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Sample records for agency maximum contaminant

  1. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. 141.52 Section 141.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.52 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  2. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. 141.52 Section 141.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.52 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  3. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. 141.52 Section 141.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.52 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  4. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. 141.52 Section 141.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.52 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  5. 40 CFR 141.52 - Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for microbiological contaminants. 141.52 Section 141.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.52 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  6. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  7. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  8. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  9. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  10. 40 CFR 141.50 - Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for organic contaminants. 141.50 Section 141.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.50 Maximum contaminant level goals for...

  11. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... part. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a...

  12. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... part. The maximum contaminant levels for turbidity in drinking water, measured at a...

  13. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... both community water systems and non-community water systems using surface water sources in whole or...

  14. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Levels § 141.13... both community water systems and non-community water systems using surface water sources in whole or...

  15. 40 CFR 141.13 - Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for turbidity. 141.13 Section 141.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER...) Interfere with disinfection; (2) Prevent maintenance of an effective disinfectant agent throughout...

  16. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant.... Zinc 5 mg/l. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking water quality. The States...

  17. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant.... Zinc 5 mg/l. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking water quality. The States...

  18. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant.... Zinc 5 mg/l. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking water quality. The States...

  19. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant.... Zinc 5 mg/l. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking water quality. The States...

  20. 40 CFR 143.3 - Secondary maximum contaminant levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 143.3 Section 143.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SECONDARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS § 143.3 Secondary maximum contaminant.... Zinc 5 mg/l. These levels represent reasonable goals for drinking water quality. The States...

  1. 40 CFR 141.53 - Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts. 141.53 Section 141.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.53 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  2. 40 CFR 141.53 - Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts. 141.53 Section 141.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.53 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  3. 40 CFR 141.53 - Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts. 141.53 Section 141.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.53 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  4. 40 CFR 141.53 - Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts. 141.53 Section 141.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.53 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  5. 40 CFR 141.53 - Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum contaminant level goals for disinfection byproducts. 141.53 Section 141.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.53 Maximum contaminant level goals...

  6. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  7. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  8. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  9. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  10. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  11. 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum contaminant levels for organic... levels for organic contaminants. (a) The following maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants... with the maximum contaminant level for organic contaminants identified in paragraphs (a) and (c)...

  12. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is aware of the potential toxicological hazards to humans that might be associated with prolonged spacecraft missions. Despite major engineering advances in controlling the atmosphere within spacecraft, some contamination of the air appears inevitable. NASA has measured numerous airborne contaminants during space missions. As the missions increase in duration and complexity, ensuring the health and well-being of astronauts traveling and working in this unique environment becomes increasingly difficult. As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for contaminants, and to review SMACs for various space-craft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee On Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMACs for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMACs for approximately 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the SMAC reports for 12 chemical contaminants that have been reviewed for

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A1 to Subpart F of... - Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Generic Maximum Contaminant Levels A1 Appendix A1 to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction Pt....

  18. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for selected airborne contaminants, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    As part of its efforts to promote safe conditions aboard spacecraft, NASA requested the National Research Council (NRC) to develop guidelines for establishing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) for contaminants, and to review SMAC's for various spacecraft contaminants to determine whether NASA's recommended exposure limits are consistent with the guidelines recommended by the subcommittee. In response to NASA's request, the NRC organized the Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants within the Committee on Toxicology (COT). In the first phase of its work, the subcommittee developed the criteria and methods for preparing SMAC's for spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee's report, entitled Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants, was published in 1992. The executive summary of that report is reprinted as Appendix A of this volume. In the second phase of the study, the Subcommittee on Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations reviewed reports prepared by NASA scientists and contractors recommending SMAC's for 35 spacecraft contaminants. The subcommittee sought to determine whether the SMAC reports were consistent with the 1992 guidelines. Appendix B of this volume contains the first 11 SMAC reports that have been reviewed for their application of the guidelines developed in the first phase of this activity and approved by the subcommittee.

  19. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  20. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  1. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  2. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  3. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  4. 40 CFR 141.63 - Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.63 Maximum... pose an acute risk to health. (c) A public water system must determine compliance with the MCL...

  5. 40 CFR 141.63 - Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Maximum Contaminant Levels and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels § 141.63 Maximum... pose an acute risk to health. (c) A public water system must determine compliance with the MCL...

  6. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    To protect space crews from air contaminants, NASA requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide guidance for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) and review NASA's development of exposure guidelines for specific chemicals. The NRC convened the Committee on Spacecraft Exposure Guidelines to address this task. The committee published Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants (NRC 1992). The reason for the review of chemicals in Volume 5 is that many of them have not been examined for more than 10 years, and new research necessitates examining the documents to ensure that they reflect current knowledge. New knowledge can be in the form of toxicologic data or in the application of new approaches for analysis of available data. In addition, because NASA anticipates longer space missions beyond low Earth orbit, SMACs for 1,000-d exposures have also been developed.

  7. 40 CFR 142.63 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER... pathogenic contamination, a treatment lapse or deficiency, or a problem in the operation or maintenance...

  8. 40 CFR 142.63 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER... pathogenic contamination, a treatment lapse or deficiency, or a problem in the operation or maintenance...

  9. The tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Jiamjitrpanich, Waraporn; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Laurent, François; Kosanlavit, Rachain

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the initial method for phytoremediation involving germination and transplantation. The study was also to determine the tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum (Purple guinea grass) and Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil. It was found that the transplantation of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus was more suitable than germination as the initiate method of nano-phytoremediation potting test. The study also showed that Panicum maximum was more tolerance than Helianthus annuus in TNT and nZVI-contaminated soil. Therefore, Panicum maximum in the transplantation method should be selected as a hyperaccumulated plant for nano-phytoremediation potting tests. Maximum tolerance dosage of Panicum maximum to TNT-concentration soil was 320 mg/kg and nZVI-contaminated soil was 1000 mg/kg in the transplantation method.

  10. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... arsenic applies only to community water systems. The analyses and determination of compliance with the 0.05 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for arsenic use the requirements of § 141.23. (b) The maximum contaminant level for arsenic is 0.05 milligrams per liter for community water...

  11. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... arsenic applies only to community water systems. The analyses and determination of compliance with the 0.05 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for arsenic use the requirements of § 141.23. (b) The maximum contaminant level for arsenic is 0.05 milligrams per liter for community water...

  12. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... arsenic applies only to community water systems. The analyses and determination of compliance with the 0.05 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for arsenic use the requirements of § 141.23. (b) The maximum contaminant level for arsenic is 0.05 milligrams per liter for community water...

  13. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... arsenic applies only to community water systems. The analyses and determination of compliance with the 0.05 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for arsenic use the requirements of § 141.23. (b) The maximum contaminant level for arsenic is 0.05 milligrams per liter for community water...

  14. 40 CFR 141.11 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... arsenic applies only to community water systems. The analyses and determination of compliance with the 0.05 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for arsenic use the requirements of § 141.23. (b) The maximum contaminant level for arsenic is 0.05 milligrams per liter for community water...

  15. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  16. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  17. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  18. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  19. 40 CFR 142.65 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant levels for combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium... paragraph. Table A—BAT for Radionuclides Listed in § 141.66 Contaminant BAT Combined radium-226 and radium...-3,300 3,300-10,000 Combined radium-226 and radium-228 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,...

  20. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes. 142.60 Section 142.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... disinfectant or oxidant. (2) Use of chlorine dioxide as an alternate or supplemental disinfectant or...

  1. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes. 142.60 Section 142.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... disinfectant or oxidant. (2) Use of chlorine dioxide as an alternate or supplemental disinfectant or...

  2. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes. 142.60 Section 142.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... disinfectant or oxidant. (2) Use of chlorine dioxide as an alternate or supplemental disinfectant or...

  3. Guidelines for developing spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for Space Station contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing to launch a manned space station by the year 1996. Because of concerns about the health, safety, and functioning abilities of the crews, NASA has requested that the National Research Council (NRC) through the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST) provide advice on toxicological matters for the space-station program. The Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Space Station Contaminants was established by the Committee on Toxicology (COT) to address NASA's concerns. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMAC's) are defined as the maximum concentrations of airborne substances (such as gas, vapor, or aerosol) that will not cause adverse health effects, significant discomfort, or degradation in crew performance.

  4. 75 FR 43160 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on One Arkansas Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on One Arkansas Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL... Arkansas, under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This TMDL was completed in response to the.../region6/water/npdes/tmdl/index.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Diane Smith at (214) 665-2145....

  5. Maximum entropy estimation of a Benzene contaminated plume using ecotoxicological assays.

    PubMed

    Wahyudi, Agung; Bartzke, Mariana; Küster, Eberhard; Bogaert, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Ecotoxicological bioassays, e.g. based on Danio rerio teratogenicity (DarT) or the acute luminescence inhibition with Vibrio fischeri, could potentially lead to significant benefits for detecting on site contaminations on qualitative or semi-quantitative bases. The aim was to use the observed effects of two ecotoxicological assays for estimating the extent of a Benzene groundwater contamination plume. We used a Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) method to rebuild a bivariate probability table that links the observed toxicity from the bioassays with Benzene concentrations. Compared with direct mapping of the contamination plume as obtained from groundwater samples, the MaxEnt concentration map exhibits on average slightly higher concentrations though the global pattern is close to it. This suggest MaxEnt is a valuable method to build a relationship between quantitative data, e.g. contaminant concentrations, and more qualitative or indirect measurements, in a spatial mapping framework, which is especially useful when clear quantitative relation is not at hand.

  6. Estimating contaminant loads in rivers: An application of adjusted maximum likelihood to type 1 censored data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an adjusted maximum likelihood estimator (AMLE) that can be used to estimate fluvial transport of contaminants, like phosphorus, that are subject to censoring because of analytical detection limits. The AMLE is a generalization of the widely accepted minimum variance unbiased estimator (MVUE), and Monte Carlo experiments confirm that it shares essentially all of the MVUE's desirable properties, including high efficiency and negligible bias. In particular, the AMLE exhibits substantially less bias than alternative censored-data estimators such as the MLE (Tobit) or the MLE followed by a jackknife. As with the MLE and the MVUE the AMLE comes close to achieving the theoretical Frechet-Crame??r-Rao bounds on its variance. This paper also presents a statistical framework, applicable to both censored and complete data, for understanding and estimating the components of uncertainty associated with load estimates. This can serve to lower the cost and improve the efficiency of both traditional and real-time water quality monitoring.

  7. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  8. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Dang, Viet D; Walters, David M; Lee, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Conifers are often used as an air passive sampler, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the present study, the authors used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The present study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former capacitor plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010 and winter and spring 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in the collected leaves, suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990 pg m(-3) , 2850 pg m(-3) , and 931 pg m(-3) in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former industrial source. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra-CBs and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene passive samplers deployed in the water column, suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2192-2198. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26889751

  9. 34 CFR 222.38 - What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under section 8003(b)? 222.38 Section 222.38 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Payments...

  10. 34 CFR 222.38 - What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under section 8003(b)? 222.38 Section 222.38 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Payments...

  11. 34 CFR 222.38 - What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the maximum basic support payment that a local educational agency may receive under section 8003(b)? 222.38 Section 222.38 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT AID PROGRAMS Payments...

  12. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Emerging Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  13. Technical evaluation of a total maximum daily load model for Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Wherry, Susan A.; Carter, James L.; Kuwabara, James S.; Simon, Nancy S.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed a mass balance model developed in 2001 that guided establishment of the phosphorus total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon. The purpose of the review was to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the model and to determine whether improvements could be made using information derived from studies since the model was first developed. The new data have contributed to the understanding of processes in the lakes, particularly internal loading of phosphorus from sediment, and include measurements of diffusive fluxes of phosphorus from the bottom sediments, groundwater advection, desorption from iron oxides at high pH in a laboratory setting, and estimates of fluxes of phosphorus bound to iron and aluminum oxides. None of these processes in isolation, however, is large enough to account for the episodically high values of whole-lake internal loading calculated from a mass balance, which can range from 10 to 20 milligrams per square meter per day for short periods. The possible role of benthic invertebrates in lake sediments in the internal loading of phosphorus in the lake has become apparent since the development of the TMDL model. Benthic invertebrates can increase diffusive fluxes several-fold through bioturbation and biodiffusion, and, if the invertebrates are bottom feeders, they can recycle phosphorus to the water column through metabolic excretion. These organisms have high densities (1,822–62,178 individuals per square meter) in Upper Klamath Lake. Conversion of the mean density of tubificid worms (Oligochaeta) and chironomid midges (Diptera), two of the dominant taxa, to an areal flux rate based on laboratory measurements of metabolic excretion of two abundant species suggested that excretion by benthic invertebrates is at least as important as any of the other identified processes for internal loading to the water column. Data from sediment cores collected around Upper Klamath Lake since the development of the

  14. 34 CFR 222.73 - How does the Secretary determine a maximum payment for local educational agencies that are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the Secretary determine a maximum payment for local educational agencies that are eligible for financial assistance under section 8003(f)(2)(B) and § 222.64? 222.73 Section 222.73 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY...

  15. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  16. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  17. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  18. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  19. 40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... MCLGs for radionuclides are as indicated in the following table: Contaminant MCLG 1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228 Zero. 2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding radon and uranium) Zero. 3....

  20. 40 CFR 142.61 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... level for fluoride. 142.61 Section 142.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Identification of Best Technology, Treatment Techniques or Other Means Generally Available § 142.61 Variances...)(A) of the Act, hereby identifies the following as the best technology, treatment techniques or...

  1. 34 CFR 694.9 - What is the maximum indirect cost rate for an agency of a State or local government?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the negotiated indirect cost agreement; or (b) Eight percent of a modified total direct cost base... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the maximum indirect cost rate for an agency of... AWARENESS AND READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.9 What is the maximum indirect cost...

  2. Research to Support the Determination of Spacecraft Maximum Acceptable Concentrations of Potential Atmospheric Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, John L.

    1997-01-01

    In many ways, the typical approach to the handling of bibliographic material for generating review articles and similar manuscripts has changed little since the use of xerographic reproduction has become widespread. The basic approach is to collect reprints of the relevant material and place it in folders or stacks based on its dominant content. As the amount of information available increases with the passage of time, the viability of this mechanical approach to bibliographic management decreases. The personal computer revolution has changed the way we deal with many familiar tasks. For example, word processing on personal computers has supplanted the typewriter for many applications. Similarly, spreadsheets have not only replaced many routine uses of calculators but have also made possible new applications because the cost of calculation is extremely low. Objective The objective of this research was to use personal computer bibliographic software technology to support the determination of spacecraft maximum acceptable concentration (SMAC) values. Specific Aims The specific aims were to produce draft SMAC documents for hydrogen sulfide and tetrachloroethylene taking maximum advantage of the bibliographic software.

  3. Evaluating the adequacy of maximum contaminant levels as health-protective cleanup goals: an analysis based on Monte Carlo techniques.

    PubMed

    Finley, B L; Scott, P; Paustenbach, D J

    1993-12-01

    At many sites in the United States, health-based remediation goals for contaminated groundwater have been set at levels far below USEPA's drinking water standards (i.e., maximum contaminant levels or MCLs). This is due to the fact that, while the USEPA must often consider technical and economic factors (e.g., cost of compliance, risk/benefit analysis) when setting MCLs for public water systems, cleanup goals for contaminated groundwater are often based solely on conservative "point" estimates of exposure. One of the more recent refinements in the risk assessment process is the use of ranges of exposure estimates or "probability density functions" (PDFs), rather than fixed point estimates, to estimate exposure and chemical uptake. This approach provides a more thorough description of the range of potential risks, rather than a single "worst-case" value, and allows one to understand the conservatism inherent in assessments based on regulatory default parameters. This paper uses a number of PDFs and the Monte Carlo technique to assess whether the USEPA's MCLs for drinking water are sufficiently low to protect persons exposed to these levels. A case study involving daily exposure to tapwater containing MCL concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, chloroform, bromoform, and vinyl chloride is presented. Several direct and indirect exposure pathways are evaluated, including inhalation and dermal contact while showering, direct ingestion, and inhalation of emissions from household fixtures and appliances. PDFs for each exposure factor are based on the most recent and applicable data available. Our analysis indicates that the estimated increased cancer risks at the 50th and 95th percentile of exposure are within the range of increased cancer risks typically considered acceptable at Superfund sites (10(-4)-10(-6)). These results suggest that, at least for some chemicals, groundwater need not be cleaned-up to concentrations less than drinking water standards (i.e., MCLs) to

  4. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency health-effects research on drinking-water contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Hauchman, F.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Health Effects Research Laboratory (HERL) provides chemical-specific data and scientific methods that are used by the EPA Office of Water in the development of regulations required by the Safe Drinking Water Act. To determine the chemical and microbial contaminants in drinking water that are of greatest public health concern, HERL conducts hazard identification and dose-response research in humans, animals, and in vitro. HERL conducts studies on pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of action to facilitate the extrapolation of toxicity data from animals to humans. Characterization of the risks associated with human exposure to contaminants in drinking water involves a multi-laboratory/office effort to incorporate information on hazard, dose-response, and exposure into chemical and microbial risk models. The many uncertainties in the underlying health effects data base and in the models used for assessing chemical and microbial risks highlight the need for a strong drinking water health research program in the years to come.

  5. Contaminated sites from the past: experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

    PubMed

    Boyd, M A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites. In the USA, EPA regulates the radiological clean-up of uranium mill tailings sites, some Department of Energy legacy sites within the US nuclear weapons complex, and Superfund National Priorities List sites. The approach to site remediation decisions, including the determination of clean-up levels, varies according to the enabling legislation granting EPA these authorities. Past practices that gave rise to many of the existing exposure situations at legacy sites were permissible before the advent of environmental clean-up legislation. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 authorised EPA to set applicable radioactivity concentration standards for soil clean-up at inactive uranium mill sites and vicinity properties. For the other categories of sites mentioned above, remediation goals are typically based on not exceeding a target excess cancer risk range established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (also known as 'Superfund'). EPA's regulations for cleaning up various contaminated sites in existing exposure situations often result in residual doses that are typical of optimised doses in planned exposure situations. Although the clean-up levels selected may differ from those adopted in other countries, recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection are reflected in the exposure assessment methodologies used in their establishment. PMID:27012843

  6. Contaminated sites from the past: experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

    PubMed

    Boyd, M A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the experience of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites. In the USA, EPA regulates the radiological clean-up of uranium mill tailings sites, some Department of Energy legacy sites within the US nuclear weapons complex, and Superfund National Priorities List sites. The approach to site remediation decisions, including the determination of clean-up levels, varies according to the enabling legislation granting EPA these authorities. Past practices that gave rise to many of the existing exposure situations at legacy sites were permissible before the advent of environmental clean-up legislation. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 authorised EPA to set applicable radioactivity concentration standards for soil clean-up at inactive uranium mill sites and vicinity properties. For the other categories of sites mentioned above, remediation goals are typically based on not exceeding a target excess cancer risk range established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (also known as 'Superfund'). EPA's regulations for cleaning up various contaminated sites in existing exposure situations often result in residual doses that are typical of optimised doses in planned exposure situations. Although the clean-up levels selected may differ from those adopted in other countries, recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection are reflected in the exposure assessment methodologies used in their establishment.

  7. 76 FR 18548 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on Three Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...This notice announces final agency action on three TMDLs prepared by EPA Region 6 for waters listed in Louisiana's Mississippi River Basin, under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). Documents from the administrative record file for the three TMDLs, including TMDL calculations and responses to comments, may be viewed at http://www.epa.gov/region6/water/npdes/tmdl/index.htm. The......

