Science.gov

Sample records for agency millennium challenge

  1. THE MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE: THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S RESPONSE TO INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responding to the scientific and regulatory challenges of invasive species in a variety of ways. One response has been to use existing programs and regulations, as appropriate, to address invasive species. A recent example is th...

  2. 77 FR 14835 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012 AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 3 p.m. to 5 p.m., Wednesday, March 22, 2012. PLACE... the public. Dated: March 7, 2012. Melvin F. Williams, Jr., VP/General Counsel and Corporate...

  3. Higher Education in Transition: The Challenges of the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losco, Joseph, Ed.; Fife, Brian L., Ed.

    This collection of papers records the current state of higher education and outlines the challenges higher education will face in the new millennium. The nine chapters are as follows: (1) "The American College Student: Three Decades of Change" (Alexander W. Astin); (2) "The Changing Role of Faculty" (Gary Rhoades); (3)…

  4. Medicine for the millennium: the challenge of postmodernism.

    PubMed

    Chan, J J; Chan, J E

    2000-04-03

    As the new millennium dawns, Australian society is becoming more post-modern, whereas the medical system remains increasingly modernist in its outlook. In this article, we discuss the emerging prevalence of post-modernism and examine current medical education and practice strategies, such as evidence-based medicine, from a post-modern perspective. We argue that if medicine does not respond to the ideas of post-modernism, which challenges the concepts of truth and our ability to be objective, it may become increasingly irrelevant to the needs of a changing society.

  5. 3 CFR - Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer of the Millennium Challenge Corporation Presidential Documents... Challenge Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer of the Millennium Challenge Corporation Memorandum... Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 3345 et seq. (the “Act”), it is hereby ordered...

  6. Revisiting Public Health Challenges in the New Millennium

    PubMed Central

    Anish, TS; Sreelakshmi, PR

    2013-01-01

    Positive Health of the communities could only be brought out through the interrelationship between conventional health sector and other development sectors. It was a dream that came true when World Health Organization (WHO) accepted Primary Health Care (PHC) as the major tool to achieve its proposed goal of Health For All (HFA) by 2000 A.D., but we could not succeed as expected. Now we have the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which place health at the heart of development but the achievements in health is still challenging. The literature search in this article has been conducted in Pub Med and Google scholar, with the aim to draw references to discuss the major health issues and ways to tackle them. The current article briefly narrates the burden and complexities of challenges faced by the present global health. Revisiting the concept of PHC and reaffirming our solidarity to this philosophy is the need of this hour. PMID:24116303

  7. 77 FR 75198 - Notice of the December 19, 2012, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Information on the meeting may be obtained from Melvin F. Williams, Jr., Vice.... Williams, Jr., VP/General Counsel and Corporate Secretary, Millennium Challenge Corporation. BILLING...

  8. 76 FR 57765 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice of the September 28, 2011, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE..., General Counsel and Corporate Secretary via e-mail at Corporatesecretary@mcc.gov or by telephone at (202... and Corporate Secretary, Millennium Challenge Corporation. BILLING CODE 9211-03-P...

  9. School Environmental Health Programs and the Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…

  10. 75 FR 10822 - Notice of the March 24, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... CORPORATION Notice of the March 24, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine..., March 24, 2010. Place: Department of State, 2201 C Street, NW., Washington, DC 20520. FOR FURTHER... and the meeting will be closed to the public. Dated: March 5, 2010. Henry C. Pitney, Acting...

  11. 76 FR 12134 - Notice of the March 23, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... CORPORATION Notice of the March 23, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine..., March 23, 2011. PLACE: Department of State, 2201 C Street, NW., Washington, DC 20520. FOR FURTHER... to the public. Dated: March 1, 2011. Melvin F. Williams, Jr., VP/General Counsel and...

  12. Education in Indonesia: Coping with Challenges in the Third Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwadi, Agung; Muljoatmodjo, Suheru

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Indonesian system of education of Islamic schooling, secular education, and out-of-school education. The provision of 9-year universal basic education is planned by 2004. The national plan challenges the education system to facilitate the change in Indonesia's economic structure from an agriculturally based system to one more…

  13. Deep Space Control Challenges of the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Burdick, Garry M.

    1999-01-01

    The exploration of deep space presents a variety of significant control challenges. Long communication delays coupled with challenging new science objectives require high levels of system autonomy and increasingly demanding pointing and control capabilities. Historically, missions based on the use of a large single spacecraft have been successful and popular since the early days of NASA. However, these large spacecraft missions are currently being displaced by more frequent and more focused missions based on the use of smaller and less expensive spacecraft designs. This trend drives the need to design smart software and good algorithms which together with the miniaturization of control components will improve performance while replacing the heavier and more expensive hardware used in the past. NASA's future space exploration will also include mission types that have never been attempted before, posing significant challenges to the underlying control system. This includes controlled landing on small bodies (e.g., asteroids and comets), sample return missions (where samples are brought back from other planets), robotic exploration of planetary surfaces (e.g., intelligent rovers), high precision formation flying, and deep space optical interferometry, While the control of planetary spacecraft for traditional flyby and orbiter missions are based on well-understood methodologies, control approaches for many future missions will be fundamentally different. This paradigm shift will require completely new control system development approaches, system architectures, and much greater levels of system autonomy to meet expected performance in the presence of significant environmental disturbances, and plant uncertainties. This paper will trace the motivation for these changes and will layout the approach taken to meet the new challenges. Emerging missions will be used to explain and illustrate the need for these changes.

  14. Indian dental education in the new millennium: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, Satheesh; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Singh, Fiza; Taneja, Priyank; Karimbux, Nadeem

    2010-09-01

    India is poised to be a leader in the global economy in this century. Its population of more than 1.1 billion, however, will challenge both the medical and oral health care systems. The current status of dental education in India has some serious challenges that will need to be modified to be able to produce leaders in the field of dentistry to address these burgeoning needs. Dental students in India are trained to excel theoretically, but there seems to be a disconnect between what is learned and what is applied in the clinics. In the real world, when dealing with patients, problem-solving skills and practical knowledge are necessary. Some of the changes that might bring dental education to the next level in India could include selecting highly motivated students for dentistry, modifying the teaching methodology with some importance given to treatment planning, and introducing research into the curriculum. Changing the current attitude of the faculty, students, and the general population towards dental education is another factor important in the successful transformation. The aim of this article is to discuss these issues in preparing the Indian dental workforce for the challenges of India's growing economy and population.

  15. From the Millennium Development Goals to Sustainable Development Goals.: The response to the HIV epidemic in Indonesia: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Wijayanti, Fetty; Tarmizi, Siti Nadia; Tobing, Viny; Nisa, Tiara; Akhtar, Muhammad; Trihandini, Indang; Djuwita, Ratna

    2016-11-28

    Since the first case was reported in 1981, the Indonesian government and civil society have implemented many initiatives to respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From an historical perspective, the country now has the means to rapidly diagnose cases of HIV infection and provide antiretroviral therapy. The concern expressed by international health agencies about a potential major HIV epidemic in the country has not been confirmed, as evidenced by a slowing down of the number cases. The threat from non-sterile needle sharing has been relatively well controlled through harm-reduction programmes; however, drug trafficking remains a challenge. It has reached worrying levels and involves law enforcement units at the forefront of the battle. In parallel, the level of condom use in high-risk behaviour groups seems unsuccessful in reducing infection rates, especially among heterosexuals. The lack of information and the high mobility of the groups at risk of acquiring HIV infection have created tremendous challenges for outreach programmes. Heterosexual transmission represents the most important route of transmission in the country. When reflecting on the country's 2014 Millennium Development Goals, condom use during high-risk sex only reaches 43.5%, and only 21.3% of young people have a comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The 2030 Millennium Development Goal Agenda offers an opportunity to catch up on goals that still need to be achieved. Therefore, efforts are underway to try to halt the epidemic by 2030 and also to ensure that all high-risk populations are included in this effort.

  16. 76 FR 34273 - Notice of the June 22, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE..., General Counsel and Corporate Secretary via e-mail at Corporatesecretary@mcc.gov or by telephone at (202... to the public. Dated: June 9, 2011. Melvin F. Williams, VP/General Counsel and Corporate...

  17. 75 FR 80544 - Change of Date for December 15, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE... Williams, Jr., Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary via e-mail at Corporatesecretary@mcc... Corporation published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to the Government in the Sunshine Act (5...

  18. Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Werner Z., Ed.; Weber, Luc E., Ed.

    This collection of 17 essays focuses on the major changes that higher education needs to make so that it can effectively pursue teaching and research and significantly contribute public service in a rapidly changing world. The essays include: (1) "Survey of the Main Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium" (Luc E. Weber);…

  19. NOAA administrator reviews agency progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    The approach of the new year is a traditional time to tally up successes, failures, and the path ahead. Jane Lubchenco, administrator of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), examined some agency advances and significant challenges during the 7 December Union Agency Lecture at the AGU Fall Meeting, during a press briefing, and in an interview with Eos. Lubchenco focused on several key areas including the concern about monitoring, mitigating, and managing extreme events; budgetary pressures the agency faces in current fiscal year (FY) 2012 and in FY 2013, with President Barack Obama on 18 November having signed into law a bill, HR 2112, following congressional agreement on a budget legislation conference report; and NOAA's newly released scientific integrity policy (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011).

  20. The Challenges of Attaining Millennium Development Goals in Education in Africa by 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojogwu, C. N.

    2009-01-01

    Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…

  1. 7 CFR 766.115 - Challenging the Agency appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Challenging the Agency appraisal. 766.115 Section 766... Challenging the Agency appraisal. (a) A borrower considered for primary loan servicing who does not agree with the Agency's appraisal of the borrower's assets may: (1) Obtain a technical appraisal review of...

  2. Remote Sensing in Geography in the New Millennium: Prospects, Challenges, and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jensen, John R.; Morain, Stanley A.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1999-01-01

    Remote sensing science contributes greatly to our understanding of the Earth's ecosystems and cultural landscapes. Almost all the natural and social sciences, including geography, rely heavily on remote sensing to provide quantitative, and indispensable spatial information. Many geographers have made significant contributions to remote sensing science since the 1970s, including the specification of advanced remote sensing systems, improvements in analog and digital image analysis, biophysical modeling, and terrain analysis. In fact, the Remote Sensing Specialty Group (RSSG) is one of the largest specialty groups within the AAG with over 500 members. Remote sensing in concert with a geographic information systems, offers much value to geography as both an incisive spatial-analytical tool and as a scholarly pursuit that adds to the body of geographic knowledge on the whole. The "power" of remote sensing as a research endeavor in geography lies in its capabilities for obtaining synoptic, near-real time data at many spatial and temporal scales, and in many regions of the electromagnetic spectrum - from microwave, to RADAR, to visible, and reflective and thermal infrared. In turn, these data present a vast compendium of information for assessing Earth attributes and characte6stics that are at the very core of geography. Here we revisit how remote sensing has become a fundamental and important tool for geographical research, and how with the advent of new and improved sensing systems to be launched in the near future, remote sensing will further advance geographical analysis in the approaching New Millennium.

  3. Implementing the millennium development food security goals Challenges of the southern African context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, David; Twomlow, Steve; Mupangwa, Walter; van der Zaag, Pieter; Gumbo, Bekithemba

    The Millennium Development Goals’ target to halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger is extremely important in southern Africa, where food security has become increasingly problematic over the last 20 years. One “quick-win” proposal is replenishment of soil nutrients for smallholder farmers, through free or subsidised chemical fertilisers. Other proposals include appropriate irrigation technology, improved inputs and interventions targeted at women. Analysis of over 10 years of agro-hydrological and agro-economic studies from southern African show that a different approach is required to interventions proposed. There are sustainability problems with free chemical fertiliser due to transport costs and ancillary costs. Furthermore, recent studies in Zimbabwe and Mozambique show that significant increases in yield can only be obtained when soil fertility management is combined with good crop husbandry, e.g. timely planting and weeding. Ongoing replenishment of fertility would be dependent on a continued free or subsidised fertiliser supply, and transport system. Increasing access to irrigation will help, but is not the only solution and cannot reach even a majority of farmers. It has been determined that short dryspells are often the major cause of low yields in sub-Saharan Africa. Soil-water conservation approaches, e.g. winter weeding and conservation tillage, can reduce risk and increase yield. The following specific recommendations are made for urgent interventions to contribute sustainably to food security in southern Africa: (i) To increases access to fertiliser, consider development of strong input markets at end-user level. (ii) Intensification of technology transfer, focusing on capacity building for transfer of existing technologies and much closer collaboration between state and NGO sectors, agronomists and water engineers. (iii) Increasing the uptake of soil-water conservation methods, including conservation tillage and weeding, and

  4. Millennium III Challenges: A Major Role for Agricultural Research/Extension/Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report by the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC) ad hoc Committee on Federal Support for Agricultural Research, Extension and Education suggests solutions to major challenges in agricultural research. Three new realities provide a powerful rationale for major new investment in agriculture: dramatic…

  5. The Mars Millennium Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

  6. Millennium Challenge Account

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-08

    for design studies , baseline surveys, technical and feasibility studies , environmental and social assessments, ongoing consultations, fees for fiscal... cucumbers , peppers, and tomatoes. According to the MCC, these vegetable crops will generate about $2,000 to $4,000 in annual income per hectare

  7. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the "millennium bug."

  8. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the “millennium bug.”

  9. International Geoscience Workforce Trends: More Challenges for Federal Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groat, C. G.

    2005-12-01

    Concern about the decreasing number of students entering undergraduate geoscience programs has been chronic and, at times, acute over the past three decades. Despite dwindling populations of undergraduate majors, graduate programs have remained relatively robust, bolstered by international students. With Increasing competition for graduate students by universities in Europe, Japan, Australia, and some developing countries, and with procedural challenges faced by international students seeking entry into the United States and its universities, this supply source is threatened. For corporations operating on a global scale, the opportunity to employ students from and trained in the regions in which they operate is generally a plus. For U.S. universities that have traditionally supplied this workforce, the changing situation poses challenges, but also opportunities for creative international partnerships. Federal government science agencies face more challenges than opportunities in meeting workforce needs under both present and changing education conditions. Restrictions on hiring non-U.S. citizens into the permanent workforce have been a long-standing issue for federal agencies. Exceptions are granted only where they can document the absence of eligible U.S.-citizen candidates. The U.S. Geological Survey has been successful in doing this in its Mendenhall Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program, but there has been no solution to the broader limitation. Under current and forecast workforce recruitment conditions, creativity, such as that evidenced by the Mendenhall program,will be necessary if federal agencies are to draw from the increasingly international geoscience talent pool. With fewer U.S. citizens in U.S. geoscience graduate programs and a growing number of advanced-degreed scientists coming from universities outside the U.S., the need for changes in federal hiring policies is heightened. The near-term liklihood of this is low and combined with the decline in

  10. A perspective of health care in the past--insights and challenges for a health care system in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Cicatiello, J S

    2000-01-01

    Health care has been in a state of perpetual change over the past decade. The swirl of activity includes: mergers and acquisitions, downsizing, shortages of nurses, unionizing of physicians, health care cost increases, escalation of pharmaceutical prices, consumerism, managed care, high-tech-low-touch services, the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, declining reimbursement, alternative medicine, Web-based shopping for health care, medicine moving into cyberspace, nanotechnology, advances in digital technology, and a diagnostic boon in high-tech imaging. What this demonstrates is that the broad-based landscape of changes affecting health care in the United States is extensive and incredibly complex. This article provides a perspective of health care in the past, discusses issues and concerns impacting health care today, and articulates some of the challenges and opportunities that are and will continue to shape the future of our health care system in the new millennium.

  11. Battered Agency Syndrome: The Challenge to Agencies Serving Low-Income Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Diane; Lally, J. Ronald; Quiett, Douglas

    Community-based social service agencies working in low-income communities increasingly function with inadequate support and encounter numerous oppressive external and internal conditions that compromise organizational and staff well-being. Working with many such agencies, WestEd identified stressors that included funding problems, unrealistic…

  12. Federal Agencies Gather to Learn More about Workplace Charging Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Chehab, Nay; Olexsak, Sarah

    2016-10-20

    More than 150 leaders from 50 different federal organizations gathered in Washington, D.C. to learn more about the Energy Department’s Workplace Charging Challenge to help further the adoption of electric vehicles.

  13. Federal Agencies Gather to Learn More about Workplace Charging Challenges

    ScienceCinema

    Chehab, Nay; Olexsak, Sarah

    2016-10-26

    More than 150 leaders from 50 different federal organizations gathered in Washington, D.C. to learn more about the Energy Department’s Workplace Charging Challenge to help further the adoption of electric vehicles.

  14. Principal Challenges Facing Electronic Records Management in Federal Agencies Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Giovanna; Sprehe, J. Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses electronic records management in the federal government. Highlights include managing electronic mail; information technology planning, systems design, and architecture; updating conventional records management; integrating electronic records management with other information technology systems; challenges of end-user training; business…

  15. Management Review: Progress and Challenges at the Defense Logistics Agency.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    Systems Assuring that the Program is conducted in an economical , as well as an effective manner, depends, in part, on system and item.priority data supplied...in 1961, is charged with providing effective and economical support to the U.S. military services and other agencies for assigned supply items or...34 Counsel Contracting Integrity ’ jAssurance Business Utilization L~j Installation Services and Environmental Protection Public Affairs Telecommunications

  16. Study of Managerial Challenges Confronting a New Agency: The Case of the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY .................3 II. LITERATURE REVIEW AND INSTITUTIONAL DETAILS ..............................5 A. MALAYSIAN GOVERNMENT SYSTEMS ...details chapter (Chapter II), the research provides background information about the definitions, overviews, and structures of government system in...rationale behind the establishment of the USCG, CNZ, ICG, and JCG from four different federal systems . The chapter elaborates the challenges and

  17. 78 FR 49484 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Millennium Bulk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... (EIS) for the Millennium Bulk Terminals--Longview Shipping Facility Project AGENCY: U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), DoD. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: Millennium Bulk Terminals--Longview, LLC (MBTL... and operation of a shipping facility by Millennium Bulk Terminals--Longview (MBTL). Currently,...

  18. Periodontics in the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Vandersall, D C

    1998-07-01

    This article prognosticates where periodontology will be in the next millennium. The forecasting of such events is wrought with confusion because such predictions are shadowed by bias, dogmatism, prejudice, experiences, and opinions from either a closed or open mind. The results of the survey from 101 periodontists reflect opinions from varied backgrounds, years of clinical experience, and individual levels of success or failure. The responses cannot be tested for accuracy or duplicated by another survey except to wait out the test of time for the year 2025. Clinicians will be challenged to make decisions on accepting new techniques and concepts as these are brought into the therapeutic fold of periodontics. The clinician will be met with new possibilities as a paradigm shift is inevitable for periodontal practice in the next millennium. After all, who would have thought in the 1960s, the soft tissue augmentation era, that 22 years later in 1982, the regeneration of the lost attachment apparatus (alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament) would become a reality. This survey strongly suggests that by the end of the first quarter of the twenty-first century, local delivery of antimicrobials, growth and differentiation factors, and root biomodification agents will have a major impact on the practice of periodontics. One thing is certain, in the next millennium, considering the responses from this survey, a new era in periodontics will be here. By the year 2025, the research, development, and dissemination of new periodontal knowledge will be beyond the imagination from what was considered usual and customary for the twentieth century.

  19. Operation Protective Edge - A Unique Challenge for a Civilian EMS Agency.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Eli; Strugo, Refael; Wacht, Oren

    2015-10-01

    During July through August 2014, Operation Protective Edge, a military conflict between Israel and the Hamas regime in Gaza, dramatically affected both populations. Magen David Adom (MDA), the Israeli national Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a member of the Red Cross, faced a unique challenge during the conflict: to continue providing crucial service to the entire civilian population of Israel, which was under constant missile threat. This challenge included not only providing immediate care for routine EMS calls under missile threat, but also preparing and delivering immediate care to civilians injured in attacks on major cities, as well as small communities, in Israel. This task is a challenge for a civilian EMS agency that normally operates in a non-military environment, yet, in an instant, must enhance its capability to respond to a considerable threat to its population. During Operation Protective Edge, MDA provided care for 842 wounded civilians and utilized a significant amount of its resources. Providing EMS services for a civilian population in a mixed civilian/military scenario is a challenging task on a national level for an EMS system, especially when the threat lasts for weeks. This report describes MDA's preparedness and operations during Operation Protective Edge, and the unique EMS challenges and dilemmas the agency faced.

  20. Passport to the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Mary Grace

    2001-01-01

    Describes a year-long social studies program called "Passport to the Millennium." Students "travel" around the world learning about the history, geography, culture, and economy of different countries. The program is appropriate for students in elementary to secondary grades. Includes a sample lesson plan. (CMK)

  1. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  2. Challenges for a local service agency to address domestic violence -a case study from rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-08-15

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women's access to legal support.

  3. Bottom-up risk regulation? How nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps challenge federal and state environmental agencies.

    PubMed

    Powell, Maria C; Griffin, Martin P A; Tai, Stephanie

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnologies have been called the "Next Industrial Revolution." At the same time, scientists are raising concerns about the potential health and environmental risks related to the nano-sized materials used in nanotechnologies. Analyses suggest that current U.S. federal regulatory structures are not likely to adequately address these risks in a proactive manner. Given these trends, the premise of this paper is that state and local-level agencies will likely deal with many "end-of-pipe" issues as nanomaterials enter environmental media without prior toxicity testing, federal standards, or emissions controls. In this paper we (1) briefly describe potential environmental risks and benefits related to emerging nanotechnologies; (2) outline the capacities of the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act to address potential nanotechnology risks, and how risk data gaps challenge these regulations; (3) outline some of the key data gaps that challenge state-level regulatory capacities to address nanotechnologies' potential risks, using Wisconsin as a case study; and (4) discuss advantages and disadvantages of state versus federal approaches to nanotechnology risk regulation. In summary, we suggest some ways government agencies can be better prepared to address nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps and risk management.

  4. The Millennium Star Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnott, R. W.

    1997-08-01

    Derived from Hipparcos and Tycho observations, the Millennium Star Atlas is a set of 1548 charts covering the entire sky to about magnitude 11. It stands apart from all previous printed atlases in completeness to magnitude 10 and in uniformity around the sky. The generous chart scale has made possible a number of innovations never before seen in a star atlas: arrows on high-proper-motion stars, double-star ticks conveying separation and position angle for a specific modern epoch, distance labels for nearby stars, and variable stars coded by amplitude, period, and type. Among the nonstellar objects plotted, more than 8000 galaxies are shown with aspect ratio and orientation.

  5. Bicentennial Conference on Bibliographic Control for the New Millennium: Confronting the Challenges of Networked Resources and the Web (Washington, DC, November 15-17, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Cataloging Directorate.

