Science.gov

Sample records for agency millennium challenge

  1. THE MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE: THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S RESPONSE TO INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responding to the scientific and regulatory challenges of invasive species in a variety of ways. One response has been to use existing programs and regulations, as appropriate, to address invasive species. A recent example is th...

  2. 75 FR 71465 - Notice of the December 15, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... CORPORATION Notice of the December 15, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meeting AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 10 a.m. to 12 p.m., Wednesday... Directors (the ``Board'') of the Millennium Challenge Corporation (``MCC'') will hold a meeting to...

  3. 78 FR 13904 - Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY...: Meeting will be closed to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Board of Directors (the ``Board'')...

  4. 77 FR 14835 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012 AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 3 p.m. to 5 p.m., Wednesday, March 22, 2012. PLACE...: Meeting will be closed to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Board of Directors (the ``Board'')...

  5. Challenges of toxicology for the millennium.

    PubMed

    Wong, S H

    2000-02-01

    In meeting the challenges of toxicology, clinical and forensic toxicologists should expand their services and engage in research and development to meet changing needs. Expanding roles could potentially derive from the threat of terrorism, genotyping for interpretation of potential toxic drug interactions, and criminalistic testings. At the threshold of the next millennium, terrorism via weapons of mass destruction (WMD) has migrated from the war zones to civilian settings. These WMD may be in the form of nuclear, biological, and chemical devices (NBC). Recently, the possible use of chemical/biological weapons in the Middle East conflicts, the use of sarin in a Tokyo subway station, and the unregulated availability of nuclear fuel in some countries all have heightened the potential for international and domestic NBC. In preparation for NBC, both government and civilians in major American cities have been trained for safe handling of patients and casualties. Forensic and clinical toxicologists should be knowledgeable about the clinical pharmacology, safe samples processing, and possible screening and/or analysis of samples exposed to or containing: vesicants; cyanide; and nerve, riot control, and pulmonary agents. These samples may be transported for further analysis and confirmed by designated central laboratories. In criminal/correctional settings, toxicologists should engage in quality assurance and consultation with attorneys, judges, and correctional professionals. With the emergence of pharmacogenetics, genotyping may enhance rational drug therapy for enhanced patient care, and may explain adverse or fatal drug reactions in postmortem analysis. PMID:10688259

  6. 77 FR 53917 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Year 2013 and Countries That Would Be Candidates but for Legal Prohibitions AGENCY: Millennium... Challenge Account Eligibility for Fiscal Year 2013 and Countries That Would Be Candidates but for Legal... countries that would be candidate countries but for specified legal prohibitions on assistance (section...

  7. 75 FR 52990 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...Section 608(d) of the Millennium Challenge Act of 2003 requires the Millennium Challenge Corporation to publish a report that identifies countries that are ``candidate countries'' for Millennium Challenge Account assistance during FY 2011. The report is set forth in full...

  8. 76 FR 55419 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... CORPORATION Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal... requires the Millennium Challenge Corporation to publish a report that identifies countries that are ``candidate countries'' for Millennium Challenge Account assistance during FY 2012. The report is set forth...

  9. Medicine for the millennium: the challenge of postmodernism.

    PubMed

    Chan, J J; Chan, J E

    2000-04-01

    As the new millennium dawns, Australian society is becoming more post-modern, whereas the medical system remains increasingly modernist in its outlook. In this article, we discuss the emerging prevalence of post-modernism and examine current medical education and practice strategies, such as evidence-based medicine, from a post-modern perspective. We argue that if medicine does not respond to the ideas of post-modernism, which challenges the concepts of truth and our ability to be objective, it may become increasingly irrelevant to the needs of a changing society. PMID:10844921

  10. Vaccinology in the third millennium: scientific and social challenges.

    PubMed

    Poland, Gregory A; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Poland, Caroline M; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Kennedy, Richard B

    2016-04-01

    The epidemiology of deaths due to vaccine-preventable diseases has been significantly and positively altered through the use of vaccines. Despite this, significant challenges remain in vaccine development and use in the third millennium. Both new (Ebola, Chikungunya, Zika, and West Nile) and re-emerging diseases (measles, mumps, and influenza) require the development of new or next-generation vaccines. The global aging of the population, and accumulating numbers of immunocompromised persons, will require new vaccine and adjuvant development to protect large segments of the population. After vaccine development, significant challenges remain globally in the cost and efficient use and acceptance of vaccines by the public. This article raises issues in these two areas and suggests a way forward that will benefit current and future generations. PMID:27039875

  11. Revisiting Public Health Challenges in the New Millennium

    PubMed Central

    Anish, TS; Sreelakshmi, PR

    2013-01-01

    Positive Health of the communities could only be brought out through the interrelationship between conventional health sector and other development sectors. It was a dream that came true when World Health Organization (WHO) accepted Primary Health Care (PHC) as the major tool to achieve its proposed goal of Health For All (HFA) by 2000 A.D., but we could not succeed as expected. Now we have the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which place health at the heart of development but the achievements in health is still challenging. The literature search in this article has been conducted in Pub Med and Google scholar, with the aim to draw references to discuss the major health issues and ways to tackle them. The current article briefly narrates the burden and complexities of challenges faced by the present global health. Revisiting the concept of PHC and reaffirming our solidarity to this philosophy is the need of this hour. PMID:24116303

  12. Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Jennifer; Black, Robert E; Victora, Cesar G

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals have galvanized efforts to improve child survival (MDG-4) and maternal health (MDG-5). There has been important progress on both MDGs at global level, although it now appears that few countries will reach them by the target date of 2015. There are known and efficacious interventions to address most of the major causes of these deaths, but important gaps remain. The biggest challenge is to ensure that all women and children have access to life-saving interventions. Current levels of intervention coverage are too low, representing missed opportunities. Providing services at the community level is an important emerging priority, but preventing maternal and neonatal deaths also requires access to health facilities. Readers of the Medicine for Global Health collection in BMC Medicine are urged to make maternal and child health one of their key concerns, even if they work on other topics. PMID:24228742

  13. 77 FR 19360 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... set forth in full below and updates the report published November 8, 2011 (76 FR 69291). \\1\\ The... Year 2012 and Countries That Would Be Candidates but for Legal Prohibitions AGENCY: Millennium... relevant language would need to be included in next year's appropriations act or in an amendment to the...

  14. 78 FR 52984 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Year 2014 and Countries That Would Be Candidates But For Legal Prohibitions AGENCY: Millennium... Eligibility for Fiscal Year 2014 and Countries That Would Be Candidates but for Legal Prohibitions Summary... be candidate countries but for specified legal prohibitions on assistance (section 608(a) of the...

  15. 75 FR 30440 - Notice of the June 16, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Notice of the June 16, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine..., June 16, 2010. PLACE: Department of State, 2201 C Street, NW., Washington, DC 20520. FOR...

  16. School Environmental Health Programs and the Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…

  17. Electronic Frontiers: Management Challenges for the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the following management challenges libraries must cope with in the paradigm shift from print to electronic access to information: becoming involved in network issues; leveraging resources; duplication of effort; partnering; legal, political or economic; standards; remote users; and acquisition, selection and organization of electronic…

  18. Education in Indonesia: Coping with Challenges in the Third Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwadi, Agung; Muljoatmodjo, Suheru

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Indonesian system of education of Islamic schooling, secular education, and out-of-school education. The provision of 9-year universal basic education is planned by 2004. The national plan challenges the education system to facilitate the change in Indonesia's economic structure from an agriculturally based system to one more…

  19. Deep Space Control Challenges of the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Burdick, Garry M.

    1999-01-01

    The exploration of deep space presents a variety of significant control challenges. Long communication delays coupled with challenging new science objectives require high levels of system autonomy and increasingly demanding pointing and control capabilities. Historically, missions based on the use of a large single spacecraft have been successful and popular since the early days of NASA. However, these large spacecraft missions are currently being displaced by more frequent and more focused missions based on the use of smaller and less expensive spacecraft designs. This trend drives the need to design smart software and good algorithms which together with the miniaturization of control components will improve performance while replacing the heavier and more expensive hardware used in the past. NASA's future space exploration will also include mission types that have never been attempted before, posing significant challenges to the underlying control system. This includes controlled landing on small bodies (e.g., asteroids and comets), sample return missions (where samples are brought back from other planets), robotic exploration of planetary surfaces (e.g., intelligent rovers), high precision formation flying, and deep space optical interferometry, While the control of planetary spacecraft for traditional flyby and orbiter missions are based on well-understood methodologies, control approaches for many future missions will be fundamentally different. This paradigm shift will require completely new control system development approaches, system architectures, and much greater levels of system autonomy to meet expected performance in the presence of significant environmental disturbances, and plant uncertainties. This paper will trace the motivation for these changes and will layout the approach taken to meet the new challenges. Emerging missions will be used to explain and illustrate the need for these changes.

  20. 76 FR 34273 - Notice of the June 22, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... CORPORATION Notice of the June 22, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine..., June 22, 2011. PLACE: Department of State, 2201 C Street, NW., Washington, DC 20520. FOR FURTHER... to the public. Dated: June 9, 2011. Melvin F. Williams, VP/General Counsel and Corporate...

  1. Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Werner Z., Ed.; Weber, Luc E., Ed.

    This collection of 17 essays focuses on the major changes that higher education needs to make so that it can effectively pursue teaching and research and significantly contribute public service in a rapidly changing world. The essays include: (1) "Survey of the Main Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium" (Luc E. Weber); (2) "Meeting…

  2. Weather and extremes in the last Millennium - a challenge for climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raible, Christoph C.; Blumer, Sandro R.; Gomez-Navarro, Juan J.; Lehner, Flavio

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the climate mean state are expected to influence society, but the socio-economic sensitivity to extreme events might be even more severe. Whether or not the current frequency and severity of extreme events is a unique characteristic of anthropogenic-driven climate change can be assessed by putting the observed changes in a long-term perspective. In doing so, early instrumental series and proxy archives are a rich source to investigate also extreme events, in particular during the last millennium, yet they suffer from spatial and temporal scarcity. Therefore, simulations with coupled general circulation models (GCMs) could fill such gaps and help in deepening our process understanding. In this study, an overview of past and current efforts as well as challenges in modelling paleo weather and extreme events is presented. Using simulations of the last millennium we investigate extreme midlatitude cyclone characteristics, precipitation, and their connection to large-scale atmospheric patterns in the North Atlantic European region. In cold climate states such as the Maunder Minimum, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is found to be predominantly in its negative phase. In this sense, simulations of different models agree with proxy findings for this period. However, some proxy data available for this period suggests an increase in storminess during this period, which could be interpreted as a positive phase of the NAO - a superficial contradiction. The simulated cyclones are partly reduced over Europe, which is consistent with the aforementioned negative phase of the NAO. However, as the meridional temperature gradient is increased during this period - which constitutes a source of low-level baroclincity - they also intensify. This example illustrates how model simulations could be used to improve our proxy interpretation and to gain additional process understanding. Nevertheless, there are also limitations associated with climate modeling efforts to

  3. Beyond the Millennium Development Goals: public health challenges in water and sanitation.

    PubMed

    Rheingans, R; Dreibelbis, R; Freeman, M C

    2006-01-01

    Over 1 billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.6 billion lack access to appropriate sanitation, greatly contributing to the global burden of disease. The international community has committed to reducing by half the proportion of the world's population lacking access to water and sanitation as a part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the disease burden due to poor access, is borne primarily by the poorest countries and the poorest people within them. Simply reducing the proportion of people without adequate access will not automatically result in proportional reductions in the related disease burden. The public health challenge inherent in meeting the MDG targets is ensuring that improvements result in access to water and sanitation for the critical at-risk populations. Innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, and locally acceptable water and sanitation interventions and integrating these approaches into existing social institutions, such as schools, markets, and health facilities. PMID:19153893

  4. NOAA administrator reviews agency progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    The approach of the new year is a traditional time to tally up successes, failures, and the path ahead. Jane Lubchenco, administrator of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), examined some agency advances and significant challenges during the 7 December Union Agency Lecture at the AGU Fall Meeting, during a press briefing, and in an interview with Eos. Lubchenco focused on several key areas including the concern about monitoring, mitigating, and managing extreme events; budgetary pressures the agency faces in current fiscal year (FY) 2012 and in FY 2013, with President Barack Obama on 18 November having signed into law a bill, HR 2112, following congressional agreement on a budget legislation conference report; and NOAA's newly released scientific integrity policy (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011).

  5. Global outlook on nutrition and the environment: meeting the challenges of the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Nair, P P

    2000-04-17

    As we enter the new millennium, nearly 800 million of the World's population will remain chronically malnourished. Nearly 200 million children are moderately to severely underweight, while 70 million are severely malnourished. And those who are yet to be born will be faced with the same set of circumstances that predispose them to malnutrition and its consequences. Eradication of nutritional deficiencies among women and children on a global scale are needed to ensure improved quality of life for the next generation of citizens. Primary deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid and trace elements such as zinc are compounded by pollutants caused by human activity. Environmental lead, arsenic, mercury, and other heavy metals that enter the food chain can seriously deplete body stores of iron, vitamin C and other essential nutrients leading to decreased immune defenses, intrauterine growth retardation, impaired psycho-social faculties and other disabilities associated with malnutrition. Increased susceptibilities to communicable diseases, and those provoked by water or insect borne vectors are additional risks encountered by malnourished individuals. Migration of populations from rural to urban centers and the expansion of major metropolitan areas have had a significant and adverse impact on the quality of life of these citizens. In the next 20 years most of the growth in urban populations will be in Asia and Latin America. Urbanization and the resultant burden on limited national resources is a major contributory factor to malnutrition. There are many other lifestyle-associated disabilities such as use of tobacco (cancer) and alcoholism that require active intervention. Within the family unit, socioeconomic factors and the status of women (literacy, economic independence) are major determinants of the quality of life. In the coming century, the World will have to meet these challenges by careful planning and international cooperation. PMID:10813462

  6. The Challenges of Attaining Millennium Development Goals in Education in Africa by 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojogwu, C. N.

    2009-01-01

    Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…

  7. Global pollution by organochlorinated endocrine disruptors - possible challenge for mankind at the onset of millennium.

    PubMed

    Langer, P

    2015-01-01

    Author of this review submits a comprehensive report of his long-lasting research regarding the global pollution by endocrine disruptors (EDs), EDs and diabetes and obesity, EDs and the thyroid in highly polluted Slovakia, Ah-receptor: the central pivot responsible for such global "EDs disaster", EDs and immune system, EDs and testosterone, EDs in mothers and newborns, EDs and human genome, and EDs at the beginning of the millennium. PMID:25687678

  8. Remote Sensing in Geography in the New Millennium: Prospects, Challenges, and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jensen, John R.; Morain, Stanley A.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1999-01-01

    Remote sensing science contributes greatly to our understanding of the Earth's ecosystems and cultural landscapes. Almost all the natural and social sciences, including geography, rely heavily on remote sensing to provide quantitative, and indispensable spatial information. Many geographers have made significant contributions to remote sensing science since the 1970s, including the specification of advanced remote sensing systems, improvements in analog and digital image analysis, biophysical modeling, and terrain analysis. In fact, the Remote Sensing Specialty Group (RSSG) is one of the largest specialty groups within the AAG with over 500 members. Remote sensing in concert with a geographic information systems, offers much value to geography as both an incisive spatial-analytical tool and as a scholarly pursuit that adds to the body of geographic knowledge on the whole. The "power" of remote sensing as a research endeavor in geography lies in its capabilities for obtaining synoptic, near-real time data at many spatial and temporal scales, and in many regions of the electromagnetic spectrum - from microwave, to RADAR, to visible, and reflective and thermal infrared. In turn, these data present a vast compendium of information for assessing Earth attributes and characte6stics that are at the very core of geography. Here we revisit how remote sensing has become a fundamental and important tool for geographical research, and how with the advent of new and improved sensing systems to be launched in the near future, remote sensing will further advance geographical analysis in the approaching New Millennium.

  9. The Vanuatu medical supply system – documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew; Gilbert, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Limited human resources are widely recognised as a barrier to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals. Availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel are crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply system. The objective of this paper is to identify the factors which influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Vanuatu. Methods: A qualitative triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, observational workplace surveys and semi-structured focus groups was developed. This research was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the University of Canberra and was funded through a direct grant from the United Nations Population Fund Suva, Pacific sub regional office. Results: During two weeks of data collection, 21 interviews were conducted, observational workplace surveys were completed in 19 facilities and 22 personnel participated in three focus groups across three provinces. The interviewees had a wide range of primary professional groupings and were representative of the Vanuatu health workforce. A complex array of medical supply issues are described from within the three tiered structure of the medical supply system. Conclusion: The results of this research have further informed our understanding of the competencies required by healthcare personnel to conduct medical supply management activities effectively in Pacific Island countries. As a result of this research, a platform is provided for the government of Vanuatu to engage development partners to work toward a sustainable medical supply system. PMID:23093895

  10. Multicultural Development in Human Services Agencies: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Cheryl A.

    2004-01-01

    Comprehensive multicultural organizational development (MCOD) is increasingly necessary in human services agencies. This article presents results from an exploratory study that identified challenges and solutions to MCOD, against the backdrop of daily realities of agency life. The author conducted interviews with 20 consultants and 20…

  11. Millennium III Challenges: A Major Role for Agricultural Research/Extension/Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report by the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC) ad hoc Committee on Federal Support for Agricultural Research, Extension and Education suggests solutions to major challenges in agricultural research. Three new realities provide a powerful rationale for major new investment in agriculture: dramatic…

  12. The need for geriatric dental education in India: the geriatric health challenges of the millennium.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Susan

    2013-06-01

    The rapid growth in the elderly population in a developing country such as India poses social and financial challenges by causing a shift towards non-communicable diseases and increases in chronic diseases. The economic impact of the burden of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer are high. The link between oral health and general health are particularly pronounced in older populations and impairs their quality of life. This paper reveals that in order to address the increasing health challenges and demands of a growing geriatric population, undergraduates and graduate students in dental schools should be given comprehensive or holistic health assessment training. Cost-effective modern educational strategies and educational tools such as problem-based learning will help to overcome the dearth of trained faculty in geriatric dentistry. Multidisciplinary health-care approaches and extended health-care team work are of vital importance to older patients who could benefit physically and psychologically from more efficient dental treatment. With often more than one chronic disease affecting individuals and use of polypharmacy, there is a need to increase overall knowledge of geriatric pharmacy and geriatric medicine. Measures to help older people remain healthy and active are a necessity in developing countries such as India for effective social and economic development. PMID:23691957

  13. Poised for the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Presents advice from five school administrators on how schools are meeting facility and business challenges in the new millennium. Issues discussed concern power needs, the Y2K computer problem, the explosion of new educational technology, school security, educational finance, and building deterioration. (GR)

  14. The Mars Millennium Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

  15. Cardiology and cost control: the ethical challenge for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Mattke, S

    2000-08-01

    Government interventions in the health care sector threaten the traditional role of physicians, since they are increasingly forced to consider the cost of medical care when making decisions on behalf of their patients. To prepare themselves for this ethical challenge and to actively participate in the debate about cost containment, physicians need to understand how health economists and politicians view the problem of rising medical costs. This review summarizes some essential facts and findings of the health economics literature that provide the rationale for different approaches to cost containment. The effects of rapidly growing health care cost on the economy are discussed, and improvement of medical technology is identified as the driving force behind this growth. The different policy instruments, which can be employed for cost containment, are explained against this background with an emphasis on Managed Care and global budgets. The outlined concepts are finally discussed in the context of the current debate about the proposed cost containment legislation in Germany. PMID:11013969

  16. Challenges for meeting the global food and nutrient needs in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Khush, G S

    2001-02-01

    Major advances have occurred in food production during the last 30 years as a result of the adoption of green revolution technology. The price of rice and wheat is 40 % lower than it was in the 1950s. This lower price has helped the poorer sections of society, who spend 50-60% of their income on food. The proportion of the population in the developing world that is malnourished fell from 46.5% in the early 1960s to 31% in 1995. However, there are still 1.3 billion of the population who go to bed hungry every day. Deficiencies of micronutrients such as Fe, Zn and vitamin A affect millions of the population in the developing world. The world population is increasing at the rate of 1.4%, or an increase of eighty million per year. It is estimated that we will have to produce 50% more food grains by 2025. Various strategies for meeting this challenge exist, including the development of cereal varieties with a higher yield potential and yield stability, and farmer-friendly public policies. In order to tackle hidden hunger, efforts are underway to develop crop varieties with higher concentrations of Fe and Zn. Recently, a breakthrough has occurred in the introduction of the genes for the pathway leading to the biosynthesis of beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, in rice. Various conventional approaches and modem tools of biotechnology are being employed in the development of crop varieties with higher yields and higher levels of micronutrients. PMID:11310421

  17. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the "millennium bug."

  18. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the “millennium bug.”

  19. International Geoscience Workforce Trends: More Challenges for Federal Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groat, C. G.

    2005-12-01

    Concern about the decreasing number of students entering undergraduate geoscience programs has been chronic and, at times, acute over the past three decades. Despite dwindling populations of undergraduate majors, graduate programs have remained relatively robust, bolstered by international students. With Increasing competition for graduate students by universities in Europe, Japan, Australia, and some developing countries, and with procedural challenges faced by international students seeking entry into the United States and its universities, this supply source is threatened. For corporations operating on a global scale, the opportunity to employ students from and trained in the regions in which they operate is generally a plus. For U.S. universities that have traditionally supplied this workforce, the changing situation poses challenges, but also opportunities for creative international partnerships. Federal government science agencies face more challenges than opportunities in meeting workforce needs under both present and changing education conditions. Restrictions on hiring non-U.S. citizens into the permanent workforce have been a long-standing issue for federal agencies. Exceptions are granted only where they can document the absence of eligible U.S.-citizen candidates. The U.S. Geological Survey has been successful in doing this in its Mendenhall Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program, but there has been no solution to the broader limitation. Under current and forecast workforce recruitment conditions, creativity, such as that evidenced by the Mendenhall program,will be necessary if federal agencies are to draw from the increasingly international geoscience talent pool. With fewer U.S. citizens in U.S. geoscience graduate programs and a growing number of advanced-degreed scientists coming from universities outside the U.S., the need for changes in federal hiring policies is heightened. The near-term liklihood of this is low and combined with the decline in

  20. A perspective of health care in the past--insights and challenges for a health care system in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Cicatiello, J S

    2000-01-01

    Health care has been in a state of perpetual change over the past decade. The swirl of activity includes: mergers and acquisitions, downsizing, shortages of nurses, unionizing of physicians, health care cost increases, escalation of pharmaceutical prices, consumerism, managed care, high-tech-low-touch services, the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, declining reimbursement, alternative medicine, Web-based shopping for health care, medicine moving into cyberspace, nanotechnology, advances in digital technology, and a diagnostic boon in high-tech imaging. What this demonstrates is that the broad-based landscape of changes affecting health care in the United States is extensive and incredibly complex. This article provides a perspective of health care in the past, discusses issues and concerns impacting health care today, and articulates some of the challenges and opportunities that are and will continue to shape the future of our health care system in the new millennium. PMID:18188903

  1. Battered Agency Syndrome: The Challenge to Agencies Serving Low-Income Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Diane; Lally, J. Ronald; Quiett, Douglas

    Community-based social service agencies working in low-income communities increasingly function with inadequate support and encounter numerous oppressive external and internal conditions that compromise organizational and staff well-being. Working with many such agencies, WestEd identified stressors that included funding problems, unrealistic…

  2. Principal Challenges Facing Electronic Records Management in Federal Agencies Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Giovanna; Sprehe, J. Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses electronic records management in the federal government. Highlights include managing electronic mail; information technology planning, systems design, and architecture; updating conventional records management; integrating electronic records management with other information technology systems; challenges of end-user training; business…

  3. Conducting research with end-of-life populations: overcoming recruitment challenges when working with clinical agencies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dena J; Burgener, Sandy C; Kavanaugh, Karen; Ryan, Catherine; Keenan, Gail

    2012-11-01

    Conducting end-of-life (EOL) research can present numerous challenges associated with recruitment and retention of research subjects. Such issues may result from working with a variety of clinical settings or the uniqueness of the patient population. The purposes of this article were to describe recruitment challenges in EOL research when collaborating with different types of clinical agencies and to discuss strategies that are being used to overcome these recruitment issues. PMID:21700424

  4. Enhancing Geographic Education: Challenges and Benefits of Collaboration with Outside Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joan N.; Jones, Douglas Deane

    1999-01-01

    Argues that an avenue for enhancing geography education lies in collaboration between teacher educators and government agencies. Describes a cooperative program between the University of Houston-Clear Lake (Texas) and NASA's Johnson Space Center. Discusses challenges in creating the program, the nature of the program, and benefits from…

  5. 41 CFR 301-52.10 - May I challenge my agency's disallowance of my claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I challenge my agency's disallowance of my claim? 301-52.10 Section 301-52.10 Public Contracts and Property Management..., PAYING TRAVEL EXPENSES, AND CLAIMING REIMBURSEMENT 52-CLAIMING REIMBURSEMENT § 301-52.10 May I...

  6. 41 CFR 301-52.10 - May I challenge my agency's disallowance of my claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I challenge my agency's disallowance of my claim? 301-52.10 Section 301-52.10 Public Contracts and Property Management..., PAYING TRAVEL EXPENSES, AND CLAIMING REIMBURSEMENT 52-CLAIMING REIMBURSEMENT § 301-52.10 May I...

  7. 41 CFR 301-52.10 - May I challenge my agency's disallowance of my claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I challenge my agency's disallowance of my claim? 301-52.10 Section 301-52.10 Public Contracts and Property Management..., PAYING TRAVEL EXPENSES, AND CLAIMING REIMBURSEMENT 52-CLAIMING REIMBURSEMENT § 301-52.10 May I...

  8. 41 CFR 301-52.10 - May I challenge my agency's disallowance of my claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May I challenge my agency's disallowance of my claim? 301-52.10 Section 301-52.10 Public Contracts and Property Management..., PAYING TRAVEL EXPENSES, AND CLAIMING REIMBURSEMENT 52-CLAIMING REIMBURSEMENT § 301-52.10 May I...

  9. 41 CFR 301-52.10 - May I challenge my agency's disallowance of my claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I challenge my agency's disallowance of my claim? 301-52.10 Section 301-52.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES, PAYING TRAVEL EXPENSES, AND...

  10. Periodontics in the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Vandersall, D C

    1998-07-01

    This article prognosticates where periodontology will be in the next millennium. The forecasting of such events is wrought with confusion because such predictions are shadowed by bias, dogmatism, prejudice, experiences, and opinions from either a closed or open mind. The results of the survey from 101 periodontists reflect opinions from varied backgrounds, years of clinical experience, and individual levels of success or failure. The responses cannot be tested for accuracy or duplicated by another survey except to wait out the test of time for the year 2025. Clinicians will be challenged to make decisions on accepting new techniques and concepts as these are brought into the therapeutic fold of periodontics. The clinician will be met with new possibilities as a paradigm shift is inevitable for periodontal practice in the next millennium. After all, who would have thought in the 1960s, the soft tissue augmentation era, that 22 years later in 1982, the regeneration of the lost attachment apparatus (alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament) would become a reality. This survey strongly suggests that by the end of the first quarter of the twenty-first century, local delivery of antimicrobials, growth and differentiation factors, and root biomodification agents will have a major impact on the practice of periodontics. One thing is certain, in the next millennium, considering the responses from this survey, a new era in periodontics will be here. By the year 2025, the research, development, and dissemination of new periodontal knowledge will be beyond the imagination from what was considered usual and customary for the twentieth century. PMID:9700454

  11. Passport to the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Mary Grace

    2001-01-01

    Describes a year-long social studies program called "Passport to the Millennium." Students "travel" around the world learning about the history, geography, culture, and economy of different countries. The program is appropriate for students in elementary to secondary grades. Includes a sample lesson plan. (CMK)

  12. Operation Protective Edge - A Unique Challenge for a Civilian EMS Agency.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Eli; Strugo, Refael; Wacht, Oren

    2015-10-01

    During July through August 2014, Operation Protective Edge, a military conflict between Israel and the Hamas regime in Gaza, dramatically affected both populations. Magen David Adom (MDA), the Israeli national Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a member of the Red Cross, faced a unique challenge during the conflict: to continue providing crucial service to the entire civilian population of Israel, which was under constant missile threat. This challenge included not only providing immediate care for routine EMS calls under missile threat, but also preparing and delivering immediate care to civilians injured in attacks on major cities, as well as small communities, in Israel. This task is a challenge for a civilian EMS agency that normally operates in a non-military environment, yet, in an instant, must enhance its capability to respond to a considerable threat to its population. During Operation Protective Edge, MDA provided care for 842 wounded civilians and utilized a significant amount of its resources. Providing EMS services for a civilian population in a mixed civilian/military scenario is a challenging task on a national level for an EMS system, especially when the threat lasts for weeks. This report describes MDA's preparedness and operations during Operation Protective Edge, and the unique EMS challenges and dilemmas the agency faced. PMID:26323985

  13. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  14. Challenges for a local service agency to address domestic violence -a case study from rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-11-01

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women's access to legal support. PMID:25363105

  15. The Millennium Star Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnott, R. W.

    1997-08-01

    Derived from Hipparcos and Tycho observations, the Millennium Star Atlas is a set of 1548 charts covering the entire sky to about magnitude 11. It stands apart from all previous printed atlases in completeness to magnitude 10 and in uniformity around the sky. The generous chart scale has made possible a number of innovations never before seen in a star atlas: arrows on high-proper-motion stars, double-star ticks conveying separation and position angle for a specific modern epoch, distance labels for nearby stars, and variable stars coded by amplitude, period, and type. Among the nonstellar objects plotted, more than 8000 galaxies are shown with aspect ratio and orientation.

  16. Bottom-up risk regulation? How nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps challenge federal and state environmental agencies.

    PubMed

    Powell, Maria C; Griffin, Martin P A; Tai, Stephanie

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnologies have been called the "Next Industrial Revolution." At the same time, scientists are raising concerns about the potential health and environmental risks related to the nano-sized materials used in nanotechnologies. Analyses suggest that current U.S. federal regulatory structures are not likely to adequately address these risks in a proactive manner. Given these trends, the premise of this paper is that state and local-level agencies will likely deal with many "end-of-pipe" issues as nanomaterials enter environmental media without prior toxicity testing, federal standards, or emissions controls. In this paper we (1) briefly describe potential environmental risks and benefits related to emerging nanotechnologies; (2) outline the capacities of the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act to address potential nanotechnology risks, and how risk data gaps challenge these regulations; (3) outline some of the key data gaps that challenge state-level regulatory capacities to address nanotechnologies' potential risks, using Wisconsin as a case study; and (4) discuss advantages and disadvantages of state versus federal approaches to nanotechnology risk regulation. In summary, we suggest some ways government agencies can be better prepared to address nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps and risk management. PMID:18543023

  17. Bottom-Up Risk Regulation? How Nanotechnology Risk Knowledge Gaps Challenge Federal and State Environmental Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Maria C.; Griffin, Martin P. A.; Tai, Stephanie

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnologies have been called the “Next Industrial Revolution.” At the same time, scientists are raising concerns about the potential health and environmental risks related to the nano-sized materials used in nanotechnologies. Analyses suggest that current U.S. federal regulatory structures are not likely to adequately address these risks in a proactive manner. Given these trends, the premise of this paper is that state and local-level agencies will likely deal with many “end-of-pipe” issues as nanomaterials enter environmental media without prior toxicity testing, federal standards, or emissions controls. In this paper we (1) briefly describe potential environmental risks and benefits related to emerging nanotechnologies; (2) outline the capacities of the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act to address potential nanotechnology risks, and how risk data gaps challenge these regulations; (3) outline some of the key data gaps that challenge state-level regulatory capacities to address nanotechnologies’ potential risks, using Wisconsin as a case study; and (4) discuss advantages and disadvantages of state versus federal approaches to nanotechnology risk regulation. In summary, we suggest some ways government agencies can be better prepared to address nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps and risk management.

  18. Bicentennial Conference on Bibliographic Control for the New Millennium: Confronting the Challenges of Networked Resources and the Web (Washington, DC, November 15-17, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Cataloging Directorate.

    The goals of this conference, sponsored by the Library of Congress Cataloging Directorate, were to develop an overall strategy to address the challenges of improved access to World Wide Web resources through library catalogs and applications of metadata and to identify attainable actions for achieving the objectives of the overall strategy. This…

  19. Strategic Management of Quality and the Challenge of the New Millennium: Prospects for Managing the Tension between Accountability and Improvement in Further and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Jethro

    The prospects for managing the tension between accountability and improvement in further and higher education (FHE) were examined through a literature review and a 5-year ethnographic study of a change management project at a higher education college in Wales. Special attention was paid to the following challenges facing FHE: globalization; the…

  20. Tradition and Culture in the Millennium: Tribal Colleges and Universities. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Linda Sue, Ed.; Gipp, Gerald E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume of The David C. Anchin Research Center Series on Educational Policy in the 21st century: Opportunities, Challenges, and Solutions focuses on tribal colleges and universities. As a recent member of higher education community, tribal colleges and universities provide a unique perspective on higher education policy. Policies and…

  1. Millennium Modem/Channelizer Special Test Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1995-01-01

    A broadband modem/channelizer test set developed by NASA Lewis Research Center is discussed. The test set is a fully programmable, bit-error-rate (BER) test set designed for broadband modem-only and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator characterization. It is currently configured for testing a multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator and was developed for the Advanced Research and Projects Agency under a Technology Reinvestment Program Cooperative Agreement entitled 'Millennium: 21st Century Broadband Digital Telecommunications Technology.' The test set can easily be modified to provide testing of other modems and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator systems and is available to industry for such testing.

  2. 78 FR 49484 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Millennium Bulk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... CFR parts 325 and 332; 73 FR 19594 (April 10, 2008). 3. Alternatives. The EIS will address an array of... (EIS) for the Millennium Bulk Terminals--Longview Shipping Facility Project AGENCY: U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), DoD. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: Millennium Bulk Terminals--Longview, LLC...

  3. Serving the Community and Training Students: Challenges and Lessons from a University-Sponsored Human Service Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin, John; Silver, Paula; Kauffman, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the process of developing and sustaining a University-sponsored human service agency aimed at providing enriched internship opportunities for students in University-based professional programs while at the same time addressing the pressing needs of under resourced communities. Student learning outcomes, challenges and lessons…

  4. 32 CFR 2003.11 - Appeals of agency decisions regarding classification challenges under section 1.8 of the Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appeals of agency decisions regarding classification challenges under section 1.8 of the Order. 2003.11 Section 2003.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY...

  5. 32 CFR 2003.11 - Appeals of agency decisions regarding classification challenges under section 1.8 of the Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appeals of agency decisions regarding classification challenges under section 1.8 of the Order. 2003.11 Section 2003.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY...

  6. COLUMBUS Orbital Facility and Automated Transfer Vehicle: a challenge for agency & industry.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, H; Luttmann, H

    1997-01-01

    Long term continuous operation of the COLUMBUS Orbital Facility (COF) flight- and ground segment requires continuous mission control and operations support capability to ensure proper operation and configuration of the COF systems in support of ongoing science and technology payloads. The ISS logistics scenario will be supported by the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). These operational needs require the built-up of a new ground infrastructure in Europe and USA, enabling an efficient operations for preparation, planning and mission execution. The challenge for the European space community consists in the development and operation of a user friendly operational environment but keeping costs within budgetary constraints. Results of detailed definition studies performed by both agency and industry for the ground infrastructure indicate solutions to those technical and programmatic requirements by using of existing centers and facilities, re-use of C/D phase products (Hardware, Software) and COTS equipment to avoid costly new developments, using engineering expertise of the industrial personnel from flight element phase C/D. The concept for operations execution defines the task sharing between Operations Control Facilities (OCF), Operations Support Facilities and User Operations Sites. Operations support consists of on-line engineering support, off-line engineering support, payload integration, logistics support and crew training support performed by industry. DASA RI has made internal investments in organizational concepts for mission operations as well as in mission technologies and tools based on the standard COLUMBUS Ground Software (CGS) toolset and on knowledge based systems to enable an efficient industrial operations support. These tools are available as prototypes being evaluated in a simulated operational environment. PMID:11541146

  7. Identity and Agency: Pleasures and Collegiality among the Challenges of the Doctoral Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Lynn; Amundsen, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    How do doctoral students develop their identities as academics? In this analysis, we explore identity from the perspective of agency--humans as active agents. The analysis was based on the collective data from three earlier studies in different contexts. Embedded in the data were expressions of agency linked to affect--both positive and…

  8. New Millennium EO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk K.

    2000-01-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) is a NASA technology program that focuses on the validation of advanced spacecraft and instrumentation technologies in space. This program specifically seeks technologies that could significantly benefit future space and Earth science missions by enabling new science capabilities and reducing life cycle costs. These technologies must also require a validation in space to mitigate risks to the first science users, and provide cross-cutting benefits to both NASA's Earth and Space Science enterprises. The NASA Office of Earth Science (OES) directed the NMP to focus the third Earth Observing mission, E03, on innovative measurement concepts that would facilitate remote sensing observations from orbits beyond conventional low-Earth orbit (LEO). These orbits include geosynchronous orbits, highly elliptical orbits, mid-Earth and high-Earth orbits, and other unique vantage points such as L1 and L2. To maximize the input from the Earth science community, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released to solicit innovative measurement concepts for this NMP flight. Because the NMP is a technology validation program, rather than a conventional science program, the NRA required that these measurement concepts employ revolutionary technologies and/or measurement strategies that will enable future science missions from orbits beyond LEO. Another requirement was that a validation in space was needed to reduce real or perceived risks of this concept to future science users. The proposals submitted in response to this NRA were peer reviewed by the NASA OES. The measurement concepts selected through this process will be summarized in this presentation. The E03 measurement concept NRA did not solicit complete mission concepts or flight hardware. Instead, the selected investigators will join integrated project formulation teams to define the mission for the demonstration of the measurement technique and participate in mission design trades and

  9. Overcoming subject recruitment challenges: strategies for successful collaboration with novice research agencies.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Patricia G; Yates, Shawna M; Rogers, Bonnie; Healow, Julia M

    2003-02-01

    In most studies, the investigator reaches out to locate potential research subjects using direct strategies such as targeted radio advertising, recruitment posters, and newspaper advertisements. However, other studies may depend on indirect methods of locating potential subjects and work through intermediary contacts in clinics and hospital outpatient departments. Some agency personnel may not have had prior experience with clinical research protocols and may be unfamiliar with screening potential subjects; these personnel are likely to be employed in agencies unaffiliated with academic health sciences centers. In cases in which agency staff members are new to clinical research, special attention is required to keep agency personnel updated about the status of the research and subject recruitment efforts. This article provides an overview of practical tips designed to engage and sustain the interest of novice research agencies in subject recruitment. The article concludes with a case overview of recruitment issues that occurred during a clinical trial addressing occupational low back pain. PMID:12624862

  10. Malaria and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Owens, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Malaria, as a key disease of poverty, was singled out for special attention in the Millennium Project of 2000. Recent data suggest that malaria incidence and mortality are now declining all over the world. While these figures are cause for celebration, they must be interpreted carefully and with caution, particularly in relation to Africa. There are daunting challenges ahead for those working to achieve malaria eradication, not least of which is the poor quality of the data on which the work is based. In the absence of an affordable and fully effective vaccine, international funding for malaria control needs to be escalated still further. The money is essential to pay for universal access to a set of simple and proven interventions which would save the lives of millions of children over the next 15 years. PMID:25613970

  11. Agency and communication challenges in discussions of informed consent in pediatric cancer research.

    PubMed

    Young, Amanda J; Kim, Loel; Shu Li; Baker, Justin N; Schmidt, Michael; Camp, Jonathan W; Barfield, Raymond C

    2010-05-01

    In this article we examine the discourse of four focus groups we conducted at a pediatric research hospital in which we queried teenage patients, parents, nurses, and physicians about their perceptions of the informed consent process in research. Autonomy, as the goal of informed consent, is a murky concept, with some ethicists questioning the possibility that it can ever be attained. We argue that it might be more productive to consider agency, which we define as language and action that are constructed, negotiated, and maintained through effective communication. Our goal was to understand how individuals rhetorically constructed agency in discussions of informed consent experiences. After transcribing and coding the focus group interviews, we identified six aspects of agency in participants' discourse: (a) defining roles, (b) seeking information, (c) providing information, (d) supporting others, (e) making decisions, and (f) claiming agency for self. Examining these aspects of agency indicated that efforts to improve the informed consent process must address: (a) status differentials, (b) role definitions, (c) information flow, and (d) relationships. PMID:20154295

  12. Imaging in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Henry, D A

    2000-10-01

    The last few decades of the 20th century were marked by tremendous advances in diagnostic imaging and related therapeutic procedures. The new millennium holds great promise for more spectacular advances. Continuing evolution of computer technology coupled with existing and evolving digital imaging platforms will serve as a catalyst for significant developments in virtually all areas of imaging. This report surveys the potential of these advances in areas relevant to critical care. PMID:11070806

  13. NASA New Millennium Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Christopher M.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the New Millennium Program (NMP) which was established in 1994 to revolutionize NASA's Space and Earth science programs to achieve more capable, less costly missions in th e 2lst Century by: 1. Developing and flight-validating revolutionary technologies; 2. Reducing development times and life cycle missi0n cost; 3. Enabling highly autonomous spacecraft and 4. Promoting nat ionwide teaming and coordination

  14. Bioengineering in the millennium.

    PubMed

    Ranu, H S

    1998-10-01

    This symposium identified the major challenges in biomedical research that will benefit from bioengineering applications. Attention was focused on the important role that bioengineers will play in future advances in biomedical research. There was considerable discussion about how to integrate bioengineering with biological research in meeting the challenges of the twenty-first century. Symposium presenters showcased the accomplishments of NIH-funded bioengineering researches and increased the visibility of bioengineering to NIH leaders, staff, and members of the intramural and extramural research community. Recommendations were also made for future NIH-funded research projects. Attention was also placed on how basic bioengineering research can lead to commercialization of new health care technology and therefore maintain the nation's leadership in this important area. New products, from biotechnology and novel devices for diagnosis and treatment, are marketed through interactions between universities, medical centers, small start-up firms, and larger, more established companies. In the United States the gross revenue of the bioengineering private sector industry involved in the manufacture of health care products already exceeds $40 billion. More then 750 persons attended this bioengineering symposium. Over 110 scientific posters and exhibits relating to biology and medicine were presented. They provided a forum for showcasing NIH-funded bioengineering projects and fostered future collaboration among academic investigators, industry, and members of the small business community. The contributions of Pugwash bioengineer, Maciej Natecz, a member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, was recognized by the Conference Planning Committee. He was honored for his work in nuclear disarmament. Indian medical scientists should note that this symposium provided a framework for the development of technology in biomedical sciences during the Twenty-First Century. Major

  15. The Challenge of Day Care in the Seventies: One Agency's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenfeld, Harry; Schwimmer, Barbara

    The Jewish Board of Guardians, in collaboration with the Agency for Child Development, developed a program to respond to the complex mental health concerns of children in day care, their families and the communities in which they live. The program includes on-site consultation, staff development sessions and paraprofessional training. In this…

  16. Challenges for a Local Service Agency to Address Domestic Violence –A Case Study From Rural Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women’s access to legal support. PMID:25363105

  17. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  18. The challenges of rescaling South African water resources management: Catchment Management Agencies and interbasin transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourblanc, Magalie; Blanchon, David

    2014-11-01

    The implementation of Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs) was supposed to be the cornerstone of the rescaling process of the South African water reform policy. Yet, less than 10 years after the adoption of the National Water Act, the process was suspended for 4 years and by 2012 only two CMAs had been established. Combining approaches in geography and political science, this paper investigates the reasons for the delays in CMAs' implementation in South Africa. It shows that the construction of interbasin transfers (IBTs) since the 1950s by the apartheid regime and nowadays the power struggles between CMAs and the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) are two of the main obstacles to the creation of CMAs planned by the 1998 National Water Act (NWA). Finally, the paper advocates taking the "hydrosocial cycle" as an analytical framework for designing new institutional arrangements that will include both rectifying the legacy of the past (the specific role of DWA) and acknowledging legitimate local interests.