  8. European survey on post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) materials to determine contamination levels and maximum consumer exposure from food packages made from recycled PET.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Mauer, A; Welle, F

    2004-03-01

    Typical contamination and the frequency of misuse of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are crucial parameters in the risk assessment of post-consumer recycled (PCR) PET intended for bottle-to-bottle recycling for direct food contact applications. Owing to the fact that misuse of PET bottles is a rare event, sustainable knowledge about the average concentration of hazardous compounds in PCR PET is accessible only by the screening of large numbers of samples. In order to establish average levels of contaminants in PET source materials for recycling, PET flakes from commercial washing plants (689 samples), reprocessed pellets (38) and super-clean pellets (217) were collected from 12 European countries between 1997 and 2001. Analysis of these materials by headspace gas chromatography revealed average and maximum levels in PCR PET of 18.6 and 86.0 mg kg-1 for acetaldehyde and 2.9 and 20 mg kg-1 for limonene, respectively. Acetaldehyde and limonene are typical compounds derived from PET itself and from prior PET bottle contents (flavouring components), respectively. Maximum levels in PCR PET of real contaminants such as misuse chemicals like solvents ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 mg kg-1, and statistically were shown to result from 0.03 to 0.04% of recollected PET bottles that had been misused. Based on a principal component analysis of the experimental data, the impact of the recollecting system and the European Union Member State where the post-consumer PET bottles had been collected on the nature and extent of adventitious contaminants was not significant. Under consideration of the cleaning efficiency of super-clean processes as well as migration from the bottle wall into food, it can be concluded that the consumer will be exposed at maximum to levels < 50 ng total misuse chemicals day-1. Therefore, PCR PET materials and articles produced by modern superclean technologies can be considered to be safe in direct food applications in the same way as virgin food

  9. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and bacterial contamination in drinking water sources: a case study of Malakand Agency, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Ali, Sharafat; Sher, Hassan; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Kifayatullah; Tang, Jianfeng; Ahmad, Aziz

    2016-05-01

    Human beings are frequently exposed to pathogens and heavy metals through ingestion of contaminated drinking water throughout the world particularly in developing countries. The present study aimed to assess the quality of water used for drinking purposes in Malakand Agency, Pakistan. Water samples were collected from different sources (dug wells, bore wells, tube wells, springs, and hand pumps) and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters and bacterial pathogens (fecal coliform bacteria) using standard methods, while heavy metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-PEA-700). In the study area, 70 % of water sources were contaminated with F. coliform representing high bacterial contamination. The heavy metals, such as Cd (29 and 8 %), Ni (16 and 78 %), and Cr (7 %), exceeded their respective safe limits of WHO (2006) and Pak-EPA (2008), respectively, in water sources, while Pb (9 %) only exceeded from WHO safe limit. The risk assessment tools such as daily intake of metals (DIMs) and health risk indexes (HRIs) were used for health risk estimation and were observed in the order of Ni > Cr > Mn > Pb > Cd and Cd > Ni > Pb > Mn > Cr, respectively. The HRI values of heavy metals for both children and adults were <1, showing lack of potential health risk to the local inhabitants of the study area. PMID:27075311

  10. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and bacterial contamination in drinking water sources: a case study of Malakand Agency, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Ali, Sharafat; Sher, Hassan; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Kifayatullah; Tang, Jianfeng; Ahmad, Aziz

    2016-05-01

    Human beings are frequently exposed to pathogens and heavy metals through ingestion of contaminated drinking water throughout the world particularly in developing countries. The present study aimed to assess the quality of water used for drinking purposes in Malakand Agency, Pakistan. Water samples were collected from different sources (dug wells, bore wells, tube wells, springs, and hand pumps) and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters and bacterial pathogens (fecal coliform bacteria) using standard methods, while heavy metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-PEA-700). In the study area, 70 % of water sources were contaminated with F. coliform representing high bacterial contamination. The heavy metals, such as Cd (29 and 8 %), Ni (16 and 78 %), and Cr (7 %), exceeded their respective safe limits of WHO (2006) and Pak-EPA (2008), respectively, in water sources, while Pb (9 %) only exceeded from WHO safe limit. The risk assessment tools such as daily intake of metals (DIMs) and health risk indexes (HRIs) were used for health risk estimation and were observed in the order of Ni > Cr > Mn > Pb > Cd and Cd > Ni > Pb > Mn > Cr, respectively. The HRI values of heavy metals for both children and adults were <1, showing lack of potential health risk to the local inhabitants of the study area.

  11. Treatability of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency contaminant candidate list viruses: removal of coxsackievirus and echovirus using enhanced coagulation.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Ryu, Hodon; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2008-09-15

    Enhanced coagulation was evaluated for removal efficacy of coxsackievirus and echovirus (Contaminant Candidate List [CCL] enteroviruses), poliovirus, four potential surrogate bacteriophages, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Viruses and DOC were effectively removed using enhanced coagulation, with removals generally improving as dose increased and pH decreased. Optimal enhanced coagulation conditions of 40 mg/L FeCl3 and pH between 5 and 6.5 resulted in a maximum removal of 3.0 logs of coxsackievirus B6, 1.75 logs of echovirus 12, 2.5 logs of poliovirus 1, 1.8 logs of fr, 1.3 logs of phi-X174, 0.36 logs of MS2, 0.29 logs of PRD1, and 41% DOC. Bacteriophages fr and phi-X174 appear to be the most representative surrogates for the physical removal of coxsackievirus, while MS2 and PRD1 are more conservative. For echovirus, MS2 and PRD1 appearto bethe most appropriate surrogates. The relative removal profiles of the enteroviruses (greatest removal of coxsackievirus followed by poliovirus and then echovirus) suggest that studies of the physical removal of poliovirus may be extended to the CCL enteroviruses. These results contribute to evaluations of the CCL and regulatory status of coxsackievirus and echovirus and aid in building a database of the treatment efficiencies of enteroviruses and their surrogates.

  12. Effects of permissible maximum-contamination levels of VOC mixture in water on total DNA, antioxidant gene expression, and sequences of ribosomal DNA of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Doganlar, Oguzhan; Doganlar, Zeynep Banu; Tabakcioglu, Kiymet

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture with references to the response of D.melanogaster using selected antioxidant gene expressions, RAPD assay and base-pair change of ribosomal 18S, and the internal transcribed spacer, ITS2 rDNA gene sequences. For this purpose, Drosophila melanogaster Oregon R, reared under controlled conditions on artificial diets, were treated with the mixture of thirteen VOCs, which are commonly found in water in concentrations of 10, 20, 50, and 75 ppb for 1 and 5 days. In the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay, band changes were clearly detected, especially at the 50 and 75 ppb exposure levels, for both treatment periods, and the band profiles exhibited clear differences between the treated and untreated flies with changes in band intensity and the loss/appearance of bands. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-synthetase (GS) expressions demonstrated that these markers responded significantly to VOC-induced oxidative stress. Whilst CAT gene expressions increased linearly with increasing concentrations of VOCs and treatment times, the 50- and 75-ppb treatments caused decreases in GS expressions compared to the control at 5 days. Treatment with VOCs at both exposure times, especially in high doses, caused gene mutation of the 18S and the ITS2 ribosomal DNA. According to this research, we thought that the permissible maximum-contamination level of VOCs can cause genotoxic effect especially when mixed.

  13. Development and Performance of Detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment with an Increased Sensitivity Based on a Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Beta Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Donald D.; /Case Western Reserve U.

    2004-01-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) uses cryogenically-cooled detectors made of germanium and silicon in an attempt to detect dark matter in the form of Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The expected interaction rate of these particles is on the order of 1/kg/day, far below the 200/kg/day expected rate of background interactions after passive shielding and an active cosmic ray muon veto. Our detectors are instrumented to make a simultaneous measurement of both the ionization energy and thermal energy deposited by the interaction of a particle with the crystal substrate. A comparison of these two quantities allows for the rejection of a background of electromagnetically-interacting particles at a level of better than 99.9%. The dominant remaining background at a depth of {approx} 11 m below the surface comes from fast neutrons produced by cosmic ray muons interacting in the rock surrounding the experiment. Contamination of our detectors by a beta emitter can add an unknown source of unrejected background. In the energy range of interest for a WIMP study, electrons will have a short penetration depth and preferentially interact near the surface. Some of the ionization signal can be lost to the charge contacts there and a decreased ionization signal relative to the thermal signal will cause a background event which interacts at the surface to be misidentified as a signal event. We can use information about the shape of the thermal signal pulse to discriminate against these surface events. Using a subset of our calibration set which contains a large fraction of electron events, we can characterize the expected behavior of surface events and construct a cut to remove them from our candidate signal events. This thesis describes the development of the 6 detectors (4 x 250 g Ge and 2 x 100 g Si) used in the 2001-2002 CDMS data run at the Stanford Underground Facility with a total of 119 livedays of data. The preliminary results presented are based on the

  14. Federal register Volume 60 No. 72, Friday, April 12, 1996 proposed rules. Part 4. 40 CFR parts 141 and 142. Maximum contaminant level goals and national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper; proposed rule

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-12

    EPA is giving notice that it is considering several minor changes to the national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper to improve its implementation. The intended effect of this action is to eliminate unnecessary requirements, streamline and reduce reporting burden, and promote consistent national implementation. The changes proposed in this action do not affect the lead or copper maximum contaminant level goals or the basic regulatory requirements.

  15. Maximum likelihood.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuying; De Angelis, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The maximum likelihood method is a popular statistical inferential procedure widely used in many areas to obtain the estimates of the unknown parameters of a population of interest. This chapter gives a brief description of the important concepts underlying the maximum likelihood method, the definition of the key components, the basic theory of the method, and the properties of the resulting estimates. Confidence interval and likelihood ratio test are also introduced. Finally, a few examples of applications are given to illustrate how to derive maximum likelihood estimates in practice. A list of references to relevant papers and software for a further understanding of the method and its implementation is provided.

  16. Approach to calculating upper bounds on maximum individual doses from the use of contaminated well water following a WIPP repository breach. Report EEG-9

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegler, P.

    1981-09-01

    As part of the assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this report evaluates the post-closure radiation dose commitments associated with a possible breach event which involves dissolution of the repository by groundwaters and subsequent transport of the nuclear waste through an aquifer to a well assumed to exist at a point 3 miles downstream from the repository. The concentrations of uranium and plutonium isotopes at the well are based on the nuclear waste inventory presently proposed for WIPP and basic assumptions concerning the transport of waste as well as treatment to reduce the salinity of the water. The concentrations of U-233, Pu-239, and Pu-240, all radionuclides originally emplaced as waste in the repository, would exceed current EPA drinking water limits. The concentrations of U-234, U-235, and U-236, all decay products of plutonium isotopes originally emplaced as waste, would be well below current EPA drinking water limits. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking treated water contaminated with U-233 or Pu-239 and Pu-240 were found to be comparable to a one-year dose from natural background. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking milk would be no more than about 1/5 the dose obtained from ingestion of treated water. These doses are considered upper bounds because of several very conservative assumptions which are discussed in the report.

  17. Derivation of a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) related to the maximum contaminant level goal for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent water soluble compound.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G; Carson, M Leigh; Sweeney, Lisa M; Kirman, Christopher R; Tan, Yu-Mei; Andersen, Melvin; Bevan, Christopher; Gargas, Michael L

    2009-10-01

    Water soluble compounds persistent in humans and the environment pose a challenge for estimating safe levels in tap water. A viable approach to estimate a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was applied to its extensive relevant information from human and laboratory animal studies. PFOA has been identified at 3.5 microg/L (mean) in tap water in proximity to a manufacturing facility; however, in most supplies, the levels were below 7.5 ng/L (usual limit of detection). PFOA has an average half-life in humans of 3.5years. From animal studies, PFOA is considered a possible hepatotoxicant and developmental toxicant for humans. Based on two chronic studies, PFOA was judged to be a possible human carcinogen, whose mode-of-action was likely to be related to receptor activation but not genotoxicity. The Benchmark Dose-Uncertainty Factor approach was selected for dose-response for noncancer and cancer. Based on internal dose of PFOA, the DWEL protective against cancer is 7.7 microgPFOA/L tap water, and the noncancer DWELs range from 0.88 to 2.4 microg/L. These DWELs can be considered a reliable, albeit conservative, basis to set a Maximum Concentration Level Goal under the US Safe Drinking Water Act. PMID:19631249

  18. Maximum Jailbreak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, B.

    First formulated one hundred and fifty years ago by the heretical scholar Nikolai Federov, the doctrine of cosmism begins with an absolute refusal to treat the most basic factors conditioning life on Earth ­ gravity and death ­ as necessary constraints on action. As manifest through the intoxicated cheers of its early advocates that humans should storm the heavens and conquer death, cosmism's foundational gesture was to conceive of the earth as a trap. Its duty was therefore to understand the duty of philosophy, economics and design to be the creation of means to escape it. This could be regarded as a jailbreak at the maximum possible scale, a heist in which the human species could steal itself from the vault of the Earth. After several decades of relative disinterest new space ventures are inspiring scientific, technological and popular imaginations, this essay explores what kind of cosmism might be constructed today. In this paper cosmism's position as a means of escape is both reviewed and evaluated by reflecting on the potential of technology that actually can help us achieve its aims and also through the lens and state-ofthe-art philosophy of accelerationism, which seeks to outrun modern tropes by intensifying them.

  19. Feeding a diet contaminated with ochratoxin A for broiler chickens at the maximum level recommended by the EU for poultry feeds (0.1 mg/kg). 2. Effects on meat quality, oxidative stress, residues and histological traits.

    PubMed

    Pozzo, L; Cavallarin, L; Antoniazzi, S; Guerre, P; Biasibetti, E; Capucchio, M T; Schiavone, A

    2013-05-01

    The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC indicates that the maximum tolerable level of ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds is 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six 1-day-old male broiler chicks were divided into two groups, a control (basal diet) and an OTA (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The OTA concentration was quantified in serum, liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content were evaluated in the liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The glutathione (GSH) content, and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in the liver and kidney samples. Histopathological traits were evaluated for the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver samples. Moreover, the chemical composition of the meat was analysed in breast and thigh samples. In the OTA diet-fed animals, a serum OTA concentration of 1.15 ± 0.35 ng/ml was found, and OTA was also detected in kidney and liver at 3.58 ± 0.85 ng OTA/g f.w. and 1.92 ± 0.21 ng OTA/g f.w., respectively. The TBARS content was higher in the kidney of the ochratoxin A group (1.53 ± 0.18 nmol/mg protein vs. 0.91 ± 0.25 nmol/mg protein). Feeding OTA at 0.1 mg OTA/kg also resulted in degenerative lesions in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver. The maximum tolerable level of 0.1 mg OTA/kg, established for poultry feeds by the EU, represents a safe limit for the final consumer, because no OTA residues were found in breast and thigh meat. Even though no clinical signs were noticed in the birds fed the OTA-contaminated diet, moderate histological lesions were observed in the liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius.

  20. ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER SUPPLY WELLS: A MULTI-AGENCY COMMUNITY-BASED, RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (ųg/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Central ...

  1. ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER SUPPLY WELLS: A MULTI-AGENCY, COMMUNITY-BASED, RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Central ...

  2. Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

  3. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  4. Solder Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.

    1999-02-22

    There are two sources of contamination in solder alloys. The first source is trace elements from the primary metals used in the as-manufactured product, be that product in ingot, wire, or powder form. Their levels in the primary metal are determined by the refining process. While some of these trace elements are naturally occurring materials, additional contamination can result from the refining and/or forming processes. Sources include: furnace pot liners, debris on the cutting edges of shears, rolling mill rollers, etc. The types and levels of contaminants per solder alloy are set by recognized industrial, federal, military, and international specifications. For example, the 63Sn-37Pb solder purchased to the ASTM B 32 standard can have maximum levels of contamination for the following metals: 0.08(wt.)%Cu, 0.001 %Cd, 0.005%Al, 0.25%Bi, 0.03%As, 0.02%Fe, and 0.005 %Zn. A second cause of contamination in solders, and solder baths in particular, is their actual use in soldering operations. Each time a workpiece is introduced into the bath, some dissolution of the joint base metal(s), protective or solderable coatings, and fixture metal takes place which adds to contamination levels in the solder. The potential impurities include Cu; Ni; Au or other noble metals used as protective finishes and Al; Fe; and Zn to name a few. Even dissolution of the pot wall or liner is a source of impurities, typically Fe.

  5. Risk assessment in a federal regulatory agency: an assessment of risk associated with the human consumption of some species of fish contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed Central

    Cordle, F; Locke, R; Springer, J

    1982-01-01

    The problem of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) became a national concern in 1971 when several accidental contaminations of foods were reported. Extensive efforts were undertaken by FDA to reduce the residues of PCBs in food. However, the PCB levels in several species of fresh-water fish have raised concern about the PCB residues from environmental contamination, and it is this concern which has prompted a reassessment of the human risk involved from consumption of such fish. The human epidemiology and animal toxicity of PCB exposure are reviewed, as well as risk assessment in general. Specific examples to risk assessment involving extrapolation of animal data to humans, based on several levels of human exposure to PCBs in fish, are presented. PMID:6814904

  6. Use of almond shells to treat water contaminated with almond tree nematicide in an energy efficient way

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) is regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations to a maximum of 0.2 µg/L in drinking water. DBCP was primarily used as an unclassified nematicide and its use contaminated some groundwater in nearby agricultur...

  7. Delineation of groundwater contamination around an ash pond: geochemical and GIS approach.

    PubMed

    Praharaj, T; Swain, S P; Powell, M A; Hart, B R; Tripathy, S

    2002-03-01

    The study has investigated the levels of metal contamination in groundwater due to particulate matter fallout and leaching from ash pond and assigned contamination indices for the adjacent localities around an ash disposal site with application of geographic information systems (GIS). Fe, Ba, Cu, Mn, S, Pb, V, and Zn were found to be the major contaminants in groundwater. Enrichment factors (EF) of these elements with respect to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant levels show high values for Mn, Fe, and Pb in groundwater. The zone of attenuation for Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, S, and Zn in groundwater is about 600-900 m from the ash pond, while Pb did not show any significant attenuation even at a distance of 1200 m. Tube wells around Rankasingha and Kukurhanga villages are most contaminated whereas open wells of Lachhmanpur, Kaniapada, and Kurudul villages showed higher degrees of contamination.

  8. Maximum thrust mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

  9. ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: USING SOUND SCIENCE FOR RISK MANAGEMENT AND ASSISTING COMMUNITY DECISION-MAKERS - A MULTI-AGENCY, COMMUNITY-BASED RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (ug/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Cen...

  10. 76 FR 71554 - Civil Penalties; Notice of Adjusted Maximum Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... COMMISSION Civil Penalties; Notice of Adjusted Maximum Amounts AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice of adjusted maximum civil penalty amounts. SUMMARY: In 1990, Congress enacted statutory amendments that provided for periodic adjustments to the maximum civil penalty amounts authorized under...

  11. 5 CFR 550.106 - Annual maximum earnings limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual maximum earnings limitation. 550... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Maximum Earnings Limitations § 550.106 Annual maximum earnings limitation. (a)(1) For any pay period in which the head of an agency (or designee), or the...

  12. 78 FR 2396 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research... contamination, based on resident complaints about smells, tastes, and adverse changes in water quality of...

  13. 76 FR 77829 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming AGENCY... of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research report was prepared by... at the site is potential ground water contamination, based on resident complaints about...

  14. 77 FR 19012 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research... Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming'' is available via the Internet on the EPA Region...

  15. 77 FR 62234 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research... Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' is available via the Internet on the EPA Region...

  16. The last glacial maximum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, P.U.; Dyke, A.S.; Shakun, J.D.; Carlson, A.E.; Clark, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Mitrovica, J.X.; Hostetler, S.W.; McCabe, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level ???14.5 ka.

  17. The Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter U; Dyke, Arthur S; Shakun, Jeremy D; Carlson, Anders E; Clark, Jorie; Wohlfarth, Barbara; Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hostetler, Steven W; McCabe, A Marshall

    2009-08-01

    We used 5704 14C, 10Be, and 3He ages that span the interval from 10,000 to 50,000 years ago (10 to 50 ka) to constrain the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in terms of global ice-sheet and mountain-glacier extent. Growth of the ice sheets to their maximum positions occurred between 33.0 and 26.5 ka in response to climate forcing from decreases in northern summer insolation, tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, and atmospheric CO2. Nearly all ice sheets were at their LGM positions from 26.5 ka to 19 to 20 ka, corresponding to minima in these forcings. The onset of Northern Hemisphere deglaciation 19 to 20 ka was induced by an increase in northern summer insolation, providing the source for an abrupt rise in sea level. The onset of deglaciation of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet occurred between 14 and 15 ka, consistent with evidence that this was the primary source for an abrupt rise in sea level approximately 14.5 ka.

  18. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harremoeës, P.; Topsøe, F.

    2001-09-01

    In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over the development of natural

  19. The Solar Maximum observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots.

  20. 77 FR 27057 - Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... AGENCY Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List... contaminants for possible inclusion in the fourth drinking water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL 4). EPA is... information contact the EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791 or email: hotline-sdwa@epa.gov ....

  1. 77 FR 12046 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Hazardous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Remediation Waste Management Requirements (HWIR Contaminated Media) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Requirements (HWIR Contaminated Media). ICR numbers: EPA ICR No. 1775.06, OMB Control No. 2050-0161. ICR...

  2. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.67 Maximum freight charges. (a) Ocean freight...

  3. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.67 Maximum freight charges. (a) Ocean freight...

  4. Generalized Maximum Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

    2005-01-01

    A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

  5. Maximum bow force revisited.

    PubMed

    Mores, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Schelleng [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 53, 26-41 (1973)], Askenfelt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 503-516 (1989)], Schumacher [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1985-1998 (1994)], and Schoonderwaldt, Guettler, and Askenfelt [Acta Acust. Acust. 94, 604-622 (2008)] formulated-in different ways-how the maximum bow force relates to bow velocity, bow-bridge distance, string impedance, and friction coefficients. Issues of uncertainty are how to account for friction or for the rotational admittance of the strings. Related measurements at the respective transitions between regimes of Helmholtz motion and non-Helmholtz motion employ a variety of bowing machines and stringed instruments. The related findings include all necessary parameters except the friction coefficients, leaving the underlying models unconfirmed. Here, a bowing pendulum has been constructed which allows precise measurement of relevant bowing parameters, including the friction coefficients. Two cellos are measured across all strings for three different bow-bridge distances. The empirical data suggest that-taking the diverse elements of existing models as options-Schelleng's model combined with Schumacher's velocity term yields the best fit. Furthermore, the pendulum employs a bow driving mechanism with adaptive impedance which discloses that mentioned regimes are stable and transitions between them sometimes require a hysteresis on related parameters. PMID:27586745

  6. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  7. Space station trace contaminant control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcutt, T.

    1985-01-01

    Different systems for the control of space station trace contaminants are outlined. The issues discussed include: spacecabin contaminant sources, technology base, contaminant control system elements and configuration, approach to contaminant control, contaminant load model definition, spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations, charcoal bed sizing and performance characteristics, catalytic oxidizer sizing and performance characteristics, special sorbent bed sizing, animal and plant research payload problems, and emergency upset contaminant removal. It is concluded that the trace contaminant control technology base is firm, the necessary hardware tools are available, and the previous design philosophy is still applicable. Some concerns are the need as opposed to danger of the catalytic oxidizer, contaminants with very low allowable concentrations, and the impact of relaxing materials requirements.