    The goals of this conference, sponsored by the Library of Congress Cataloging Directorate, were to develop an overall strategy to address the challenges of improved access to World Wide Web resources through library catalogs and applications of metadata and to identify attainable actions for achieving the objectives of the overall strategy. This…

  6. Tradition and Culture in the Millennium: Tribal Colleges and Universities. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Linda Sue, Ed.; Gipp, Gerald E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume of The David C. Anchin Research Center Series on Educational Policy in the 21st century: Opportunities, Challenges, and Solutions focuses on tribal colleges and universities. As a recent member of higher education community, tribal colleges and universities provide a unique perspective on higher education policy. Policies and…

  7. The humanitarian common logistic operating picture: a solution to the inter-agency coordination challenge.

    PubMed

    Tatham, Peter; Spens, Karen; Kovács, Gyöngyi

    2017-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made in developing the practice of humanitarian logistics, further improvements in efficiency and effectiveness have the potential to save lives and reduce suffering. This paper explores how the military/emergency services' concept of a common operating picture (COP) can be adapted to the humanitarian logistics context, and analyses a practical and proven approach to addressing the key challenge of inter-agency coordination and decision-making. Successful adaptation could provide the mechanism through which predicted and actual demands, together with the location and status of material in transit, are captured, evaluated, and presented in real time as the basis for enhanced decision-making between actors in the humanitarian supply network. Through the introduction of a humanitarian logistics COP and its linkages to national disaster management systems, local communities and countries affected by disasters and emergencies will be better placed to oversee and manage their response activities.

  8. Millennium modem/channelizer special test equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1995-11-01

    A broadband modem/channelizer test set developed by NASA Lewis Research Center is discussed. The test set is a fully programmable, bit-error-rate (BER) test set designed for broadband modem-only and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator characterization. It is currently configured for testing a multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator and was developed for the Advanced Research and Projects Agency under a Technology Reinvestment Program Cooperative Agreement entitled 'Millennium: 21st Century Broadband Digital Telecommunications Technology.' The test set can easily be modified to provide testing of other modems and multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator systems and is available to industry for such testing.

  9. [Financial capital versus medical-industrial complex: challenges for the regulatory agencies].

    PubMed

    Iriart, Celia

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the structural processes that consolidated under the hegemony of the financial capital in the 90s; the dispute between the financial capital operating in the health sector and the medical-industrial complex; the strategies used by the medical-industrial complex for regaining positions; and the challenges all these processes pose for the regulatory agencies. The problems the regulatory agencies are facing lie in two central processes: 1) the hegemony the financial capital reached in the 90s in the health sector through reforms aimed at deregulating the sector in order to facilitate its entrance; and 2) the repositioning of the medical-industrial complex since the mid 90s by radicalizing medicalization. This article is based on several studies conducted by the author using qualitative methods and quantitative secondary data for understanding the historical-situational context. The theoretical approach was based on Marx, Gramsci, Benasayag, Badiou, Testa and Merhy. The analyses of the most recent reforms induced by the medical-industrial complex were the result of a bibliographic and document review.

  10. 30 CFR 773.28 - Written agency decision on challenges to ownership or control listings or findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ownership or control listings or findings. 773.28 Section 773.28 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... § 773.28 Written agency decision on challenges to ownership or control listings or findings. (a) Within... written decision. Our decision must state whether you own or control the relevant surface coal...

  11. Identity and Agency: Pleasures and Collegiality among the Challenges of the Doctoral Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Lynn; Amundsen, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    How do doctoral students develop their identities as academics? In this analysis, we explore identity from the perspective of agency--humans as active agents. The analysis was based on the collective data from three earlier studies in different contexts. Embedded in the data were expressions of agency linked to affect--both positive and…

  12. New Millennium EO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk K.

    2000-01-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) is a NASA technology program that focuses on the validation of advanced spacecraft and instrumentation technologies in space. This program specifically seeks technologies that could significantly benefit future space and Earth science missions by enabling new science capabilities and reducing life cycle costs. These technologies must also require a validation in space to mitigate risks to the first science users, and provide cross-cutting benefits to both NASA's Earth and Space Science enterprises. The NASA Office of Earth Science (OES) directed the NMP to focus the third Earth Observing mission, E03, on innovative measurement concepts that would facilitate remote sensing observations from orbits beyond conventional low-Earth orbit (LEO). These orbits include geosynchronous orbits, highly elliptical orbits, mid-Earth and high-Earth orbits, and other unique vantage points such as L1 and L2. To maximize the input from the Earth science community, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released to solicit innovative measurement concepts for this NMP flight. Because the NMP is a technology validation program, rather than a conventional science program, the NRA required that these measurement concepts employ revolutionary technologies and/or measurement strategies that will enable future science missions from orbits beyond LEO. Another requirement was that a validation in space was needed to reduce real or perceived risks of this concept to future science users. The proposals submitted in response to this NRA were peer reviewed by the NASA OES. The measurement concepts selected through this process will be summarized in this presentation. The E03 measurement concept NRA did not solicit complete mission concepts or flight hardware. Instead, the selected investigators will join integrated project formulation teams to define the mission for the demonstration of the measurement technique and participate in mission design trades and

  13. AID: The New Challenge. A Special Report of the Agency for International Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    The programs and policies of the Agency for International Development (AID) in administering American foreign aid are briefly described in this booklet. Short introductory sections discuss the reasons for foreign aid, the interdependence of today's world, and the history of American foreign aid since World War II. The remaining parts of the…

  14. Veterinary parasitology: looking to the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C

    1999-08-01

    'Veterinary parasitology' has traditionally been concerned with the control of parasites of livestock and companion animals, with emphasis on chemotherapy and immunoprophylaxis. This will continue, but there must be less reliance on chemical control; the development of alternative strategies will be a major goal over the next ten years. Here, Andrew Thompson takes an optimistic look at the challenges, strengths and opportunities for veterinary parasitology as we enter the next millennium. In the space available here, he can only 'scratch the surface' about what the future holds for veterinary parasitology, and will attempt to identify the major trends that are emerging, some of which will be the subject of future in-depth articles in Parasitology Today.

  15. Challenges for a Local Service Agency to Address Domestic Violence –A Case Study From Rural Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women’s access to legal support. PMID:25363105

  16. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  17. Potential Questions to Elicit Nominees’ Views on Agencies’ Management Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Challenges • Ensure access to postsecondary education while reducing the vulnerability of student aid programs to fraud, waste, error, and mismanagement...and Congress. GAO has designated one particularly critical area— student financial aid —as high risk for vulnerability to waste, fraud, error, and...resolving the long-standing information and internal control problems of the federal student financial aid programs? 2. Based on your professional

  18. [Health, equity, and the Millennium Development Goals].

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristina; Mújica, Oscar J

    2004-06-01

    In September 2000 representatives of 189 countries met for the Millennium Summit, which the United Nations convened in New York City, and adopted the declaration that provided the basis for formulating the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The eight goals are part of a long series of initiatives that governments, the United Nations system, and international financial institutions have undertaken to reduce world poverty. Three of the eight goals deal with health, so the health sector will be responsible for implementing, monitoring, and evaluating measures proposed to meet targets that have been formulated: to reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate in children under 5 years of age between 1990 and 2015; to reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality rate between 1990 and 2015; and to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by the year 2015, as well as to halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria, tuberculosis, and other major diseases. The health sector must also work with other parties to achieve targets connected with two other of the goals: to improve access to affordable essential drugs, and to reduce the proportion of persons who do not have safe drinking water. Adopting a strategy focused on the most vulnerable groups-ones concentrated in locations and populations with the greatest social exclusion-would make possible the largest total reduction in deaths among children, thus reaching the proposed target as well as producing greater equity. In the Region of the Americas the principal challenges in meeting the MDGs are: improving and harmonizing health information systems; designing health programs related to the MDGs that bring together the set of services and interventions that have the greatest impact, according to the special characteristics of the populations who are intended to be the beneficiaries; strengthening the political will to support the MDGs; and guaranteeing funding for the measures undertaken to attain the MDGs.

  19. The challenges of rescaling South African water resources management: Catchment Management Agencies and interbasin transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourblanc, Magalie; Blanchon, David

    2014-11-01

    The implementation of Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs) was supposed to be the cornerstone of the rescaling process of the South African water reform policy. Yet, less than 10 years after the adoption of the National Water Act, the process was suspended for 4 years and by 2012 only two CMAs had been established. Combining approaches in geography and political science, this paper investigates the reasons for the delays in CMAs' implementation in South Africa. It shows that the construction of interbasin transfers (IBTs) since the 1950s by the apartheid regime and nowadays the power struggles between CMAs and the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) are two of the main obstacles to the creation of CMAs planned by the 1998 National Water Act (NWA). Finally, the paper advocates taking the "hydrosocial cycle" as an analytical framework for designing new institutional arrangements that will include both rectifying the legacy of the past (the specific role of DWA) and acknowledging legitimate local interests.

  20. Learning for Development: The Commonwealth of Learning and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth of Learning, 2011

    2011-01-01

    World leaders, meeting at the United Nations in 2000, set eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to transform the condition of humankind in the 21st century. These Goals now guide the policies of governments and the priorities of development agencies. These eight goals are: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) Achieve…

  1. Collaboration in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    2001-03-01

    The presidential addresses of the Society for Psychotherapy Research (SPR) of the past decade convey a consistency of format and themes. They highlight significant weaknesses in some of the basic questions and methodologies of psychotherapy researchers. These include neglect of topics concerning the understanding of change and over-valuation of the randomized clinical trial (RCT). Although valid, the criticisms neglect the strengths of RCTs, which are illustrated by a series of psychotherapy clinical trials conducted by the author's research team, and run the risk of polarizing psychotherapy researchers. The new millennium is an appropriate time to acknowledge how different methodologies complement each other and advance knowledge in ways that could not occur in the absence of others. SPR is an international, multidisciplinary scientific organization that emphasizes inclusiveness. Nevertheless, it, as well as other organizations, can further enhance its contribution to the field by extending its range of collaboration to include underrepresented researchers, disciplines, and research-oriented clinicians.

  2. Millennium Restoration and Development Corp. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Millennium Restoration and Development Corp. (the Company) is located in St. Louis, Missouri. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in St. Louis, Missouri.

  3. A synopsis of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) investment in additive manufacture and what challenges remain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Michael; Smith, Adrien; Margiotta, Jesse

    2014-03-01

    DARPA's interest in additive manufacture dates back to the mid-80s with seedling programs that developed the foundational knowledge and equipment that led to the Solid Freeform Fabrication program in 1990. The drivers for this program included reducing development times by enabling "tool-less" manufacturing as well as integration of design and fabrication tools. DARPA consistently pushed the boundaries of additive manufacture with follow-on programs that expanded the material suite available for 3-D printing as well as new processes that expanded the technology's capability base. Programs such as the Mesoscopic Integrated Conformal Electronics (MICE) program incorporated functionality to the manufacturing processes through direct write of electronics. DARPA's investment in additive manufacture continues to this day but the focus has changed. DARPA's early investments were focused on developing and demonstrating the technology's capabilities. Now that the technology has been demonstrated, there is serious interest in taking advantage of the attributes unique to the processing methodology (such as customization and new design possibilities) for producing production parts. Accordingly, today's investment at DARPA addresses the systematic barriers to implementation rather than the technology itself. The Open Manufacturing program is enabling rapid qualification of new technologies for the manufacturing environment through the development of new modeling and informatics tools. While the technology is becoming more mainstream, there are plenty of challenges that need to be addressed. And as the technology continues to mature, the agency will continue to look for those "DARPA-hard" challenges that enable revolutionary changes in capability and performance for the Department of Defense.

  4. Linking Public Health, Housing, and Indoor Environmental Policy: Successes and Challenges at Local and Federal Agencies in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David E.; Kelly, Tom; Sobolewski, John

    2007-01-01

    We describe the successes and challenges faced by federal and local government agencies in the United States as they have attempted in recent years to connect public and environmental health, housing, community development, and building design with environmental, housing, and building laws, codes, and policies. These policies can either contribute to or adversely affect human physical and mental health, with important implications for economic viability, research, policy development, and overall social stability and progress. Policy impediments include tension between housing affordability and health investment that causes inefficient cost-shifting, privacy issues, unclear statutory authority, and resulting gaps in responsibility for housing, indoor air, and the built environment. We contrast this with other environmental frameworks such as ambient air and water quality statutes where the concept of “shared commons” and the “polluter pays” is more robust. The U.S. experiences in childhood lead poisoning prevention, indoor air, and mold provide useful policy insights. Local programs can effectively build healthy homes capacity through local laws and housing codes. The experience of coordinating remediation for mold, asthma triggers, weatherization, and other healthy housing improvements in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, is highlighted. The U.S. experience shows that policymakers should adopt a prevention-oriented, comprehensive multi-disciplinary approach at all levels of government to prevent unhealthy buildings, houses, and communities. PMID:17589610

  5. Spinoff 2001: Special Millennium Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    For the past 43 years, NASA has devoted its facilities, labor force, and expertise to sharing the abundance of technology developments used for its missions with the nation's industries. These countless technologies have not only successfully contributed to the growth of the U.S. economy, but also to the quality of life on Earth. For the past 25 years, NASA's Spinoff publication has brought attention to thousands of technologies, products, and services that were developed as a direct result of commercial partnerships between NASA and the private business sector. Many of these exciting technologies included advances in ceramics, computer technology, fiber optics, and remote sensing. New and ongoing research at the NASA field centers covers a full spectrum of technologies that will provide numerous advantages for the future, many of which have made significant strides in the commercial market. The NASA Commercial Technology Network plays a large role in transferring this progress. By applying NASA technologies such as data communication, aircraft de-icing technologies, and innovative materials to everyday functions, American consumers and the national economy benefit. Moving forward into the new millennium, these new technologies will further advance our country's position as the world leader in scientific and technical innovation. These cutting-edge innovations represent the investment of the U.S. citizen in the Space Program. Some of these technologies are highlighted in Spinoff 2001, an example of NASA's commitment to technology transfer and commercialization assistance. This year's issue spotlights the commercial technology efforts of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center. Kennedy's extensive network of commercial technology opportunities has enabled them to become a leader in technology transfer outreach. This kind of leadership is exemplified through Kennedy's recent partnership with the State of Florida, working toward the development of the Space Experiment

  6. Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria through Non-Formal Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpama, Simon Ibor; Asor, Love Joseph; Erim, Costly M.; Adekola, G.

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria is a signatory to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) declaration but till now she has not made any significant milestones in actualizing these human development goals. In spite of the coordinated efforts towards mobilizing those in the formal education system to partially address its implementation challenges, serious gaps still exit…

  7. New Space Industries for the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, D. V., Jr. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    New Space Industries For the Next Millennium is a final report of the findings from the New Space Industries Workshop held in Washington, DC, in February 1998. The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify what must be done to develop new markets, and to generate plans, milestones and new organizational relationships designed to facilitate the goal of space development. This document provides a summary report on the results of that workshop and is not intended as a statement of NASA or government policy. Previous studies had shown great potential for the development of new markets in space (e.g., travel and entertainment, space solar power, satellite and space transfer services, research and development in space, space manufacturing, and space resources), and a great need for coordination and formation of infrastructures (e.g., space transportation, space business parks, and space utilities), to facilitate the growth of new space businesses. The New Space Industries Workshop brought together government, academia, and industry participants from several previous studies and other professionals interested in the development of space for commercial purposes. Their participation provided input into the role of government and industry in space development as well as the technology needs that will enable space development. The opening of the frontier of space, not just to government missions but to private individuals and commercial business, is a challenge of overarching importance. It is our hope that the workshop and this final report continue in earnest the process of identifying and overcoming the barriers to large-scale public access and development of space in the early years of the next century.

  8. Tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals: reaching consensus on child mortality levels and trends.

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The increased attention to tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including Goal 4 of reducing child mortality, has drawn attention to a number of interrelated technical, operational and political challenges and to the underlying weaknesses of country health information systems upon which reliable monitoring depends. Assessments of child mortality published in 2005, for almost all low-income countries, are based on an extrapolation of the trends observed during the 1990s, rather than on the empirical data for more recent years. The validity of the extrapolation depends on the quality and quantity of the data used, and many countries lack suitable data. In the long run, it is hoped that vital registration or sample registration systems will be established to monitor vital events in a sustainable way. However, in the short run, tracking child mortality in high-mortality countries will continue to rely on household surveys and extrapolations of historical trends. This will require more collaborative efforts both to collect data through initiatives to strengthen health information systems at the country level, and to harmonize the estimation process. The latter objective requires the continued activity of a coordinating group of international agencies and academics that aims to produce transparent estimates -- through the consistent application of an agreed-upon methodology --for monitoring at the international level. PMID:16583082

  9. 75 FR 71144 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Solar Millennium, LLC, Amargosa Farm Road...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ..., Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... (ROD) for the Solar Millennium, LLC, Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project Environmental Impact... capacity of approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of power. The Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project is...

  10. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  11. Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  12. Voting Rights Issues in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication examines ways to teach about law in the liberal arts. This issue focuses on future voting rights issues by exploring the 2000 presidential election. Articles included are: "Voting Rights in the New Millennium" (Jason F. Kirksey); "Legal and Political Lessons from 'Bush v. Gore'" (David Schultz); "The…

  13. GPO/2001: Vision for a New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

    This publication is intended to serve as a strategic guide for the U.S. Government Printing Office in the development of its tactical plans for entry into the next millennium; to provide a glimpse of the future of Government information; and to delineate the changes that lie ahead in how information will be created, replicated, and disseminated.…

  14. Financing the Millennium Development Goals for health and beyond: sustaining the 'Big Push'

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Many of the Millennium Development Goals are not being achieved in the world's poorest countries, yet only five years remain until the target date. The financing of these Goals is not merely insufficient; current evidence indicates that the temporary nature of the financing, as well as challenges to coordinating its delivery and directing it to the most needy recipients, hinder achievement of the Goals in countries that may benefit most. Traditional approaches to providing development assistance for health have not been able to address both prevalent and emergent public health challenges captured in the Goals; these challenges demand sustained forms of financial redistribution through a coordinated mechanism. A global social health protection fund is proposed to address recurring failures in the modern aid distribution mechanism. Such a Fund could use established and effective strategies for aid delivery to mitigate many financial problems currently undermining the Millennium Development Goals initiative. PMID:20932274

  15. The Involvement of External Agencies in Extra-Curricular Physical Education: Reinforcing or Challenging Gender and Ability Inequities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Shaun D.; Penney, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Within the UK and internationally, schools are increasingly being encouraged to call on external agencies and draw on the services of individuals, including sport coaches, to "help teach or lead sports within the school setting and out of school time". This trend arises from and has contributed to a changing policy landscape and…

  16. Tri-Agency Coordination: Challenges and Successes in Creating a Community of Practice among Climate Change Education Principal Investigators funded by NASA, NOAA, and NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; McDougall, C.; Karsten, J. L.; Campbell, D.; Pippin, M. R.; Chambers, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    The effort needed for comprehensive climate change education is far greater than any one institution, education sector, or even federal agency can handle. Recognizing a need to synergistically combine efforts, NSF, NASA, and NOAA have created a collaborative community of their climate change education principal investigators (PIs) through tri-agency coordination. The goals of this tri-agency collaboration are to leverage existing resources, minimize duplicate efforts, and facilitate communication among this emergent community of scientists and educators. NASA, NOAA, and NSF work together to strategically coordinate and support a portfolio of projects focused on climate literacy and education in formal and informal learning environments. The activities of the tri-agency collaboration, including annual meetings for PIs, a catalog of the agencies collective investments in climate change education and the ongoing development of a nascent common evaluation framework, have created a strong national network for effectively engaging diverse audiences with the principles of climate literacy (see Eos Vol. 92, No. 24, 14 June 2011). Last year, after 3 years of active collaboration, similar programs underway at other U.S. Global Change Research Program agencies: the EPA, National Institutes for Environmental Health Sciences, and USDA, were engaged in the collaboration. And, in an attempt to understand the interests of the private sector in this arena, conversations have begun with private philanthropic organizations. This year, as many of the funded projects are maturing, the PI meeting will have a focus on bringing this community together to create a science-theme based tangible outcome that can move the field of climate change education forward. Additional outcomes from this PI meeting will be presented as well as the challenges that were encountered in bringing together institutions with diverse missions, and approaches developed to ensure all parties feel they

  17. Galaxy Zoo: multimergers and the Millennium Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darg, D. W.; Kaviraj, S.; Lintott, C. J.; Schawinski, K.; Silk, J.; Lynn, S.; Bamford, S.; Nichol, R. C.

    2011-09-01

    We present a catalogue of 39 multiple mergers, found using the mergers catalogue of the Galaxy Zoo project for z < 0.1, and compare them to corresponding semi-analytical galaxies from the Millennium Simulation. We estimate the (volume-limited) multimerger fraction of the local Universe using our sample and find it to be at least 2 orders of magnitude less than binary mergers - in good agreement with the simulations (especially the Munich group). We then investigate the properties of galaxies in binary mergers and multimergers (morphologies, colours, stellar masses and environment) and compare these results with those predicted by the semi-analytical galaxies. We find that multimergers favour galaxies with properties typical of elliptical morphologies and that this is in qualitative agreement with the models. Studies of multimergers thus provide an independent (and largely corroborating) test of the Millennium semi-analytical models.

  18. Health sciences librarianship in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Wood, E H

    2000-01-01

    Is the millennium really a critical point in time or just part of a continuum, in which health sciences librarians have always been innovators? Librarians have always had special knowledge that enabled them to identify, collect, organize, and distribute information. They have always embraced new technology, from the printing press to the Internet. As a profession, we must continue to promote how our particular skills can reinforce our role in the health care field.

  19. Holding a country countdown to 2015 conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) - the Zambian experience.

    PubMed

    Mukonka, Victor M; Malumo, Sarai; Kalesha, Penelope; Nambao, Mary; Mwale, Rodgers; Mwinga, Kasonde; Katepa-Bwalya, Mary; Babaniyi, Olusegan; Mason, Elizabeth; Phiri, Caroline; Wamulume, Pauline K

    2014-01-21

    Initiatives such as the Country Countdown to 2015 Conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided countries with high maternal and child deaths like Zambia a platform to assess progress, discuss challenges and share lessons learnt as a conduit for national commitment to reaching and attaining the MDGs four and five. This paper discusses and highlights the process of holding a successful country countdown conference and shares Zambia's experience with other countries planning to organise country countdown to 2015 Conferences on MDGs.

  20. Capacity building in Developing Countries: a challenge ahead for the European Space Agency to continue its successful experience to date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fea, M.