  19. The challenges of treating developmental trauma disorder in a residential agency for youth.

    PubMed

    Levin, Edmund C

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the task of psychiatrists serving youth in residential programs has largely shifted to rendering diagnostic evaluations and prescribing medications. Children in residential facilities are often misdiagnosed and treated with high doses of multiple medications drawn from several different classes of psychopharmaceuticals. The more accurate diagnosis for many of these children, Developmental Trauma Disorder (DTD), reconceptualizes the treatment approach and leads to substantial clinical benefit. Initiating treatment through application of milieu and dynamic psychotherapy and the tapering of medication very likely will encounter the challenges of staff resistance and the modification of the residence's institutional culture. The number of children receiving medication, the amount and number of medications used, and the number of aggressive incident reports fell dramatically over a 2-year period. Regarding mood and conduct disorders as manifestations of past trauma, rather than as biochemical imbalances, is the dominant focus of an analytically-informed treatment of DTD. PMID:19764849

  20. Learning for Development: The Commonwealth of Learning and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth of Learning, 2011

    2011-01-01

    World leaders, meeting at the United Nations in 2000, set eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to transform the condition of humankind in the 21st century. These Goals now guide the policies of governments and the priorities of development agencies. These eight goals are: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) Achieve…

  1. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities.

  2. Spinoff 2001: Special Millennium Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    For the past 43 years, NASA has devoted its facilities, labor force, and expertise to sharing the abundance of technology developments used for its missions with the nation's industries. These countless technologies have not only successfully contributed to the growth of the U.S. economy, but also to the quality of life on Earth. For the past 25 years, NASA's Spinoff publication has brought attention to thousands of technologies, products, and services that were developed as a direct result of commercial partnerships between NASA and the private business sector. Many of these exciting technologies included advances in ceramics, computer technology, fiber optics, and remote sensing. New and ongoing research at the NASA field centers covers a full spectrum of technologies that will provide numerous advantages for the future, many of which have made significant strides in the commercial market. The NASA Commercial Technology Network plays a large role in transferring this progress. By applying NASA technologies such as data communication, aircraft de-icing technologies, and innovative materials to everyday functions, American consumers and the national economy benefit. Moving forward into the new millennium, these new technologies will further advance our country's position as the world leader in scientific and technical innovation. These cutting-edge innovations represent the investment of the U.S. citizen in the Space Program. Some of these technologies are highlighted in Spinoff 2001, an example of NASA's commitment to technology transfer and commercialization assistance. This year's issue spotlights the commercial technology efforts of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center. Kennedy's extensive network of commercial technology opportunities has enabled them to become a leader in technology transfer outreach. This kind of leadership is exemplified through Kennedy's recent partnership with the State of Florida, working toward the development of the Space Experiment

  3. Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: Past and future progress.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Michelle F; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-10-01

    We review global and regional progress towards Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 with respect to their indicators, drawing on the latest data available from the relevant United Nations inter-agency groups responsible for maternal and child mortality estimation, as well as recent reports from individual UN agencies and external monitoring groups reporting on MDG progress. We also draw on recent, comprehensive evidence syntheses to present an overview of a selection of existing effective interventions that, if collectively implemented at scale, would reduce maternal and child deaths well beyond the MDG target levels. We conclude with a summary of why and how a focus on maternal and child health in the post-2015 era should be maintained, as the global development agenda transitions from the MDGs to the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:26277228

  4. Gendering the millennium: globalising women.

    PubMed

    Afshar, H

    2000-08-01

    As the century has just changed for the Western calendar it should be borne in mind that for a vast part of the world the centuries are rolling at a different time and under different conditions. So, although we live and trade in a "global village", we are yet divided by time, space, and ideologies. The hope is that the 21st century will enable us to have a closer look at each other and that the global networks, the web sites, and the electronic mailing systems, will work as a bridge rather than as a new means of widening the gaps. This article is a plea for a better understanding of the different priorities and views that Islamist women have of themselves, of their place in history, and what it is that they need to fight for. It is also a call for the universality of sisterhood and a wish that the solidarity that was forged in the latter part of the 20th century will not be fragmented into smithereens in the new millennium. PMID:12349747

  5. A synopsis of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) investment in additive manufacture and what challenges remain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Michael; Smith, Adrien; Margiotta, Jesse

    2014-03-01

    DARPA's interest in additive manufacture dates back to the mid-80s with seedling programs that developed the foundational knowledge and equipment that led to the Solid Freeform Fabrication program in 1990. The drivers for this program included reducing development times by enabling "tool-less" manufacturing as well as integration of design and fabrication tools. DARPA consistently pushed the boundaries of additive manufacture with follow-on programs that expanded the material suite available for 3-D printing as well as new processes that expanded the technology's capability base. Programs such as the Mesoscopic Integrated Conformal Electronics (MICE) program incorporated functionality to the manufacturing processes through direct write of electronics. DARPA's investment in additive manufacture continues to this day but the focus has changed. DARPA's early investments were focused on developing and demonstrating the technology's capabilities. Now that the technology has been demonstrated, there is serious interest in taking advantage of the attributes unique to the processing methodology (such as customization and new design possibilities) for producing production parts. Accordingly, today's investment at DARPA addresses the systematic barriers to implementation rather than the technology itself. The Open Manufacturing program is enabling rapid qualification of new technologies for the manufacturing environment through the development of new modeling and informatics tools. While the technology is becoming more mainstream, there are plenty of challenges that need to be addressed. And as the technology continues to mature, the agency will continue to look for those "DARPA-hard" challenges that enable revolutionary changes in capability and performance for the Department of Defense.

  6. Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria through Non-Formal Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpama, Simon Ibor; Asor, Love Joseph; Erim, Costly M.; Adekola, G.

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria is a signatory to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) declaration but till now she has not made any significant milestones in actualizing these human development goals. In spite of the coordinated efforts towards mobilizing those in the formal education system to partially address its implementation challenges, serious gaps still exit…

  7. Linking Public Health, Housing, and Indoor Environmental Policy: Successes and Challenges at Local and Federal Agencies in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David E.; Kelly, Tom; Sobolewski, John

    2007-01-01

    We describe the successes and challenges faced by federal and local government agencies in the United States as they have attempted in recent years to connect public and environmental health, housing, community development, and building design with environmental, housing, and building laws, codes, and policies. These policies can either contribute to or adversely affect human physical and mental health, with important implications for economic viability, research, policy development, and overall social stability and progress. Policy impediments include tension between housing affordability and health investment that causes inefficient cost-shifting, privacy issues, unclear statutory authority, and resulting gaps in responsibility for housing, indoor air, and the built environment. We contrast this with other environmental frameworks such as ambient air and water quality statutes where the concept of “shared commons” and the “polluter pays” is more robust. The U.S. experiences in childhood lead poisoning prevention, indoor air, and mold provide useful policy insights. Local programs can effectively build healthy homes capacity through local laws and housing codes. The experience of coordinating remediation for mold, asthma triggers, weatherization, and other healthy housing improvements in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, is highlighted. The U.S. experience shows that policymakers should adopt a prevention-oriented, comprehensive multi-disciplinary approach at all levels of government to prevent unhealthy buildings, houses, and communities. PMID:17589610

  8. 41 CFR 102-118.570 - If my agency denies the TSP's challenge to the statement of difference, may the TSP appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false If my agency denies the TSP's challenge to the statement of difference, may the TSP appeal? 102-118.570 Section 102-118.570 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  9. 41 CFR 102-118.570 - If my agency denies the TSP's challenge to the statement of difference, may the TSP appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false If my agency denies the TSP's challenge to the statement of difference, may the TSP appeal? 102-118.570 Section 102-118.570 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  10. 41 CFR 102-118.570 - If my agency denies the TSP's challenge to the statement of difference, may the TSP appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false If my agency denies the TSP's challenge to the statement of difference, may the TSP appeal? 102-118.570 Section 102-118.570 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  11. 41 CFR 102-118.570 - If my agency denies the TSP's challenge to the statement of difference, may the TSP appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If my agency denies the TSP's challenge to the statement of difference, may the TSP appeal? 102-118.570 Section 102-118.570 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  12. 41 CFR 102-118.570 - If my agency denies the TSP's challenge to the statement of difference, may the TSP appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false If my agency denies the TSP's challenge to the statement of difference, may the TSP appeal? 102-118.570 Section 102-118.570 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  13. New Space Industries for the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, D. V., Jr. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    New Space Industries For the Next Millennium is a final report of the findings from the New Space Industries Workshop held in Washington, DC, in February 1998. The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify what must be done to develop new markets, and to generate plans, milestones and new organizational relationships designed to facilitate the goal of space development. This document provides a summary report on the results of that workshop and is not intended as a statement of NASA or government policy. Previous studies had shown great potential for the development of new markets in space (e.g., travel and entertainment, space solar power, satellite and space transfer services, research and development in space, space manufacturing, and space resources), and a great need for coordination and formation of infrastructures (e.g., space transportation, space business parks, and space utilities), to facilitate the growth of new space businesses. The New Space Industries Workshop brought together government, academia, and industry participants from several previous studies and other professionals interested in the development of space for commercial purposes. Their participation provided input into the role of government and industry in space development as well as the technology needs that will enable space development. The opening of the frontier of space, not just to government missions but to private individuals and commercial business, is a challenge of overarching importance. It is our hope that the workshop and this final report continue in earnest the process of identifying and overcoming the barriers to large-scale public access and development of space in the early years of the next century.

  14. Child health in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M

    2000-10-01

    In today's modern, industrialized and affluent countries, like Japan and Australia, better living conditions and hygiene, plentiful nutritious food and rapid advances in biology and medical technologies have helped to bring about dramatic improvements in child health. The previous heavy burdens of infections and undernutrition have been eliminated or can now be controlled or effectively treated. In these countries, child health standards are higher than ever and expectation of life at birth is much higher than in the past. Some of the technological advances that have helped bring about this transformation are immunization, antimicrobial therapy, successful treatment of childhood leukemias, transplantation of vital organs and implementation of genetic diagnosis and gene therapy. The use of genetically modified foods and the prospects for cloning of humans are areas of intense interest and controversy. However, these advances have their disadvantages (e.g. antibiotic-induced drug resistance). Urbanization has encouraged the 'westernization' of dietary patterns and the long-term 'lifestyle diseases' that can follow in adults. Accidents, violence and drug abuse are major problems in many parts of the world. Changes in attitudes to sexuality and the spread of HIV/AIDS is another major problem, especially in Africa and Asia. Environmental pollution and the degradation of agricultural lands, rivers and seas are also important. Ironically, standards of child health and the prospects for long life in countries like Japan are better than ever before, but social and environmental changes are presenting children and their carers with new and unanswered challenges as we enter the 21 st century and the new millennium. PMID:11059531

  15. Tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals: reaching consensus on child mortality levels and trends.

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The increased attention to tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including Goal 4 of reducing child mortality, has drawn attention to a number of interrelated technical, operational and political challenges and to the underlying weaknesses of country health information systems upon which reliable monitoring depends. Assessments of child mortality published in 2005, for almost all low-income countries, are based on an extrapolation of the trends observed during the 1990s, rather than on the empirical data for more recent years. The validity of the extrapolation depends on the quality and quantity of the data used, and many countries lack suitable data. In the long run, it is hoped that vital registration or sample registration systems will be established to monitor vital events in a sustainable way. However, in the short run, tracking child mortality in high-mortality countries will continue to rely on household surveys and extrapolations of historical trends. This will require more collaborative efforts both to collect data through initiatives to strengthen health information systems at the country level, and to harmonize the estimation process. The latter objective requires the continued activity of a coordinating group of international agencies and academics that aims to produce transparent estimates -- through the consistent application of an agreed-upon methodology --for monitoring at the international level. PMID:16583082

  16. New Satellite Services for the Next Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakeling, J.

    There are many new satellite communication systems that are either on the verge of commercial service or in the advanced planning and design stages for launch in the next millennium. Many will address what are considered to be new markets for satellites, using services and applications originally developed for terrestrial networks. Many of these services are network oriented and this will require a step change in the way that the satellite resource is managed if these systems are to succeed. This paper discusses these issues and offers some thoughts on what additional future services this change in approach may generate in the next millennium.

  17. High Performance Computing Facilities for the Next Millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, William; Verdier, Francesca; Fitzgerald, Keith; Craw, James; Welcome, Tammy.

    1999-10-01

    High Performance Computing facilities face increased pressures to survive and thrive in the next millennium. HPC facilities must combine effective techniques of the past with innovative methods of the future. This tutorial explores requirements and pressures on HPC centers, and presents effective methods being employed and new approaches to employ to overcome these challenges. Topics include: The current state of HPC computing and projections; System management that allows MPPs running many large jobs to achieve greater than 90% utilization of CPUs; Archive storage issues of improving transfer bandwidth and practical advice for running Terabyte archives; Innovations for client services to ensure the ''intellectual resource'' is equally val2048by clients as the systems; Introduce the Effective System Performance Test a new way to objectively measure and compare not just system performance (e.g. sustained performance of applications) but also system effectiveness (e.g. how many system resources, especially CPU time can really be used by the workload over time); Integrating production with a good is critical to maintaining a robust HPC facility: The tutorial will address how to achieve and maintain this delicate balance. It explores what a facility needs to do to thrive in the new millennium.

  18. Voting Rights Issues in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication examines ways to teach about law in the liberal arts. This issue focuses on future voting rights issues by exploring the 2000 presidential election. Articles included are: "Voting Rights in the New Millennium" (Jason F. Kirksey); "Legal and Political Lessons from 'Bush v. Gore'" (David Schultz); "The Ford-Carter Commission and…

  19. Financing the Millennium Development Goals for health and beyond: sustaining the 'Big Push'

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Many of the Millennium Development Goals are not being achieved in the world's poorest countries, yet only five years remain until the target date. The financing of these Goals is not merely insufficient; current evidence indicates that the temporary nature of the financing, as well as challenges to coordinating its delivery and directing it to the most needy recipients, hinder achievement of the Goals in countries that may benefit most. Traditional approaches to providing development assistance for health have not been able to address both prevalent and emergent public health challenges captured in the Goals; these challenges demand sustained forms of financial redistribution through a coordinated mechanism. A global social health protection fund is proposed to address recurring failures in the modern aid distribution mechanism. Such a Fund could use established and effective strategies for aid delivery to mitigate many financial problems currently undermining the Millennium Development Goals initiative. PMID:20932274

  20. Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  1. Challenger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-09-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy.

  2. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  3. Tri-Agency Coordination: Challenges and Successes in Creating a Community of Practice among Climate Change Education Principal Investigators funded by NASA, NOAA, and NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; McDougall, C.; Karsten, J. L.; Campbell, D.; Pippin, M. R.; Chambers, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    The effort needed for comprehensive climate change education is far greater than any one institution, education sector, or even federal agency can handle. Recognizing a need to synergistically combine efforts, NSF, NASA, and NOAA have created a collaborative community of their climate change education principal investigators (PIs) through tri-agency coordination. The goals of this tri-agency collaboration are to leverage existing resources, minimize duplicate efforts, and facilitate communication among this emergent community of scientists and educators. NASA, NOAA, and NSF work together to strategically coordinate and support a portfolio of projects focused on climate literacy and education in formal and informal learning environments. The activities of the tri-agency collaboration, including annual meetings for PIs, a catalog of the agencies collective investments in climate change education and the ongoing development of a nascent common evaluation framework, have created a strong national network for effectively engaging diverse audiences with the principles of climate literacy (see Eos Vol. 92, No. 24, 14 June 2011). Last year, after 3 years of active collaboration, similar programs underway at other U.S. Global Change Research Program agencies: the EPA, National Institutes for Environmental Health Sciences, and USDA, were engaged in the collaboration. And, in an attempt to understand the interests of the private sector in this arena, conversations have begun with private philanthropic organizations. This year, as many of the funded projects are maturing, the PI meeting will have a focus on bringing this community together to create a science-theme based tangible outcome that can move the field of climate change education forward. Additional outcomes from this PI meeting will be presented as well as the challenges that were encountered in bringing together institutions with diverse missions, and approaches developed to ensure all parties feel they

  4. Space Transportation in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Preston

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of Space Transportation in the New Millennium. Pictures are shown of the space shuttle lift Off, rocket motion, the space shuttle main engine, the space shuttle external tank, the space shuttle solid rocket booster, the X-33, X-34, X-37, X-38, magnetic levitation, the rbcc, nuclear thermal propulsion, anti-matter propulsion system, the NTP or anti-matter concept vehicles, and the Space Elevator.

  5. Food & nutrition security: Challenges in the new millennium

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2013-01-01

    The World Food Summit in 1996 provided a comprehensive definition for food security which brings into focus the linkage between food, nutrition and health. India has been self sufficient in food production since seventies and low household hunger rates. India compares well with developing countries with similar health profile in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR) and under five mortality rate (U5 MR). India fares poorly when underweight in under five children is used as an indicator for food insecurity with rates comparable to that of Subsaharan Africa. If wasting [low body mass index (BMI) for age in children and low BMI in adults] which is closely related to adequacy of current food intake is used as an indictor for the assessment of household food security, India fares better. The nineties witnessed the emergence of dual nutrition burden with persistent inadequate dietary intake and undernutrition on one side and low physical activity / food intake above requirements and overnutrition on the other side. Body size and physical activity levels are two major determinants of human nutrient requirements. The revised recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for Indians takes cognisance of the current body weight and physical activity while computing the energy and nutrient requirements. As both under- and overnutrition are associated with health hazards, perhaps time has come for use of normal BMI as an indicator for food security. PMID:24135187

  6. Capacity building in Developing Countries: a challenge ahead for the European Space Agency to continue its successful experience to date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fea, M.

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has built a long tradition and a large experience in the domain of education, training and capacity building throughout its space programmes. As an example, the ESA Science Programme dedicates 1% of its budget to these activities. One of the key reasons for it is the need of closing the loop along the chain from the provider to the user, that is to say between the space and the users elements. In fact, besides the obvious need for technology development, there is actually not very much justification in the long term for a space programme if the user communities are not able to make good use of programme outputs and provide feedback and proper requirements to space agencies. The case of ESA Earth Observation programmes is described to illustrate these considerations, as a way to also implement the European Space Policy and UNISPACE III recommendations. Since its foundation in 1975 and the implementation of its EO programme with the launch of Meteosat-1 in 1977 and the birth of the Earthnet Programme Office in 1978, the European Space Agency is very active in the field of capacity building in developing countries. That is performed through both ESA's specific projects and international co-operation activities. In the latter domain, ESA enjoys a long-standing collaboration with many entities, such as the Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), and organisations, such as WMO, UN and its specialised agencies (FAO, UNESCO, UNEP, and so on). In that respect, the Agency is an active member of the CEOS Working Group on Education (WGEdu) and of the World Summit for Sustainable Development Follow-Up (WSSD) Module 1 group dedicated to education, training and capacity building. The overall ESA strategy targets various citizen communities and takes into account the fact that today's young generations will become tomorrow's professionals and decision makers. ESA's activities in this domain are in particular based on an end-to-end concept

  7. The challenge of presenting climate change information to the public and to political stakeholders: coordinated efforts of German environmental agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebener, H.; Linke, C.

    2010-09-01

    In Germany environmental agencies exist both on the country level and on the level of the different federal states of Germany. A regular working group of members of all the environmental agencies discusses the needs and options of presenting regional (resolution of few km) climate information to the public as well as to political stakeholders. As a result of this working group, guidelines have been formulated on how to present regional climate and climate change information. In this presentation, the guidelines developed by the working group will be presented. Examples of good versus bad practice will be given and reasons for the guidelines will be explained. The topics covered include: Definition of ‘climate projection' versus ‘climate forecast', recommendations for use of scenarios, temporal and spatial resolution, reference periods, treatment of model biases and significance, optimal use of colour selection and scaling, and treatment of different model generations. A special focus will be given to the presentation of results from multiple simulations (ensembles), as evidence is mounting that we need to take ensemble results into account for decision making. Examples shown will be for the federal state of Hessen, Germany.

  8. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocky, J. F.; Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Space Technology 9 (ST-9) mission is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. ST-9 is an integrated system validation project and part of New Millennium Program effort to identify the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that require validation in deep space to help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. NASA prepared a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) that solicited proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5) Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. The technology providers were selected to provide needed technology advances in these areas in FY 2005. One these five technologies capability areas will be selected in a timeframe

  9. Water resources in the next millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren

    As pressures from an exponentially increasing population and economic expectations rise against a finite water resource, how do we address management? This was the main focus of the Dubai International Conference on Water Resources and Integrated Management in the Third Millennium in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2-6 February 2002. The invited forum attracted an eclectic mix of international thinkers from five continents. Presentations and discussions on hydrology policy/property rights, and management strategies focused mainly on problems of water supply, irrigation, and/or ecosystems.

  10. From Domination to Partnership: Meeting the UN Millennium Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisler, Riane; Corral, Thais

    2005-01-01

    The UN Millennium goals envision a more just and sustainable future. This article explains why there is a need to shift from domination model to a partnership model in meeting the UN Millennium goals. The domination model is a configuration based on top-down rankings of control, while the partnership model is a configuration that can support a…

  11. Situational awareness for science funders: information challenges and solutions for funding agencies in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Ashlea; Diwersy, Mario

    2014-02-01

    About 25 years ago, one of our colleagues joined the Wellcome Trust, the world's second largest private biomedical funder. At the time, computers and the Internet were not a regular part of everyday work routines. Today, a quarter of a century later, the Wellcome Trust and other forward thinking funders are leading the way in integrating software, systems, and information technology into their funding processes. While not all research funders have been technologically proactive--some have only recently switched to electronic applications and others still operate with largely document-based processes-almost all funders experience some level of difficulty when it comes to translating technological advances into operational efficiencies and strategic insights. Also, although there are exceptions, funders generally do not share notes. That is scary. It is a rich and perhaps troubling irony that even while they invest billions of dollars in groundbreaking research to solve some of the world's greatest challenges, many funders struggle to find effective solutions to what can seem like pedestrian information challenges: PMID:24597167

  12. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  13. Water recycling at the Millennium Dome.

    PubMed

    Hills, S; Smith, A; Hardy, P; Birks, R

    2001-01-01

    Thames Water is working with the New Millennium Experience Company to provide a water recycling system for the Millennium Dome which will supply 500 m3/d of reclaimed water for WC and urinal flushing. The system will treat water from three sources: rainwater--from the Dome roof greywater--from handbasins in the toilet blocks groundwater--from beneath the Dome site The treatment technologies will range from "natural" reedbeds for the rainwater, to more sophisticated options, including biological aerated filters and membranes for the greywater and groundwater. Pilot scale trials were used to design the optimum configuration. In addition to the recycling system, water efficient devices will be installed in three of the core toilet blocks as part of a programme of research into the effectiveness of conservation measures. Data on water usage and customer behaviour will be collected via a comprehensive metering system. Information from the Dome project on the economics and efficiency of on-site recycling at large scale and data on water efficient devices, customer perception and behaviour will be of great value to the water industry. For Thames Water, the project provides vital input to the development of future water resource strategies. PMID:11436793

  14. The New Millennium Program power technology

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielewski, A.B.; Das, A.; Cassapakis, C.

    1996-12-31

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) has been established to accelerate the infusion of breakthrough technologies into NASA space science missions. The goal of this technology infusion is to fulfill the NASA vision of frequent, low-cost missions to deep space and to plant Earth. Power is one of the most important keys to cost-effective space science missions. The power subsystem comprises over 25 percent of the mass of a typical space orbiter type spacecraft. The problems of power will become even more acute in the new millennium as deep space missions are asked to go farther from the Sun and get to their destinations faster. Several power technology proposals were submitted to the NMP through its Modular and Multifunctional Systems Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT). The proposals described in this paper received the most consideration and in several cases resulted in the technology being selected for flight on one of the NMP missions. The technologies discussed here are: SCARLET array, Light Flexible array, lithium ion battery, cold temperature battery, inflatable concentrators and a related technology -- Multifunctional Structures.

  15. Global sediment fluxes during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipal, Victoria; Reick, Christian; Van Oost, Kristof; Hoffmann, Thomas; Pongratz, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Soil redistribution plays an important role in the transport of carbon and nutrients between terrestrial ecosystems. However, quantification of soil redistribution and its effects on the global biogeochemical cycles is currently unknown. This study aims at developing new tools and methods to represent soil redistribution on a global scale, and contribute to the quantification of anthropogenic disturbances to the biogeochemical cycles. We present a new large-scale coarse resolution sediment budget model that can simulate spatial patterns and long-term trends in soil redistribution in floodplains and on hillslope, resulting from external forces such as climate and land use change. First, we validated the model for the Rhine catchment using observed Holocene sediment storage data and observed scaling behavior between sediment storage and catchment area. Then, we applied the model on 20 large river catchments globally, using climate and land cover data from the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) for the last millennium (850 - 2005AD). We show that the model can reproduce current observed sediment yields if uncertainty in the observations is taken into account. Furthermore, we find that the change in erosion rates during the last millennium resulted in a significant increase in sediment storage for different global catchments. We identify land use change as the main driver behind this change in sediment storage. Finally, catchments characteristics, such as area and slope, play an important role in buffering or amplifying the effect of land use and other external forces on the change in erosion and sediment storage.

  16. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  17. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  18. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  19. The Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed-based Approach: where social and natural sciences meet to address today's water resource challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddle, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of governmental organizations at the local, state, and federal level collaborate with nongovernmental organizations and individuals to solve watershed scale problems (Imperial and Koontz, 2007). Such a shift in policy approach from hierarchical regulation to bottom-up collaboration is largely a result of regulator’s recognition of the interdependence of natural and socio-economic systems on a watershed scale (Steelman and Carmin, 2002. Agencies throughout the federal government increasingly favored new governing institutions that encourage cooperation between local actors with conflicting interests, divergent geographic bases, and overlapping administrative jurisdictions to resolve continuing disputes over resource management (Bardach 1998). This favoritism of collaborative over command-and-control approaches for managing nonpoint source pollution led to the development of watershed partnerships and the watershed-based approach (Lubell et al., 2002). This study aims to further collaborative governance scholarship and aid decision-makers in identifying the critical elements of collaborative governance resulting in environmental improvements. To date, this relationship has not been empirically determined, in spite of the fact that collaborative governance is used routinely by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in resolving issues related to watershed management and other applications. This gap in the research is largely due to the lack of longitudinal data. In order to determine whether changes have occurred, environmental data must be collected over relatively long time periods (Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Sabatier, et al., 2005). However, collecting these data is often cost prohibitive. Monitoring water quality is expensive and requires technical expertise, and is often the first line item cut in environmental management budgets. This research is interdisciplinary, looking at the physical, chemical, and biological parameters for 44 waterbodies

  20. Veterinarian challenges to providing a multi-agency response to farm animal welfare problems in Ireland: responding to the human factor.

    PubMed

    Devitt, C; Kelly, P; Blake, M; Hanlon, A; More, S J

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, the authors undertook a study of the challenges facing government and private veterinarians in responding to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents (i.e. the personal problems and difficulties of farmers that can result in farm animal neglect). This paper reports their findings and examines the role of veterinarians in responding to the difficulties of farmers. It also looks at their experiences of attempting to build a multi-agency approach involving veterinary and human support services. This paper builds on a study whereby the authors considered how social, health and attitudinal factors, as well as mental health problems, contribute to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland. An early warning system involving relevant agencies is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. The literature provides examples of private veterinarians combining with support services where there are indicators of animal and human abuse. Yet there are no research examples of government or private veterinarians linking with support services to resolve farm animal welfare cases where there are social, health, and/or mental health difficulties with the herd owner. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians (n = 18) and three with private veterinarians (n = 12). Government veterinarians made contact with support services to seek advice on how best to respond to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents, and/or to seek support for the herd owner. Contact between government and private veterinarians was driven by the former. Communication between agencies was influenced by individual efforts and personal contacts. Formal structures and guidelines, perceived professional capabilities in determining herd owner needs, and client confidentiality concerns among support services and private veterinarians were less influential. The fear of losing clients and the financial implications of this were

  1. Millennium Global Village-Net: bringing together Millennium Villages throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Andrew S; Negin, Joel; Olayo, Bernard; Bukachi, Frederick; Johnson, Edward; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich

    2009-12-01

    The Millennium Villages Project (MVP), based at The Earth Institute at Columbia University, is a bottom-up, community led approach to show how villages in developing countries can get out of the poverty trap that afflicts more than a billion people worldwide. With well-targeted, practical inputs can help the community invest in a path leading to self-sustaining development. There are 80 Millennium Villages clustered in 10 countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa. MVP is an important development process for empowering communities to invest in a package of integrated interventions aiming to increase food production, improve access to safe water, health care, education and infrastructure. The process benefits from synergies of the integrated approach and relies on community leadership as empowered by proven technological inputs. MVP is committed to a science-based approach to assess and monitor the progress of the communities towards clear objectives; the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and to do so with mechanisms that are scalable and sustainable. This approach offers much more than simply collecting and analyzing data since the mechanism used for recording progress would provide a bridge over the divide which separates the haves and the have-nots (by facilitating the sharing of solutions from one community to another bidirectionally). By so doing, it allows people to enhance their own futures in a sustainable manner. Solutions found in one community are transferable to similar communities in other MVP villages. To achieve this goal, the MVP requires an information and communication system which can provide both necessary infrastructure for monitoring and evaluation, and tools for communicating among the villages, cities and countries. This system is called the Millennium Global Village-Net (MGV-Net). It takes advantage of the latest in open source software (OpenMRS), databases (MySQL), interface terminology, a centralized concept dictionary, and uses appropriate

  2. Modeling walker synchronization on the Millennium Bridge.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward; Strogatz, Steven H; Abrams, Daniel M; McRobie, Allan

    2007-02-01

    On its opening day the London Millennium footbridge experienced unexpected large amplitude wobbling subsequent to the migration of pedestrians onto the bridge. Modeling the stepping of the pedestrians on the bridge as phase oscillators, we obtain a model for the combined dynamics of people and the bridge that is analytically tractable. It provides predictions for the phase dynamics of individual walkers and for the critical number of people for the onset of oscillations. Numerical simulations and analytical estimates reproduce the linear relation between pedestrian force and bridge velocity as observed in experiments. They allow prediction of the amplitude of bridge motion, the rate of relaxation to the synchronized state and the magnitude of the fluctuations due to a finite number of people. PMID:17358316

  3. Modeling walker synchronization on the Millennium Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward; Strogatz, Steven H.; Abrams, Daniel M.; McRobie, Allan

    2007-02-01

    On its opening day the London Millennium footbridge experienced unexpected large amplitude wobbling subsequent to the migration of pedestrians onto the bridge. Modeling the stepping of the pedestrians on the bridge as phase oscillators, we obtain a model for the combined dynamics of people and the bridge that is analytically tractable. It provides predictions for the phase dynamics of individual walkers and for the critical number of people for the onset of oscillations. Numerical simulations and analytical estimates reproduce the linear relation between pedestrian force and bridge velocity as observed in experiments. They allow prediction of the amplitude of bridge motion, the rate of relaxation to the synchronized state and the magnitude of the fluctuations due to a finite number of people.

  4. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

    The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Theoretical biology in the third millennium.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, S

    1999-01-01

    During the 20th century our understanding of genetics and the processes of gene expression have undergone revolutionary change. Improved technology has identified the components of the living cell, and knowledge of the genetic code allows us to visualize the pathway from genotype to phenotype. We can now sequence entire genes, and improved cloning techniques enable us to transfer genes between organisms, giving a better understanding of their function. Due to the improved power of analytical tools databases of sequence information are growing at an exponential rate. Soon complete sequences of genomes and the three-dimensional structure of all proteins may be known. The question we face in the new millennium is how to apply this data in a meaningful way. Since the genes carry the specification of an organism, and because they also record evolutionary changes, we need to design a theoretical framework that can take account of the flow of information through biological systems. PMID:10670016

  6. Electric vehicles in the next millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, G. G.

    It is well known that the history of battery electric vehicles (EVs) is a long one that covers a period in excess of one hundred years. It is also well known that, in their early days, these vehicles were capable of out-performing their contemporary internal combustion-engined (ICEV) equivalents in terms of speed and acceleration. Since those days, and indeed until quite recently, there has been a quite remarkable difference between the vast strides made in developing ICEVs in general and cars in particular, and the relatively small improvements made in the capabilities of EVs. It is now being argued that this must change and the purpose of this paper is to consider the extent to which it is practical to expect such a change, on a large scale, in the early part of the next millennium.

  7. Basic mechanisms for the new millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1998-09-01

    This part of the Short Course will review the basic mechanisms for radiation effects in semiconductor devices. All three areas of radiation damage will be considered -- total dose, displacement effects, and single event effects. Each of these areas will be discussed in turn. First an overview and background will be provided on the historical understanding of the damage mechanism. Then there will be a discussion of recent enhancements to the understanding of those mechanisms and an up-to-date picture provided of the current state of knowledge. Next the potential impact of each of these damage mechanisms on devices in emerging technologies and how the mechanisms may be used to understand device performance will be described, with an emphasis on those likely to be of importance in the new millennium. Finally some additional thoughts will be presented on how device scaling expected into the next century may impact radiation hardness.

  8. NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Chmielewski, A.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Wyman, W.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program is intended to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing to deploy resources on other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

  9. NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S. A.; Davies, A.; Sherwood, R. L.; Wyman, W.

    2004-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program validates advanced technologies in space and thus lowers the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on future missions. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing re-deployment of resources to other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

  10. NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Wyman, W.

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of NASA's New Millennium Program is to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing to deploy resources on other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

  11. Patrick Moore's millennium yearbook : the view from AD 1001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick, Chapman, Allan

    In a year that will probably be remembered almost as much for books about the millennium as for the turn of 2000 A.D itself, Patrick Moore's Millennium Yearbook celebrates.....well, the wrong millennium! This thoroughly entertaining book - which is for everyone, not just astronomers - contains articles on King Alfred's chronological work, reviews of the new Star Catalogue by the Arab Al-Sufi and the latest edition of Ptolemy's Almagast. And foreshadowing the change to metric units by 1000 years, the book uses arabic numbers instead of Roman - but there is a conversion table if you have trouble with the idea of "zero" and prefer the older system.

  12. Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Stephen R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Agard, John; Capistrano, Doris; DeFries, Ruth S.; Díaz, Sandra; Dietz, Thomas; Duraiappah, Anantha K.; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Perrings, Charles; Reid, Walter V.; Sarukhan, José; Scholes, Robert J.; Whyte, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social–ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains limited by focus on discipline-bound sectors of the full social–ecological system. At the same time, some polices and practices intended to improve ecosystem services and human well-being are based on untested assumptions and sparse information. The people who are affected and those who provide resources are increasingly asking for evidence that interventions improve ecosystem services and human well-being. New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Such research will expand the capacity to address fundamental questions about complex social–ecological systems while evaluating assumptions of policies and practices intended to advance human well-being through improved ecosystem services. PMID:19179280

  13. Millennium regional PACS management: strategies for successful implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Brad; Romlein, John R.; Gac, Robert J., Jr.; Chacko, Anna K.; Radvany, Martin

    2000-05-01

    With the advent of the new Millennium, Picture Archive and Communications System (PACS) technology has matured to levels sufficient to support open systems based, regional implementations. This shifts the site-centric PACS paradigm into broader scale, impacting facilities, workflow, business plans and ultimately patient care on a regional basis. Prudent and effective management of a regional implementation is critical to overall project success based upon a number of competing influences fundamental to the PACS including network infrastructure, clinical workflow, acquisition modalities, planning documentation, site preparation, acceptance testing, project communication, interface integration issues, etc. Risk mitigation is possible by understanding and managing the interrelationships of these influences through a phased approach with embedded management controls. The overall phases of regional implementation are not unlike site-centric implementations, consisting of Discovery, Planning, Preparation, Installation; Acceptance and Warranty/Maintenance; however, details which manifest over time are what provide significant management challenges. When balanced using a culturally reinforced policy of open, frequent and hands-on communication, regional PACS projects can be successfully implemented maintaining budget, schedule and scope thresholds.

  14. Technology Selection and Validation: New Millennium Flight Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minning, C.; Buehler, M.; Fujita, T.; Lansing, F.; Man, G.; Aljabri, A.; Stevens, C.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) was created to accelerate the insertion of advanced space-related technologies into future science missions by validating these technologies on deep space and Earth-orbiting technology validation missions.

  15. 76 FR 46786 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    .... Box 1565, Pearl River, New York 10965, filed in the above referenced docket an application pursuant to... & Secretary, Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC, One Blue Hill Plaza, Seventh Floor, P.O. Box 1565, Pearl...

  16. Holding a country countdown to 2015 conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – the Zambian experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Initiatives such as the Country Countdown to 2015 Conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided countries with high maternal and child deaths like Zambia a platform to assess progress, discuss challenges and share lessons learnt as a conduit for national commitment to reaching and attaining the MDGs four and five. This paper discusses and highlights the process of holding a successful country countdown conference and shares Zambia’s experience with other countries planning to organise country countdown to 2015 Conferences on MDGs. PMID:24447509

  17. The Millennium Run Observatory: first light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overzier, R.; Lemson, G.; Angulo, R. E.; Bertin, E.; Blaizot, J.; Henriques, B. M. B.; Marleau, G.-D.; White, S. D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of galaxy evolution aim to capture our current understanding as well as to make predictions for testing by future experiments. Simulations and observations are often compared in an indirect fashion: physical quantities are estimated from the observational data and compared to models. However, many applications can benefit from a more direct approach, where the observing process is also simulated, so that the models are seen fully from the observer's perspective. To facilitate this, we have developed the Millennium Run Observatory (MRObs), a theoretical virtual observatory which uses virtual telescopes to `observe' semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations based on the suite of Millennium Run (MR) dark matter simulations. The MRObs produces data that can be processed and analysed using the standard observational software packages developed for real observations. At present, we produce images in 40 filters covering the rest-frame ultraviolet to infrared for two stellar population synthesis models, for three different models of absorption by the intergalactic medium, and in two cosmologies (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe year 1 and 7). Galaxy distributions for a large number of mock light cones can be `observed' using models of major ground- and space-based telescopes. The data include light cone catalogues linked to structural properties of galaxies, pre-observation model images, mock telescope images and Source Extractor products that can all be traced back to the higher level dark matter, semi-analytic galaxy and light cone catalogues available in the MR data base. Here, we describe our methods and announce a first public release of simulated observations that emulate a large number of extragalactic surveys [e.g. Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHT-LS), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), GOODS/Early Release Science (ERS), Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS

  18. Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian C.; Nayak, P. Pandurang

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of sensor rich, massively distributed, autonomous systems are being developed that have the potential for profound social, environmental, and economic change. These include networked building energy systems, autonomous space probes, chemical plant control systems, satellite constellations for remote ecosystem monitoring, power grids, biosphere-like life support systems, and reconfigurable traffic systems, to highlight but a few. To achieve high performance, these immobile robots (or immobots) will need to develop sophisticated regulatory and immune systems that accurately and robustly control their complex internal functions. To accomplish this, immobots will exploit a vast nervous system of sensors to model themselves and their environment on a grand scale. They will use these models to dramatically reconfigure themselves in order to survive decades of autonomous operations. Achieving these large scale modeling and configuration tasks will require a tight coupling between the higher level coordination function provided by symbolic reasoning, and the lower level autonomic processes of adaptive estimation and control. To be economically viable they will need to be programmable purely through high level compositional models. Self modeling and self configuration, coordinating autonomic functions through symbolic reasoning, and compositional, model-based programming are the three key elements of a model-based autonomous systems architecture that is taking us into the New Millennium.

  19. Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).

    PubMed

    Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-12-01

    The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs). PMID:24550246

  20. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

    2001-01-01

    The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

  1. The Dudley Challenges: Virtual Balloon Journeys and Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Shirley; Davies, John; Tibble, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The Dudley Challenges were developed to celebrate the millennium and the first year of the Dudley Grid for Learning. Three Challenges, Challenge 2000 the original resource, Challenge Europa and Junior Trek, are based on virtual balloon journeys, visiting a series of interesting cultural centres. Access to each centre visited is by solving a series…

  2. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot... Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is...

  3. Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

  4. Radiology system evolution in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Nauert, R C

    2001-01-01

    For many decades the practice of radiology grew slowly in America and was largely a secondary function under the control of hospitals. In more recent times it has vastly expanded its array of diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic abilities. There is increasing consumer logic for direct access. Motivations have grown to create large independent entities with broadly diverse capabilities in order to succeed in the new millennium. Most regional markets are evolving rapidly in terms of managed care penetration, health system formation, physician practice consolidation and aggressive purchaser behavior by employers and consumers. To understand the enormity of healthcare evolution, it is useful to look at the industry's paradigm shifts in recent decades. Virtually every aspect of organizational infrastructure, delivery approaches, and the business environment has evolved markedly during the past fifty years. These changes will accelerate. To succeed financially, radiology groups must strengthen their market positions, technical capabilities, continuums of care and geographic dominance. Equally important is the wisdom of diversifying incomes into related services and businesses that provide additional related revenues. Key factors for successful development include facility market growth, full coverage of managed care contracts, high efficiency and aggressive diversification. A fully evolved system generates significant revenues and profitability by protecting and strengthening its financial position in this environment. That is accomplished through the development of strategically located radiology groups, aggressive alliances with medical practices in allied disciplines, and managed radiology departments and facilities for partner health systems. Organizational success ultimately depends on the ability to accept capitated payments under risk-bearing arrangements. The strategic business plan should be organized with the appropriate levels of detail needed to

  5. NASA's New Millennium ST8 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakians, H.; Kim, Y.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R., Jr.; Zsoldos, J.; McDermott, T.

    2007-08-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; Ultraflex 175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The Ultraflex 175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultracompact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It

  6. NASA's New Millennium ST-8 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakians, H.; Bothwell, M.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R.; Zsoldos, J.; McDermott, T.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; UltraFlex-175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The UltraFlex-175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform

  7. NASA's New Millennium ST8 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakians, H.; Botwell, M.; Chmielski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; White, S.; Samson, J. R.; Zsoldos, J.

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft, four technologies These are : 1. Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; 2. SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; 3. UltraFlex-175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array 3. Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The UltraFlex-175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fanfolded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3 ), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. 1 The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform. It is expected that this

  8. NASA's New Millennium ST-8 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothwell, M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Fujita, T.; Minning, C.; Nelson, R. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; Sampson, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    NASA's Space Technology 8 project (ST-8) is subsystem demonstration which will validate four technologies that have been identified as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. NASA's New Millennium Program, with input from the science community, identified the following four technologies: Miniature Loop Heat Pipe with Multiple Evaporators Thermal Management System (MLHP), Scalable Architecture for the Investigation of the Load Managing Attributes of a Slender Truss (SAILMAST), Next Generation UltraFlex (NGU), and Environmentally Adaptive Fault Tolerant Computing (EAFTC). Once validated on a deep space mission, these technologies will be available for use on future science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The MLHP, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The NGU will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The EAFTC will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high

  9. NASA's New Millennium ST8 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is formulating the Space Technology 8 (ST8) subsystem demonstration mission, which will qualify, on a single spacecraft provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation, four technologies: Thermal Loop, a miniature loop heat pipe system with multiple evaporators; SAILMAST, a gossamer mast; Ultraflex 175, an ultra-lightweight, deployable solar array; and Dependable Multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant COTS processor for onboard science computing. These technologies have been identified by NMP, with input from the space science community, as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The Thermal Loop, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The Ultraflex 175 will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The Dependable Multiprocessor will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high-performance, on-board science processing platform

  10. Requirements for a reliable millennium temperature reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Bo; Ljungqvist, Fredrik

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative temperature reconstructions are hampered by several problems. Proxy records are sparse which is witnessed by the fact that roughly half of all available high-resolution millennia-long proxy data have been published in the last five years. Moreover, proxies are inhomogeneously distributed around the globe and they often have coarse temporal resolution. The period of overlap between proxies and instrumental observations - the calibration period - is brief and dominated by a strong warming trend. Furthermore, proxies are often only weakly correlated to temperature and it is common that some form of screening procedure is applied to select only informative proxies. We study the influence of these limitations on the reliability of temperature reconstructions for the previous millennium. This influence depends on the spatial and temporal correlation structure of the surface temperature field. It also depends on the reconstruction methodology. We use gridded surface temperature data from GISTEMP and HadCRUT4 to investigate the geographical distribution of the spatial decorrelation length and of the temporal decorrelation time. The spatial decorrelation length varies with more than a factor of 5 with the largest values in the region dominated by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The temporal decorrelation time varies less with typical values of 1-2 years over land and 2-5 years over ocean. We also investigate the correlations between proxies and local temperatures (using the 91 proxies from Christiansen and Ljungqvist 2012) and between local temperatures and the NH mean temperature. These correlations have typical values around 0.3 but cover a wide range from weakly negative to larger than 0.8. The results outlined above allow us to identify regions where the effect of the lack of proxies is most important. They also inform us on the consequences of the short calibration period and on the influence of the recent trend. Finally, we demonstrate the effect of a

  11. Roe v. Wade. Into the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Sanger, A C

    1998-01-01

    In order to take the fight for reproductive rights into the next millennium, women in the US must be reminded of what life was like for women when contraception and abortion were illegal, and the silent majority of women who accept that abortion is a private decision must be marshalled to express their views politically. In the US, abortion was allowed until the mid- to late-1800s when Protestant leaders feared that Protestant births were being outnumbered by births to Irish Roman Catholic immigrants. There was only minimal organized opposition to abortion during the period when it was illegal and millions of women were dying as a result. An estimated 30,000 women died each year of illegal abortion in the US, and by the 1960s, illegal abortion was the greatest killer of women of reproductive age. Organized medicine, which witnessed these tragedies, never rallied to assure women quality reproductive health care. In fact, one of the first projects of the American Medical Association (AMA) was an anti-abortion campaign designed to put competitors out of business. The AMA waited until 1937 to endorse contraception and until the late 1960s to make efforts to legalize abortion. In 1997, the AMA again abandoned women by supporting the ban on late-term abortions. Pro-choice forces should prioritize the promotion of technological advances that will allow women to control conception and abortion. The means of achieving medical abortion and emergency contraception should be available in every physician's office and should be covered by every health insurance scheme. Reproductive health advocates must also work to inspire honesty about sex and sexuality in our sexually-obsessed, sexually-repressed society. Sex education in Denmark has nearly obliterated adolescent pregnancy and led to an 80% decline in the abortion rate over 30 years. In the US, nearly half of women have an abortion, and anti-abortion advocates should face the reality that their wives, daughters, mothers, and

  12. 77 FR 68115 - Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 1, 2012, Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Millennium), One Blue Hill Plaza, Seventh... Gas Transmission, L.L.C. in Ramapo, New York and points further east. In addition, depending...