  8. Occurrence and distribution of selected contaminants in public drinking-water supplies in the surficial aquifer in Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrari, Matthew J.

    2001-01-01

    Water samples were collected from August through November 2000 from 30 randomly selected public drinking-water supply wells screened in the unconfined aquifer in Delaware, and analyzed to assess the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticide compounds, volatile organic compounds, major inorganic ions, and nutrients. Water from a subset of 10 wells was sampled and analyzed for radium and radon. The average age of ground water entering the well screens in all the wells was determined to be generally less than 20 years. Low concentrations of pesticide compounds and volatile organic compounds were detected throughout the State of Delaware, with several compounds often detected in each water sample. Pesticide and metabolite (pesticide degradation products) concentrations were generally less than 1 microgram per liter, and were detected in sam-ples from 27 of 30 wells. Of the 45 pesticides and 13 metabolites analyzed, 19 compounds (13 pesticides and 6 metabolites) were detected in at least 1 of the 30 samples. Desethylatrazine, alachlor ethane sulfonic acid, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid, metolachlor, and atrazine were the most frequently detected pesticide compounds, and were present in at least half the samples. None of the pesticide detections was above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Maximum Contaminant Levels or Health Advisories. Volatile organic compounds also were present at low concentrations (generally less than 1 microgram per liter) in samples from all 30 wells. Of the 85 volatile organic com-pounds analyzed, 34 compounds were detected in at least 1 of the 30 samples. Chloroform, tetrachloroethene, and methyl tert-butyl ether were the most frequently detected volatile organic compounds, and were found in at least half the samples. None of the volatile organic compound detections was above U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Maximum Contaminant Levels or Health Advisories. A few samples contained compounds with

  9. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems.

  10. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nalbantcilar, M Tahir; Pinarkara, Sukru Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of groundwater was performed to assess contamination and phenol content in Batman, Turkey, particularly in residential areas near agriculture, livestock and oil industry facilities. From these areas, where potentially contaminated groundwater used for drinking and irrigation threatens public health, 30 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, NO3, P, Pb, phenol, S, Sb, Se, SO4, Sr, U, and Zn). Compared with the standards of the Environmental Protection Agency, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in groundwater exceeded secondary drinking water regulations, NO3 concentrations were high for maximum contaminant levels, and As, Pb, and U concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant level goals in all samples. Ni, Sb, and Se concentrations also exceeded limits set by the Turkish Standards Institution. Nearly all samples revealed concentrations of Se, Sb, Hg, and phenol due to nearby petroleum refineries, oil storage plants, and agricultural and livestock areas. The results obtained from this study indicate that the groundwater in Batman contains elements in concentrations that approach or exceed limits and thus threatens public health with increased blood cholesterol, decreased blood sugar, and circulatory problems. PMID:27441860

  11. 78 FR 76191 - Operational Tests and Inspections for Compliance With Maximum Authorized Train Speeds and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Train Speeds and Other Speed Restrictions AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of... maximum authorized train speeds and other speed restrictions. SUMMARY: FRA is issuing Safety Advisory 2013... and applicable railroad operating rules regarding maximum authorized train speed limits and...

  12. Contamination Control.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    There are serious consequences if contamination control is not enforced and contaminated products/preparations are released to the market. The greatest risk of microbial contamination is exposure of sterile (also termed "critical") sites to potential sources of contamination. Contamination control basically involves at least fourteen entities to control or that help to determine the extent (quality) of control. Some of these entities are covered in this article; others will be covered in subsequent articles by the author.

  13. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  14. 78 FR 55694 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming AGENCY... review of the draft research report titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near...

  15. Are Streams in Agricultural and Urban Areas Contaminated by Pesticides?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrough, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    To answer this question, a study of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural area and a small urban area in Colorado was conducted in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The results indicate that pesticides are present in streams, and both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources of the contamination. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected and in the urban area, 26 pesticides were detected at least once during the thirteen month study. In the agricultural area, the herbicides alachlor (two samples) and cyanazine (four samples) and the insecticide diazinon (one sample) were the only pesticides that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or health advisory levels (HALs) for drinking water. No pesticides exceeded MCLs or HALs in the urban area.

  16. Review of technical justification of assumptions and methods used by the Environmental Protection Agency for estimating risks avoided by implementing MCLs for radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-11-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed regulations for allowable levels of radioactive material in drinking water (40 CFR Part 141, 56 FR 33050, July 18, 1991). This review examined the assumptions and methods used by EPA in calculating risks that would be avoided by implementing the proposed Maximum Contaminant Levels for uranium, radium, and radon. Proposed limits on gross alpha and beta-gamma emitters were not included in this review.

  17. 2008 Meeting in Germany: Emerging Environmental Contaminants and Current Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss emerging environmental contaminants that are currently of concern to the U.S. EPA and to other agencies. Emerging contaminants include drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs), perfluorinated chemicals, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, benzo...

  18. Minimizing the probable maximum flood

    SciTech Connect

    Woodbury, M.S.; Pansic, N. ); Eberlein, D.T. )

    1994-06-01

    This article examines Wisconsin Electric Power Company's efforts to determine an economical way to comply with Federal Energy Regulatory Commission requirements at two hydroelectric developments on the Michigamme River. Their efforts included refinement of the area's probable maximum flood model based, in part, on a newly developed probable maximum precipitation estimate.

  19. Environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Kushlna, J.A.; Hafner, H.

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the world, individuals and populations of herons are affected by environmental contaminants, leading to direct mortality, decreased reproductive success, or degradation of feeding habitat. Contaminants suspected or known to affect herons include organochlorine compounds, organophosphorus insecticides, trace elements, and petroleum (Parnell et al. 1988).General reviews on the effects of pesticides on birds (Risebrough 1986, 1991) and colonial water birds (Nisbet 1980) are presented elsewhere. The objective of this chapter is to review toxic effects of contaminants on herons. Unless otherwise noted, contaminant concentrations are presented as parts per million (ppm) on a wet weight (ww) basis.

  20. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors. The interaction of the

  1. Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

  2. 40 CFR 35.265 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.265 Section 35.265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Nonpoint Source-Management (section 319(h)) §...

  3. 40 CFR 35.215 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.215 Section 35.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Hazardous Waste Management (section...

  4. 40 CFR 35.145 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution Control (section 105) § 35.145 Maximum federal share. (a) The Regional Administrator may provide air pollution control agencies, as... programs for the prevention and control of air pollution or implementing national primary and...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjustments for differing site conditions will be exempt, provided the requirements of 40 CFR part 35, subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  6. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adjustments for differing site conditions will be exempt, provided the requirements of 40 CFR part 35, subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  7. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjustments for differing site conditions will be exempt, provided the requirements of 40 CFR part 35, subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  8. 40 CFR 35.2205 - Maximum allowable project cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjustments for differing site conditions will be exempt, provided the requirements of 40 CFR part 35, subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum allowable project cost. 35.2205 Section 35.2205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  9. 40 CFR 35.235 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.235 Section 35.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Pesticide Cooperative Enforcement (section...

  10. 40 CFR 35.235 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.235 Section 35.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Pesticide Cooperative Enforcement (section...

  11. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... for similar shipments, recognized sources of charter market rate information will be consulted and,...

  12. 40 CFR 35.364 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.364 Section 35.364 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Cooperative Agreements...

  13. 40 CFR 35.364 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.364 Section 35.364 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Cooperative Agreements...

  14. 40 CFR 35.415 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.415 Section 35.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Management Planning...

  15. 40 CFR 35.604 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.604 Section 35.604 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Quality Cooperative...

  16. 40 CFR 35.604 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.604 Section 35.604 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Quality Cooperative...

  17. 40 CFR 35.604 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.604 Section 35.604 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Quality Cooperative...

  18. 40 CFR 35.604 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.604 Section 35.604 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Quality Cooperative...

  19. 40 CFR 35.364 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.364 Section 35.364 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Cooperative Agreements...

  20. 40 CFR 35.415 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.415 Section 35.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Management Planning...

  1. 40 CFR 35.415 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.415 Section 35.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Management Planning...

  2. 40 CFR 35.604 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.604 Section 35.604 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Water Quality Cooperative...

  3. 40 CFR 35.364 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.364 Section 35.364 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Cooperative Agreements...

  4. 40 CFR 35.364 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.364 Section 35.364 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Cooperative Agreements...

  5. 40 CFR 35.415 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.415 Section 35.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Management Planning...

  6. 40 CFR 35.415 - Maximum federal share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum federal share. 35.415 Section 35.415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Quality Management Planning...

  7. Principles of maximum entropy and maximum caliber in statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pressé, Steve; Ghosh, Kingshuk; Lee, Julian; Dill, Ken A.

    2013-07-01

    The variational principles called maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum caliber (MaxCal) are reviewed. MaxEnt originated in the statistical physics of Boltzmann and Gibbs, as a theoretical tool for predicting the equilibrium states of thermal systems. Later, entropy maximization was also applied to matters of information, signal transmission, and image reconstruction. Recently, since the work of Shore and Johnson, MaxEnt has been regarded as a principle that is broader than either physics or information alone. MaxEnt is a procedure that ensures that inferences drawn from stochastic data satisfy basic self-consistency requirements. The different historical justifications for the entropy S=-∑ipilog⁡pi and its corresponding variational principles are reviewed. As an illustration of the broadening purview of maximum entropy principles, maximum caliber, which is path entropy maximization applied to the trajectories of dynamical systems, is also reviewed. Examples are given in which maximum caliber is used to interpret dynamical fluctuations in biology and on the nanoscale, in single-molecule and few-particle systems such as molecular motors, chemical reactions, biological feedback circuits, and diffusion in microfluidics devices.

  8. 78 FR 64523 - Notice of Maximum Amount of Assistance Under the Individuals and Households Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Notice of Maximum Amount of Assistance Under the Individuals... gives notice of the maximum amount for assistance under the Individuals and Households Program for... annually adjust the maximum amount for assistance provided under the Individuals and Households...

  9. 76 FR 63940 - Notice of Maximum Amount of Assistance Under the Individuals and Households Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Notice of Maximum Amount of Assistance Under the Individuals... gives notice of the maximum amount for assistance under the Individuals and Households Program for... FEMA must annually adjust the maximum amount for assistance provided under the Individuals...

  10. 77 FR 61425 - Notice of Maximum Amount of Assistance Under the Individuals and Households Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Notice of Maximum Amount of Assistance Under the Individuals... gives notice of the maximum amount for assistance under the Individuals and Households Program for... annually adjust the maximum amount for assistance provided under the Individuals and Households...

  11. 75 FR 62136 - Notice of Maximum Amount of Assistance Under the Individuals and Households Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Notice of Maximum Amount of Assistance Under the Individuals... gives notice of the maximum amount for assistance under the Individuals and Households Program for... annually adjust the maximum amounts for assistance provided under the Individuals and Households...

  12. 40 CFR 141.54 - Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants. 141.54 Section 141.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.54 Maximum residual disinfectant level...

  13. 40 CFR 141.54 - Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants. 141.54 Section 141.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.54 Maximum residual disinfectant level...

  14. 40 CFR 141.54 - Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants. 141.54 Section 141.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.54 Maximum residual disinfectant level...

  15. 40 CFR 141.54 - Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants. 141.54 Section 141.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.54 Maximum residual disinfectant level...

  16. 40 CFR 141.54 - Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maximum residual disinfectant level goals for disinfectants. 141.54 Section 141.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.54 Maximum residual disinfectant level...

  17. 40 CFR 141.63 - Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coliforms. (b) Until March 31, 2016, any fecal coliform-positive repeat sample or E. coli-positive repeat sample, or any total coliform-positive repeat sample following a fecal coliform-positive or E. coli.... (c) Beginning April 1, 2016, a system is in compliance with the MCL for E. coli for samples...

  18. 40 CFR 141.63 - Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... repeat sample or E. coli-positive repeat sample, or any total coliform-positive repeat sample following a fecal coliform-positive or E. coli-positive routine sample constitutes a violation of the MCL for...

  19. 40 CFR 141.63 - Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coliforms. (b) Until March 31, 2016, any fecal coliform-positive repeat sample or E. coli-positive repeat sample, or any total coliform-positive repeat sample following a fecal coliform-positive or E. coli.... (c) Beginning April 1, 2016, a system is in compliance with the MCL for E. coli for samples...

  20. 40 CFR 141.51 - Maximum contaminant level goals for inorganic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .../l) Antimony 0.006 Arsenic zero 1 Asbestos 7 Million fibers/liter (longer than 10 µm). Barium 2...). Selenium 0.05 Thallium .0005 1 This value for arsenic is effective January 23, 2006. Until then, there...

  1. 40 CFR 141.62 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cyanide) 0.2 (14) (15) Thallium 0.002 (16) Arsenic 0.010 (c) The Administrator, pursuant to section 1412... 141.62(b) Chemical Name BAT(s) Antimony 2,7 Arsenic 4 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12 5 Asbestos 2,3,8 Barium 5,6... concentrations ≤10µg/1. 2 BAT for Chromium III only. 3 BAT for Selenium IV only. 4 BATs for Arsenic V....

  2. 40 CFR 141.51 - Maximum contaminant level goals for inorganic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../l) Antimony 0.006 Arsenic zero 1 Asbestos 7 Million fibers/liter (longer than 10 µm). Barium 2...). Selenium 0.05 Thallium .0005 1 This value for arsenic is effective January 23, 2006. Until then, there...

  3. 40 CFR 141.62 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Cyanide) 0.2 (14) (15) Thallium 0.002 (16) Arsenic 0.010 (c) The Administrator, pursuant to section 1412... 141.62(b) Chemical Name BAT(s) Antimony 2,7 Arsenic 4 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12 5 Asbestos 2,3,8 Barium 5,6... concentrations ≤10µg/1. 2 BAT for Chromium III only. 3 BAT for Selenium IV only. 4 BATs for Arsenic V....

  4. 40 CFR 141.62 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cyanide) 0.2 (14) (15) Thallium 0.002 (16) Arsenic 0.010 (c) The Administrator, pursuant to section 1412... 141.62(b) Chemical Name BAT(s) Antimony 2,7 Arsenic 4 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12 5 Asbestos 2,3,8 Barium 5,6... concentrations ≤10µg/1. 2 BAT for Chromium III only. 3 BAT for Selenium IV only. 4 BATs for Arsenic V....

  5. 40 CFR 141.51 - Maximum contaminant level goals for inorganic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../l) Antimony 0.006 Arsenic zero 1 Asbestos 7 Million fibers/liter (longer than 10 µm). Barium 2...). Selenium 0.05 Thallium .0005 1 This value for arsenic is effective January 23, 2006. Until then, there...

  6. 40 CFR 141.51 - Maximum contaminant level goals for inorganic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../l) Antimony 0.006 Arsenic zero 1 Asbestos 7 Million fibers/liter (longer than 10 µm). Barium 2...). Selenium 0.05 Thallium .0005 1 This value for arsenic is effective January 23, 2006. Until then, there...

  7. 40 CFR 141.51 - Maximum contaminant level goals for inorganic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../l) Antimony 0.006 Arsenic zero 1 Asbestos 7 Million fibers/liter (longer than 10 µm). Barium 2...). Selenium 0.05 Thallium .0005 1 This value for arsenic is effective January 23, 2006. Until then, there...

  8. 40 CFR 141.62 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cyanide) 0.2 (14) (15) Thallium 0.002 (16) Arsenic 0.010 (c) The Administrator, pursuant to section 1412... 141.62(b) Chemical Name BAT(s) Antimony 2,7 Arsenic 4 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12 5 Asbestos 2,3,8 Barium 5,6... concentrations ≤10µg/1. 2 BAT for Chromium III only. 3 BAT for Selenium IV only. 4 BATs for Arsenic V....

  9. 40 CFR 141.62 - Maximum contaminant levels for inorganic contaminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cyanide) 0.2 (14) (15) Thallium 0.002 (16) Arsenic 0.010 (c) The Administrator, pursuant to section 1412... 141.62(b) Chemical Name BAT(s) Antimony 2,7 Arsenic 4 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12 5 Asbestos 2,3,8 Barium 5,6... concentrations ≤10µg/1. 2 BAT for Chromium III only. 3 BAT for Selenium IV only. 4 BATs for Arsenic V....

  10. Radon-contaminated drinking water from private wells: an environmental health assessment examining a rural Colorado mountain community's exposure.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Michael Anthony; Ferraro, Aimee; Mendelsohn, Aaron B; Prehn, Angela Witt

    2013-11-01

    In the study discussed in this article, 27 private drinking water wells located in a rural Colorado mountain community were sampled for radon contamination and compared against (a) the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) proposed maximum contaminant level (MCL), (b) the U.S. EPA proposed alternate maximum contaminate level (AMCL), and (c) the average radon level measured in the local municipal drinking water system. The data from the authors' study found that 100% of the wells within the study population had radon levels in excess of the U.S. EPA MCL, 37% were in excess of the U.S. EPA AMCL, and 100% of wells had radon levels greater than that found in the local municipal drinking water system. Radon contamination in one well was found to be 715 times greater than the U.S. EPA MCL, 54 times greater than the U.S. EPA AMLC, and 36,983 times greater than that found in the local municipal drinking water system. According to the research data and the reviewed literature, the results indicate that this population has a unique and elevated contamination profile and suggest that radon-contaminated drinking water from private wells can present a significant public health concern.

  11. BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological remediation of soils contaminated with organic chemicals is an alternative treatment technology that can often meet the goal of achieving a permanent clean-up remedy at hazardous waste sites, as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for impl...

  12. EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  13. Convex accelerated maximum entropy reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Bradley

    2016-04-01

    Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) spectral reconstruction methods provide a powerful framework for spectral estimation of nonuniformly sampled datasets. Many methods exist within this framework, usually defined based on the magnitude of a Lagrange multiplier in the MaxEnt objective function. An algorithm is presented here that utilizes accelerated first-order convex optimization techniques to rapidly and reliably reconstruct nonuniformly sampled NMR datasets using the principle of maximum entropy. This algorithm - called CAMERA for Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction Algorithm - is a new approach to spectral reconstruction that exhibits fast, tunable convergence in both constant-aim and constant-lambda modes. A high-performance, open source NMR data processing tool is described that implements CAMERA, and brief comparisons to existing reconstruction methods are made on several example spectra.

  14. BACTERIAL PATHOGENIC RESEARCH IN RESPONSE TO CONTAMINANT CANDIDATE LIST NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires EPA to establish a Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority setting for the Agency's drinking water program. At predetermined intervals the Agency must s...

  15. The Maximum Density of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)

  16. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Gohar, H.

    2015-09-01

    We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax =c4 / 4 G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  17. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Maximum cooling and maximum efficiency of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartibu, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    This work provides valid experimental evidence on the difference between design for maximum cooling and maximum efficiency for thermoacoustic refrigerators. In addition, the influence of the geometry of the honeycomb ceramic stack on the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators is presented as it affects the cooling power. Sixteen cordierite honeycomb ceramic stacks with square cross sections having four different lengths of 26, 48, 70 and 100 mm are considered. Measurements are taken at six different locations of the stack hot ends from the pressure antinode, namely 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm respectively. Measurement of temperature difference across the stack ends at steady state for different stack geometries are used to compute the cooling load and the coefficient of performance. The results obtained with atmospheric air showed that there is a distinct optimum depending on the design goal.

  19. Contamination Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Upjohn Company sought a solution to their problem of potential particulate contamination of sterile injectable drugs. Contamination was caused by dust particles attracted by static electrical charge, which clung to plastic curtains in clean rooms. Upjohn found guidance in NASA Tech Briefs which provided detailed information for reducing static electricity. Guidelines for setting up static free work stations, materials and equipment needed to maintain antistatic protection.

  20. The Testability of Maximum Magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.

  1. Pre-Feasibility Analysis of Pellet Manufacturing on the Former Loring Air Force Base Site. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. This site, in Limestone, Maine -- formerly the location of the Loring Air Force Base but now owned by the Aroostook Band of Micmac -- was selected for the potential to produce heating pellets from woody feedstock. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource to evaluate based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. NREL also evaluates potential savings from converting existing Micmac property from oil-fired heating to pellet heating.

  2. A summary of pesticides in ground-water data collected by government agencies in Indiana, December 1985 to April 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    More than 1 pesticide was present in 16 of the 51 samples that had detections, for a total of 90 individual pesticide detections. Concentrations of the detected pesticides ranged from 0.04 to 49 micrograms per liter, and two-thirds of the detected concentrations were less than 1 microgram per liter. In about 29 percent of all detections, the concentration of 9 pesticides alachlor, aldrin, atrazine, dieldrin, EDB, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, simazine, and terbufos exceeded either the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level or adult lifetime Health Advisory.

  3. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  4. Environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Scheunert, I.; Korte, F.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the ecotoxicology of major classes of environmental contaminants, with respect to sources, environmental chemistry, most likely routes of exposure, potential bioaccumulation and biomagification, mechanisms of toxicity, and effects on potentially vulnerable species of mammalian wildlife. Major contaminants reviewed were selected on the basis of their use patterns, availability and potential toxicity to wild mammals. These included pesticides used in agroecosystems (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, anticoagulants, herbicides and fungicides), various organic pollutants (chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heavy metals (lead, mercury, and cadmium), agricultural drainwater mixtures, leachates and radionuclides. Many of the above aspects of ecotoxicology and contaminants will be expanded upon in subsequent chapters of this book as they relate to distinct mammalian species and potential risk.