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has built a long tradition and a large experience in the domain of education, training and capacity building throughout its space programmes. As an example, the ESA Science Programme dedicates 1% of its budget to these activities. One of the key reasons for it is the need of closing the loop along the chain from the provider to the user, that is to say between the space and the users elements. In fact, besides the obvious need for technology development, there is actually not very much justification in the long term for a space programme if the user communities are not able to make good use of programme outputs and provide feedback and proper requirements to space agencies. The case of ESA Earth Observation programmes is described to illustrate these considerations, as a way to also implement the European Space Policy and UNISPACE III recommendations. Since its foundation in 1975 and the implementation of its EO programme with the launch of Meteosat-1 in 1977 and the birth of the Earthnet Programme Office in 1978, the European Space Agency is very active in the field of capacity building in developing countries. That is performed through both ESA's specific projects and international co-operation activities. In the latter domain, ESA enjoys a long-standing collaboration with many entities, such as the Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), and organisations, such as WMO, UN and its specialised agencies (FAO, UNESCO, UNEP, and so on). In that respect, the Agency is an active member of the CEOS Working Group on Education (WGEdu) and of the World Summit for Sustainable Development Follow-Up (WSSD) Module 1 group dedicated to education, training and capacity building. The overall ESA strategy targets various citizen communities and takes into account the fact that today's young generations will become tomorrow's professionals and decision makers. ESA's activities in this domain are in particular based on an end-to-end concept

  1. 'Customerizing' in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, K

    2000-01-01

    Many might challenge the concept of customerizing in the health care systems in the face of financial losses caused by the Balanced Budget Act. But, now more than ever, we should be obsessed with the customer and work relentlessly to understand that the procedure is not the end goal. The experience around that procedure will bond the patient to us, or create a consumer who is left with anger. The secret to success, according to Seybold (1998), is "It's the customer, stupid!" (pp. xvi). She also notes that all we have to do is to focus on making it easier for the customer to work with us. We should pick our customers' brains, visit them, learn what they care about, and make it easier for them to work with us. We can't afford not to.$

  2. 'Customerizing' in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, K

    2000-01-01

    Many might challenge the concept of customerizing in the health care systems in the face of financial losses caused by the Balanced Budget Act. But, now more than ever, we should be obsessed with the customer and work relentlessly to understand that the procedure is not the end goal. The experience around that procedure will bond the patient to us, or create a consumer who is left with anger. The secret to success, according to Seybold (1998), is "It's the customer, stupid!" (pp. xvi). She also notes that all we have to do is to focus on making it easier for the customer to work with us. We should pick our customers' brains, visit them, learn what they care about, and make it easier for them to work with us. We can't afford not to $.

  3. The challenge of presenting climate change information to the public and to political stakeholders: coordinated efforts of German environmental agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebener, H.; Linke, C.

    2010-09-01

    In Germany environmental agencies exist both on the country level and on the level of the different federal states of Germany. A regular working group of members of all the environmental agencies discusses the needs and options of presenting regional (resolution of few km) climate information to the public as well as to political stakeholders. As a result of this working group, guidelines have been formulated on how to present regional climate and climate change information. In this presentation, the guidelines developed by the working group will be presented. Examples of good versus bad practice will be given and reasons for the guidelines will be explained. The topics covered include: Definition of ‘climate projection' versus ‘climate forecast', recommendations for use of scenarios, temporal and spatial resolution, reference periods, treatment of model biases and significance, optimal use of colour selection and scaling, and treatment of different model generations. A special focus will be given to the presentation of results from multiple simulations (ensembles), as evidence is mounting that we need to take ensemble results into account for decision making. Examples shown will be for the federal state of Hessen, Germany.

  4. Alternate Energy Research and Technology Challenges in the New Millennium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Animal Fat (Conoco Philips and Tyson Foods) (Neste Oil) Vegetable Oils Esterification (methanol, Strong Base) CH3OH + NaOH Biodiesel Fatty Acid...of syngas) Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel Corn / Sugar Cane Hydrolysis/ Fermentation Ethanol/C2+ Alcohols Processes Products Problems Feedstocks...Stability (microbial, emulsions , solvation) Stability (Meet Navy Specifications??) Navy Specification Testing Navy Specifications

  5. Food & nutrition security: challenges in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2013-09-01

    The World Food Summit in 1996 provided a comprehensive definition for food security which brings into focus the linkage between food, nutrition and health. India has been self sufficient in food production since seventies and low household hunger rates. India compares well with developing countries with similar health profile in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR) and under five mortality rate (U5 MR). India fares poorly when underweight in under five children is used as an indicator for food insecurity with rates comparable to that of Subsaharan Africa. If wasting [low body mass index (BMI) for age in children and low BMI in adults] which is closely related to adequacy of current food intake is used as an indictor for the assessment of household food security, India fares better. The nineties witnessed the emergence of dual nutrition burden with persistent inadequate dietary intake and undernutrition on one side and low physical activity / food intake above requirements and overnutrition on the other side. Body size and physical activity levels are two major determinants of human nutrient requirements. The revised recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for Indians takes cognisance of the current body weight and physical activity while computing the energy and nutrient requirements. As both under- and overnutrition are associated with health hazards, perhaps time has come for use of normal BMI as an indicator for food security.

  6. Food & nutrition security: Challenges in the new millennium

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2013-01-01

    The World Food Summit in 1996 provided a comprehensive definition for food security which brings into focus the linkage between food, nutrition and health. India has been self sufficient in food production since seventies and low household hunger rates. India compares well with developing countries with similar health profile in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR) and under five mortality rate (U5 MR). India fares poorly when underweight in under five children is used as an indicator for food insecurity with rates comparable to that of Subsaharan Africa. If wasting [low body mass index (BMI) for age in children and low BMI in adults] which is closely related to adequacy of current food intake is used as an indictor for the assessment of household food security, India fares better. The nineties witnessed the emergence of dual nutrition burden with persistent inadequate dietary intake and undernutrition on one side and low physical activity / food intake above requirements and overnutrition on the other side. Body size and physical activity levels are two major determinants of human nutrient requirements. The revised recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for Indians takes cognisance of the current body weight and physical activity while computing the energy and nutrient requirements. As both under- and overnutrition are associated with health hazards, perhaps time has come for use of normal BMI as an indicator for food security. PMID:24135187

  7. World optometry: the challenges of leadership for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Anthony

    2002-06-01

    The World Council of Optometry has developed a mission and organizational strategies to improve the delivery of eye and vision care around the world, as well as to advance the profession of optometry. Its growth over the past several years is a tribute to the early pioneers in international optometry who unselfishly volunteered their time and expertise to improving the profession and eye and vision care. It also underscores the continued spirit of global volunteerism that energizes the recent leaders who have sustained this growth. Over the past decades, optometry has seen the steady growth of its educational infrastructure, scope of practice, and professional image. It has faced adversity and seized opportunities. Throughout, the overarching raison d'être has been optometry's responsiveness to the public health needs of society. The future growth of optometry within the global health community will depend on expanding this professional growth at an international level, and forging durable strategic alliances that address the significant prevention of blindness imperatives of our generation.

  8. Situational awareness for science funders: information challenges and solutions for funding agencies in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Ashlea; Diwersy, Mario

    2014-02-01

    About 25 years ago, one of our colleagues joined the Wellcome Trust, the world's second largest private biomedical funder. At the time, computers and the Internet were not a regular part of everyday work routines. Today, a quarter of a century later, the Wellcome Trust and other forward thinking funders are leading the way in integrating software, systems, and information technology into their funding processes. While not all research funders have been technologically proactive--some have only recently switched to electronic applications and others still operate with largely document-based processes-almost all funders experience some level of difficulty when it comes to translating technological advances into operational efficiencies and strategic insights. Also, although there are exceptions, funders generally do not share notes. That is scary. It is a rich and perhaps troubling irony that even while they invest billions of dollars in groundbreaking research to solve some of the world's greatest challenges, many funders struggle to find effective solutions to what can seem like pedestrian information challenges:

  9. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), will soon announce the final concept for the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2003 and that at least one these five

  10. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3)Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4)Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. NASA issued the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2004 and it is expected that at least one of the five technology capability areas will

  11. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocky, J. F.; Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    NASA`s New Millennium Space Technology 9 (ST-9) mission is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. ST-9 is an integrated system validation project and part of New Millennium Program effort to identify the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that require validation in deep space to help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1)Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2)Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3)Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4)Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2005 and that at least one these five technologies capability areas will be

  12. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.

    2004-11-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5) Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2003 and that at least one these five technologies capability areas

  13. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocky, J. F.; Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Space Technology 9 (ST-9) mission is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. ST-9 is an integrated system validation project and part of New Millennium Program effort to identify the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that require validation in deep space to help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. NASA prepared a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) that solicited proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5) Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. The technology providers were selected to provide needed technology advances in these areas in FY 2005. One these five technologies capability areas will be selected in a timeframe

  14. Water resources in the next millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren

    As pressures from an exponentially increasing population and economic expectations rise against a finite water resource, how do we address management? This was the main focus of the Dubai International Conference on Water Resources and Integrated Management in the Third Millennium in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2-6 February 2002. The invited forum attracted an eclectic mix of international thinkers from five continents. Presentations and discussions on hydrology policy/property rights, and management strategies focused mainly on problems of water supply, irrigation, and/or ecosystems.

  15. The Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed-based Approach: where social and natural sciences meet to address today's water resource challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddle, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of governmental organizations at the local, state, and federal level collaborate with nongovernmental organizations and individuals to solve watershed scale problems (Imperial and Koontz, 2007). Such a shift in policy approach from hierarchical regulation to bottom-up collaboration is largely a result of regulator’s recognition of the interdependence of natural and socio-economic systems on a watershed scale (Steelman and Carmin, 2002. Agencies throughout the federal government increasingly favored new governing institutions that encourage cooperation between local actors with conflicting interests, divergent geographic bases, and overlapping administrative jurisdictions to resolve continuing disputes over resource management (Bardach 1998). This favoritism of collaborative over command-and-control approaches for managing nonpoint source pollution led to the development of watershed partnerships and the watershed-based approach (Lubell et al., 2002). This study aims to further collaborative governance scholarship and aid decision-makers in identifying the critical elements of collaborative governance resulting in environmental improvements. To date, this relationship has not been empirically determined, in spite of the fact that collaborative governance is used routinely by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in resolving issues related to watershed management and other applications. This gap in the research is largely due to the lack of longitudinal data. In order to determine whether changes have occurred, environmental data must be collected over relatively long time periods (Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Sabatier, et al., 2005). However, collecting these data is often cost prohibitive. Monitoring water quality is expensive and requires technical expertise, and is often the first line item cut in environmental management budgets. This research is interdisciplinary, looking at the physical, chemical, and biological parameters for 44 waterbodies

  16. Veterinarian challenges to providing a multi-agency response to farm animal welfare problems in Ireland: responding to the human factor.

    PubMed

    Devitt, C; Kelly, P; Blake, M; Hanlon, A; More, S J

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, the authors undertook a study of the challenges facing government and private veterinarians in responding to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents (i.e. the personal problems and difficulties of farmers that can result in farm animal neglect). This paper reports their findings and examines the role of veterinarians in responding to the difficulties of farmers. It also looks at their experiences of attempting to build a multi-agency approach involving veterinary and human support services. This paper builds on a study whereby the authors considered how social, health and attitudinal factors, as well as mental health problems, contribute to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland. An early warning system involving relevant agencies is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. The literature provides examples of private veterinarians combining with support services where there are indicators of animal and human abuse. Yet there are no research examples of government or private veterinarians linking with support services to resolve farm animal welfare cases where there are social, health, and/or mental health difficulties with the herd owner. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians (n = 18) and three with private veterinarians (n = 12). Government veterinarians made contact with support services to seek advice on how best to respond to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents, and/or to seek support for the herd owner. Contact between government and private veterinarians was driven by the former. Communication between agencies was influenced by individual efforts and personal contacts. Formal structures and guidelines, perceived professional capabilities in determining herd owner needs, and client confidentiality concerns among support services and private veterinarians were less influential. The fear of losing clients and the financial implications of this were

  17. Critical Issues around the Millennium Development Goals and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2005-01-01

    At the UN Millennium Assembly in 2000 global leaders committed themselves to eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Seven of these goals were set for achievement in 2015, including the achievement of universal primary education. Only one goal was set for 2005: the achievement of gender parity in primary and secondary education. There was good…

  18. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  19. Water recycling at the Millennium Dome.

    PubMed

    Hills, S; Smith, A; Hardy, P; Birks, R

    2001-01-01

    Thames Water is working with the New Millennium Experience Company to provide a water recycling system for the Millennium Dome which will supply 500 m3/d of reclaimed water for WC and urinal flushing. The system will treat water from three sources: rainwater--from the Dome roof greywater--from handbasins in the toilet blocks groundwater--from beneath the Dome site The treatment technologies will range from "natural" reedbeds for the rainwater, to more sophisticated options, including biological aerated filters and membranes for the greywater and groundwater. Pilot scale trials were used to design the optimum configuration. In addition to the recycling system, water efficient devices will be installed in three of the core toilet blocks as part of a programme of research into the effectiveness of conservation measures. Data on water usage and customer behaviour will be collected via a comprehensive metering system. Information from the Dome project on the economics and efficiency of on-site recycling at large scale and data on water efficient devices, customer perception and behaviour will be of great value to the water industry. For Thames Water, the project provides vital input to the development of future water resource strategies.

  20. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  1. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.; Stocky, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. DT-9 is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities which began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities which NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5) Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2003 and that at least one these five technologies capability areas will be subsequently selected for the New Millennium ST-9 technology validation experiment.

  2. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.; Stocky, J. F.

    2003-05-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the ST-9 mission, a systems validation project of NMP. This is the latest of a series of deep space activities which began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five candidate technologies which NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technologies under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1)Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2)Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3)Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4)Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA in 2003 and that one these five technologies capability areas will be selected for the New Millennium ST-9 technology validation experiment. This work performed at JPL under contract with NASA

  3. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  4. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-08-05

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  5. Global sediment fluxes during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipal, Victoria; Reick, Christian; Van Oost, Kristof; Hoffmann, Thomas; Pongratz, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Soil redistribution plays an important role in the transport of carbon and nutrients between terrestrial ecosystems. However, quantification of soil redistribution and its effects on the global biogeochemical cycles is currently unknown. This study aims at developing new tools and methods to represent soil redistribution on a global scale, and contribute to the quantification of anthropogenic disturbances to the biogeochemical cycles. We present a new large-scale coarse resolution sediment budget model that can simulate spatial patterns and long-term trends in soil redistribution in floodplains and on hillslope, resulting from external forces such as climate and land use change. First, we validated the model for the Rhine catchment using observed Holocene sediment storage data and observed scaling behavior between sediment storage and catchment area. Then, we applied the model on 20 large river catchments globally, using climate and land cover data from the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) for the last millennium (850 - 2005AD). We show that the model can reproduce current observed sediment yields if uncertainty in the observations is taken into account. Furthermore, we find that the change in erosion rates during the last millennium resulted in a significant increase in sediment storage for different global catchments. We identify land use change as the main driver behind this change in sediment storage. Finally, catchments characteristics, such as area and slope, play an important role in buffering or amplifying the effect of land use and other external forces on the change in erosion and sediment storage.

  6. Basic mechanisms for the new millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1998-09-01

    This part of the Short Course will review the basic mechanisms for radiation effects in semiconductor devices. All three areas of radiation damage will be considered -- total dose, displacement effects, and single event effects. Each of these areas will be discussed in turn. First an overview and background will be provided on the historical understanding of the damage mechanism. Then there will be a discussion of recent enhancements to the understanding of those mechanisms and an up-to-date picture provided of the current state of knowledge. Next the potential impact of each of these damage mechanisms on devices in emerging technologies and how the mechanisms may be used to understand device performance will be described, with an emphasis on those likely to be of importance in the new millennium. Finally some additional thoughts will be presented on how device scaling expected into the next century may impact radiation hardness.

  7. Modeling walker synchronization on the Millennium Bridge.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward; Strogatz, Steven H; Abrams, Daniel M; McRobie, Allan

    2007-02-01

    On its opening day the London Millennium footbridge experienced unexpected large amplitude wobbling subsequent to the migration of pedestrians onto the bridge. Modeling the stepping of the pedestrians on the bridge as phase oscillators, we obtain a model for the combined dynamics of people and the bridge that is analytically tractable. It provides predictions for the phase dynamics of individual walkers and for the critical number of people for the onset of oscillations. Numerical simulations and analytical estimates reproduce the linear relation between pedestrian force and bridge velocity as observed in experiments. They allow prediction of the amplitude of bridge motion, the rate of relaxation to the synchronized state and the magnitude of the fluctuations due to a finite number of people.

  8. Modeling walker synchronization on the Millennium Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward; Strogatz, Steven H.; Abrams, Daniel M.; McRobie, Allan

    2007-02-01

    On its opening day the London Millennium footbridge experienced unexpected large amplitude wobbling subsequent to the migration of pedestrians onto the bridge. Modeling the stepping of the pedestrians on the bridge as phase oscillators, we obtain a model for the combined dynamics of people and the bridge that is analytically tractable. It provides predictions for the phase dynamics of individual walkers and for the critical number of people for the onset of oscillations. Numerical simulations and analytical estimates reproduce the linear relation between pedestrian force and bridge velocity as observed in experiments. They allow prediction of the amplitude of bridge motion, the rate of relaxation to the synchronized state and the magnitude of the fluctuations due to a finite number of people.

  9. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

    The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Patrick Moore's millennium yearbook : the view from AD 1001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick, Chapman, Allan

    In a year that will probably be remembered almost as much for books about the millennium as for the turn of 2000 A.D itself, Patrick Moore's Millennium Yearbook celebrates.....well, the wrong millennium! This thoroughly entertaining book - which is for everyone, not just astronomers - contains articles on King Alfred's chronological work, reviews of the new Star Catalogue by the Arab Al-Sufi and the latest edition of Ptolemy's Almagast. And foreshadowing the change to metric units by 1000 years, the book uses arabic numbers instead of Roman - but there is a conversion table if you have trouble with the idea of "zero" and prefer the older system.

  11. Millennium regional PACS management: strategies for successful implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Brad; Romlein, John R.; Gac, Robert J., Jr.; Chacko, Anna K.; Radvany, Martin

    2000-05-01

    With the advent of the new Millennium, Picture Archive and Communications System (PACS) technology has matured to levels sufficient to support open systems based, regional implementations. This shifts the site-centric PACS paradigm into broader scale, impacting facilities, workflow, business plans and ultimately patient care on a regional basis. Prudent and effective management of a regional implementation is critical to overall project success based upon a number of competing influences fundamental to the PACS including network infrastructure, clinical workflow, acquisition modalities, planning documentation, site preparation, acceptance testing, project communication, interface integration issues, etc. Risk mitigation is possible by understanding and managing the interrelationships of these influences through a phased approach with embedded management controls. The overall phases of regional implementation are not unlike site-centric implementations, consisting of Discovery, Planning, Preparation, Installation; Acceptance and Warranty/Maintenance; however, details which manifest over time are what provide significant management challenges. When balanced using a culturally reinforced policy of open, frequent and hands-on communication, regional PACS projects can be successfully implemented maintaining budget, schedule and scope thresholds.

  12. An Update on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Della Anne

    2017-03-08

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals initiative, designed to meet the needs of the world's poorest, ended in 2015. The purpose of this article is to describe the progress made through the Millennium Development Goals and the additional work needed to address vulnerable populations worldwide, especially women and children. A description of the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals, enacted to address the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development for all people, is provided.

  13. Holding a country countdown to 2015 conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – the Zambian experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Initiatives such as the Country Countdown to 2015 Conference on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have provided countries with high maternal and child deaths like Zambia a platform to assess progress, discuss challenges and share lessons learnt as a conduit for national commitment to reaching and attaining the MDGs four and five. This paper discusses and highlights the process of holding a successful country countdown conference and shares Zambia’s experience with other countries planning to organise country countdown to 2015 Conferences on MDGs. PMID:24447509

  14. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot... Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is...

  15. The Dudley Challenges: Virtual Balloon Journeys and Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Shirley; Davies, John; Tibble, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The Dudley Challenges were developed to celebrate the millennium and the first year of the Dudley Grid for Learning. Three Challenges, Challenge 2000 the original resource, Challenge Europa and Junior Trek, are based on virtual balloon journeys, visiting a series of interesting cultural centres. Access to each centre visited is by solving a series…

  16. Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).

    PubMed

    Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-12-01

    The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs).

  17. Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian C.; Nayak, P. Pandurang

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of sensor rich, massively distributed, autonomous systems are being developed that have the potential for profound social, environmental, and economic change. These include networked building energy systems, autonomous space probes, chemical plant control systems, satellite constellations for remote ecosystem monitoring, power grids, biosphere-like life support systems, and reconfigurable traffic systems, to highlight but a few. To achieve high performance, these immobile robots (or immobots) will need to develop sophisticated regulatory and immune systems that accurately and robustly control their complex internal functions. To accomplish this, immobots will exploit a vast nervous system of sensors to model themselves and their environment on a grand scale. They will use these models to dramatically reconfigure themselves in order to survive decades of autonomous operations. Achieving these large scale modeling and configuration tasks will require a tight coupling between the higher level coordination function provided by symbolic reasoning, and the lower level autonomic processes of adaptive estimation and control. To be economically viable they will need to be programmable purely through high level compositional models. Self modeling and self configuration, coordinating autonomic functions through symbolic reasoning, and compositional, model-based programming are the three key elements of a model-based autonomous systems architecture that is taking us into the New Millennium.

  18. Premature Delivery and the Millennium Development Goal

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Nawal M

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 15 million babies (1 in 10) are born prematurely each year. Prematurity is the leading cause of death among newborns, accounting for 1 million deaths per year, and, after pneumonia, is the second leading cause of death in children under age 5 years. Newborns who do survive preterm delivery (PTD) struggle with visual, auditory, and learning disabilities. In order to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-4) of reducing the mortality rate in children under age 5 years by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, there must be significantly fewer PTDs. In high-income nations, 50% of babies born at 24 weeks survive, whereas in low-resource nations, this survival rate is not achieved until 32 weeks of gestation. Over 90% of babies born in low-resource settings before 28 weeks die in the first few days of life (< 10% die in high-income nations), a 10:90 survival gap. Over 60% of PTDs worldwide occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Risk factors for PTD include adolescent pregnancy, short interval between births, poor prepregnancy weight (very low or high body mass index), chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension), infectious disease, substance abuse, cervical incompetence, and poor psychological health. Thus, a commitment to improving maternal health and the quality of prenatal care is necessary to achieve the MDG-4. PMID:22866189

  19. Premature delivery and the millennium development goal.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal M

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 15 million babies (1 in 10) are born prematurely each year. Prematurity is the leading cause of death among newborns, accounting for 1 million deaths per year, and, after pneumonia, is the second leading cause of death in children under age 5 years. Newborns who do survive preterm delivery (PTD) struggle with visual, auditory, and learning disabilities. In order to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-4) of reducing the mortality rate in children under age 5 years by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, there must be significantly fewer PTDs. In high-income nations, 50% of babies born at 24 weeks survive, whereas in low-resource nations, this survival rate is not achieved until 32 weeks of gestation. Over 90% of babies born in low-resource settings before 28 weeks die in the first few days of life (< 10% die in high-income nations), a 10:90 survival gap. Over 60% of PTDs worldwide occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Risk factors for PTD include adolescent pregnancy, short interval between births, poor prepregnancy weight (very low or high body mass index), chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension), infectious disease, substance abuse, cervical incompetence, and poor psychological health. Thus, a commitment to improving maternal health and the quality of prenatal care is necessary to achieve the MDG-4.