  13. Comet and Asteroid Missions in NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Chainpollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered

  14. Legislative Gaps in Implementation of Health related Millennium Development Goals: a case study from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Rabia; Toru, Shehryar Khan; Ahmed, Vaqar

    2016-06-01

    Numerous health legislations concerning child mortality, maternal health and life-threatening diseases such as polio and tuberculosis are crafted in the health sector of Pakistan. A critical assessment of health legislations points to their in-effective or sub-optimal implementation. By engaging with the concept of public law, there is a strong relationship of public health and health legislations. While the basic purpose of health legislations is to craft and enforce essential health legislations for improving public health, an examination of health legislations across Pakistan indicate an extensive health engagement which is facing certain challenges indicating traditional health practices, enforcement constraints arising due to political compulsions and complexities, and systematic problems in the health sector, reflecting issue of governance. Through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews held with policy-makers, senior health officials private health entities and parliamentarian tasks forces on millennium development goals, this study engages with health-sector legislations. In so doing, it focuses on the problematic health sector and interventions. It is observed that unless an overarching legislative framework and a shift from programmatic approach to a human rights approach is adopted, the targets of millennium development goals 4, 5 and 6 would remain off-track in Pakistan. PMID:27339577

  15. Nuclear energy for the third millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.

    1997-10-01

    The major energy sources of today are expected to last for only a small fraction of the millennium starting three years hence. In the plans of most people, nuclear energy has been ruled out for four separate reasons: 1. The danger of radioactivity from a reactor accident or from reactor products during a long period after reactor shutdown; 2. The proposed fuels, U-235 and also Pu-239, as obtained by presently available procedures will serve only for a limited duration; 3. Energy from nuclear reactors will be more expensive than costs of present alternatives; 4. The possibility of misusing the products for military purposes is an unacceptable danger. The development described below 1 attempts to meet all four objections. Specifically, we propose a structure as an example of future reactors that is deployed two hundred meters underground in loose and dry earth. The reactor is designed to function for thirty years, delivering electrical power on demand up to a level of thousand electrical megawatts. From the time that the reactor is started to the time of its shutdown thirty years later, the functioning is to be completely automatic. This is an obviously difficult condition to fulfill. The most important factor in making it possible is to design and operate the reactor without moving mechanical parts. At the start, the reactor functions on thermal neutrons within a structure containing uranium enriched in U-235 or having an addition of plutonium. That part of the reactor is to deliver energy for approximately one year after which a neighboring portion of the reactor containing thorium has been converted into Th-233 which rather rapidly decays into fissile U-233. This part of the assembly works on fission by fast neutrons. It will heat-up if insufficient thermal energy is withdrawn from the reactor`s core, under the negative feedback action of engineered-in thermostats. Indeed, these specifically designed thermostatic units absorb neutrons if excessive reactor core

  16. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Other Egregious Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2002-01-01

    Argues that 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, providing increased protection against unauthorized access to copyrighted electronic media, and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, extending the term of most copyrighted books, unduly burden users of electronic media and books. Discusses the negative impact of recent federal laws to…

  17. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

  18. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2011-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

  19. Literacy: The First Decade of the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack; Ortlieb, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of literacy instruction has remained constant since the beginning of the new millennium, literacy trends have shifted, often alongside acts of legislation. Areas of literacy education that were once overlooked in the past like adolescent literacy and RTI are now receiving increased attention, whereas areas of literacy like…

  20. Skills for the New Millennium. Paper Presentations: Session G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains 14 papers from the skills for the new millennium section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Research on Vocational Education and Training as a Field for Knowledge Development--Starting Points for the…

  1. Critical Thinking for the New Millennium: A Pedagogical Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Andrew Ann Dinkins

    The pedagogical imperative to prepare students to become critical thinkers, critical readers, and critical writers for the coming millennium necessitates a comprehensive college discourse on critical thinking. The paper cites seminars and workshops that incorporate theoretical and practical dimensions of teaching critical-analytical thinking…

  2. 1,000 Ways To Share the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collard , Sneed B. III

    1999-01-01

    The author of "1,000 Years Ago on Planet Earth" shares his reasons for taking a backward glance at civilizations all over the globe at the start of the last millennium. He also considers several other new books in various genres and the context such books offer children in approaching both history and the future. Includes books for the millennium…

  3. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 1: Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

  4. Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and partnership; (2)…

  5. Meaning, Mission, and the Next Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.

    A decade after "A Nation at Risk" three new reports raise concerns about American higher education. The Wingspread Report on higher education challenges institutions of higher education to assess their myriad activities to see how effectively they are "taking values seriously,""putting student learning first," and "creating a nation of learners."…

  6. Quality in Cross-Border Higher Education and Challenges for the Internationalization of National Quality Assurance Agencies in the Asia-Pacific Region: The Taiwanese Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Angela Yung-chi

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border higher education has created a need to build capacity -- particularly in the internationalization dimension -- for national quality assurance agencies to evaluate cross-border education provided by foreign educational providers, or jointly by local and foreign institutions. This is quickly becoming a key issue in the Asia-Pacific…

  7. Foster Care: Agencies Face Challenges Securing Stable Homes for Children of Substance Abusers. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    This study examined the extent and characteristics of parental substance abuse among foster care cases, the difficulties agencies face in making timely permanency decisions for foster children with substance abusing parents, and initiatives that address reunifying families or achieving other permanency outcomes in a timely manner for foster…

  8. Issues of maternal health in Pakistan: trends towards millennium development goal 5.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammd Faraz Arshad; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar

    2014-06-01

    Pakistan has third highest burden of maternal and children mortality across the globe. This grim situation is further intensified by flaws of planning and implementation set forth in health sector. Natural calamities (earth quakes, floods), disease outbreaks and lack of awareness in different regions of country also further aggravate this situation. Despite of all these limitations, under the banner of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a special focus and progress in addressing maternal health issue (set as goal 5) has been made over the last decade. In this review, improvement and short falls pertaining to Goal 5 Improve maternal health have been analyzed in relation to earlier years. A decline in maternal mortality ratio (MMR) (490 maternal deaths in 1990 to 260 maternal deaths per 100,000 women in 2010) is observed. Reduction in MMR by three quarters was not achieved but a decline from very high mortality to high mortality index was observed. Increase usage of contraceptives (with contraceptive prevalence rate of 11.8 in 1990 to 37 in 2013) also shed light on women awareness about their health and social issues. Based on progress level assessment (WHO guidelines),access of Pakistani women to universal reproductive health unit falls in moderate category in 2010 as compared to earlier low access in 1990. From the data it looks that still a lot of effort is required for achieving the said targets. However, keeping in view all challenges, Pakistan suffered in the said duration, like volatile peace, regional political instability, policy implementation constrains, population growth, this slow but progressive trend highlight a national resilience to address the havoc challenge of maternal health. These understandings and sustained efforts will significantly contribute a best possible accomplishment in Millennium Development Goal 5 by 2015. PMID:25252492

  9. Solar activity and climate during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, S. K.; Usoskin, I.; Schüssler, M.

    The sunspot number is the longest running direct index of solar activity, with direct measurements starting in 1610. For many purposes, e.g., for comparisons with climate indices, it is still too short. We present a reconstruction of the cycle-averaged sunspot number over the last millennium based on 10Be concentrations in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. As intermediate steps of the method, we also reconstruct the cosmic ray flux at Earth and the Sun's open magnetic flux. The reconstructions are validated by comparison with direct measurements or independent reconstructions. We also compare with records of global climate, in particular with the global temperature ("hockey stick") curve of Mann et al (1998). A reasonable agreement is found for the entire millennium, excluding only the last decades, when the two curves start diverging from each other.

  10. Successful behavioral health business development for the millennium.

    PubMed

    Pyrce, J M

    1998-08-01

    The business development framework for provider positioning, market share, and competition has significantly shifted in the late 1990s as providers prepare for the millennium. The use of the Marketing Four Ps is a helpful tool for providers to thoroughly evaluate their product/service viability, pricing objectives, promotional mix, and place accessibility, and will allow organizations to reposition in their marketplace, maximize market share, and develop new partnerships with previous competitors. PMID:10182149

  11. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

  12. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Jeffrey D

    2004-12-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

  13. Last Millennium Climate and Its Variability in CCSM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Landrum, L.; Conley, A.; Lawrence, P.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Teng, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Last Millennium simulation of the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) reproduces many large-scaled climate patterns suggested by historical and proxy-data records including cooling from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age, a "hockey-stick" pattern of surface temperature changes from 850-2005, and a broad cooling with a delayed La Niña-type of pattern in the tropical Pacific response to large volcanic events. Atmospheric modes, one oceanic mode (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation), and one ocean-atmosphere coupled mode (the El Niño-Southern Oscillation) of variability show little or no change in their variances, teleconnection patterns and spectra between the Last Millennium simulation and the 1850 non-transient control run. Two oceanic modes, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation have higher variances and increased power at low frequencies in the Last Millennium simulation compared with the control run, suggesting long-term oceanic response to natural solar and volcanic forcings.

  14. An Evaluation of a Behavioural Support Team for Adults with a Learning Disability and Behaviours That Challenge from a Multi-Agency Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Rose; Horsley, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Dudley Behavioural Support Team (BST) was set up based on Positive Behavioural Support (PBS) principles to support individuals with behaviours that challenge. The Winterbourne Review emphasises the importance of developing high-quality specialist community services and the Ensuring Quality Services (Local Government Association & NHS…

  15. Technology Development for Human Exploration Beyond LEO in the New Millennium IAA-13-3 Strategies and Plans for Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Trevathan, Joseph R.; Baird, R. Scott; Simon, Tom; Peters, T.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As we look forward into the new millennium, the extension of human presence beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) looms large in the plans of NASA. The Agency's Strategic Plan specifically calls out the need to identify and develop technologies for 100 and 1000-day class missions beyond LEO. To meet the challenge of these extended duration missions, it is important that we learn how to utilize the indigenous resources available to us on extraterrestrial bodies. This concept, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) can greatly reduce the launch mass & cost of human missions while reducing the risk. These technologies may also pave the way for the commercial development of space. While no specific target beyond LEO is identified in NASA's Strategic Plan, mission architecture studies have been on-going for the Moon, Mars, Near-Earth Asteroids and Earth/Moon & Earth/Sun Libration Points. As a result of these studies, the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M) through the Johnson and Kennedy Space Centers, is leading the effort to develop ISRU technologies and systems to meet the current and future needs of human missions beyond LEO and on to Mars. This effort also receives support from the NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research (Code U), the Office of Space Science (Code S), and the Office of Aerospace Technology (Code R). This paper will present unique developments in the area of fuel and oxidizer production, breathing air production, water production, C02 collection, separation of atmospheric gases, and gas liquefaction and storage. A technology overview will be provided for each topic along with the results achieved to date, future development plans, and the mission architectures that these technologies support.

  16. Inter-hemispheric temperature variability over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukom, Raphael; Gergis, Joëlle; Karoly, David J.; Wanner, Heinz; Curran, Mark; Elbert, Julie; González-Rouco, Fidel; Linsley, Braddock K.; Moy, Andrew D.; Mundo, Ignacio; Raible, Christoph C.; Steig, Eric J.; van Ommen, Tas; Vance, Tessa; Villalba, Ricardo; Zinke, Jens; Frank, David

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's climate system is driven by a complex interplay of internal chaotic dynamics and natural and anthropogenic external forcing. Recent instrumental data have shown a remarkable degree of asynchronicity between Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere temperature fluctuations, thereby questioning the relative importance of internal versus external drivers of past as well as future climate variability. However, large-scale temperature reconstructions for the past millennium have focused on the Northern Hemisphere, limiting empirical assessments of inter-hemispheric variability on multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Here, we introduce a new millennial ensemble reconstruction of annually resolved temperature variations for the Southern Hemisphere based on an unprecedented network of terrestrial and oceanic palaeoclimate proxy records. In conjunction with an independent Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction ensemble, this record reveals an extended cold period (1594-1677) in both hemispheres but no globally coherent warm phase during the pre-industrial (1000-1850) era. The current (post-1974) warm phase is the only period of the past millennium where both hemispheres are likely to have experienced contemporaneous warm extremes. Our analysis of inter-hemispheric temperature variability in an ensemble of climate model simulations for the past millennium suggests that models tend to overemphasize Northern Hemisphere-Southern Hemisphere synchronicity by underestimating the role of internal ocean-atmosphere dynamics, particularly in the ocean-dominated Southern Hemisphere. Our results imply that climate system predictability on decadal to century timescales may be lower than expected based on assessments of external climate forcing and Northern Hemisphere temperature variations alone.

  17. Northern high latitude climate variability of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Heather J.

    This work explores the causes of northern high-latitude climate variations over the last millennium, and industrial and future periods. Attribution studies are performed on a suite of global climate simulations, and four historical reconstructions of Greenland surface temperatures and precipitation (two of which are new to this work). The simulations followed the protocols of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 3 and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. At least half of the multi-decadal variability in simulated Greenland climate variations over the last millennium is reproduced by a linear, empirically-generated model including terms for volcanic emissions, solar insolation changes (including total solar irradiance and orbital components) and an index associated with latitudinal shifts in the North Atlantic jet. Empirical model parameters are obtained by regressing simulated Greenland temperatures and precipitation against time series for each of the response variables. Greenhouse gas radiative forcing changes are unimportant to simulated Greenland conditions over the last millennium, although they dominate after the mid-20th century. Most of the historical Greenland climate reconstructions are restricted to the industrial period, due to a lack of spatially-comprehensive climate records. They exhibit substantial differences in the timing, phasing and amplitudes of past climate variations, due to regional sensitivities in the source data and the reconstruction methodologies. Reconstructions indicate that Greenland temperatures did not begin to follow hemispheric greenhouse gas warming patterns until the mid-1990s. This discrepancy indicates either that the warming hiatus was associated with internal climate variability, or that the simulations are missing processes important to Greenland climate. For example, indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols are not captured in the climate model employed here. All of the external climate forcings

  18. Vision-21: Space Travel for the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The papers from this symposium, that was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on April 3-4, 1990, are presented. The theme selected for the symposium was space travel for the next millennium. It was hoped that the participants would allow their focus to consider possible advances in technologies for space travel not just for currently envisioned projects, but for possibilities beyond the next generation and the next thousand years. About half of the contributed papers focussed on propulsion and the other half on other issues related to space travel.

  19. Theoretical mechanics: Crowd synchrony on the Millennium Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strogatz, Steven H.; Abrams, Daniel M.; McRobie, Allan; Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward

    2005-11-01

    Soon after the crowd streamed on to London's Millennium Bridge on the day it opened, the bridge started to sway from side to side: many pedestrians fell spontaneously into step with the bridge's vibrations, inadvertently amplifying them. Here we model this unexpected and now notorious phenomenon - which was not due to the bridge's innovative design as was first thought - by adapting ideas originally developed to describe the collective synchronization of biological oscillators such as neurons and fireflies. Our approach should help engineers to estimate the damping needed to stabilize other exceptionally crowded footbridges against synchronous lateral excitation by pedestrians.

  20. Theoretical mechanics: crowd synchrony on the Millennium Bridge.

    PubMed

    Strogatz, Steven H; Abrams, Daniel M; McRobie, Allan; Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward

    2005-11-01

    Soon after the crowd streamed on to London's Millennium Bridge on the day it opened, the bridge started to sway from side to side: many pedestrians fell spontaneously into step with the bridge's vibrations, inadvertently amplifying them. Here we model this unexpected and now notorious phenomenon--which was not due to the bridge's innovative design as was first thought--by adapting ideas originally developed to describe the collective synchronization of biological oscillators such as neurons and fireflies. Our approach should help engineers to estimate the damping needed to stabilize other exceptionally crowded footbridges against synchronous lateral excitation by pedestrians. PMID:16267545

  1. The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, H.; Courty, M.-A.; Wetterstrom, W.; Guichard, F.; Senior, L.; Meadow, R.; Curnow, A.

    1993-08-01

    Archaeological and soil-stratigraphic data define the origin, growth, and collapse of Subir, the third millennium rain-fed agriculture civilization of northern Mesopotamia on the Habur Plains of Syria. At 2200 B.C., a marked increase in aridity and wind circulation, subsequent to a volcanic eruption, induced a considerable degradation of land-use conditions. After four centuries of urban life, this abrupt climatic change evidently caused abandonment of Tell Leilan, regional desertion, and collapse of the Akkadian empire based in southern Mesopotamia. Synchronous collapse in adjacent regions suggests that the impact of the abrupt climatic change was extensive.

  2. Implications of high amplitude atmospheric CO2 fluctuations on past millennium climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (< 10 ppmv). A modelling experiment taking into account firn-densification based smoothing processes in the D47 ice core proved, however, that the amplitude difference between the stomata record and the D47 ice-core can be explained by natural smoothing processes in the ice (van Hoof et al., 2005). This observation gives credence to the existence of high-amplitude CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium and suggests that high resolution ice core CO2 records should be regarded as a smoothed representation of the atmospheric CO2 signal. In the present study, potential marine and terrestrial sources and sinks associated with the observed atmospheric CO2 perturbation will be discussed. The magnitude of the observed CO2 variability implies that inferred changes in CO2 radiative forcing are of a similar magnitude as variations ascribed to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. solar forcing and volcanism), therefore challenging the IPCC concept of CO2 as an insignificant preindustrial climate forcing factor. References Barnola J.M., M. Anklin, J. Porcheron, D. Raynaud, J. Schwander and B. Stauffer 1995. CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice

  3. Financing of health systems to achieve the health Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Fryatt, Robert; Mills, Anne; Nordstrom, Anders

    2010-01-30

    Concern that underfunded and weak health systems are impeding the achievement of the health Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries led to the creation of a High Level Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems in September, 2008. This report summarises the key challenges faced by the Taskforce and its Working Groups. Working Group 1 examined the constraints to scaling up and costs. Challenges included: difficulty in generalisation because of scarce and context-specific health-systems knowledge; no consensus for optimum service-delivery approaches, leading to wide cost differences; no consensus for health benefits; difficulty in quantification of likely efficiency gains; and challenges in quantification of the financing gap owing to uncertainties about financial commitments for health. Working Group 2 reviewed the different innovative mechanisms for raising and channelling funds. Challenges included: variable definitions of innovative finance; small evidence base for many innovative finance mechanisms; insufficient experience in harmonisation of global health initiatives; and inadequate experience in use of international investments to improve maternal, newborn, and child health. The various mechanisms reviewed and finally recommended all had different characteristics, some focusing on specific problems and some on raising resources generally. Contentious issues included the potential role of the private sector, the rights-based approach to health, and the move to results-based aid. The challenges and disagreements that arose during the work of the Taskforce draw attention to the many issues facing decision makers in low-income countries. International donors and recipient governments should work together to improve the evidence base for strengthening health systems, increase long-term commitments, and improve accountability through transparent and inclusive national approaches. PMID:20113826

  4. Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief, No. 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisen, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 20151. The need for additional development funding, if the MDGs are to be achieved by 2015, is…

  5. Simulation of Drought in Central Asia during the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallah, Bijan; Polanski, Stefan; Prasad, Sushma; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Within the Central Asian Climate Dynamics project (CADY), we aim to apply multiproxy reconstructions and climate models to analyse and (semi)quantify the Last Millennium climate variability and regional hydrology in Central Asia. In this context, we have used simulations of the uncoupled atmosphere version of global COSMOS Model (ECHAM5) in T31L19 spatial resolution within the Last Millennium; Medieval Warm Period (MWP; 900-1100 AD), the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1515-1715 AD) and after industrialization (REC; 1800-2000 AD) to drive the COSMO-CLM regional climate model at its lateral boundaries for 30 year time-slices based on the definition of extreme spells in the past climate. The Palmer Drought Severity Index over Central Asia has been calculated for both global and regional simulations. The simulated PDSI from COSMO-CLM driven by ERA-INTERIM data shows very good agreements compared to observations (PDSI from Dai et al., 2004) in space-time-frequency. Based on the EOF analysis, the simulated drought patterns are well captured compared to the reconstructed PDSI from Cook et al., 2010 ( pattern correlation = 0.68 (0.83) for LIA(REC) at a 99% significance level). Further, historical droughts can be identified by the simulated PDSI (e.g. Ming Dynasty Drought and The Great Drought). The Principal Components of simulated PDSI also show significant correlations with SST anomalies for the period from 1856 to 2000.

  6. The New Millennium Program: Validating Advanced Technologies for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minning, Charles P.; Luers, Philip

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the activities of the New Millennium Program (NMP) in validating advanced technologies for space missions. The focus of these breakthrough technologies are to enable new capabilities to fulfill the science needs, while reducing costs of future missions. There is a broad spectrum of NMP partners, including government agencies, universities and private industry. The DS-1 was launched on October 24, 1998. Amongst the technologies validated by the NMP on DS-1 are: a Low Power Electronics Experiment, the Power Activation and Switching Module, Multi-Functional Structures. The first two of these technologies are operational and the data analysis is still ongoing. The third program is also operational, and its performance parameters have been verified. The second program, DS-2, was launched January 3 1999. It is expected to impact near Mars southern polar region on 3 December 1999. The technologies used on this mission awaiting validation are an advanced microcontroller, a power microelectronics unit, an evolved water experiment and soil thermal conductivity experiment, Lithium-Thionyl Chloride batteries, the flexible cable interconnect, aeroshell/entry system, and a compact telecom system. EO-1 on schedule for launch in December 1999 carries several technologies to be validated. Amongst these are: a Carbon-Carbon Radiator, an X-band Phased Array Antenna, a pulsed plasma thruster, a wideband advanced recorder processor, an atmospheric corrector, lightweight flexible solar arrays, Advanced Land Imager and the Hyperion instrument

  7. Doctoral Theses from Nursing Postgraduate Programs in Brazil and their Association with the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Fernandes, Josicélia Dumet; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Millennium Development Goals are centered around combatting poverty and other social evils all over the world. Thus, this study seeks to identify the Millennium Development Goals as an object of study in theses from Postgraduate Nursing Programs in Brazil scoring 5 (national excellence) and 6 or 7 (international excellence), and evaluate the association between the score for the program and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. METHOD: Exploratory descriptive document research. Data were collected from the Notes on Indicators/Coordination for Higher Education Personnel Improvement for the 15 Postgraduate Nursing Courses scoring between 5 and 7 in the three-year-period of 2010/2012. RESULTS: of the 8 Millennium Development Objectives, 6 were dealt with in the theses. There was an association (Fisher's exact test p-value=0.0059) between the distribution of the theses and the program scores in relation to the Millennium Development Objectives (p-valor=0.0347) CONCLUSION: the doctoral theses were slightly related to the Millennium Development Objectives, covering the population's economic development, health conditions and quality of life. It is recommended that Postgraduate Programs in Nursing pay closer attention to the Millennium Development Objectives.. PMID:26312631

  8. African Higher Education: Challenges for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew; Altbachl, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    African higher education, at the beginning of the new millennium, faces unprecedented challenges. Not only is the demand for access unstoppable, especially in the context of Africa's traditionally low postsecondary attendance levels, but higher education is recognized as a key force for modernization and development. Africa's academic institutions…

  9. The last total solar eclipse of the millennium in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguc, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1999-03-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millennium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two continents and has been the cradle of so many past civilizations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificent event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of historical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible, Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute has arranged fieldwork on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey from south-east at 14:42 L.T.

  10. Questions of identity in the millennium round of Commonwealth censuses.

    PubMed

    Christopher, A J

    2006-11-01

    All Commonwealth census authorities have posed questions about identity in the millennium round of enumerations. The most controversial issue has been ethnicity. No universal definition or classification system has been devised and each of the 71 states and dependencies has tended to pursue the enquiry in virtual isolation from its neighbours. The attempt to describe the population in terms of race and ethnicity has been inherited from the colonial era. More recently the requirements of monitoring affirmative-action programmes in multicultural populations have resulted in the introduction or refinement of questions on these categories. A few states-a small minority of Commonwealth countries-remain hostile to such enquiries. Where the issues of race and identity are not pursued, questions of nationality, language, and religion often fill the gaps left, adding further refinements to the definition of identity. An examination of current questioning about identity in Commonwealth censuses reveals a highly complex picture. PMID:17060057

  11. Limitations of the Millennium Development Goals: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Fehling, Maya; Nelson, Brett D.; Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    With the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) showing uneven progress, this review identifies possible limitations arising from the MDG framework itself rather than extrinsic issues. A multidisciplinary literature review was conducted with a focus on limitations in the formulation of the MDGs, their structure, content and implementation. Of 1837 MDG-related articles, 90 met criteria for analysis. Articles describe MDGs as being created by only a few stakeholders without adequate involvement by developing countries and overlooking development objectives previously agreed upon. Others claim MDGs are unachievable and simplistic, not adapted to national needs, do not specify accountable parties and reinforce vertical interventions. While MDGs have promoted increased health and well-being in many countries by recognising and deliberating on the possible constraints of the MDG framework, the post-2015 agenda may have even greater impact. Complex problems have simple, easy to understand, wrong answers (Henry Louis Mencken) PMID:24266508

  12. Intelligent robot trends and predictions for the new millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ernest L.; Mundhenk, Terrell N.

    1999-08-01

    An intelligent robot is a remarkably useful combination of a manipulator, sensors and controls. The current use of these machines in outer space, medicine, hazardous materials, defense applications and industry is being pursued with vigor but little funding. In factory automation such robotics machines can improve productivity, increase product quality and improve competitiveness. The computer and the robot have both been developed during recent times. The intelligent robot combines both technologies and requires a thorough understanding and knowledge of mechatronics. In honor of the new millennium, this paper will present a discussion of futuristic trends and predictions. However, in keeping with technical tradition, a new technique for 'Follow the Leader' will also be presented in the hope of it becoming a new, useful and non-obvious technique.

  13. Technology readiness levels for the new millennium program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Minning, C. P.; Stocky, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) seeks to advance space exploration by providing an in-space validating mechanism to verify the maturity of promising advanced technologies that cannot be adequately validated with Earth-based testing alone. In meeting this objective, NMP uses NASA Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) as key indicators of technology advancement and assesses development progress against this generalized metric. By providing an opportunity for in-space validation, NMP can mature a suitable advanced technology from TRL 4 (component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment) to a TRL 7 (system prototype demonstrated in an Earth-based space environment). Spaceflight technology comprises a myriad of categories, types, and functions, and as each individual technology emerges, a consistent interpretation of its specific state of technological advancement relative to other technologies is problematic.

  14. The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

  15. Characterizing the best cosmic telescopes with the millennium simulations

    SciTech Connect

    French, K. Decker; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Ammons, S. Mark; Keeton, Charles R.; Angulo, Raul E.

    2014-04-10

    Certain configurations of massive structures projected along the line of sight (LOS) maximize the number of detections of gravitationally lensed z ∼ 10 galaxies. We characterize such LOSs with the étendue σ{sub μ}, the area in the source plane magnified over some threshold μ. We use the Millennium I and Millennium XXL cosmological simulations to determine the frequency of high σ{sub μ} beams on the sky, their properties, and efficient selection criteria. We define the best beams as having σ{sub μ>3} > 2000 arcsec{sup 2}, for a z ∼ 10 source plane, and predict 477 ± 21 such beams on the sky. The total mass in the beam and σ{sub μ>3} are strongly correlated. After controlling for total mass, we find a significant residual correlation between σ{sub μ>3} and the number of cluster-scale halos (>10{sup 14} M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) in the beam. Beams with σ{sub μ>3} > 2000 arcsec{sup 2}, which should be best at lensing z ∼ 10 galaxies, are 10 times more likely to contain multiple cluster-scale halos than a single cluster-scale halo. Beams containing an A1689-like massive cluster halo often have additional structures along the LOS, including at least one additional cluster-scale (M {sub 200} > 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) halo 28% of the time. Selecting beams with multiple, massive structures will lead to enhanced detection of the most distant and intrinsically faint galaxies.

  16. Exocrine drainage in vascularized pancreas transplantation in the new millennium

    PubMed Central

    El-Hennawy, Hany; Stratta, Robert J; Smith, Fowler

    2016-01-01

    The history of vascularized pancreas transplantation largely parallels developments in immunosuppression and technical refinements in transplant surgery. From the late-1980s to 1995, most pancreas transplants were whole organ pancreatic grafts with insulin delivery to the iliac vein and diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions to the urinary bladder (systemic-bladder technique). The advent of bladder drainage revolutionized the safety and improved the success of pancreas transplantation. However, starting in 1995, a seismic change occurred from bladder to bowel exocrine drainage coincident with improvements in immunosuppression, preservation techniques, diagnostic monitoring, general medical care, and the success and frequency of enteric conversion. In the new millennium, pancreas transplants are performed predominantly as pancreatico-duodenal grafts with enteric diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions coupled with iliac vein provision of insulin (systemic-enteric technique) although the systemic-bladder technique endures as a preferred alternative in selected cases. In the early 1990s, a novel technique of venous drainage into the superior mesenteric vein combined with bowel exocrine diversion (portal-enteric technique) was designed and subsequently refined over the next ≥ 20 years to re-create the natural physiology of the pancreas with first-pass hepatic processing of insulin. Enteric drainage usually refers to jejunal or ileal diversion of the exocrine secretions either with a primary enteric anastomosis or with an additional Roux limb. The portal-enteric technique has spawned a number of newer and revisited techniques of enteric exocrine drainage including duodenal or gastric diversion. Reports in the literature suggest no differences in pancreas transplant outcomes irrespective of type of either venous or exocrine diversion. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on exocrine drainage in the new millennium (the purported

  17. TIQ (Technical IQ)--a survival skill for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, K

    2000-01-01

    Managing in the new technocracy of the new millennium will be challenging but also much more exciting than the work we do now. Twenty years ago, nurse managers weren't held accountable for the level of knowledge about financial outcomes that is expected now. The same will be true for technology. With electronic medical records, innovations in medical treatments, and the impact of the information and technologic revolution on the entire world, the interface between technology assessment, operationalizing technology, and continually upgrading staff to know what the implications of the technology revolution are will be imperative for success. That means that we must influence schools of nursing to include technology in their content now, and to help us prepare this generation of health care leaders to take a full seat at the leadership table to manage these complexities in the future. The success of the leader of the future will be measured by that person's ability to integrate the very complex issues of patient care and technology in a way that makes sense for patients, the organization, and the staff who will be working in a very complex environment. The leader's TIQ will be as important as other intelligences in the next 20 years. PMID:12026310

  18. TIQ (Technical IQ)--a survival skill for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, K

    2000-01-01

    Managing in the new technocracy of the new millennium will be challenging but also much more exciting than the work we do now. Twenty years ago, nurse managers weren't held accountable for the level of knowledge about financial outcomes that is expected now. The same will be true for technology. With electronic medical records, innovations in medical treatments, and the impact of the information and technologic revolution on the entire world, the interface between technology assessment, operationalizing technology, and continually upgrading staff to know what the implications of the technology revolution are will be imperative for success. That means that we must influence schools of nursing to include technology in their content now, and to help us prepare this generation of health care leaders to take a full seat at the leadership table to manage these complexities in the future. The success of the leader of the future will be measured by that person's ability to integrate the very complex issues of patient care and technology in a way that makes sense for patients, the organization, and the staff who will be working in a very complex environment. The leader's TIQ will be as important as other intelligences in the next 20 years. PMID:11029917

  19. Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Laaser, Ulrich; Theisling, Mareike; Tapia, Leticia; Borisch, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs. The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention. Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework. PMID:25249060

  20. The Internet and the menopause consultation: menopause management in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Grant P; Currie, Heather

    2005-09-01

    The Internet was born in 1969; it was originally developed so that computers could share information on research and development in the scientific and military fields. The original Internet consisted of four university computers networked in the United States. Email became available two years later. The infant Internet initially required complex computing knowledge to be used. However, this was all to change with the development of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s, which made the Internet much more widely accessible. The Internet has since grown at a phenomenal rate and has evolved into a global communications tool. It is by nature anarchic, in that it is an unrestricted broadcast medium. Although this lack of censorship is a strength, it is also a weakness. The quality of information available on the Web is variable and discernment is required. With the growth of e-health, medicine and its allied specialties are faced with the challenges of providing their services in a novel way while maintaining the first principle of medicine, primum non nocere (first, do no harm). This provision of e-health care is in its infancy and this review explores issues arising from the use of the Internet as a medium for organizing menopausal health care in the third millennium. PMID:16157001

  1. Recent Trends in Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Brazil: Progress Toward Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Giugliani, Elsa; Maranhão, Ana Goretti; Monteiro, Carlos A.; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Bustreo, Flavia; Merialdi, Mario; Victora, Cesar G.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed Brazil's efforts in reducing child mortality, improving maternal and child health, and reducing socioeconomic and regional inequalities from 1990 through 2007. We compiled and reanalyzed data from several sources, including vital statistics and population-based surveys. We also explored the roles of broad socioeconomic and demographic changes and the introduction of health sector and other reform measures in explaining the improvements observed. Our findings provide compelling evidence that proactive measures to reduce health disparities accompanied by socioeconomic progress can result in measurable improvements in the health of children and mothers in a relatively short interval. Our analysis of Brazil's successes and remaining challenges to reach and surpass Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 can provide important lessons for other low- and middle-income countries. PMID:20724669

  2. 77 FR 14010 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed: Minisink Compressor Project The staff of the Federal...

  3. 75 FR 24943 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...-approved maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) on its Hickory Grove Lateral Line from 1072 pounds per.... CP98-150, et al; however, in Millenniums application the MAOP of the pipeline is listed at 1072...

  4. Opportunities and Challenges of Bilingualism. Contributions to the Sociology of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Li, Ed.; Dewaele, Jean-Marc, Ed.; Housen, Alex, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines, from an international perspective, opportunities and challenges of societal bilingualism in the new millennium. The 18 papers include the following: "Introduction: Opportunities and Challenges of Bilingualism" (Li Wei, Jean-Marc Dewaele, and Alex Housen); "'Holy Languages' in the Context of Societal…

  5. 76 FR 56819 - Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... 42 U.S.C. 2451(314)(d). The 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to... technologies of interest and value to NASA and the nation. The 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge is a...

  6. 77 FR 70835 - Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... in accordance with 51 U.S.C. 20144(c). The 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams... Robot Challenge is a prize competition designed to encourage development of new technologies...

  7. Massive Halos in Millennium Gas Simulations: Multivariate Scaling Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, R.; Rasia, E.; Evrard, A. E.; Pearce, F.; Gazzola, L.

    2010-06-01

    The joint likelihood of observable cluster signals reflects the astrophysical evolution of the coupled baryonic and dark matter components in massive halos, and its knowledge will enhance cosmological parameter constraints in the coming era of large, multiwavelength cluster surveys. We present a computational study of intrinsic covariance in cluster properties using halo populations derived from Millennium Gas Simulations (MGS). The MGS are re-simulations of the original 500 h -1 Mpc Millennium Simulation performed with gas dynamics under two different physical treatments: shock heating driven by gravity only (GO) and a second treatment with cooling and preheating (PH). We examine relationships among structural properties and observable X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals for samples of thousands of halos with M 200 >= 5 × 1013 h -1 M sun and z < 2. While the X-ray scaling behavior of PH model halos at low redshift offers a good match to local clusters, the model exhibits non-standard features testable with larger surveys, including weakly running slopes in hot gas observable-mass relations and ~10% departures from self-similar redshift evolution for 1014 h -1 M sun halos at redshift z ~ 1. We find that the form of the joint likelihood of signal pairs is generally well described by a multivariate, log-normal distribution, especially in the PH case which exhibits less halo substructure than the GO model. At fixed mass and epoch, joint deviations of signal pairs display mainly positive correlations, especially the thermal SZ effect paired with either hot gas fraction (r = 0.88/0.69 for PH/GO at z = 0) or X-ray temperature (r = 0.62/0.83). The levels of variance in X-ray luminosity, temperature, and gas mass fraction are sensitive to the physical treatment, but offsetting shifts in the latter two measures maintain a fixed 12% scatter in the integrated SZ signal under both gas treatments. We discuss halo mass selection by signal pairs, and find a minimum mass

  8. [Primary health care and the millennium development goals].

    PubMed

    Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C

    2012-01-01

    Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty

  9. Open problems on the eve of the next millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szebehely, Victor

    1996-03-01

    To predict the future of Celestial Mechanics and to investigate unsolved problems for the next millennium contradicts the nature of our field of science which is based on non-integrable and transcendental equations with short time predictability. The reliability and predictability in our field depend on several factors, most of them unpredictable. Numerical predictions depend on the development of computer technology, which is itself not predictable. New analytical approaches call for the genius of Newton. We must realize that between Ptolemaeus (100 178) and Copernicus (1473 1543) our field received little attention. Between 1700 and 1800 the explosion occurred (Newton, Euler, Laplace, Lagrange and Gauss) followed by the period of 1800 1900 associated with Hamilton, Hill, Jacobi, Poincaré and Tisserand. Can we expect anyone to make similar contributions in the next 1000 years? The entrance and emphasis of probability in our field certainly will continue. Speaking about bounds of trajectories instead of individual orbits gains significant popularity. Theory of stability and chaos are expected to receive more and more attention together with Poincare's conjectures concerning the denseness of periodic orbits in the set of bounded orbits. Planetary computations for long time have shown considerable advances, partly due to computer advances as well as the selection of the proper formulation of the problems. The preparation of “exact” short time ephemerides and qualitative long time predictions require initial conditions with small observational errors, the use of proper models (including relativity effects and non-conservative forces) and the use of correct values of astronomical constants. The results of such calculations in the future should include approximate estimations of errors in the outcome. The observations and orbital calculations of Earth-crossing asteroids should receive special attention along with development of various techniques of space dynamics

  10. World Libraries on the Information Superhighway: Preparing for the Challenges of the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Patricia Diamond, Ed.; Bertot, John Carlo, Ed.

    This book represents the thoughts and experiences of librarians and academics on the changing role of libraries in a global networked community. The first section of the book looks at the agendas for national libraries in a digital world. Issues covered include content and delivery, national policy and practice and strategies for success in a…

  11. Educational Development and Reformation in the Malaysian Education System: Challenges in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    bin Zakaria, Haji Azmi

    2000-01-01

    Development of the education system in Malaysia is tied to the National Development Policy. Malaysia will address issues related to equity, access, and democratization of education, education quality, efficiency, and values education as the country responds to the demands of being part of the global village while ensuring domestic growth and…

  12. Challenges to meet: food and nutrition security in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Lipton, M

    2001-05-01

    Before about 1750 there was no substantial secular fall in protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) over large areas, nor reason to expect it. We have since learned that sufficient economic advance (poverty reduction) plus scientific advance (in medicine and food production) are achievable to eliminate mass PEM. The two advances are linked via increased demand for labour, and hence wages and employment, for those formerly too poor to afford adequate food. The extra employment income arises first from smallholder and employee food production, and later, as labour is released, from a wide range of specialised, increasingly non-farm, production, with employment income traded for food. This process eliminated mass hunger in Europe in 1750-1960. Only by 1975 had PEM in the developing world retreated to (very high) 1936-8 levels, but it fell sharply in Asia and Latin America in 1975-1990, due to unprecedented growth in staples yields, smallholder and farm employment income, and hence the poor's purchasing power over food. However, since 1990, poverty reduction has slowed (before reaching most of Africa), alongside much slower-staples yield growth, increasing water shortages, and big shifts of grain and land from man to farm animals. These trends prefigure declining progress against PEM in coming decades, unless there is renewed, employment-intensive food-staples-yield growth. That process requires reorienting crop biotechnology and water science towards the needs of small tropical farmers and their staple food crops, and shifting land towards them. Mass PEM is indeed largely due to inadequate 'food entitlements' by the hungry, but will not be remedied without growth in their employment, based on further advances in food-staples yields per unit land and water. Recent evidence suggests that early PEM may increase lifelong risks of infection and/or degenerative disease. This factor would increase the 'squeeze' on health resources in low-income countries, between the diseases of poverty and those of old age. That situation increases the need to readdress PEM by renewed progress in food production and land distribution. PMID:11681636

  13. Editorial. Immigration and Urban Education in the New Millennium: The Diversity and the Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Xue Lan; Brown Frank

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a special issue that explores new immigration trends and major issues related to K-12 schooling in urban areas. The seven articles fall into three categories: a national and historical overview; examples of two types of educational change; and the acculturation and schooling experiences of various racial/ethnic immigrant groups. (SM)

  14. Remote Sensing in Geography in the New Millennium: Prospects, Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Jensen, John R.; Ridd, Merrill K.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As noted in the first edition of Geography in America, the term remote sensing was coined in the early 1960's by geographers to describe the process of obtaining data by use of both photographic and nonphotographic instruments. Although this is still a working definition today, a more explicit and updated definition as it relates to geography can be phrased as: "remote sensing is the science, art, and technology of identifying, characterizing, measuring, and mapping of Earth surface, and near earth surface, phenomena from some position above using photographic or nonphotographic instruments." Both patterns and processes may be the object of investigation using remote sensing data. The science dimension of geographic remote sensing is rooted in the fact that: a) it is dealing with primary data, wherein the investigator must have an understanding of the environmental phenomena under scrutiny, and b) the investigator must understand something of the physics of the energy involved in the sensing instrument and the atmospheric pathway through which the energy passes from the energy source, to the Earth object to the sensor.

  15. 76 FR 69290 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... full below and updates the report published September 7, 2011 (76 FR 55419) to reflect the issuance of... Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Tajikistan Tanzania Timor-Leste Togo Uganda Vietnam...

  16. 77 FR 21111 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... set forth in full below and updates the report published November 8, 2011 (76 FR 69291). \\1\\ The...-Leste India Togo Indonesia Tuvalu Iraq Uganda Kenya Vanuatu Kiribati Vietnam Kyrgyz Republic* Yemen*...

  17. The Challenge of Teaching Psychopharmacology in the New Millennium: The Role of Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Ira D.; Zisook, Sidney

    2005-01-01

    Objective: For a variety of pedagogical, political and financial reasons, there are major problems in achieving effective teaching of cutting-edge psychopharmacology for psychiatric residents. This article focuses on ways to improve the teaching/learning process, in part through the use of structured curricula. The authors review 1) attempted…

  18. The CE/SE Method: a CFD Framework for the Challenges of the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Yu, Sheng-Tao

    2001-01-01

    The space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method, which was originated and is continuously being developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is a high-resolution, genuinely multidimensional and unstructured-mesh compatible numerical method for solving conservation laws. Since its inception in 1991, the CE/SE method has been used to obtain highly accurate numerical solutions for 1D, 2D and 3D flow problems involving shocks, contact discontinuities, acoustic waves, vortices, shock/acoustic waves/vortices interactions, shock/boundary layers interactions and chemical reactions. Without the aid of preconditioning or other special techniques, it has been applied to both steady and unsteady flows with speeds ranging from Mach number = 0.00288 to 10. In addition, the method has unique features that allow for (i) the use of very simple non-reflecting boundary conditions, and (ii) a unified wall boundary treatment for viscous and inviscid flows. The CE/SE method was developed with the conviction that, with a solid foundation in physics, a robust, coherent and accurate numerical framework can be built without involving overly complex mathematics. As a result, the method was constructed using a set of design principles that facilitate simplicity, robustness and accuracy. The most important among them are: (i) enforcing both local and global flux conservation in space and time, with flux evaluation at an interface being an integral part of the solution procedure and requiring no interpolation or extrapolation; (ii) unifying space and time and treating them as a single entity; and (iii) requiring that a numerical scheme be built from a nondissipative core scheme such that the numerical dissipation can be effectively controlled and, as a result, will not overwhelm the physical dissipation. Part I of the workshop will be devoted to a discussion of these principles along with a description of how the ID, 2D and 3D CE/SE schemes are constructed. In Part II, various applications of the CE/SE method, particularly those involving chemical reactions and acoustics, will be presented. The workshop will be concluded with a sketch of the future research directions.