  5. Mercury Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Marcella R.

    2013-01-01

    IN BRIEF A residential elemental mercury contamination incident in Rhode Island resulted in the evacuation of an entire apartment complex. To develop recommendations for improved response, all response-related documents were examined; personnel involved in the response were interviewed; policies and procedures were reviewed; and environmental monitoring data were compiled from specific phases of the response for analysis of effect. A significant challenge of responding to residential elemental mercury contamination lies in communicating risk to residents affected py a HazMat spill. An ongoing, open and honest dialogue is emphasized where concerns of the public are heard and addressed, particularly when establishing and/or modifying policies and procedures for responding to residential elemental mercury contamination. PMID:23436951

  6. Contamination study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry; Herren, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    The time dependence of the angular reflectance from molecularly contaminated optical surfaces in the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) is measured. The light scattering measurements are accomplished in situ on optical surfaces in real time during deposition of molecular contaminants. The measurements are taken using non-coherent VUV sources with the predominant wavelengths being the Krypton resonance lines at 1236 and 1600 A. Detection of the scattered light is accomplished using a set of three solar blind VUV photomultipliers. An in-plane VUV BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions) experiment is described and details of the ongoing program to characterize optical materials exposed to the space environment is reported.

  7. (Contaminated soil)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-08

    The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

  8. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

  9. 77 FR 3770 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... report titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming'' (FRL-9506-7; 76 FR... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' is available via the Internet on the...

  10. Maximum life spur gear design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Mackulin, B. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

  11. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-9 - Acid contaminated and explosive contaminated property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... it. (4) The degree of decontamination and the responsibility for performance and costs of any decontamination shall be upon such terms as agreed to by the owning agency and the receiving agency. (5) The... SF 126, a statement of the degree of contamination and any decontamination that has been...

  12. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-9 - Acid contaminated and explosive contaminated property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... it. (4) The degree of decontamination and the responsibility for performance and costs of any decontamination shall be upon such terms as agreed to by the owning agency and the receiving agency. (5) The... SF 126, a statement of the degree of contamination and any decontamination that has been...

  13. Remediation technologies for contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, L.M.

    1995-09-01

    Although soil and groundwater remediation has been conducted for many years, sediment remediation is still in its infancy. Regulatory agencies are now beginning to identify areas where contaminated sediments exist and evaluate their environmental impact. As these evaluations are completed, the projects must shift focus to how these sediments can be remediated. Also as the criteria for aquatic disposal of dredged sediments become more stringent, remediation technologies must be developed to address contaminated sediments generated by maintenance dredging.This report describes the various issues and possible technologies for sediment remediation.

  14. Cadastral valuation of land contaminated with radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnikov, A. N.; Sapozhnikov, P. M.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sviridenko, D. G.; Zhigareva, T. L.; Popova, G. I.; Panov, A. V.; Kozlova, I. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and procedure for cadastral valuation of land in the areas contaminated with radionuclides are presented. The efficiency of rehabilitation measures applied to decrease crop contamination to the levels satisfying sanitary-hygienic norms is discussed. The differentiation of cadastral value of radioactively contaminated agricultural lands for the particular farms and land plots is suggested. An example of cadastral valuation of agricultural land contaminated during the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident is given. It is shown that the use of sandy and loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 37-185 and >185 kBq/m2 for crop growing is unfeasible. The growing of grain crops and potatoes on clay loamy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 555-740 kBq/m2 is unprofitable. The maximum cadastral value of radioactively contaminated lands is typical of leached chernozems.

  15. Discrimination networks for maximum selection.

    PubMed

    Jain, Brijnesh J; Wysotzki, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    We construct a novel discrimination network using differentiating units for maximum selection. In contrast to traditional competitive architectures like MAXNET the discrimination network does not only signal the winning unit, but also provides information about its evidence. In particular, we show that a discrimination network converges to a stable state within finite time and derive three characteristics: intensity normalization (P1), contrast enhancement (P2), and evidential response (P3). In order to improve the accuracy of the evidential response we incorporate distributed redundancy into the network. This leads to a system which is not only robust against failure of single units and noisy data, but also enables us to sharpen the focus on the problem given in terms of a more accurate evidential response. The proposed discrimination network can be regarded as a connectionist model for competitive learning by evidence.

  16. Maximum likelihood continuity mapping for fraud detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.

    1997-05-01

    The author describes a novel time-series analysis technique called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM), and focuses on one application of MALCOM: detecting fraud in medical insurance claims. Given a training data set composed of typical sequences, MALCOM creates a stochastic model of sequence generation, called a continuity map (CM). A CM maximizes the probability of sequences in the training set given the model constraints, CMs can be used to estimate the likelihood of sequences not found in the training set, enabling anomaly detection and sequence prediction--important aspects of data mining. Since MALCOM can be used on sequences of categorical data (e.g., sequences of words) as well as real valued data, MALCOM is also a potential replacement for database search tools such as N-gram analysis. In a recent experiment, MALCOM was used to evaluate the likelihood of patient medical histories, where ``medical history`` is used to mean the sequence of medical procedures performed on a patient. Physicians whose patients had anomalous medical histories (according to MALCOM) were evaluated for fraud by an independent agency. Of the small sample (12 physicians) that has been evaluated, 92% have been determined fraudulent or abusive. Despite the small sample, these results are encouraging.

  17. Review of soil contamination guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, M.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-08-01

    A review of existing and proposed radioactive soil contamination standards and guidance was conducted for United Nuclear Corporation (UNC), Office of Surplus Facilities Management. Information was obtained from both government agencies and other sources during a literature survey. The more applicable standards were reviewed, evaluated, and summarized. Information pertaining to soil contamination for both facility operation and facility decommissioning was obtained from a variety of sources. These sources included: the Code of Federal Regulations, regulatory guides, the Federal Register, topical reports written by various government agencies, topical reports written by national laboratories, and publications from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It was difficult to directly compare the standards and guidance obtained from these sources since each was intended for a specific situation and different units or bases were used. However, most of the information reviewed was consistent with the philosophy of maintaining exposures at levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  18. Multiple Early Eocene Thermal Maximums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehl, U.; Zachos, J. C.; Thomas, E.; Kelly, D. C.; Donner, B.; Westerhold, T.

    2004-12-01

    Periodic dissolution horizons signifying abrupt shoaling of the lysocline and CCD are characteristic features of deep-sea sections and often attributed to Milankovitch forcing via their diagnostic frequencies. Prominent dissolution horizons also correspond to abrupt climate events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), as a result of input of significant CH4 - CO2 into the ocean-atmosphere system. The question arises whether other significant dissolution horizons identified in sediments of late Paleocene and early Eocene age similar to the recently identified ELMO (Lourens et al., 2004) were formed as a result of greenhouse gas input, or whether they were related to cumulative effects of periodic changes in ocean chemistry and circulation. Here we report the discovery of a 3rd thermal maximum in early Eocene (about 52 Ma) sediments recovered from the South Atlantic during ODP Leg 208. The prominent clay layer was named the "X" event and was identified within planktonic foraminifer zone P7 and calcareous nannofossil zone CP10 at four Walvis Ridge Transect sites with a water depth range of 2000 m (Sites 1262 to 1267). Benthics assemblages are composed of small individuals, have low diversity and high dominance. Dominant taxa are Nuttallides truempyi and various abyssaminids, resembling the post PETM extinction assemblages. High-resolution bulk carbonate \\delta13C measurements of one of the more shallow Sites 1265 reveal a rapid about 0.6 per mill drop in \\delta13C and \\delta18O followed by an exponential recovery to pre-excursion \\delta13C values well known for the PETM and also observed for the ELMO. The planktonic foraminiferal \\delta13C records of Morozovella subbotina and Acaranina soldadoensis in the deepest Site 1262 show a 0.8 to 0.9 per mill drop, whereas the \\delta13C drop of benthic foraminifera Nuttallides truempyi is slightly larger (about 1 per mill). We are evaluating mechanisms for the widespread change in deep-water chemistry, its

  19. The maximum drag reduction asymptote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choueiri, George H.; Hof, Bjorn

    2015-11-01

    Addition of long chain polymers is one of the most efficient ways to reduce the drag of turbulent flows. Already very low concentration of polymers can lead to a substantial drag and upon further increase of the concentration the drag reduces until it reaches an empirically found limit, the so called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, which is independent of the type of polymer used. We here carry out a detailed experimental study of the approach to this asymptote for pipe flow. Particular attention is paid to the recently observed state of elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT) which has been reported to occur in polymer solutions at sufficiently high shear. Our results show that upon the approach to MDR Newtonian turbulence becomes marginalized (hibernation) and eventually completely disappears and is replaced by EIT. In particular, spectra of high Reynolds number MDR flows are compared to flows at high shear rates in small diameter tubes where EIT is found at Re < 100. The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA grant agreement n° [291734].

  20. Objects of Maximum Electromagnetic Chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Fruhnert, Martin; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. Reciprocal objects attain the upper bound if and only if they are transparent for all the fields of one polarization handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e., helicity preservation upon interaction, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal objects to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal objects. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar objects or on the material constitutive relations for continuous media. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: a twofold resonantly enhanced and background-free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle-independent helicity filtering glasses. Finally, we use the theoretically obtained requirements to guide the design of a specific structure, which we then analyze numerically and discuss its performance with respect to maximal electromagnetic chirality.

  1. Maximum entropy production in daisyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2012-05-01

    Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

  2. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  3. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  4. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  5. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 228.14 Section 228.14... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier I Annuity Component § 228.14 Family maximum. (a) Family maximum defined. Under... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family...

  6. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP), and to utilize these risk analyses in the identification of appropriate assessment...

  7. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-11-06

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  8. Peroxone groundwater treatment of explosive contaminants demonstration and evaluation. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McCrea, M.V.

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the performance and cost effectiveness of a Peroxone Groundwater Treatment Plant (PGTP) designed and operated by Montgomery Watson, in support of the Defense Evaluation Support Agency`s independent analysis for the United States Army Environmental Center (USAEC). Many Department of Defense installations have sites that contain groundwater contaminated with explosive materials. Primary methods for the removal of explosive materials involve the use of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). This process, however, requires additional waste disposal and treatment of explosive laden GAC, thereby incurring additional costs. An alternate method for the treatment of contaminated groundwater involves the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in conjunction with ozone (03). This method is referred to as the Peroxone oxidation process. A demonstration of the PGTP was conducted from 19 August to 8 November, 1996, at Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant (CAAP), Grand Island, Nebraska using a small scale version with a maximum flow rate of 25 gallons per minute. The explosive contaminants analyzed during the demonstration include 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene (TNB), 1,3,5-Triazine (RDX), and Total Nitrobodies. Peroxone cost effectiveness was evaluated using a 30 year life cycle cost comparison to GAC and Ultraviolet/Ozone processes.

  9. Contamination Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  10. Accounting for Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    Children are increasingly described as agents and agency is important to arguments for children's rights and participation. Yet agency is rarely defined or theorised in childhood studies. This article reviews common uses and meanings of agency and argues that critical, social conceptualisations have yet to be extensively taken up in childhood…

  11. Maximum Parsimony on Phylogenetic networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic networks are generalizations of phylogenetic trees, that are used to model evolutionary events in various contexts. Several different methods and criteria have been introduced for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Maximum Parsimony is a character-based approach that infers a phylogenetic tree by minimizing the total number of evolutionary steps required to explain a given set of data assigned on the leaves. Exact solutions for optimizing parsimony scores on phylogenetic trees have been introduced in the past. Results In this paper, we define the parsimony score on networks as the sum of the substitution costs along all the edges of the network; and show that certain well-known algorithms that calculate the optimum parsimony score on trees, such as Sankoff and Fitch algorithms extend naturally for networks, barring conflicting assignments at the reticulate vertices. We provide heuristics for finding the optimum parsimony scores on networks. Our algorithms can be applied for any cost matrix that may contain unequal substitution costs of transforming between different characters along different edges of the network. We analyzed this for experimental data on 10 leaves or fewer with at most 2 reticulations and found that for almost all networks, the bounds returned by the heuristics matched with the exhaustively determined optimum parsimony scores. Conclusion The parsimony score we define here does not directly reflect the cost of the best tree in the network that displays the evolution of the character. However, when searching for the most parsimonious network that describes a collection of characters, it becomes necessary to add additional cost considerations to prefer simpler structures, such as trees over networks. The parsimony score on a network that we describe here takes into account the substitution costs along the additional edges incident on each reticulate vertex, in addition to the substitution costs along the other edges which are

  12. 40 CFR 36.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 36.645 Section 36.645 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department,...

  13. Contaminant treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Andrew Philip; Thornton, Roy Fred; Salvo, Joseph James

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.

  14. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR MOLD CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Indoor Environment Management Branch has, since 1995, conducted research into controlling biological contamination in the indoor environment. In this paper four areas of research are discusse...

  15. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102...) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be paid under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claim Act...

  16. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102...) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be paid under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claim Act...

  17. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section 107.329... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.329 Maximum penalties. (a)...

  18. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section 107.329... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.329 Maximum penalties. (a)...

  19. 20 CFR 228.14 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum... the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except for the.... The maximum is computed as follows: (i) 150 percent of the first $230 of the individual's...

  20. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... maximum civil penalty is $110,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section 107.329... PROGRAM PROCEDURES Enforcement Compliance Orders and Civil Penalties § 107.329 Maximum penalties. (a)...

  1. Maximum ground-level concentrations with downwash--analysis.

    PubMed

    Bowman, W A

    2000-03-01

    Equations derived previously for critical downwind distance xc' wind speed uc' and plume rise zc' the values that produce maximum ground-level concentrations (MGLC) chi c under downwash conditions, have been solved. Tables of chi c' xc' uc' and zc' and graphs of the relationships among uc and zc, for a range of stack heights hs' and building heights hb' are presented. Results for two types of sources--a turbine and a reciprocating engine--are discussed. Some comparisons are made to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) SCREEN3 model. PMID:10734707

  2. Agency and intervention.

    PubMed

    Roskies, Adina L

    2015-09-19

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  3. Agency and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Roskies, Adina L.

    2015-01-01

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  4. Addendum to the East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    SAIC

    2011-04-01

    The East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan (DOE 2004) describes the planned fieldwork to support the remedial investigation (RI) for residual contamination at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) not addressed in previous Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) decisions. This Addendum describes activities that will be conducted to gather additional information in Zone 1 of the ETTP for groundwater, surface water, and sediments. This Addendum has been developed from agreements reached in meetings held on June 23, 2010, August 25, 2010, October 13, 2010, November 13, 2010, December 1, 2010, and January 13, 2011, with representatives of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). Based on historical to recent groundwater data for ETTP and the previously completed Sitewide Remedial Investigation for the ETTP (DOE 2007a), the following six areas of concern have been identified that exhibit groundwater contamination downgradient of these areas above state of Tennessee and EPA drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs): (1) K-720 Fly Ash Pile, (2) K-770 Scrap Yard, (3) Duct Island, (4) K-1085 Firehouse Burn/J.A. Jones Maintenance Area, (5) Contractor's Spoil Area (CSA), and (6) Former K-1070-A Burial Ground. The paper presents a brief summary of the history of the areas, the general conceptual models for the observed groundwater contamination, and the data gaps identified.

  5. INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

  6. Water Contaminated Throughout U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents results of an Environmental Protection Agency survey aimed at detecting and quantifying the presence of organic chemicals in U.S. drinking water supplies. The studies have turned up some surprising contaminants such as nicotine and vinyl chloride. (Author/GS)

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  8. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, A; Phillips, D H; Bowen, J; Sen Gupta, B

    2015-04-15

    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO3-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. PMID:25634731

  9. Reaching site closure for groundwater under multiple regulatory agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Glucksberg, N.; Couture, B.

    2007-07-01

    , however CTDEP has approved the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) as the clean up standards for individual constituents. After remediation of an identified contamination source, the RSRs require that at least one groundwater monitoring well, hydraulically down-gradient of the remediation area, be sampled to confirm that the remediation has not impacted groundwater quality. After four quarters of groundwater monitoring with results below the MCLs, additional groundwater sampling must continue for up to three years to reach site closure in accordance with the RSRs. The cleanup criteria for chemical constituents, including boron, are regulated by the USEPA under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the CTDEP Bureau of Water Protection and Land Reuse. The USEPA, however, has accepted the CTDEP RSRs as the cleanup criteria for RCRA. Therefore attainment of the CTDEP RSRs is the only set of criteria needed to reach closure, but both agencies retain oversight, interpretation, and closure authority. As stated above, under the RSRs, groundwater must be monitored following a source remediation for a minimum of four quarters. After demonstrating that the remediation was successful, then additional groundwater sampling is required for up to three additional years. However, the number of monitoring wells and frequency of sampling are not defined in the RSRs and must be negotiated with CTDEP. To successfully reach closure, the conceptual site model, groundwater transport mechanisms, and potential receptors must be defined. Once the hydrogeology is understood, a long term groundwater monitoring program can then be coordinated to meet each agencies requirement to both terminate the NRC license and reach site closure under RCRA. (authors)

  10. Negotiating with Subscription Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Judy; Basch, N. Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This first in a two-part series on how librarians can negotiate services and prices with subscription agencies focuses on how vendors operate. Factors that influence agency costs, revenues, and service charges are described, including economies of scale, discounts from publishers, and prepayment and cash flow. (seven references) (LRW)

  11. Agency, communion and entitlement.

    PubMed

    Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Magdalena A; Piotrowski, Jarosław P; Clinton, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the relationship between agency, communion, and the active, passive, and revenge forms of entitlement is examined. Results indicate that active entitlement was positively related to agency, negatively to communion (Study 1), and unrelated to unmitigated agency and communion (Study 2). Passive entitlement was positively related to communion (in regular and unmitigated forms) and negatively related to agency (in both forms). Revenge entitlement was positively related to agency (unmitigated and regular), and negatively related to both regular and unmitigated communal orientations. Detected relationships were independent from self-esteem (Study 1). The findings are discussed in relation to distinctions between narcissistic and healthy entitlement, and within the context of the three-dimensional model of entitlement. PMID:25594535

  12. 50 CFR 259.34 - Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time... Capital Construction Fund Agreement § 259.34 Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit. (a... than prescribed herein: Provided, The party demonstrates to the Secretary's satisfaction...

  13. 75 FR 8698 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Ten Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Ten Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in Louisiana..., Water Quality Protection Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 6, 1445 Ross Ave., Dallas... within Louisiana: Subsegment Waterbody name Pollutant 010301 West Atchafalaya Basin Dissolved...

  14. 77 FR 30280 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Withdrawal of Nine Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Withdrawal of Nine Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) AGENCY... to the discovery of inconsistencies in the values used to derive the flow and load duration curves... (see 76 FR 52947) which pertain to segments 08040203-010, 08040204-006, and 08040206-015, -016,...

  15. 75 FR 20351 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of One Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in Arkansas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of One Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in Arkansas...) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). This TMDL was completed in response to the lawsuit styled Sierra Club... Protection Specialist, Water Quality Protection Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 6,...

  16. 34 CFR 84.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 84.645 Section 84.645 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  17. 28 CFR 83.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 83.645 Section 83.645 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  18. 5 CFR 1600.22 - Maximum contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum contributions. 1600.22 Section 1600.22 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTION ELECTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION ALLOCATIONS Program of Contributions § 1600.22 Maximum contributions. (a)...

  19. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  20. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  1. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  2. Maximum entropy image reconstruction from projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bara, N.; Murata, K.

    1981-07-01

    The maximum entropy method is applied to image reconstruction from projections, of which angular view is restricted. The relaxation parameters are introduced to the maximum entropy reconstruction and after iteration the median filtering is implemented. These procedures improve the quality of the reconstructed image from noisy projections

  3. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... total wages (see 20 CFR 404.203(m)) for the second year before the individual dies or becomes eligible... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family maximum. 229.48 Section 229.48... OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.48 Family maximum. (a)...

  4. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...

  5. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grants. 1778.11 Section 1778.11 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not... the filing of an application. (b) Grants made for repairs, partial replacement, or...

  6. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  7. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  8. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130... § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the minimum statutory amount, or its pro rata share of all SBDC grants as determined by the statutory formula set...

  9. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...

  10. 13 CFR 130.440 - Maximum grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum grant. 130.440 Section 130.440 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.440 Maximum grant. No recipient shall receive an SBDC grant exceeding the greater of the...

  11. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness... civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to any... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 107.329 - Maximum penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... violation, except the maximum civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness... civil penalty is $175,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to any... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maximum penalties. 107.329 Section...

  13. Variables indicating nitrate contamination in Bedrock Aquifers, Newark Basin, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clawges, R.M.; Vowinkel, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    Variables that describe well construction, hydrogeology, and land use were evaluated for use as possible indicators of the susceptibility of ground water in bedrock aquifers in the Newark Basin. New Jersey, to contamination by nitrate from the land surface. Statistical analyses were performed on data for 132 wells located throughout the Newark Basin. Concentrations of nitrate (as nitrogen) did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in any of the water samples (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1991). Variables that describe hydrogeology and well construction were found not to be statistically significant in relation to concentrations of nitrate. This finding can be attributed to the complex nature of flow in bedrock aquifers and mixing of water from shallow and deep water-bearing zones that occurs within these wells, which are constructed with long open intervals. Distributions of nitrate concentrations were significantly different among land-use groups on the basis of land use within both a 400- and an 800-m radius zone of the well. The median concentrations of nitrate (as N) in water from wells in predominantly urban-residential (2.5 mg/L) and agricultural areas (1.8 mg/L) were greater than the median concentration of nitrate in water from wells in predominantly undeveloped areas (0.5 mg/L).