  20. Adolescent violence: concepts for a new millennium.

    PubMed

    Pratt, H D; Greydanus, D E

    2000-02-01

    Violence is a form of aggressive behavior that has a debilitating effect on the optimal growth and development of our youth. Violence pervades the lives of a significant proportion of all adolescents in the U.S., but has a particularly devastating impact on males and minority youth. Adolescent males are more likely to be victimizers and victims of violence and aggression, except in cases of sexual victimization and suicide attempts. For all adolescents, exposure to violence at home, school, or in the community is associated with aggression later in life, the development of supportive attitudes toward aggression and violence, psychological distress, school absenteeism, academic dysfunction, and subsequent injury. Violence has historical, cultural, and societal roots in our world. Until and unless we begin to understand where violence fits on the continuum of aggressive behavior and until we address the politics of violence, we will remain conflicted and paralyzed by the dangers our youth face. By understanding the social, political, and developmental aspects of violence and understanding the nature and characteristics of resilient children, we can better prepare our youth for life. We may not be able to protect our adolescents from exposure to violence, but we most certainly can help them develop the necessary skills to survive such exposure and work to enhance and strengthen their access to protective factors so that they can experience a healthy transition from adolescence to adulthood in this new millennium.

  1. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

    2001-01-01

    The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

  2. Maintenance for the Millennium: Another Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sculthorpe, Barruy R.

    2002-07-01

    Nuclear units nationwide are struggling to increase plant reliability and availability while at the same time reduce their operating and maintenance costs. Some very costly investments have been made in programs such as Reliability Centered Maintenance [RCM]. Florida Power and Light's approach at the St. Lucie Nuclear Plant has taken a slightly different approach. Building on our knowledge of the RCM process and an already existing 'World Class' Predictive Maintenance Program, a 'Condition-Based' Maintenance Program that takes advantage of the RCM philosophy and our toolbox full of advanced and highly successful predictive maintenance technologies. These tools currently consist of vibration analysis, lubricant analysis (both physical property and wear metals analysis, thermographic analysis, motor current signature analysis, tribology and process parameter trending. All employed with the intent to evaluate a machines health. This machine health check allows the forecasting of future preventative maintenance [PM's] tasks and the revision of existing PM's to maximize machine performance and eliminate 'no-value-added' maintenance activities/costs. Within the last year, the Condition-Based Maintenance Program has produced a cost saving of approximately $1.5 million dollars. As the program matures, these cost savings will accumulate well into the millennium. (authors)

  3. Agency and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Roskies, Adina L.

    2015-01-01

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  4. Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

  5. NASA's New Millennium ST-8 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothwell, M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Fujita, T.; Minning, C.; Nelson, R. M.; Ku, J.; McEachen, M. E.; Sampson, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    NASA's Space Technology 8 project (ST-8) is subsystem demonstration which will validate four technologies that have been identified as necessary to enable future NASA space science missions. NASA's New Millennium Program, with input from the science community, identified the following four technologies: Miniature Loop Heat Pipe with Multiple Evaporators Thermal Management System (MLHP), Scalable Architecture for the Investigation of the Load Managing Attributes of a Slender Truss (SAILMAST), Next Generation UltraFlex (NGU), and Environmentally Adaptive Fault Tolerant Computing (EAFTC). Once validated on a deep space mission, these technologies will be available for use on future science missions. Examples of previous enabling technologies demonstrated by NMP are the ion engines on Deep Space 1 and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment demonstrated by ST6. The MLHP, provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will demonstrate that a loop heat pipe with multiple evaporators and condensers can transport large heat loads over long distances without external pumping. It is expected that this technology will enable more precise temperature control decreasing the mass, power, and volume of small remote sensing and surface-based spacecraft. The SAILMAST experiment is a deployable gossamer mast technology, which will validate its load-carrying characteristics by correlating in-flight measurements with analytical predictions. It will enable a new class of missions, which employ solar sail propulsion technology. The NGU will demonstrate the next generation in ultra-lightweight fan-folded flexible solar arrays, providing ultra-high specific power (170-220 W/kg BOL), ultra-compact stowage volume (>33 W/m3), and high deployed stiffness. The result is less mass and volume needed for power generation on future spacecraft. The EAFTC will integrate commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) processing components and fault-tolerant control algorithms to provide an adaptable, high

  6. Radiology system evolution in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Nauert, R C

    2001-01-01

    For many decades the practice of radiology grew slowly in America and was largely a secondary function under the control of hospitals. In more recent times it has vastly expanded its array of diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic abilities. There is increasing consumer logic for direct access. Motivations have grown to create large independent entities with broadly diverse capabilities in order to succeed in the new millennium. Most regional markets are evolving rapidly in terms of managed care penetration, health system formation, physician practice consolidation and aggressive purchaser behavior by employers and consumers. To understand the enormity of healthcare evolution, it is useful to look at the industry's paradigm shifts in recent decades. Virtually every aspect of organizational infrastructure, delivery approaches, and the business environment has evolved markedly during the past fifty years. These changes will accelerate. To succeed financially, radiology groups must strengthen their market positions, technical capabilities, continuums of care and geographic dominance. Equally important is the wisdom of diversifying incomes into related services and businesses that provide additional related revenues. Key factors for successful development include facility market growth, full coverage of managed care contracts, high efficiency and aggressive diversification. A fully evolved system generates significant revenues and profitability by protecting and strengthening its financial position in this environment. That is accomplished through the development of strategically located radiology groups, aggressive alliances with medical practices in allied disciplines, and managed radiology departments and facilities for partner health systems. Organizational success ultimately depends on the ability to accept capitated payments under risk-bearing arrangements. The strategic business plan should be organized with the appropriate levels of detail needed to

  7. Healthcare for the poor and dispossessed: from Alma-Ata to the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, S R

    2011-07-01

    Healthcare models which recognize the equity principle have had to confront the challenge of providing healthcare for the poor and dispossessed. Healthcare premised on "human rights" strives to remove/ reduce barriers to access by a complete waiver of all fees in the public sector or various other subsidies to make healthcare more affordable. Social welfare programmes are held hostage to the vagaries of the economy and resource scarcity. The Alma-Ata's primary healthcare is inherently a health development strategy which embraces a wholistic approach to health and wellness. This strategy, by refocussing on the Millennium Development Goals, can therefore accommodate the innovations required to overcome the challenges posed by technological, financial, cultural and geographical factors to provide a better quality of life for all, but moreso for the poor and dispossessed.

  8. Headache Disorders in the Millennium Cohort: Epidemiology and Relations With Combat Deployment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Morbidities and Behavioral Characteristics.—The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire, embedded in the Millennium...Naval Health Research Center Headache Disorders in the Millennium Cohort: Epidemiology and Relations With Combat Deployment Christopher J...Naval Health Research Center 140 Sylvester Road San Diego, California 92106 Research Submission Headache Disorders in the Millennium Cohort

  9. Comet and Asteroid Missions in NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Chainpollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered

  10. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 1: Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on…

  11. An Education and Training Toolkit for the New Millennium?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race, Phil

    1998-01-01

    Presents a personal overview regarding education and training in general, and effective continuing professional development in particular, in the next millennium. Topics include change; learning processes; types of learning, including open, flexible, independent, group, collaborative, and cooperative; lifelong learning; continuing vocational…

  12. Racial Disparities in New Millennium Schools: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBeauf, Ireon

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the role of race in new millennium schools and its impact on students. Multicultural, psycho-social, and academic issues are addressed, and interventions for school counselors are discussed. Racially correlated disparities in K-12 education are apparent in: test scores, grades, retention and drop-out rates, identification for…

  13. Skills for the New Millennium. Paper Presentations: Session G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains 14 papers from the skills for the new millennium section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Research on Vocational Education and Training as a Field for Knowledge Development--Starting Points for the…

  14. Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and…

  15. Notes from Girl X: Anne Frank at the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitsky, Holli

    2002-01-01

    Considers if Anne Frank's diary is still viable or if it has been too far removed from its original author or its original context. Concludes that the book "Anne Frank and Me" offers historical accuracies about the Holocaust while placing its readers squarely at the millennium. (SG)

  16. A Guide for Education in the Third Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiddon, Tom; Wirth, Rex; Pool, Harbison

    This paper examines the philosophical approaches to knowledge that have governed education and concludes that a new paradigm is needed for the new millennium. Education is subdivided into a three-level hierarchy, including: (1) the accumulation of factoids as knowledge; (2) the development of knowledge into theories and models for the purpose of…

  17. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2011-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

  18. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Other Egregious Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2002-01-01

    Argues that 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, providing increased protection against unauthorized access to copyrighted electronic media, and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, extending the term of most copyrighted books, unduly burden users of electronic media and books. Discusses the negative impact of recent federal laws to…

  19. Critical Thinking for the New Millennium: A Pedagogical Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Andrew Ann Dinkins

    The pedagogical imperative to prepare students to become critical thinkers, critical readers, and critical writers for the coming millennium necessitates a comprehensive college discourse on critical thinking. The paper cites seminars and workshops that incorporate theoretical and practical dimensions of teaching critical-analytical thinking…

  20. Literacy: The First Decade of the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack; Ortlieb, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of literacy instruction has remained constant since the beginning of the new millennium, literacy trends have shifted, often alongside acts of legislation. Areas of literacy education that were once overlooked in the past like adolescent literacy and RTI are now receiving increased attention, whereas areas of literacy like…

  1. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

  2. Foster Care: Agencies Face Challenges Securing Stable Homes for Children of Substance Abusers. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    This study examined the extent and characteristics of parental substance abuse among foster care cases, the difficulties agencies face in making timely permanency decisions for foster children with substance abusing parents, and initiatives that address reunifying families or achieving other permanency outcomes in a timely manner for foster…

  3. Quality in Cross-Border Higher Education and Challenges for the Internationalization of National Quality Assurance Agencies in the Asia-Pacific Region: The Taiwanese Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Angela Yung-chi

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border higher education has created a need to build capacity -- particularly in the internationalization dimension -- for national quality assurance agencies to evaluate cross-border education provided by foreign educational providers, or jointly by local and foreign institutions. This is quickly becoming a key issue in the Asia-Pacific…

  4. The potential impact of plant biotechnology on the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dawei; Bassie, Ludovic; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Dashevskaya, Svetlana; Farre, Gemma; Rivera, Sol M; Banakar, Raviraj; Bai, Chao; Sanahuja, Georgina; Arjó, Gemma; Avilla, Eva; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Ugidos-Damboriena, Nerea; López, Alberto; Almacellas, David; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Hahne, Gunther; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international development targets for the year 2015 that aim to achieve relative improvements in the standards of health, socioeconomic status and education in the world's poorest countries. Many of the challenges addressed by the MDGs reflect the direct or indirect consequences of subsistence agriculture in the developing world, and hence, plant biotechnology has an important role to play in helping to achieve MDG targets. In this opinion article, we discuss each of the MDGs in turn, provide examples to show how plant biotechnology may be able to accelerate progress towards the stated MDG objectives, and offer our opinion on the likelihood of such technology being implemented. In combination with other strategies, plant biotechnology can make a contribution towards sustainable development in the future although the extent to which progress can be made in today's political climate depends on how we deal with current barriers to adoption.

  5. Successful behavioral health business development for the millennium.

    PubMed

    Pyrce, J M

    1998-08-01

    The business development framework for provider positioning, market share, and competition has significantly shifted in the late 1990s as providers prepare for the millennium. The use of the Marketing Four Ps is a helpful tool for providers to thoroughly evaluate their product/service viability, pricing objectives, promotional mix, and place accessibility, and will allow organizations to reposition in their marketplace, maximize market share, and develop new partnerships with previous competitors.

  6. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

  7. An Evaluation of a Behavioural Support Team for Adults with a Learning Disability and Behaviours That Challenge from a Multi-Agency Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Rose; Horsley, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Dudley Behavioural Support Team (BST) was set up based on Positive Behavioural Support (PBS) principles to support individuals with behaviours that challenge. The Winterbourne Review emphasises the importance of developing high-quality specialist community services and the Ensuring Quality Services (Local Government Association & NHS…

  8. Last Millennium Climate and Its Variability in CCSM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Landrum, L.; Conley, A.; Lawrence, P.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Teng, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Last Millennium simulation of the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) reproduces many large-scaled climate patterns suggested by historical and proxy-data records including cooling from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age, a "hockey-stick" pattern of surface temperature changes from 850-2005, and a broad cooling with a delayed La Niña-type of pattern in the tropical Pacific response to large volcanic events. Atmospheric modes, one oceanic mode (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation), and one ocean-atmosphere coupled mode (the El Niño-Southern Oscillation) of variability show little or no change in their variances, teleconnection patterns and spectra between the Last Millennium simulation and the 1850 non-transient control run. Two oceanic modes, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation have higher variances and increased power at low frequencies in the Last Millennium simulation compared with the control run, suggesting long-term oceanic response to natural solar and volcanic forcings.

  9. Hemophilia A in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2013-07-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked hereditary bleeding disorder due to the deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). According to the degree of FVIII deficiency, mild, moderate or severe forms are recognized. Although patients with mild hemophilia A usually bleed excessively only after trauma or surgery, those with severe hemophilia experience frequent episodes of spontaneous or excessive bleeding after minor trauma, particularly into joints and muscles. The modern management of hemophilia began in the 1970s and is actually based upon several plasma-derived or recombinant FVIII products. In addition, the synthetic drug desmopressin can be used to prevent or treat bleeding episodes in patients with mild hemophilia A. Long-term and continuous substitution therapy (prophylaxis), the recommended treatment in severe hemophilia, prevents bleeding and the resultant joint damage. In the last twenty years the high standard of hemophilia care has greatly improved the quality of life of patients and their life expectancy has reached that of the non-hemophilic male population, at least in high-income countries. The most serious and challenging complication of treatment of hemophilia A is the development of inhibitors, which renders FVIII concentrate infusion ineffective and exposes patients to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In this narrative review, the actual knowledge on the clinical features and management of patients with hemophilia A is summarized.

  10. North Atlantic westerlies during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasskog, Kristian; Bakke, Jostein; Ringkjøb Nielsen, Pål; Meidell, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    Understanding North Atlantic decadal-scale climate variability is crucial in order to make projections of future climate change and to assess anthropogenic impacts on climate. However, reconstructing past changes in atmospheric circulation patterns from proxy data is particularly challenging, and different proxy reconstructions often show conflicting results. Winter accumulation dominates the annual mass-balance of glaciers along the west coast of Norway, and because the winter accumulation is highly sensitive to changes in the strength of wintertime westerly winds, these glaciers are potentially valuable recorders of past atmospheric circulation. Here we present a 1200-year long spatiotemporal reconstruction of Nordfonna, a maritime plateau glacier in western Norway, based on an integrated study of terrestrial moraine sequences, sub-glacial topography, and multi-proxy records from two distal glacier-fed lakes located at the opposite sides of the glacier in a west-east transect. We use temporal changes in the west-to-east tilt of the Equilibrium-Line-Altitude (ELA) across the ice cap to infer the strength of North-Atlantic westerly winds over the past 1200 years, and validate our high-resolution (5-yr) record against instrumental data. While multidecadal fluctuations in the regional ELA can be explained largely by changes in North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (i.e. the AMO), our data suggests that the local 'Little Ice Age' maximum glacier expansion (AD 1700-1750) was caused mainly by strengthened wintertime westerlies. The wintertime westerlies over southern Norway are closely linked to the leading mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic, known as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and our record therefore represents a unique proxy of past changes in the NAO.

  11. Technology Development for Human Exploration Beyond LEO in the New Millennium IAA-13-3 Strategies and Plans for Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Trevathan, Joseph R.; Baird, R. Scott; Simon, Tom; Peters, T.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As we look forward into the new millennium, the extension of human presence beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) looms large in the plans of NASA. The Agency's Strategic Plan specifically calls out the need to identify and develop technologies for 100 and 1000-day class missions beyond LEO. To meet the challenge of these extended duration missions, it is important that we learn how to utilize the indigenous resources available to us on extraterrestrial bodies. This concept, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) can greatly reduce the launch mass & cost of human missions while reducing the risk. These technologies may also pave the way for the commercial development of space. While no specific target beyond LEO is identified in NASA's Strategic Plan, mission architecture studies have been on-going for the Moon, Mars, Near-Earth Asteroids and Earth/Moon & Earth/Sun Libration Points. As a result of these studies, the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M) through the Johnson and Kennedy Space Centers, is leading the effort to develop ISRU technologies and systems to meet the current and future needs of human missions beyond LEO and on to Mars. This effort also receives support from the NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research (Code U), the Office of Space Science (Code S), and the Office of Aerospace Technology (Code R). This paper will present unique developments in the area of fuel and oxidizer production, breathing air production, water production, C02 collection, separation of atmospheric gases, and gas liquefaction and storage. A technology overview will be provided for each topic along with the results achieved to date, future development plans, and the mission architectures that these technologies support.

  12. The "Regulatory" State and the Use of "Independent" Agencies as Legitimising Mechanisms of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouvias, Dionyssios

    2007-01-01

    The emergence--at the dawn of the new millennium--of "independent agencies", "national commissions" and "councils" around the world, has been based and justified on grounds of "impartiality", "reliability", "democratic-principles guardianship", or even "technical competence".…

  13. Vision-21: Space Travel for the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The papers from this symposium, that was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on April 3-4, 1990, are presented. The theme selected for the symposium was space travel for the next millennium. It was hoped that the participants would allow their focus to consider possible advances in technologies for space travel not just for currently envisioned projects, but for possibilities beyond the next generation and the next thousand years. About half of the contributed papers focussed on propulsion and the other half on other issues related to space travel.

  14. Northern high latitude climate variability of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Heather J.

    This work explores the causes of northern high-latitude climate variations over the last millennium, and industrial and future periods. Attribution studies are performed on a suite of global climate simulations, and four historical reconstructions of Greenland surface temperatures and precipitation (two of which are new to this work). The simulations followed the protocols of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 3 and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. At least half of the multi-decadal variability in simulated Greenland climate variations over the last millennium is reproduced by a linear, empirically-generated model including terms for volcanic emissions, solar insolation changes (including total solar irradiance and orbital components) and an index associated with latitudinal shifts in the North Atlantic jet. Empirical model parameters are obtained by regressing simulated Greenland temperatures and precipitation against time series for each of the response variables. Greenhouse gas radiative forcing changes are unimportant to simulated Greenland conditions over the last millennium, although they dominate after the mid-20th century. Most of the historical Greenland climate reconstructions are restricted to the industrial period, due to a lack of spatially-comprehensive climate records. They exhibit substantial differences in the timing, phasing and amplitudes of past climate variations, due to regional sensitivities in the source data and the reconstruction methodologies. Reconstructions indicate that Greenland temperatures did not begin to follow hemispheric greenhouse gas warming patterns until the mid-1990s. This discrepancy indicates either that the warming hiatus was associated with internal climate variability, or that the simulations are missing processes important to Greenland climate. For example, indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols are not captured in the climate model employed here. All of the external climate forcings

  15. Implications of high amplitude atmospheric CO2 fluctuations on past millennium climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (< 10 ppmv). A modelling experiment taking into account firn-densification based smoothing processes in the D47 ice core proved, however, that the amplitude difference between the stomata record and the D47 ice-core can be explained by natural smoothing processes in the ice (van Hoof et al., 2005). This observation gives credence to the existence of high-amplitude CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium and suggests that high resolution ice core CO2 records should be regarded as a smoothed representation of the atmospheric CO2 signal. In the present study, potential marine and terrestrial sources and sinks associated with the observed atmospheric CO2 perturbation will be discussed. The magnitude of the observed CO2 variability implies that inferred changes in CO2 radiative forcing are of a similar magnitude as variations ascribed to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. solar forcing and volcanism), therefore challenging the IPCC concept of CO2 as an insignificant preindustrial climate forcing factor. References Barnola J.M., M. Anklin, J. Porcheron, D. Raynaud, J. Schwander and B. Stauffer 1995. CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice

  16. Financing of health systems to achieve the health Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Fryatt, Robert; Mills, Anne; Nordstrom, Anders

    2010-01-30

    Concern that underfunded and weak health systems are impeding the achievement of the health Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries led to the creation of a High Level Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems in September, 2008. This report summarises the key challenges faced by the Taskforce and its Working Groups. Working Group 1 examined the constraints to scaling up and costs. Challenges included: difficulty in generalisation because of scarce and context-specific health-systems knowledge; no consensus for optimum service-delivery approaches, leading to wide cost differences; no consensus for health benefits; difficulty in quantification of likely efficiency gains; and challenges in quantification of the financing gap owing to uncertainties about financial commitments for health. Working Group 2 reviewed the different innovative mechanisms for raising and channelling funds. Challenges included: variable definitions of innovative finance; small evidence base for many innovative finance mechanisms; insufficient experience in harmonisation of global health initiatives; and inadequate experience in use of international investments to improve maternal, newborn, and child health. The various mechanisms reviewed and finally recommended all had different characteristics, some focusing on specific problems and some on raising resources generally. Contentious issues included the potential role of the private sector, the rights-based approach to health, and the move to results-based aid. The challenges and disagreements that arose during the work of the Taskforce draw attention to the many issues facing decision makers in low-income countries. International donors and recipient governments should work together to improve the evidence base for strengthening health systems, increase long-term commitments, and improve accountability through transparent and inclusive national approaches.

  17. 77 FR 68115 - Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... on November 1, 2012, Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Millennium), One Blue Hill Plaza, Seventh... transportation service could be created between a recently completed interconnection with Laser Gathering and an... Company, L.L.C., One Blue Hill Plaza, Seventh Floor, P.O. Box 1565, Pearl River, New York 10965,...

  18. Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief, No. 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisen, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 20151. The need for additional development funding, if the MDGs are to be achieved by 2015, is…

  19. Government Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    manufacturers. The Navy has a major in- house design capability for ships; the government does not possess such a capability for aircraft or other weapon systems...the Coast Guard, government agencies acquire a wide variety of ships, ranging from sophisticated submarines and nuclear aircraft carriers to much...the initial phase a review was made of written material relating to government procedures in U.S. Government agencies for acquiring vessels, aircraft

  20. 76 FR 52654 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an... Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC... Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC (Millennium) in Minisink, New York. This EA will be used by the...