  19. The State of Early Childhood Programs in America: Challenges for the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Barbara; Yarbrough, Tracie

    When compared to other industrialized countries, America ranks first in many areas, including military technology and Gross Domestic Product. However, in areas related to child welfare, America does not rate so high. American youngsters are frequently placed in physical danger and many begin school ill-prepared to learn. In March 1997, the…

  20. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  1. Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

    Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for

  2. Variability of the Indian Ocean Dipole during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abram, N.; Gagan, M. K.; Dixon, B.; Hantoro, W. S.; Shen, C.; WU, C.; Suwargadi, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) climate mode interacts with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Asian monsoon systems to drive climatic extremes around the Indian Ocean region. Coral reconstructions of the interannual variability of the IOD since the 1850s show an intensification in the frequency and strength of the positive phase of the IOD in recent decades, as well as strengthening of the interconnection between the IOD and Asian monsoon systems. Reconstructions of the mean climate state across the tropical Indian Ocean since the mid-Holocene also demonstrate the dynamic nature of the mean configuration of tropical Indian Ocean climate, suggesting that the IOD variability and interactions observed on interannual time scales may also persist over century to millennial scales. Here we present new oxygen isotope (δ18O) records from modern Porites corals collected on a transect along Java-Sumatra coasts. These corals, located within the IOD upwelling zone, are used to identify the location where optimum information about the occurrence and magnitude of positive IOD events can be gained from single corals. Precisely-dated fossil corals from this location of optimum IOD variability are then used to reconstruct highly resolved windows of IOD variability during the last millennium, including intervals corresponding to the northern hemisphere Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period.

  3. Asian monsoon extremes and humanity's response over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, B. M.; Lieberman, V. B.; Zottoli, B.

    2012-12-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has seen significant development in the production of paleo proxies for the Asian monsoon, exemplified by the Monsoon Asian Drought Atlas that was comprised of more than 300 tree ring chronologies. Noteworthy among them is the Vietnamese cypress tree-ring record which reveals that the two worst droughts of the past 7 centuries, each more than a decade in length, coincided with the demise of the Khmer civilization at Angkor in the early 15th century CE. The 18th century was nearly as tumultuous a period across Southeast Asia, where several polities fell against a backdrop of epic decadal-scale droughts. At this time all of the region's charter states saw rapid realignment in the face of drought, famine, disease and a raft of related and unrelated social issues. Several other droughts, some more extreme but of lesser duration, punctuate the past millennium, but appear to have had little societal impact. Historical documentation is being used not only to provide corroborative evidence of tree-ring reconstructed climate extremes, but to attempt to understand the dynamics of the coupled human-natural systems involved, and to define what kinds of thresholds need to be reached before societies respond. This paleo perspective can assist our analyses of the role of climate extremes in the collapse or disruption of regional societies, a subject of increasing concern given the uncertainties surrounding projections for future climate across the highly populated areas of Asia.

  4. History of psychiatry in Sweden during a millennium.

    PubMed

    Wetterberg, Lennart

    2012-03-01

    This report covers a millennium, from year 1000 when Sweden had only 0.4 million people until today's 9.4 million. In the 13th century, the first Swedish legal text about the mentally ill and the first hospital to treat them are documented. Control, care and cure of the ill have been shaped by social and cultural changes from time to time, e.g. King Gustav Vasa introduced a paradigm shift of care after the Reformation, when he altered Catholic buildings into state hospitals. He also ordered that medical texts should no longer be written in Latin but in Swedish. The first book dealing with mental illnesses was published in 1578. Laypersons ran the mental hospitals for centuries until the medical perspective and doctors were engaged in the 1800 s. To advance the hospital doctors' competence and skill, a Swedish Psychiatric Association was established in 1905. Severely psychotic patients could not be effectively treated until the introduction of chlorpromazine in the 1950s and there is still no cure available. Following the deinstitutionalization, from more than 35,000 beds 50 years ago down to about 4500 today, the request for outpatient treatment increased. Mandatory training in psychotherapies for all psychiatrists started in the 1970s. A major "psychiatry reform", with the hope of improving the situation for the mentally ill, and to reduce the stigma, was introduced in Sweden in 1995. The historic long-term effect of the reform cannot yet be fully evaluated. PMID:21770823

  5. 32 CFR 1907.23 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Classification Management and Collaboration Group shall be responsible for the initial Agency decision in a classification challenge. (b) Agency Release Panel (ARP). Appeals of denials of classification challenges...

  6. 32 CFR 1907.23 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Classification Management and Collaboration Group shall be responsible for the initial Agency decision in a classification challenge. (b) Agency Release Panel (ARP). Appeals of denials of classification challenges...

  7. 77 FR 72337 - Apps for Vehicles Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Apps for Vehicles Challenge AGENCY: Office of Energy... Vehicles: improving safety and fuel efficiency through technology innovation''. DATES: See, 1. Key Challenge Dates & Deadlines in SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. ADDRESSES: The Apps for Vehicles Challenge...

  8. Downscaling GCM-simulated precipitation for the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Jonathan; Widmann, Martin; Smith, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Climate variability in the pre-instrumental period can be estimated either from climate proxy data or from numerical simulations. Both approaches still have considerable uncertainties and consistency tests are crucial for identifying robust features. One of the problems when comparing simulations with proxy-based reconstructions are potential scale mismatches. If the proxy-based reconstructions represent regional climate a direct comparison with simulated variables from global climate models, which in palaeoclimate applications are run with coarse resolutions, can lead to misleading results for two reasons: (i) the climate model might be biased even on large spatial scales, and (ii) small-scale spatial variability cannot be represented by the climate model. This problem can be expected to be particularly relevant for precipitation because of its high spatial variability. One way of addressing this problem is by applying downscaling techniques to the simulations. We have applied a statistical downscaling and correction method to precipitation from a simulation for the last millennium with the MPI for Meteorology Earth System Model, which uses ECHAM5-T31 as the atmosphere component. Our downscaling method, which is based on model output statistics (MOS), has been shown to outperform more standard (so-called perfect-prog) statistical downscaling methods when applied to simulated precipitation from the second half of the twentieth century, but it has not yet been applied to palaeoclimate simulations. Our aim is two-fold: to assess (a) whether downscaling using MOS yields additional information about long-term changes in regional climate and (b) to what extent the downscaled simulations may be in greater agreement with proxy-based reconstructions than raw model output. Two MOS downscaling methods, based on local scaling and principal component regression, are calibrated 'event-wise' (i.e. between contemporaneous sequences of simulated and observed events) using

  9. Primary surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Dralle, H; Machens, A

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) are malignancies of follicular cell derivation. Histopathologically and oncologically, DTC fall into two broad tumor categories: papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). These major tumor categories, based on clinical manifestation and biological behavior, are further subdivided into low-risk [papillary microcarcinoma (mPTC); minimally invasive follicular cancer (MIFTC)] and high-risk DTC [PTC>1 cm or metastatic; MIFTC with histopathological angioinvasion; widely invasive FTC (WIFTC)]. Recently, a surgical approach has been adopted that differentiates between low-risk and high-risk DTC. The rationale behind this new concept is to better balance oncologic risk (high vs low) with the surgical morbidity attendant to the procedure (recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism). This surgical risk is larger with routine total thyroidectomy (TT) and central node dissection (CND) than with less than TT or TT without CND.Whereas TT with CND remains the treatment of choice for high-risk DTC with metastases, the extent of thyroid resection and lymph node dissection can be reduced in low-risk PTC and FTC without demonstrable loss of oncological benefit. In the new millennium, the surgical approach to DTC, especially low-risk PTC and FTC, has undergone considerable change, resulting in less extensive procedures. This risk-adapted strategy relies not only on the skillful histopathologic detection of multifocality in PTC and vascular invasion in MIFTC, but likewise necessitates diligent follow-up to spot and adequately treat local recurrences and distant metastases as they become clinically apparent. PMID:23014068

  10. Millennium Development Goal Four and Child Health Inequities in Indonesia: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schröders, Julia; Wall, Stig; Kusnanto, Hari; Ng, Nawi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 calls for reducing mortality of children under-five years by two-thirds by 2015. Indonesia is on track to officially meet the MDG 4 targets by 2015 but progress has been far from universal. It has been argued that national level statistics, on which MDG 4 relies, obscure persistent health inequities within the country. Particularly inequities in child health are a major global public health challenge both for achieving MDG 4 in 2015 and beyond. This review aims to map out the situation of MDG 4 with respect to disadvantaged populations in Indonesia applying the Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework. The specific objectives are to answer: Who are the disadvantaged populations? Where do they live? And why and how is the inequitable distribution of health explained in terms of the SDH framework? Methods and Findings We retrieved studies through a systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published in 1995-2014. The PRISMA-Equity 2012 statement was adapted to guide the methods of this review. The dependent variables were MDG 4-related indicators; the independent variable “disadvantaged populations” was defined by different categories of social differentiation using PROGRESS. Included texts were analyzed following the guidelines for deductive content analysis operationalized on the basis of the SDH framework. We identified 83 studies establishing evidence on more than 40 different determinants hindering an equitable distribution of child health in Indonesia. The most prominent determinants arise from the shortcomings within the rural health care system, the repercussions of food poverty coupled with low health literacy among parents, the impact of low household decision-making power of mothers, and the consequences of high persistent use of traditional birth attendants among ethnic minorities. Conclusion This review calls for enhanced understanding of the determinants and pathways that create

  11. Life in a landfill slum, children's health, and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James L; Watson, Lindsey M; Nikitin, Ivan V; Ansariadi; La Ane, Ruslan; Maidin, Alimin

    2015-12-01

    People living in slums can be considered left behind with regard to national successes in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the living and working conditions of waste pickers and their children in a landfill slum located in the largest city in eastern Indonesia. A total of 113 people from the landfill slum and 1184 people from the general population participated in face-to-face interviews. Municipal solid waste (MSW) was analyzed for metals, metalloids and fecal indicator bacteria. Ambient air quality including particulate matter was measured in the landfill. Households in the landfill slum were 5.73 (p=0.04) times more likely to be below the international poverty line (MDG 1: Poverty) and 15.6 times (p<0.01) more likely to have no one in the household possessing a primary education (MDG 2: Universal Education), and 107 times (p<0.01) more likely not to have improved sanitation facilities (MDG 7: Environmental Sustainability) when compared to the general population. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death in children under five in Indonesia. Young children living in the landfill slum were 2.87 times (p=0.02) more likely to develop diarrhea than their general population counterparts. Other survey results and environmental measurements suggest that landfill slum children have additional adverse health effects (e.g. infections and poisoning). Poverty underlies several MDG issues that directly or indirectly affect child health. Therefore, eradicating extreme poverty will continue to be the most critical challenge for the MDGs beyond 2015. PMID:26231771

  12. Recent unprecedented warming and oligotrophy of the eastern Mediterranean Sea within the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Yam, Ruth; Shemesh, Aldo

    2014-07-01

    The Mediterranean region is a climatic transitional zone between the subtropical/monsoon regime and the temperate westerlies and is subject to forces acting upon the global climate system. Much knowledge about its climate over the last millennium is derived from terrestrial records, whereas changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and in the dissolved inorganic carbon pool (DIC) are poorly known. We present continuous high-resolution reconstructions of SST and δ13CDIC in the eastern Mediterranean (EM) Sea, as inferred from oxygen and carbon isotope records from the skeletons of the reef builder gastropod Dendropoma sp. Spanning the past millennium, the SST reconstruction reveals a 250 year persistent warming trend during which the twentieth century was the warmest on record. Coupled with a distinct trend of 13CDIC depletion and superimposed upon decreased primary production, this climate reconstruction reflects a new state of the EM over the Anthropocene era that exceeds the natural variability of the last millennium.

  13. The CMIP6/PMIP4 Last Millennium Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Climate has varied considerably during the late Holocene and these changes left their traces in history (Medieval Climate Optimum, Little Ice Age). However, the relative magnitude of natural fluctuations due to internal variability of the Earth's climate system and to variations in the external forcing and the present global warming, attributed to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is still under debate. Investigating the response to (mainly) natural forcing under climatic background conditions not too different from today is crucial for an improved understanding of climate variability, circulation, and regional connectivity. Simulations over the last millennium (LM) allow assessing climate variability on decadal and longer scales and provide information on predictability under forced and unforced conditions. In providing in-depth model evaluation with respect to observations and paleoclimatic reconstructions, LM simulations serve to understand origins and consequences of systematic model biases. PMIP4 Tier-1 includes the standard LM simulation covering 850 to 1849 CE and a subsequent "historical" (1850 - 2010 CE) experiment as a minimum requirement. In addition to changes in Earth's orbit and greenhouse gas concentrations, the models are forced by variations in solar irradiance, volcanic aerosol load, and anthropogenic land-cover. As part of Tier-2, the modeling groups are asked to provide additional simulations in the form of ensembles, single forcing experiments, as well as sensitivity runs using alternative forcing combinations. The extension of the simulations to cover the complete last two millennia (0 CE to present) is also part of Tier-2. We describe the experimental design of the LM simulations and discuss the protocol on new forcing and boundary conditions. We discuss recent advances in the reconstruction of solar, volcanic, and land-cover changes and their implementation in the CMIP6 models. PMIP4 aims to provide forcing datasets that are consistent with

  14. North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, Roland; Long, Antony; Saher, Margot; Barlow, Natasha; Blaauw, Maarten; Haigh, Ivan; Woodworth, Philip

    2014-05-01

    multi-decadal to centennial changes in wind and air pressure are more important than mass flux from land-based ice as drivers of North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium.

  15. Free solar lanterns to below poverty line girls in India: a step toward achieving millennium development goals.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Development sectors like health cannot function in isolation. Intersectoral coordination between various departments helps in bringing a positive change in the health-seeking behavior of society in the long run. The decision by the Government of India to provide free solar lanterns (lamps) to the school-going girls of below poverty line families is a welcome step in this context. This initiative would help in reducing the number of school dropout girls and thus help in improving the health indicators that are directly related to women's education. Thus it is an initiative that will help in attainment of Millennium Development Goals through women's education and empowerment. Along with that, the environment-friendly approach will definitely have an impact on health of the girls by switching from kerosene/wood stoves to solar lantern light. Also this initiative would pave the path of real "intersectoral coordination" in the health sector in India that is marred with watertight functioning of various departments. There is an urgent need to popularize the scheme and involve different stakeholders like corporate houses, media, nongovernment organizations, multinational welfare agencies, and local governing bodies for ensuring the availability and utilization of solar lanterns in India. PMID:24802214

  16. Using Technology for Enhancing Teaching and Learning in Bangladesh: Challenges and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohel, M. Mahruf C.; Kirkwood, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of media and technologies for enhancing teaching and learning is an important current trend to overcome the challenges of schooling and teacher training in the changing world. Many countries in the Global South are trying to adopt technologies in their school and teacher training systems to achieve the UN Millennium Development…

  17. Investigate the Federal Agencies for Experiential Spots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Claudia

    1993-01-01

    Alerts career counselors to thousands of co-op, intern, and summer job opportunities that Central Intelligence Agency and other federal agencies offer each year. Notes that challenge is in locating the right job for the student. Provides information on where to call for information about federal employment, pay scales for federal experiential…

  18. The Millennium Cohort Family Study: a prospective evaluation of the health and well-being of military service members and their families.

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Fairbank, John A; Marmar, Charlie R; Schlenger, William

    2014-09-01

    The need to understand the impact of war on military families has never been greater than during the past decade, with more than three million military spouses and children affected by deployments to Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. Understanding the impact of the recent conflicts on families is a national priority, however, most studies have examined spouses and children individually, rather than concurrently as families. The Department of Defense (DoD) has recently initiated the largest study of military families in US military history (the Millennium Cohort Family Study), which includes dyads of military service members and their spouses (n > 10,000). This study includes US military families across the globe with planned follow-up for 21+ years to evaluate the impact of military experiences on families, including both during and after military service time. This review provides a comprehensive description of this landmark study including details on the research objectives, methodology, survey instrument, ancillary data sets, and analytic plans. The Millennium Cohort Family Study offers a unique opportunity to define the challenges that military families experience, and to advance the understanding of protective and vulnerability factors for designing training and treatment programs that will benefit military families today and into the future. PMID:24912670

  19. Implications for Art Education in the Third Millennium: Art Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Most would agree that today's art education is far more complex than art activities such as making pumpkin paintings in October. For one, art education continually evolves in response to arts technology integration. What exactly are the implications for art education in the new millennium? In this article, the author presents and shows some of the…

  20. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 3: Adolescent Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

  1. Poverty, Education, Gender and the Millennium Development Goals: Reflections on Boundaries and Intersectionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concerned with poverty, education and gender (MDG 1, MDG 2 and MDG 3). Despite considerable achievements associated with the MDG approach, which entails international and national target setting and monitoring, a sharp distinction between areas of social policy is entailed. In addition…

  2. What Colleges and Universities Need To Know about the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lide, Casey

    1999-01-01

    Discusses provisions of interest to college administrators and faculty in the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, focusing on two sections: limitations on infringement liability for "service providers," and prohibitions on circumvention of technological-protection measures. Definitions and legal implications are examined, and actions campuses…

  3. Toward an Essential Ethic for Teaching Science in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Irene de la Bretonne

    The purpose of this study was to identify and explore values and views that might underlie an essential ethic for teaching science in the new millennium. With such an ethic, teachers may be better able to prepare young people to form and fully participate in communities that restore and sustain Earth. Reviewed in the literature for this study were…

  4. Nothing but the Truth? The United Nations and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, with the target for achievement set at 2015. On the UN website a special section is devoted to the MDGs. In this article the website as it was presented in late 2013 is examined. Although the website was easy to negotiate, it was difficult to ascertain any…

  5. Hispanic Students and the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program: Promising Results Extending to the Third College Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, Leticia; Denson, Nida; Hurtado, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Financing college is increasingly difficult for many college students and it can be especially difficult for low-income students. Using data from the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program, this study provides a portrait of the 1st and 3rd year experiences of a sample of both high achieving Hispanic scholarship recipients and non-recipients.…

  6. The New Millennium Program: Technology for the 21(sup st) Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casani, E. Kane; Wilson, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is a space flight technology demonstration program that will validate the technologies needed to carry out the science missions that NASA envisions for the 21(sup st)century. The NMP is employing an innovative decision making process to select the specific technologies that will be flight validated.

  7. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 2: Childhood Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

  8. The Impact of ICT Use on New Millennium Learners' Educational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Kim, Minjeong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) use on the educational performance of new millennium learners (NMLs). Even though many factors might influence individual performance besides ICT use itself, the research focus was on the relationship between the behavioral patterns of…

  9. The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaino, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

  10. Behind the Public Face of Kew: Education and Conservation in the Millennium Seed Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Angela

    2010-01-01

    At its Wakehurst Place garden in West Sussex, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, has established the UK home of one of the world's largest conservation projects, the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB) partnership, a global project to conserve biodiversity by collecting and preserving seeds. This article describes what the MSB partnership does, how seeds are…

  11. Education Finance in the New Millennium. Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaikind, Stephen, Ed.; Fowler, William J., Ed.

    This yearbook reaffirms the connections between the field of education finance and the wider education community. Among the topics it examines are curricula reform, outcome assessment, accountability, community control, and privatization. Twelve chapters include: (1) "Education Finance in the New Millennium: Overview and Summary" (Stephen Chaikind…

  12. North Atlantic summer storm tracks over Europe dominated by internal variability over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagen, Mary H.; Zorita, Eduardo; McCarroll, Danny; Zahn, Matthias; Young, Giles H. F.; Robertson, Iain

    2016-08-01

    Certain large, sustained anomalies in European temperatures in the past millennium are probably the result of internal variation. Such internal variations can modulate regional temperatures away from the expected response to greenhouse gas forcing. Here we assess the causes of European summer temperature variability over the past millennium using temperature observations, simulations and reconstructions. We find multidecadal-mean summer temperatures have varied within a span of 1 K, largely controlled by external forcing. By contrast, we find subcontinental variations, described by the temperature contrast between northern and southern Europe (the meridional temperature gradient), vary with a span of 2 K, and are controlled by internal processes. These variations are the result of redistributions of precipitation and cloud cover linked to oscillations in the position of the summer storm track. In contrast to recent twentieth-century winter-time trends, variations of the summer storm track over the past millennium show a weak response to external forcing, and instead are dominated by stochastic internal variability. We argue that the response of European summer temperatures to anthropogenic greenhouse forcing is likely to be spatially modulated by the same stochastic internal processes that have caused periods of cool, wet summers in northern Europe over the last millennium.

  13. Schooling Entrepreneurs: Entrepreneurship, Governmentality and Education Policy in Sweden at the Turn of the Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus; Hertzberg, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Departing from Michel Foucault's concept of governmentality, the focus of this article is the introduction of entrepreneurial education in Swedish education policy at the turn of the millennium. We analyze the various meanings attached to the concepts of "entrepreneur" and "entrepreneurship" in education policy documents,…

  14. Whatever Happened to Postmodernism in Higher Education? No Requiem in the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloland, Harland G.

    2005-01-01

    This article concerns the usefulness of postmodernity for illuminating change in higher education associated with the new millennium. Overarching is the notion that history is not a smooth, rational, progressive unfolding of events but a series of ruptures and fragmenting disjunctures. This article asserts that when viewed in epochal terms, the…

  15. 76 FR 22094 - Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... (NGA) as amended, to construct, own, and operate the Corning Flow Reversal Project at Millennium's... the regulations under the NGA (18 CFR 157.205), a protest to the request. If no protest is filed... application for authorization pursuant to section 7 of the NGA. Dated: April 14, 2011. Kimberly D....

  16. Global Inequality, Capabilities, Social Justice: The Millennium Development Goal for Gender Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for gender equality in education by 2005 has been criticised for its grandiose ambition, its failure to adequately conceptualise the nature of gender inequality or the diverse forms this takes, the inadequate policies developed to put the goal into practice and the limited measurements used for monitoring. The…

  17. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 4: Adult Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

  18. Knowledge of Millennium Development Goals among University Faculty in Uganda and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Nabachwa, Mary Sonko; Chamberlain, Jean; Nakalembe, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the level of knowledge of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) among university faculty. The assessment is based on data from 197 academic unit or faculty heads randomly selected from universities in Uganda and Kenya. Frequency distributions and logistic regression were used for analysis. Slightly more than one in three…

  19. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began an innovative scholarship program that provides full financial support to low-income minority students across the United States. The Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program has already awarded more than 10,000 scholarships to exceptional students, with the ultimate goal of funding at least 20,000…

  20. Skill Standards for Information Technology. Millennium Edition. Building a Foundation for Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NorthWest Center for Emerging Technologies, Bellevue, WA.

    This document presents skill standards for technology occupations. An overview describes national context, changes in the updated "Millennium Edition" of the skill standards, trends in information technology, and curriculum informed by skill standards. Skill standards are presented for eight career clusters in information technology (i.e.,…

  1. The New Millennium and an Education That Captures the Basic Spirit of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    This document discusses reflections of the old and new millennium on education that capture the basic spirit of science. The explanation includes basic scientific ideas in physical sciences, earth systems, solar system and space; living systems; basic scientific thinking; the basic distinction between science and technology; basic connections…

  2. Accelerating the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana: Literacy, the Missing Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagoe, Michael Ayitey

    2011-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some…

  3. Comparison of simulated and reconstructed variations in East African hydroclimate over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, François; Goosse, Hugues; Graham, Nicholas E.; Verschuren, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    The multi-decadal to centennial hydroclimate changes in East Africa over the last millennium are studied by comparing the results of forced transient simulations by six general circulation models (GCMs) with published hydroclimate reconstructions from four lakes: Challa and Naivasha in equatorial East Africa, and Masoko and Malawi in southeastern inter-tropical Africa. All GCMs simulate fairly well the unimodal seasonal cycle of precipitation in the Masoko-Malawi region, while the bimodal seasonal cycle characterizing the Challa-Naivasha region is generally less well captured by most models. Model results and lake-based hydroclimate reconstructions display very different temporal patterns over the last millennium. Additionally, there is no common signal among the model time series, at least until 1850. This suggests that simulated hydroclimate fluctuations are mostly driven by internal variability rather than by common external forcing. After 1850, half of the models simulate a relatively clear response to forcing, but this response is different between the models. Overall, the link between precipitation and tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the pre-industrial portion of the last millennium is stronger and more robust for the Challa-Naivasha region than for the Masoko-Malawi region. At the inter-annual timescale, last-millennium Challa-Naivasha precipitation is positively (negatively) correlated with western (eastern) Indian Ocean SST, while the influence of the Pacific Ocean appears weak and unclear. Although most often not significant, the same pattern of correlations between East African rainfall and the Indian Ocean SST is still visible when using the last-millennium time series smoothed to highlight centennial variability, but only in fixed-forcing simulations. This means that, at the centennial timescale, the effect of (natural) climate forcing can mask the imprint of internal climate variability in large-scale teleconnections.

  4. Did Tanzania Achieve the Second Millennium Development Goal? Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoti, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Development Goal "Achieve universal primary education", the challenges faced, along with the way forward towards achieving the fourth Sustainable Development Goal "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". Statistics show that Tanzania has made very promising steps…

  5. Health Literacy and the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma; Oyitso, Mabel; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examined health related challenges facing Nigeria. They argued that the relationship between literacy and health in today's knowledge-based economy further puts pressure on countries like Nigeria to raise its literacy rates if it is to compete in the global market. This line of thought is based on the fact that in…

  6. Cooperative Education in the New Millennium: Implications for Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Cal

    1997-01-01

    Colleges and universities are being challenged to examine their mission, structure, and delivery of services for two reasons with far-reaching implications for cooperative education. The first is the move from an industrial to a postindustrial economy. The second deals with incorrect assumptions about learning based on outmoded information and…

  7. The quest for quality blood banking program in the new millennium the American way.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Un

    2002-08-01

    For an industry to succeed and satisfy its customers, "QUALITY" must be a primary goal. Quality has been central to blood banking from its inception, with the evolution of a Quality Program since the opening of the first blood bank in U.S. at the Cook County Hospital in 1937. Over the ensuing decades, continuous scientific progress in blood preservation, filters, viral and blood group testing, crossmatching, automation, and computerization including bar coding, etc. has contributed to the quality and safety of the blood products and transfusion service. However, with the advent of the AIDS era, an increasingly sensitized and informed public is continuously demanding that the highest level of quality be achieved and maintained in all processes involved in providing all blood products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) introduced the concept of a "zero risk blood supply" as the industry goal. Furthermore, the cost containment and resource-constrained environment have changed the complexity of the quality practice. Both regulatory agencies such as the FDA, the Health Care Financing Administration [HCFA, which was recently renamed as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) in July, 2001], and the State Department of Health, and accrediting agencies, such as the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the College of American Pathologists (CAP), and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), require blood banks and transfusion services to establish and follow a Quality Control and Quality Assurance Program for their licensing, certification and accreditation. Every laboratory has to comply with the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA '88) quality requirements being implemented by the CMS. The FDA guidelines assist facilities in compliance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). The AABB's Quality System Essentials (QSE) are based on these specifications and provide additional guidance in

  8. 75 FR 21044 - Notice of Centennial Challenges 2011 CAFE Green Flight Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Centennial Challenges 2011 CAFE Green Flight Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2011 CAFE Green Flight... Flight Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is...

  9. Vital registration in rural Africa: is there a way forward to report on health targets of the Millennium Development Goals?

    PubMed

    Zachariah, R; Mwagomba, B; Misinde, D; Mandere, B C; Bemeyani, A; Ginindza, T; Cortier, H; Bissel, K; Jahn, A; Harries, A D

    2011-06-01

    Vital registration - the systematic recording of births and deaths - has both legal and health significance. In particular, accurate recording and reporting of vital statistics are public goods to enable the monitoring of progress towards achieving health related targets of the 2015 United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The reality in Africa is that most births and deaths cannot be traced in legal records or official statistics and as such, there is currently no way of assessing progress towards achieving MDG targets and this applies particularly to rural settings in Africa. From the context of a rural district in Malawi, we describe an informal traditional system for the reporting of deaths at village level, and discuss the potential opportunities, challenges and ways forward in the wider implementation and interpretation of vital data generated by such a system. Such a system might provide an interim solution for accelerating the production and use of district level vital statistics for legal, administrative, statistical purposes and to report on the MDG in rural Africa while waiting for more comprehensive national systems to become a reality. PMID:21511318

  10. The occupational role of women in military service: validation of occupation and prevalence of exposures in the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler C; Jacobson, Isabel G; Smith, Besa; Hooper, Tomoko I; Ryan, Margaret A K

    2007-08-01

    To better understand the US military's global peacekeeping and combat operations, which may expose a growing population of American service women to challenging occupations and environments. Concordance between self-reported and electronic occupation codes for female participants in the Millennium Cohort was measured using kappa statistics. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to assess the odds of five self-reported potentially toxic environmental exposures or disturbing experiences among different occupational categories, while adjusting for demographic and military characteristics, including deployment. Self-reported occupations were moderately to highly reliable when compared with electronic occupation data. Active-duty and Reserve/Guard females differentially reported witnessing death or trauma and exposure to chemical or biological warfare, depleted uranium, or pesticides. Findings suggest that self-reported occupation can be used with a high degree of confidence. Occupational groups with higher odds of reporting military exposures of concern will be followed longitudinally through 2022 and prospectively compared using baseline and follow-up evaluations. PMID:17613091

  11. Coordinating Canada's research response to global health challenges: the Global Health Research Initiative.

    PubMed

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Zarowsky, Christina; Frank, John; Mhatre, Sharmila; Aslanyan, Garry; Perry, Alita; Previsich, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The Global Health Research Initiative (GHRI) involving the Canadian International Development Agency, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Health Canada and the International Development Research Centre seeks to coordinate Canada's research response to global health challenges. In light of numerous calls to action both nationally and internationally, an orientation to applied health policy and systems research, and to public health research and its application is required to redress global inequalities in wealth and health and to tackle well-documented constraints to achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Over the last four years, the GHRI has funded close to 70 research program development and pilot projects. However, longer-term investment is needed. The proposed dollars 100 million Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership Program is such a response, and is intended to support teams of researchers and research users to develop, test and implement innovative approaches to strengthening institutional capacity, especially in low- and middle-income countries; to generating knowledge and its effective application to improve the health of populations, especially those most vulnerable; and to strengthen health systems in those countries. While Canada stands poised to act, concerted leadership and resources are still required to support "research that matters" for health and development in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:16512323

  12. Nature versus nurture segues to choice versus circumstance in the new millennium: one consideration for an integrative biopsychosocial philosophy, art, and science of chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Objective This commentary discusses the evolving sociocultural roles and sociocultural authority of chiropractic. Discussion The complex interconnectivity of the biological, psychological, and social aspects of our individual and collective well-being has occupied centuries of “nature versus nurture” philosophical debate, creative art, and scientific work. What has emerged is a better understanding of how our human development is affected by the circumstances of what we are born with (ie, nature) and how we are shaped by the circumstances that we are born into (ie, nurture). Conclusion In the new millennium, a cumulative challenge to the emerging integrative biopsychosocial health care disciplines is one of reconciling “circumstance versus choice”; that is, advancing individually and collectively the fullest actualization of human potential through the philosophy, art, and science of autonomy and empowerment. PMID:22693464

  13. Mastering the value chain. An interview with Mark Levin of Millennium Pharmaceuticals. Interview by David Champion.

    PubMed

    Levin, M

    2001-06-01

    As today's business leaders are all too aware, a new scientific or technological break-through can quickly transform an industry's competitive landscape. The upheaval is often traumatic for the companies involved, forcing them to rethink their strategies and redefine their boundaries. But an industry in flux also creates vast opportunities. To seize them, companies must see how the current upheavals will affect the future distribution of profits--and then reinvent themselves to capitalize on the new sources of value. In this interview with HBR senior editor David Champion, Mark Levin, the founder and CEO of Millennium Pharmaceuticals, describes his vision of the future of the pharmaceutical industry in the wake of the genetics revolution and new technologies that have altered the economics of drug development. No company, he argues, will create serious long-term value by staying in just one or two stages of the value of chain. That's why Millennium, which started out doing basis research into genes and proteins and selling its findings to pharmaceutical giants, has moved downstream - toward the patients who actually use and pay for the drugs. He explains why the research end has become less lucrative than the more mechanical tasks of identifying, testing, and manufacturing molecules. Levin talks about the changes Millennium has undergone since its inception in 1993-from 30 workers to more than 1,000, and from one end of the value chain to the other. He discusses the company's cultural transformations as well as the partnerships and acquisitions that have helped millennium become involved in every stage of the chain-from gene to patient. Levin's vigorous approach to balancing long-term strategy with short-term tactics offers important lessons to any executive facing an industry upheaval. PMID:11408971

  14. Making NEPA more effective and economical for the new millennium

    SciTech Connect

    HANSEN,ROGER P.; WOLFF,THEODORE A.

    2000-03-08

    This paper focuses on a ten-element strategy for streamlining the NEPA process in order to achieve the Act's objectives while easing the considerable burden on agencies, the public, and the judicial system. In other words, this paper proposes a strategy for making NEPA work better and cost less. How these ten elements are timed and implemented is critical to any successful streamlining. The strategy elements discussed in this paper, in no particular order of priority, are as follows: (1) integrate the NEPA process with other environmental compliance and review procedures; (2) accelerate the decision time for determining the appropriate level of NEPA documentation; (3) conduct early and thorough internal EIS (or EA) scoping before public scoping or other public participation begins; (4) organize and implement public scoping processes that are more participatory than confrontational; (5) maintain an up-to-date compendium of environmental baseline information; (6) prepare more comprehensive, broad-scope umbrella EISs that can be used effectively for tiering; (7) encourage preparation of annotated outlines with detailed guidance that serve as a road map for preparation of each EIS or EA; (8) decrease the length and complexity of highly technical portions of NEPA documents; (9) increase and systematize NEPA compliance outreach, training, and organizational support; and (10) work diligently to influence the preparation of better organized, shorter, and more readable NEPA documents.

  15. A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Raible, Christoph C; Casado, Mathieu; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of variability in winter atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, with large impacts on temperature, precipitation and storm tracks, and therefore also on strategic sectors such as insurance, renewable energy production, crop yields and water management. Recent developments in dynamical methods offer promise to improve seasonal NAO predictions, but assessing potential predictability on multi-annual timescales requires documentation of past low-frequency variability in the NAO. A recent bi-proxy NAO reconstruction spanning the past millennium suggested that long-lasting positive NAO conditions were established during medieval times, explaining the particularly warm conditions in Europe during this period; however, these conclusions are debated. Here, we present a yearly NAO reconstruction for the past millennium, based on an initial selection of 48 annually resolved proxy records distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and built through an ensemble of multivariate regressions. We validate the approach in six past-millennium climate simulations, and show that our reconstruction outperforms the bi-proxy index. The final reconstruction shows no persistent positive NAO during the medieval period, but suggests that positive phases were dominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The reconstruction also reveals that a positive NAO emerges two years after strong volcanic eruptions, consistent with results obtained from models and satellite observations for the Mt Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines. PMID:26135450

  16. A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Raible, Christoph C.; Casado, Mathieu; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of variability in winter atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, with large impacts on temperature, precipitation and storm tracks, and therefore also on strategic sectors such as insurance, renewable energy production, crop yields and water management. Recent developments in dynamical methods offer promise to improve seasonal NAO predictions, but assessing potential predictability on multi-annual timescales requires documentation of past low-frequency variability in the NAO. A recent bi-proxy NAO reconstruction spanning the past millennium suggested that long-lasting positive NAO conditions were established during medieval times, explaining the particularly warm conditions in Europe during this period; however, these conclusions are debated. Here, we present a yearly NAO reconstruction for the past millennium, based on an initial selection of 48 annually resolved proxy records distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and built through an ensemble of multivariate regressions. We validate the approach in six past-millennium climate simulations, and show that our reconstruction outperforms the bi-proxy index. The final reconstruction shows no persistent positive NAO during the medieval period, but suggests that positive phases were dominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The reconstruction also reveals that a positive NAO emerges two years after strong volcanic eruptions, consistent with results obtained from models and satellite observations for the Mt Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines.

  17. An occupational reproductive research agenda for the third millennium.

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Christina C; Schnorr, Teresa M; Daston, George P; Grajewski, Barbara; Marcus, Michele; McDiarmid, Melissa; Murono, Eisuke; Perreault, Sally D; Schrader, Steven M; Shelby, Michael

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant public health concern about the potential effects of occupational exposure to toxic substances on reproductive outcomes. Several toxicants with reported reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus present potential exposure to workers. Examples of these include heavy metals, organic solvents, pesticides and herbicides, and sterilants, anesthetic gases, and anticancer drugs used in health care. Many other substances are suspected of producing reproductive or developmental toxicity but lack sufficient data. Progress has been limited in identifying hazards and quantifying their potencies and in separating the contribution of these hazards from other etiologic factors. Identifying the causative agents, mechanisms by which they act, and any potential target populations, present the opportunity to intervene and protect the reproductive health of workers. The pace of laboratory studies to identify hazards and to underpin the biologic plausibility of effects in humans has not matched the pace at which new chemicals are introduced into commerce. Though many research challenges exist today, recent technologic and methodologic advances have been made that allow researchers to overcome some of these obstacles. The objective of this article is to recommend future directions in occupational reproductive health research. By bridging interdisciplinary gaps, the scientific community can work together to improve health and reduce adverse outcomes. PMID:12676620

  18. Entering the New Millennium: Dilemmas in Arms Control

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,JAMES

    1999-11-01

    The end of the Cold War finds the international community no longer divided into two opposing blocks. The concerns that the community now faces are becoming more fluid, less focused, and, in many ways, much less predictable. Issues of religion, ethnicity, and nationalism; the possible proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction; and the diffusion of technology and information processing throughout the world community have greatly changed the international security landscape in the last decade. Although our challenges appear formidable, the United Nations, State Parties, nongovernmental organizations, and the arms control community are moving to address and lessen these concerns through both formal and informal efforts. Many of the multilateral agreements (e.g., NPT, BWC, CWC, CTBT, MTCR), as well as the bilateral efforts that are taking place between Washington and Moscow employ confidence-building and transparency measures. These measures along with on-site inspection and other verification procedures lessen suspicion and distrust and reduce uncertainty, thus enhancing stability, confidence, and cooperation.

  19. Indian Summer Monsoon Variability during the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooker, Mary; Sinha, Ashish

    2011-11-01

    The seasonal rainfall associated with the Indian summer monsoon during the instrumental period (˜last 150 years) is characterized by a biennial oscillation, such that monsoon precipitation varied between singularly strong and weak years but rarely deviated far from its mean state for consecutive years. This observation has led to a hypothesis that monsoon is a self-regulating system, regulated by the annual cycle of the heat balance in the Indian Ocean, mediated by the cross-equatorial ocean heat transport from the summer hemisphere through wind-driven Ekman transport. Consequently, the present day water resource infrastructure and the contingency planning in the region does not take into account the possibility of protracted failures of the monsoon or drastic shifts in its spatial patterns. Here we present new millennial-length speleothem-based reconstructions of Indian monsoon variability from a number of sites across India that challenges the underlying physics of the aforementioned hypothesis. Our proxy records of Indian monsoon provide clear evidence for type of low frequency and high amplitude variability in rainfall that have not been observed during the short instrumental period.

  20. Mountains in the third millennium - a decade of droughts and water scarcity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, C.; Shaban, A.; Belete, T.

    2012-04-01

    Droughts and water scarcity have touched the Alps, Mediterranean and East African mountain chains more intensively since the beginning of the third millennium and pose a major challenge for water management. The year 2011 has been no exception, with the lowest river levels on record over the past 50 years even for alpine rivers. Although considerable climate fluctuations and persistent droughts have occurred in the past, it is quite remarkable that the five hottest summers over the past 500 years in Europe and the Alps have all been concentrated after 2002, falling far outside their normal historical distribution. In most mountain chains drought phenomena are persistent over large areas and over a variety of scales. The hydrological consequences, such as decreased rain- and snowfall, drying of springs, decreased river and groundwater discharge, lowering of lake levels and excessive evaporation etc. are considerable. Seasonality has been considerably affected, with the summer extending well into the spring and autumn. Mountain-fed rivers have experienced unusually low discharge over the last 10 years, with a decreasing trend both in summer and winter discharge. These hydrological changes have multiple impacts on availability of drinking water and the energy sector, decreasing hydroelectric production and availability of cooling water for the nuclear industry and negatively effecting river navigation, irrigation agriculture as well as winter tourism in mountains. Despite these naturally-induced shortcomings, adaptation has not always been rational. In some cases, maladaptation has led to overexploitation of water resources during drought conditions, exasperating water scarcity. For example, for the tourism sector in the Alps, water demand for drinking water and artificial snow making lies far above the available resources during the winter season for numerous resorts. This has long term environmental and socio-economic impacts such as destruction of wetlands

  1. Health inequities, environmental insecurity and the attainment of the millennium development goals in sub-Saharan Africa: the case study of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben

    2006-09-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia's MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia's systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource "brain drain", among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or "quick wins" that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:16968967

  2. Assessing home care agencies' readiness for telehealth.

    PubMed

    Demiris, George; Patrick, Timothy; Khatri, Naresh

    2003-01-01

    Home healthcare is facing a set of challenging new realities in the 21st century such as funding limitations and increased life expectancy. Many believe that the use of telehealth enabling patients at home to interact with nurses at the clinical site using videoconferencing technology, will be a cost-effective solution to providing quality care services. Many agencies have adopted or are planning on implementing a telehealth solution. Level of agencies' readiness can lead to a lower level of risk, and a more successful innovation outcome. We developed a framework for assessing home care agencies' readiness for telehealth consisting of 35 items. This instrument can be used as a decision support tool for agencies that are about to implement a telehealth system as well as a formative or summative evaluation tool for agencies already utilizing telehealth. PMID:14728330

  3. Wound healing. New modalities for a new millennium.

    PubMed

    Williams, R L; Armstrong, D G

    1998-01-01

    intended purpose of correction of abnormal tissue oxygen tensions than are growth factors for the intended purpose of growth. Similarly, skin substitutes are limited in their application and have not been tried in patients with ABIs < 0.7 or TcPO2 values < 30 mm Hg. In our view, hyperbaric therapy probably can be combined successfully with allogenic grafts and human skin equivalents in this group of patients. Hyperbaric therapy can generate a sufficient granulation base in which these products should be able to close properly selected wounds successfully. No studies of this combined modality approach exist. Finally, regardless of the modality used to aid in wound closure, long-term outcomes probably depend more on neuropathy and large vessel disease than on microangiopathy and local wound-healing defects. The modalities presented in this article must prove to be both cost effective and practical before they are widely disseminated. Nevertheless, the ability to manipulate the local wound environment is no longer inviolate as was once presumed, and current investigations continue to advance therapeutic options in this most fascinating and challenging discipline. PMID:9463773

  4. Accounting for Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    Children are increasingly described as agents and agency is important to arguments for children's rights and participation. Yet agency is rarely defined or theorised in childhood studies. This article reviews common uses and meanings of agency and argues that critical, social conceptualisations have yet to be extensively taken up in childhood…

  5. 40 CFR 36.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 36.645 Section 36.645 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department,...

  6. Human and climatic impact on the Morava River behavior during last millennium (Lower Moravian Basin, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Stehlik, Filip; Man, Otakar; Benes, Vojtech; Svetlik, Ivo; Rybnicek, Michal; Svitavska-Svobodova, Helena

    2010-05-01

    convincing evidence of this change in the studied floodplain archive. Last millennium was a period of increased agriculture use in the Morava River catchment. Colonization and deforestation of uplands surrounding the Lower Moravian Basin triggered erosion of weathering products of Paleogene and Neogene mudstones since 12th century. Clayey suspended load contributed to the formation of anastomosing fluvial style with dominating vertical sediment accretion. A change to modern meandering fluvial style has started during LIA severe floods at about 1600 AD. Lateral erosion created a system of abundant filled channels including the modern channel. Land erosion was accelerated since agrarian collectivization in 1950s when the most antierosional barriers were destroyed after large field formation. Flood intensity has increased together with sedimentation rate and river channel lateral erosion. The research project is supported by the Grant Agency AS CR (project No. IAAX00130801), the institutional funding was provided by the Institute of Geology AS CR, v.v.i. (AV0Z30130516) and the Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, v.v.i. (AV0Z 10480505).