  14. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  15. 77 FR 76169 - Increase in Maximum Tuition and Fee Amounts Payable under the Post-9/11 GI Bill

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... AFFAIRS Increase in Maximum Tuition and Fee Amounts Payable under the Post-9/11 GI Bill AGENCY: Department... of the increase in the Post-9/11 GI Bill maximum tuition and fee amounts payable and the increase in.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: For the 2011-2012 academic year, the Post-9/ 11 GI Bill allowed VA to pay the...

  16. 75 FR 66193 - Post-9/11 GI Bill 2010-2011 Tuition and Fee In-State Maximums

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... AFFAIRS Post-9/11 GI Bill 2010-2011 Tuition and Fee In-State Maximums AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to advise the public of the Post-9/11 GI Bill tuition and fee in-State maximum rates for the 2010- 2011 academic year. The Post-9/11...

  17. Teaching for maximum learning: The Philippine experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutaria, Minda C.

    1990-06-01

    The author tells about how the achievement level of Filipono grade school children is being improved through teaching for maximum learning. To promote teaching for maximum learning, it was imperative to identify minimum learning competencies in the new curriculum for each grade level, retrain teachers for teaching for maximum learning, develop appropriate instructional materials, improve the quality of supervision of instruction, install a multi-level (national to school) testing system and redress inequities in the distribution of human and material resources. This systematic approach to solving the problem of low quality of educational outcomes has resulted in a modest but steady improvement in the achievement levels of school children.

  18. FINGERPRINT ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINANT DATA: A FORENSIC TOOL FOR EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have been conducted on behalf of the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify detection monitoring parameters for specific industries.1,2,3,4,5 One outcome of these studies was the evolution of an empirical multi-variant contaminant fingerprinting p...

  19. 75 FR 54872 - Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)-Notice of Public Stakeholder Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... AGENCY Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)--Notice of Public Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY... Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced the Drinking Water Strategy, a new vision to expand public health protection for drinking water by going beyond the traditional framework. The Drinking...

  20. On the efficiency at maximum cooling power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Michot, A.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2013-08-01

    The efficiency at maximum power (EMP) of heat engines operating as generators is one corner stone of finite-time thermodynamics, the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency \\eta_CA being considered as a universal upper bound. Yet, no valid counterpart to \\eta_CA has been derived for the efficiency at maximum cooling power (EMCP) for heat engines operating as refrigerators. In this letter we analyse the reasons of the failure to obtain such a bound and we demonstrate that, despite the introduction of several optimisation criteria, the maximum cooling power condition should be considered as the genuine equivalent of maximum power condition in the finite-time thermodynamics frame. We then propose and discuss an analytic expression for the EMCP in the specific case of exoreversible refrigerators.

  1. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  2. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  3. 14 CFR 65.47 - Maximum hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Air Traffic Control Tower Operators § 65.47 Maximum hours. Except in an emergency, a certificated air traffic control tower operator must be relieved of all...

  4. 77 FR 75699 - Pipeline Safety: Reporting of Exceedances of Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... Allowable Operating Pressure AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT... owners and operators of gas transmission pipelines that if the pipeline pressure exceeds maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) plus the build-up allowed for operation of pressure-limiting or...

  5. 40 CFR 1051.140 - What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.140 What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and... the mapping procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and...

  6. 40 CFR 1051.140 - What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.140 What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and... the mapping procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and...

  7. 40 CFR 1051.140 - What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.140 What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and... the mapping procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and...

  8. 40 CFR 1051.140 - What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.140 What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and... the mapping procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and...

  9. 40 CFR 1051.140 - What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and displacement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1051.140 What is my vehicle's maximum engine power and... the mapping procedures of 40 CFR part 1065, based on the manufacturer's design and...

  10. 40 CFR 1039.140 - What is my engine's maximum engine power?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is my engine's maximum engine power? 1039.140 Section 1039.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements...

  11. 7 CFR 762.129 - Percent of guarantee and maximum loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Percent of guarantee and maximum loss. 762.129 Section 762.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.129 Percent of guarantee and...

  12. Interim measure conceptual design for remediation of source area contamination at Agra, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-07-31

    This document presents a conceptual design for the implementation of a non-emergency interim measure (IM) at the site of the grain storage facility formerly operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in Agra, Kansas. The IM is recommended to mitigate localized carbon tetrachloride contamination in the vadose zone soils at the former CCC/USDA facility and eliminate ongoing soil-to-groundwater contamination. The objectives of this IM conceptual design report include the following: 1. Obtain written acknowledgement from the Kansas Department of Health and the Environment (KDHE) that remediation on the former CCC/USDA property is required. 2. Provide information (IM description, justification for the IM, and project schedule) that the KDHE can include in a pending fact sheet. 3. Obtain KDHE approval for the IM conceptual design, so that the CCC/USDA can initiate a formal request for access to the privately owned property and proceed with preparation of a remedial design plan (RDP). Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne 2006) have demonstrated that soil and groundwater at the Agra site are contaminated with carbon tetrachloride. The levels in groundwater exceed the Kansas Tier 2 Risk-Based Screening Level (RBSL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The soil and groundwater contamination identified at the former CCC/USDA facility currently poses no unacceptable health risks.

  13. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  14. Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

    1983-08-01

    The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645

  15. Maximum efficiency of an autophase TWT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, B. N.; Dimashko, Iu. A.; Kryzhanovskii, V. G.

    1985-10-01

    Formulas are presented for the maximum efficiency of an autophase TWT. It is shown that the maximum efficiency is determined by the ohmic-loss coefficient and is achieved through a successive application of the isoadiabatic-amplification mode and the isoacceptance mode. The efficiency can reach a value of 75-80 percent; further increases may be achieved through an improvement of the capture quality.

  16. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Jody L.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite contamination continues to be a design problem that engineers must take into account when developing new satellites. To help with this issue, NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded the development of the Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledge base. This engineering tool brings together in one location information about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based upon ground-testing data, the effects of outgassing that has been observed during flight and measurements of the contamination environment by on-orbit instruments. The knowledge base contains information using the ASTM Standard E- 1559 and also consolidates data from missions using quartz-crystal microbalances (QCM's). The data contained in the knowledge base was shared with NASA by government agencies and industry in the US and international space agencies as well. The term 'knowledgebase' was used because so much information and capability was brought together in one comprehensive engineering design tool. It is the SEE Program's intent to continually add additional material contamination data as it becomes available - creating a dynamic tool whose value to the user is ever increasing. The SEE Program firmly believes that NASA, and ultimately the entire contamination user community, will greatly benefit from this new engineering tool and highly encourages the community to not only use the tool but add data to it as well.

  17. INTEGRATING THE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ACROSS FEDERAL AGENCIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seven Federal Agencies are conducting collaborative research to provide the next generation of environmental models for analyzing complex multimedia, multi-stressor contamination problems. Among the primary objectives of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) are 1) to provide a ...

  18. Forensic Hydrogeography: Assessing Arsenic Contamination in Drinking Water, Livestock, and Agricultural Wells in Harney County, Eastern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitherman, L. L.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between elevated arsenic levels in groundwater and the regional geography within the Harney Basin in Eastern Oregon. There are multiple aquifers within this region used for public consumption, livestock production, and agriculture. Initial observations by the United States Geological Survey and independent residential water quality assessments have identified some wells containing arsenic concentrations an order of magnitude greater than the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 parts per billion for drinking water. However, these data are inadequate to characterize the spatial extent of arsenic contamination throughout the basin; it remains unclear which aquifers are contaminated. The basin contains a geology comprised of tuffaceous sedimentary rocks and basalt formations with extensive faulting. Productive wells range in depth from 6 to 240 meters. The present study examines the spatial extent and seasonal variation of arsenic concentrations due to changing water levels stemming from agricultural pumping. These data will aid in the development of a regional model of arsenic contamination throughout the basin.

  19. Simultaneous parameter estimation and contaminant source characterization for coupled groundwater flow and contaminant transport modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    Parameter estimation and contaminant source characterization are key steps in the development of a coupled groundwater flow and contaminant transport simulation model. Here a methodologyfor simultaneous model parameter estimation and source characterization is presented. The parameter estimation/source characterization inverse model combines groundwater flow and contaminant transport simulation with non-linear maximum likelihood estimation to determine optimal estimates of the unknown model parameters and source characteristics based on measurements of hydraulic head and contaminant concentration. First-order uncertainty analysis provides a means for assessing the reliability of the maximum likelihood estimates and evaluating the accuracy and reliability of the flow and transport model predictions. A series of hypothetical examples is presented to demonstrate the ability of the inverse model to solve the combined parameter estimation/source characterization inverse problem. Hydraulic conductivities, effective porosity, longitudinal and transverse dispersivities, boundary flux, and contaminant flux at the source are estimated for a two-dimensional groundwater system. In addition, characterization of the history of contaminant disposal or location of the contaminant source is demonstrated. Finally, the problem of estimating the statistical parameters that describe the errors associated with the head and concentration data is addressed. A stage-wise estimation procedure is used to jointly estimate these statistical parameters along with the unknown model parameters and source characteristics. ?? 1992.

  20. Assessing allelic dropout and genotype reliability using maximum likelihood.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Craig R; Joyce, Paul; Waits, Lisette P

    2002-01-01

    A growing number of population genetic studies utilize nuclear DNA microsatellite data from museum specimens and noninvasive sources. Genotyping errors are elevated in these low quantity DNA sources, potentially compromising the power and accuracy of the data. The most conservative method for addressing this problem is effective, but requires extensive replication of individual genotypes. In search of a more efficient method, we developed a maximum-likelihood approach that minimizes errors by estimating genotype reliability and strategically directing replication at loci most likely to harbor errors. The model assumes that false and contaminant alleles can be removed from the dataset and that the allelic dropout rate is even across loci. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed method marks a vast improvement in efficiency while maintaining accuracy. When allelic dropout rates are low (0-30%), the reduction in the number of PCR replicates is typically 40-50%. The model is robust to moderate violations of the even dropout rate assumption. For datasets that contain false and contaminant alleles, a replication strategy is proposed. Our current model addresses only allelic dropout, the most prevalent source of genotyping error. However, the developed likelihood framework can incorporate additional error-generating processes as they become more clearly understood. PMID:11805071

  1. Federal Law on Consumer Deception: An Agency by Agency Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweibel, George J.

    A comprehensive analysis of statutes and regulations on consumer deception administered by thirty government agencies is provided in this report. Each agency's chapter includes a brief description of the agency, and a detailed listing of all deceptive trade practices prohibited by that agency's enabling legislation, regulations, or other sources…

  2. 10 CFR 607.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agency or agency. 607.645 Section 607.645 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the...

  3. 2 CFR 182.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 182.645 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department,...

  4. 2 CFR 182.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 182.645 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department,...

  5. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  6. Cell Development obeys Maximum Fisher Information

    PubMed Central

    Frieden, B. Roy; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell development has been optimized by natural selection to obey maximal intracellular flux of messenger proteins. This, in turn, implies maximum Fisher information on angular position about a target nuclear pore complex (NPR). The cell is simply modeled as spherical, with cell membrane (CM) diameter 10μm and concentric nuclear membrane (NM) diameter 6μm. The NM contains ≈ 3000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Development requires messenger ligands to travel from the CM-NPC-DNA target binding sites. Ligands acquire negative charge by phosphorylation, passing through the cytoplasm over Newtonian trajectories toward positively charged NPCs (utilizing positive nuclear localization sequences). The CM-NPC channel obeys maximized mean protein flux F and Fisher information I at the NPC, with first-order δI = 0 and approximate 2nd-order δ2I ≈ 0 stability to environmental perturbations. Many of its predictions are confirmed, including the dominance of protein pathways of from 1–4 proteins, a 4nm size for the EGFR protein and the flux value F ≈1016 proteins/m2-s. After entering the nucleus, each protein ultimately delivers its ligand information to a DNA target site with maximum probability, i.e. maximum Kullback-Liebler entropy HKL. In a smoothness limit HKL → IDNA/2, so that the total CM-NPC-DNA channel obeys maximum Fisher I. Thus maximum information → non-equilibrium, one condition for life. PMID:23747917

  7. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  8. The Maximum Mass of Rotating Strange Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkudlarek, M.; Gondek-Rosiń; ska, D.; Villain, L.; Ansorg, M.

    2012-12-01

    Strange quark stars are considered as a possible alternative to neutron stars as compact objects (e.g. Weber 2003). A hot compact star (a proto-neutron star or a strange star) born in a supernova explosion or a remnant of neutron stars binary merger are expected to rotate differentially and be important sources of gravitational waves. We present results of the first relativistic calculations of differentially rotating strange quark stars for broad ranges of degree of differential rotation and maximum densities. Using a highly accurate, relativistic code we show that rotation may cause a significant increase of maximum allowed mass of strange stars, much larger than in the case of neutron stars with the same degree of differential rotation. Depending on the maximum allowed mass a massive neutron star (strange star) can be temporarily stabilized by differential rotation or collapse to a black hole.

  9. Surface tension maximum of liquid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Hasegawa, Syuichi; Suzuki, Masaru; Okuda, Yuichi

    2000-07-01

    The surface tension of liquid 3He was measured using the capillary-rise method. Suzuki et al. have reported that its temperature dependence was almost quenched below 120 mK. Here we have examined it with higher precision and found that it has a small maximum around 100 mK. The amount of the maximum is about 3×10 -4 as a fraction of the surface tension at 0 K. The density of liquid 3He increases with temperature by about 5×10 -4 in Δ ρ/ ρ between 0 and 100 mK. This density change could be one of the reasons of the surface tension maximum around 100 mK.

  10. Experiences with groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses developments in combating groundwater contamination. The papers include: Regulation of Groundwater; Utility Experiences Related to Existing and Proposed Drinking Water Regulations; Point-of-Use Treatment Technology to Control Organic and Inorganic Contamination; Hazardous Waste Disposal Practices and Groundwater Contamination; Reverse Osmosis Treatment to Control Inorganic and Volatile Organic Contamination; The Dilemma of New Wells Versus Treatment; Characteristics and Handling of Wastes From Groundwater Treatment Systems; and Removing Solvents to Restore Drinking Water at Darien, Connecticut.

  11. Metrics for Nitrate Contamination of Ground Water at CAFO Land Application Site - Arkansas Dairy Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrate is the most common chemical contaminant found in ground water. Recent research by U.S. EPA has shown that land application of manure can cause nitrate contamination of ground water above the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) of 10 mg NO3-N/ L at significant depths. This...

  12. Undetected Groundwater Contamination at Underground Storage Tank Sites by the Gasoline Lead Scavengers Ethylene Dibromide and 1,2-Dichloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falta, R. W.

    2004-05-01

    Ethylene dibromide (EDB) is a synthetic organic chemical that was produced in large amounts for use as a leaded gasoline additive and pesticide. The chlorinated solvent 1,2-dichlorethane (1,2-DCA) is widely used in the chemical industry, and was also added to leaded gasoline. EDB and 1,2-DCA are classified as probable human carcinogens by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and EDB's use as a pesticide was suspended in 1984. The current EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) for EDB in drinking water is 0.05 ug/l, and the MCL for 1,2-DCA is 5 ug/l. EDB has proven to be both mobile and persistent in groundwater, and contamination of groundwater by EDB was documented in several states beginning in the early 1980s. The majority of this contamination is attributed to agricultural uses of EDB, however approximately 90 percent of the EDB produced was used as a leaded gasoline additive, and it was present in virtually all leaded gasoline sold in the US. 1,2-DCA is commonly found as a groundwater contaminant, and it is both mobile and persistent. Past site investigations and remediation efforts at underground storage tank sites contaminated by leaded gasoline have rarely addressed the potential for EDB or 1,2-DCA contamination. However, the concentrations of EDB and 1,2-DCA in leaded gasoline were high enough to produce groundwater concentrations of thousands of ug/l. For this reason, there is a substantial likelihood that undetected EDB and 1,2-DCA plumes above the MCL may exist at many sites where leaded gasoline leaked or spilled. An initial review of field data from underground storage tank sites in two states suggests that this problem is widespread.

  13. Mapping and modeling three dimensional lead contamination in the wetland sediments of a former trap-shooting range.

    PubMed

    Perroy, Ryan L; Belby, Colin S; Mertens, Cody J

    2014-07-15

    Legacy lead (Pb) contamination from sport shooting activities is a well-known hazard. Assessing the risk this contamination presents to the environment and public health requires a detailed understanding of its spatial distribution, yet our knowledge in this area is limited, especially for wetland shooting ranges. In this study, we analyzed 1351 sediment samples from 456 surficial (0-5 cm) locations and 38 sediment cores (0.3 to 0.9 m) to quantify the three dimensional spatial distribution of Pb contamination in an urban wetland at the site of a former trap shooting range located in southwestern Wisconsin, USA. Non-destructive X-ray images of the sediment cores were used to quantify Pb shot abundance and burial depth. Surficial and core sediment samples were processed and analyzed for total Pb content via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. X-ray and XRF results were interpolated to create a three-dimensional model of Pb shot density and sediment concentration across the study area. Over 31,000 m(3) of sediment surpassed the US Environmental Protection Agency's contamination threshold of 400mg/kg Pb, with a maximum calibrated value of 26,700 mg/kg Pb occurring near the center of the expected shot fallout zone. Shot densities of >50,000 pellets/m(2) were found in the shot fallout zone, primarily 10-30 cm below the sediment surface. X-ray image analysis and XRF analysis of sediment cores provide an accurate and inexpensive technique for rapidly mapping Pb contamination associated with gun clubs and hunting; these findings will benefit environmental contamination studies and remediation efforts at active and abandoned shooting ranges worldwide.

  14. Youth Media and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauge, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…

  15. Strengthening Career Human Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    Rooted in A. Bandura's (1982, 2001b) social cognitive theory, the notion of human agency has received considerable attention in vocational and career psychology for the last 2 decades, especially with the recent emergence of social constructivist thinking in the field. This article continues in the same direction. In reviewing the notion of human…

  16. Metacognition of Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Janet; Greene, Matthew Jason

    2007-01-01

    The feeling that we are agents, intentionally making things happen by our own actions, is foundational to our understanding of ourselves as humans. People's metacognitions of agency were investigated in 4 experiments. Participants played a game in which they tried to touch downward scrolling Xs and avoid touching Os. Variables that affected…

  17. Maximum predictive power and the superposition principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summhammer, Johann

    1994-01-01

    In quantum physics the direct observables are probabilities of events. We ask how observed probabilities must be combined to achieve what we call maximum predictive power. According to this concept the accuracy of a prediction must only depend on the number of runs whose data serve as input for the prediction. We transform each probability to an associated variable whose uncertainty interval depends only on the amount of data and strictly decreases with it. We find that for a probability which is a function of two other probabilities maximum predictive power is achieved when linearly summing their associated variables and transforming back to a probability. This recovers the quantum mechanical superposition principle.

  18. Maximum likelihood clustering with dependent feature trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The decomposition of mixture density of the data into its normal component densities is considered. The densities are approximated with first order dependent feature trees using criteria of mutual information and distance measures. Expressions are presented for the criteria when the densities are Gaussian. By defining different typs of nodes in a general dependent feature tree, maximum likelihood equations are developed for the estimation of parameters using fixed point iterations. The field structure of the data is also taken into account in developing maximum likelihood equations. Experimental results from the processing of remotely sensed multispectral scanner imagery data are included.

  19. Assessment of hyporheic zone, flood-plain, soil-gas, soil, and surface-water contamination at the Old Incinerator Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    their method detection levels, but those that were detected were above the nondetection level. The same six locations that were sampled for explosives and chemical agents were selected for the collection of soil samples. No metals that exceeded the Regional Screening Levels for Industrial Soils as classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were detected at any of the six Old Incinerator Area locations. The soil samples also were compared to values from the ambient, uncontaminated (background) levels for soils in South Carolina. Because South Carolina is adjacent to Georgia and the soils in the coastal plain are similar, these comparisons are valid. No similar values are available for Georgia to use for comparison purposes. The only metal detected above the ambient background levels for South Carolina was barium. A surface-water sample collected from a tributary west and north of the Old Incinerator Area was analyzed for volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and inorganic compounds (metals). The only volatile organic and (or) semivolatile organic compound that was detected above the laboratory reporting level was toluene. The compounds 4-isopropyl-1-methylbenzene and isophorone were detected above the nondetection level but below the laboratory reporting level and were estimated. These compounds were detected at levels below the maximum contaminant levels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Primary Drinking Water Standard. Iron was the only inorganic compound detected in the surface-water sample that exceeded the maximum contaminant level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Secondary Drinking Water Standard. No other inorganic compounds exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Primary Drinking Water Standard, National Secondary Drinking Water Standard, or the Georgia In-Stream Water Quality Standard.

  20. 40 CFR 142.61 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION...) Activated alumina absorption, centrally applied (2) Reverse osmosis, centrally applied (b) The Administrator... responsibility (primacy state) that issues variances shall require a community water system to install and/or...

  1. 40 CFR 142.61 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION...) Activated alumina absorption, centrally applied (2) Reverse osmosis, centrally applied (b) The Administrator... responsibility (primacy state) that issues variances shall require a community water system to install and/or...