  1. The New Millennium Program: Validating Advanced Technologies for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minning, Charles P.; Luers, Philip

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the activities of the New Millennium Program (NMP) in validating advanced technologies for space missions. The focus of these breakthrough technologies are to enable new capabilities to fulfill the science needs, while reducing costs of future missions. There is a broad spectrum of NMP partners, including government agencies, universities and private industry. The DS-1 was launched on October 24, 1998. Amongst the technologies validated by the NMP on DS-1 are: a Low Power Electronics Experiment, the Power Activation and Switching Module, Multi-Functional Structures. The first two of these technologies are operational and the data analysis is still ongoing. The third program is also operational, and its performance parameters have been verified. The second program, DS-2, was launched January 3 1999. It is expected to impact near Mars southern polar region on 3 December 1999. The technologies used on this mission awaiting validation are an advanced microcontroller, a power microelectronics unit, an evolved water experiment and soil thermal conductivity experiment, Lithium-Thionyl Chloride batteries, the flexible cable interconnect, aeroshell/entry system, and a compact telecom system. EO-1 on schedule for launch in December 1999 carries several technologies to be validated. Amongst these are: a Carbon-Carbon Radiator, an X-band Phased Array Antenna, a pulsed plasma thruster, a wideband advanced recorder processor, an atmospheric corrector, lightweight flexible solar arrays, Advanced Land Imager and the Hyperion instrument

  2. Assessing Household Solid Fuel Use: Multiple Implications for the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Rehfuess, Eva; Mehta, Sumi; Prüss-Üstün, Annette

    2006-01-01

    Objective The World Health Organization is the agency responsible for reporting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) indicator “percentage of population using solid fuels.” In this article, we present the results of a comprehensive assessment of solid fuel use, conducted in 2005, and discuss the implications of our findings in the context of achieving the MDGs. Methods For 93 countries, solid fuel use data were compiled from recent national censuses or household surveys. For the 36 countries where no data were available, the indicator was modeled. For 52 upper-middle or high-income countries, the indicator was assumed to be < 5%. Results According to our assessment, 52% of the world’s population uses solid fuels. This percentage varies widely between countries and regions, ranging from 77%, 74%, and 74% in Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Western Pacific Region, respectively, to 36% in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 16% in Latin America and the Caribbean and in Central and Eastern Europe. In most industrialized countries, solid fuel use falls to the < 5% mark. Discussion Although the “percentage of population using solid fuels” is classified as an indicator to measure progress towards MDG 7, reliance on traditional household energy practices has distinct implications for most of the MDGs, notably MDGs 4 and 5. There is an urgent need for development agendas to recognize the fundamental role that household energy plays in improving child and maternal health and fostering economic and social development. PMID:16507460

  3. African Higher Education: Challenges for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew; Altbachl, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    African higher education, at the beginning of the new millennium, faces unprecedented challenges. Not only is the demand for access unstoppable, especially in the context of Africa's traditionally low postsecondary attendance levels, but higher education is recognized as a key force for modernization and development. Africa's academic institutions…

  4. Doctoral Theses from Nursing Postgraduate Programs in Brazil and their Association with the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Fernandes, Josicélia Dumet; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Millennium Development Goals are centered around combatting poverty and other social evils all over the world. Thus, this study seeks to identify the Millennium Development Goals as an object of study in theses from Postgraduate Nursing Programs in Brazil scoring 5 (national excellence) and 6 or 7 (international excellence), and evaluate the association between the score for the program and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. METHOD: Exploratory descriptive document research. Data were collected from the Notes on Indicators/Coordination for Higher Education Personnel Improvement for the 15 Postgraduate Nursing Courses scoring between 5 and 7 in the three-year-period of 2010/2012. RESULTS: of the 8 Millennium Development Objectives, 6 were dealt with in the theses. There was an association (Fisher's exact test p-value=0.0059) between the distribution of the theses and the program scores in relation to the Millennium Development Objectives (p-valor=0.0347) CONCLUSION: the doctoral theses were slightly related to the Millennium Development Objectives, covering the population's economic development, health conditions and quality of life. It is recommended that Postgraduate Programs in Nursing pay closer attention to the Millennium Development Objectives.. PMID:26312631

  5. Asian monsoon failure and megadrought during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Cook, Edward R; Anchukaitis, Kevin J; Buckley, Brendan M; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D; Jacoby, Gordon C; Wright, William E

    2010-04-23

    The Asian monsoon system affects more than half of humanity worldwide, yet the dynamical processes that govern its complex spatiotemporal variability are not sufficiently understood to model and predict its behavior, due in part to inadequate long-term climate observations. Here we present the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA), a seasonally resolved gridded spatial reconstruction of Asian monsoon drought and pluvials over the past millennium, derived from a network of tree-ring chronologies. MADA provides the spatiotemporal details of known historic monsoon failures and reveals the occurrence, severity, and fingerprint of previously unknown monsoon megadroughts and their close linkages to large-scale patterns of tropical Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures. MADA thus provides a long-term context for recent monsoon variability that is critically needed for climate modeling, prediction, and attribution.

  6. Limitations of the Millennium Development Goals: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Fehling, Maya; Nelson, Brett D.; Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    With the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) showing uneven progress, this review identifies possible limitations arising from the MDG framework itself rather than extrinsic issues. A multidisciplinary literature review was conducted with a focus on limitations in the formulation of the MDGs, their structure, content and implementation. Of 1837 MDG-related articles, 90 met criteria for analysis. Articles describe MDGs as being created by only a few stakeholders without adequate involvement by developing countries and overlooking development objectives previously agreed upon. Others claim MDGs are unachievable and simplistic, not adapted to national needs, do not specify accountable parties and reinforce vertical interventions. While MDGs have promoted increased health and well-being in many countries by recognising and deliberating on the possible constraints of the MDG framework, the post-2015 agenda may have even greater impact. Complex problems have simple, easy to understand, wrong answers (Henry Louis Mencken) PMID:24266508

  7. Did the Millennium Development Goals Change Trends in Child Mortality?

    PubMed

    French, Declan

    2016-10-01

    There has been little assessment of the role the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have had in progressing international development. There has been a 41% reduction in the under-five mortality rate worldwide from 1990 to 2011 and an acceleration in the rate of reduction since 2000. This paper explores why this has occurred, and results for all developing countries indicate that it is not due to more healthcare or public health interventions but is driven by a coincidental burst of economic growth. Although the MDGs are considered to have played an important part in securing progress against poverty, hunger and disease, there is very little evidence to back this viewpoint up. A thorough analysis of the successes and failures of the MDGs is therefore necessary before embarking on a new round of global goals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. [Reflexions on some dilemmas in bioethics for the millennium].

    PubMed

    Villa-Caballero, L; Lifshitz-Guinzberg, A

    2000-01-01

    With the end of the millennium, several proposals or propositions have been made about politics, culture, and economics for the world society. Science cannot be isolated from this well-recognized globalization process. Information through the Internet allows the spread of scientific data and knowledge among professional and no professional users to be exchanged and non shared, with the possibility of storing that information in a very fast manner. However, there are important differences in the availability and quality the information, especially in developing countries. On the other hand, it is clear that advances in technology in recent years are higher and faster than development in humanistic and philosophical areas. This situation points to the necessity of using some basic bioethical principles to deal with very important dilemmas such as euthanasia, assisted suicide, and new bioethical dilemmas such as technified death, restriction of economic resources in health care institutions, cloning and genetic manipulation, among others.

  9. Intelligent robot trends and predictions for the new millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ernest L.; Mundhenk, Terrell N.

    1999-08-01

    An intelligent robot is a remarkably useful combination of a manipulator, sensors and controls. The current use of these machines in outer space, medicine, hazardous materials, defense applications and industry is being pursued with vigor but little funding. In factory automation such robotics machines can improve productivity, increase product quality and improve competitiveness. The computer and the robot have both been developed during recent times. The intelligent robot combines both technologies and requires a thorough understanding and knowledge of mechatronics. In honor of the new millennium, this paper will present a discussion of futuristic trends and predictions. However, in keeping with technical tradition, a new technique for 'Follow the Leader' will also be presented in the hope of it becoming a new, useful and non-obvious technique.

  10. The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

  11. The last total solar eclipse of the millennium in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguc, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1999-03-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millennium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two continents and has been the cradle of so many past civilizations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificent event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of historical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible, Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute has arranged fieldwork on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey from south-east at 14:42 L.T.

  12. Characterizing the best cosmic telescopes with the millennium simulations

    SciTech Connect

    French, K. Decker; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Ammons, S. Mark; Keeton, Charles R.; Angulo, Raul E.

    2014-04-10

    Certain configurations of massive structures projected along the line of sight (LOS) maximize the number of detections of gravitationally lensed z ∼ 10 galaxies. We characterize such LOSs with the étendue σ{sub μ}, the area in the source plane magnified over some threshold μ. We use the Millennium I and Millennium XXL cosmological simulations to determine the frequency of high σ{sub μ} beams on the sky, their properties, and efficient selection criteria. We define the best beams as having σ{sub μ>3} > 2000 arcsec{sup 2}, for a z ∼ 10 source plane, and predict 477 ± 21 such beams on the sky. The total mass in the beam and σ{sub μ>3} are strongly correlated. After controlling for total mass, we find a significant residual correlation between σ{sub μ>3} and the number of cluster-scale halos (>10{sup 14} M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) in the beam. Beams with σ{sub μ>3} > 2000 arcsec{sup 2}, which should be best at lensing z ∼ 10 galaxies, are 10 times more likely to contain multiple cluster-scale halos than a single cluster-scale halo. Beams containing an A1689-like massive cluster halo often have additional structures along the LOS, including at least one additional cluster-scale (M {sub 200} > 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) halo 28% of the time. Selecting beams with multiple, massive structures will lead to enhanced detection of the most distant and intrinsically faint galaxies.

  13. Exocrine drainage in vascularized pancreas transplantation in the new millennium

    PubMed Central

    El-Hennawy, Hany; Stratta, Robert J; Smith, Fowler

    2016-01-01

    The history of vascularized pancreas transplantation largely parallels developments in immunosuppression and technical refinements in transplant surgery. From the late-1980s to 1995, most pancreas transplants were whole organ pancreatic grafts with insulin delivery to the iliac vein and diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions to the urinary bladder (systemic-bladder technique). The advent of bladder drainage revolutionized the safety and improved the success of pancreas transplantation. However, starting in 1995, a seismic change occurred from bladder to bowel exocrine drainage coincident with improvements in immunosuppression, preservation techniques, diagnostic monitoring, general medical care, and the success and frequency of enteric conversion. In the new millennium, pancreas transplants are performed predominantly as pancreatico-duodenal grafts with enteric diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions coupled with iliac vein provision of insulin (systemic-enteric technique) although the systemic-bladder technique endures as a preferred alternative in selected cases. In the early 1990s, a novel technique of venous drainage into the superior mesenteric vein combined with bowel exocrine diversion (portal-enteric technique) was designed and subsequently refined over the next ≥ 20 years to re-create the natural physiology of the pancreas with first-pass hepatic processing of insulin. Enteric drainage usually refers to jejunal or ileal diversion of the exocrine secretions either with a primary enteric anastomosis or with an additional Roux limb. The portal-enteric technique has spawned a number of newer and revisited techniques of enteric exocrine drainage including duodenal or gastric diversion. Reports in the literature suggest no differences in pancreas transplant outcomes irrespective of type of either venous or exocrine diversion. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on exocrine drainage in the new millennium (the purported

  14. Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Laaser, Ulrich; Theisling, Mareike; Tapia, Leticia; Borisch, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs. The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention. Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework. PMID:25249060

  15. Access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

    PubMed

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon has been fully engaged with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. This paper examines the situation of access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), establishes whether Cameroon is on the track of meeting the MDGs in these domains and proposes actions to be taken to bring it closer to these objectives. Based on analyzed data obtained from national surveys, government ministries, national statistical offices, bibliographic research, reports and interviews, it argues that Cameroon will not reach the water and sanitation MGDs. While Cameroon is not yet on track to meet the targets of the MDGs for water and sanitation, it has made notable progress since 1990, much more needs to be done to improve the situation, especially in rural areas. In 2006, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and the coverage in urban centres is 88%, significantly better than the 47% in rural areas. However, rapid urbanization has rendered existing infrastructure inadequate with periurban dwellers also lacking access to safe drinking water. Sanitation coverage is also poor. In urban areas only 58% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, and the rate in rural areas is 42%. Women and girls shoulder the largest burden in collecting water, 15% of urban and 18% rural populations use improved drinking water sources over 30 minutes away. Cameroon faces the following challenges in reaching the water and sanitation MDGs: poor management and development of the resources, coupled with inadequate political will and commitment for the long term; rapid urbanization; urban and rural poverty and regulation and legislative lapses. The authors propose that: bridging the gap between national water policies and water services; recognizing the role played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the attainment of MDGs; developing a Council Water Resource Management

  16. 77 FR 70835 - Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... in accordance with 51 U.S.C. 20144(c). The 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams... Robot Challenge is a prize competition designed to encourage development of new technologies...

  17. 76 FR 56819 - Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... 42 U.S.C. 2451(314)(d). The 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to... technologies of interest and value to NASA and the nation. The 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge is a...

  18. 81 FR 54853 - Notice of Centennial Challenges Space Robotics Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2016-08-17

    ... Space Robotics Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOTICE: (16-056). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges Space Robotics Challenge. SUMMARY: This notice is issued in accordance with 51 U.S.C. 20144(c). The Space Robotics Challenge is open and teams that wish to compete...

  19. Opportunities and Challenges of Bilingualism. Contributions to the Sociology of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Li, Ed.; Dewaele, Jean-Marc, Ed.; Housen, Alex, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines, from an international perspective, opportunities and challenges of societal bilingualism in the new millennium. The 18 papers include the following: "Introduction: Opportunities and Challenges of Bilingualism" (Li Wei, Jean-Marc Dewaele, and Alex Housen); "'Holy Languages' in the Context of…

  20. Health literacy and the Millennium Development Goals: United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) regional meeting background paper (abstracted).

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a health literacy "lens" to look at key global health challenges, including the achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the reduction of disease burden due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Available global evidence is summarized related to: assessment of the impact of health literacy on health and development; identification of measures for reporting progress; exploring ways to strengthen multisectoral collaboration at the national, regional, and international levels to undertake joint actions for increasing health literacy; finding ways to promote better access and use of information through information and communication technology and empowerment; and building capacity for sustained action to increase health literacy. Key action messages are identified. Findings presented informed the 2009 ECOSOC Ministerial Declaration on Health Literacy.

  1. Recent Trends in Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Brazil: Progress Toward Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Giugliani, Elsa; Maranhão, Ana Goretti; Monteiro, Carlos A.; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Bustreo, Flavia; Merialdi, Mario; Victora, Cesar G.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed Brazil's efforts in reducing child mortality, improving maternal and child health, and reducing socioeconomic and regional inequalities from 1990 through 2007. We compiled and reanalyzed data from several sources, including vital statistics and population-based surveys. We also explored the roles of broad socioeconomic and demographic changes and the introduction of health sector and other reform measures in explaining the improvements observed. Our findings provide compelling evidence that proactive measures to reduce health disparities accompanied by socioeconomic progress can result in measurable improvements in the health of children and mothers in a relatively short interval. Our analysis of Brazil's successes and remaining challenges to reach and surpass Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 can provide important lessons for other low- and middle-income countries. PMID:20724669

  2. Tackling Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) Approach in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Shafiu

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries are devising various strategies and mechanisms to accelerate their speed towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. In Nigeria, different approaches have been used to address the tackling of health-related MDGs. One creative approach has been the implementation of the NHIS Maternal and Child Health (NHIS-MCH) Project. The project aims to speed up the achievement of MDGs 4 and 5 (reducing child mortality and improving maternal health) in the country. Little is known about the NHIS-MCH Project’s design and health insurance coverage activities. Project planning and monitoring could be hampered by lack of technical and managerial skills of health insurance most especially at middle and local levels. Challenging debates continue to emanate on the project’s sustainability.

  3. Ecosystem resilience to the Millennium drought in southeast Australia (2001-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Yohei; Koike, Toshio

    2016-09-01

    The prolonged Millennium drought in southeast Australia (2001-2009) provides a unique opportunity to analyze the responses of a semiarid ecosystem to severe droughts. In this paper, we analyzed vegetation dynamics in the Millennium drought using visible/infrared observations, passive microwave observations, and a simple ecohydrological model. The satellite observations indicated that the ecosystem maintained its greenness in the Millennium drought, although the total aboveground biomass was significantly decreased by water scarcity. The results of our numerical experiments suggested that the resilience of vegetation greenness to the drought could be explained by a carbon allocation strategy that was sensitive to light and water availability and by temporal changes in vegetation traits. Our numerical experiments successfully simulated the decrease of total aboveground biomass with unchanged vegetation greenness during the Millennium drought.

  4. 75 FR 24943 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...-approved maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) on its Hickory Grove Lateral Line from 1072 pounds per.... CP98-150, et al; however, in Millenniums application the MAOP of the pipeline is listed at 1072...

  5. A Guatemalan Speleothem Record Of Climate Of The Past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T.; Winter, A.; Burnett, A.; Haug, G. H.; Kelly, M. J.; Edwards, R.

    2012-12-01

    A 32-cm active stalagmite collected in 2007 in eastern Guatemala near the Belize border began growing in ~1000 AD, and provides a near continuous record of the past 1000 years. The cave was at 350 m asl, and 23C. 15 U/Th MC ICPMS dates were used to establish the growth model, and almost 1000 δ18O stable isotope samples have been analyzed at sub-annual resolution. The GUXI-1 speleothem grew at a rate of 0.35mm/y from ~1000 to ~1450, when it tilted 25 mm/ 11 degrees from its original axis, possibly related to seismic events of the Motagua River plate margin to the south. Growth continued on the angled upside as a transparent calcite, but with restricted deposition rates from ~1460 to 1650: this reduction was likely due to the time to re-create a more suitable site for deposition, but also to environmental conditions on the surface. After 1660 to the present, GUXI-1 grew steadily along a new axis, much faster at 0.58mm/yr than its pre-tilt rate. The δ18 oxygen isotopes of the deposited calcite are construed as a rainfall proxy, influenced by the amount effect of the tropics. The values range from -4 ‰ to -2.75‰, showing four major regimes over the millennium, and indicating several periods of drought [less-negative δ18O]. Prior to tilting, the Guatemala stalagmite displayed a trend of increasing precipitation following its inception, until it was tilted. Average δ18O was -3.4‰. The record during the ~1450-1660 tilt suggests a period of aridity, but from 1700-1800 precipitation was increasing again as δ18O reached its most negative mean values of ~ -3.6‰, and growth rate was also at its highest. A very abrupt drop in δ18O [0.2 ‰] occurred in 1816 (the year of a major nearby earthquake and a year after the Tambora mega-eruption), and continued as a long-term drying trend to the present, though with a sharp central peak and 2 troughs. This drying trend was also accompanied by a 1/3 decrease in growth rate. A new δ18O mean of -3.1‰ is higher than that

  6. Massive Halos in Millennium Gas Simulations: Multivariate Scaling Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, R.; Rasia, E.; Evrard, A. E.; Pearce, F.; Gazzola, L.

    2010-06-01

    The joint likelihood of observable cluster signals reflects the astrophysical evolution of the coupled baryonic and dark matter components in massive halos, and its knowledge will enhance cosmological parameter constraints in the coming era of large, multiwavelength cluster surveys. We present a computational study of intrinsic covariance in cluster properties using halo populations derived from Millennium Gas Simulations (MGS). The MGS are re-simulations of the original 500 h -1 Mpc Millennium Simulation performed with gas dynamics under two different physical treatments: shock heating driven by gravity only (GO) and a second treatment with cooling and preheating (PH). We examine relationships among structural properties and observable X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals for samples of thousands of halos with M 200 >= 5 × 1013 h -1 M sun and z < 2. While the X-ray scaling behavior of PH model halos at low redshift offers a good match to local clusters, the model exhibits non-standard features testable with larger surveys, including weakly running slopes in hot gas observable-mass relations and ~10% departures from self-similar redshift evolution for 1014 h -1 M sun halos at redshift z ~ 1. We find that the form of the joint likelihood of signal pairs is generally well described by a multivariate, log-normal distribution, especially in the PH case which exhibits less halo substructure than the GO model. At fixed mass and epoch, joint deviations of signal pairs display mainly positive correlations, especially the thermal SZ effect paired with either hot gas fraction (r = 0.88/0.69 for PH/GO at z = 0) or X-ray temperature (r = 0.62/0.83). The levels of variance in X-ray luminosity, temperature, and gas mass fraction are sensitive to the physical treatment, but offsetting shifts in the latter two measures maintain a fixed 12% scatter in the integrated SZ signal under both gas treatments. We discuss halo mass selection by signal pairs, and find a minimum mass

  7. [Primary health care and the millennium development goals].

    PubMed

    Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C

    2012-01-01

    Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty

  8. 75 FR 71465 - Notice of the December 15, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Information on the meeting may be obtained from Melvin Williams, Jr., Vice President... public. Dated: November 19, 2010. Melvin F. Williams, Jr., VP/General Counsel and Corporate...

  9. The Challenge of Teaching Psychopharmacology in the New Millennium: The Role of Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Ira D.; Zisook, Sidney

    2005-01-01

    Objective: For a variety of pedagogical, political and financial reasons, there are major problems in achieving effective teaching of cutting-edge psychopharmacology for psychiatric residents. This article focuses on ways to improve the teaching/learning process, in part through the use of structured curricula. The authors review 1) attempted…

  10. 77 FR 53917 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Sudan Sri Lanka Tajikistan Tanzania Timor-Leste Togo Uganda Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vietnam Yemen Zambia... government. Sudan is subject to numerous restrictions, including but not limited to section 620A of...

  11. World Libraries on the Information Superhighway: Preparing for the Challenges of the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Patricia Diamond, Ed.; Bertot, John Carlo, Ed.

    This book represents the thoughts and experiences of librarians and academics on the changing role of libraries in a global networked community. The first section of the book looks at the agendas for national libraries in a digital world. Issues covered include content and delivery, national policy and practice and strategies for success in a…

  12. 77 FR 19360 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... report incorporates the new definitions and the subsequent reclassification of countries. The report is... specified legal prohibitions on assistance (section 608(a) of the Act); The criteria and methodology that... Candidate Country Report. This revised report incorporates the new definitions and the...

  13. 76 FR 69290 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Mongolia Mozambique Nepal Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe... expanded international military education and training funds) may be made available for assistance to...

  14. 76 FR 55419 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ..., Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda... education and training funds) may be made available for assistance to the central government of...

  15. 77 FR 21111 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... Mauritania Bolivia Micronesia Burkina Faso Moldova Burundi Mongolia Cambodia* Mozambique Cameroon* Nepal... restriction limits the provision of funds (other than expanded international military education and...

  16. 75 FR 52990 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    .... Mozambique 36. Nepal 37. Nicaragua 38. Niger 39. Nigeria 40. Pakistan 41. Papua New Guinea 42. Philippines 43... than expanded international military education and training funds) may be made available for...

  17. 78 FR 52984 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Georgia Ghana Guatemala Guinea Haiti Honduras India Indonesia Kenya Kiribati Kyrgyz Republic Laos Lesotho Liberia Malawi Mauritania Micronesia Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Nepal Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia South...