  7. A multi-proxy model-tested NAO reconstruction for the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Casado, Mathieu; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Yiou, Pascal; Raible, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we propose a new last millennium reconstruction of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic. For this purpose, we use a selection of 60 annually to decadally resolved proxy records from different archives (ice cores, tree rings, speleothems, and lake and ocean sediments), which are distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and continental boundaries. These records are selected for showing a significant correlation with the longest instrumental NAO time series. The reconstruction is based on a Principal Component Regression (PCR) technique using a subset of the initial predictors. Two pseudo-proxy studies based on the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) and the last millennium PMIP3 simulations are performed to validate the choice of proxies and therefore produce a model and reanalysis-consistent NAO. This is a novel approach in which proxy and model worlds are combined with the aim of improving the reliability of the reconstruction. An ensemble of reconstructions is additionally generated to explore the potential uncertainties inherent to the reconstruction method (i.e. calibration period, number of PCs retained, level of significance imposed, and data smoothing). Thus, we provide a robust benchmark that enables us to test recent hypotheses. For example, no persistent positive NAO phase is observed during medieval times, in clear contrast with the bi-proxy NAO reconstruction by Trouet et al (2009). Furthermore, no significant link between the winter NAO and the external forcings is identified, thus opposed to previous results with climate models. Finally, our millennial reconstruction depicts a remarkable shift around 1450 AD, characterised by a fast negative-to-positive NAO transition lying within the range of recent winter NAO excursions. This result supports that 20th century NAO variability is not unprecedent in the context of the last millennium, in line with the IPCC AR5.

  8. Palaeoceanographic changes in Hornsund Fjord (Spitsbergen, Svalbard) over the last millennium: new insights from ancient DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowska, Joanna; Zajączkowski, Marek; Łącka, Magdalena; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Esling, Philippe; Pawlowski, Jan

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a reconstruction of climate-driven environmental changes over the last millennium in Hornsund Fjord (Svalbard), based on sedimentological and micropalaeontological records. Our palaeo-investigation was supported by an analysis of foraminiferal ancient DNA (aDNA), focusing on the non-fossilized monothalamous species. The main climatic fluctuations during the last millennium were the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, AD 1000-1600), the Little Ice Age (LIA, AD 1600-1900) and the modern warming (MW, AD 1900 to present). Our study indicates that the environmental conditions in Hornsund during the MWP and the early LIA (before ˜ AD 1800) were relatively stable. The beginning of the LIA (˜ AD 1600) was poorly evidenced by the micropalaeontological record but was well marked in the aDNA data by an increased proportion of monothalamous foraminifera, especially Bathysiphon sp. The early LIA (˜ 1600 to ˜ AD 1800) was marked by an increase in the abundance of sequences of Hippocrepinella hirudinea and Cedhagenia saltatus. In the late LIA (after ˜ AD 1800), the conditions in the fjord became glacier-proximal and were characterized by increased meltwater outflows, high sedimentation and a high calving rate. This coincided with an increase in the percentages of sequences of Micrometula sp. and Vellaria pellucidus. During the MW, the major glacier fronts retreated rapidly to the inner bays, which limited the iceberg discharge to the fjord's centre and caused a shift in the foraminiferal community that was reflected in both the fossil and aDNA records. The palaeoceanographic changes in the Hornsund fjord over the last millennium were driven mainly by the inflow of shelf-originated water masses and glacial activity. However, the environmental changes were poorly evidenced in the micropalaeontological record, but they were well documented in our aDNA data. We considerably increased the number of potential proxy species by including monothalamous foraminifera in the

  9. The Extratropical Northern Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction during the Last Millennium Based on a Novel Method.

    PubMed

    Xing, Pei; Chen, Xin; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate history of the past millennium reconstructed solely from tree-ring data is prone to underestimate the amplitude of low-frequency variability. In this paper, we aimed at solving this problem by utilizing a novel method termed "MDVM", which was a combination of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and variance matching techniques. We compiled a set of 211 tree-ring records from the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (30-90°N) in an effort to develop a new reconstruction of the annual mean temperature by the MDVM method. Among these dataset, a number of 126 records were screened out to reconstruct temperature variability longer than decadal scale for the period 850-2000 AD. The MDVM reconstruction depicted significant low-frequency variability in the past millennium with evident Medieval Warm Period (MWP) over the interval 950-1150 AD and pronounced Little Ice Age (LIA) cumulating in 1450-1850 AD. In the context of 1150-year reconstruction, the accelerating warming in 20th century was likely unprecedented, and the coldest decades appeared in the 1640s, 1600s and 1580s, whereas the warmest decades occurred in the 1990s, 1940s and 1930s. Additionally, the MDVM reconstruction covaried broadly with changes in natural radiative forcing, and especially showed distinct footprints of multiple volcanic eruptions in the last millennium. Comparisons of our results with previous reconstructions and model simulations showed the efficiency of the MDVM method on capturing low-frequency variability, particularly much colder signals of the LIA relative to the reference period. Our results demonstrated that the MDVM method has advantages in studying large-scale and low-frequency climate signals using pure tree-ring data. PMID:26751947

  10. The Extratropical Northern Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction during the Last Millennium Based on a Novel Method

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Pei; Chen, Xin; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate history of the past millennium reconstructed solely from tree-ring data is prone to underestimate the amplitude of low-frequency variability. In this paper, we aimed at solving this problem by utilizing a novel method termed “MDVM”, which was a combination of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and variance matching techniques. We compiled a set of 211 tree-ring records from the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (30–90°N) in an effort to develop a new reconstruction of the annual mean temperature by the MDVM method. Among these dataset, a number of 126 records were screened out to reconstruct temperature variability longer than decadal scale for the period 850–2000 AD. The MDVM reconstruction depicted significant low-frequency variability in the past millennium with evident Medieval Warm Period (MWP) over the interval 950–1150 AD and pronounced Little Ice Age (LIA) cumulating in 1450–1850 AD. In the context of 1150-year reconstruction, the accelerating warming in 20th century was likely unprecedented, and the coldest decades appeared in the 1640s, 1600s and 1580s, whereas the warmest decades occurred in the 1990s, 1940s and 1930s. Additionally, the MDVM reconstruction covaried broadly with changes in natural radiative forcing, and especially showed distinct footprints of multiple volcanic eruptions in the last millennium. Comparisons of our results with previous reconstructions and model simulations showed the efficiency of the MDVM method on capturing low-frequency variability, particularly much colder signals of the LIA relative to the reference period. Our results demonstrated that the MDVM method has advantages in studying large-scale and low-frequency climate signals using pure tree-ring data. PMID:26751947

  11. Palaeoceanographic changes in Hornsund Fjord (Spitsbergen, Svalbard) over the last millennium: new insights from ancient DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowska, J.; Zajączkowski, M.; Łącka, M.; Lejzerowicz, F.; Esling, P.; Pawlowski, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the reconstruction of climate-driven environmental changes of the last millennium from Hornsund Fjord (Svalbard) based on sedimentological and micropalaeontological records. Our palaeo-investigation was supported by the analysis of foraminiferal ancient DNA (aDNA), focusing on non-fossilised monothalamous species. The main climatic fluctuations over the last millennium were the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, 1000-1600 AD), the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1600-1900 AD), and the Modern Warming (MW, 1900 AD-present). Our study indicated that environmental conditions in Hornsund during the MWP and the early LIA (before ~ 1800 AD) were relatively stable, resulting from the distant position of glaciers. The beginning of the LIA (~ 1600 AD) was poorly evidenced by the micropalaeontological record, but well marked in the aDNA data, by an increased proportion of monothalamous foraminifera, especially Bathysiphon sp. The early LIA (~ 1600- ~ 1800 AD) was marked by the increase in abundance of sequences of Hippocrepinella hirudinea and Cedhagenia saltatus. In the late LIA (after ~ 1800 AD), conditions in the fjord became glacier-proximal, characterised by increased meltwater outflows, high sedimentation and a high calving rate. This coincided with an increase in the percentages of sequences of Micrometula sp. and Vellaria pellucidus. During the MW, major glaciers fronts retreated rapidly to the inner bays, limiting the iceberg discharge to the fjord centre and causing the shift in the foraminiferal community reflected in both fossil and aDNA records. Palaeoceanographic changes in the Hornsund Fjord over the last millennium were driven mainly by the inflow of shelf-originated water masses and glaciers' activity. However, the environmental changes were poorly evidenced in the micropalaeontological record, but well documented in our aDNA data. We considerably increased the number of potential proxy species by including monothalamous foraminifera in the palaeoecological

  12. European summer heatwaves and North Atlantic weather regimes in the last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Castro, Maria del Carmen; Trasancos, Romain; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    The European summer heatwaves have been increasing in frequency and magnitude in the past decades. A higher confidence in future changes in such extremes necessitates to have a better knowledge about extremes behavior in the past climate. The last millennium is well documented in terms of climate forcings. Modelling efforts have provided a wealth of climate simulations covering the last millennium. We want to exploit such data in order to assess how models simulate extreme summer heatwaves. The surface temperature and precipitation are closely related to atmospheric patterns. It has been shown that rainy winter/spring seasons reduce the frequency of hot summer days whereas dry seasons can be followed by summers with high or low frequency of hot days. In this poster, we show the relation between winter/spring precipitation with the frequency of hot days in the 10 hottest summers in Europe and Southern Europe during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP 1150-1250), the Little Ice Age (LIA 1650-1750), and the historical-present period (1850-2005). We first focus on a millennium simulations with the IPSL model (IPSL-CM5). We use daily temperature, precipitation, and SLP data from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) and a couple of IPSL simulations with diferents forcings. Summer weather regimes has been computed as well for NCEP sea level pressure data in order to compare observations with the same period (1948-2005) in CMIP5 and IPSL simulations outputs. We discuss and present the results comparing the effects of hydrological deficits in the preceding season, and the occurrence of specific weather regimes, during the hottest summers over Europe and SouthWestern Europe. This analysis compares differents climate forcings simulations.

  13. Pervasive multidecadal variations in productivity within the Peruvian Upwelling System over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, S.; Martinez, P.; Crosta, X.; Charlier, K.; Billy, I.; Hanquiez, V.; Blanz, T.; Schneider, R. R.

    2015-10-01

    There is no agreement on the pluri-decadal expression of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific over the last millennium. Marine records from the Peruvian margin indicate humid conditions (El Niño-like mean conditions) over the Little Ice Age, while precipitation records from the eastern equatorial Pacific infer arid conditions (La Niña-like mean conditions) for the same period. We here studied diatom assemblages, nitrogen isotopes, and major and minor elements at the lamination level in three laminated trigger cores located between 11°S and 15°S on the Peruvian shelf within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to reconstruct precipitation and ocean productivity at the multiannual to multidecadal timescales over the last millennium. We respected the sediment structure, thus providing the first records of the mean climatic conditions at the origin of the lamination deposition, which ones represent several years. Light laminations were deposited under productive and dry conditions, indicative of La Niña-like mean conditions in the system, while dark laminations were deposited under non-productive and humid conditions, representative of El Niño-like mean conditions. La Niña-like mean conditions were predominant during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP; 1000-600 years BP) and Current Warm Period (CWP; 150 years BP to present), while El Niño-like mean conditions prevailed over the Little Ice Age (LIA; 600-150 years BP). We provide evidence for persistent multidecadal variations in productivity over the last millennium, which were disconnected from the mean climate state. Multidecadal variability has been stronger over the last 450 years concomitantly to increased variability in the NAO index. Two intervals of strong multidecadal variability were also observed over the MWP, congruent to decreased solar irradiance and increased volcanic activity.

  14. Stability of ENSO and its tropical Pacific teleconnections over the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, S. C.; LeGrande, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    Determining past changes in the amplitude, frequency and teleconnections of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is important for understanding its potential sensitivity to future anthropogenic climate change. Palaeo-reconstructions from proxy records can provide long-term information of ENSO interactions with the background climatic state through time. However, it remains unclear how ENSO characteristics have changed on long timescales, and precisely which signals proxies record. Proxy interpretations are typically underpinned by the assumption of stationarity in relationships between local and remote climates, and often utilise archives from single locations located in the Pacific Ocean to reconstruct ENSO histories. Here, we investigate the long-term characteristics of ENSO and its teleconnections using the Last Millennium experiment of CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5; Taylor et al., 2012). We show that the relationship between ENSO conditions (NINO3.4) and local climates across the Pacific basin differs significantly for 100-year epochs defining the Last Millennium and the historical period 1906-2005. Furthermore, models demonstrate decadal- to centennial-scale modulation of ENSO behaviour during the Last Millennium. Overall, results suggest that the stability of teleconnections may be regionally dependent and that proxy climate records may reveal complex changes in teleconnected patterns, rather than large-scale changes in base ENSO characteristics. As such, proxy insights into ENSO may require evidence to be considered over large spatial areas in order to deconvolve changes occurring in the NINO3.4 region from those relating to local climatic variables. To obtain robust histories of the ENSO and its remote impacts, we recommend interpretations of proxy records should be considered in conjunction with palaeo-reconstructions from within the central Pacific.

  15. SCARLET: Design of the Fresnel concentrator array for New Millennium Deep Space 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.M.; Eskenazi, M.I.

    1997-12-31

    The primary power for the JPL New Millennium Deep Space 1 spacecraft is a 2.6 kW concentrator solar array. This paper surveys the design and analysis employed to combine line-focus Fresnel lenses and multijunction (GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/Ge) solar cells in the second-generation SCARLET (Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology) system. The array structure and mechanisms are reviewed. Discussion is focused on the lens and receiver, from the optimizations of optical efficiency and thermal management, to the design issues of environmental extremes, reliability, producibility, and control of pointing error.

  16. New millennium program ST6: autonomous technologies for future NASA spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Arthur B.; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Wyman, William; Brady, T.; Buckley, S.; Tillier, C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The focus of NMP is only on those technologies which need space environment for proper validation. The ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve spacecraft's ability to: make decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground, determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing.

  17. Teaching bioethics in the new millennium: holding theories accountable to actual practices and real people.

    PubMed

    Tong, Rosemarie

    2002-08-01

    Teaching bioethics in the new millennium requires its practitioners to confront a wide area of methodological alternatives. This essay chronicles the author's journey from the principlism of Beauchamp and Childress, through narrative and postmodern bioethics, to a complex feminist critique of postmodern bioethics that emphasizes functional human capabilities and the creation of structures that can facilitate free discussion of those capabilities and how best to realize them. Teaching bioethics concerns not only the acknowledgement of differences but also reminding ourselves of our samenesses. Sustained Habermasian democratic conversations might help us to escape the narrow confines of a postmodern bioethics of moral strangers for a richer world of moral friends. PMID:12221502

  18. The impact of globalisation, free trade and technology on food and nutrition in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    McMichael, P

    2001-05-01

    The millennium promises a dramatic politicisation of the food question. In addition to the prominent issues of food security, hunger and nutrition, bioengineering, food safety and quality, there are related issues of environmental sustainability, power, sovereignty and rights. All these issues are deeply implicated in the current corporate form of globalisation, which is transforming historic global arrangements by subordinating public institutions and the question of food security to private solutions. The present paper questions the self-evident association between globalisation and nutritional improvement. PMID:11681637

  19. Climate Forcing Reconstructions for Use in PMIP Simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.; Jungclaus, J.H.; Steinhilber, F.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Ammann, C. M.; Bard, E.; Braconnot, P.; Crowley, T. J.; Delayque, G.; Joos, F.; Krivova, N. A.; Muscheler, R.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Pongratz, J.; Shindell, D. T.; Solanki, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations of climate over the Last Millennium (850-1850 CE) have been incorporated into the third phase of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). The drivers of climate over this period are chiefly orbital, solar, volcanic, changes in land use/land cover and some variation in greenhouse gas levels. While some of these effects can be easily defined, the reconstructions of solar, volcanic and land use-related forcing are more uncertain. We describe here the approach taken in defining the scenarios used in PMIP3, document the forcing reconstructions and discuss likely implications.

  20. Meeting the 2015 Millennium Development Goals with new interventions for abused women.

    PubMed

    Karmaliani, Rozina; Shehzad, Shireen; Hirani, Saima Shams; Asad, Nargis; Akbar Ali Hirani, Shela; McFarlane, Judith

    2011-12-01

    In a developing country such as Pakistan, where illiteracy, poverty, gender differences, and health issues are prevalent, violence against women is a commonly observed phenomenon. The rising incidences of abuse among women indicate a need to introduce evidence-based community-derived interventions for meeting Millennium Developmental Goals by 2015. This article discusses the application of counseling, economic skills building, and microcredit programs as practical and effective interventions to improve the health outcomes of abused women and, therefore, improving maternal and child health in the Pakistani society. PMID:22055907

  1. Coherent anti-phasing between solar forcing and tropical Pacific climate over the past millennium: derivation and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile-Geay, J.; Cobb, K.; Mann, M. E.; Wittenberg, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    Using a compilation of the most recent, high-resolution proxy data from the tropics, and a state-of-the-art climate reconstruction technique (RegEM iTTLS; Emile-Geay et al, submitted), we reconstruct sea-surface temperature (SST) in the central equatorial Pacific (NINO3.4 region) over the past millennium. Using frozen network experiments and pseudoproxy validation, the reconstruction is found skillful back to 1150 C.E., with inevitable amplitude reduction before 1500 C.E. due to the paucity of proxy predictors. Despite this caveat, wavelet coherency analysis reveals a marked anticorrelation between solar forcing (as estimated from cosmogenic isotope concentrations; Bard et al., 2007; Steinhilber et al., 2009) and the reconstructed NINO3.4 in the ~sim205-year spectral range (DeVries cycle). The phase angle between both signals is 156 ± 33o in this range, indicating that periods of high solar irradiance coincide with cool conditions in the NINO3.4 region, with time lag of 14 ± 19 years. We find this result robust to the reconstruction method, estimate of solar forcing, or analysis method used to estimate the phasing. We then discuss the implication of this result for the response of tropical Pacific climate to radiative forcing. While the anti-phasing seems to favor the ``ocean dynamical thermostat'' hypothesis of Clement et al [1996], this feedback appears subdued in most IPCC-class coupled general circulation models (CGCMs), where it is almost completely compensated by changes in the Pacific trade winds, linked to changes in the vertical structures of atmospheric moisture and temperature (Knutson & Manabe 1995; Held & Soden 2006; Vecchi et al. 2006). If the reconstruction is correct that past NINO3.4 SSTs have varied out of phase with solar irradiance on bicentennial scales, this would pose a new challenge both for CGCM simulations and for our understanding of the equatorial Pacific response to radiative forcing Clement, A. C., Seager, R., Cane, M. A., and Zebiak

  2. Gender Equality in Education in the Context of the Millennium Development Goals: Challenges and Opportunities for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moletsane, Relebohile

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the question: In the context of poverty, gender-based violence (GBV) and HIV/AIDS currently ravaging under-resourced countries, dare we set our hopes for gender- equitable development in general, and gender equality in education in particular, on the Millenium Development Goals MDGs? The article analyses the…

  3. Antiracist Education and Curriculum Transformation for Equity and Justice in the New Millennium: United States and South African Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Karen B. McClean; Seepe, Sipho

    1999-01-01

    Highlights the racist history and continued struggles of two nations to end racism through the assistance and advocacy of antiracist multicultural education. Internationalization has been the key to promoting curriculum transformation through exploring antiracist views and scholarship. Both South Africa and the United States have far to go.…

  4. 77 FR 31161 - Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ..., Washington, May 21, 2012 [FR Doc. 2012-12945 Filed 5-24-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 9211-03-P ... Executive Officer (CEO) of the MCC during any period in which the CEO of the MCC has died, resigned, or otherwise becomes unable or unavailable to perform the functions and duties of the office of the CEO of...

  5. Making Sense of the Complexity of Social Identity in Relation to Achievement: A Sociological Challenge in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Carla

    2001-01-01

    Argues that inadequate explanations about why academic performance is socially stratified lies with the failure to make sense of the complexity of social identity. Refers to articles in the 2001 theme issue of Sociology of Education to provide examples. Discusses need for further study on childrens' performance in U.S. schools. (CAJ)

  6. The Challenges of the 21st Century for Vocational Education and Training. International Conference on Vocational Education and Training Proceedings (Helsinki, Finland, August 24-28, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    The following are among the 52 papers included: "A Vision of Vocational Education and Training for the Approaching Millennium" (Mndebele); "Challenges for the 21st Century for Technical-Vocational Education and Training from Global, Regional and National Perspectives" (Basu); "A Customer-Oriented Approach for Curriculum Development in Vocational…

  7. The South American Monsoon Variability over the Last Millennium in CMIP5/PMIP3 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, M.; Arias, P. A.; Flores-Aqueveque, V.; Seth, A.; Vuille, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we assess South American Monsoon System (SAMS) variability throughout the Last Millennium as depicted by the Coupled Modelling Intercomparison Project version 5/Paleo Modelling Intercomparison Project version 3 (CMIP5/PMIP3) simulations. High-resolution proxy records for the South American monsoon over this period show a coherent regional picture of a weak monsoon during the Medieval Climate Anomaly period and a stronger monsoon during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Due to the small forcing during the past 1000 years, CMIP5/PMIP3 model simulations do not show very strong temperature anomalies over these two specific periods, which in turn do not translate into clear precipitation anomalies, as suggested by rainfall reconstructions in South America. However, with an ad-hoc definition of these two periods for each model simulation, several coherent large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies were identified. The models feature a stronger Monsoon during the LIA associated with: (i) an enhancement of the rising motion in the SAMS domain in austral summer, (ii) a stronger monsoon-related upper-troposphere anticyclone, (iii) activation of the South American dipole, which results to a certain extent in a poleward shift in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone and (iv) a weaker upper-level sub tropical jet over South America, this providing important insights into the mechanisms of these climate anomalies over South America during the past millennium.

  8. Chagas disease: an impediment in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Von, Anna; Hidron, Alicia; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Tellez, Ildefonso; Barragán, Maribel; Jones, Danielle; Náquira, Cesar G; Mendez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Background Achieving sustainable economic and social growth through advances in health is crucial in Latin America within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Discussion Health-related Millennium Development Goals need to incorporate a multidimensional approach addressing the specific epidemiologic profile for each region of the globe. In this regard, addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease of American trypanosomiasis, will play a key role to enable the most impoverished populations in Latin America the opportunity to achieve their full potential. Most cases of Chagas disease occur among forgotten populations because these diseases persist exclusively in the poorest and the most marginalized communities in Latin America. Summary Addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with T. cruzi infection will contribute to improve the health of the most impoverished populations in Latin America and will ultimately grant them with the opportunity to achieve their full economic potential. PMID:17725836

  9. A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1–3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

  10. Will man wish to prevail? Some fundamental choices facing humanity early in the Third Millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.L.

    1994-10-01

    With the subtle but occasionally vital exception of vaccination-induced immunity to many of the major infectious diseases, no human today is other than virtually identical biologically to those who greeted the dawn of the Second Millennium, nearly 1000 years ago. Culturally, however, we of the West are quite highly evolved from our ancestors of a millennium ago, primarily due to the advent of means for communicating with ever smaller latencies and ever higher bandwidths over ever greater distances in space and time: printed documents have been supplemented in succession by telephony, radio, video and, just now, the first personal communications sets. Also, within a fraction of a human lifetime from the present moment, the first prosthesis for the human brain has appeared and just very recently has become quite ubiquitous: digital computing systems. We are hardly members of the same species, culturally speaking; people of 1000 years ago would be truly and utterly lost in our communications-intensive civilization, and even a highly educated person from those times would swear that a personal computer equipped with a wireless communications module was as at least a familiar, if not a golem. Conversely, a computer-using person from our own times somehow translated back to 1000 A.D. would likely find the profound isolation and the ``informational slowness`` of life then to be acutely intolerable, certainly to a far greater extent than would a citizen of the High Middle Ages translated back to Augustus Caesar`s Rome.

  11. Millennium tree-ring reconstruction of drought variability in the eastern Qilian Mountains, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Xiaohua; Deng, Yang; Gao, Linlin; Chen, Fahu; Cook, Edward; Yang, Meixue; Zhang, Fen

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of natural long-term drought variability is essential for water resource management and planning, especially in arid and sub-arid regions of the world. In the eastern Qilian Mountains of China, long-term drought variability based on high-resolution proxy records such as tree-ring data are still scarce to date. Here we present a new tree-ring chronology from the eastern Qilian Mountains which provides a valuable 1,002-year record (1009-2010 CE) of drought variability. The new reconstruction of June-July 5-month scale standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index is the first millennium tree-ring estimate of past climate developed in the eastern Qilian Mountains. The record shows that this region has experienced several persistent droughts and pluvials over the past millennium, with significantly drier climate during the fifteenth century and dramatic wetting since the nineteenth century. The low frequency generally agrees with other nearby studies based on both tree-ring data and other proxy data.

  12. North Pacific decadal variability in the CMIP5 last millennium simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Laura E.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.

    2016-02-01

    The Pacific ocean-atmosphere system exerts an important influence on the climate of Asia and North America, but the limited length of the observational record prevents a complete understanding of its bidecadal and multidecadal time scales. Paleoclimate reconstructions provide one source of information on longer time scales, although they differ in their estimation of the behavior of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) prior to the instrumental period. Forced general circulation model simulations offer complementary long-term perspectives on both the history and dynamics of this important mode of variability. Here, we analyze the PDO in the ensemble of CMIP5/PMIP3 last millennium (past1000 + historical) simulations. We evaluate the modeled spatial, temporal, and spectral characteristics of this mode, as well as teleconnections between North Pacific variability and global climate. All models produce a mode of North Pacific variability over the last millennium with spatial patterns and spectral power density similar to observations. CCSM, FGOALS, and IPSL best reproduce observed spatial patterns, spectral characteristics, and teleconnections to terrestrial regions used in paleoclimate proxy reconstructions. In these simulations, the PDO shows no consistent response to solar or volcanic forcing.

  13. The millennium water vapour drop in the stratosphere in chemistry-climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkop, Sabine; Dameris, Martin; Joeckel, Patrick; Garny, Hella; Lossow, Stefan; Stiller, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the millennium water vapour drop, the abrupt and severe water vapour decline in the stratosphere beginning in year 2000, by means of various simulations using the Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM) EMAC. Since the beginning 1980s, balloon borne stratospheric water vapour measurements and corresponding satellite measurements starting in the early 1990s indicated a long-term steady increase of water vapour concentrations. However, the multi-year data sets also show significant fluctuations on different time scales. In the year 2000, an extraordinary sudden drop of stratospheric water vapour concentration has been observed followed by persistent low values for several years. Solomon et al. (2010) showed that this drop slowed down the rate of increase in global surface temperature over the following decade by about 25%. So far, the stratospheric water vapour variations observed by satellite from 1992 to 2012 are not reproduced by CCM simulations forced by observed changes in sea surface temperatures, greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances (Gettelman et al., 2010, Randel and Jensen, 2013). However, the CCM EMAC is able to reproduce the signature and pattern of the water vapour disturbances in agreement with those derived from observations. In this paper we present results of a hierarchy of simulations with the CCM EMAC, demonstrating that it is possible to retrace the observed water vapour fluctuations in the stratosphere (incl. the millennium drop), if suitable inner and outer boundary conditions are applied.

  14. A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J S

    2014-01-01

    The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1-3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

  15. Emerging diseases and implications for Millennium Development Goals in Africa by 2015 - an overview.

    PubMed

    Aluwong, Tagang; Bello, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Emerging zoonotic diseases have assumed increasing fundamental importance in both public and animal health, as the last few years have seen a steady increase of new cases, each emerging from an unsuspected geographic area and causing serious problems, often leading to mortalities among animals and humans. The reasons for disease emergence or re-emergence are multiple and include certain major factors, such as expansion of the human population, climate change and globalisation of trade. Further contributing issues, such as the increased movement of animal species, microbial evolution, ecological disruption, changes in human behaviour, all imply that emerging diseases will not only continue to occur, but the rate of their emergence will also increase. These will constitute constraints for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals by African Governments by 2015. There is no doubt that the current trend calls for more and stronger partnerships between national and international organisations, veterinary and medical communities, environmentalists, academics and policy-makers of various governments on the continent within the context of the global 'One Health' movement. This article attempts to analyse the impact of emerging diseases and the implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by the year 2015. PMID:20560123

  16. Solar Imprints on Asian Inland Moisture Fluctuations over the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M.; Zhou, A.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, C.; He, Y.; Yang, W.; Liu, W.; Li, S. H.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Solar irradiance changes are thought to play an important role in natural climate variability. How solar activities affected hydrological changes in westerly-controlled arid central Asia (ACA) on decadal/centennial timescales remains poorly investigated, due to lack of high-quality records. Here we present high-resolution multi-proxy records of lake level changes, and thus effective moisture fluctuations, over the last millennium, from a shoreline sediment core retrieved from Lake Manas, northwestern China. Besides generally confirmed relatively wet conditions during the cool Little Ice Age, records of the geophysical and geochemical indicators, including lightness, calcium counts, and C37 alkenone contents, consistently show substantial and frequent lake level fluctuations, and more importantly, resemble solar irradiance changes. Further, the ~11-year Schwabe cycle, ~70-100-year Gleissberg cycle, and relatively weak spectral power in between, as characters in the sunspot number record, together with the ~200-year Suess-de Vries cycle revealed in the reconstructed total solar irradiance records, are all evident in the higher-resolution calcium and lightness records. Together, our records clearly demonstrate solar imprints on effective moisture fluctuations in ACA over the last millennium, and the occurrence of the Schwabe cycle even during the solar minima.

  17. The new millennium program EO-1 mission and spacecraft design concept.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, D.; Hestnes, P.; Perry, M.; Stabnow, B.

    Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) is the first in a series of Earth Orbiter spacecraft for NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). Government, academia and industry have been teamed together to develop the EO-1 spacecraft. The mission, instruments, NMP technologies, and spacecraft subsystems are discussed. The remote sensing science instruments which will be flown on the EO-1 spacecraft are the Advanced Land Imager and the Atmospheric Corrector. The NMP technologies planned for spaceflight validation by EO-1 include an X-band phased array antenna, a pulsed plasma thruster, a high-rate fiber optic data bus, a lightweight flexible solar array, formation flight with Landsat-7, and carbon-carbon thermal radiators. The data subsystem contains several new technologies. Other subsystems include attitude control, power, RF communications, structure and mechanisms, and thermal subsystem. The EO-1 mission is a good example of the faster-better-cheaper philosophy that NASA has adopted for its spacecraft, and paves the way for constructing future spacecraft in the new millennium.

  18. Impact of Uncertainty of Boundary Conditions on Simulations of the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeGrande, A. N.; Tsigaridis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)-E2-R sampled the broadest range of boundary conditions for simulations of the last millennium, with a dozen different experiments sampling three different volcanic forcing scenarios, three anthropogenic land use change scenarios, and three different solar (TSI) scenarios. This suite of experiment yields 15,000 years of simulations for the last millennium. Here the forcings of these experiments are distilled down into basic fingerprints of each type of change - volcanic, solar, and, anthropogenic land use - to test whether it is feasible to detect these climate changes in various proxy archives. I will illustrate the difficulty in the detection of any of these changes in individual proxy archives, and establish the minimum critieria (given a perfect simulation) to identify solar minima, volcanic eruptions, and large changes in land use. Further, preliminary new results to illustrate the impact of various degrees of sophistication in applying volcanic forcing on the resultant climate signal will be presented. We will also study the impact of atmospheric composition on climate, by presenting results from atmosphere-only model simulations with the GISS-E2 model, which includes interactive gas-phase chemistry and aerosols at decadal-scale time slices, driven by the millennial-length coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations.

  19. SCARLET Photovoltaic Concentrator Array Selected for Flight Under NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center continues to demonstrate its expertise in the development and implementation of advanced space power systems. For example, during the past year, the NASA New Millennium Program selected the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) photovoltaic array as the power system for its Deep Space-1 (DS-1) mission. This Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) managed DS-1 mission, which represents the first operational flight of a photovoltaic concentrator array, will provide a baseline for the use of this technology in a variety of future government and commercial applications. SCARLET is a joint NASA Lewis/Ballistic Missile Defense Organization program to develop advanced photovoltaic array technology that uses a unique refractive concentrator design to focus sunlight onto a line of photovoltaic cells located below the optical element. The general concept is based on previous work conducted at Lewis under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with AEC-Able Engineering, Inc., for the Multiple Experiments to Earth Orbit and Return (METEOR) spacecraft. The SCARLET II design selected by the New Millennium Program is a direct adaptation of the smaller SCARLET I array built for METEOR. Even though SCARLET I was lost during a launch failure in October 1995, the hardware (designed, built, and flight qualified within 6 months) provided invaluable information and experience that led to the selection of this technology as the primary power source for DS-1.

  20. Achieving Millennium Development Goals for Health: Building Understanding, Trust and Capacity to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Heidi J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical interventions promise achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals provided social-, capacity- and knowledge-based constraints to scaling up and reaching marginalized people at risk, are addressed, and balance between prevention and treatment is struck. We argue for a new approach: multi-stakeholder capacity building and learning for empowerment: MuSCLE. MuSCLE is used as a way to frame three systemic weaknesses in traditional health science and policy approaches: 1) a lack of engagement with people at risk to build a collective understanding of the contexts of health problems; 2) a lack of multi-criteria evaluation of alternative interventions; and 3) a lack of attention paid to integrated capacity building. The MuSCLE framework responds in three ways: 1) Participatory assessment of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of health, identifying priorities using risk and vulnerability science, and modeling drivers; 2) Selection among intervention alternatives that makes ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political tradeoffs transparent; and 3) Integrated capacity building for sustainable and adaptive interventions. Literature and field lessons support the argument, and guidelines are set down. A MuSCLE approach argues for a transformation in health science and policy in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals for health. PMID:17399849

  1. Coupled North Atlantic slope water forcing on Gulf of Maine temperatures over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanamaker, Alan D.; Kreutz, Karl J.; Schöne, Bernd R.; Pettigrew, Neal; Borns, Harold W.; Introne, Douglas S.; Belknap, Daniel; Maasch, Kirk A.; Feindel, Scott

    2008-08-01

    To investigate ocean variability during the last millennium in the Western Gulf of Maine (GOM), we collected a 142-year-old living bivalve ( Arctica islandica L.) in 2004, and three fossil A. islandica shells (calibrated 14CAMS = 1030 ± 78 ad; 1320 ± 45 ad; 1357 ± 40 ad) for stable isotope and growth increment analysis. A statistically significant relationship exists between modern GOM temperature records [shell isotope-derived (30 m) ( r = -0.79; P < 0.007), Prince 5 (50 m) ( r = -0.72; P < 0.019), Boothbay Harbor SST ( r = -0.76; P < 0.011)], and Labrador Current (LC) transport data from the Eastern Newfoundland Slope during 1993-2003. In all cases, as LC transport increased, GOM water temperatures decreased the following year. Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) influence GOM water temperatures in the most recent period, with water temperatures decreasing during NAO and AMO negative modes most likely linked to LC transport and Gulf Stream interaction. Mean shell-derived isotopic changes (δ18Oc) during the last 1,000 years were +0.47‰ and likely reflect a 1-2°C cooling from 1000 ad to present. Based on these results, we suggest that observed cooling in the GOM during the last millennium was due to increased transport and/or cooling of the LC, and decreased Gulf Stream influence on the GOM.

  2. Clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Questions for this month's clinical challenge are based on articles in this issue. The clinical challenge is endorsed by the RACGP Quality Improvement and Continuing Professional Development (QI&CPD) program and has been allocated four Category 2 points (Activity ID:59922). Answers to this clinical challenge are available immediately following successful completion online at http://gplearning.racgp.org.au. Clinical challenge quizzes may be completed at any time throughout the 2014-16 triennium; therefore, the previous months' answers are not published. Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by four suggested answers or completions. Select the most appropriate statement as your answer. PMID:27606376

  3. 78 FR 23233 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Financial Report for the Endowment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Financial Report for the Endowment Challenge Grant Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education (OPE), Department of Education (ED)....

  4. 78 FR 21602 - Amendment to an Approved Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... Request Title: Department of Energy Better Buildings Challenge Information Collection Request; (3) Type of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Amendment to an Approved Agency Information...

  5. Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Innovation & Challenges

    NASA Video Gallery

    On June 2, 2016, NASA’s Office of the Chief Technologist hosted the Showcase of Innovation Challenges in Washington to present and discuss ideas for innovation across the agency, the government, in...

  6. INTEGRATED SCIENCE FOR ECOSYSTEM CHALLENGES - ISEC

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the National Science and Technology Council's cross-Agency priority of Integrated Science for Ecological Challenges (ISEC) EPA is conducting research to improve capabilities in the area of regional vulnerability assessment and ecological forecasting. EPA's research...

  7. Home Health Agency Work Environments and Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. Objectives: To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Methods and Design: Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Results: Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Conclusion: Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care. PMID:25215647

  8. Featherweight Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Ryan, Larry

    2012-01-01

    As science, technology education, and engineering programs suffer budget cuts, educators continue to seek cost-effective activities that engage students and reinforce standards. The featherweight challenge is a hands-on activity that challenges students to continually refine their design while not breaking the budget. This activity uses one of the…

  9. Private Schools and the Millennium Development Goal of Universal Primary Education: A Census and Comparative Survey in Hyderabad, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Gomathi, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Development literature suggests that private schools serving the poor are not part of the solution to meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education. The study conducted a census and survey of schools in notified slums of Hyderabad, India, to contribute to the sparse literature on the nature and extent of private…

  10. Area and Family Effects on the Psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study Children and Their Older Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…

  11. Does Curriculum Matter?: Revisiting Women's Access and Rights to Education in the Context of the UN Millennium Development Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of curriculum to current UN Millennium targets to extend access to education and equality in education for women. It argues, firstly, that it is contradictory to be concerned about women's access to education but leave curriculum out of the discussion; secondly, that curriculum is not adequately seen as a…

  12. 78 FR 14787 - Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Hancock Compressor Project The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or Commission)...

  13. Subjective Well-Being Approach to the Valuation of International Development: Evidence for the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The subjective well-being approach to the valuation of international development is applied to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Results indicate that the rich countries have particular preference for education, healthcare, and housing; they are willing to accept compensation for a failure to meet the three targets by 2015. The poor…

  14. Five Ways the Sustainable Development Goals Are Better than the Millennium Development Goals and Why Every Educationalist Should Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprani, Lily

    2016-01-01

    For 15 years the millennium development goals (MDGs) were a guiding force for many issues affecting the lives of children and young people around the world. Agreed by UN member states in 2001, the eight MDGs were designed as a framework around which states were expected to develop policy priorities and shape their overseas aid spending plans. The…

  15. Community College Leadership in the New Millennium. New Expeditions: Charting the Second Century of Community Colleges. Issues Paper No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockaday, Jeff; Puyear, Donald E.

    In the most basic terms, the skills and attributes that produced success for the first two generations of community college leaders will be the skills and attributes required of those leading community colleges into the new millennium. The issues and the goals to be attained, however, will be somewhat different. This paper looks at the leadership…

  16. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  17. Flight Software Implementation of the Beacon Monitor Expreiment On the NASA New Millennium Deep Space 1 (DS-1) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, R.; Schlutsmeyer, A.

    1997-01-01

    A new technology that can lower the cost of mission operations on future spacecraft will be tested on the NASA New Millennium Deep Space 1 (DS-1) Mission. This technology, the Beacon Monitor Experiment (BMOX), can be used to reduce the Deep Space Network (DSN) tracking time and its associated costs on future missions.

  18. Prevalence of Parent-Reported ASD and ADHD in the UK: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Rodgers, Lauren R.; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Ford, Tamsin

    2014-01-01

    The UK prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were estimated from the Millennium Cohort Study. Case definition was if a doctor or health care professional had ever told parents that their child had ASD and/or ADHD. Data were collected in 2008/2009 for 14,043 children. 1.7%…

  19. Agency, communion and entitlement.

    PubMed

    Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Magdalena A; Piotrowski, Jarosław P; Clinton, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the relationship between agency, communion, and the active, passive, and revenge forms of entitlement is examined. Results indicate that active entitlement was positively related to agency, negatively to communion (Study 1), and unrelated to unmitigated agency and communion (Study 2). Passive entitlement was positively related to communion (in regular and unmitigated forms) and negatively related to agency (in both forms). Revenge entitlement was positively related to agency (unmitigated and regular), and negatively related to both regular and unmitigated communal orientations. Detected relationships were independent from self-esteem (Study 1). The findings are discussed in relation to distinctions between narcissistic and healthy entitlement, and within the context of the three-dimensional model of entitlement. PMID:25594535

  20. High-Resolution Reconstructions of Temperature and Precipitation During the Last Millennium from Lake Tanganyika, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, M.; Tierney, J.; Huang, Y.; Russell, J.

    2008-12-01

    Though numerous syntheses of high-resolution paleoclimate data have documented temperature changes associated with the Medieval Period, the Little Ice Age, and the Industrial era in north temperate regions, few records of temperature variability exist for the Southern Hemisphere (Mann and Jones, 2003, GRL doi: 10.1029/2003GL017814). Here, we present a new, high-resolution record of terrestrial temperature and rainfall from southeast tropical Africa, based upon organic geochemical analyses of annually laminated sediment cores from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, providing the first millennium-long, high-resolution record of temperature from the East African tropics. Extending to 700CE with decadal resolution, the record uses the TEX86 paleothermometer and hydrogen stable isotope ratios (dD) of leaf waxes, which have been shown to reflect temperature and hydrologic conditions in Tanganyika, respectively (Tierney 2008, Science). The TEX86-based temperature reconstruction shows that Tanganyika temperatures were relatively warm at 700CE, cooler from 800-1000CE, and then warmer again between approximately 1050-1300CE. The latter warm interval is coincident with periods of warmer temperatures documented in the Northern Hemisphere. Yet temperatures are highly variable within the Little Ice Age (~1450-1800CE) and do not cool substantially relative to older time periods, in contrast to north temperate regions. Pronounced warming from approximately 1850 to the present is unprecedented in comparison to patterns of temperature variability during the previous centuries. The temperature variability documented here does not seem to correspond strongly to lake level fluctuations in Tanganyika over the past millennium (Cohen et al., 2005, JoPL, doi 10.1007/s10933-005- 2422-4), suggesting that Southeast African climate variability is more complex than alternating cycles of warm/wet and cool/dry conditions. dD analyses document considerable hydrologic variability over the past

  1. Simulated and reconstructed winter temperature in the eastern China during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Chen, X.; Storch, H. V.; Zorita, E.

    2006-12-01

    The reconstructed temperature anomalies in the eastern China were compared with the output from a 1000- year model simulation in an attempt to evaluate the model's regional simulation skills and to understand the causes of climate change in China over the last millennium. The reconstructed data are the winter half-year temperature anomalies in the central region of eastern China (25°-40'N, east of 105°E) for the last 1000 years with a 30-year resolution. The model used is the global atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model, ECHO-G, which was driven by time-varying external forcings including solar radiation, volcanic eruptions, and greenhouse gas concentrations (CO2 and CH4) for the same period. The correlation coefficient between the simulated and reconstructed time series is 0.37, which is statistically significant at a confidence level of 97.5%. The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) during 1000£­1300 A.D., the Little Ice Age (LIA) during 1300£­1850 A.D. and the modern warming period after 1900 A.D. are all recognizable from both the simulated and reconstructed temperatures. The anomalies associated with the LIA and the modern warming simulated by the model is in good consistency with the reconstructed counterpart. In particular during the Maunder sun-spot minimum (1670£­1710 A.D.), both the simulated and reconstructed temperature anomalies reach their minima without any phase difference. But in the earlier MWP, significant discrepancies exist between the simulation and the reconstruction, which might reflect the degrading quality of the reconstruction data. The range of the simulated anomalies (1.62 K) is comparable with that of reconstructed (2.0 K). Diagnosis of the model results indicates that, during the last millennium, variations in solar radiation and volcanic activity are the main controlling factors on regional temperature change, while in the recent 100 years, the change of the concentration of greenhouse gases plays most important role in explaining

  2. Knowledge-Based Aid: A Four Agency Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Simon; King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Part of the response of many development cooperation agencies to the challenges of globalisation, ICTs and the knowledge economy is to emphasise the importance of knowledge for development. This paper looks at the discourses and practices of ''knowledge-based aid'' through an exploration of four agencies: the World Bank, DFID, Sida and JICA. It…

  3. Every Child Matters: Every Challenge Met?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straker, Katherine; Foster, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the Every Child Matters agenda on a group of multi-agency professionals with regard to a number of key issues--such as leadership, multi-agency collaboration, and individual practice. One of the main challenges concerning the successful implementation of the ECM agenda is to ensure that effective training is…

  4. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  5. Development of an Ion Thruster and Power Processor for New Millennium's Deep Space 1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Hamley, John A.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Peterson, Todd T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Power, John L.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Anderson, John R.; Bond, Thomas A.; Cardwell, G. I.; Christensen, Jon A.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program (NSTAR) will provide a single-string primary propulsion system to NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 Mission which will perform comet and asteroid flybys in the years 1999 and 2000. The propulsion system includes a 30-cm diameter ion thruster, a xenon feed system, a power processing unit, and a digital control and interface unit. A total of four engineering model ion thrusters, three breadboard power processors, and a controller have been built, integrated, and tested. An extensive set of development tests has been completed along with thruster design verification tests of 2000 h and 1000 h. An 8000 h Life Demonstration Test is ongoing and has successfully demonstrated more than 6000 h of operation. In situ measurements of accelerator grid wear are consistent with grid lifetimes well in excess of the 12,000 h qualification test requirement. Flight hardware is now being assembled in preparation for integration, functional, and acceptance tests.

