal but badly indurated and/or metamorphosed, implying that almost all the pre-Tertiary rocks were unfavorable for oil and gas except some 700 mi{sup 2} of outcropping Mesozoic rocks exposed through windows in the overlying volcanics along the SW extension of the Blue and the Klamath mountains, accordingly. A profound angular and erosional unconformity separates the Tertiary sediments and volcanics from the older rocks. During Late Mesozoic and Tertiary time, uplift accompanied by erosion caused the removal of large areas of metamorphosed sediments and the development of pre-Miocene surface of large relief. Crustal movements of Late Miocene age produced NW-SE folds in Washington, and NS folds in the Coast range of Oregon. Some of the exploration methods (excluding wildcat drilling) were inconvenient. Seismic and gravity methods are impeded, the first by glacial till, basalt flows, sills, and dikes, and the second by laccoliths. Although the region is not the best place for hustling, drilling activity for development of potential oil and gas ushered 78% success rate in Oregon, and Shell and Exxon earned significant bonus bids in Washington.

  3. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    The following subjects are covered: Oregons' geothermal potential, exploration methods and costs, drilling, utilization methods, economic factors of direct use projects, and legal and institutional setting. (MHR)

  4. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, W.J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Marsh, S.B.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical charac-teristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measure-ments of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series graphs of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive infor-mation for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake's watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks.

  5. 77 FR 32089 - Establishment of the Great Lakes Advisory Board (GLAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ..., agricultural groups, citizen groups, environmental justice groups, foundations, academia and state, local and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Establishment of the Great Lakes Advisory Board (GLAB) AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  6. A Digital Elevation Model for Seaside, Oregon: Procedures, Data Sources, and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturato, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    As part of a pilot study to modernize Flood Insurance Rate Maps for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), a digital elevation model (DEM) was developed for the purpose of modeling tsunami inundation for Seaside, Oregon. The DEM consists of elevation data values with a horizontal grid spacing of 1/3 arc seconds, or approximately 10 meters. The DEM was generated from several topographic and bathymetric data sources, requiring significant processing challenges. These challenges included conversion to a single specified projection, units, horizontal datum, and vertical datum; analysis and removal of errant data from hydrographic, topographic, and LIDAR surveys; and a point-by-point analysis of overlapping data sources. Data were collected from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Ocean Service and National Geophysical Data Center, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Oregon Geospatial Data Center, the University of Oregon, and the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries. Data were converted into formats compatible with ESRI ArcGIS 3.3 software. ArcGIS was used for spatial analysis, error correction, and surface grid development using triangular irregular networking. Post-processing involved a consistency analysis and comparison with original data and control data sources. The final DEM was compared with a previous DEM developed for tsunami inundation modeling in 1997. Significant shoreline differences were found between the DEMs, resulting in an analysis of the shoreline changes around the mouth of the Necanicum River. The shoreline analysis includes a spatial analysis of digital orthophotos over the recent past and a review of historical accretion and erosion rates along the Columbia River littoral cell.

  7. Evaluation of alternative groundwater-management strategies for the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Brian J.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2014-01-01

    The water resources of the upper Klamath Basin, in southern Oregon and northern California, are managed to achieve various complex and interconnected purposes. Since 2001, irrigators in the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Irrigation Project (Project) have been required to limit surface-water diversions to protect habitat for endangered freshwater and anadromous fishes. The reductions in irrigation diversions have led to an increased demand for groundwater by Project irrigators, particularly in drought years. The potential effects of sustained pumping on groundwater and surface-water resources have caused concern among Federal and state agencies, Indian tribes, wildlife groups, and groundwater users. To aid in the development of a viable groundwater-management strategy for the Project, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Klamath Water and Power Agency and the Oregon Water Resources Department, developed a groundwater-management model that links groundwater simulation with techniques of constrained optimization. The overall goal of the groundwater-management model is to determine the patterns of groundwater pumping that, to the extent possible, meet the supplemental groundwater demands of the Project. To ensure that groundwater development does not adversely affect groundwater and surface-water resources, the groundwater-management model includes constraints to (1) limit the effects of groundwater withdrawal on groundwater discharge to streams and lakes that support critical habitat for fish listed under the Endangered Species Act, (2) ensure that drawdowns do not exceed limits allowed by Oregon water law, and (3) ensure that groundwater withdrawal does not adversely affect agricultural drain flows that supply a substantial portion of water for irrigators and wildlife refuges in downslope areas of the Project. Groundwater-management alternatives were tested and designed within the framework of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (currently [2013

  8. Evaluation of organic compounds and trace elements in Amazon Creek Basin, Oregon, September 1990. Water resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Rinella, F.A.

    1993-12-31

    In September 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lane Council of Governments and the city of Eugene, conducted a reconnaissance study of water quality in Amazon Creek, Oregon. The purpose of the study was to identify the extent of trace-element and organic-compound contamination within the Basin. Water and bottom-sediment samples were collected during a summer low-flow condition and analyzed for different classes of organic compounds, including many from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s priority pollutant list. Bottom-sediment samples also were analyzed for trace elements typically associated with urban runoff.

  9. DIGITAL ATLAS OF LAKE TEXOMA (CD-ROM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers worked together to create a Digital Atlas of Lake Texoma. The Digital Atlas of Lake Texoma contains 29 digital map data sets covering Cooke and Grayson Counties in Texas, and Bryan,...

  10. 77 FR 24729 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: For... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage...

  11. 78 FR 5474 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage...

  12. 76 FR 61074 - Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee (LTFAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    .... This Committee, established by the Secretary of Agriculture on December 15, 1998 (64 FR 2876), is... Forest Service Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee (LTFAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lake Tahoe Federal Advisory Committee will hold a meeting on October...

  13. 76 FR 15935 - Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ..., 1998 (64 FR 2876), is chartered to provide advice to the Secretary on implementing the terms of the... Forest Service Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lake Tahoe Federal Advisory Committee (LTFAC) will hold meetings on March...

  14. 78 FR 38725 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: For access to the docket to read documents or comments related to this... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage...

  15. 78 FR 54264 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ..., issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: For access to the docket to read documents or... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee management; notice of Federal Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage...

  16. 76 FR 62038 - Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee (LTFAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ..., 1998 (64 FR 2876), is chartered to provide advice to the Secretary on implementing the terms of the... Forest Service Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee (LTFAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting cancellation. SUMMARY: The Lake Tahoe Federal Advisory Committee meeting that was to...

  17. 77 FR 11485 - Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee (LTFAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Committee, established by the Secretary of Agriculture on December 15, 1998 (64 FR 2876), is chartered to... Forest Service Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee (LTFAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lake Tahoe Federal Advisory Committee will hold a meeting on March...

  18. 77 FR 2948 - Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee (LTFAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ..., established by the Secretary of Agriculture on December 15, 1998 (64 FR 2876), is chartered to provide advice... Forest Service Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee (LTFAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lake Tahoe Federal Advisory Committee will hold a meeting on February...

  19. 77 FR 9879 - Safety Zone; Lake Pontchartrain, New Orleans, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Pontchartrain, New Orleans, LA AGENCY... a temporary safety zone in the vicinity of the South shores of Lake Pontchartrain adjacent to...

  20. 76 FR 23276 - Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee (LTFAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ..., established by the Secretary of Agriculture on December 15, 1998 (64 FR 2876), is chartered to provide advice... Forest Service Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee (LTFAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee will hold a meeting on May...