  18. The CE/SE Method: a CFD Framework for the Challenges of the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Yu, Sheng-Tao

    2001-01-01

    The space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method, which was originated and is continuously being developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is a high-resolution, genuinely multidimensional and unstructured-mesh compatible numerical method for solving conservation laws. Since its inception in 1991, the CE/SE method has been used to obtain highly accurate numerical solutions for 1D, 2D and 3D flow problems involving shocks, contact discontinuities, acoustic waves, vortices, shock/acoustic waves/vortices interactions, shock/boundary layers interactions and chemical reactions. Without the aid of preconditioning or other special techniques, it has been applied to both steady and unsteady flows with speeds ranging from Mach number = 0.00288 to 10. In addition, the method has unique features that allow for (i) the use of very simple non-reflecting boundary conditions, and (ii) a unified wall boundary treatment for viscous and inviscid flows. The CE/SE method was developed with the conviction that, with a solid foundation in physics, a robust, coherent and accurate numerical framework can be built without involving overly complex mathematics. As a result, the method was constructed using a set of design principles that facilitate simplicity, robustness and accuracy. The most important among them are: (i) enforcing both local and global flux conservation in space and time, with flux evaluation at an interface being an integral part of the solution procedure and requiring no interpolation or extrapolation; (ii) unifying space and time and treating them as a single entity; and (iii) requiring that a numerical scheme be built from a nondissipative core scheme such that the numerical dissipation can be effectively controlled and, as a result, will not overwhelm the physical dissipation. Part I of the workshop will be devoted to a discussion of these principles along with a description of how the ID, 2D and 3D CE/SE schemes are constructed. In Part II, various applications of the CE/SE method, particularly those involving chemical reactions and acoustics, will be presented. The workshop will be concluded with a sketch of the future research directions.

  19. Remote Sensing in Geography in the New Millennium: Prospects, Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Jensen, John R.; Ridd, Merrill K.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As noted in the first edition of Geography in America, the term remote sensing was coined in the early 1960's by geographers to describe the process of obtaining data by use of both photographic and nonphotographic instruments. Although this is still a working definition today, a more explicit and updated definition as it relates to geography can be phrased as: "remote sensing is the science, art, and technology of identifying, characterizing, measuring, and mapping of Earth surface, and near earth surface, phenomena from some position above using photographic or nonphotographic instruments." Both patterns and processes may be the object of investigation using remote sensing data. The science dimension of geographic remote sensing is rooted in the fact that: a) it is dealing with primary data, wherein the investigator must have an understanding of the environmental phenomena under scrutiny, and b) the investigator must understand something of the physics of the energy involved in the sensing instrument and the atmospheric pathway through which the energy passes from the energy source, to the Earth object to the sensor.

  20. Educational Development and Reformation in the Malaysian Education System: Challenges in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    bin Zakaria, Haji Azmi

    2000-01-01

    Development of the education system in Malaysia is tied to the National Development Policy. Malaysia will address issues related to equity, access, and democratization of education, education quality, efficiency, and values education as the country responds to the demands of being part of the global village while ensuring domestic growth and…

  1. Challenges to meet: food and nutrition security in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Lipton, M

    2001-05-01

    Before about 1750 there was no substantial secular fall in protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) over large areas, nor reason to expect it. We have since learned that sufficient economic advance (poverty reduction) plus scientific advance (in medicine and food production) are achievable to eliminate mass PEM. The two advances are linked via increased demand for labour, and hence wages and employment, for those formerly too poor to afford adequate food. The extra employment income arises first from smallholder and employee food production, and later, as labour is released, from a wide range of specialised, increasingly non-farm, production, with employment income traded for food. This process eliminated mass hunger in Europe in 1750-1960. Only by 1975 had PEM in the developing world retreated to (very high) 1936-8 levels, but it fell sharply in Asia and Latin America in 1975-1990, due to unprecedented growth in staples yields, smallholder and farm employment income, and hence the poor's purchasing power over food. However, since 1990, poverty reduction has slowed (before reaching most of Africa), alongside much slower-staples yield growth, increasing water shortages, and big shifts of grain and land from man to farm animals. These trends prefigure declining progress against PEM in coming decades, unless there is renewed, employment-intensive food-staples-yield growth. That process requires reorienting crop biotechnology and water science towards the needs of small tropical farmers and their staple food crops, and shifting land towards them. Mass PEM is indeed largely due to inadequate 'food entitlements' by the hungry, but will not be remedied without growth in their employment, based on further advances in food-staples yields per unit land and water. Recent evidence suggests that early PEM may increase lifelong risks of infection and/or degenerative disease. This factor would increase the 'squeeze' on health resources in low-income countries, between the diseases of poverty and those of old age. That situation increases the need to readdress PEM by renewed progress in food production and land distribution.

  2. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  3. Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

    Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for

  4. Asian monsoon extremes and humanity's response over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, B. M.; Lieberman, V. B.; Zottoli, B.

    2012-12-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has seen significant development in the production of paleo proxies for the Asian monsoon, exemplified by the Monsoon Asian Drought Atlas that was comprised of more than 300 tree ring chronologies. Noteworthy among them is the Vietnamese cypress tree-ring record which reveals that the two worst droughts of the past 7 centuries, each more than a decade in length, coincided with the demise of the Khmer civilization at Angkor in the early 15th century CE. The 18th century was nearly as tumultuous a period across Southeast Asia, where several polities fell against a backdrop of epic decadal-scale droughts. At this time all of the region's charter states saw rapid realignment in the face of drought, famine, disease and a raft of related and unrelated social issues. Several other droughts, some more extreme but of lesser duration, punctuate the past millennium, but appear to have had little societal impact. Historical documentation is being used not only to provide corroborative evidence of tree-ring reconstructed climate extremes, but to attempt to understand the dynamics of the coupled human-natural systems involved, and to define what kinds of thresholds need to be reached before societies respond. This paleo perspective can assist our analyses of the role of climate extremes in the collapse or disruption of regional societies, a subject of increasing concern given the uncertainties surrounding projections for future climate across the highly populated areas of Asia.

  5. Unmarried parenthood: new insights from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Kathleen; Smith, Kate

    2003-01-01

    This study uses information from the Millennium Cohort Study to examine the characteristics of families where children are born within a marriage, within a cohabiting union or outside of a co-residential partnership. For this latter group, for the first time in a national data set, an assessment can be made of the 'strength' of the parent's relationship at the time of the birth. We show that the context of childbearing varies with respect to geography, ethnicity, age, parity and educational status of the mother, and that the socioeconomic wellbeing of families varies according to the partnership status of their parents. A closer look at the non-partnered parents shows that the extent to which the fathers were involved with the mother of the child around the time the baby was born was related to the presence of the father at the birth of the child and whether his name was recorded on the child's birth certificate; as well as to subsequent behaviour, such as, whether they moved in with the mother, saw their children on a regular basis or contributed money to the child's maintenance.

  6. Annually resolved North Atlantic marine climate over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D. J.; Scourse, J. D.; Halloran, P. R.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.; Richardson, C. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Eiríksson, J.; Knudsen, K. L.; Hall, I. R.

    2016-12-01

    Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental period, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North Atlantic Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ18O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ18O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial period (AD 1000-1800) variability in the sub-polar North Atlantic leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North Atlantic Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing.

  7. Annually resolved North Atlantic marine climate over the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, D. J.; Scourse, J. D.; Halloran, P. R.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.; Richardson, C. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Eiríksson, J.; Knudsen, K. L.; Hall, I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental period, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North Atlantic Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ18O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ18O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial period (AD 1000–1800) variability in the sub-polar North Atlantic leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North Atlantic Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing. PMID:27922004

  8. History of psychiatry in Sweden during a millennium.

    PubMed

    Wetterberg, Lennart

    2012-03-01

    This report covers a millennium, from year 1000 when Sweden had only 0.4 million people until today's 9.4 million. In the 13th century, the first Swedish legal text about the mentally ill and the first hospital to treat them are documented. Control, care and cure of the ill have been shaped by social and cultural changes from time to time, e.g. King Gustav Vasa introduced a paradigm shift of care after the Reformation, when he altered Catholic buildings into state hospitals. He also ordered that medical texts should no longer be written in Latin but in Swedish. The first book dealing with mental illnesses was published in 1578. Laypersons ran the mental hospitals for centuries until the medical perspective and doctors were engaged in the 1800 s. To advance the hospital doctors' competence and skill, a Swedish Psychiatric Association was established in 1905. Severely psychotic patients could not be effectively treated until the introduction of chlorpromazine in the 1950s and there is still no cure available. Following the deinstitutionalization, from more than 35,000 beds 50 years ago down to about 4500 today, the request for outpatient treatment increased. Mandatory training in psychotherapies for all psychiatrists started in the 1970s. A major "psychiatry reform", with the hope of improving the situation for the mentally ill, and to reduce the stigma, was introduced in Sweden in 1995. The historic long-term effect of the reform cannot yet be fully evaluated.

  9. Cyber disorders: the mental health concern for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Young, K; Pistner, M; O'Mara, J; Buchanan, J

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence has suggested that mental health practitioners' report increased caseloads of clients whose primary complaint involves the Internet. However, little is known about the incidence, associated behaviors, attitudes of practitioners, and interventions involved related to this relatively new phenomenon. Therefore, this study surveyed therapists who have treated clients suffering from cyber-related problems to gather such outcome information. Respondents reported an average caseload of nine clients who they classified as Internet-addicted, with a range between 2 and 50 clients treated within the past year. Five general subtypes of Internet addiction were categorized based on the most problematic types of online applications, and they include addictions to Cybersex, Cyber-relationships, online stock trading or gambling, information surfing, and computer games. Treatment strategies included cognitive-behavioral approaches, sexual offender therapy, marital and family therapy, social skills training, and pharmacological interventions. Based on their client encounters, efforts to initiate support groups and recovery programs specializing in the treatment of Internet addiction were being considered. Finally, based upon the findings, this article examines the impact of cyberdisorders on future research, treatment, and public policy issues for the new millennium.

  10. "Mayday mayday mayday", the millennium ark is sinking!

    PubMed

    Monfort, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Despite exceptional advances in ensuring the health and well-being of animals in human care, zoos of the twenty-first century are ill-prepared and overwhelmed by the sheer number of species requiring conservation support. Furthermore, small population management paradigms have failed to achieve the demographic and genetic targets required to sustain most endangered species in human care. Predictions made in the 1980s regarding the potential of a "millennium ark"-aided by the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs)-for saving species have proven to be wildly over-optimistic. ARTs continue to be touted as a panacea for saving endangered species and even for resurrecting extinct ones. And yet, while the first successful interspecies embryo transfer in a wildlife species occurred 30 years ago, there still is not a single example of embryo-based technologies being used to consistently manage a conservation-reliant species. The limited contribution of ARTs to species conservation to date principally stems from the lack of knowledge of species biology, as well as inadequate facilities, space, expertise, and funding needed for their successful application. ARTs could and should be an important tool in our conservation toolbox, but we cannot fall into the trap of believing that we can "assist" or clone our way out of the present biodiversity crisis. Reproductive technologists overstate the potential of ARTs for saving endangered species, zoos overestimate their ability to sustain genetically and demographically viable captive populations with existing resources, and conservationists underestimate their need for zoos in the face of failing efforts to sustain species in nature. Unless all parties concerned-reproductive technologists, zoo biologists and conservationists-adopt parallel efforts to sustain wild populations and places, zoos risk becoming living museums exhibiting relic species that no longer exist in nature.

  11. Life in a landfill slum, children's health, and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James L; Watson, Lindsey M; Nikitin, Ivan V; Ansariadi; La Ane, Ruslan; Maidin, Alimin

    2015-12-01

    People living in slums can be considered left behind with regard to national successes in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the living and working conditions of waste pickers and their children in a landfill slum located in the largest city in eastern Indonesia. A total of 113 people from the landfill slum and 1184 people from the general population participated in face-to-face interviews. Municipal solid waste (MSW) was analyzed for metals, metalloids and fecal indicator bacteria. Ambient air quality including particulate matter was measured in the landfill. Households in the landfill slum were 5.73 (p=0.04) times more likely to be below the international poverty line (MDG 1: Poverty) and 15.6 times (p<0.01) more likely to have no one in the household possessing a primary education (MDG 2: Universal Education), and 107 times (p<0.01) more likely not to have improved sanitation facilities (MDG 7: Environmental Sustainability) when compared to the general population. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death in children under five in Indonesia. Young children living in the landfill slum were 2.87 times (p=0.02) more likely to develop diarrhea than their general population counterparts. Other survey results and environmental measurements suggest that landfill slum children have additional adverse health effects (e.g. infections and poisoning). Poverty underlies several MDG issues that directly or indirectly affect child health. Therefore, eradicating extreme poverty will continue to be the most critical challenge for the MDGs beyond 2015.

  12. Millennium Development Goal Four and Child Health Inequities in Indonesia: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schröders, Julia; Wall, Stig; Kusnanto, Hari; Ng, Nawi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 calls for reducing mortality of children under-five years by two-thirds by 2015. Indonesia is on track to officially meet the MDG 4 targets by 2015 but progress has been far from universal. It has been argued that national level statistics, on which MDG 4 relies, obscure persistent health inequities within the country. Particularly inequities in child health are a major global public health challenge both for achieving MDG 4 in 2015 and beyond. This review aims to map out the situation of MDG 4 with respect to disadvantaged populations in Indonesia applying the Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework. The specific objectives are to answer: Who are the disadvantaged populations? Where do they live? And why and how is the inequitable distribution of health explained in terms of the SDH framework? Methods and Findings We retrieved studies through a systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published in 1995-2014. The PRISMA-Equity 2012 statement was adapted to guide the methods of this review. The dependent variables were MDG 4-related indicators; the independent variable “disadvantaged populations” was defined by different categories of social differentiation using PROGRESS. Included texts were analyzed following the guidelines for deductive content analysis operationalized on the basis of the SDH framework. We identified 83 studies establishing evidence on more than 40 different determinants hindering an equitable distribution of child health in Indonesia. The most prominent determinants arise from the shortcomings within the rural health care system, the repercussions of food poverty coupled with low health literacy among parents, the impact of low household decision-making power of mothers, and the consequences of high persistent use of traditional birth attendants among ethnic minorities. Conclusion This review calls for enhanced understanding of the determinants and pathways that create

  13. Biotechnology and ethics in medical education of the new millennium: physician roles and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Gonnella, Joseph S.; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2001-07-01

    Although the medical education curriculum varies internationally, we suggest that it is desirable for medical educators to share a universal responsibility to prepare physicians to perform three distinct, yet interrelated professional roles. The first is that of a clinician who has the knowledge and technical skills to care for individual patients, as well as the public. The second role can be viewed as that of an educator, a teacher, or a consultant who has the interpersonal skills and personal qualities to teach, advise and counsel patients and the public about their health and illness, risk factors and healthy lifestyle. The third role is that of a resource manager to enable physicians to care for patients and serve the public not only by drawing on available material assets but also by prudent use of the resources for better serving the most number of people at the least expense without compromising the quality of care. The very nature of the medical profession also obligates medical educators through the world to sensitize medical students and physicians to the ethical responsibilities that are implicit to each of the three aforementioned roles. Although the basic ethical responsibilities of do no harm and confidentiality are universal, certain global changes, such as rapid advancements in biotechnology and resource allocation, are now reshaping medical ethics on every continent. Spawned by the rapid advances in the biomedical sciences, biotechnology is revolutionizing human reproduction, sustaining human life, cloning human beings, and mapping the entire human genetic terrain. These advances imply changes in medical education and formal preparation of physicians in performing their roles as clinicians, educators and resource managers. These biotechnological developments, coupled with the increasing cost of healthcare and maldistribution of resources worldwide, present unprecedented ethical-social challenges that need to be addressed in the education of the

  14. 75 FR 21044 - Notice of Centennial Challenges 2011 CAFE Green Flight Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    .... It is being administered for NASA by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Centennial Challenges 2011 CAFE Green Flight Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2011 CAFE Green...

  15. Argonne National Laboratory Wins EPA Federal Green Challenge Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced that the Argonne National Laboratory has won Federal Green Challenge awards for waste reduction, transportation and electronics. The Challenge encourages federal agencies throughout the na

  16. 78 FR 70026 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... collection techniques or other forms of information technology. The proposed collection would involve information that will enable DOE to measure the impact and progress of DOE's Workplace Charging Challenge... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request...

  17. 77 FR 41779 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an... Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC... Pipeline Company, LLC (Millennium) in Delaware County, New York. The Commission will use this EA in...

  18. The CMIP6/PMIP4 Last Millennium Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Climate has varied considerably during the late Holocene and these changes left their traces in history (Medieval Climate Optimum, Little Ice Age). However, the relative magnitude of natural fluctuations due to internal variability of the Earth's climate system and to variations in the external forcing and the present global warming, attributed to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is still under debate. Investigating the response to (mainly) natural forcing under climatic background conditions not too different from today is crucial for an improved understanding of climate variability, circulation, and regional connectivity. Simulations over the last millennium (LM) allow assessing climate variability on decadal and longer scales and provide information on predictability under forced and unforced conditions. In providing in-depth model evaluation with respect to observations and paleoclimatic reconstructions, LM simulations serve to understand origins and consequences of systematic model biases. PMIP4 Tier-1 includes the standard LM simulation covering 850 to 1849 CE and a subsequent "historical" (1850 - 2010 CE) experiment as a minimum requirement. In addition to changes in Earth's orbit and greenhouse gas concentrations, the models are forced by variations in solar irradiance, volcanic aerosol load, and anthropogenic land-cover. As part of Tier-2, the modeling groups are asked to provide additional simulations in the form of ensembles, single forcing experiments, as well as sensitivity runs using alternative forcing combinations. The extension of the simulations to cover the complete last two millennia (0 CE to present) is also part of Tier-2. We describe the experimental design of the LM simulations and discuss the protocol on new forcing and boundary conditions. We discuss recent advances in the reconstruction of solar, volcanic, and land-cover changes and their implementation in the CMIP6 models. PMIP4 aims to provide forcing datasets that are consistent with

  19. First Results from The Last Millennium Climate Reanalysis Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim, G. J.; Steig, E. J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Noone, D. C.; Anderson, D. M.; Tardif, R.; Steiger, N. J.; Perkins, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    Paleoclimate proxies provide the only measured record of Earth's climate history, but they are noisy and sparse in space and time. Climate model simulations provide dynamically consistent spatial fields, but lack a direct connection to specific climate states prior to the instrumental record. Paleoclimate data assimilation (PDA) provides an optimally weighted estimate of the climate state from these two sources of information based on their error characteristics. The Last Millennium Climate Reanalysis Project (LMR) uses an ensemble-based PDA method and annually-resolved proxy records to reconstruct Earth's climate for the past 1000 years on a regular latitude--longitude grid. First results of the LMR project are reported here. Proxy records used in the first LMR reconstructions include: trees (ring width and wood density), corals (d18O and luminescence), ice cores (d18O), and a small number of sediment and speleothem records. A component of the data assimilation approach that distinguishes it from other techniques concerns the use of proxy system models to estimate the proxy from climate variables from a model simulation. Proxies are linearly related to 2-meter air temperature in a calibration dataset. Given a prior estimate of the climate from a model (here, a randomly sampled 1000-year control integration of CCSM4), we estimate the proxy value from the linear relationship (derived independently from the model). LMR analyses are compared against both existing gridded reanalysis records and withheld proxy records. Results show a cooling trend in global-mean air temperature during 1000-1900 CE, which derives primarily from cooling of the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, offset by weak tropical warming. There is no evidence of a Medieval Climate Anomaly. During the 20th century, the LMR estimate of the global-mean air temperature compares very closely with other reanalysis products. Skill appears insensitive to the calibration dataset used to derive the proxy system

  20. Free solar lanterns to below poverty line girls in India: a step toward achieving millennium development goals.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Development sectors like health cannot function in isolation. Intersectoral coordination between various departments helps in bringing a positive change in the health-seeking behavior of society in the long run. The decision by the Government of India to provide free solar lanterns (lamps) to the school-going girls of below poverty line families is a welcome step in this context. This initiative would help in reducing the number of school dropout girls and thus help in improving the health indicators that are directly related to women's education. Thus it is an initiative that will help in attainment of Millennium Development Goals through women's education and empowerment. Along with that, the environment-friendly approach will definitely have an impact on health of the girls by switching from kerosene/wood stoves to solar lantern light. Also this initiative would pave the path of real "intersectoral coordination" in the health sector in India that is marred with watertight functioning of various departments. There is an urgent need to popularize the scheme and involve different stakeholders like corporate houses, media, nongovernment organizations, multinational welfare agencies, and local governing bodies for ensuring the availability and utilization of solar lanterns in India.

  1. Using Technology for Enhancing Teaching and Learning in Bangladesh: Challenges and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohel, M. Mahruf C.; Kirkwood, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of media and technologies for enhancing teaching and learning is an important current trend to overcome the challenges of schooling and teacher training in the changing world. Many countries in the Global South are trying to adopt technologies in their school and teacher training systems to achieve the UN Millennium Development…

  2. The Millennium Cohort Family Study: a prospective evaluation of the health and well-being of military service members and their families.

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Fairbank, John A; Marmar, Charlie R; Schlenger, William

    2014-09-01

    The need to understand the impact of war on military families has never been greater than during the past decade, with more than three million military spouses and children affected by deployments to Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. Understanding the impact of the recent conflicts on families is a national priority, however, most studies have examined spouses and children individually, rather than concurrently as families. The Department of Defense (DoD) has recently initiated the largest study of military families in US military history (the Millennium Cohort Family Study), which includes dyads of military service members and their spouses (n > 10,000). This study includes US military families across the globe with planned follow-up for 21+ years to evaluate the impact of military experiences on families, including both during and after military service time. This review provides a comprehensive description of this landmark study including details on the research objectives, methodology, survey instrument, ancillary data sets, and analytic plans. The Millennium Cohort Family Study offers a unique opportunity to define the challenges that military families experience, and to advance the understanding of protective and vulnerability factors for designing training and treatment programs that will benefit military families today and into the future.

  3. EPA's Key Management Challenges - 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #16-N-0206, June 16, 2016. Attention to agency management challenges could result in stronger results and protection for the public and increased confidence in management integrity and accountability.

  4. EPA's Key Management Challenges - 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #15-N-0164, May 28, 2015. Attention to agency management challenges could result in stronger results and protection for the public, and increased confidence in management integrity and accountability.