  6. The worst North American drought year of the last millennium: 1934

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2014-10-01

    During the summer of 1934, over 70% of western North America experienced extreme drought, placing this summer far outside the normal range of drought variability and making 1934 the single worst drought year of the last millennium. Strong atmospheric ridging along the West Coast suppressed cold season precipitation across the Northwest, Southwest, and California, a circulation pattern similar to the winters of 1976-1977 and 2013-2014. In the spring and summer, the drying spread to the Midwest and Central Plains, driven by severe precipitation deficits downwind from regions of major dust storm activity, consistent with previous work linking drying during the Dust Bowl to anthropogenic dust aerosol forcing. Despite a moderate La Niña, contributions from sea surface temperature forcing were small, suggesting that the anomalous 1934 drought was primarily a consequence of atmospheric variability, possibly amplified by dust forcing that intensified and spread the drought across nearly all of western North America.

  7. Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)-Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses. "It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse(latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  8. Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original 648-page publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Lunar Eclipse parameter, gamma, eclipse magnitude, geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude), and the circumstances at greatest eclipse (i.e., Sun altitude and azimuth, path width, and central line duration). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  9. Using the Millennium II simulation to test CDM predictions for the structure of massive galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Andrew P.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Wang, Jing; White, Simon D. M.

    2013-07-01

    We have combined the semi-analytic galaxy formation model of Guo et al. (2011) with a novel particle-tagging technique to predict galaxy surface brightness profiles in a representative sample of ~1900 massive dark matter haloes (1012-1014 M⊙) from the Millennium II ΛCDM N body simulation. We focus on the outer regions of galaxies and stars accreted in mergers. Our simulations cover scales from the stellar haloes of Milky Way-like galaxies to the `cD envelopes' of groups and clusters, and resolve low surface brightness substructure such as the tidal streams of dwarf galaxies. We find that the spatial distribution of stars in low surface brightness regions is tightly correlated with DM halo mass and that collisionless merging during the hierarchical assembly of galaxies largely determines the structure of spheroidal stellar components. Our ΛCDM model agrees well with the available data.

  10. Sutherland's legacy in the new millennium: the osteopathic cranial model and modern osteopathy.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, Bruno; Zanier, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cranial osteopathy was introduced by W. G. Sutherland, DO, and became the foundation for setting the rules for use of skull palpation and many other techniques in the many types of dysfunctional patterns that craniosacral therapy treats. Sutherland's theories enabled modern osteopathy to develop and improve. The mechanism of primary respiration as well as the motion of neurocranial and viscerocranial sutures are phenomena intrinsic to the field and can be found in every living organism, independent of thoracic breathing and cardiac impulse. The sphenobasilar synchondrosis (ie, the joint between the base of the occiput and the body of the sphenoid bone) is the pillar supporting the concepts of craniosacral therapy. This article compares the cranial model devised by Sutherland with the present, relevant scientific research, aiming at clarifying the possibility of applying the craniosacral model in the new millennium. PMID:25831430

  11. Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Wanamaker, Alan D.; Butler, Paul G.; Scourse, James D.; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector. PMID:22692542

  12. Indian Monsoon and its Variability during the last Millennium - a Model-Proxy-Intercomparison Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanski, S.; Fallah, B.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Cubasch, U.

    2012-12-01

    The last Millennium is the best documented climate period affected by variations in external forcing and internal dynamics in a highly nonlinear climate system. According to that the Indian Monsoon and its high variability on different time scales plays an important role, studied in the interdisciplinary HIMPAC project (Himalaya - Modern and Past Climates). In order to understand the driving mechanisms, feedbacks and amplifiers regarding the monsoon variability of the last 1.200 years, the five ensemble members of the full forced simulation of the Millennium experiment (Jungclaus et al., 2010), using the coupled COSMOS Earth System Model (ECHAM5/JSBACH-MPIOM/HAMOCC) in a T31L19 spatial resolution, have been statistically analysed to detect strong wet and dry periods of monsoon rainfall within the All India Monsoon Rainfall Region. Later the selected periods of extreme rainfall events have been simulated in a higher spatial resolution with the atmosphere-only model ECHAM5 in a T63L31 spatial resolution. The focus is on the monsoon variability of the selected 200-years long time slices within the Medieval Climate Optimum (MWP; 900-1100 AD), the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1515-1715 AD) and the Preindustrial (PI; 1800-2000 AD). The relative annual rainfall anomalies simulated by ECHAM5 model show drier (wetter) conditions over India during the MWP (LIA) compared to the PI. The spatial EOF variance patterns of the summer monsoon rainfall in the MWP are more pronounced in the lower resolved T31L19 Millennium simulation according to the higher amount of simulated rainfall whereas the differentiation of the patterns is better in the T63L31 ECHAM5 simulation especially in the Himalayas due to the better representation of the mountains. Furthermore the simulations have been also compared with paleoclimatic reconstructions based on proxy data from different archives (Bhattacharya et al., 2007, Chauhan et al., 2000, Denniston et al., 2000, Ely et al., 1999, Kar et al., 2002, Ponton

  13. The largest Last Supper: depictions of food portions and plate size increased over the millennium.

    PubMed

    Wansink, B; Wansink, C S

    2010-05-01

    Portion sizes of foods have been noticably increasing in recent years, but when did this trend begin? If art imitates life and if food portions have been generally increasing with time, we might expect this trend to be reflected in paintings that depict food. Perhaps the most commonly painted meal has been that of Jesus Christ's Last Supper, chronicled in the New Testament of the Bible. A CAD-CAM analysis of the relative food-to-head ratio in 52 representative paintings of the Last Supper showed that the relative sizes of the main dish (entree) (r=0.52, P=0.002), bread (r=0.30, P=0.04), and plates (r=0.46, P=0.02) have linearly increased over the past millennium. PMID:20308996

  14. The Indian Ocean Zonal Mode over the past millennium in observed and modeled precipitation isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konecky, Bronwen; Russell, James; Vuille, Mathias; Rehfeld, Kira

    2014-11-01

    The Indian Ocean Zonal Mode (IOZM) has gained considerable attention in the past decade due to its role in causing widespread flooding and droughts in the continents and islands surrounding the Indian Ocean. The IOZM has also been observed to vary on a low-frequency (multi-decadal) basis, making its behavior important to understand both for mid-range 21st century climate prediction and for paleoclimate studies. Despite efforts to reconstruct the IOZM using corals and other high-resolution proxies, nonstationarities in the response of paleoclimate proxies to the IOZM have also been noted, raising the possibility that the IOZM may be difficult to reconstruct or to predict in the long-term. It is therefore critical to assess the low-frequency component of the IOZM in observed, modeled, and paleoclimate data from the Indian Ocean region in order to identify nonstationary behavior and to assess its role in low-frequency climate variations. We present an analysis of low-frequency and nonstationary behavior in the IOZM on multi-decadal to centennial timescales using a combination of modeled, observed, and proxy reconstructions of δ18O/δDprecip. In order to assess multiple timescales of low-frequency variability, we focus on two key time periods: the historical period (1870-2003), and the past millennium (1000 C.E.-present). We find significant nonstationarities in the relationships between the IOZM, precipitation amount, and δ18Oprecip/δDprecip during the historical period. These relationships vary on a multi-decadal basis in our model and in observed/reanalysis datasets. Air-sea interactions in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool and teleconnections to the Pacific Ocean, as well as the phase of the IOZM itself, may contribute to this nonstationary behavior. We examine the potential ramifications of nonstationary IOZM behavior using a synthesis of spatially distributed proxy archives of δ18Oprecip/δDprecip from both sides of the IOZM region spanning the past millennium. Our

  15. Chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium*

    PubMed Central

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Facchini Jardim; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2015-01-01

    Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature. PMID:25672302

  16. Five Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "FiveMillenniumCanonofLunarEclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  17. Sexually harassing behavior against adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh: implications for achieving millennium development goals.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2010-03-01

    This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on sexual harassments of 5,106 girls aged 13-19 years selected randomly. Results reveal that gendered harassments were experienced by 35% of the girls, unwanted sexual attentions by 34%, and sexual intimidations by 14%, yielding prevalence of sexual harassments of any type 43%. Higher girls' education and household economic status heightened their risks of being harassed. Perpetrators were male young spoilt bullies (64%), neighborhood youths (30%), students (22%) and hoodlums (6%). High prevalence of sexual harassments mirrors vulnerability of adolescent girls in the community and deserves to be tackled to achieve millennium development goals (MDGs) in gender equality in health and social development. PMID:19458081

  18. Pakistan and the Millennium Development Goals for Maternal and Child Health: progress and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-01-01

    The world has made substantial progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, but many countries are projected to fall short of achieving their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 targets. The major objective of this paper is to examine progress in Pakistan in reducing maternal and child mortality and malnutrition over the last two decades. Data from recent national and international surveys suggest that Pakistan lags behind on all of its MDGs related to maternal and child health and, for some indicators especially related to nutrition, the situation has worsened from the baseline of 1990. Progress in addressing key social determinants such as poverty, female education and empowerment has also been slow and unregulated population growth has further compromised progress. There is a need to integrate the various different sectors and programmes to achieve the desired results effectively and efficiently as many of the determinants and influencing factors are outside the health sector. PMID:26744152

  19. Professional leadership in obstetrics and gynecology and its contribution to Millennium Development Goal 5.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David J

    2012-10-01

    National professional associations of obstetrics and gynecology characteristically begin as learned societies holding regular conferences for the presentation and discussion of new research results, and progress to regulating the activities of their members in the public interest (e.g. admission examinations, setting standards). However, they can offer much more to their nation's health by contributing directly to improvements in health care and influencing governmental decisions in favor of the health of women and babies. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), through the Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) initiative, is developing the capacity of national professional associations in Africa and Asia, so that they can contribute to improving clinical practice and influence national health policy toward achieving Millennium Development Goal 5. PMID:22884822

  20. El Niño/Southern Oscillation and tropical Pacific climate during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Kim M; Charles, Christopher D; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence

    2003-07-17

    Any assessment of future climate change requires knowledge of the full range of natural variability in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Here we splice together fossil-coral oxygen isotopic records from Palmyra Island in the tropical Pacific Ocean to provide 30-150-year windows of tropical Pacific climate variability within the last 1,100 years. The records indicate mean climate conditions in the central tropical Pacific ranging from relatively cool and dry during the tenth century to increasingly warmer and wetter climate in the twentieth century. But the corals also document a broad range of ENSO behaviour that correlates poorly with these estimates of mean climate. The most intense ENSO activity within the reconstruction occurred during the mid-seventeenth century. Taken together, the coral data imply that the majority of ENSO variability over the last millennium may have arisen from dynamics internal to the ENSO system itself. PMID:12867972

  1. Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Wanamaker, Alan D; Butler, Paul G; Scourse, James D; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector. PMID:22692542

  2. Countdown to 2015: will the Millennium Development Goal for child survival be met?

    PubMed Central

    Lawn, Joy E; Costello, Anthony; Mwansambo, Charles; Osrin, David

    2007-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), ratified by most nations in 2000, set specific targets for poverty reduction, eradication of hunger, education, gender equality, health and environmental sustainability. MDG 4 aims to reduce child mortality with a target of reducing under‐five mortality rates by two thirds over the period 1990–2015. Over the last year, Live Aid, Make Poverty History, the G8 summits and prominent entertainers have directed unprecedented attention towards development and health. Africa particularly has been in the spotlight. Reports are published and commitments are made, but is there real progress? Are poor people being reached with essential health care? Who will hold leaders to account: celebrities, activists or health professionals? PMID:17515627

  3. The 2010 millennium technology grand prize: dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gerald J

    2010-08-24

    The 2010 Millennium Technology Grand Prize was awarded to Michael Gratzel for his ground-breaking research that has led to the practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells. Although Gratzel began his research well before nanotechnology had the "buzz" that it does today, the mesoscopic thin films he has developed have paved the way for generations of scientists to exploit the nanoscale for energy conversion. In addition to practical application, his research has led to a deeper understanding of photoinitiated charge-transfer processes at semiconductor interfaces. Here, the key scientific developments that guided early progress in dye-sensitized solar cells are summarized, with emphasis on fundamental advances that have enabled practical application. PMID:20731419

  4. 20 CFR 439.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 439.645 Section 439.645 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  5. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Hydroclimate, Temperature and Atmospheric Circulation over the Past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Wake, C. P.; Kreutz, K. J.; Winski, D.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S.; Birkel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    While tree ring and lake sediment core studies have revealed a great deal about North Pacific (e.g. Alaska) surface temperature variability over the past millennium, we do not have an equivalent understanding of North Pacific hydroclimate variability or temperatures at high elevations. A millennial-length precipitation proxy record is needed to place late 20th century Alaskan precipitation increases into longer context, and to evaluate hydroclimate changes during the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly. High-elevation summer temperature records would be valuable for understanding the sensitivity of Alaskan glaciers to past warm and cool periods. Here we present an overview of the new Denali Ice Core record collected from the summit plateau (4000 m a.s.l.) of Mt. Hunter (63° N, 151° W) in Denali National Park, Alaska. Two parallel ice cores were collected to bedrock (208 m in length) in May-June 2013, sampled using the Dartmouth continuous melter system, and analyzed for major ions, trace elements, particle concentration and size distribution, and stable isotope ratios at Dartmouth and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire. The cores are dated using robust annual oscillations in dust elements, methanesulfonate, ammonium, and stable isotopes, and validated using major volcanic eruptions recorded as sulfate, chloride and heavy metal spikes, and the 1963 nuclear weapons testing 137Cs spike. Preliminary analyses indicate a significant increase in both summer temperature and annual accumulation over the 20th century, and significant relationships with major ocean-atmospheric modes including the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We compare the new Denali record to the Eclipse Icefield and Mt. Logan ice core records and develop composite records of North Pacific hydroclimate and atmospheric circulation variability over the past millennium.

  6. ENSO teleconnections with Australian rainfall in coupled model simulations of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Josephine R.; Hope, Pandora; Gergis, Joelle; Henley, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the major source of interannual rainfall variability in the Australian region, with the strongest influence over eastern Australia. The strength of this regional ENSO-rainfall teleconnection varies in the observational record. Climate model simulations of the "last millennium" (850-1850 C.E.) can be used to quantify the natural variability of the relationship between ENSO and Australian rainfall on decadal and longer time scales, providing a baseline for evaluating future projections. In this study, historical and last millennium (LM) simulations from six models were obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 3. All models reproduce the observed negative correlation between September to February (SONDJF) eastern Australian rainfall and the NINO3.4 index, with varying skill. In the LM simulations, all models produce decadal-scale cooling over eastern Australia in response to volcanic forcing, as well as a long-term cooling trend. Rainfall variability over the same region is not strongly driven by external forcing, with each model simulating rainfall anomalies of different phase and magnitude. SONDJF eastern Australian rainfall is strongly correlated with ENSO in the LM simulations for all models, although some models simulate periods when the teleconnection weakens substantially for several decades. Changes in ENSO variance play a role in modulating the teleconnection strength, but are not the only factor. The long-term average spatial pattern of the ENSO-Australian rainfall teleconnection is similar in the LM and historical simulations, although the spatial pattern varies over time in the LM simulations.

  7. ENSO-driven flooding events in East Java, Indonesia during the past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodysill, J. R.; Russell, J. M.; Vuille, M. F.; Lunghino, B.; Bijaksana, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent severe El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have highlighted the importance of understanding the mechanisms driving ENSO variability and how ENSO relates to extreme precipitation anomalies. Expanding the record of ENSO-driven precipitation anomalies over the last millennium through paleoclimate reconstructions illuminates how ENSO has varied in the past through periods of relatively enhanced and reduced radiative forcing, namely the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Modern precipitation anomalies in East Java, Indonesia are strongly correlated to variations in ENSO, where La Niña events correspond to positive precipitation anomalies (Hendon, 2003, Journal of Climate). We present the first record of runoff events from lake sediment deposits in East Java, Indonesia spanning the last millennium, which historically occur during strong La Niña events. Our record reveals significant variations in East Java flooding frequency, with more frequent floods occurring from 850 to 1350 CE and after 1800 CE. This pattern is also observed in surface runoff records from the eastern tropical Pacific (Moy et al., 2002, Nature; Conroy et al., 2008, Quaternary Science Reviews), which lie in a region where modern positive precipitation anomalies are closely tied to El Niño events. Extreme rainfall events occurring on both sides of the tropical Pacific on centennial timescales may indicate that both El Niño and La Niña activity were higher during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the most recent two centuries, when radiative forcing was high, and that ENSO activity was reduced during the Little Ice Age, when radiative forcing was weak.

  8. Stability of ENSO and Its Tropical Pacific Teleconnections over the Last Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Sophie; Legrande, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Determining past changes in the amplitude, frequency and teleconnections of the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is important for understanding its potential sensitivity to future anthropogenic climate change. Palaeo-reconstructions from proxy records provide long-term information of ENSO interactions with the background climatic state through time. However, it remains unclear how ENSO characteristics have changed through time, and precisely which signals proxies record. Proxy interpretations are underpinned by the assumption of stationarity in relationships between local and remote climates, and often utilise archives from single locations located in the Pacific Ocean to reconstruct ENSO histories. Here, we investigate the stationarity of ENSO teleconnections using the Last Millennium experiment of CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) (Taylor et al., 2012). We show that modelled ENSO characteristics vary on decadal- to centennial-scales, resulting from internal variability and external forcings, such as tropical volcanic eruptions. Furthermore, the relationship between ENSO conditions and local climates across the Pacific basin varies throughout the Last Millennium. Results show the stability of teleconnections is regionally dependent and proxies may reveal complex changes in teleconnected patterns, rather than large-scale changes in base ENSO characteristics. As such, proxy insights into ENSO likely require evidence to be synthesised over large spatial areas in order to deconvolve changes occurring in the NINO3.4 region from those pertaining to proxy-relevant local climatic variables. To obtain robust histories of the ENSO and its remote impacts, we recommend interpretations of proxy records should be considered in conjunction with palaeo-reconstructions from within the Central Pacific

  9. Pacific and Atlantic influences on Mesoamerican climate over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D. W.; Burnette, D. J.; Diaz, J. Villanueva; Heim, R. R.; Fye, F. K.; Paredes, J. Cerano; Soto, R. Acuna; Cleaveland, M. K.

    2012-09-01

    A new tree-ring reconstruction of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for Mesoamerica from AD 771 to 2008 identifies megadroughts more severe and sustained than any witnessed during the twentieth century. Correlation analyses indicate strong forcing of instrumental and reconstructed June PDSI over Mesoamerica from the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Spectral analyses of the 1,238-year reconstruction indicate significant concentrations of variance at ENSO, sub-decadal, bi-decadal, and multidecadal timescales. Instrumental and model-based analyses indicate that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation is important to warm season climate variability over Mexico. Ocean-atmospheric variability in the Atlantic is not strongly correlated with the June PDSI reconstruction during the instrumental era, but may be responsible for the strong multidecadal variance detected in the reconstruction episodically over the past millennium. June drought indices in Mesoamerica are negatively correlated with gridded June PDSI over the United States from 1950 to 2005, based on both instrumental and reconstructed data. Interannual variability in this latitudinal moisture gradient is due in part to ENSO forcing, where warm events favor wet June PDSI conditions over the southern US and northern Mexico, but dryness over central and southern Mexico (Mesoamerica). Strong anti-phasing between multidecadal regimes of tree-ring reconstructed June PDSI over Mesoamerica and reconstructed summer (JJA) PDSI over the Southwest has also been detected episodically over the past millennium, including the 1950-1960s when La Niña and warm Atlantic SSTs prevailed, and the 1980-1990s when El Niño and cold Atlantic SSTs prevailed. Several Mesoamerican megadroughts are reconstructed when wetness prevailed over the Southwest, including the early tenth century Terminal Classic Drought, implicating El Niño and Atlantic SSTs in this intense and widespread drought that may have contributed to social

  10. Florida Current surface temperature and salinity variability during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, David C.; Curry, William

    2006-06-01

    The salinity and temperature of the Florida Current are key parameters affecting the transport of heat into the North Atlantic, yet little is known about their variability on centennial timescales. Here we report replicated, high-resolution foraminiferal records of Florida Current surface hydrography for the last millennium from two coring sites, Dry Tortugas and the Great Bahama Bank. The oxygen isotopic composition of Florida Current surface water (δ18Ow) near Dry Tortugas increased 0.4‰ during the course of the Little Ice Age (LIA) (˜1200-1850 A.D.), equivalent to a salinity increase of 0.8-1.5. On the Great Bahama Bank, where surface waters are influenced by the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, δ18Ow increased by 0.3‰ during the last 200 years. Although a portion (˜0.1‰) of this shift may be an artifact of anthropogenically driven changes in surface water ΣCO2, the remaining δ18Ow signal implies a 0.4-1 increase in salinity after 200 years B.P. The simplest explanation of the δ18Ow data is southward migration of the Atlantic Hadley circulation during the LIA. Scaling of the δ18Ow records to salinity using the modern low-latitude δ18Ow-S slope produces an unrealistic reversal in the salinity gradient between the two sites. Only if δ18Ow is scaled to salinity using a high-latitude δ18Ow-S slope can the records be reconciled. Variable atmospheric 14C paralleled Dry Tortugas δ18Ow, suggesting that solar irradiance paced centennial-scale migration of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone and changes in Florida Current salinity during the last millennium.

  11. Indian Summer Monsoon Variability and its Physical Mechanisms in the last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanski, S.; Hanf, F.; Befort, D.; Menzel, F.; Cubasch, U.; Leckebusch, G. C.

    2012-04-01

    The last Millennium is the best documented climate period affected by variations in external forcing and an internal variability in the highly nonlinear climate system. According to that the Indian Summer Monsoon and its high variability on different time scales plays an important role, studied in the interdisciplinary HIMPAC project (Himalaya - Modern and Past Climates). In order to understand the forcing mechanisms, feedbacks and amplifiers concerning monsoon variability of the last 1000 years, the five ensemble members of the full forced simulation of the Millennium experiment (Jungclaus, J. et al., 2010), using the coupled COSMOS Earth System Model (ECHAM5/JSBACH-MPIOM/HAMOCC) in a T31L19 spatial resolution, have been statistically analyzed to detect strong wet and dry periods of monsoonal rainfall due to interannual rainfall anomalies and special monsoon indices within the South Asian Monsoon region. Later the selected periods of extreme rainfall events have been simulated in a higher spatial resolution with the uncoupled atmosphere version of COSMOS Earth System Model (ECHAM5) in a T63L31 resolution. The focus is on the monsoon variability of 200-years-long time slices within the Medieval Climate Optimum (900-1100 AD), the Little Ice Age (1500-1700 AD) and the Preindustrial (1800-2000). A comparison with paleoclimatic reconstructions from Dandak and Jhumar cave record (Sinha, A. et al., 2011) helps to verify the model results, and the model has been used to check the consistency of the proxy data. I addition high resolution regional climate model simulations with COSMO-CLM will be carried out for the selected time slices driven by the ECHAM5 simulation results.

  12. A THOUSAND SHADOWS OF ANDROMEDA: ROTATING PLANES OF SATELLITES IN THE MILLENNIUM-II COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Neil G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Conn, Anthony; Elahi, Pascal; Arias, Veronica; Fernando, Nuwanthika

    2014-03-20

    In a recent contribution, Bahl and Baumgardt investigated the incidence of planar alignments of satellite galaxies in the Millennium-II simulation and concluded that vast, thin planes of dwarf galaxies, similar to that observed in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), occur frequently by chance in Λ-cold dark matter cosmology. However, their analysis did not capture the essential fact that the observed alignment is simultaneously radially extended, yet thin, and kinematically unusual. With the caveat that the Millennium-II simulation may not have sufficient mass resolution to identify confidently simulacra of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, we re-examine that simulation for planar structures, using the same method as employed by Ibata et al. on the real M31 satellites. We find that 0.04% of host galaxies display satellite alignments that are at least as extreme as the observations, when we consider their extent, thickness, and number of members rotating in the same sense. We further investigate the angular momentum properties of the co-planar satellites, and find that the median of the specific angular momentum derived from the line-of-sight velocities in the real M31 structure (1.3 × 10{sup 4} km s{sup –1} kpc) is very high compared to systems drawn from the simulations. This analysis confirms that it is highly unlikely that the observed structure around the Andromeda galaxy is due to a chance occurrence. Interestingly, the few extreme systems that are similar to M31 arise from the accretion of a massive sub-halo with its own spatially concentrated entourage of orphan satellites.

  13. Modeling of severe persistent droughts over eastern China during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.; Shen, C.; Cheng, H.; Xu, Y.

    2014-05-01

    We use proxy data and modeled data from 1000 year model simulations with a variety of climate forcings to examine the occurrence of severe event of persistent drought over eastern China during the last millennium and diagnose the mechanisms. Results show that the model was able to roughly simulate most of these droughts over the study area during the last millennium such as those that occurred during the periods of 1123-1152, 1197-1223, 1353-1363, 1428-1449, 1479-1513, and 1632-1645. Our analyses suggest that these six well-captured droughts may caused by the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) weakening. Study on the wavelet transform and spectral analysis reveals these events occurred all at the statistically significant 15-35-year timescale. A modeled data intercomparison suggests the possibility that solar activity may be the primary driver in the occurrence of the 1129-1144, 1354-1365, 1466-1491 and 1631-1648 droughts as identified by the model. However another possibility that these events may be related to internal variability cannot be excluded. Although the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) plays an important role in monsoon variability, a temporally consistent relationship between the droughts and SST pattern in the Pacific Ocean could not be found either in the modeled or proxy data. Our analyses also indicate that large volcanic eruptions play a role as an amplifier in the drought of 1631-1648 and caused the droughts of 1830-1853 and 1958-1976, which was identified by the model.

  14. Enhanced Formation Flying for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) New Millennium Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Quinn, David

    1997-01-01

    With scientific objectives for Earth observation programs becoming more ambitious and spacecraft becoming more autonomous, the need for new technical approaches on the feasibility of achieving and maintaining formations of spacecraft has come to the forefront. The trend to develop small low cost spacecraft has led many scientists to recognize the advantage of flying several spacecraft in formation, an example of which is shown in the figure below, to achieve the correlated instrument measurements formerly possible only by flying many instruments on a single large platform. Yet, formation flying imposes additional complications on orbit maintenance, especially when each spacecraft has its own orbit requirements. However, advances in automation proposed by GSFC Codes 550 and 712 allow more of the burden in maneuver planning and execution to be placed onboard the spacecraft, mitigating some of the associated operational concerns. The purpose of this analysis is to develop the fundamentals of formation flying mechanics, concepts for understanding the relative motion of free flying spacecraft, and an operational control theory for formation maintenance of the Earth Observing-1 (EO-l) spacecraft that is part of the New Millennium. Results of this development can be used to determine the appropriateness of formation flying for a particular case as well as the operational impacts. Applications to the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) Earth Observing System (EOS) and New Millennium (NM) were highly considered in analysis and applications. This paper presents the proposed methods for the guidance and control of the EO-1 spacecraft to formation fly with the Landsat-7 spacecraft using an autonomous closed loop three axis navigation control, GPS, and Cross link navigation support. Simulation results using various fidelity levels of modeling, algorithms developed and implemented in MATLAB, and autonomous 'fuzzy logic' control using AutoCon will be presented. The results of these

  15. The Epidemiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in the US Military: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark S; Welsh, Marleen; Porter, Chad K; Nieh, Chiping; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary; Hooper, Tomoko I

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Functional gastrointestinal disorders occur more frequently among deployed veterans, although studies evaluating the relative impact of risk factors, including stress and antecedent infectious gastroenteritis (IGE), are limited. We examined risk factors for new-onset irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) among active duty participants in the military's Millennium Cohort Study. METHODS: Medical encounter data from 2001 to 2009, limited to Cohort members on active duty, were used to identify incident IBS cases (any and highly probable). IGE was identified using medical encounter or self-report. Covariate data were obtained from the Millennium Cohort Study surveys and analyzed using Cox proportional hazards methods. RESULTS: Overall, 41,175 Cohort members met the eligibility criteria for inclusion and 314 new-onset cases of IBS were identified among these. Significant risk factors (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval) included antecedent IGE (2.05, 1.53–2.75), female gender (1.96, 1.53–2.52), number of life stressors (1: 1.82, 1.37–2.41; 2: 2.86, 2.01–4.06; 3+: 6.69, 4.59–9.77), and anxiety syndrome (1.74, 1.17–2.58). Limited to highly probable IBS, a stronger association with antecedent IGE was observed, particularly when based on medical encounter records (any IGE: 2.20, 1.10–4.43; medical encounter IGE only: 2.84, 1.33–6.09). Precedent anxiety or depression and IGE interacted with increased IBS risk compared with IGE alone. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm previous studies on the association between sociodemographic or life stressors and IBS. IGE was significantly associated with IBS risk. Whether deployed or not, US service members often encounter repeated exposure to high levels of stress, which, combined with other environmental factors such as IGE, may result in long-term debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26729548

  16. A Thousand Shadows of Andromeda: Rotating Planes of Satellites in the Millennium-II Cosmological Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Ibata, Neil G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Conn, Anthony; Elahi, Pascal; Arias, Veronica; Fernando, Nuwanthika

    2014-03-01

    In a recent contribution, Bahl & Baumgardt investigated the incidence of planar alignments of satellite galaxies in the Millennium-II simulation and concluded that vast, thin planes of dwarf galaxies, similar to that observed in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), occur frequently by chance in Λ-cold dark matter cosmology. However, their analysis did not capture the essential fact that the observed alignment is simultaneously radially extended, yet thin, and kinematically unusual. With the caveat that the Millennium-II simulation may not have sufficient mass resolution to identify confidently simulacra of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, we re-examine that simulation for planar structures, using the same method as employed by Ibata et al. on the real M31 satellites. We find that 0.04% of host galaxies display satellite alignments that are at least as extreme as the observations, when we consider their extent, thickness, and number of members rotating in the same sense. We further investigate the angular momentum properties of the co-planar satellites, and find that the median of the specific angular momentum derived from the line-of-sight velocities in the real M31 structure (1.3 × 104 km s-1 kpc) is very high compared to systems drawn from the simulations. This analysis confirms that it is highly unlikely that the observed structure around the Andromeda galaxy is due to a chance occurrence. Interestingly, the few extreme systems that are similar to M31 arise from the accretion of a massive sub-halo with its own spatially concentrated entourage of orphan satellites.

  17. ENSO teleconnections with Australian rainfall in coupled model simulations of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Josephine R.; Hope, Pandora; Gergis, Joelle; Henley, Benjamin J.

    2016-07-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the major source of interannual rainfall variability in the Australian region, with the strongest influence over eastern Australia. The strength of this regional ENSO-rainfall teleconnection varies in the observational record. Climate model simulations of the "last millennium" (850-1850 C.E.) can be used to quantify the natural variability of the relationship between ENSO and Australian rainfall on decadal and longer time scales, providing a baseline for evaluating future projections. In this study, historical and last millennium (LM) simulations from six models were obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 3. All models reproduce the observed negative correlation between September to February (SONDJF) eastern Australian rainfall and the NINO3.4 index, with varying skill. In the LM simulations, all models produce decadal-scale cooling over eastern Australia in response to volcanic forcing, as well as a long-term cooling trend. Rainfall variability over the same region is not strongly driven by external forcing, with each model simulating rainfall anomalies of different phase and magnitude. SONDJF eastern Australian rainfall is strongly correlated with ENSO in the LM simulations for all models, although some models simulate periods when the teleconnection weakens substantially for several decades. Changes in ENSO variance play a role in modulating the teleconnection strength, but are not the only factor. The long-term average spatial pattern of the ENSO-Australian rainfall teleconnection is similar in the LM and historical simulations, although the spatial pattern varies over time in the LM simulations.

  18. Earliest evidence for cheese making in the sixth millennium BC in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Salque, Mélanie; Bogucki, Peter I; Pyzel, Joanna; Sobkowiak-Tabaka, Iwona; Grygiel, Ryszard; Szmyt, Marzena; Evershed, Richard P

    2013-01-24

    The introduction of dairying was a critical step in early agriculture, with milk products being rapidly adopted as a major component of the diets of prehistoric farmers and pottery-using late hunter-gatherers. The processing of milk, particularly the production of cheese, would have been a critical development because it not only allowed the preservation of milk products in a non-perishable and transportable form, but also it made milk a more digestible commodity for early prehistoric farmers. The finding of abundant milk residues in pottery vessels from seventh millennium sites from north-western Anatolia provided the earliest evidence of milk processing, although the exact practice could not be explicitly defined. Notably, the discovery of potsherds pierced with small holes appear at early Neolithic sites in temperate Europe in the sixth millennium BC and have been interpreted typologically as 'cheese-strainers', although a direct association with milk processing has not yet been demonstrated. Organic residues preserved in pottery vessels have provided direct evidence for early milk use in the Neolithic period in the Near East and south-eastern Europe, north Africa, Denmark and the British Isles, based on the δ(13)C and Δ(13)C values of the major fatty acids in milk. Here we apply the same approach to investigate the function of sieves/strainer vessels, providing direct chemical evidence for their use in milk processing. The presence of abundant milk fat in these specialized vessels, comparable in form to modern cheese strainers, provides compelling evidence for the vessels having being used to separate fat-rich milk curds from the lactose-containing whey. This new evidence emphasizes the importance of pottery vessels in processing dairy products, particularly in the manufacture of reduced-lactose milk products among lactose-intolerant prehistoric farming communities. PMID:23235824

  19. Preliminary multiproxy surface air temperature field reconstruction for China over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feng; Yang, Bao; Von Gunten, Lucien

    2013-04-01

    We present the first millennial-length gridded field reconstruction of annual temperature for China, and analyze the reconstruction for spatiotemporal changes and associated uncertainties, based on a network of 415 well-distributed and accurately dated climatic proxy series. The new reconstruction method is a modified form of the point-by-point regression (PPR) approach. The main difference is the incorporation of the "composite plus scale" (CPS) and "Regularized errors-in-variables" (EIV) algorithms to allow for the assimilation of various types of the proxy data. Furthermore, the search radius is restricted to a grid size; this restriction helps effectively exclude proxy data possibly correlated with temperature but belonging to a different climate region. The results indicate that: 1) the past temperature record in China is spatially heterogenic, with variable correlations between cells in time; 2) the late 20th century warming in China probably exceeds mean temperature levels at any period of the past 1000 years, but the temperature anomalies of some grids in eastern China during the Medieval climate anomaly period are warmer than during the modern warming; 3) the climatic variability in the eastern and western regions of China was not synchronous during much of the last millennium, probably due to the influence of the Tibetan Plateau. Our temperature reconstruction may serve as a reference to test simulation results over the past millennium, and help to finely analyze the spatial characteristics and the driving mechanism of the past temperature variability. However, the lower reconstruction skill scores for some grid points underline that the present set of available proxy data series is not yet sufficient to accurately reconstruct the heterogeneous climate of China in all regions, and that there is the need for more highly resolved temperature proxies, particularly in the Tibetan Plateau.

  20. Hemispherically Asymmetric Volcanic Forcing of Tropical Hydroclimate During the Last Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colose, Christopher M.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic aerosols exert the most important natural radiative forcing of the last millennium. State-of-the-art paleoclimate simulations of this interval are typically forced with diverse spatial patterns of volcanic forcing, leading to different responses in tropical hydroclimate. Recently, theoretical considerations relating the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) position to the demands of global energy balance have emerged in the literature, allowing for a connection to be made between the paleoclimate simulations and recent developments in the understanding of ITCZ dynamics. These energetic considerations aid in explaining the well-known historical, paleoclimatic, and modeling evidence that the ITCZ migrates away from the hemisphere that is energetically deficient in response to asymmetric forcing. Here we use two separate general circulation model (GCM) suites of experiments for the last millennium to relate the ITCZ position to asymmetries in prescribed volcanic sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere and related asymmetric radiative forcing. We discuss the ITCZ shift in the context of atmospheric energetics and discuss the ramifications of transient ITCZ migrations for other sensitive indicators of changes in the tropical hydrologic cycle, including global streamflow. For the first time, we also offer insight into the large-scale fingerprint of water isotopologues in precipitation (delta sup 18 Op) in response to asymmetries in radiative forcing. The ITCZ shifts away from the hemisphere with greater volcanic forcing. Since the isotopic composition of precipitation in the ITCZ is relatively depleted compared to areas outside this zone, this meridional precipitation migration results in a large-scale enrichment (depletion) in the isotopic composition of tropical precipitation in regions the ITCZ moves away from (toward). Our results highlight the need for careful consideration of the spatial structure of volcanic forcing for interpreting volcanic signals in

  1. 78 FR 20628 - Wireless Metering Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wireless Metering Challenge AGENCY: Office of Energy... (EERE) requests comments on the draft version of the Wireless Power Meter Challenge Specification. This... development of new technologies in the wireless electric metering space. DATES: Comments on the Wireless...

  2. US agency for international development

    SciTech Connect

    Pumfrey, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

  3. 32 CFR 1907.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 1907.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE... the Agency Release Panel shall respond on behalf of the Panel and deny any challenge where...

  4. The lagoon at Caroline/Millennium atoll, Republic of Kiribati: natural history of a nearly pristine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barott, Katie L; Caselle, Jennifer E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Friedlander, Alan M; Maragos, James E; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef

  5. The Lagoon at Caroline/Millennium Atoll, Republic of Kiribati: Natural History of a Nearly Pristine Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Barott, Katie L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Maragos, James E.; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Zgliczynski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef

  6. The International Atomic Energy Agency and world nuclear order

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinman, L.

    1987-01-01

    In this book, the author assesses the structure and functions of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), identifies key issues confronting the agency today, and offers recommendations for dealing with the challenges it faces. The author traces the background and origins of the IAEA from the Baruch Plan, through Atoms for Peace, to negotiations resulting in the establishment of the agency. He also describes special structural characteristics of the agency and their evolution - in particular, the board of governors, the general conference, and the secretariat.

  7. Linking an agency strategic review to increase knowledge management: San Francisco County Human Service Agency.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Led by the agency director, the agency engaged in a Strategic Review, based on a comprehensive assessment of agency performance that identified strategies to improve organizational effectiveness through increased data-informed practice and knowledge management. The Strategic Review gathered information on staff perceptions, perceptions of external stakeholders, changing citywide and neighborhood demographics, policy mandates, and budget and workload issues. The need for the review was based upon multiple, substantial changes not addressed in the 2000 Strategic Plan, including the 2004 merger of the Department of Human Services and the Department of Aging and Adult Services, changes among the executive management team, transitions among key political entities, new policy mandates and changing budget allocations. This case study describes the Strategic Review process and content, summarizing key challenges and lessons related to addressing workload demands, fostering positive staff attitudes, balancing internal and external information needs, and integrating data use and planning processes across the agency. PMID:22409611

  8. Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael

    2004-01-01

    All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…

  9. Quill Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Teaching high school students the "grammar" of art--the principles and elements of art and design--while also teaching them about creativity and concept can be difficult. This author has found that combining beginning lessons in line, shape, value, texture, form, and color with projects requiring innovation and inspiration, though challenging, is…

  10. Environmental challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility.

  11. Glacier variations in the Northern Caucasus compared to climatic reconstructions over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomina, Olga; Bushueva, Irina; Dolgova, Ekaterina; Jomelli, Vincent; Alexandrin, Mikhail; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Matskovsky, Vladimir

    2016-05-01

    In the Northern Caucasus, glacier and climatic variations over the past centuries remain insufficiently documented. In this review, we summarized the high-resolution information on glacier and climate fluctuations in the region for the past millennium and provided a synthesis of these two lines of evidence with respect to regional climate change. The key areas considered in the paper are the Elbrus area, the Teberda and Arkhyz valleys in the Western Caucasus and the Cherek Bezengiisky and Tsey valleys in the Eastern Caucasus, where the most paleoclimatic evidence has been retrieved. We focused on the fluctuation records of the ten glaciers that are best documented. To reconstruct changes in glacier length in the past, we used aerial photos, optical space images, repeated photographs and old maps. The ages of moraines were defined with the help of instrumental records, historical images, old maps, and tree-ring dating. Lichenometry was used as a supplementary tool to determine the relative ages of glacial landforms. We reviewed the collection of control points used for the lichenometric curves and determined the time limit of potential use of this method in the Caucasus to be up to one millennium. High-resolution tree-ring-based hydroclimatic reconstructions in the Northern Caucasus are presented based on the reconstruction of June-September temperature (1595-2012 CE), the mass balance reconstruction of the Garabashi Glacier (1800-2008 CE) and the runoff of the Teberda River (low-frequency variations) for May, July and August for 1850-2005 CE. The synthesis of all the available paleoclimatic records revealed several distinct climatic periods. Evidence of a warm interval (traditionally referred to as the "Arkhyz break in glaciation") preceding the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the Caucasus is based on archeological, palynological, geochemical and pedological data. However, the conclusions concerning the duration and magnitude of this warming are still vague due to the low

  12. Design of RTPV generators integrated with new millennium spacecraft for outer solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    1996-03-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's recently inaugurated New Millennium program, with its emphasis on miniaturized spacecraft, has generated interest in a low-power (10- to 30-watt), low-mass, high-efficiency RTPV (Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic) power system. This led to a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored design study of such a system, which was assigned to OSC (formerly Fairchild) personnel, who have been conducting similar studies of a 75-watt RTPV system with very encouraging results. The 75-watt design employed two 250-watt General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules that DOE had previously developed and safety-qualified for various space missions. These modules were too large for the small RTPVs described in this paper. To minimize the need for new development and safety verification studies, OSC generated derivative designs for 125-watt and 62.5-watt heat source modules containing identical fuel pellets, clads, impact shell, and thermal insulation. OSC also generated a novel heat source support scheme to reduce the heat losses through the structural supports, and a new and much simpler radiator structure, employing no honeycombs or heat pipes. OSC's previous RTPV study had been based on the use of GaSb PV cells and spectrally selective IR filters that had been partially developed and characterized by Boeing (now EDTEK) personnel, who had supplied us with spectral data on filter reflectivities and cell quantum efficiencies. Because of the very encouraging results of our system design studies, OSC in the fall of 1994 initiated an experimental program at EDTEK to develop improved filters and cells, to demonstrate how much improvement can actually be achieved. OSC requested that first priority be given to filter improvements, because our system studies indicated that improved filters would have a much greater effect on system performance than cell improvements. By September 1995 EDTEK had achieved about 94% of the filter performance

  13. Federal Law on Consumer Deception: An Agency by Agency Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweibel, George J.

    A comprehensive analysis of statutes and regulations on consumer deception administered by thirty government agencies is provided in this report. Each agency's chapter includes a brief description of the agency, and a detailed listing of all deceptive trade practices prohibited by that agency's enabling legislation, regulations, or other sources…

  14. 10 CFR 607.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agency or agency. 607.645 Section 607.645 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the...