  2. 40 CFR 142.61 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION...) Activated alumina absorption, centrally applied (2) Reverse osmosis, centrally applied (b) The Administrator... responsibility (primacy state) that issues variances shall require a community water system to install and/or...

  3. 40 CFR 141.64 - Maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening or GAC10... Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening, plus GAC10; or nanofiltration...

  4. 40 CFR 141.64 - Maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening or GAC10... Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening, plus GAC10; or nanofiltration...

  5. 40 CFR 141.64 - Maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening or GAC10... Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening, plus GAC10; or nanofiltration...

  6. 40 CFR 141.64 - Maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening or GAC10... Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening, plus GAC10; or nanofiltration...

  7. 40 CFR 141.64 - Maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening or GAC10... Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5) Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening, plus GAC10; or nanofiltration...

  8. ARSENIC: CARCINOGENIC MECHANISMS, RISK ASSESSMENT AND THE MAXIMUM CONTAMINANT LEVEL (MCL)

    EPA Science Inventory


    This workshop will provide an up-to-date overview on key issues related to cancer risk assessment of arsenic: carcinogenic mechanisms; application of mechanistic information to risk assessment models; and the development of the MCL for arsenic in drinking water. The two prese...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 257 - Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....05 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid 94-75-7 0.1 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 106-46-7 0.075 1,2-Dichloroethane... Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 0.005 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy acetic acid 93-76-5 0.01 Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 0.002...

  10. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... result in a marginal reduction in TTHM for the system. If, upon application by a system for a variance... determination as to the availability and effectiveness of such treatment methods shall be based upon studies by... economically reasonable, and that the TTHM reductions obtained will be commensurate with the costs...

  11. 40 CFR 142.61 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application by a system for a variance, the Administrator or primacy state that issues variances determines.... The Administrator's or primacy state's determination as to the availability and effectiveness of such... will be commensurate with the costs incurred with the installation and use of such treatment...

  12. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (3) Improved existing clarification for THM precursor reduction. (4) Moving the point of chlorination... precursor or TTHM reduction seasonally or intermittently at dosages not to exceed 10 mg/L on an annual... storage for THM precursor reduction. Aeration for TTHM reduction, where geographically and...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 257 - Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Drinking Water Act Chemical CAS No. MCL -(mg/l) Arsenic 7440-38-2 0.05 Barium 7440-39-3 1.0 Benzene 71-343... 0.004 Lead 7439-92-1 0.05 Mercury 7439-97-6 0.002 Methoxychlor 72-43-5 0.1 Nitrate 10.0...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 257 - Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Drinking Water Act Chemical CAS No. MCL -(mg/l) Arsenic 7440-38-2 0.05 Barium 7440-39-3 1.0 Benzene 71-343... 0.004 Lead 7439-92-1 0.05 Mercury 7439-97-6 0.002 Methoxychlor 72-43-5 0.1 Nitrate 10.0...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 257 - Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Drinking Water Act Chemical CAS No. MCL -(mg/l) Arsenic 7440-38-2 0.05 Barium 7440-39-3 1.0 Benzene 71-343... 0.004 Lead 7439-92-1 0.05 Mercury 7439-97-6 0.002 Methoxychlor 72-43-5 0.1 Nitrate 10.0...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 257 - Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Drinking Water Act Chemical CAS No. MCL -(mg/l) Arsenic 7440-38-2 0.05 Barium 7440-39-3 1.0 Benzene 71-343... 0.004 Lead 7439-92-1 0.05 Mercury 7439-97-6 0.002 Methoxychlor 72-43-5 0.1 Nitrate 10.0...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  18. Universality of efficiency at maximum power.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Lindenberg, Katja; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2009-04-01

    We investigate the efficiency of power generation by thermochemical engines. For strong coupling between the particle and heat flows and in the presence of a left-right symmetry in the system, we demonstrate that the efficiency at maximum power displays universality up to quadratic order in the deviation from equilibrium. A maser model is presented to illustrate our argument.

  19. Teaching Media Studies in Maximum Security Prisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Farrel

    Some of the difficulties involved in teaching inside maximum security prisons, and ways a media studies teacher met these challenges, are described in this paper. The first section of the paper deals with the prison security system and the stresses it can cause for both teacher and student, while the second section discusses the influence of the…

  20. Maximum phonation time: variability and reliability.

    PubMed

    Speyer, Renée; Bogaardt, Hans C A; Passos, Valéria Lima; Roodenburg, Nel P H D; Zumach, Anne; Heijnen, Mariëlle A M; Baijens, Laura W J; Fleskens, Stijn J H M; Brunings, Jan W

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine maximum phonation time reliability as a function of the number of trials, days, and raters in dysphonic and control subjects. Two groups of adult subjects participated in this reliability study: a group of outpatients with functional or organic dysphonia versus a group of healthy control subjects matched by age and gender. Over a period of maximally 6 weeks, three video recordings were made of five subjects' maximum phonation time trials. A panel of five experts were responsible for all measurements, including a repeated measurement of the subjects' first recordings. Patients showed significantly shorter maximum phonation times compared with healthy controls (on average, 6.6 seconds shorter). The averaged interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) over all raters per trial for the first day was 0.998. The averaged reliability coefficient per rater and per trial for repeated measurements of the first day's data was 0.997, indicating high intrarater reliability. The mean reliability coefficient per day for one trial was 0.939. When using five trials, the reliability increased to 0.987. The reliability over five trials for a single day was 0.836; for 2 days, 0.911; and for 3 days, 0.935. To conclude, the maximum phonation time has proven to be a highly reliable measure in voice assessment. A single rater is sufficient to provide highly reliable measurements.

  1. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum rates. 9701.312 Section 9701.312 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  3. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  4. Maximum entropy analysis of hydraulic pipe networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldrip, Steven H.; Niven, Robert K.; Abel, Markus; Schlegel, Michael

    2014-12-01

    A Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) method is developed to infer mean external and internal flow rates and mean pressure gradients (potential differences) in hydraulic pipe networks, without or with sufficient constraints to render the system deterministic. The proposed method substantially extends existing methods for the analysis of flow networks (e.g. Hardy-Cross), applicable only to deterministic networks.

  5. 5 CFR 9701.312 - Maximum rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.312 Maximum rates. (a) DHS may...

  6. Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M

    1922-01-01

    Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.

  7. Minimal length, Friedmann equations and maximum density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2014-06-01

    Inspired by Jacobson's thermodynamic approach [4], Cai et al. [5, 6] have shown the emergence of Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We extend Akbar-Cai derivation [6] of Friedmann equations to accommodate a general entrop-yarea law. Studying the resulted Friedmann equations using a specific entropy-area law, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), reveals the existence of a maximum energy density closed to Planck density. Allowing for a general continuous pressure p( ρ, a) leads to bounded curvature invariants and a general nonsingular evolution. In this case, the maximum energy density is reached in a finite time and there is no cosmological evolution beyond this point which leaves the big bang singularity inaccessible from a spacetime prospective. The existence of maximum energy density and a general nonsingular evolution is independent of the equation of state and the spacial curvature k. As an example we study the evolution of the equation of state p = ωρ through its phase-space diagram to show the existence of a maximum energy which is reachable in a finite time.

  8. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  9. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  10. 7 CFR 1778.11 - Maximum grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... quantity of potable water, or an anticipated acute shortage or significant decline, cannot exceed $150,000... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.11 Maximum grants. (a) Grants not to exceed $500,000 may be made to alleviate a significant decline in quantity or quality of...

  11. Maximum Possible Transverse Velocity in Special Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhekar, Sarang

    1991-01-01

    Using a physical picture, an expression for the maximum possible transverse velocity and orientation required for that by a linear emitter in special theory of relativity has been derived. A differential calculus method is also used to derive the expression. (Author/KR)

  12. 24 CFR 200.15 - Maximum mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum mortgage. 200.15 Section 200.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  13. Maximum rotation frequency of strange stars

    SciTech Connect

    Zdunik, J.L.; Haensel, P. )

    1990-07-15

    Using the MIT bag model of strange-quark matter, we calculate the maximum angular frequency of the uniform rotation of strange stars. After studying a broad range of the MIT bag-model parameters, we obtain an upper bound of 12.3 kHz.

  14. Statement of contamination problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffler, W.

    1985-01-01

    Space station contamination information is given. There are five major areas in which there are task requirements: (1) potential contaminants need to be identified, i.e., both the sources and types of contaminants, (2) the scope and magnitude of contaminant effects need to be determined, i.e., toxicological effects, microbacteriological effects and impurities, (3) mathematical models for predictive methods need to be developed. (4) state-of-the-art and advanced technologies for monitoring contaminants and for methods of decontamination need to be identified, and (5) automated monitoring and control systems need to be designed.

  15. 41 CFR 302-12.6 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency pay if I use a relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight... relocation services company to ship household goods in excess of the maximum weight allowance? If you use a relocation services company to ship HHG in excess of the maximum weight allowance, your agency will pay...

  16. Arctic contaminants research program: Research plan

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.H.; Ford, J.; Allen, S.; Curtis, L.; Omernik, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    The research plan was initially intended to contain the information needed to evaluate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Arctic Contaminant Research Program (ACRP). The scientific aspects of the proposed research form the main body of the document and focus on objectives of the specific research components, current literature, approach, and rationale. The ACRP has three major components: (1) extensive sampling of lichens, mosses, and soils to provide a spatial understanding of the status and extent of contaminants present in arctic ecosystems, (2) lake sediment research to evaluate the source and history of arctic contaminant inputs, and (3) food web research to evaluate the possible effects of atmospherically transported pollutants on arctic food webs. The research plan will be used to provide a framework for the ACRP, based on the preliminary studies done to date and will be implemented over the next five years. The Program will undergo additional peer reviews at two-year intervals in the future.

  17. Evaluating soil contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, W.

    1990-07-01

    The compilation was designed to help U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service contaminant specialists evaluate the degree of contamination of a soil, based on chemical analyses. Included are regulatory criteria, opinions, brief descriptions of scientific articles, and miscellaneous information that might be useful in making risk assessments. The intent was to make hard-to-obtain material readily available to contaminant specialists, but not to critique the material or develop new criteria. The compilation is to be used with its index, which includes about 200 contaminants. Entries include soil contaminant criteria from other countries, contaminant guidelines for applying sewage sludge to soil, guidelines for evaluating sediments, background soil concentrations for various elements, citations to scientific articles that may help estimate the potential movement of soil contaminants into wildlife food chains, and a few odds and ends. Articles on earthworms were emphasized because they are a natural bridge between soil and many species of wildlife.

  18. Pesticides and nitrate in surficial sand and gravel aquifers as related to modeled contamination susceptibility in part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of pesticides and nitrate (nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen) in surficial sand and gravel aquifers in parts of Minnesota and Wisconsin was summarized as part of an analysis of historical water-quality data for the Upper Mississippi River Basin study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Water samples were collected by State and Federal agencies for pesticides (366) and nitrate (410) between 1971 and 1994 from wells completed in surficial sand and gravel aquifers. State agencies in Minnesota and Wisconsin have developed models to determine areas where ground water is susceptible to contamination based on geologic and hydrologic conditions (Schmidt, 1987, and Porcher, 1989). Water-quality data is evaluated with respect to the ground-water susceptibility models. The results also are evaluated with respect to overlying land use and land cover. Samples from wells with detectable levels of one or more pesticides or nitrate concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) generally coincided with areas of high contamination susceptibility. Furthermore, samples from wells located in areas of high contamination susceptibility had pesticide detection frequencies and nitrate concentrations that correlated to overlying land use and land cover. Samples from wells located in high susceptibility areas that were surrounded by cropland had greater pesticide detection frequencies and greater nitrate concentrations than wells located in similar susceptibility areas but surrounded by different land use and land cover types such as forest, urban, and wetlands.

  19. Occurrence and methods of control of chemical contaminants in foods.

    PubMed Central

    Jelinek, C

    1981-01-01

    Contamination of food by chemicals can result from their use on agricultural commodities; accidents or misuse during food handling and processing; nucler weapon testing and operation of nuclear power plants; and disposal of industrial chemicals or by-products with subsequent dispersal into the environment. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as the Federal agency mainly responsible for evaluating the hazards of chemical contaminants and enforcing any established tolerance levels for them in foods, has been monitoring pesticides, industrial chemicals, metals, and radionuclides in foods in its nationwide programs for many years. In addition, FDA searches for potential contaminants among the approximately 50,000 industrial chemicals manufactured in the United States and coordinates its efforts with those of other Federal and state agencies in these investigations. The overall results of the FDA surveillance and compliance programs for chemical contaminants in foods, as well as specific examples illustrating the wide range of incidents and types of occurrences, are presented. PMID:6786871

  20. USE OF APATITE FOR CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. William D. Bostick

    2003-05-01

    Groundwater at many Federal and civilian industrial sites is often contaminated with toxic metals at levels that present a potential concern to regulatory agencies. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has some unique problems associated with radionuclides (primarily uranium), but metal contaminants most likely drive risk-based cleanup decisions, from the perspective of human health, in groundwater at DOE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Sites include lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Thus, the regulatory ''drivers'' for toxic metals in contaminated soils/groundwaters are very comparable for Federal and civilian industrial sites, and most sites have more than one metal above regulatory action limits. Thus improving the performance of remedial technologies for metal-contaminated groundwater will have ''dual use'' (Federal and civilian) benefit.

  1. Agency, time, and causality

    PubMed Central

    Widlok, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-Western Educational Industrial Rich Democratic people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition. PMID:25414683

  2. Theoretical Analysis of Maximum Flow Declination Rate versus Maximum Area Declination Rate in Phonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) in the glottis is known to correlate strongly with vocal intensity in voicing. This declination, or negative slope on the glottal airflow waveform, is in part attributable to the maximum area declination rate (MADR) and in part to the overall inertia of the air column of the vocal tract (lungs to…

  3. 50 CFR 259.34 - Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum and maximum deposits; maximum time to deposit. 259.34 Section 259.34 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES...

  4. 2 CFR 902.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY Reserved REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 902.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the...

  5. 2 CFR 182.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 182.645 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS GOVERNMENTWIDE.... Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military department,...

  6. Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, C. W., IV; Liu, J. W.; Duxbury, P. M.

    2006-05-01

    Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem.

  7. Maximum-entropy description of animal movement.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Chris H; Subaşı, Yiğit; Calabrese, Justin M

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a class of maximum-entropy states that naturally includes within it all of the major continuous-time stochastic processes that have been applied to animal movement, including Brownian motion, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck motion, a recently discovered hybrid of the previous models, and a new model that describes central-place foraging. We are also able to predict a further hierarchy of new models that will emerge as data quality improves to better resolve the underlying continuity of animal movement. Finally, we also show that Langevin equations must obey a fluctuation-dissipation theorem to generate processes that fall from this class of maximum-entropy distributions when the constraints are purely kinematic.

  8. Maximum constrained sparse coding for image representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Danpei; Jiang, Zhiguo

    2015-12-01

    Sparse coding exhibits good performance in many computer vision applications by finding bases which capture highlevel semantics of the data and learning sparse coefficients in terms of the bases. However, due to the fact that bases are non-orthogonal, sparse coding can hardly preserve the samples' similarity, which is important for discrimination. In this paper, a new image representing method called maximum constrained sparse coding (MCSC) is proposed. Sparse representation with more active coefficients means more similarity information, and the infinite norm is added to the solution for this purpose. We solve the optimizer by constraining the codes' maximum and releasing the residual to other dictionary atoms. Experimental results on image clustering show that our method can preserve the similarity of adjacent samples and maintain the sparsity of code simultaneously.

  9. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  10. Model Fit after Pairwise Maximum Likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Barendse, M. T.; Ligtvoet, R.; Timmerman, M. E.; Oort, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Maximum likelihood factor analysis of discrete data within the structural equation modeling framework rests on the assumption that the observed discrete responses are manifestations of underlying continuous scores that are normally distributed. As maximizing the likelihood of multivariate response patterns is computationally very intensive, the sum of the log–likelihoods of the bivariate response patterns is maximized instead. Little is yet known about how to assess model fit when the analysis is based on such a pairwise maximum likelihood (PML) of two–way contingency tables. We propose new fit criteria for the PML method and conduct a simulation study to evaluate their performance in model selection. With large sample sizes (500 or more), PML performs as well the robust weighted least squares analysis of polychoric correlations. PMID:27148136

  11. Pareto versus lognormal: A maximum entropy test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  12. Finding maximum colorful subtrees in practice.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Imran; Rasche, Florian; Nicolas, François; Böcker, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    In metabolomics and other fields dealing with small compounds, mass spectrometry is applied as a sensitive high-throughput technique. Recently, fragmentation trees have been proposed to automatically analyze the fragmentation mass spectra recorded by such instruments. Computationally, this leads to the problem of finding a maximum weight subtree in an edge-weighted and vertex-colored graph, such that every color appears, at most once in the solution. We introduce new heuristics and an exact algorithm for this Maximum Colorful Subtree problem and evaluate them against existing algorithms on real-world and artificial datasets. Our tree completion heuristic consistently scores better than other heuristics, while the integer programming-based algorithm produces optimal trees with modest running times. Our fast and accurate heuristic can help determine molecular formulas based on fragmentation trees. On the other hand, optimal trees from the integer linear program are useful if structure is relevant, for example for tree alignments.

  13. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    PubMed

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope. PMID:26159097

  14. Evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost Program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. James; Hefner, Dennis; Dobson, Allen; Hardy, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    This article summarizes an evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC)-Estimated Acquisition Cost (EAC) program, the Federal Government's cost-containment program for prescription drugs.1 The MAC-EAC regulations which became effective on August 26, 1976, have four major components: (1) Maximum Allowable Cost reimbursement limits for selected multisource or generically available drugs; (2) Estimated Acquisition Cost reimbursement limits for all drugs; (3) “usual and customary” reimbursement limits for all drugs; and (4) a directive that professional fee studies be performed by each State. The study examines the benefits and costs of the MAC reimbursement limits for 15 dosage forms of five multisource drugs and EAC reimbursement limits for all drugs for five selected States as of 1979. PMID:10309857

  15. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    PubMed

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  16. Maximum hydrocarbon window determination in South Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, W.G. )

    1993-03-29

    This is the third and final part of a three part article about the distribution of hydrocarbons in the Tertiary sands of South Louisiana. Based on many individual plots, it was found that hydrocarbon distribution will vary according to the depth of abnormal pressure and lithology. The relation of maximum hydrocarbon distribution to formation fracture strength or depth opens the door to the use of a maximum hydrocarbon window (MHW) technique. This MHW technique can be used as a decision making tool on how deep to drill a well, particularly how deep to drill a well below the top of abnormal pressure. The paper describes the benefits of the MHW technique and its future potential for exploration and development operations.

  17. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    PubMed

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  18. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION FOR SOCIAL NETWORK DYNAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tom A.B.; Koskinen, Johan; Schweinberger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A model for network panel data is discussed, based on the assumption that the observed data are discrete observations of a continuous-time Markov process on the space of all directed graphs on a given node set, in which changes in tie variables are independent conditional on the current graph. The model for tie changes is parametric and designed for applications to social network analysis, where the network dynamics can be interpreted as being generated by choices made by the social actors represented by the nodes of the graph. An algorithm for calculating the Maximum Likelihood estimator is presented, based on data augmentation and stochastic approximation. An application to an evolving friendship network is given and a small simulation study is presented which suggests that for small data sets the Maximum Likelihood estimator is more efficient than the earlier proposed Method of Moments estimator. PMID:25419259

  19. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... training program Maximums by grade and step 1 L-A Below high school graduation GS-1-1 (minus 3 steps). L-1... year postgraduate predoctoral GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-6 Third year medical school GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Third year postgraduate predoctoral GS-9-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Fourth year medical...

  20. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... training program Maximums by grade and step 1 L-A Below high school graduation GS-1-1 (minus 3 steps). L-1... year postgraduate predoctoral GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-6 Third year medical school GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Third year postgraduate predoctoral GS-9-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Fourth year medical...

  1. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... training program Maximums by grade and step 1 L-A Below high school graduation GS-1-1 (minus 3 steps). L-1... year postgraduate predoctoral GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-6 Third year medical school GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Third year postgraduate predoctoral GS-9-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Fourth year medical...

  2. 5 CFR 534.203 - Maximum stipends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... training program Maximums by grade and step 1 L-A Below high school graduation GS-1-1 (minus 3 steps). L-1... year postgraduate predoctoral GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-6 Third year medical school GS-7-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Third year postgraduate predoctoral GS-9-1 (minus 3 steps). L-7 Fourth year medical...

  3. Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    2010-10-01

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature. PMID:21230944

  4. Maximum privacy without coherence, zero-error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Debbie; Yu, Nengkun

    2016-09-01

    We study the possible difference between the quantum and the private capacities of a quantum channel in the zero-error setting. For a family of channels introduced by Leung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030512 (2014)], we demonstrate an extreme difference: the zero-error quantum capacity is zero, whereas the zero-error private capacity is maximum given the quantum output dimension.

  5. Tissue Radiation Response with Maximum Tsallis Entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    2010-10-08

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

  6. Maximum entropy and Bayesian methods. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandy, W. T., Jr.; Schick, L. H.

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the Tenth Annual Workshop on Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods. The thirty-six papers included cover a wide range of applications in areas such as economics and econometrics, astronomy and astrophysics, general physics, complex systems, image reconstruction, and probability and mathematics. Together they give an excellent state-of-the-art overview of fundamental methods of data analysis.