  5. The Impact of Streaming on Attainment at Age Seven: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Samantha; Hallam, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between stream placement and the academic progress made by children in England in Year 2 of primary school, drawing on data from the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). The MCS is a sample of 19,000 children born across the UK around the turn of the century and their families. Academic progress was…

  6. Governing by Partnerships: Dilemmas in Swedish Education Policy at the Turn of the Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, governing through partnerships has become more and more common and is today reflected in a range of policy areas. In the following article, governing through partnerships is analysed in Swedish education policy around the turn of the millennium, where the notion of partnership has had a large impact. Using as its point of…

  7. The New Millennium and an Education That Captures the Basic Spirit of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    This document discusses reflections of the old and new millennium on education that capture the basic spirit of science. The explanation includes basic scientific ideas in physical sciences, earth systems, solar system and space; living systems; basic scientific thinking; the basic distinction between science and technology; basic connections…

  8. Languages in the University Sector at the Beginning of the Third Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauwels, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the position of languages in the university sector in Australia at the start of the new millennium and after almost two decades of language policy initiatives aimed at fostering the learning of languages other than English. Reveals an ambivalent picture of the situation of languages in the university sector. (Author/VWL)

  9. How Will Bilingual/ESL Programs in Literacy Change in the Next Millennium?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Garcia, Georgia Earnest; Jimenez, Robert T.; Barrera, Rosalinda

    2000-01-01

    Presents three short essays on how bilingual/ESL programs in literacy will change in the next millennium. Discusses particular future reading instruction practices in two-way bilingual programs; what literacy instruction would look like based on second-language theory and bilingual research; and pressing needs in the literacy education of…

  10. The Impact of ICT Use on New Millennium Learners' Educational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Kim, Minjeong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) use on the educational performance of new millennium learners (NMLs). Even though many factors might influence individual performance besides ICT use itself, the research focus was on the relationship between the behavioral patterns of…

  11. Hispanic Students and the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program: Promising Results Extending to the Third College Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, Leticia; Denson, Nida; Hurtado, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Financing college is increasingly difficult for many college students and it can be especially difficult for low-income students. Using data from the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program, this study provides a portrait of the 1st and 3rd year experiences of a sample of both high achieving Hispanic scholarship recipients and non-recipients.…

  12. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 2: Childhood Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on…

  13. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 3: Adolescent Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on…

  14. The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaino, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

  15. Post-Compulsory Education and the New Millennium. Higher Education Policy Series 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David E., Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    Contributors to this collection deal with many of the most important issues facing further education in the United Kingdom and present a graphic picture of the kinds of problems facing colleges as they move into the new millennium. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Framework of Post-16 Education - The Rhetoric of Reform" (Colin Griffin…

  16. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began an innovative scholarship program that provides full financial support to low-income minority students across the United States. The Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program has already awarded more than 10,000 scholarships to exceptional students, with the ultimate goal of funding at least…

  17. Behind the Public Face of Kew: Education and Conservation in the Millennium Seed Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Angela

    2010-01-01

    At its Wakehurst Place garden in West Sussex, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, has established the UK home of one of the world's largest conservation projects, the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB) partnership, a global project to conserve biodiversity by collecting and preserving seeds. This article describes what the MSB partnership does, how seeds are…

  18. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 4: Adult Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on…

  19. Poverty, Education, Gender and the Millennium Development Goals: Reflections on Boundaries and Intersectionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concerned with poverty, education and gender (MDG 1, MDG 2 and MDG 3). Despite considerable achievements associated with the MDG approach, which entails international and national target setting and monitoring, a sharp distinction between areas of social policy is entailed. In addition…

  20. Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

  1. Implications for Art Education in the Third Millennium: Art Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Most would agree that today's art education is far more complex than art activities such as making pumpkin paintings in October. For one, art education continually evolves in response to arts technology integration. What exactly are the implications for art education in the new millennium? In this article, the author presents and shows some of the…

  2. Schoolwide Literacy and Service-Learning through the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Amanda; Edmunds, J. Spencer

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ways one school continues to enhance both literacy and service-learning through the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals. Over the course of their middle-school years, young adolescents at Canterbury School visit a range of sites in the community. They also explore service-learning at home and around the world by…

  3. The Economic and Human Development Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Ghaida, Dina; Klasen, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic…

  4. Nothing but the Truth? The United Nations and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, with the target for achievement set at 2015. On the UN website a special section is devoted to the MDGs. In this article the website as it was presented in late 2013 is examined. Although the website was easy to negotiate, it was difficult to ascertain any…

  5. Accelerating the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana: Literacy, the Missing Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagoe, Michael Ayitey

    2011-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some…

  6. Schooling Entrepreneurs: Entrepreneurship, Governmentality and Education Policy in Sweden at the Turn of the Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus; Hertzberg, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Departing from Michel Foucault's concept of governmentality, the focus of this article is the introduction of entrepreneurial education in Swedish education policy at the turn of the millennium. We analyze the various meanings attached to the concepts of "entrepreneur" and "entrepreneurship" in education policy documents, as…

  7. Toward an Essential Ethic for Teaching Science in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Irene de la Bretonne

    The purpose of this study was to identify and explore values and views that might underlie an essential ethic for teaching science in the new millennium. With such an ethic, teachers may be better able to prepare young people to form and fully participate in communities that restore and sustain Earth. Reviewed in the literature for this study were…

  8. Education Finance in the New Millennium. Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaikind, Stephen, Ed.; Fowler, William J., Ed.

    This yearbook reaffirms the connections between the field of education finance and the wider education community. Among the topics it examines are curricula reform, outcome assessment, accountability, community control, and privatization. Twelve chapters include: (1) "Education Finance in the New Millennium: Overview and Summary" (Stephen Chaikind…

  9. Southeast Asian perspectives on nutrition needs for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Tee, E S

    2001-06-01

    Over the last three decades, there has been significant changes in the lifestyles of commmunities, including food habits, and food purchasing and consumption patterns in the Southeast Asian region. As a result, there is a definite change in the food and nutrition issues in the region. Nutritional deficiencies in many of these countries are slowly being decreased in magnitude. On the other hand, the significant proportions of the population are now faced with the other facet of the malnutrition problem, namely diet-related chronic diseases. However, because of the different stages of socio-economic development, the extent of each of these extremes of the malnutrition problems varies considerably between the different countries in Southeast Asia. Nutrition needs in the new millennium would necessarily differ somewhat among these countries while at the same time, there would be a considerable amount of similarities. This presentation highlights several macro issues that countries in the region may focus on in the near future. Various intervention programmes have been undertaken by authorities to tackle the co-existence of twin faces of malnutrition in many developing countries. It would be desirable to have a blue print of such programmes and activities in the National Plans of Action for Nutrition (NPANs) . The NPAN should be more than a framework or a descriptive document. It should be a tool for action, an operational plan that sets out priorities; identifies projects and activities, with details of implementation such as what, how and when; designates responsibilities and accountability for the activities; identifies resource requirements and their source; and sets out the plan for monitoring and evaluation. One of the main obstacles in the formulation and effective implementation of intervention programmes in developing countries is the lack of comprehensive data on the extent of the problems in many cases and the causes of such problems specificy to the

  10. 45 CFR 630.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military department... (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  11. 41 CFR 105-74.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department... the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent...

  12. Science for avian conservation: priorities for the new millennium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, J.M.; Petit, D.R.; Sauer, J.R.; Samuel, M.D.; Johnson, F.A.; Fornwall, M.D.; Korschgen, C.E.; Bennett, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, bird conservation activities have become the preeminent natural resource conservation effort in North America. Maturation of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP), establishment of Partners in Flight (PIF), and creation of comprehensive colonial waterbird and shorebird conservation plans have stimulated unprecedented interest in, and funding for, bird conservation in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and other countries in the western hemisphere. Key to that success in the United States has been active collaboration among federal, state and local governments, conservation organizations, academia, and industry. The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), which has primary statutory responsibility for migratory bird conservation and management, has been a key partner. Despite the great strides that have been made in bird conservation science, historical approaches to research and monitoring have often failed to provide sufficient information and understanding to effectively manage bird populations at large spatial scales. That shortcoming, and the lack of an integrated strategy and comprehensive set of research priorities, is more evident in light of the goals established by the North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI). The NABCI is a trinational, coalition-driven effort to provide an organizational umbrella for existing conservation initiatives. The expanded focus of NABCI and individual bird conservation initiatives is to work together in an integrated, holistic fashion to keep common birds common and to increase populations of declining, threatened, and endangered species. To assist bird conservation initiatives in defi ning goals and developing new approaches to effective research, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the research agency of DOI, convened a workshop, a??Science for Avian Conservation: Understanding, Modeling, and Applying Ecological Relationships,a?? on 31 Octobera??2 November 2000, which brought

  13. Presidential Address 1997--Benchmarks for the Next Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Pamela C.

    1997-01-01

    Reflects on the century's preeminent benchmarks, including the evolution in the lives of people with disabilities and the prevention of many causes of mental retardation. The ethical challenges of genetic engineering and diagnostic technology and the need for new benchmarks in policy, practice, and research are discussed. (CR)

  14. Did Tanzania Achieve the Second Millennium Development Goal? Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoti, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Development Goal "Achieve universal primary education", the challenges faced, along with the way forward towards achieving the fourth Sustainable Development Goal "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". Statistics show that Tanzania has made very promising steps…

  15. Health Literacy and the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma; Oyitso, Mabel; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examined health related challenges facing Nigeria. They argued that the relationship between literacy and health in today's knowledge-based economy further puts pressure on countries like Nigeria to raise its literacy rates if it is to compete in the global market. This line of thought is based on the fact that in…

  16. Schooling and Environment in Latin America in the Third Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gaudiano, Edgar

    2007-01-01

    This article develops an historical and contemporary Latin-American perspective on the issues raised by Stevenson's 1987 article, "Schooling and Environmental Education: Contradictions in Purpose and Practice". It shows that since its inception as a pedagogical field in the 1970s, environmental education has faced many challenges and…

  17. The quest for quality blood banking program in the new millennium the American way.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Un

    2002-08-01

    For an industry to succeed and satisfy its customers, "QUALITY" must be a primary goal. Quality has been central to blood banking from its inception, with the evolution of a Quality Program since the opening of the first blood bank in U.S. at the Cook County Hospital in 1937. Over the ensuing decades, continuous scientific progress in blood preservation, filters, viral and blood group testing, crossmatching, automation, and computerization including bar coding, etc. has contributed to the quality and safety of the blood products and transfusion service. However, with the advent of the AIDS era, an increasingly sensitized and informed public is continuously demanding that the highest level of quality be achieved and maintained in all processes involved in providing all blood products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) introduced the concept of a "zero risk blood supply" as the industry goal. Furthermore, the cost containment and resource-constrained environment have changed the complexity of the quality practice. Both regulatory agencies such as the FDA, the Health Care Financing Administration [HCFA, which was recently renamed as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) in July, 2001], and the State Department of Health, and accrediting agencies, such as the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the College of American Pathologists (CAP), and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), require blood banks and transfusion services to establish and follow a Quality Control and Quality Assurance Program for their licensing, certification and accreditation. Every laboratory has to comply with the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA '88) quality requirements being implemented by the CMS. The FDA guidelines assist facilities in compliance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). The AABB's Quality System Essentials (QSE) are based on these specifications and provide additional guidance in

  18. Quantifying gas emissions from the "Millennium Eruption" of Paektu volcano, Democratic People's Republic of Korea/China.

    PubMed

    Iacovino, Kayla; Ju-Song, Kim; Sisson, Thomas; Lowenstern, Jacob; Kuk-Hun, Ri; Jong-Nam, Jang; Kun-Ho, Song; Song-Hwan, Ham; Oppenheimer, Clive; Hammond, James O S; Donovan, Amy; Liu, Kosima W; Kum-Ran, Ryu

    2016-11-01

    Paektu volcano (Changbaishan) is a rhyolitic caldera that straddles the border between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and China. Its most recent large eruption was the Millennium Eruption (ME; 23 km(3) dense rock equivalent) circa 946 CE, which resulted in the release of copious magmatic volatiles (H2O, CO2, sulfur, and halogens). Accurate quantification of volatile yield and composition is critical in assessing volcanogenic climate impacts but is challenging, particularly for events before the satellite era. We use a geochemical technique to quantify volatile composition and upper bounds to yields for the ME by examining trends in incompatible trace and volatile element concentrations in crystal-hosted melt inclusions. We estimate that the ME could have emitted as much as 45 Tg of S to the atmosphere. This is greater than the quantity of S released by the 1815 eruption of Tambora, which contributed to the "year without a summer." Our maximum gas yield estimates place the ME among the strongest emitters of climate-forcing gases in the Common Era. However, ice cores from Greenland record only a relatively weak sulfate signal attributed to the ME. We suggest that other factors came into play in minimizing the glaciochemical signature. This paradoxical case in which high S emissions do not result in a strong glacial sulfate signal may present a way forward in building more generalized models for interpreting which volcanic eruptions have produced large climate impacts.

  19. African American youth in the new millennium: an overview.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    African American youth today are facing a fast changing world of high technology and diminishing opportunities. This generation brings a new attitude and a challenging perspective to service providers and policy makers. The policies and interventions of the past may need an upgrade to meet the needs of this new generation. The issues of poverty and meaningful opportunities are important to this generation that opposes many mainstream philosophies.

  20. Multiproxy investigation of climatic changes and human activities in a Baltic bog (N. Poland) during the last millennium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vleeschouwer, François; Fagel, Nathalie; Piotrowska, Natalia; Sikorski, Jarek; Pawlyta, Jacek; Cheburkin, Andriy; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Pazdur, Anna; Mattielli, Nadine; Renson, Virginie

    2010-05-01

    We present a multiproxy study carried out on a peat core retrieved from Słowińskie Błota bog (Pomerania, N-Poland). Several organic (palynology, plant macrofossils, testate amoebae, d13C) and inorganic (elemental geochemistry, lead isotopes) proxies were coupled to 210Pb-14C age-modelling in order to discriminate climatic and anthropogenic signals. Reconstruction of dust fluxes through time has remained a challenge, especially for tracing the nature of climatic changes. Although the idea of enhanced erosion conditions and storminess is commonly discussed, the conditions for dust deposition in peatlands over Europe during, for example, the ‘Little Ice Age' (LIA), are rarely favourable. Indeed the natural forest cover over Europe was much more important than nowadays, preventing dust deposition. Northern Poland, near the Baltic shore, was deforested just before the LIA (around AD 1100), and therefore constitutes a key area for the reconstruction of LIA climatic change. Our study of organic proxies evidences the LIA and is combined to our inorganic geochemical approach to validate our dust record. Overall, both organic and inorganic proxies show that LIA climatic changes are in good agreement with other records from Poland and NE Europe within a ca. 50yrs uncertainty. The severity of the LIA does however not affect the dynamism of mining activities over the last millennium. Indeed, during the LIA, Poland is experiencing its economical and cultural apogee, which can be seen by an increase in lead enrichment factors interpreted as an increase in mining activities. Lead, Zn, Cu, Ni concentrations and Pb isotopic ratios show that Polish Pb-Zn ores and coal were the main sources of Pb, as well as other heavy metals and S over Northern Poland until the industrial revolution. During the last century, leaded gasoline also contributed to anthropogenic Pb input over Poland. Coal and Pb-Zn ores, however, remained important sources of pollution in Eastern European countries

  1. 40 CFR 36.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military... executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  2. An approach to estimating human resource requirements to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dreesch, Norbert; Dolea, Carmen; Dal Poz, Mario R; Goubarev, Alexandre; Adams, Orvill; Aregawi, Maru; Bergstrom, Karin; Fogstad, Helga; Sheratt, Della; Linkins, Jennifer; Scherpbier, Robert; Youssef-Fox, Mayada

    2005-09-01

    In the context of the Millennium Development Goals, human resources represent the most critical constraint in achieving the targets. Therefore, it is important for health planners and decision-makers to identify what are the human resources required to meet those targets. Planning the human resources for health is a complex process. It needs to consider both the technical aspects related to estimating the number, skills and distribution of health personnel for meeting population health needs, and the political implications, values and choices that health policy- and decision-makers need to make within given resources limitations. After presenting an overview of the various methods for planning human resources for health, with their advantages and limitations, this paper proposes a methodological approach to estimating the requirements of human resources to achieve the goals set forth by the Millennium Declaration. The method builds on the service-target approach and functional job analysis.

  3. [Crisis in human resources for health: millennium development goals for maternal and child health threatened].

    PubMed

    Beltman, Jogchum J; Stekelenburg, Jelle; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2010-01-01

    International migration of health care workers from low-income countries to the West has increased considerably in recent years, thereby jeopardizing the achievements of The Millennium Development Goals, especially number 4 (reduction of child mortality) and 5 (improvement of maternal health).This migration, as well as the HIV/AIDS epidemic, lack of training of health care personnel and poverty, are mainly responsible for this health care personnel deficit. It is essential that awareness be raised amongst donors and local governments so that staffing increases, and that infection prevention measures be in place for their health care personnel. Western countries should conduct a more ethical recruitment of health care workers, otherwise a new millennium development goal will have to be created: to reduce the human resources for health crisis.

  4. Mastering the value chain. An interview with Mark Levin of Millennium Pharmaceuticals. Interview by David Champion.

    PubMed

    Levin, M

    2001-06-01

    As today's business leaders are all too aware, a new scientific or technological break-through can quickly transform an industry's competitive landscape. The upheaval is often traumatic for the companies involved, forcing them to rethink their strategies and redefine their boundaries. But an industry in flux also creates vast opportunities. To seize them, companies must see how the current upheavals will affect the future distribution of profits--and then reinvent themselves to capitalize on the new sources of value. In this interview with HBR senior editor David Champion, Mark Levin, the founder and CEO of Millennium Pharmaceuticals, describes his vision of the future of the pharmaceutical industry in the wake of the genetics revolution and new technologies that have altered the economics of drug development. No company, he argues, will create serious long-term value by staying in just one or two stages of the value of chain. That's why Millennium, which started out doing basis research into genes and proteins and selling its findings to pharmaceutical giants, has moved downstream - toward the patients who actually use and pay for the drugs. He explains why the research end has become less lucrative than the more mechanical tasks of identifying, testing, and manufacturing molecules. Levin talks about the changes Millennium has undergone since its inception in 1993-from 30 workers to more than 1,000, and from one end of the value chain to the other. He discusses the company's cultural transformations as well as the partnerships and acquisitions that have helped millennium become involved in every stage of the chain-from gene to patient. Levin's vigorous approach to balancing long-term strategy with short-term tactics offers important lessons to any executive facing an industry upheaval.

  5. Making NEPA more effective and economical for the new millennium

    SciTech Connect

    HANSEN,ROGER P.; WOLFF,THEODORE A.

    2000-03-08

    This paper focuses on a ten-element strategy for streamlining the NEPA process in order to achieve the Act's objectives while easing the considerable burden on agencies, the public, and the judicial system. In other words, this paper proposes a strategy for making NEPA work better and cost less. How these ten elements are timed and implemented is critical to any successful streamlining. The strategy elements discussed in this paper, in no particular order of priority, are as follows: (1) integrate the NEPA process with other environmental compliance and review procedures; (2) accelerate the decision time for determining the appropriate level of NEPA documentation; (3) conduct early and thorough internal EIS (or EA) scoping before public scoping or other public participation begins; (4) organize and implement public scoping processes that are more participatory than confrontational; (5) maintain an up-to-date compendium of environmental baseline information; (6) prepare more comprehensive, broad-scope umbrella EISs that can be used effectively for tiering; (7) encourage preparation of annotated outlines with detailed guidance that serve as a road map for preparation of each EIS or EA; (8) decrease the length and complexity of highly technical portions of NEPA documents; (9) increase and systematize NEPA compliance outreach, training, and organizational support; and (10) work diligently to influence the preparation of better organized, shorter, and more readable NEPA documents.

  6. Multi-proxy dating the 'Millennium Eruption' of Changbaishan to late 946 CE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Clive; Wacker, Lukas; Xu, Jiandong; Galván, Juan Diego; Stoffel, Markus; Guillet, Sébastien; Corona, Christophe; Sigl, Michael; Di Cosmo, Nicola; Hajdas, Irka; Pan, Bo; Breuker, Remco; Schneider, Lea; Esper, Jan; Fei, Jie; Hammond, James O. S.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2017-02-01

    Ranking among the largest volcanic eruptions of the Common Era (CE), the 'Millennium Eruption' of Changbaishan produced a widely-dispersed tephra layer (known as the B-Tm ash), which represents an important tie point for palaeoenvironmental studies in East Asia. Hitherto, there has been no consensus on its age, with estimates spanning at least the tenth century CE. Here, we identify the cosmogenic radiocarbon signal of 775 CE in a subfossil larch engulfed and killed by pyroclastic currents emplaced during the initial rhyolitic phase of the explosive eruption. Combined with glaciochemical evidence from Greenland, this enables us to date the eruption to late 946 CE. This secure date rules out the possibility that the Millennium Eruption contributed to the collapse of the Bohai Kingdom (Manchuria/Korea) in 926 CE, as has previously been hypothesised. Further, despite the magnitude of the eruption, we do not see a consequent cooling signal in tree-ring-based reconstructions of Northern Hemisphere summer temperatures. A tightly-constrained date for the Millennium Eruption improves the prospect for further investigations of historical sources that may shed light on the eruption's impacts, and enhances the value of the B-Tm ash as a chronostratigraphic marker.

  7. Advanced flight computing technologies for validation by NASA's new millennium program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalai, Leon

    1996-11-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) consists of a series of Deep-Space and Earth Orbiting missions that are technology-driven, in contrast to the more traditional science-driven space exploration missions of the past. These flights are designed to validate technologies that will enable a new era of low-cost highly miniaturized and highly capable spacebome applications in the new millennium. In addition to the series of flight projects managed by separate flight teams, the NMP technology initiatives are managed by the following six focused technology programs: Microelectronics Systems, Autonomy, Telecommunications, Instrument Technologies and Architectures, In-Situ Instruments and Micro-electromechanical Systems, and Modular and Multifunctional Systems. Each technology program is managed as an Integrated Product Development Team (IPDT) of government, academic, and industry partners. In this paper, we will describe elements of the technology roadmap proposed by the NMP Microelectronics IPDT. Moreover, we will relate the proposed technology roadmap to existing NASA technology development programs, such as the Advanced Flight Computing (AFC) program, and the Remote Exploration and Experimentation (REE) program, which constitute part of the on-going NASA technology development pipeline. We will also describe the Microelectronics Systems technologies that have been accepted as part of the first New Millennium Deep-Space One spacecraft, which is an asteroid fly-by mission scheduled for launched in July 1998.

  8. A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Raible, Christoph C.; Casado, Mathieu; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of variability in winter atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, with large impacts on temperature, precipitation and storm tracks, and therefore also on strategic sectors such as insurance, renewable energy production, crop yields and water management. Recent developments in dynamical methods offer promise to improve seasonal NAO predictions, but assessing potential predictability on multi-annual timescales requires documentation of past low-frequency variability in the NAO. A recent bi-proxy NAO reconstruction spanning the past millennium suggested that long-lasting positive NAO conditions were established during medieval times, explaining the particularly warm conditions in Europe during this period; however, these conclusions are debated. Here, we present a yearly NAO reconstruction for the past millennium, based on an initial selection of 48 annually resolved proxy records distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and built through an ensemble of multivariate regressions. We validate the approach in six past-millennium climate simulations, and show that our reconstruction outperforms the bi-proxy index. The final reconstruction shows no persistent positive NAO during the medieval period, but suggests that positive phases were dominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The reconstruction also reveals that a positive NAO emerges two years after strong volcanic eruptions, consistent with results obtained from models and satellite observations for the Mt Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines.