  15. Determining temperature changes in Western Iceland over the last millennium: issues and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caseldine, Chris; Langdon, Peter; Holmes, Naomi; Thompson, Gareth; Wastegard, Stefan; Larsen, Gudrun; Davies, Siwan; Leng, Melanie; Croudace, Ian

    2010-05-01

    High resolution multi-proxy studies of a core from Baulárvallavatn, western Iceland provide a record of climatic changes since the deposition of the Landnám tephra deposited in AD870±2. Derivation of the climate record has encountered a series of issues relating both to chronology and to proxy interpretation; but a millennial sequence of chironomid-based temperature change has been produced. Chronologically problems relate both to radiocarbon dating and tephrochronology. The lake is surrounded by loessial soils that have suffered from erosion, especially following settlement (the sedimentation rate in the lake has increased from 0.014mm yr-1 pre-settlement to 0.05mm yr-1 post-settlement). This has involved redeposition of both old carbon and tephra shards from earlier eruptions into the sediment. Thus post-Landnám radiocarbon dates are all relatively uniform between 2405-2155±30 BP. The high background levels of tephra made determination of specific post-Landnám horizons extremely difficult. Following over 550 individual shard analyses, and coupled with 137Cs dating of the uppermost sediments an age depth model was produced for the last millennium to provide a chronology for the climate proxies. Chironomid analyses at a resolution of c.10 yrs per sample showed a climatic response that is seen in the first axis of the PCA, rather than the Icelandic chironomid-July air temperature transfer function. The PCA axis correlates with winter/spring and autumn temperatures, possibly reflecting a response to summer season length rather than the expected response to July temperature. However, this has yet to be calibrated in more specific quantitative terms. The core was also subjected to ITRAX scanning; which identified key tephra horizons and reflected the relative consistency of sediment deposition over the last millennium. Oxygen isotope analyses of a limited number of diatom samples have also been undertaken and are the subject of continued research, as is diatom

  16. The Future of Small Telescopes In The New Millennium. Volume I - Perceptions, Productivities, and Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswalt, T. D.

    2003-06-01

    An invaluable reference for any student, scientist or administrator, using small telescopes for research. An essential collection of data and opinions for those charged with setting scientific and funding priorities. This three-volume set, The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium details the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and how their future productivity can be maximized. Over 70 experts from all corners of the international astronomical community have created a definitive reference on the present and future of "big science with small telescopes." Despite highly publicized closures of telescopes smaller than 4-m in aperture at national facilities and their omission from national science priority studies, the oft-lamented demise of the small telescope has been greatly exaggerated. In fact, the future of these workhorses of astronomy will be brighter than ever if creative steps are taken now. This three-volume set defines the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and the ways in which a productive future for them can be realized. A wide cross-section of the astronomical community has contributed to a definitive assessment of the present and a vision for the future. Volume 1: Perceptions, Productivities, and Policies Beginning with a summary of recent national scientific priority-setting efforts, Volume 1 examines the public's and the astronomical community's own perceptions of and misconceptions about small telescope productivity. These shape the future scientific research that will be done with telescopes smaller than 4-m in aperture, and the number of astronomers that will have access to them. The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium is a fundamental resource for those looking to undertake new projects with small telescopes, for those that are responsible for their operation, and for those called upon to help set scientific priorities for the coming decade. It

  17. Simulated cold events in the northern North Atlantic during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Zanchettin, Davide; Lohmann, Katja; Jungclaus, Johann

    2014-05-01

    Paleoceanographic data show large inter-decadal cold excursions in sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the western subpolar gyre region and north of Iceland throughout the last millennium. A series of such events could have contributed to demise the Norse settlements over Greenland during the 13th to the 15th century due to associated deteriorating environmental conditions in the region. However, spatial extent, attribution and mechanism(s) of these cold events are not known. In this contribution, we use climate model simulations to clarify the role of the ocean and of coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics in triggering these cold events, and to assess whether they can be explained by internal climate variability alone. Specifically, we investigate the North Atlantic-Arctic climate variability in a 1000-year control run describing an unperturbed pre-industrial climate, and in a 3-member ensemble of full-forcing transient simulations of the last millennium. Simulations are performed with the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model for paleo-applications. In the control and transient simulations, we identified cold events of similar amplitude and duration to the reconstructed data. Spatial patterns and temporal evolutions of simulated cold events are similar in both simulation types. In the transient runs, furthermore, they do not robustly coincide with periods of strong external forcing (e.g. of major volcanic eruptions). We therefore conclude that such events can emerge because of internally-generated regional climate variability alone. Local ocean-atmosphere coupled processes in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region appear as key part of the mechanism of simulated cold events. In particular, they are typically associated with the onset of prolonged positive sea-level pressure anomalies over the North Atlantic and associated weaker and south-eastward displaced subpolar gyre. The salt transport reduction by the Irminger Current together with an intensification of the

  18. Modeling of severe persistent droughts over eastern China during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We use proxy data and model data from 1000-yr model simulations with a variety of climate forcings to examine the occurrence of severe events of persistent drought over eastern China during the last millennium and diagnose the mechanisms. Results show that the model was able to simulate many aspects of the low-frequency (periods greater than 10 yr) variations of precipitation over eastern China during the last millennium, including much of the severe persistent droughts such as the 1130s drought, 1200s drought, 1350s drought, 1430s drought, 1480s drought and the drought of the late 1630s-mid 1640s. These six droughts both identified in the proxy data and model data are consistent with each other in terms of drought intensity, duration, and spatial coverage. Our analyses suggest that monsoon circulation can lock into a drought-prone mode that may last for years to decades and supports the suggestion that generally reduced monsoon in East Asia were associated with the land-sea thermal contrast. Study on the wavelet transform and spectral analysis reveals six well-captured events occurred all at the drought stages of statistically significant 15-35 yr time scale. A model data inter-comparison suggests that the solar activity are the primary driver of the 1130s drought, 1350s drought, 1480s drought and the drought of the late 1630s-mid 1640s occurrence, while the drought of 1430s was mainly caused by the internal variability of the climate system. Although the El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) plays an important role in monsoon variability, a temporally consistent relationship between the droughts and SST pattern in Pacific Oceans could not be found in the model. Our analyses also indicate that large volcanic eruptions play as amplifier in the drought of 1635-1645 and caused the model overestimates the decreasing trends in summer precipitation over eastern China during the mid-1830s and the mid-1960s.

  19. A climate simulation of the first millennium AD using a comprehensive Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sebastian; Zorita, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Investigations of past climate using fully coupled comprehensive Earth System Models are restricted by the large computational costs of these simulations. Here we present first results from an on-going simulation with the MPI-ESM-P starting in year 100 BC. The simulation is forced with changes in orbital forcing and long-term solar variations augmented by a synthetic 11-year cycle including an interactive ozone cycle. For the first time also changes in volcanic activity are implemented based on the reconstruction method by Crowley and Unterman (2012). The basis of the extended volcanic forcing in terms of aerosol optical depth and effective radius are new sulfate estimations from ice cores from Greenland (NEEM) and Antarctica (WAIS) presented by Sigl et al. (2013). Because the NEEM record only reaches back as far as 79 AD, the time until 100 BC was filled by earlier information contained in the Dye 3 and GRIP record (Clausen et al., 1997). Compared to the 2nd millennium AD, the first millennium does however show a considerably reduced amount of large explosive tropical eruptions. On hemispheric and global scale the large outbreaks around the years 530 and 740 AD are well reflected as negative temperature anomalies. The 79 AD Vesuvius eruption does not however produce a pronounced hemispheric signal. The amount of sulphate ejected into the stratosphere may have been too low for a sustained hemispheric-scale cooling. The large eruption of 530 AD (so called 'mystic cloud') is however well reflected within the temperature evolution and is more pronounced over the northern hemisphere during summertime. On longer, multi-centennial, time scales, global temperatures show a slight decrease. This decrease is more pronounced over the NH hemisphere during JJA and is caused by the decline in the TOA short wave incoming radiation. Over the extratropical SH changes in orbital forcing are not reflected in temperature trends as clearly as over the NH due to the larger oceanic and

  20. The Future of Small Telescopes In The New Millennium. Volume II - The Telescopes We Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswalt, T. D.

    2003-06-01

    An invaluable reference for any student, scientist or administrator, using small telescopes for research. An essential collection of data and opinions for those charged with setting scientific and funding priorities. This three-volume set, The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium details the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and how their future productivity can be maximized. Over 70 experts from all corners of the international astronomical community have created a definitive reference on the present and future of "big science with small telescopes." Despite highly publicized closures of telescopes smaller than 4-m in aperture at national facilities and their omission from national science priority studies, the oft-lamented demise of the small telescope has been greatly exaggerated. In fact, the future of these workhorses of astronomy will be brighter than ever if creative steps are taken now. This three-volume set defines the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and the ways in which a productive future for them can be realized. A wide cross-section of the astronomical community has contributed to a definitive assessment of the present and a vision for the future. Volume 2: The Telescopes We Use Small cost-effective optical-, radio- and space-based facilities face similar problems in scientific prioritization and funding. Volume 2 highlights how current small facilities are evolving to meet the scientific priorities and economical realities of the 21st century through standardization of instrumentation, use of off-the-shelf technology, specialization, optical improvements, new modes of scheduling, automation, and internet access. The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium is a fundamental resource for those looking to undertake new projects with small telescopes, for those that are responsible for their operation, and for those called upon to help set scientific

  1. Dynamical analysis of the Indian Ocean climate network and its correlation with Australian Millennium Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Laura; Masoller, Cristina; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Ravetti, Martín G.

    2015-04-01

    During the period between the mid-1990s and late 2000s Australia had suffered one of the worst droughts on record. Severe rainfall deficits affected great part of southeast Australia, causing widespread drought conditions and catastrophic bushfires. The "Millennium Drought", as it was called, was unusual in terms of its severity, duration and extent, leaving important environmental and financial damages. One of the most important drivers of Australia climate variability is the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD), that is a coupled ocean and atmosphere phenomenon in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The IOD is measured by an index (DMI) that is the difference between sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the western and eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. Its positive phase is characterized by lower than normal sea surface temperatures in the tropical eastern coast, and higher than normal in the tropical western Indian Ocean. Extreme positive IOD (pIOD) events are associated to severe droughts in countries located over the eastern Indian Ocean, and to severe floods in the western tropical ones. Recent research works projected that the frequency of extreme pIOD events will increase significantly over the twenty-first century and consequently, the frequency of extreme climate conditions in the zones affected by it. In this work we study the dynamics of the Indian Ocean for the period of 1979-2014, by using climate networks of skin temperature and humidity (reanalysis data). Annual networks are constructed by creating links when the Pearson correlation coefficient between two nodes is greater than a specific value. The distance distribution Pd(k), that indicates the fraction of pairs of nodes at distance k, is computed to characterize the dynamics of the network by using Information Theory quantifiers. We found a clear change in the Indian Ocean dynamics and an increment in the network's similarities quantified by the Jensen-Shannon divergence in the late 1990s. We speculate that

  2. Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, J. H.; Lohmann, K.; Zanchettin, D.

    2014-07-01

    Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean-atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations over the last millennium that reproduce and explain reconstructed integrated quantities such as pan-Arctic temperature evolution during the pre-industrial millennium as well as the exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the sub-polar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening sub-polar gyre as a consequence of 20th century global warming is identified as driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

  3. Rapid climate fluctuations over the past millennium: evidence from a lacustrine record of Basomtso Lake, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Wang, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Abrupt climate changes and fluctuations over short time scales are superimposed on long-term climate changes. Understanding rapid climate fluctuations at the decadal time scale over the past millennium will enhance our understanding of patterns of climate variability and aid in forecasting climate changes in the future. In this study, climate changes on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past millennium were determined from a 4.82-m-long sediment core from Basomtso Lake. At the centennial time scale, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), Little Ice Age (LIA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) are distinct in the Basomtso region. Rapid climate fluctuations inferred from five episodes with higher sediment input and likely warmer conditions, as well as seven episodes with lower sediment input and likely colder conditions, were well preserved in our record. These episodes with higher and lower sediment input are characterized by abrupt climate changes and short time durations. Spectral analysis indicates that the climate variations at the centennial scale on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau are influenced by solar activity during the past millennium. PMID:27091591

  4. Rapid climate fluctuations over the past millennium: evidence from a lacustrine record of Basomtso Lake, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Wang, Yongbo

    2016-04-01

    Abrupt climate changes and fluctuations over short time scales are superimposed on long-term climate changes. Understanding rapid climate fluctuations at the decadal time scale over the past millennium will enhance our understanding of patterns of climate variability and aid in forecasting climate changes in the future. In this study, climate changes on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past millennium were determined from a 4.82-m-long sediment core from Basomtso Lake. At the centennial time scale, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), Little Ice Age (LIA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) are distinct in the Basomtso region. Rapid climate fluctuations inferred from five episodes with higher sediment input and likely warmer conditions, as well as seven episodes with lower sediment input and likely colder conditions, were well preserved in our record. These episodes with higher and lower sediment input are characterized by abrupt climate changes and short time durations. Spectral analysis indicates that the climate variations at the centennial scale on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau are influenced by solar activity during the past millennium.

  5. Rapid climate fluctuations over the past millennium: evidence from a lacustrine record of Basomtso Lake, southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Wang, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Abrupt climate changes and fluctuations over short time scales are superimposed on long-term climate changes. Understanding rapid climate fluctuations at the decadal time scale over the past millennium will enhance our understanding of patterns of climate variability and aid in forecasting climate changes in the future. In this study, climate changes on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past millennium were determined from a 4.82-m-long sediment core from Basomtso Lake. At the centennial time scale, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), Little Ice Age (LIA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) are distinct in the Basomtso region. Rapid climate fluctuations inferred from five episodes with higher sediment input and likely warmer conditions, as well as seven episodes with lower sediment input and likely colder conditions, were well preserved in our record. These episodes with higher and lower sediment input are characterized by abrupt climate changes and short time durations. Spectral analysis indicates that the climate variations at the centennial scale on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau are influenced by solar activity during the past millennium. PMID:27091591

  6. The influence of external forcing on subdecadal variability of regional surface temperature in CMIP5 simulations of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thanh; Sjolte, Jesper; Muscheler, Raimund

    2016-02-01

    We use Granger causality to investigate the influences of external forcings on subdecadal variability of regional near-surface air temperature (SAT) in past millennium simulations (period 850-1850 A.D.) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Our results strengthen the conclusion for robust influence of volcanic forcing on SAT during preindustrial times of the last millennium. The SAT response to solar variations is detected in tropical and subtropical regions. In other regions, this response is weak. The impact of greenhouse gases (GHGs) radiative forcing to regional SAT is weak and uncertain. This is most probably due to the low amplitude of the variations in GHGs and hence weak GHGs forcing during the preindustrial millennium. The low agreement between models in simulating the impacts of solar variations on SAT in several regions suggests the different dynamical responses in these models, possibly associated with inaccurate parameterization of the processes related to solar forcing. Our analysis suggests that internal climate variability played a more significant role than external forcings in short-term SAT variability in the regions of the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, the Arctic, the Antarctic Peninsula, and its surrounding oceans. The possibility of long-term impacts of external forcings on SAT and the uncertainties that might be contained due to effects of internal climate modes other than El Niño-Southern Oscillation underscore the necessity for a more detailed understanding of the dynamical response of SAT to external forcings.

  7. 77 FR 38127 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments for a New Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... projects. The survey will also help identify challenges and barriers state DOTs and local agencies face... agencies face many challenges and barriers when identifying, prioritizing, developing, and implementing safety projects on local roads. The requested information collection, in the form of an on-line...

  8. 32 CFR 1907.25 - Action on appeal of initial Agency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Action on appeal of initial Agency determination. 1907.25 Section 1907.25 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SEC. 1.8 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 13526 Action on Challenges...

  9. Youth Media and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauge, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…

  10. Metacognition of Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Janet; Greene, Matthew Jason

    2007-01-01

    The feeling that we are agents, intentionally making things happen by our own actions, is foundational to our understanding of ourselves as humans. People's metacognitions of agency were investigated in 4 experiments. Participants played a game in which they tried to touch downward scrolling Xs and avoid touching Os. Variables that affected…

  11. Other Federal Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design and Environment, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Briefly reviews the man-environment research sponsored by these eight government agencies: Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Interior, Justice, the Office of Economic Opportunity, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Science Foundation. The Man-Environment Research survey report was the source of…

  12. Strengthening Career Human Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    Rooted in A. Bandura's (1982, 2001b) social cognitive theory, the notion of human agency has received considerable attention in vocational and career psychology for the last 2 decades, especially with the recent emergence of social constructivist thinking in the field. This article continues in the same direction. In reviewing the notion of human…

  13. Metacognition of agency.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Janet; Greene, Matthew Jason

    2007-05-01

    The feeling that we are agents, intentionally making things happen by our own actions, is foundational to our understanding of ourselves as humans. People's metacognitions of agency were investigated in 4 experiments. Participants played a game in which they tried to touch downward scrolling Xs and avoid touching Os. Variables that affected accuracy included speed of the scroll, density of the targets, and feedback. Of central interest were variables directed not only at accuracy but also at people's control: the turbulence of the cursor and how close the cursor had to come to the target for a hit (i.e., "magic"). After each trial, people made judgments of agency or judgments of performance. People were selectively sensitive to the variables to which they should be responsive in agency monitoring--whether the cursor moved in close synchrony to their movements and whether targets disappeared by magic. People knew, separably from their objective or judged performance, when they were in control and when they were not. These results indicate that people can sensitively monitor their own agency. PMID:17500645

  14. 32 CFR 1907.24 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF... Director for Administration has designated the Agency Release Panel and the Historical Records Policy Board, established pursuant to 32 CFR 1900.41, as the Agency authority to hear and decide challenges under...

  15. 32 CFR 1907.24 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF... Director for Administration has designated the Agency Release Panel and the Historical Records Policy Board, established pursuant to 32 CFR 1900.41, as the Agency authority to hear and decide challenges under...

  16. 78 FR 57885 - Report on the Criteria and Methodology for Determining the Eligibility of Candidate Countries for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Millennium Challenge Account Assistance in Fiscal Year 2014 AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. ACTION... Account Assistance in Fiscal Year 2014 Summary This report to Congress is provided in accordance with... selected as eligible for MCA compact assistance for fiscal year (FY) 2014 based on the...

  17. Normativity, agency, and life.

    PubMed

    Barham, James

    2012-03-01

    There is an immense philosophical literature dealing with the notions of normativity and agency, as well as a sizeable and rapidly growing scientific literature on the topic of autonomous agents. However, there has been very little cross-fertilization between these two literatures. As a result, the philosophical literature tends to assume a somewhat outdated mechanistic image of living things, resulting in a quasi-dualistic picture in which only human beings, or the higher animals, can be normative agents properly speaking. From this perspective, the project of 'naturalizing normativity' becomes almost a contradiction in terms. At the same time, the scientific literature tends to misuse 'normativity,' 'agency,' and related terms, assuming that it is meaningful to ascribe these concepts to 'autonomous agents' conceived of as physical systems whose behavior is to be explained in terms of ordinary physical law. From this perspective, the true depth of the difficulty involved in understanding what makes living systems distinctive qua physical systems becomes occluded. In this essay, I begin the attempt to remedy this situation. After some preliminary discussion of terminology and situating of my project within the contemporary philosophical landscape, I make a distinction between two different aspects of the project of naturalizing normativity: (1) the 'Scope Problem,' which consists in saying how widely in nature our concept of normative agency may properly be applied; and (2) the 'Ground Problem,' which consists in rationalizing the phenomenon of normative agency in terms of the rest of our knowledge of nature. Then, in the remainder of this paper, I argue that the Scope Problem ought to be resolved in favor of attributing normative agency, in the proper sense of those words, to living things as such. The Ground Problem will be discussed in a companion paper at a later time. PMID:22326078

  18. Ethnic differences in children's socioemotional difficulties: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Zilanawala, Afshin; Sacker, Amanda; Nazroo, James; Kelly, Yvonne

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates ethnic differences in children's socioemotional difficulties and possible explanations for any observed inequalities. We used data collected from the fourth sweep of the Millennium Cohort Study when children were aged 7 years. We found that Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Black Caribbean children had significantly more socioemotional difficulties than White children. These differences were partially explained by the relative socioeconomic disadvantage of their families. After accounting for maternal and family environment factors, the differences for Pakistani children remained unexplained. In contrast, Black African children were the only ethnic minority group to have significantly fewer socioemotional difficulties. We investigated the role of four indicators of socioeconomic position in explaining these differences and found equivalised household income had the strongest influence on socioemotional difficulties, and that socioeconomic position associations with socioemotional difficulties were less apparent among Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. The association between adverse economic conditions and socioemotional difficulties was partially mediated by maternal psychological distress. In conclusion, unexplained ethnic differences in socioemotional difficulties were seen, with a disadvantage among Pakistani children and an advantage among Black African children. Our results point to the need to address economic deprivation among ethnic minority groups to reduce children's socioemotional difficulties. PMID:25931288

  19. Anomalous sulfur isotope compositions of volcanic sulfate over the last millennium in Antarctic ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, MéLanie; Savarino, JoëL.; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Rai, Vinai K.; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2008-10-01

    The reconstruction of past volcanism from glaciological archives is based on the measurement of sulfate concentrations in ice. This method does not allow a proper evaluation of the climatic impact of an eruption owing to the uncertainty in classifying an event between stratospheric or tropospheric. This work develops a new method, using anomalous sulfur isotope composition of volcanic sulfate in order to identify stratospheric eruptions over the last millennium. The advantages and limits of this new method are established with the examination of the 10 largest volcanic signals in ice cores from Dome C and South Pole, Antarctica. Of the 10, seven are identified as stratospheric eruptions. Among them, three have been known to be stratospheric (Tambora, Kuwae, the 1259 Unknown Event) and they exhibit anomalous sulfur isotope compositions. Three unknown events (circa 1277, 1230, 1170 A.D.) and the Serua eruption have been identified as stratospheric eruptions, which suggests for the first time that they could have had significant climatic impact. However, the Kuwae and the 1259 Unknown Event stratospheric eruptions exhibit different anomalous sulfur isotope compositions between South Pole and Dome C samples. Differences in sulfate deposition and preservation patterns between the two sites can help explain these discrepancies. This study shows that the presence of an anomalous sulfur isotope composition of volcanic sulfate in ice core indicates a stratospheric eruption, but the absence of such composition does not necessarily lead to the conclusion of a tropospheric process because of differences in the sulfate deposition on the ice sheet.

  20. A utility perspective on the deployment of CCTs into the next millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Mudd, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The successful Clean Coal Technology projects which are being discussed in this conference are all a testament to the positive advancements that can be made with environmentally superior technologies when the government and industry cooperate in the context of a properly funded and a well thought-out program. Many of the technologies developed in the Clean Coal Technology Program have taken a competitive position in the marketplace, and many others are on the verge of being competitive in the marketplace. Based on the success of the Clean Coal Technology Program, one would expect that they would be ready for full deployment in the marketplace with the approach of the next millennium. This is not happening. There are several hurdles that impede their deployment. Some of those hurdles, such as the higher first-of-a-kind cost and technology risk factors that accompany not-yet mature technologies, have existed since the initiation of the Clean Coal Technology Program. However, several new hurdles are impeding the market penetration of Clean Coal Technologies. Those hurdles include the radically different marketplace due to the restructuring of the electric utility industry, a soft market, the difficulty in financing new power plants, low natural gas prices, and lower-cost and higher-efficiency natural gas combined cycle technology.

  1. Distribution, geochemistry and age of the Millennium eruptives of Changbaishan volcano, Northeast China -- A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chunqing; You, Haitao; Liu, Jiaqi; Li, Xin; Gao, Jinliang; Chen, Shuangshuang

    2014-04-01

    Large explosive volcanic eruptions generate extensive regional tephra deposits that provide favorable conditions for identifying the source of volcanoes, comparing the sedimentary strata of a region and determining their ages. The tephra layer, referred to as BTm, generated by the Millennium eruption of Changbaishan volcano, is widely distributed in Northeast China, Japan, D.P.R. Korea, and the nearby coastal area of Russia. It forms part of the widespread northeast Asian strata and is significant for establishing an isochronal stratigraphic framework. However, research on the temporal characterization and stratigraphic correlation of associated strata using this tephra layer is mainly concentrated in and near Japan. In northeastern China, this tephra layer is seldom seen and its application in stratigraphic correlations is even rarer. More importantly, the determination of accurate ages for both distal and proximal tephras has been debated, leading to controversy in discussions of its environmental impacts. Stratigraphic records from both distal and proximal Changbaishan ash show that this eruption generally occurred between 1,012 and 1,004 cal yr BP. Geochemical comparison between Changbaishan ash and the Quaternary widespread ash around Japan illustrates that Changbaishan ash is a continuous composition from rhyolitic to trachytic and its ratio of FeOT to CaO is usually greater than 4, which can be used as a distinguishing identifier among worldwide contemporary eruptions.

  2. Distribution, geochemistry and age of the Millennium eruptives of Changbaishan volcano, Northeast China — A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chunqing; You, Haitao; Liu, Jiaqi; Li, Xin; Gao, Jinliang; Chen, Shuangshuang

    2014-06-01

    Large explosive volcanic eruptions generate extensive regional tephra deposits that provide favorable conditions for identifying the source of volcanoes, comparing the sedimentary strata of a region and determining their ages. The tephra layer, referred to as B-Tm, generated by the Millennium eruption of Changbaishan volcano, is widely distributed in Northeast China, Japan, D.P.R. Korea, and the nearby coastal area of Russia. It forms part of the widespread northeast Asian strata and is significant for establishing an isochronal stratigraphic framework. However, research on the temporal characterization and stratigraphic correlation of associated strata using this tephra layer is mainly concentrated in and near Japan. In northeastern China, this tephra layer is seldom seen and its application in stratigraphic correlations is even rarer. More importantly, the determination of accurate ages for both distal and proximal tephras has been debated, leading to controversy in discussions of its environmental impacts. Stratigraphic records from both distal and proximal Changbaishan ash show that this eruption generally occurred between 1,012 and 1,004 cal yr BP. Geochemical comparison between Changbaishan ash and the Quaternary widespread ash around Japan illustrates that Changbaishan ash is a continuous composition from rhyolitic to trachytic and its ratio of FeOT to CaO is usually greater than 4, which can be used as a distinguishing identifier among worldwide contemporary eruptions.

  3. Reconstruction of Precipitation in North America Over The Last Millennium Using Multiple Proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouillette, D. J.; Mann, M. E.; Miller, S. K.; Rutherford, S. D.; Steinman, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Past work in making long-term reconstructions of precipitation and deriving estimates of hydro-climatic variability from those reconstructions was based largely in tree-ring proxy records. More recent work that was focused on the Pacific Northwest region of the United States employed oxygen isotope data derived from lake sediments to reconstruct winter precipitation for the last 1500 y and yielded that wet conditions prevailed in winter during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) period (900-1300 AD) and drier winters prevailed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) period (1450-1850 AD), which somewhat contradicted findings derived from tree-ring records alone. The work that we present here exploits this notion that multiple paleo-climate proxies are required for robust long-term reconstructions of precipitation. We are making a precipitation reconstruction for approximately the last millennium over a large area of land in North America spanning from approximately central Mexico to southern Canada. A Regularized Expectation Maximization (RegEM) algorithm is employed, with some modifications aimed at accommodating use of multiple types of proxy record. Some early results from this work will be presented.

  4. Filling the Eastern European gap in millennium-long temperature reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Büntgen, Ulf; Kyncl, Tomáš; Ginzler, Christian; Jacks, David S; Esper, Jan; Tegel, Willy; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Kyncl, Josef

    2013-01-29

    Tree ring-based temperature reconstructions form the scientific backbone of the current global change debate. Although some European records extend into medieval times, high-resolution, long-term, regional-scale paleoclimatic evidence is missing for the eastern part of the continent. Here we compile 545 samples of living trees and historical timbers from the greater Tatra region to reconstruct interannual to centennial-long variations in Eastern European May-June temperature back to 1040 AD. Recent anthropogenic warming exceeds the range of past natural climate variability. Increased plague outbreaks and political conflicts, as well as decreased settlement activities, coincided with temperature depressions. The Black Death in the mid-14th century, the Thirty Years War in the early 17th century, and the French Invasion of Russia in the early 19th century all occurred during the coldest episodes of the last millennium. A comparison with summer temperature reconstructions from Scandinavia, the Alps, and the Pyrenees emphasizes the seasonal and spatial specificity of our results, questioning those large-scale reconstructions that simply average individual sites. PMID:23319641

  5. Performance of Major Flare Watches from the Max Millennium Program (2001 - 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, D. S.; Gallagher, P. T.; Marquette, W. H.; Milligan, R. O.; Canfield, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    The physical processes that trigger solar flares are not well understood, and significant debate remains around processes governing particle acceleration, energy partition, and particle and energy transport. Observations at high resolution in energy, time, and space are required in multiple energy ranges over the whole course of many flares to build an understanding of these processes. Obtaining high-quality, co-temporal data from ground- and space- based instruments is crucial to achieving this goal and was the primary motivation for starting the Max Millennium program and Major Flare Watch (MFW) alerts, aimed at coordinating observations of all flares ≥ X1 GOES X-ray classification (including those partially occulted by the limb). We present a review of the performance of MFWs from 1 February 2001 to 31 May 2010, inclusive, which finds that (1) 220 MFWs were issued in 3407 days considered (6.5 % duty cycle), with these occurring in 32 uninterrupted periods that typically last 2 - 8 days; (2) 56% of flares ≥ X1 were caught, occurring in 19 % of MFW days; (3) MFW periods ended at suitable times, but substantial gain could have been achieved in percentage of flares caught if periods had started 24 h earlier; (4) MFWs successfully forecast X-class flares with a true skill statistic (TSS) verification metric score of 0.500, that is comparable to a categorical flare/no-flare interpretation of the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Centre probabilistic forecasts (TSS = 0.488).

  6. Ranking of tree-ring based temperature reconstructions of the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esper, Jan; Krusic, Paul J.; Ljungqvist, Fredrik C.; Luterbacher, Jürg; Carrer, Marco; Cook, Ed; Davi, Nicole K.; Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Konter, Oliver; Myglan, Vladimir; Timonen, Mauri; Treydte, Kerstin; Trouet, Valerie; Villalba, Ricardo; Yang, Bao; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-08-01

    Tree-ring chronologies are widely used to reconstruct high-to low-frequency variations in growing season temperatures over centuries to millennia. The relevance of these timeseries in large-scale climate reconstructions is often determined by the strength of their correlation against instrumental temperature data. However, this single criterion ignores several important quantitative and qualitative characteristics of tree-ring chronologies. Those characteristics are (i) data homogeneity, (ii) sample replication, (iii) growth coherence, (iv) chronology development, and (v) climate signal including the correlation with instrumental data. Based on these 5 characteristics, a reconstruction-scoring scheme is proposed and applied to 39 published, millennial-length temperature reconstructions from Asia, Europe, North America, and the Southern Hemisphere. Results reveal no reconstruction scores highest in every category and each has their own strengths and weaknesses. Reconstructions that perform better overall include N-Scan and Finland from Europe, E-Canada from North America, Yamal and Dzhelo from Asia. Reconstructions performing less well include W-Himalaya and Karakorum from Asia, Tatra and S-Finland from Europe, and Great Basin from North America. By providing a comprehensive set of criteria to evaluate tree-ring chronologies we hope to improve the development of large-scale temperature reconstructions spanning the past millennium. All reconstructions and their corresponding scores are provided at http://www.blogs.uni-mainz.de/fb09climatology.

  7. Scaling regimes and linear/nonlinear responses of last millennium climate to volcanic and solar forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Varotsos, Costas

    2016-02-01

    At scales much longer than the deterministic predictability limits (about 10 days), the statistics of the atmosphere undergoes a drastic transition, the high-frequency weather acts as a random forcing on the lower-frequency macroweather. In addition, up to decadal and centennial scales the equivalent radiative forcings of solar, volcanic and anthropogenic perturbations are small compared to the mean incoming solar flux. This justifies the common practice of reducing forcings to radiative equivalents (which are assumed to combine linearly), as well as the development of linear stochastic models, including for forecasting at monthly to decadal scales. In order to clarify the validity of the linearity assumption and determine its scale range, we use last millennium simulations, with both the simplified Zebiak-Cane (ZC) model and the NASA GISS E2-R fully coupled GCM. We systematically compare the statistical properties of solar-only, volcanic-only and combined solar and volcanic forcings over the range of timescales from 1 to 1000 years. We also compare the statistics to multiproxy temperature reconstructions. The main findings are (a) that the variability in the ZC and GCM models is too weak at centennial and longer scales; (b) for longer than ≈ 50 years, the solar and volcanic forcings combine subadditively (nonlinearly) compounding the weakness of the response; and (c) the models display another nonlinear effect at shorter timescales: their sensitivities are much higher for weak forcing than for strong forcing (their intermittencies are different) and we quantify this with statistical scaling exponents.

  8. E-health in the new millennium: a research and practice agenda.

    PubMed

    Metaxiotis, Kostas; Ptochos, Dimitrios; Psarras, John

    2004-01-01

    Advances in telecommunications, automated processes, web technologies and wireless computing are already forcing dramatic changes in a variety of sectors, ranging from business and industry to education and health. Yet, the electronic business space, in a broader sense, is still in a relatively early state of evolution, and it is only recently that policy makers have started looking at the potential of applying the tools and techniques of e-commerce to the tasks of other sectors. The use of the internet as a source of health information and connectivity between healthcare providers and consumers has increased interest in e-health. E-health offers the rich potential of supplementing traditional delivery of services and channels of communication in ways that extend the healthcare organisation's ability to meet the needs of its patients. To date, some e-health applications have improved the quality of healthcare, and later they will lead to substantial cost savings. However, e-health is not simply a technology but a complex technological and relational process. In this sense, practitioners and researchers who want to successfully exploit e-health need to pay attention to various pending issues that have to be addressed. The aim of this paper is to propose a novel taxonomy for e-health research in the new millennium by instantaneously presenting the current status with some major themes of e-health research. PMID:18048218

  9. Variation of solar activity recorded in Korean chronicles during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-Jin; Jeon, Junhyeok

    2015-08-01

    Korea has a long history in astronomy, which is proved by many observational records written in Korean chronicles. There are 43 sunspot records in Goryeo dynasty (918-1392) and 13 records in Joseon dynasty (1392-1910). According to analysis of Korean historical records, it is known that sunspot records in Goryeo dynasty show well in match with the well-known solar activity of 11.3 years. It means that Korean historical sunspot records show real solar phenomena. Korean sunspot records also show that solar activity decrease in Joseon dynasty compared with the previous ~500 years. In order to know the change of solar activity in detail, we examine Korean historical atmospheric records which can indicate climate change. We first analyze historical frost records. Korean chronicles have around 600 frost records during the last millennium. We find that the climate change shows sign of cooling down when check the variation of epoch that the first and last frost events in each year are written. This result is well in accord with that of historical sunspot records. Therefore, we claim that solar activity decrease during the last thousand years.

  10. SATELLITES AROUND MASSIVE GALAXIES SINCE z {approx} 2: CONFRONTING THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION WITH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Quilis, Vicent; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2012-06-20

    Minor merging has been postulated as the most likely evolutionary path to produce the increase in size and mass observed in the massive galaxies since z {approx} 2. In this Letter, we directly test this hypothesis, comparing the population of satellites around massive galaxies in cosmological simulations versus the observations. We use state-of-the-art, publically available, Millennium I and II simulations, and the associated semi-analytical galaxy catalogs to explore the time evolution of the fraction of massive galaxies that have satellites, the number of satellites per galaxy, the projected distance at which the satellites locate from the host galaxy, and the mass ratio between the host galaxies and their satellites. The three virtual galaxy catalogs considered here overproduce the fraction of galaxies with satellites by a factor ranging between 1.5 and 6 depending on the epoch, whereas the mean projected distance and ratio of the satellite mass over host mass are in closer agreement with data. The larger pull of satellites in the semi-analytical samples could suggest that the size evolution found in previous hydrodynamical simulations is an artifact due to the larger number of infalling satellites compared to the real universe. These results advise us to revise the physical ingredients implemented in the semi-analytical models in order to reconcile the observed and computed fraction of galaxies with satellites, and eventually, it would leave some room for other mechanisms explaining the galaxy size growth not related to the minor merging.

  11. Detection and Attribution of the surface air temperature during last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dongdong; Zhou, Tianjun; Man, Wenmin

    2016-04-01

    An optimal detection method was employed to compare the reconstructed and model-simulated changes of surface air temperature during last millennium. Model simulations are from CESM1-CAM5, which include 28-member ensembles in total, i.e., 5-member ensembles volcanic forcing runs, 4-member ensembles solar forcing runs, 3-member ensembles forcing runs for land use, orbital, greenhouse gases, and 10-member ensembles runs from combined 5 individual external forcing. Analyses were conducted from hemispherical to continental scale. Results show that combined effect of all the external forcings can be detected for both Northern and Southern Hemisphere, and for the continent of Europe, Arctic and Antarctic. The influence of volcanic eruption and solar activity can be detected for all the hemispheres and nearly all the continents of North Hemisphere. Land use forcing can be detected for all the continents of Northern Hemisphere, but only detected for one continent of Southern Hemisphere, i.e., South America. The orbital forcing is detected for all the continents of Northern Hemisphere, but not detected for the Northern Hemisphere as whole. Influence of greenhouse gases can rarely be detected from hemispherical to continental scale.

  12. Child malnutrition and the Millennium Development Goals: much haste but less speed?

    PubMed

    Oruamabo, Raphael S

    2015-02-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide a framework for measuring the progress of nations. Several of these goals relate to child malnutrition, which remains an important contributor to child morbidity and mortality, accounting for approximately 45% of child deaths globally. A high proportion of undernourished children still live in Africa and parts of Asia, and the uneven rate of reduction in the prevalence of various types of child malnutrition among different income groups worldwide is worrying. Attempts to reduce child malnutrition should therefore begin from the grassroots by improving primary healthcare services in developing countries with particular focus on basic requirements. Adequate nutrition should be provided from birth, through infancy, preschool and early childhood to adolescence. The overall strategy should be one of careful and meticulous planning involving all development sectors with an emphasis on a bottom-up approach within a stable and disciplined polity; the MDGs will be only be useful if they are seen not as narrow objectives with unidirectional interventions but as multifaceted and co-ordinated. The setting of deadlines, whether 2015 or 2035, should not be emphasised so as to avoid hasty decision making. The top priority should be the implementation of the essential social services of basic education, primary healthcare, nutrition, reproductive health care, water and sanitation in partnership with the developed economies. PMID:25613961

  13. Filling the Eastern European gap in millennium-long temperature reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Büntgen, Ulf; Kyncl, Tomáš; Ginzler, Christian; Jacks, David S.; Esper, Jan; Tegel, Willy; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Kyncl, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tree ring–based temperature reconstructions form the scientific backbone of the current global change debate. Although some European records extend into medieval times, high-resolution, long-term, regional-scale paleoclimatic evidence is missing for the eastern part of the continent. Here we compile 545 samples of living trees and historical timbers from the greater Tatra region to reconstruct interannual to centennial-long variations in Eastern European May–June temperature back to 1040 AD. Recent anthropogenic warming exceeds the range of past natural climate variability. Increased plague outbreaks and political conflicts, as well as decreased settlement activities, coincided with temperature depressions. The Black Death in the mid-14th century, the Thirty Years War in the early 17th century, and the French Invasion of Russia in the early 19th century all occurred during the coldest episodes of the last millennium. A comparison with summer temperature reconstructions from Scandinavia, the Alps, and the Pyrenees emphasizes the seasonal and spatial specificity of our results, questioning those large-scale reconstructions that simply average individual sites. PMID:23319641

  14. Multidecadal to multicentury scale collapses of Northern Hemisphere monsoons over the past millennium

    PubMed Central

    Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor J.; Rasmussen, Jessica B. T.; Burns, Stephen J.; Lachniet, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Late Holocene climate in western North America was punctuated by periods of extended aridity called megadroughts. These droughts have been linked to cool eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here, we show both short-term and long-term climate variability over the last 1,500 y from annual band thickness and stable isotope speleothem data. Several megadroughts are evident, including a multicentury one, AD 1350–1650, herein referred to as Super Drought, which corresponds to the coldest period of the Little Ice Age. Synchronicity between southwestern North American, Chinese, and West African monsoon precipitation suggests the megadroughts were hemispheric in scale. Northern Hemisphere monsoon strength over the last millennium is positively correlated with Northern Hemisphere temperature and North Atlantic SST. The megadroughts are associated with cooler than average SST and Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Furthermore, the megadroughts, including the Super Drought, coincide with solar insolation minima, suggesting that solar forcing of sea surface and atmospheric temperatures may generate variations in the strength of Northern Hemisphere monsoons. Our findings seem to suggest stronger (wetter) Northern Hemisphere monsoons with increased warming. PMID:23716648

  15. Century/millennium internal climate oscillations in an ocean-atmosphere-continental ice sheet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchfield, Edward G.; Wang, Huaxiao; Rich, Jonathan J.

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrate in a simple climate model that there exist nonlinear feedbacks between the atmosphere, ocean, and ice sheets capable of producing century/millennium timescale internal oscillations resembling those seen in the paleoclimate record. Feedbacks involve meridional heat and salt transports in the North Atlantic, surface ocean freshwater fluxes associated with melting and growing continental ice sheets in the northen hemisphere and with Atlantic to Pacific water vapor transport. The positive feedback between the production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and the meridional salt transport by the Atlantic thermohaline circulation tends to destabilize the climate system, while the negative feedback between the freshwater flux, either to or from the continental ice sheets, and meridional heat flux to the high-latitude North Atlantic, accomplished by the thermohaline circulation, stabilizes the system. The thermohaline circulation plays a central role in both positive and negative feedbacks because of its transport of both heat and salt. Because of asymmetries between the growth and melt phases the oscillations are, in general, accompanied by a growing or decreasing ice volume over each cycle, which in the model is reflected by increasing or decreasing mean salinity.

  16. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Fakir Md.; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population’s access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies. PMID:26891310

  17. Health Research and Millennium Development Goals: Identifying the Gap From Public Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    El Lawindi, Mona I; Galal, Yasmine S; Khairy, Walaa A

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the research output within the universities could provide an effective means for tracking the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) progress. This analytical database study was designed to assess the trend of research theses conducted by the Public Health Department (PHD), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University during the period 1990 to 2014 as related to the: MDGS, Faculty and department research priority plans and to identify the discrepancies between researchers' priorities versus national and international research priorities. A manual search of the theses was done at the Postgraduate Library using a specially designed checklist to chart adherence of each thesis to: MDGs, Faculty and department research plans (RPs). The theses' profile showed that the highest research output was for addressing the MDGS followed by the PHD and Faculty RPs. Compliance to MDGs 5 and 6 was obvious, whereas; MDGs 2, 3, and 7 were not represented at all after year 2000. No significant difference was found between PH theses addressing the Faculty RPs and those which were not before and after 2010. A significantly lower percent of PH theses was fulfilling the PHD research priorities compared to those which were not after 2010. This study showed a definite decline in research output tackling the MDGS and PHD research priorities, with a non-significant increase in the production of theses addressing the Faculty RPs. The present study is a practical model for policy makers within the universities to develop and implement a reliable monitoring and evaluation system for assessment of research output. PMID:26652084

  18. Social Work Gerontological Practice: The Need for Faculty Development in the New Millennium.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Barbara; Silverstone, Barbara; June Simmons, W; Volland, Patricia J; Howe, Judith L

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need to upgrade the gerontological knowledge and skills of practicing social workers. Geriatrics and gerontology, as specialized fields of knowledge, have not been sufficiently integrated into formal academic training programs. There are major trends in the health care environment which impact on social work education, including technological advances, a shift from inpatient to outpatient and community care settings, increasing diversity of the older population, and client and family participation in decisionmaking. These trends necessitate social work education to emphasize new content areas in gerontology and the development of new skills in clinical, case management, care coordination, and teamwork. A significant obstacle to the preparation of future social workers to deliver the complex services needed by older adults and their families is a serious shortage of social work faculty in gerontology. Sustained and broad initiatives, such as the John A. Hartford Foundation funded Geriatric Social Work Faculty Scholars Program, are needed to develop academic and practice-based faculty in gerontology. This is crucial if social work is to maintain an important service role in the new millennium. PMID:27135560

  19. 15th Chapter of Surgeons Lecture: Surgeon of the new millennium--surgeon, scientist and scholar.