  7. Tissue radiation response with maximum Tsallis entropy.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo-Grau, O; Rodríguez-Pérez, D; Antoranz, J C; Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    2010-10-01

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is currently based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation, and conditions. Here, we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature.

  8. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

    2012-03-13

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  9. Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shumao; Zhao, Jianxin; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Yong Q; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Fed-batch and pH-controlled cultures have been widely used for industrial production of probiotics. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the relationship between the maximum biomass of different homofermentative Lactobacillus and lactate accumulation, and to develop a prediction equation for the maximum biomass concentration in such cultures. The accumulation of the end products and the depletion of nutrients by various strains were evaluated. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acid anions for various strains at pH 7.0 were examined. The lactate concentration at the point of complete inhibition was not significantly different from the MIC of lactate for all of the strains, although the inhibition mechanism of lactate and acetate on Lactobacillus rhamnosus was different from the other strains which were inhibited by the osmotic pressure caused by acid anions at pH 7.0. When the lactate concentration accumulated to the MIC, the strains stopped growing. The maximum biomass was closely related to the biomass yield per unit of lactate produced (YX/P) and the MIC (C) of lactate for different homofermentative Lactobacillus. Based on the experimental data obtained using different homofermentative Lactobacillus, a prediction equation was established as follows: Xmax - X0 = (0.59 ± 0.02)·YX/P·C. PMID:26896862

  10. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-03-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes.

  11. The maximum rate of mammal evolution.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G; Brown, James H; Costa, Daniel P; Ernest, S K Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L; Hamilton, Marcus J; Harding, Larisa E; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G; Saarinen, Juha J; Sibly, Richard M; Smith, Felisa A; Stephens, Patrick R; Theodor, Jessica M; Uhen, Mark D

    2012-03-13

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  12. The maximum rate of mammal evolution

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Alistair R.; Jones, David; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ernest, S. K. Morgan; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Fortelius, Mikael; Gittleman, John L.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Harding, Larisa E.; Lintulaakso, Kari; Lyons, S. Kathleen; Okie, Jordan G.; Saarinen, Juha J.; Sibly, Richard M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stephens, Patrick R.; Theodor, Jessica M.; Uhen, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    How fast can a mammal evolve from the size of a mouse to the size of an elephant? Achieving such a large transformation calls for major biological reorganization. Thus, the speed at which this occurs has important implications for extensive faunal changes, including adaptive radiations and recovery from mass extinctions. To quantify the pace of large-scale evolution we developed a metric, clade maximum rate, which represents the maximum evolutionary rate of a trait within a clade. We applied this metric to body mass evolution in mammals over the last 70 million years, during which multiple large evolutionary transitions occurred in oceans and on continents and islands. Our computations suggest that it took a minimum of 1.6, 5.1, and 10 million generations for terrestrial mammal mass to increase 100-, and 1,000-, and 5,000-fold, respectively. Values for whales were down to half the length (i.e., 1.1, 3, and 5 million generations), perhaps due to the reduced mechanical constraints of living in an aquatic environment. When differences in generation time are considered, we find an exponential increase in maximum mammal body mass during the 35 million years following the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event. Our results also indicate a basic asymmetry in macroevolution: very large decreases (such as extreme insular dwarfism) can happen at more than 10 times the rate of increases. Our findings allow more rigorous comparisons of microevolutionary and macroevolutionary patterns and processes. PMID:22308461

  13. Maximum saliency bias in binocular fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuhao; Stafford, Tom; Fox, Charles

    2016-07-01

    Subjective experience at any instant consists of a single ("unitary"), coherent interpretation of sense data rather than a "Bayesian blur" of alternatives. However, computation of Bayes-optimal actions has no role for unitary perception, instead being required to integrate over every possible action-percept pair to maximise expected utility. So what is the role of unitary coherent percepts, and how are they computed? Recent work provided objective evidence for non-Bayes-optimal, unitary coherent, perception and action in humans; and further suggested that the percept selected is not the maximum a posteriori percept but is instead affected by utility. The present study uses a binocular fusion task first to reproduce the same effect in a new domain, and second, to test multiple hypotheses about exactly how utility may affect the percept. After accounting for high experimental noise, it finds that both Bayes optimality (maximise expected utility) and the previously proposed maximum-utility hypothesis are outperformed in fitting the data by a modified maximum-salience hypothesis, using unsigned utility magnitudes in place of signed utilities in the bias function.

  14. "SPURS" in the North Atlantic Salinity Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Raymond

    2014-05-01

    The North Atlantic Salinity Maximum is the world's saltiest open ocean salinity maximum and was the focus of the recent Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) program. SPURS was a joint venture between US, French, Irish, and Spanish investigators. Three US and two EU cruises were involved from August, 1012 - October, 2013 as well as surface moorings, glider, drifter and float deployments. Shipboard operations included underway meteorological and oceanic data, hydrographic surveys and turbulence profiling. The goal is to improve our understanding of how the salinity maximum is maintained and how it may be changing. It is formed by an excess of evaporation over precipitation and the wind-driven convergence of the subtropical gyre. Such salty areas are getting saltier with global warming (a record high SSS was observed in SPURS) and it is imperative to determine the relative roles of surface water fluxes and oceanic processes in such trends. The combination of accurate surface flux estimates with new assessments of vertical and horizontal mixing in the ocean will help elucidate the utility of ocean salinity in quantifying the changing global water cycle.

  15. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  16. 38 CFR 48.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 48.645 Section 48.645 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  17. 22 CFR 208.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 208.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  18. 22 CFR 208.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 208.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  19. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  20. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  1. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  2. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  3. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  4. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  5. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  6. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  7. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  8. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  9. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  10. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  11. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  12. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  13. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  14. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8 Aliphatic Saturated Aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, Shannon D.

    2007-01-01

    Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs) for C3 to C8, straight-chain, aliphatic aldehydes have been previously assessed and have been documented in volume 4 of Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (James, 2000). These aldehydes as well as associated physical properties are shown in Table 1. The C3 to C8 aliphatic aldehydes can enter the habitable compartments and contaminate breathing air of spacecraft by several routes including incomplete oxidation of alcohols in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) air revitalization subsystem, as a byproduct of human metabolism, through materials off-gassing, or during food preparation. These aldehydes have been detected in the atmosphere of manned space vehicles in the past. Analysis performed by NASA of crew cabin air samples from the Russian Mir Space Station revealed the presence of C3 to C8 aldehydes at concentrations peaking at approximately 0.1 mg/cu m.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF ATTRIBUTES FOR SELECTION OF WATERBORNE ORGANISMS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENY'S CONTAMINANT CANDIDATE LIST (CCL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the revisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to identify contaminants which may have an adverse health effects for inclusion on a Contaminant Candidate List. Contaminants from this list are further reviewed to de...

  16. Contamination analysis unit

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, Hugh R.; Meltzer, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

  17. Contamination analysis unit

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-05-28

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

  18. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  19. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, Terry C.; Fliermans, Carl B.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

  20. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1995-01-24

    An apparatus and method are described for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants. An oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth. Withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene. 3 figures.

  1. Organic contaminant separator

    DOEpatents

    Del Mar, Peter; Hemberger, Barbara J.

    1991-01-01

    A process of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a polyolefin tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.01 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the tube, (b) passing a solvent through the tube, said solvent capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the tube. Further, a chromatographic apparatus for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium, said apparatus including a polyolefin tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.01 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the tube is disclosed.

  2. Contamination of Austrian soil with caesium-137.

    PubMed

    Bossew, P; Ditto, M; Falkner, T; Henrich, E; Kienzl, K; Rappelsberger, U

    2001-01-01

    Austria ranks among the countries that have been most strongly affected by the Chernobyl fallout. The mean contamination with 137Cs is 21.0 kBq/m2, of which 18.7 kBq/m2 is due to the Chernobyl accident, whereas global fallout contributes 2.3 kBq/m2. Maximum values of total 137Cs contamination are nearly 200 kBq/m2. Total deposition of Chernobyl 137Cs on Austrian territory is 1.6 PBq or a fraction of around 2% of the 137Cs released from the reactor. 2115 measurements were used to draw the Austrian "caesium map". The geographical pattern of fallout distribution shows regional differences of contamination as high as 1:100.

  3. Insect contamination protection for laminar flow surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croom, Cynthia C.; Holmes, Bruce J.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of modern aircraft surfaces to achieve laminar flow was well-accepted in recent years. Obtaining the maximum benefit of laminar flow for aircraft drag reduction requires maintaining minimum leading-edge contamination. Previously proposed insect contamination prevention methods have proved impractical due to cost, weight, or inconvenience. Past work has shown that insects will not adhere to water-wetted surfaces, but the large volumes of water required for protection rendered such a system impractical. The results of a flight experiment conducted by NASA to evaluate the performance of a porous leading-edge fluid discharge ice protection system operated as an insect contamination protections system are presented. In addition, these flights explored the environmental and atmospheric conditions most suitable for insect accumulation.

  4. SMEAT atmosphere trace contaminants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schornick, J. L.; Heinrich, C. T.; Garcia, G. S., Jr.; Verostko, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The atmosphere trace contaminant analysis support provided for the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test (SMEAT) which was conducted from July 26 through September 20, 1972, at the JSC Crew Systems Division facility is discussed. Sample acquisition techniques and analytical instrumentation methodology utilized for identification and quantification of the trace contaminants are described. Emphasis is placed on the contaminants found, their occurrence patterns, and possible sources.

  5. Developing Moral Agency through Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This paper poses the following question: When, in spite of knowing that it is wrong, people go on to hurt others, what does this mean for the development of moral agency? We begin by defining moral agency and briefly sketching relations between moral agency and other concepts. We then outline what three extant literatures suggest about this…

  6. 78 FR 53162 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Reinstatement, Without Change, of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION... a Previously Approved Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA... rules and regulations, place a maximum borrowing limit on federally insured credit unions....

  7. 78 FR 43244 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Reinstatement, Without Change, of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL CREDIT UNION... a Previously Approved Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA... maximum borrowing limit on federally insured credit unions. State chartered federally insured...

  8. [Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Ohmachi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented. PMID:25832835

  9. Contaminants in fish: risk-benefit considerations.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lucio G

    2007-09-01

    Fish provide a healthful source of dietary protein and are high in nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids. There is evidence of beneficial effects of fish consumption in coronary heart disease, stroke, age-related macular degeneration, and growth and development. Yet, benefits may be offset by the presence of contaminants, such as methylmercury (MeHg), dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and several other halogenated persistent organic pollutants. MeHg is a known developmental neurotoxicant, as evidenced by several animal studies and episodes of human intoxication in Japan and Iraq. Fish represent the main source of exposure to MeHg for the general population, and large predatory fish (swordfish, tuna) have the highest levels of MeHg contamination. Provisional tolerable weekly intakes of 0.7 microg kg(-1) to 1.6 microg kg(-1) have been set by regulatory agencies. Concern for contamination of fish with dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs stems from their reported carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicities. Farmed and wild-caught fish appear to have similar levels of contaminants. Advisories are in place that recommend limited consumption of certain fish in children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age. Careful risk-benefit considerations should foster fish consumption while minimizing exposure to toxic contaminants.

  10. Middle Holocene thermal maximum in eastern Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, D. S.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new systematic review of diverse Holocene paleoenvironmental records (Kaufman et al., Quat. Sci. Rev., in revision) has clarified the primary multi-centennial- to millennial-scale trends across eastern Beringia (Alaska, westernmost Canada and adjacent seas). Composite time series from midges, pollen, and biogeochemical indicators are compared with new summaries of mountain-glacier and lake-level fluctuations, terrestrial water-isotope records, sea-ice and sea-surface-temperature analyses, and peatland and thaw-lake initiation frequencies. The paleo observations are also compared with recently published simulations (Bartlein et al., Clim. Past Discuss., 2015) that used a regional climate model to simulate the effects of global and regional-scale forcings at 11 and 6 ka. During the early Holocene (11.5-8 ka), rather than a prominent thermal maximum as suggested previously, the newly compiled paleo evidence (mostly sensitive to summer conditions) indicates that temperatures were highly variable, at times both higher and lower than present, although the overall lowest average temperatures occurred during the earliest Holocene. During the middle Holocene (8-4 ka), glaciers retreated as the regional average temperature increased to a maximum between 7 and 5 ka, as reflected in most proxy types. The paleo evidence for low and variable temperatures during the early Holocene contrasts with more uniformly high temperatures during the middle Holocene and agrees with the climate simulations, which show that temperature in eastern Beringia was on average lower at 11 ka and higher at 6 ka than at present (pre-industrial). Low temperatures during the early Holocene can be attributed in part to the summer chilling caused by flooding the continental shelves, whereas the mid-Holocene thermal maximum was likely driven by the loss of the Laurentide ice sheet, rise in greenhouse gases, higher-than-present summer insolation, and expansion of forest over tundra.

  11. Engineering Issue: Technology Alternatives for the Remediation of PCB Contaminated Soils and Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Engineering Issue papers are a series of documents that summarize the available information on specific contaminates, selected treatment and site remediation technologies, and related issues. This Engineering Issue paper is intended...

  12. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE IRON-ENHANCED DECHLORINATION TECHNOLOGY FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An iron-enhanced dechlorination technology was evaluated, under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, at a contaminated printed circuit board manufacturing site in New Jersey. This paper describes the feasibility...

  13. Green Remediation: Incorporating Sustainable Practices into Remediation of Contaminated Sites (Technology Primer)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its mission to protect human health and the environment, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is dedicated to developing and promoting innovative cleanup strategies that restore contaminated sites to productive use, reduce associated costs, and promote environment...

  14. Site Characterization To Support Use Of Monitored Natural Attentuation For Remediation Of Inorganic Contaminants In Groundwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical recommendations have recently been published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to address site characterization needed to support selection of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) for cleanup of inorganic contaminant plumes in groundwater. Immobilization onto ...

  15. Maximum aposteriori joint source/channel coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Gibson, Jerry D.

    1991-01-01

    A maximum aposteriori probability (MAP) approach to joint source/channel coder design is presented in this paper. This method attempts to explore a technique for designing joint source/channel codes, rather than ways of distributing bits between source coders and channel coders. For a nonideal source coder, MAP arguments are used to design a decoder which takes advantage of redundancy in the source coder output to perform error correction. Once the decoder is obtained, it is analyzed with the purpose of obtaining 'desirable properties' of the channel input sequence for improving overall system performance. Finally, an encoder design which incorporates these properties is proposed.

  16. Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2014-04-01

    We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

  17. Multiperiod Maximum Loss is time unit invariant.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Raimund M; Breuer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Time unit invariance is introduced as an additional requirement for multiperiod risk measures: for a constant portfolio under an i.i.d. risk factor process, the multiperiod risk should equal the one period risk of the aggregated loss, for an appropriate choice of parameters and independent of the portfolio and its distribution. Multiperiod Maximum Loss over a sequence of Kullback-Leibler balls is time unit invariant. This is also the case for the entropic risk measure. On the other hand, multiperiod Value at Risk and multiperiod Expected Shortfall are not time unit invariant. PMID:27563531

  18. Maximum profit performance of an absorption refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Sun, F.; Wu, C.

    1996-12-01

    The operation of an absorption refrigerator is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The relations between the optimal profit and COP (coefficient of performance), and the COP bound at the maximum profit of the refrigerator are derived based on a general heat transfer law. The results provide a theoretical basis for developing and utilizing a variety of absorption refrigerators. The focus of this paper is to search the compromise optimization between economics (profit) and the utilization factor (COP) for finite-time endoreversible thermodynamic cycles.

  19. Maximum Temperature Detection System for Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankiewicz, Maciej; Kos, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes structure and measurement results of the system detecting present maximum temperature on the surface of an integrated circuit. The system consists of the set of proportional to absolute temperature sensors, temperature processing path and a digital part designed in VHDL. Analogue parts of the circuit where designed with full-custom technique. The system is a part of temperature-controlled oscillator circuit - a power management system based on dynamic frequency scaling method. The oscillator cooperates with microprocessor dedicated for thermal experiments. The whole system is implemented in UMC CMOS 0.18 μm (1.8 V) technology.

  20. Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.

  1. Contamination of shallow ground water in the area of building 95, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1985-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargent, B.P.; Storck, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    A zone of contaminated ground water at Picatinny Arsenal has resulted from the operation of a metal- plating facility in building 95 during 1960-81, and the wastewater-treatment system that is in and adjacent to the building. Thirty-two monitoring wells were installed in 1989 to supplement 12 previously installed wells. All wells were sampled in 1989 and 1990 for analysis of ground water for inorganic constituents, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, and nutrients. Four wells also were sampled for analysis for base/neutral- and acid-extractable compounds and pesticides, and soil gas from the unsaturated zone at eight sites was analyzed for volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of dissolved solids and sulfate in the study area were consistently above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary drinking-water regulations. The areal distribution of sulfate differed from that of the volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of trace elements were not elevated downgradient from the source. The estimated average velocity of contaminant movement is 0.1 to 1.1 feet per day. The major organic contaminants identified in the study area are trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Trichloroethylene was detected in wells upgradient from the wastewater- treatment site. Tetrachloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane might originate at tanks in the basement of building 95 rather than at the adjacent wastewater-treatment system. The pre- dominant gas-phase contaminant, 1,1,1- trichloroethane, was detected at a maximum con- centration of 15.7 micrograms per liter. Both trichoroethylene and tetrachloroethylene were detected in concentrations greater than 0.10 micrograms per liter in five of the eight soil- gas samples, indicating that volatilization and diffusion through the unsaturated zone could be a significant mechanism of contaminant loss from the aquifer.

  2. Maximum neighborhood margin criterion in face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Pang Ying; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin

    2009-04-01

    Feature extraction is a data analysis technique devoted to removing redundancy and extracting the most discriminative information. In face recognition, feature extractors are normally plagued with small sample size problems, in which the total number of training images is much smaller than the image dimensionality. Recently, an optimized facial feature extractor, maximum marginal criterion (MMC), was proposed. MMC computes an optimized projection by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem in a standard form that is free from inverse matrix operation, and thus it does not suffer from the small sample size problem. However, MMC is essentially a linear projection technique that relies on facial image pixel intensity to compute within- and between-class scatters. The nonlinear nature of faces restricts the discrimination of MMC. Hence, we propose an improved MMC, namely maximum neighborhood margin criterion (MNMC). Unlike MMC, which preserves global geometric structures that do not perfectly describe the underlying face manifold, MNMC seeks a projection that preserves local geometric structures via neighborhood preservation. This objective function leads to the enhancement of classification capability, and this is testified by experimental results. MNMC shows its performance superiority compared to MMC, especially in pose, illumination, and expression (PIE) and face recognition grand challenge (FRGC) databases.

  3. Maximum Likelihood Analysis in the PEN Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Martin

    2013-10-01

    The experimental determination of the π+ -->e+ ν (γ) decay branching ratio currently provides the most accurate test of lepton universality. The PEN experiment at PSI, Switzerland, aims to improve the present world average experimental precision of 3 . 3 ×10-3 to 5 ×10-4 using a stopped beam approach. During runs in 2008-10, PEN has acquired over 2 ×107 πe 2 events. The experiment includes active beam detectors (degrader, mini TPC, target), central MWPC tracking with plastic scintillator hodoscopes, and a spherical pure CsI electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The final branching ratio will be calculated using a maximum likelihood analysis. This analysis assigns each event a probability for 5 processes (π+ -->e+ ν , π+ -->μ+ ν , decay-in-flight, pile-up, and hadronic events) using Monte Carlo verified probability distribution functions of our observables (energies, times, etc). A progress report on the PEN maximum likelihood analysis will be presented. Work supported by NSF grant PHY-0970013.

  4. Physically constrained maximum likelihood mode filtering.

    PubMed

    Papp, Joseph C; Preisig, James C; Morozov, Andrey K

    2010-04-01

    Mode filtering is most commonly implemented using the sampled mode shapes or pseudoinverse algorithms. Buck et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 1813-1824 (1998)] placed these techniques in the context of a broader maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework. However, the MAP algorithm requires that the signal and noise statistics be known a priori. Adaptive array processing algorithms are candidates for improving performance without the need for a priori signal and noise statistics. A variant of the physically constrained, maximum likelihood (PCML) algorithm [A. L. Kraay and A. B. Baggeroer, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 55, 4048-4063 (2007)] is developed for mode filtering that achieves the same performance as the MAP mode filter yet does not need a priori knowledge of the signal and noise statistics. The central innovation of this adaptive mode filter is that the received signal's sample covariance matrix, as estimated by the algorithm, is constrained to be that which can be physically realized given a modal propagation model and an appropriate noise model. Shallow water simulation results are presented showing the benefit of using the PCML method in adaptive mode filtering.

  5. Probably maximum flood of the Sava River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej; Raj, Mojca Å.

    2010-05-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Krško (NEK) situated on the left bank of the Save River close to the border of Croatia. Probably Maximum Flood, on the location of the NEK could result in combination of probably maximum precipitation, sequential storm before PMP or snowmelt on the Sava River watershed. Mediterranean climate characterises very high precipitation and temporary high snow pack. The HBV-96 model as Integrated Hydrological Modelling System (IHMS) used for modelling. Model was calibrated and verification for daily time step at first for time period 1190-2006. Calibration and verification for hourly time step was done for period 1998-1999. The stream routing parameters were calibrated for flood event in years 1998 and 2007 and than verification for flood event in 1990. Discharge routing data analysis shown that possible inundation of Ljubljana and Savinja valley was not properly estimated. The flood areas are protected with levees and water does not spread over flooded areas in events used for calibration. Inundated areas in Ljubljana valley and Savinja valley are protected by levees and model could not simulate properly inundation of PMF. We recalibrate parameters controlled inundation on those areas for the worst scenario. Calculated PMF values drop down tramendosly after recalibration.