    PubMed

    Tan, S K

    2004-11-01

    The surgeon of the new millennium has come a long way from his humble beginnings in the Middle Ages as the lowly barber-surgeon. The skills and techniques developed by outstanding surgeons like Astley Cooper of the 19th century have withstood the test of time and have been refined by subsequent generations of surgical masters. The scientific basis of modern surgery was put on a firm footing in the early 19th century through the discovery of anaesthesia and microorganisms as a cause of many diseases and surgical complications. The 20th century brought about rapid progress in medicine, information technology (IT) and the life sciences, and closed with a big bang with the completion of the sequencing of the human genome. For the surgeon of the 21st century to remain relevant, he must embrace the concept of the Total Surgeon. Not doing so will render him irrelevant in the course of time, for having good surgical technique alone is insufficient. He must also lead in scientific endeavours to push the frontiers of the life sciences in attempts to solve the insoluble, and be scholarly in thought, attitude and behaviour. In other words, he must be a Surgeon-Scientist-Scholar. PMID:15608825

  20. Forensic anthropology: developments of a classical discipline in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-01-17

    The present brief review is a survey of the role of forensic anthropology (FA) in the new millennium. After an introduction which deals with the expanding definition of the discipline and the issue of professionality and training, the author approaches the role and novel developments of the field, with particular reference to the past 5 years. Such developments are discussed in a sectorial manner, distinguishing the role of research in the areas of forensic anthropology which deal with human remains and those that deal with the living. As regards the "human remains" domain, advances and stalls still present in the fields of species and postmortem interval determination, sexing, aging and attribution of ancestry are stressed. The need for standards in facial reconstruction and positive identification by bone morphology are underlined, as well as the growing role of the anthropologist in detecting signs of trauma. Finally, the relatively new role of the forensic anthropologist in the domain of identification of the living is described, although this area is still underrepresented as regards research activity: these studies concern the strive to devise methods for identifying faces (e.g. in the case of crimes registered by videosurveillance systems), aging living individuals or juveniles represented in pedopornographic material. PMID:16843626

  1. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population's access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies. PMID:26891310

  2. Teleconnected ocean forcing of Western North American droughts and pluvials during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routson, Cody C.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; McKay, Nicholas P.

    2016-08-01

    Western North America (WNA) is rich in hydroclimate reconstructions, yet questions remain about the causes of decadal-to-multidecadal hydroclimate variability. Teleconnection patterns preserved in annually-resolved tree-ring reconstructed drought maps, and anomalies in a global network of proxy sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions, were used to reassess the evidence linking ocean forcing to WNA hydroclimate variability over the past millennium. Potential forcing mechanisms of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and individual drought and pluvial events-including two multidecadal-length MCA pluvials-were evaluated. We show strong teleconnection patterns occurred during the driest (wettest) years within persistent droughts (pluvials), implicating SSTs as a potent hydroclimate forcing mechanism. The role of the SSTs on longer timescales is more complex. Pacific teleconnection patterns show little long-term change, whereas low-resolution SST reconstructions vary over decades to centuries. While weaker than the tropical Pacific teleconnections, North Atlantic teleconnection patterns and SST reconstructions also show links to WNA droughts and pluvials, and may in part account for longer-term WNA hydroclimate changes. Nonetheless, evidence linking WNA hydroclimate to SSTs still remains sparse and nuanced-especially over long-timescales with a broader range of hydroclimatic variability than characterized during the 20th century.

  3. Influence of external climate forcing on coastal upwelling systems analysed in ensemble of past millennium climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tim, Nele; Zorita, Eduardo; Hünicke, Birgit; Yi, Xin; Emeis, Kay

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems are highly productive coastal ocean areas where nutrient rich, cold water upwells by the action of favorable winds. Observations over the 20th century and ocean sediment records, which may be indicative of upwelling, display an intensification due to stronger external climate forcing, such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations or changes in solar irradiance. This intensification is compatible with the hypothesis put forward by Bakun (1990) that a stronger external radiative forcing should lead to a more intense coastal upwelling. Here, we analyze ensemble of simulations covering the past millennium with the aim of identifying and quantifying the role of external climate forcing on upwelling in the major Eastern Boundary Upwelling System. We analyse the decadal variability and centennial trends of upwelling in ensemble of simulations with the global climate model MPI-ESM covering the past millennium, the last 150 years and the next 100 years. The future simulations were driven by three IPCC scenarios of concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, RCP2.5, RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5. For the past millennium and the last 150 years, coastal upwelling does not show any imprint of external forcing. This result indicates that chaotic internal variability has dominated upwelling intensity in major upwelling regions over the last thousand years and even since industrialisation up to present. For the 21st century, all ensemble members show a consistent and significant intensification of upwelling in the strongest scenario RCP8.5 for the Benguela upwelling region, consistent and significant weakening for Morocco and California, and no significant change for the Peruvian upwelling. Weaker scenarios do not produce consistent long-term trends that are replicated in all ensemble members. The results are confirmed by analysing another ensemble of past millennium simulations with the model CESM-CAM5 (Community Earth System Model

  4. 78 FR 59974 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Airspace Operations Challenge (AOC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Challenge (AOC) AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOTICE: (13-110). ACTION... Systems (UAS) Airspace Operations Challenge (AOC) is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may now... of interest and value to NASA and the nation. The 2014 UAS AOC is a prize competition designed...

  5. The Challenge and Challenging of Childhood Studies? Learning from Disability Studies and Research with Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisdall, E. Kay M.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood studies have argued for the social construction of childhood, respecting children and childhood in the present, and recognising children's agency and rights. Such perspectives have parallels to, and challenges for, disability studies. This article considers such parallels and challenges, leading to a (re)consideration of research claims…

  6. The challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Roger L.

    1988-01-01

    Radio systems in space are on the brink of achieving throughout data rates in the hundred of megabits. At present, radio systems operate below 60 GHz and are the traditional workhorses of satellite communications. Legal constraints and the laws of physics limit data rates on the systems. It is maintained that the challenge to provide high technology tools to develop viable high-data-rate space transmission systems can be met before the next century if three optical system and technology issues are overcome. In declining order of importance, the issues are: precise optical pointing, acquisition, and tracking; efficient laser diode optical sources producing sufficient output power; and advanced optical detector technology.

  7. Agency, time, and causality

    PubMed Central

    Widlok, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-Western Educational Industrial Rich Democratic people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition. PMID:25414683

  8. La Niña-Induced Rainfall Events in East Java, Indonesia During the Past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunghino, B.; Rodysill, J. R.; Russell, J. M.; Bijaksana, S.

    2012-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern oscillation and associated changes in the Walker Circulation are major controls on variability in precipitation and convection across the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite the importance of these phenomena to Pacific, as well as global rainfall, there is considerable debate over whether radiative heating of the tropical Pacific Ocean enhances or reduces Walker Circulation strength and ENSO variability. Paleolimnological reconstructions from Peru (Moy et al., 2002, Nature) and the Galapagos (Conroy et al., 2008, Quat. Sci. Rev.) suggest large variations in precipitation and surface runoff driven by El Niño events during the past millennium at one of ENSO's centers of action in the eastern Pacific. However, these records are rectified signals in that they unable to record ENSO's other phase, La Niña, which results in anomalously high rainfall in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool region. To gain new perspective on the history of rainfall on the western end of the Walker Circulation over the last 1,200 years, we present a new record of runoff from the southwestern edge of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool. Our runoff record is constructed with grain size and magnetic susceptibility data from a sediment core from Lake Lading, located in East Java, Indonesia. This core consists of laminated sediments accumulating at 0.45 cm/yr, allowing us to reconstruct surface runoff at 2.2 yr resolution. Runoff events preserved in the well-dated core-top sediments correspond to high monthly rainfall anomalies in instrumental data, and all runoff events between 1950 and 2010 occur during La Niña years. Our data suggests highly variable surface runoff over the past millennium at the multi-decadal timescale, but indicates relatively weak variability at the multi-centennial band, i.e. the well-known Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). During the Medieval Climate Anomaly, when the Asian Summer Monsoon was strong, variations in surface runoff appear to be

  9. Monsoon dynamics over the past millennium on the southern-central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlborn, Marieke; Haberzettl, Torsten; Kasper, Thomas; Henkel, Karoline; Doberschütz, Stefan; Daut, Gerhard; Reinwarth, Bastian; Ju, Jianting; Wang, Junbo; Zhu, Liping; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has experienced abrupt climate change superimposed by a gradual weakening of the summer monsoon systems during the Holocene. Although lake sediment records from the Tibetan Plateau are considered to be particularly sensitive to climate variations a holistic picture of the spatial and temporal monsoon evolution is still lacking due to the interplay of different moisture-transporting wind systems (Indian summer monsoon, East Asian summer monsoon, Westerlies). Closing this data gap is important since the Tibetan Plateau is a key area for understanding the climate evolution and its impact on the availability of current and future water resources in Central Asia. Hence, well-dated and high-resolution records are essential to improve the understanding of the spatial and temporal monsoonal evolution. To investigate the hydrological cycle indicating past monsoon variability on the southern-central Tibetan Plateau, records of several lakes were studied along an E-W-transect including Nam Co, Tangra Yumco, Taro Co and a small lake named TT Lake. In this study, a high-resolution sediment record from TT Lake (31.10° N, 86.57° E; 4,745 m asl) was investigated to reveal monsoonal dynamics and northern hemispheric climate oscillations over the past millennium. The 9 m deep TT Lake has a surface area of ~14,500 sqm and is located ~1,500 m west and 205 m above the recent western shoreline of Tangra Yumco. Terraces of former lake level highstands indicate that the TT Lake was part of the Tangra Yumco, but the timing remains unknown. Three sediment gravity cores, obtained in 2011 and 2012, were investigated with geochemical and sedimentological methods. By now a sedimentological core description, magnetic susceptibility data, radiocarbon age determinations, XRF scanning data, and grain size data are available. Further bio-geochemical as well as magnetostratigraphic analyses are in progress. The sedimentological description of the 50 to 89 cm long cores revealed

  10. Global Emissions of Terpenoid VOCs from Terrestrial Vegetation in the Last Millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, Alex B.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-06-16

    We investigated the millennial variability of global BVOC emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene and Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ8 GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have signicant short term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during during 1750-1850 and 1000- 15 1200, respectively) and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1 (15% and 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1 (10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% 19 20 less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1 (10% and 4% higher than during1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar We investigated the millennial variability of global BVOC emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene and Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ8GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends ofglobal isoprene emissions to be mostly a*ected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid

  11. 14 CFR 1267.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal agency or agency. 1267.645 Section 1267.645 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE... Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  12. 14 CFR 1267.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1267.645 Section 1267.645 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE... Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  13. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  14. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  15. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  16. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  17. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  18. Intubations and airway management: An overview of Hassles through third millennium

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Background: The placement of a tube into a patient's trachea “the intubation” as we call is not as simple as it looks. It is a very tricky and tedious maneuver that entails skills to assess and perform. Nevertheless, often this is left to the chores of inefficient hands due to a paucity of the availability of experts. They seldom are able to complete the task and often wind up calling the attention of the unit. The present review is an attempt to describe the need to undertake intubation, the procedures and techniques, the complications, including morbidity and mortality and airway management. This overview includes explicit descriptions of the difficult airway which represents multifaceted interface amid patient factors, clinical setting, and skills of the practitioner. Materials and Methods: To accomplish the target, peer-reviewed English language articles published during third millennium up to 2013 were selected from Pub Med, Pub Med Central, Science Direct, Up-to-date, Med Line, comprehensive databases, Cochrane library, and the Internet (Google, Yahoo). Review of Literature: The review constituted a systematic search of literature on the requirements that necessitate the practice of intubation, different techniques that facilitate easy conduct of procedure, the complications, including, morbidity and mortality, and the airway management. Conclusion: Recording every single detail has been beyond the scope of this review, however; some aspects have been wrapped up in nutshell. Some areas of the review are too basic which the medics are well aware of and knowledgeable. Nevertheless, these are difficult to be dispensed with in consideration of their source to the awareness of a common man and a great majority of the patients. PMID:25949040

  19. Combined dendro-documentary evidence of Central European hydroclimatic springtime extremes over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Brázdil, Rudolf; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Hofmann, Jutta; Kontic, Raymond; Kyncl, Tomáš; Pfister, Christian; Chromá, Kateřina; Tegel, Willy

    2011-12-01

    A predicted rise in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and associated effects on the Earth's climate system likely imply more frequent and severe weather extremes with alternations in hydroclimatic parameters expected to be most critical for ecosystem functioning, agricultural yield, and human health. Evaluating the return period and amplitude of modern climatic extremes in light of pre-industrial natural changes is, however, limited by generally too short instrumental meteorological observations. Here we introduce and analyze 11,873 annually resolved and absolutely dated ring width measurement series from living and historical fir ( Abies alba Mill.) trees sampled across France, Switzerland, Germany, and the Czech Republic, which continuously span the AD 962-2007 period. Even though a dominant climatic driver of European fir growth was not found, ring width extremes were evidently triggered by anomalous variations in Central European April-June precipitation. Wet conditions were associated with dynamic low-pressure cells, whereas continental-scale droughts coincided with persistent high-pressure between 35 and 55°N. Documentary evidence independently confirms many of the dendro signals over the past millennium, and further provides insight on causes and consequences of ambient weather conditions related to the reconstructed extremes. A fairly uniform distribution of hydroclimatic extremes throughout the Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age and Recent Global Warming may question the common believe that frequency and severity of such events closely relates to climate mean stages. This joint dendro-documentary approach not only allows extreme climate conditions of the industrial era to be placed against the backdrop of natural variations, but also probably helps to constrain climate model simulations over exceptional long timescales.

  20. First dairying in green Saharan Africa in the fifth millennium BC.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Julie; Evershed, Richard P; Salque, Mélanie; Cramp, Lucy; Bruni, Silvia; Ryan, Kathleen; Biagetti, Stefano; di Lernia, Savino

    2012-06-21

    In the prehistoric green Sahara of Holocene North Africa-in contrast to the Neolithic of Europe and Eurasia-a reliance on cattle, sheep and goats emerged as a stable and widespread way of life, long before the first evidence for domesticated plants or settled village farming communities. The remarkable rock art found widely across the region depicts cattle herding among early Saharan pastoral groups, and includes rare scenes of milking; however, these images can rarely be reliably dated. Although the faunal evidence provides further confirmation of the importance of cattle and other domesticates, the scarcity of cattle bones makes it impossible to ascertain herd structures via kill-off patterns, thereby precluding interpretations of whether dairying was practiced. Because pottery production begins early in northern Africa the potential exists to investigate diet and subsistence practices using molecular and isotopic analyses of absorbed food residues. This approach has been successful in determining the chronology of dairying beginning in the 'Fertile Crescent' of the Near East and its spread across Europe. Here we report the first unequivocal chemical evidence, based on the δ(13)C and Δ(13)C values of the major alkanoic acids of milk fat, for the adoption of dairying practices by prehistoric Saharan African people in the fifth millennium bc. Interpretations are supported by a new database of modern ruminant animal fats collected from Africa. These findings confirm the importance of 'lifetime products', such as milk, in early Saharan pastoralism, and provide an evolutionary context for the emergence of lactase persistence in Africa. PMID:22722200

  1. A millennium-length reconstruction of Bear River stream flow, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRose, R. J.; Bekker, M. F.; Wang, S.-Y.; Buckley, B. M.; Kjelgren, R. K.; Bardsley, T.; Rittenour, T. M.; Allen, E. B.

    2015-10-01

    The Bear River contributes more water to the eastern Great Basin than any other river system. It is also the most significant source of water for the burgeoning Wasatch Front metropolitan area in northern Utah. Despite its importance for water resources for the region's agricultural, urban, and wildlife needs, our understanding of the variability of Bear River's stream flow derives entirely from the short instrumental record (1943-2010). Here we present a 1200-year calibrated and verified tree-ring reconstruction of stream flow for the Bear River that explains 67% of the variance of the instrumental record over the period from 1943 to 2010. Furthermore, we developed this reconstruction from a species that is not typically used for dendroclimatology, Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma). We identify highly significant periodicity in our reconstruction at quasi-decadal (7-8 year), multi-decadal (30 year), and centennial (>50 years) scales. The latter half of the 20th century was found to be the 2nd wettest (∼40-year) period of the past 1200 years, while the first half of the 20th century marked the 4th driest period. The most severe period of reduced stream flow occurred during the Medieval Warm Period (ca. mid-1200s CE) and persisted for ∼70 years. Upper-level circulation anomalies suggest that atmospheric teleconnections originating in the western tropical Pacific are responsible for the delivery of precipitation to the Bear River watershed during the October-December (OND) season of the previous year. The Bear River flow was compared to recent reconstructions of the other tributaries to the Great Salt Lake (GSL) and the GSL level. Implications for water management could be drawn from the observation that the latter half of the 20th century was the 2nd wettest in 1200 years, and that management for future water supply should take into account the stream flow variability over the past millennium.

  2. Monsoon extremes and society over the past millennium on mainland Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brendan M.; Fletcher, Roland; Wang, Shi-Yu Simon; Zottoli, Brian; Pottier, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The early 21st century has seen vigorous scientific interest in the Asian monsoon and significant development of paleo-proxies of monsoon strength. These include the Monsoon Asian Drought Atlas - a 700-year, gridded reconstruction of hydroclimate derived from 327 tree ring records - and several long speleothem records from China and India. Similar progress has been made on the study of monsoon climate dynamics through re-analysis data products and General Circulation Model diagnostics. The story has emerged of a variable monsoon over the latter Holocene, with extended droughts and anomalously wet episodes that occasionally and profoundly influenced the course of human history. We focus on Southeast Asia where an anomalous period of unstable climate coincided with the demise of the capital of the Khmer Empire at Angkor between the 14th and the 16th centuries, and we suggest that protracted periods of drought and deluge rain events, the latter of which damaged Angkor's extensive water management systems, may have been a significant factor in the subsequent transfer of the political capital away from Angkor. The late 16th and early 17th century experienced climate instability and the collapse of the Ming Dynasty in China under a period of drought, while Tonkin experienced floods and droughts throughout the 17th century. The 18th century was a period of great turmoil across Southeast Asia, when all of the region's polities saw great unrest and rapid realignment during one of the most extended periods of drought of the past millennium. New paleo-proxy records and the incorporation of historical documentation will improve future analyses of the interaction between climate extremes, social behavior and the collapse or disruption of regional societies, a subject of increasing concern given the uncertainties surrounding projections for future climate.

  3. Is obesity associated with emotional and behavioural problems in children? Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Hill, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between obesity and emotional and behavioural problems in a nationally representative sample of young children. Methods. Data were available from 11 202 children (50% boys) participating in the UK's Millennium Cohort Study. Height and weight were measured at 3 and 5 years and children defined as obese using IOTF cut-offs for body mass index (BMI). Emotional and behavioural problems were parentally assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adjusted linear and multinomial regression analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. Results. At age 3, obese boys had more conduct problems, and obese girls had more prosocial behaviours, than their normal weight counterparts. At age 5, obese boys had more conduct problems, hyperactivity and inattention problems, peer relationship problems and total difficulties. Obese girls only had more peer relationship problems. Obese 3-year-olds were not at increased risk of abnormal scores; in contrast, obese 5-year-old boys were significantly more likely to have abnormal scores for conduct problems, hyperactivity and inattention problems, peer relationship problems, prosocial behaviours and total difficulties. Obesity, at age 3, was also predictive of peer relationship problems at age 5 in boys (95% CI: 0.26 [0.01, 0.52]). Conclusions. Childhood obesity is associated with emotional and behavioural problems from a very young age. Obese boys are at particular risk. Further research is required to examine effect modifiers and mediating factors in these associations. Recognition and response to these mental health problems should be a goal of pediatric obesity interventions and policies. PMID:21114457

  4. Estimating the climate variability of the last millennium on the East Antarctic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Thomas; Laepple, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative knowledge about the climate variability on the Antarctic continent is crucial to attribute and detect the anthropogenic influence, and to understand the past and future evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet. Isotope records from firn and ice cores provide information about Holocene climate variability but strong non-climate effects hamper their quantitative interpretation, especially in low-accumulation regions. So far, the magnitude and time-scale dependency of both the climate signal and the noise is largely unknown. Here, we combine 16 annually-resolved firn cores spanning the last 200 years, three records covering the last millennium as well as surface snow data from the Amundsenisen region on the East Antarctic plateau. By means of a spectral correction technique we can separate the climate signal from noise and derive, for the first time, a time-scale dependent estimate of East-Antarctic temperature variability. Our preliminary results indicate that, unlike the raw isotope data, the obtained temperature variability for our study region shows a scaling behavior with more variability on longer time scales, similar to estimates from marine SST records. The noise levels we find are in accordance with the independent surface snow sampling results from Kohnen station. An analysis of the variability in current climate models on the other hand suggests less variability on centennial time scales. The discrepancy between the model and data-based results indicates either deficiencies in the model simulations, or further unknown processes affecting the ice-core records. Our estimate of East-Antarctic climate variability thus highlights the importance of an improved understanding of Holocene climate and ice-core derived variability.

  5. Global emissions of terpenoid VOCs from terrestrial vegetation in the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, A.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the millennial variability (1000 A.D.-2000 A.D.) of global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene, and Lund-Potsdam-Jena-General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission trends were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have significant short-term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively), and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1(15% and 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1(10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1(10% and 4% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.

  6. Going beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: an index system of human dependence on ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wu; Dietz, Thomas; Liu, Wei; Luo, Junyan; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) estimated that two thirds of ecosystem services on the earth have degraded or are in decline due to the unprecedented scale of human activities during recent decades. These changes will have tremendous consequences for human well-being, and offer both risks and opportunities for a wide range of stakeholders. Yet these risks and opportunities have not been well managed due in part to the lack of quantitative understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. Here, we propose an index of dependence on ecosystem services (IDES) system to quantify human dependence on ecosystem services. We demonstrate the construction of the IDES system using household survey data. We show that the overall index and sub-indices can reflect the general pattern of households' dependences on ecosystem services, and their variations across time, space, and different forms of capital (i.e., natural, human, financial, manufactured, and social capitals). We support the proposition that the poor are more dependent on ecosystem services and further generalize this proposition by arguing that those disadvantaged groups who possess low levels of any form of capital except for natural capital are more dependent on ecosystem services than those with greater control of capital. The higher value of the overall IDES or sub-index represents the higher dependence on the corresponding ecosystem services, and thus the higher vulnerability to the degradation or decline of corresponding ecosystem services. The IDES system improves our understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. It also provides insights into strategies for alleviating poverty, for targeting priority groups of conservation programs, and for managing risks and opportunities due to changes of ecosystem services at multiple scales. PMID:23717634

  7. Global emissions of terpenoid VOCs from terrestrial vegetation in the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Acosta Navarro, J C; Smolander, S; Struthers, H; Zorita, E; Ekman, A M L; Kaplan, J O; Guenther, A; Arneth, A; Riipinen, I

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the millennial variability (1000 A.D.–2000 A.D.) of global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene, and Lund-Potsdam-Jena-General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission trends were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have significant short-term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr−1 (13% and 19% less than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively), and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr−1(15% and 20% less than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr−1(10% and 6% higher than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr−1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr−1(10% and 4% higher than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation. PMID:25866703

  8. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P. Craig; Buyon, Lucas E.; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the “big three” diseases—namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria—has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda

  9. Going Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: An Index System of Human Dependence on Ecosystem Services

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wu; Dietz, Thomas; Liu, Wei; Luo, Junyan; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) estimated that two thirds of ecosystem services on the earth have degraded or are in decline due to the unprecedented scale of human activities during recent decades. These changes will have tremendous consequences for human well-being, and offer both risks and opportunities for a wide range of stakeholders. Yet these risks and opportunities have not been well managed due in part to the lack of quantitative understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. Here, we propose an index of dependence on ecosystem services (IDES) system to quantify human dependence on ecosystem services. We demonstrate the construction of the IDES system using household survey data. We show that the overall index and sub-indices can reflect the general pattern of households' dependences on ecosystem services, and their variations across time, space, and different forms of capital (i.e., natural, human, financial, manufactured, and social capitals). We support the proposition that the poor are more dependent on ecosystem services and further generalize this proposition by arguing that those disadvantaged groups who possess low levels of any form of capital except for natural capital are more dependent on ecosystem services than those with greater control of capital. The higher value of the overall IDES or sub-index represents the higher dependence on the corresponding ecosystem services, and thus the higher vulnerability to the degradation or decline of corresponding ecosystem services. The IDES system improves our understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. It also provides insights into strategies for alleviating poverty, for targeting priority groups of conservation programs, and for managing risks and opportunities due to changes of ecosystem services at multiple scales. PMID:23717634

  10. The Thorium-Cycle: safe, abundant power for the new millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Don, May; George, Kim; Peter, Mcintyre; Charles, Meitzler; Robert, Rogers; Akhdior, Sattarov; Mustafa, Yavuz

    2001-10-01

    A design has been developed for using accelerator-driven thorium fission to produce electric power. A thorium-cycle reactor works by electro-breeding. A pattern of thorium fuel rods is supported in a vessel containing molten lead. A beam of high-energy (1 GeV) protons is targeted in the center of the vessel, and produces a copious flux of energetic neutrons by spallation. The neutrons transmute the thorium nuclei two steps up the periodic table to U233, which fissions rapidly to produce thermal energy. The lead serves as the spallation target, the moderator, and the heat exchange medium to transfer heat from the core to steam exchangers above the core. The thorium cycle has several important advantages over current uranium-cycle fission technology: it is intrinsically stable it cannot melt down; it eats its own waste; it cannot produce bomb-grade isotopes; and there are sufficient thorium reserves to supply the entire Earth’s energy economy for the next millennium. The concept of a thorium-cycle power reactor was first proposed by Rubbia in 1995. Key problems in the original concept were the proton injector (15 MW beam power), reliability of accelerator systems, and parasitic absorption of neutrons by fission products during the life of the core. We have addressed all three problems in a design for a flux-coupled stack of isochronous cyclotrons, delivering a pattern of 7 independent beams to the core. An interdisciplinary collaboration is being formed to develop the concept to a serious design.

  11. The influence of tropical volcanic eruptions on the climate of South America during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colose, C. M.; LeGrande, A. N.; Vuille, M.

    2015-07-01

    Currently, little is known on how volcanic eruptions impact large-scale climate phenomena such as paleo-ITCZ position or South American summer monsoon behavior. In this paper, an analysis of observations and model simulations is employed to assess the influence of large volcanic eruptions on the climate of South America. This problem is considered both for historically recent volcanic episodes, for which more comprehensive global observations exist, as well as reconstructed volcanic events for the period 850 C.E. to present that are incorporated into the NASA GISS ModelE2-R simulation of the Last Millennium. An advantage of this model is its ability to explicitly track water isotopologues throughout the hydrologic cycle and simulating the isotopic imprint following a large eruption. This effectively removes a degree of uncertainty associated with error-prone conversion of isotopic signals into climate variables, and allows for a direct comparison between GISS simulations and paleoclimate proxy archives. Our analysis reveals that both precipitation and oxygen isotope variability respond with a distinct seasonal and spatial structure across South America following an eruption. During austral winter, the heavy oxygen isotope in precipitation is enriched, likely due to reduced moisture convergence in the ITCZ domain and reduced rainfall over northern South America. During austral summer, however, precipitation is depleted in heavy isotopes over Amazonia, despite reductions in rainfall, suggesting that the isotopic response is not a simple function of the "amount effect". During the South American monsoon season, the amplitude of the temperature response to volcanic forcing is larger than the rather weak and spatially less coherent precipitation signal, potentially masking the isotopic response to changes in the hydrologic cycle.

  12. Reconstructing the behaviour of a major SW Greenland tidewater glacier over the last millennium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Danni; Mair, Doug W. F.; Rea, Brice R.; Schofield, J. Ed; Lea, James M.; Kamenos, Nick; Schoenrock, Kate; Stachnik, Lukasz

    2016-04-01

    Greenlandic tidewater glaciers have experienced widespread retreat over the last century. However, information on their dynamics prior to this are poorly constrained due to a lack of observations and paucity, in many cases of mapped or mappable deglacial evidence. Especially lacking is evidence for tidewater glacier advance during the Little Ice Age (LIA). This severely restricts our understanding of the long-term (centennial-millennial timescale) relationships between climate and calving at marine terminating margins in Greenland and elsewhere. Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS) is the most dynamic tidewater glacier in southwest Greenland having retreated >22 km since its LIA-maximum (c. 1761). This project takes advantage of the site's unique combination of terrestrial evidence of glacier change (glacial geomorphology, sedimentology, and Norse archaeology) and novel marine evidence (coralline algae) to reconstruct both its advance and retreat over the last millennium. We present glacial geomorphological mapping, which followed a morphstratigraphic approach, using a combination of aerial photos, a DEM and field mapping. Radiocarbon dating from peat sequences were used to determine the timing and rates of advance of KNS to the LIAmax. This has provided evidence for pre-LIA moraines, deglacial and neoglacial, and rapid changes in meltwater routing that may have contributed to the abandonment of nearby Norse settlements. Isotopic analysis of annually banded coralline algae (Lithothamnion glaciale), collected during summer 2015, will provide proxy evidence for changes in fjord water conditions. This data will contribute towards a millennial timescale record of tidewater glacier dynamics that will help to validate models linking calving to climate.

  13. Patterns and Pathways of Evolving Catchment Response in NE Italy on a Millennium Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, L. P. H. Rens; Feiken, H. Rik

    2015-04-01

    The meso-scale landscape dynamics model, CALEROS, has been developed to simulate the interactions between climate, soil production and erosion, vegetation and land use on geomorphological to human time scales. Starting from an initial landscape consisting of a DTM, soil distribution and underlying lithology, the landscape is free to develop in response to the imposed climate variability and seismicity. In addition to changes in soil distribution and bedrock lowering, this includes the establishment of vegetation as conditioned by a selection of plant functional types and, optionally, population and land use dynamics as conditioned by land use scenarios specifying technological and dietary constraints for different periods. As such CALEROS is well-suited to investigate the relative impacts of climate, land cover and human activities on the hydrological catchment response and the associated sediment fluxes due to soil erosion and mass movements. Here we use CALEROS to investigate the redistribution of water and sediment across a medium-sized catchment in NE Italy. Starting from the same initial conditions, the catchment is subjected respectively to conditions corresponding to the present-day sub-alpine and montane climates of NE Italy, with and without the introduction of agriculture around 5000 BC. For these two catchments, we establish patterns of co-evolution in soil properties and vegetation under pristine and anthropogenically impacted conditions on a millennium-scale. Using summary statistics to describe the emergent properties, we then delineate areas of uniform morphology and describe the various pathways of development. This information allows us to identify elements of consistent hydrological response and the associated transfer of material across different scales. It also provides essential information on feedbacks and the resulting convergence or divergence in landscape development under the impact of climatic events or human intervention. Although the

  14. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine--ginseng (I): etymology, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, market and regulations.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine- ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people's uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng. PMID:19601793

  15. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P Craig; Buyon, Lucas E; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the "big three" diseases--namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria--has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda. PMID

  16. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa’s children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the

  17. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa's children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed

    Tatem, Andrew J; Garcia, Andres J; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Gaughan, Andrea E; Gilbert, Marius; Linard, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments.Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation.Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the

  18. Modern to millennium-old greenhouse gases emitted from freshwater ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, F.; Laurion, I.; Preskienis, V.; Fortier, D.; Xu, X.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    Ponds and lakes are widespread across the rapidly changing permafrost environments. Aquatic systems play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles, especially in greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges between terrestrial systems and the atmosphere. The source, speciation and emission of carbon released from permafrost landscapes are strongly influenced by local specific conditions rather than general environmental setting. This study reports on GHG ages and emission rates from aquatic systems on Bylot Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Dissolved and ebullition gas samples were collected during the summer season from different types of water bodies located in a highly dynamic periglacial valley: polygonal ponds, collapsed ice-wedge trough ponds, and larger lakes overlying unfrozen soils (talik). The results showed strikingly different ages and fluxes depending on aquatic system types. Polygonal ponds were net sinks of dissolved CO2, but variable sources of dissolved CH4. They presented the highest ebullition fluxes, one or two orders of magnitude higher than from other ponds and lakes. Trough ponds appeared as substantial GHG sources, especially when their edges were actively eroding. Both types of ponds produced modern to hundreds of years old (<550 yr BP) GHG, even if trough ponds could contain much older carbon (>2000 yr BP) derived from freshly eroded peat. Lakes had small dissolved and ebullition fluxes, however they released much older GHG, including millennium-old CH4 (up to 3500 yr BP) sampled from lake central areas. Acetoclastic methanogenesis dominated at all study sites and there was minimal, if any, methane oxidation in gas emitted through ebullition. These findings provide new insights on the variable role of permafrost aquatic systems as a positive feedback mechanism on climate.

  19. A tree-ring reconstruction of East Anglian (UK) hydroclimate variability over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Richard J.; Melvin, Thomas M.; Tyers, Ian; Wilson, Rob J. S.; Briffa, Keith R.

    2013-02-01

    We present an annually resolved reconstruction of spring-summer precipitation variability in East Anglia, UK (52-53°N, 0-2°E) for the period AD 900-2009. A continuous regional network of 723 living (AD 1590-2009) and historical (AD 781-1790) oak ( Quercus sp.) ring-width series has been constructed and shown to display significant sensitivity to precipitation variability during the March-July season. The existence of a coherent common growth signal is demonstrated in oaks growing across East Anglia, containing evidence of near-decadal aperiodic variability in precipitation throughout the last millennium. Positive correlations are established between oak growth and precipitation variability across a large region of northwest Europe, although climate-growth relationships appear time transgressive with correlations significantly weakening during the early twentieth century. Examination of the relationship between oak growth, precipitation, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), reveals no evidence that the NAO plays any significant role in the control of precipitation or tree growth in this region. Using Regional Curve Standardisation to preserve evidence of low-frequency growth variability in the East Anglian oak chronology, we produce a millennial length reconstruction that is capable of explaining 32-35% of annual-to-decadal regional-scale precipitation variance during 1901-2009. The full length reconstruction indicates statistically significant anomalous dry conditions during AD 900-1100 and circa-1800. An apparent prolonged wetter phase is estimated for the twelfth and thirteen centuries, whilst precipitation fluctuates between wetter and drier phases at near centennial timescales throughout the fourteenth to seventeenth centuries. Above average precipitation reconstructed for the twenty-first century is comparable with that reproduced for the 1600s. The main estimated wet and dry phases reconstructed here appear largely coherent with an independent tree

  20. Pan-Continental Droughts in North America over the Last Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Cook, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Regional droughts are common in North America, but pan-continental droughts extending across multiple regions, including the 2012 event, are rare relative to single-region events. Here, the tree-ring-derived North American Drought Atlas is used to investigate drought variability in four regions over the last millennium, focusing on pan-continental droughts. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the central plains (CP), Southwest (SW), and Southeast (SE) regions experienced drier conditions and increased occurrence of droughts and the Northwest (NW) experienced several extended pluvials. Enhanced MCA aridity in the SW and CP manifested as multidecadal megadroughts. Notably, megadroughts in these regions differed in their timing and persistence, suggesting that they represent regional events influenced by local dynamics rather than a unified, continental-scale phenomena. There is no trend in pan-continental drought occurrence, defined as synchronous droughts in three or more regions. SW, CP, and SE (SW+CP+SE) droughts are the most common, occurring in 12 percent of all years and peaking in prevalence during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; patterns involving three other regions occur in about 8 percent of years. Positive values of the Southern Oscillation index (La Nina conditions) are linked to SW, CP, and SE (SW+CP+SE) droughts and SW, CP, and NW (SW+CP+NW) droughts, whereas CP, NW, and SE (CP+NW+SE) droughts are associated with positive values of the Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. While relatively rare, pan-continental droughts are present in the paleo record and are linked to defined modes of climate variability, implying the potential for seasonal predictability. Assuming stable drought teleconnections, these events will remain an important feature of future North American hydroclimate, possibly increasing in their severity in step with other expected hydroclimate responses to increased greenhouse gas forcing.

  1. Assessing reconstruction techniques of the Atlantic Ocean circulation variability during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Ortega, Pablo; González-Rouco, Fidel; Montoya, Marisa

    2016-04-01

    We assess the use of the meridional thermal-wind transport estimated from zonal density gradients to reconstruct the oceanic circulation variability during the last millennium in a forced simulation with the ECHO-G coupled climate model. Following a perfect-model approach, model-based pseudo-reconstructions of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the Florida Current volume transport (FCT) are evaluated against their true simulated variability. The pseudo-FCT is additionally verified as proxy for AMOC strength and compared with the available proxy-based reconstruction. The thermal-wind component reproduces most of the simulated AMOC variability, which is mostly driven by internal climate dynamics during the preindustrial period and by increasing greenhouse gases afterwards. The pseudo-reconstructed FCT reproduces well the simulated FCT and reasonably well the variability of the AMOC strength, including the response to external forcing. The pseudo-reconstructed FCT, however, underestimates/overestimates the simulated variability at deep/shallow levels. Density changes responsible for the pseudo-reconstructed FCT are mainly driven by zonal temperature differences; salinity differences oppose but play a minor role. These results thus support the use of the thermal-wind relationship to reconstruct the oceanic circulation past variability, in particular at multidecadal timescales. Yet model-data comparison highlights important differences between the simulated and the proxy-based FCT variability. ECHO-G simulates a prominent weakening in the North Atlantic circulation that contrasts with the reconstructed enhancement. Our model results thus do not support the reconstructed FC minimum during the Little Ice Age. This points to a failure in the reconstruction, misrepresented processes in the model, or an important role of internal ocean dynamics.

  2. Tree ring effects and ice core acidities clarify the volcanic record of the first millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillie, M. G. L.; McAneney, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 Plummer et al., in presenting the volcanic chronology of the Antarctic Law Dome ice core, chose to list connections to acid layers in other ice cores and also possible chronological coincidences between ice acid dates and the precise dates of frost damage, and/or reduced growth in North American bristlecone pines. We disagree with the chronological links indicated by Plummer et al. for the period before AD 700, and in this paper we show that a case can be made that better linkages between ice acid and tree ring effects occur for this period if the ice chronologies are systematically moved forward by around 7 years, consistent with a hypothesis published by Baillie in 2008. In the paper we seek to explore the proposition that frost damage rings in North American bristlecone pines are a very useful indicator of the dates of certain large explosive volcanic eruptions; the dating of major eruptions being critical for any clear understanding of volcanic forcing. This paper cannot prove that there is an error in the Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05), and in equivalent ice chronologies from the Antarctic, however, it does provide a coherent argument for an apparent ice dating offset. If the suggested offset were to prove correct it would be necessary to locate where the error occurs in the ice chronologies and in this regard the dating of the increasingly controversial Icelandic Eldgjá eruption in the AD 930s, and the China/Korean Millennium eruption which occurs some 7 years after Eldgjá, may well be critical. In addition, if the offset were to be substantiated it would have implications for the alleged identification of tephra at 429.3 m in the Greenland GRIP core, currently attributed to the Italian volcano Vesuvius and used as a critical zero error point in the GICC05 chronology.

  3. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine- Ginseng (I): Etymology, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Market and Regulations

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine–ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people’s uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng. PMID:19601793

  4. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  5. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  6. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  7. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  8. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  9. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  10. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  11. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  12. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  13. 22 CFR 208.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 208.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  14. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  15. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  16. Global irrigated area map (GIAM), derived from remote sensing, for the end of the last millennium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, P.S.; Biradar, C.M.; Noojipady, P.; Dheeravath, V.; Li, Y.; Velpuri, M.; Gumma, M.; Gangalakunta, O.R.P.; Turral, H.; Cai, X.; Vithanage, J.; Schull, M.A.; Dutta, R.

    2009-01-01

    A Global Irrigated Area Map (GIAM) has been produced for the end of the last millennium using multiple satellite sensor, secondary, Google Earth and groundtruth data. The data included: (a) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 3-band and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 10 km monthly time-series for 1997-1999, (b) Syste me pour l'Observation de la Terre Vegetation (SPOT VGT) NDVI 1 km monthly time series for 1999, (c) East Anglia University Climate Research Unit (CRU) rainfall 50km monthly time series for 1961-2000, (d) Global 30 Arc-Second Elevation Data Set (GTOPO30) 1 km digital elevation data of the World, (e) Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (JERS-1 SAR) data for the rain forests during two seasons in 1996 and (f) University of Maryland Global Tree Cover 1 km data for 1992-1993. A single mega-file data-cube (MFDC) of the World with 159 layers, akin to hyperspectral data, was composed by re-sampling different data types into a common 1 km resolution. The MFDC was segmented based on elevation, temperature and precipitation zones. Classification was performed on the segments. Quantitative spectral matching techniques (SMTs) used in hyperspectral data analysis were adopted to group class spectra derived from unsupervised classification and match them with ideal or target spectra. A rigorous class identification and labelling process involved the use of: (a) space-time spiral curve (ST-SC) plots, (b) brightness-greenness-wetness (BGW) plots, (c) time series NDVI plots, (d) Google Earth very-high-resolution imagery (VHRI) 'zoom-in views' in over 11 000 locations, (e) groundtruth data broadly sourced from the degree confluence project (3 864 sample locations) and from the GIAM project (1 790 sample locations), (f) high-resolution Landsat-ETM+ Geocover 150m mosaic of the World and (g) secondary data (e.g. national and global land use and land cover data). Mixed classes were resolved based on decision tree

  17. Staffing Smaller Police Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, David A.; Colombo, Michael

    2010-01-01

    All aspects of police work are challenging both professionally and personally. Police officers are accustomed to shift work, mandatory overtime, schedule adjustments for training, holidays and disasters, recalls and required off-duty court appearances. Police officers traditionally work eight hours per day, five day weeks (otherwise known as a 5/8…

  18. America's challenge.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, G N

    1968-01-01

    As government increasingly recognizes its own obligations to support and provide family planning as a health and social measure, serious questions are raised as to the proper role for Planned Parenthood World Federation as a private organization. Federal programs both at home and abroad tend to make private fundraising more difficult, whatever the role of this organization may be. Contrary to common impression, experience thus far indicates that the existence of governmental programs does not decrease demands on Planned Parenthood as a private agency. A wide gap also exists between public acceptance, which has been realized, and public conviction, which still has not been accepted. Only those who feel distress at the vision of an all-encompassing megalopolis, only those with concern for the qualify of life in the crowd, and only those who see finite limits of resources recognize that the US must someday plan a halt to population growth. As the gap between the developed and the underdeveloped world widens, economists point out that the US, with less than 6% of the world's population, already consumes some 50% of the world's available raw materials. Business and government leaders are beginning to understand the rate at which an industrial and affluent society consumes the world's substance and threatens the environment. If the assumption is correct that the population explosion constitutes a major threat to life on earth, then America's own attitudes and actions at home, as well as abroad and in the developing countries, are vital. In the next few years Planned Parenthood faces the task of converting the tide of public acceptance into one of conviction and effective action on a giant scale both at home and abroad. In its effort, Planned Parenthood has continued to expand its own service functions. It now has 157 local affiliates with an additional 30 in the organizational stage. In 1967 Planned Parenthood affiliates operated 470 family planning centers, 71 more than

  19. The Role and Value of Conservation Agency Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Dirk J.; Kingsford, Richard T.; McCool, Stephen F.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C.

    2015-06-01

    Governments charge their conservation agencies to safeguard biodiversity through protected areas and threat mitigation. Increasingly, conservation management and policy need to be supported by rigorous evidence provided by science. As such, institutional arrangements should consider and enable effective scientific research and information dissemination. What role can in-house agency research play in responding to this challenge? We examined the research capabilities of three conservation agencies from Australia, South Africa, and United States. Seven indicators were used to characterize the reliability and relevance of agency research. We found similarities among agencies in their patterns of peer-reviewed publication, cultures of research collaboration, and tendencies to align research with organizational objectives. Among the many and diverse activities that constitute the role of a contemporary agency researcher, we emphasize two key research dimensions: reliability, achieved through peer-reviewed research output, and relevance, achieved through active stakeholder engagement. Amid increasingly challenging realities for conservation of ecosystems, agency science functions are vital to providing the evidence base required for effective management and policy development.

  20. The role and value of conservation agency research.

    PubMed

    Roux, Dirk J; Kingsford, Richard T; McCool, Stephen F; McGeoch, Melodie A; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C

    2015-06-01

    Governments charge their conservation agencies to safeguard biodiversity through protected areas and threat mitigation. Increasingly, conservation management and policy need to be supported by rigorous evidence provided by science. As such, institutional arrangements should consider and enable effective scientific research and information dissemination. What role can in-house agency research play in responding to this challenge? We examined the research capabilities of three conservation agencies from Australia, South Africa, and United States. Seven indicators were used to characterize the reliability and relevance of agency research. We found similarities among agencies in their patterns of peer-reviewed publication, cultures of research collaboration, and tendencies to align research with organizational objectives. Among the many and diverse activities that constitute the role of a contemporary agency researcher, we emphasize two key research dimensions: reliability, achieved through peer-reviewed research output, and relevance, achieved through active stakeholder engagement. Amid increasingly challenging realities for conservation of ecosystems, agency science functions are vital to providing the evidence base required for effective management and policy development. PMID:25840698