  6. Maximum Correntropy Criterion for Robust Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    He, Ran; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Hu, Bao-Gang

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a sparse correntropy framework for computing robust sparse representations of face images for recognition. Compared with the state-of-the-art l(1)norm-based sparse representation classifier (SRC), which assumes that noise also has a sparse representation, our sparse algorithm is developed based on the maximum correntropy criterion, which is much more insensitive to outliers. In order to develop a more tractable and practical approach, we in particular impose nonnegativity constraint on the variables in the maximum correntropy criterion and develop a half-quadratic optimization technique to approximately maximize the objective function in an alternating way so that the complex optimization problem is reduced to learning a sparse representation through a weighted linear least squares problem with nonnegativity constraint at each iteration. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is more robust and efficient in dealing with the occlusion and corruption problems in face recognition as compared to the related state-of-the-art methods. In particular, it shows that the proposed method can improve both recognition accuracy and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, while the computational cost is much lower than the SRC algorithms.

  7. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

    PubMed

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio; Robbens, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed.

  8. Recycling of radioactively contaminated materials: Public policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hocking, E.K.

    1994-07-01

    Recycling radioactively contaminated materials requires varying degrees of interaction among Federal regulatory agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State governments and regulators, the public, and the Department of Energy. The actions of any of these parties can elicit reactions from the other parties and will raise issues that must be addressed in order to achieve a coherent policy on recycling. The paper discusses potential actions and reactions of Federal regulatory agencies (defined as NRC and EPA), the States, and the Department and the policy issues they raise.

  9. Contamination Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  10. Evaluating soil contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    This compilation was designed to help U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service contaminant specialists evaluate the degree of contamination of a soil, based on chemical analyses. Included are regulatory criteria, opinions, brief descriptions of scientific articles, and miscellaneous information that might be useful in making risk assessments. The intent was to make hard-to-obtain material readily available to contaminant specialists, but not to critique the material or develop new criteria. The compilation is to be used with its index, which includes about 200 contaminants. There are several entries for a few of the most thoroughly studied contaminants, but for most of them the information available is meager. Entries include soil contaminant criteria from other countries, contaminant guidelines for applying sewage sludge to soil, guidelines for evaluating sediments, background soil concentrations for various elements, citations to scientific articles that may help estimate the potential movement of soil contaminants into wildlife food chains, and a few odds and ends. Articles on earthworms were emphasized because they are a natural bridge between soil and many species of wildlife.

  11. Cleaning up underground contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    At hundreds of industrial and government sites across the United States, environmental consulting firms are designing permanent containment systems for underground contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels, cleaning solvents, and industrial chemicals. In quantities of thousands of liters or more, these chemicals threaten to contaminate drinking water supplies for hundreds of years. Typical containment systems (e.g., deep wells of cement or clay, or hydraulic pumping to control groundwater movement) can keep the chemicals from further contaminating groundwater if they are properly maintained for many years, but they do not remove the contaminants. Clearly, removing the contaminants from the soil is a much preferable solution than containing them and attempting to prevent their spread. A dynamic underground stripping process that combines steam and electrical heating of underground soils with vacuum extraction of vapors and fluids and guiding these processes by real-time monitoring methods is described.

  12. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

  13. Contaminated water treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  14. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  15. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  16. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  17. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  18. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  19. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  20. Neuromodulation, agency and autonomy.

    PubMed

    Glannon, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulation consists in altering brain activity to restore mental and physical functions in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders and brain and spinal cord injuries. This can be achieved by delivering electrical stimulation that excites or inhibits neural tissue, by using electrical signals in the brain to move computer cursors or robotic arms, or by displaying brain activity to subjects who regulate that activity by their own responses to it. As enabling prostheses, deep-brain stimulation and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are forms of extended embodiment that become integrated into the individual's conception of himself as an autonomous agent. In BCIs and neurofeedback, the success or failure of the techniques depends on the interaction between the learner and the trainer. The restoration of agency and autonomy through neuromodulation thus involves neurophysiological, psychological and social factors.

  1. 41 CFR 102-118.115 - Must my agency use a GBL?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Must my agency use a GBL? 102-118.115 Section 102-118.115 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... the maximum extent possible. Effective March 31, 2002, your agency must phase out the use of...

  2. Characterizing Local Optima for Maximum Parsimony.

    PubMed

    Urheim, Ellen; Ford, Eric; St John, Katherine

    2016-05-01

    Finding the best phylogenetic tree under the maximum parsimony optimality criterion is computationally difficult. We quantify the occurrence of such optima for well-behaved sets of data. When nearest neighbor interchange operations are used, multiple local optima can occur even for "perfect" sequence data, which results in hill-climbing searches that never reach a global optimum. In contrast, we show that when neighbors are defined via the subtree prune and regraft metric, there is a single local optimum for perfect sequence data, and thus, every such search finds a global optimum quickly. We further characterize conditions for which sequences simulated under the Cavender-Farris-Neyman and Jukes-Cantor models of evolution yield well-behaved search spaces. PMID:27234257

  3. The 1989 Solar Maximum Mission event list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    This document contains information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1989 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (4) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter, and (6) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Satellite (GOES) X-ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

  4. Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed backcone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed reduction, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.

  5. The 1980 solar maximum mission event listing

    SciTech Connect

    Speich, D.M.; Nelson, J.J.; Licata, J.P.; Tolbert, A.K.

    1991-06-01

    Information is contained on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1980 pointed observations. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, (2) Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, (3) Hard X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer, (4) Flat Crystal Spectrometer, (5) Bent Crystal Spectrometer, (6) Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter, and (7) Coronagraph/Polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x-ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observations. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from Sun center are also included.

  6. Maximum terminal velocity turns at constant altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisler, G. Richard; Hull, David G.

    An optimal control problem is formulated for a maneuvering reentry vehicle to execute a maximum terminal velocity turn at constant altitude to a fixed final position. A control solution technique is devised which uses a Newton scheme to repetitively solve a nonlinear algebraic system for two parameters to provide the on-line guidance. The turn control takes advantage of the high dynamic pressure at the beginning of the flight path; the lift solution acts to null deviations from the prescribed altitude. Control solutions are compared for a continuously updated, approximate physical model, for a simulation of the approximate optimal guidance in a true physical model, and for a parameter optimization solution for the true model. End constraint satisfaction is excellent. Overall trajectory agreement is good, if the assumed atmospheric model is reasonably accurate.

  7. Maximum terminal velocity turns at constant altitude

    SciTech Connect

    Eisler, G.R.; Hull, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    An optimal control problem is formulated for a maneuvering reentry vehicle to execute a maximum terminal velocity turn at constant altitude to a fixed final position. A control solution technique is devised which uses a Newton scheme to repetitively solve a nonlinear algebraic system for two parameters to provide the on-line guidance. The turn control takes advantage of the high dynamic pressure at the beginning of the flight path; the lift solution acts to null deviations from the prescribed altitude. Control solutions are compared for a continuously updated, approximate physical model, for a simulation of the approximate optimal guidance in a true physical model, and for a parameter optimization solution for the true model. End constraint satisfaction is excellent. Overall trajectory agreement is good, if the assumed atmospheric model is reasonably accurate.

  8. The 1988 Solar Maximum Mission event list

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Licata, J. P.; Tolbert, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Information on solar burst and transient activity observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) during 1988 pointed observations is presented. Data from the following SMM experiments are included: (1) gamma ray spectrometer; (2) hard x ray burst spectrometer; (3) flat crystal spectrometers; (4) bent crystal spectrometer; (5) ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter; and (6) coronagraph/polarimeter. Correlative optical, radio, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) x ray data are also presented. Where possible, bursts, or transients observed in the various wavelengths were grouped into discrete flare events identified by unique event numbers. Each event carries a qualifier denoting the quality or completeness of the observation. Spacecraft pointing coordinates and flare site angular displacement values from sun center are also included.

  9. Experimental shock metamorphism of maximum microcline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    A series of recovery experiments are conducted to study the behavior of single-crystal perthitic maximum microcline shock-loaded to a peak pressure of 417 kbar. Microcline is found to deform in a manner similar to quartz and other alkali feldspars. It is observed that shock-induced cleavages occur initially at or slightly below the Hugoniot elastic limit (60-85 kbar), that shock-induced rather than thermal disordering begins above the Hugoniot elastic limit, and that all types of planar elements form parallel to crystallographic planes of low Miller indices. When increasing pressure, it is found that bulk density, refractive indices, and birefringence of the recovered material decrease and approach diaplectic glass values, whereas disappearance and weakening of reflections in Debye-Sherrer patterns are due to disordering of the feldspar lattice.

  10. Quantum gravity momentum representation and maximum energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    We use the idea of the symmetry between the spacetime coordinates xμ and the energy-momentum pμ in quantum theory to construct a momentum space quantum gravity geometry with a metric sμν and a curvature tensor Pλ μνρ. For a closed maximally symmetric momentum space with a constant 3-curvature, the volume of the p-space admits a cutoff with an invariant maximum momentum a. A Wheeler-DeWitt-type wave equation is obtained in the momentum space representation. The vacuum energy density and the self-energy of a charged particle are shown to be finite, and modifications of the electromagnetic radiation density and the entropy density of a system of particles occur for high frequencies.

  11. Maximum entropy principle and relativistic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Weert, Ch. G.

    1982-04-01

    A relativistic theory of hydrodynamics applicable beyond the hydrodynamic regime is developed on the basis of the maximum entropy principle. This allows the construction of a unique statistical operator representing the state of the system as specified by the values of the hydrodynamical densities. Special attention is paid to the thermodynamic limit and the virial theorem which leads to an expression for the pressure in terms of the field-theoretic energymomentum tensor of Coleman and Jackiw. It is argued that outside the hydrodynamic regime the notion of a local Gibbs relation, as usually postulated, must be abandoned in general. In the nontext of the linear approximation, the memory-retaining and non-local generalizations of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations are derived from the underlying Heisenberg equations of motion. The formal similarity to the Zwanzig-Mori description of non-relativistic fluids is expounded.

  12. Maximum efficiency of the collisional Penrose process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the collision of two particles that move in the equatorial plane near a general stationary rotating axially symmetric extremal black hole. One of the particles is critical (with fine-tuned parameters) and moves in the outward direction. The second particle (usual, not fine-tuned) comes from infinity. We examine the efficiency η of the collisional Penrose process. There are two relevant cases here: a particle falling into a black hole after collision (i) is heavy or (ii) has a finite mass. We show that the maximum of η in case (ii) is less than or equal to that in case (i). It is argued that for superheavy particles, the bound applies to nonequatorial motion as well. As an example, we analyze collision in the Kerr-Newman background. When the bound is the same for processes (i) and (ii), η =3 for this metric. For the Kerr black hole, recent results in the literature are reproduced.

  13. A general optimization for maximum terminal velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulpetti, G.

    1982-09-01

    A numerical model is developed to determine the maximum velocity which can be attained by a rocket propulsion system. Particular attention is given to the ratio of active mass, that which can be converted to propulsive energy, to inert mass, which remains after the propulsive energy is expended. Calculations are based on the law of conservation of energy applied to a spaceship with chemical, laser-sail, interstellar ramjet, and annihilation engines. Limits on the exhaust velocity of the thrust system are neglected. Specific attention is given to relativistic calculations involving the annihilation reactions, noting that classical propulsion systems have critical mass values significantly lower than the propulsion required by extra-solar system flight. Numerical results are presented of critical values of propellant which produce an optimal jet speed, which is determined to be a constant.

  14. Maximum entropy model for business cycle synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Ning; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Azaele, Sandro; Wang, Yougui

    2014-11-01

    The global economy is a complex dynamical system, whose cyclical fluctuations can mainly be characterized by simultaneous recessions or expansions of major economies. Thus, the researches on the synchronization phenomenon are key to understanding and controlling the dynamics of the global economy. Based on a pairwise maximum entropy model, we analyze the business cycle synchronization of the G7 economic system. We obtain a pairwise-interaction network, which exhibits certain clustering structure and accounts for 45% of the entire structure of the interactions within the G7 system. We also find that the pairwise interactions become increasingly inadequate in capturing the synchronization as the size of economic system grows. Thus, higher-order interactions must be taken into account when investigating behaviors of large economic systems.

  15. Diffusivity Maximum in a Reentrant Nematic Phase

    PubMed Central

    Stieger, Tillmann; Mazza, Marco G.; Schoen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of confined liquid crystals using the Gay–Berne–Kihara model. Upon isobaric cooling, the standard sequence of isotropic–nematic–smectic A phase transitions is found. Upon further cooling a reentrant nematic phase occurs. We investigate the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient of the fluid in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic phases. We find a maximum in diffusivity upon isobaric cooling. Diffusion increases dramatically in the reentrant phase due to the high orientational molecular order. As the temperature is lowered, the diffusion coefficient follows an Arrhenius behavior. The activation energy of the reentrant phase is found in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental data. We discuss how repulsive interactions may be the underlying mechanism that could explain the occurrence of reentrant nematic behavior for polar and non-polar molecules. PMID:22837730

  16. Microbial contamination in poultry chillers estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent bacterial outbreaks in fresh and processed foods have increased awareness of food safety among consumers, regulatory agencies, and the food industry. The risk of contamination exists in meat processing facilities where bacteria that are normally associated with the animal are transferred to t...

  17. LINKING WATERFOWL WITH CONTAMINANT SPECIATION IN RIPARIAN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 38, Linking Waterfowl with Contaminant Speciation in Riparian Soils, implemented and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U...

  18. 78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 500 Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; removal. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... enforcement strategy articulated in a final compliance policy guide (CPG) on Salmonella in food for...

  19. EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES, MEETING IN SEATTLE, WA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY: EMERGING CONTAMINANTS AND CURRENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this gr...

  1. OVERVIEW OF EMERGING CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been achieved in the way of environmental protection over the last 30 years. However, as we learn more, new concerns arise. This presentation will discuss chemical and microbial contaminants that the U.S. EPA and other agencies are currently concerned about. In this grou...

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF EQUILIBRIUM PARTITIONING SEDIMENT GUIDELINES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENT PAH CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency used insights and methods from its water quality criteria program to develop ESGs. The discovery that freely-dissolved contaminants were the toxic form led to equilibrium partitioning being chosen to model the distribution of contaminants...

  3. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CCL CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS BY MEMBRANE AND GAC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale treatment data for membrane and granular activated carbon technologies are presented for the organic contaminants on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). For granular activated carbon (GAC), isotherm results are presented and q...

  4. Removal of Volatile Organic Contaminants via Low Profile Aeration Technology (WaterRF Report 4439)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is considering a change in the way contaminants are regulated as a part of their new drinking water strategy (DWS). The strategy will regulate contaminants as groups rather than individually. The first group consists of 16 VOCs, and ...

  5. USEPA'S APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act require USEPA to perform Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) for chemicals of interest to the Agency for possible future regulation. Many of these chemicals fall into the category of "emerging contaminants". An important e...

  6. Blood culture contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dawson, S

    2014-05-01

    Blood cultures are an essential diagnostic tool. However, contamination may impact on patients' care and lead to increased patient stay, additional tests, and inappropriate antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to review the literature for factors that influence the rate of blood culture contamination. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and CINAHL on blood culture contamination. Hospitals/units should have in place a protocol for staff on how to take blood cultures, incorporating use of an aseptic technique. Studies have shown that several key factors in the process may lower contamination rates such as adherence to a protocol, sampling by peripheral venepuncture route rather than via an intravascular catheter, use of sterile gloves, cleaning tops of blood culture bottles with antiseptics and inoculating blood culture bottles before other blood tubes, samples being taken by a phlebotomy team, monitoring contamination rates, and providing individual feedback and retraining for those with contaminants. Although skin antisepsis is advocated there is still debate on which antiseptic is most effective, as there is no conclusive evidence, only that there is benefit from alcohol-containing preparations. In conclusion, hospitals should aim to minimize their blood culture contamination rates. They should monitor their rate regularly and aim for a rate of ≤3%. PMID:24768211

  7. Blood culture contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dawson, S

    2014-05-01

    Blood cultures are an essential diagnostic tool. However, contamination may impact on patients' care and lead to increased patient stay, additional tests, and inappropriate antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to review the literature for factors that influence the rate of blood culture contamination. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and CINAHL on blood culture contamination. Hospitals/units should have in place a protocol for staff on how to take blood cultures, incorporating use of an aseptic technique. Studies have shown that several key factors in the process may lower contamination rates such as adherence to a protocol, sampling by peripheral venepuncture route rather than via an intravascular catheter, use of sterile gloves, cleaning tops of blood culture bottles with antiseptics and inoculating blood culture bottles before other blood tubes, samples being taken by a phlebotomy team, monitoring contamination rates, and providing individual feedback and retraining for those with contaminants. Although skin antisepsis is advocated there is still debate on which antiseptic is most effective, as there is no conclusive evidence, only that there is benefit from alcohol-containing preparations. In conclusion, hospitals should aim to minimize their blood culture contamination rates. They should monitor their rate regularly and aim for a rate of ≤3%.

  8. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  9. Radiographic solution contamination.

    PubMed

    Hardman, P K; Tilmon, M F; Taylor, T S

    1987-06-01

    Contamination of processor solutions adversely affects the image quality of radiographic films. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of developer or fixer contaminant that was necessary to produce a significant densitometric change in the base plus fog, speed, or contrast optical density readings for panoramic film. Significant differences in base plus fog (after 16 mL of fixer contaminant was added to developer), speed index (after 4 mL), and contrast index (after 8 mL) were observed in comparison with control values. PMID:3473399

  10. Evaluating potential groundwater contamination from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, J.R.; McCormick, P.V.; Pontasch, K.W.; Cairns, J.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination of soils at toxic and hazardous-waste sites can adversely affect groundwater and surface water. Water-soluble materials can move in soil by leaching and percolation and by runoff. The project evaluated the toxicity of leachable toxicants from seven soils, five of which were obtained from designated toxic or hazardous-waste sites. Acidified, dechlorinated tap water was used to extract toxic materials from surface soils. Extracts were used as complex mixtures in acute-toxicity tests using Daphnia and in chronic-effect tests using microcosms. Three classes of effects were observed. Some leachates (including control soils) showed no toxicity. Some soil leachates had moderate acute toxicity (50-80% diluted leachate) and no chronic toxicity. Very toxic soils showed both acute and chronic toxicity at <3% leachate. Toxicological evaluations of contaminants in waste-site soils can provide information not available from chemical analyses and may be useful in verifying the effectiveness of cleanup effort.

  11. Roundtable on Long-Term Management In The Cleanup of Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Aimee Houghton

    2002-06-28

    The Center for Public Environmental Oversight (CPEO) convened a roundtable in Washington, DC on June 28, 2002 to discuss innovative approaches to long-term management in the cleanup of contaminated property. Twenty participants attended the meeting, including representatives of federal agencies, local government, state regulatory agencies, environmental organizations, and thinking tanks, as well as private consultants with experience in site remediation and redevelopment.

  12. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CCL CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS BY GAC, AIR STRIPPING, AND MEMBRANE PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as t...

  13. REMOVING ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS OF REGULATORY INTEREST WITH MEMBRANE PROCESSES: USEPA'S SCREENING STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as the Cont...

  14. 75 FR 39935 - Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)-Notice of Web Dialogue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... AGENCY RIN 2040-AD94 Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)--Notice of Web Dialogue AGENCY... Web dialogue. The discussion topics for this Web dialogue are focused on the first of the four... group(s). DATES: The Web dialogue is a two-day event. It will open at 9 a.m., Eastern Daylight Time (6...

  15. A framework for modeling contaminant impacts on reservoir water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeznach, Lillian C.; Jones, Christina; Matthews, Thomas; Tobiason, John E.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a framework for using hydrodynamic and water quality models to understand the fate and transport of potential contaminants in a reservoir and to develop appropriate emergency response and remedial actions. In the event of an emergency situation, prior detailed modeling efforts and scenario evaluations allow for an understanding of contaminant plume behavior, including maximum concentrations that could occur at the drinking water intake and contaminant travel time to the intake. A case study assessment of the Wachusett Reservoir, a major drinking water supply for metropolitan Boston, MA, provides an example of an application of the framework and how hydrodynamic and water quality models can be used to quantitatively and scientifically guide management in response to varieties of contaminant scenarios. The model CE-QUAL-W2 was used to investigate the water quality impacts of several hypothetical contaminant scenarios, including hypothetical fecal coliform input from a sewage overflow as well as an accidental railway spill of ammonium nitrate. Scenarios investigated the impacts of decay rates, season, and inter-reservoir transfers on contaminant arrival times and concentrations at the drinking water intake. The modeling study highlights the importance of a rapid operational response by managers to contain a contaminant spill in order to minimize the mass of contaminant that enters the water column, based on modeled reservoir hydrodynamics. The development and use of hydrodynamic and water quality models for surface drinking water sources subject to the potential for contaminant entry can provide valuable guidance for making decisions about emergency response and remediation actions.

  16. 78 FR 13333 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information... of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency,...

  17. Southern states` routing agency report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states` routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  18. Southern States` Routing Agency Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  19. Southern states' routing agency report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states' routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  20. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.