  9. With radiation crosslinking of engineering plastics into the next millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Joachim

    2000-03-01

    Much basic research has been done on the crosslinking behaviour of so-called "engineering plastics". Up to now the industrial conversion to actual manufacture of multifunctional electronic components has gained ever increasing importance in the plastics industry and will continue to do so in the coming years. Examples of this are SMD (surface mounted device) technology, and 3D-MID (3-dimensional moulded interconnected devices) technology. These techniques require materials with high short-term temperature stability. In this paper it will be discussed which engineering plastics are significant for the radiation crosslinking process, for both technical and commercial reasons. The main topics will be the crosslinking behaviour of Polybutylenterephthalate (PBT) and Polyamide (PA). The importance and the challenges to the irradiation industry, as well as practical applications, will be shown.

  10. Guaranty Agency Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifman, Steven

    The extent to which guaranty agencies, lenders, and state secondary markets impose restrictions on Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) borrowing that go beyond federal regulations was assessed through a survey of 53 guaranty agencies. Seventeen of the agencies imposed restrictions on GSLs that go beyond federal regulations, including not loaning to…

  11. Entering the New Millennium: Dilemmas in Arms Control

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,JAMES

    1999-11-01

    The end of the Cold War finds the international community no longer divided into two opposing blocks. The concerns that the community now faces are becoming more fluid, less focused, and, in many ways, much less predictable. Issues of religion, ethnicity, and nationalism; the possible proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction; and the diffusion of technology and information processing throughout the world community have greatly changed the international security landscape in the last decade. Although our challenges appear formidable, the United Nations, State Parties, nongovernmental organizations, and the arms control community are moving to address and lessen these concerns through both formal and informal efforts. Many of the multilateral agreements (e.g., NPT, BWC, CWC, CTBT, MTCR), as well as the bilateral efforts that are taking place between Washington and Moscow employ confidence-building and transparency measures. These measures along with on-site inspection and other verification procedures lessen suspicion and distrust and reduce uncertainty, thus enhancing stability, confidence, and cooperation.

  12. Gravity and Cosmology as Key Problems of the Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, Vitaly N.

    2006-11-01

    Discovery of present acceleration of the Universe, dark matter and dark energy problems are also a great challenge to modem physics, which may bring to a new revolution. Gravitation as a fundamental interaction that governs all phenomena at large and very small scales, but still not well understood at a quantum level, is a missing cardinal link to unification of all physical interactions. Integrable multidimensional models of gravitation and cosmology make up one of the proper approaches to study basic issues and strong field objects, the Early and present Universe and black hole physics in particular. Problems of the absolute G measurements and its possible time and range variations are reflections of the unification problem. The choice, nature, classification and precision of determination of fundamental physical constants are described. The problem of their temporal variations is also discussed, temporal and range variations of G in particular. A need for further measurements of G, its possible variations is pointed out. The novel gravitational multipurpose space project SEE, aimed for measuring G and its stability in space and time 3-4 orders better than at present, may answer many important questions posed by gravitation, cosmology and unified theories.

  13. An occupational reproductive research agenda for the third millennium.

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Christina C; Schnorr, Teresa M; Daston, George P; Grajewski, Barbara; Marcus, Michele; McDiarmid, Melissa; Murono, Eisuke; Perreault, Sally D; Schrader, Steven M; Shelby, Michael

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant public health concern about the potential effects of occupational exposure to toxic substances on reproductive outcomes. Several toxicants with reported reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus present potential exposure to workers. Examples of these include heavy metals, organic solvents, pesticides and herbicides, and sterilants, anesthetic gases, and anticancer drugs used in health care. Many other substances are suspected of producing reproductive or developmental toxicity but lack sufficient data. Progress has been limited in identifying hazards and quantifying their potencies and in separating the contribution of these hazards from other etiologic factors. Identifying the causative agents, mechanisms by which they act, and any potential target populations, present the opportunity to intervene and protect the reproductive health of workers. The pace of laboratory studies to identify hazards and to underpin the biologic plausibility of effects in humans has not matched the pace at which new chemicals are introduced into commerce. Though many research challenges exist today, recent technologic and methodologic advances have been made that allow researchers to overcome some of these obstacles. The objective of this article is to recommend future directions in occupational reproductive health research. By bridging interdisciplinary gaps, the scientific community can work together to improve health and reduce adverse outcomes. PMID:12676620

  14. Mountains in the third millennium - a decade of droughts and water scarcity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, C.; Shaban, A.; Belete, T.

    2012-04-01

    Droughts and water scarcity have touched the Alps, Mediterranean and East African mountain chains more intensively since the beginning of the third millennium and pose a major challenge for water management. The year 2011 has been no exception, with the lowest river levels on record over the past 50 years even for alpine rivers. Although considerable climate fluctuations and persistent droughts have occurred in the past, it is quite remarkable that the five hottest summers over the past 500 years in Europe and the Alps have all been concentrated after 2002, falling far outside their normal historical distribution. In most mountain chains drought phenomena are persistent over large areas and over a variety of scales. The hydrological consequences, such as decreased rain- and snowfall, drying of springs, decreased river and groundwater discharge, lowering of lake levels and excessive evaporation etc. are considerable. Seasonality has been considerably affected, with the summer extending well into the spring and autumn. Mountain-fed rivers have experienced unusually low discharge over the last 10 years, with a decreasing trend both in summer and winter discharge. These hydrological changes have multiple impacts on availability of drinking water and the energy sector, decreasing hydroelectric production and availability of cooling water for the nuclear industry and negatively effecting river navigation, irrigation agriculture as well as winter tourism in mountains. Despite these naturally-induced shortcomings, adaptation has not always been rational. In some cases, maladaptation has led to overexploitation of water resources during drought conditions, exasperating water scarcity. For example, for the tourism sector in the Alps, water demand for drinking water and artificial snow making lies far above the available resources during the winter season for numerous resorts. This has long term environmental and socio-economic impacts such as destruction of wetlands

  15. Health inequities, environmental insecurity and the attainment of the millennium development goals in sub-Saharan Africa: the case study of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben

    2006-09-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia's MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia's systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource "brain drain", among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or "quick wins" that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

  16. The third age, the Third World and the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Diczfalusy, E

    1996-01-01

    In the year 2000, world population will exceed 6200 million and life expectancy will be over 68 years. The UN population projections for the coming 20 years after 1996 range from a low of 7100 million to a high of 7800 million. Between 1950 and 1992, in developing countries, life expectancy at birth increased by 29 years in China, by 24 years in India and Indonesia, by 21 years in Bangladesh, and by 16 years in Brazil. The gender difference in life expectancy is only 1 year in India, but 6 years in a number of developed countries. Corresponding increases in Australia were from 12.2 to 14.7 years for men and from 14.9 to 18.8 years for women. By the year 2025, the UN projects that the elderly (65 years and older) will constitute 10% of the population in Asia and more than 20% in North America and Europe, whereas 1.8% of the population of Asia, 4.6% of North America, and 6.4% of Europe will be very old (80 years and older). By the year 2030, there may be 1200 million postmenopausal women around the world, 76% of them in the developing countries. During the period 1990-2025 the elderly population of Sweden will increase by 33%, whereas that of Indonesia will increase by 414%. Between 2000 and 2100, the global population aged 15 years or younger will gradually decrease from 31.4% to 18.3%, while the population aged 65 and over will increase from 6.8% to 21.6%. The persistence of poverty in developing countries combined with aging poses a formidable challenge because the majority of old people receive little special support. The epidemiological dimension of aging embraces mortality and morbidity. Each year 39 million people die in the developing world mainly from infectious and parasitic diseases, noncommunicable and communicable diseases, and injuries. In the developed countries 11 million die primarily from cardiovascular diseases and malignant neoplasms. In the developing countries noncommunicable diseases represent 87% of the disease burden resulting in increased

  17. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  18. 29 CFR 94.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 94.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive... establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any...

  19. 29 CFR 94.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  20. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  1. 36 CFR 1212.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 1212.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive... establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any...

  2. 29 CFR 94.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  3. Human and climatic impact on the Morava River behavior during last millennium (Lower Moravian Basin, Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Stehlik, Filip; Man, Otakar; Benes, Vojtech; Svetlik, Ivo; Rybnicek, Michal; Svitavska-Svobodova, Helena

    2010-05-01

    convincing evidence of this change in the studied floodplain archive. Last millennium was a period of increased agriculture use in the Morava River catchment. Colonization and deforestation of uplands surrounding the Lower Moravian Basin triggered erosion of weathering products of Paleogene and Neogene mudstones since 12th century. Clayey suspended load contributed to the formation of anastomosing fluvial style with dominating vertical sediment accretion. A change to modern meandering fluvial style has started during LIA severe floods at about 1600 AD. Lateral erosion created a system of abundant filled channels including the modern channel. Land erosion was accelerated since agrarian collectivization in 1950s when the most antierosional barriers were destroyed after large field formation. Flood intensity has increased together with sedimentation rate and river channel lateral erosion. The research project is supported by the Grant Agency AS CR (project No. IAAX00130801), the institutional funding was provided by the Institute of Geology AS CR, v.v.i. (AV0Z30130516) and the Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, v.v.i. (AV0Z 10480505).

  4. 34 CFR 84.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 84.645 Section 84.645... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency.... 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec. 2455, Pub. L. 103-355, 108 Stat. 3243 at 3327.)...

  5. 22 CFR 210.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 210.645 Section 210.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  6. 22 CFR 210.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 210.645 Section 210.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  7. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...

  8. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...

  9. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...

  10. Palaeoceanographic changes in Hornsund Fjord (Spitsbergen, Svalbard) over the last millennium: new insights from ancient DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowska, Joanna; Zajączkowski, Marek; Łącka, Magdalena; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Esling, Philippe; Pawlowski, Jan

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a reconstruction of climate-driven environmental changes over the last millennium in Hornsund Fjord (Svalbard), based on sedimentological and micropalaeontological records. Our palaeo-investigation was supported by an analysis of foraminiferal ancient DNA (aDNA), focusing on the non-fossilized monothalamous species. The main climatic fluctuations during the last millennium were the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, AD 1000-1600), the Little Ice Age (LIA, AD 1600-1900) and the modern warming (MW, AD 1900 to present). Our study indicates that the environmental conditions in Hornsund during the MWP and the early LIA (before ˜ AD 1800) were relatively stable. The beginning of the LIA (˜ AD 1600) was poorly evidenced by the micropalaeontological record but was well marked in the aDNA data by an increased proportion of monothalamous foraminifera, especially Bathysiphon sp. The early LIA (˜ 1600 to ˜ AD 1800) was marked by an increase in the abundance of sequences of Hippocrepinella hirudinea and Cedhagenia saltatus. In the late LIA (after ˜ AD 1800), the conditions in the fjord became glacier-proximal and were characterized by increased meltwater outflows, high sedimentation and a high calving rate. This coincided with an increase in the percentages of sequences of Micrometula sp. and Vellaria pellucidus. During the MW, the major glacier fronts retreated rapidly to the inner bays, which limited the iceberg discharge to the fjord's centre and caused a shift in the foraminiferal community that was reflected in both the fossil and aDNA records. The palaeoceanographic changes in the Hornsund fjord over the last millennium were driven mainly by the inflow of shelf-originated water masses and glacial activity. However, the environmental changes were poorly evidenced in the micropalaeontological record, but they were well documented in our aDNA data. We considerably increased the number of potential proxy species by including monothalamous foraminifera in the

  11. The Extratropical Northern Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction during the Last Millennium Based on a Novel Method

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Pei; Chen, Xin; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate history of the past millennium reconstructed solely from tree-ring data is prone to underestimate the amplitude of low-frequency variability. In this paper, we aimed at solving this problem by utilizing a novel method termed “MDVM”, which was a combination of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and variance matching techniques. We compiled a set of 211 tree-ring records from the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (30–90°N) in an effort to develop a new reconstruction of the annual mean temperature by the MDVM method. Among these dataset, a number of 126 records were screened out to reconstruct temperature variability longer than decadal scale for the period 850–2000 AD. The MDVM reconstruction depicted significant low-frequency variability in the past millennium with evident Medieval Warm Period (MWP) over the interval 950–1150 AD and pronounced Little Ice Age (LIA) cumulating in 1450–1850 AD. In the context of 1150-year reconstruction, the accelerating warming in 20th century was likely unprecedented, and the coldest decades appeared in the 1640s, 1600s and 1580s, whereas the warmest decades occurred in the 1990s, 1940s and 1930s. Additionally, the MDVM reconstruction covaried broadly with changes in natural radiative forcing, and especially showed distinct footprints of multiple volcanic eruptions in the last millennium. Comparisons of our results with previous reconstructions and model simulations showed the efficiency of the MDVM method on capturing low-frequency variability, particularly much colder signals of the LIA relative to the reference period. Our results demonstrated that the MDVM method has advantages in studying large-scale and low-frequency climate signals using pure tree-ring data. PMID:26751947

  12. Challenges & Prizes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Prize competitions are open innovation tools championed by the America COMPETES ACT that EPA and other federal agencies use to attract fresh thinkers and creative problem solvers from across the country and the world.

  13. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

    PubMed

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date.

  14. Health related baseline millennium development goals indicators for local authorities in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kalanda, Boniface

    2007-03-01

    The Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF) is implementing a 12 year programme to close service gaps in rural communities. These service gaps are primarily those in health, education, household food security, water and sanitation, transport and communications. The impact indicators of the Project are selected Millennium Development Goal indicators. MASAF conducted a baseline study of the MDG indicators for all districts in Malawi. This paper presents available health related MDG baseline indicators for all districts in Malawi. Other stakeholders implementing health interventions could use these baseline indicators for planning purposes.

  15. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

    PubMed Central

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date. PMID:27795754

  16. Climate Forcing Reconstructions for Use in PMIP Simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.; Jungclaus, J.H.; Steinhilber, F.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Ammann, C. M.; Bard, E.; Braconnot, P.; Crowley, T. J.; Delayque, G.; Joos, F.; Krivova, N. A.; Muscheler, R.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Pongratz, J.; Shindell, D. T.; Solanki, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations of climate over the Last Millennium (850-1850 CE) have been incorporated into the third phase of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). The drivers of climate over this period are chiefly orbital, solar, volcanic, changes in land use/land cover and some variation in greenhouse gas levels. While some of these effects can be easily defined, the reconstructions of solar, volcanic and land use-related forcing are more uncertain. We describe here the approach taken in defining the scenarios used in PMIP3, document the forcing reconstructions and discuss likely implications.

  17. SCARLET: Design of the Fresnel concentrator array for New Millennium Deep Space 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.M.; Eskenazi, M.I.

    1997-12-31

    The primary power for the JPL New Millennium Deep Space 1 spacecraft is a 2.6 kW concentrator solar array. This paper surveys the design and analysis employed to combine line-focus Fresnel lenses and multijunction (GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/Ge) solar cells in the second-generation SCARLET (Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology) system. The array structure and mechanisms are reviewed. Discussion is focused on the lens and receiver, from the optimizations of optical efficiency and thermal management, to the design issues of environmental extremes, reliability, producibility, and control of pointing error.

  18. Teaching bioethics in the new millennium: holding theories accountable to actual practices and real people.

    PubMed

    Tong, Rosemarie

    2002-08-01

    Teaching bioethics in the new millennium requires its practitioners to confront a wide area of methodological alternatives. This essay chronicles the author's journey from the principlism of Beauchamp and Childress, through narrative and postmodern bioethics, to a complex feminist critique of postmodern bioethics that emphasizes functional human capabilities and the creation of structures that can facilitate free discussion of those capabilities and how best to realize them. Teaching bioethics concerns not only the acknowledgement of differences but also reminding ourselves of our samenesses. Sustained Habermasian democratic conversations might help us to escape the narrow confines of a postmodern bioethics of moral strangers for a richer world of moral friends.

  19. An appraisal of China's progress toward the Millennium Development Goals as they relate to children.

    PubMed

    Strand, Mark A; Fischer, Philip R

    2014-08-01

    Since their inception in 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have improved understanding of the global development process. Although the goals will not be significantly achieved on a global scale, each country has had accomplishments deserving of attention and analysis. With regard to the MDGs as they relate to children, China has made significant achievements, the deeper understanding of which might help in the process of refreshing the MDGs beyond 2015. China's accomplishments in economic development and human welfare, and the benefits this has brought to its children potentially teach lessons that can be modelled by other countries moving from low- to middle-income status.

  20. The impact of globalisation, free trade and technology on food and nutrition in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    McMichael, P

    2001-05-01

    The millennium promises a dramatic politicisation of the food question. In addition to the prominent issues of food security, hunger and nutrition, bioengineering, food safety and quality, there are related issues of environmental sustainability, power, sovereignty and rights. All these issues are deeply implicated in the current corporate form of globalisation, which is transforming historic global arrangements by subordinating public institutions and the question of food security to private solutions. The present paper questions the self-evident association between globalisation and nutritional improvement.

  1. Children's Development and Parental Input: Evidence From the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Alava, Mónica; Popli, Gurleen

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we use the UK Millennium Cohort Study to estimate a dynamic factor model of child development. Our model follows the children from birth until 7 years of age and allows for both cognitive and noncognitive abilities in children. We find a significant self-productivity effect in both cognitive and noncognitive development, as well as some evidence of dynamic dependence across different abilities. The activities that parents carry out with children at home (parental investment) have a significant effect on children's development; we find substantial evidence of two distinct latent parental investment variables with differential effects across the two abilities.

  2. 78 FR 38304 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Financial Report for the Endowment Challenge Grant Program AGENCY... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Financial Report for the...

  3. Poverty and development: pulling forces and the challenges for nursing in Africa.

    PubMed

    Klopper, Hester C

    2007-12-01

    In September 2000 the United Nations Millennium Declaration was adopted and endorsed by 189 countries, translating into eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be reached by 2015. At the midpoint between the MDG adoption in 2000 and the 2015 target date for achieving the goals, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is not on track to achieve their MDGs. Poverty and development are pulling forces and impact on the ability to achieve the MDGs in SSA, thus the main purpose of this article is to participate in the debate concerning the global theme of poverty and development and the challenges for the nursing profession. In this article the concepts of poverty and development are explored, and the existing trends with specific reference to SSA are investigated. An evaluation of the present status of SSA in reaching the MDG's is examined and the article concludes with a discussion of the challenges for nursing in Africa.

  4. Home Health Agency Work Environments and Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. Objectives: To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Methods and Design: Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Results: Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Conclusion: Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care. PMID:25215647

  5. The Challenges of the 21st Century for Vocational Education and Training. International Conference on Vocational Education and Training Proceedings (Helsinki, Finland, August 24-28, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    The following are among the 52 papers included: "A Vision of Vocational Education and Training for the Approaching Millennium" (Mndebele); "Challenges for the 21st Century for Technical-Vocational Education and Training from Global, Regional and National Perspectives" (Basu); "A Customer-Oriented Approach for Curriculum…

  6. Negotiating with Subscription Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Judy; Basch, N. Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This first in a two-part series on how librarians can negotiate services and prices with subscription agencies focuses on how vendors operate. Factors that influence agency costs, revenues, and service charges are described, including economies of scale, discounts from publishers, and prepayment and cash flow. (seven references) (LRW)

  7. Gender Equality in Education in the Context of the Millennium Development Goals: Challenges and Opportunities for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moletsane, Relebohile

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the question: In the context of poverty, gender-based violence (GBV) and HIV/AIDS currently ravaging under-resourced countries, dare we set our hopes for gender- equitable development in general, and gender equality in education in particular, on the Millenium Development Goals MDGs? The article analyses the…

  8. Floods and climate in Europe during the past millennium: the new challenge for historical hydrology and climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, R.

    2009-04-01

    Recent global warming could significantly influence the frequency and severity of future floods in Europe. Knowledge of historical flooding is important for better understanding future trends. Historical hydrology represents a significant tool for combining information about floods from periods of instrumental hydrological measurements (several decades) with the pre-instrumental period covered by documentary data (several centuries). Basic documentary data sources are described taking into account long-term environmental and anthropogenic changes. Methodological aspects dealing with documentary-based floods are discussed. Examples of flood chronologies from Central Europe from A.D. 1500 based on a synthesis of documentary and instrumental data are presented. Long-term changes in frequency and seasonality of floods, their synoptic causes and human impacts are analysed. Floods trends are discussed in the context of temperature and precipitation variability reconstructed in Europe for the past 500 years. Selected examples of the most disastrous flood events in Central Europe from the 12th century are shown. Wide-European floods of the hard winter 1783/84, following after the 1783 Lakagígar (Iceland) volcanic eruption, are presented as a case study with respect to their climate context and human impacts. The potential of historical hydrology and climatology for the future study of relationships between floods and climate variability is described.

  9. Coherent anti-phasing between solar forcing and tropical Pacific climate over the past millennium: derivation and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile-Geay, J.; Cobb, K.; Mann, M. E.; Wittenberg, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    Using a compilation of the most recent, high-resolution proxy data from the tropics, and a state-of-the-art climate reconstruction technique (RegEM iTTLS; Emile-Geay et al, submitted), we reconstruct sea-surface temperature (SST) in the central equatorial Pacific (NINO3.4 region) over the past millennium. Using frozen network experiments and pseudoproxy validation, the reconstruction is found skillful back to 1150 C.E., with inevitable amplitude reduction before 1500 C.E. due to the paucity of proxy predictors. Despite this caveat, wavelet coherency analysis reveals a marked anticorrelation between solar forcing (as estimated from cosmogenic isotope concentrations; Bard et al., 2007; Steinhilber et al., 2009) and the reconstructed NINO3.4 in the ~sim205-year spectral range (DeVries cycle). The phase angle between both signals is 156 ± 33o in this range, indicating that periods of high solar irradiance coincide with cool conditions in the NINO3.4 region, with time lag of 14 ± 19 years. We find this result robust to the reconstruction method, estimate of solar forcing, or analysis method used to estimate the phasing. We then discuss the implication of this result for the response of tropical Pacific climate to radiative forcing. While the anti-phasing seems to favor the ``ocean dynamical thermostat'' hypothesis of Clement et al [1996], this feedback appears subdued in most IPCC-class coupled general circulation models (CGCMs), where it is almost completely compensated by changes in the Pacific trade winds, linked to changes in the vertical structures of atmospheric moisture and temperature (Knutson & Manabe 1995; Held & Soden 2006; Vecchi et al. 2006). If the reconstruction is correct that past NINO3.4 SSTs have varied out of phase with solar irradiance on bicentennial scales, this would pose a new challenge both for CGCM simulations and for our understanding of the equatorial Pacific response to radiative forcing Clement, A. C., Seager, R., Cane, M. A., and Zebiak

  10. The South American monsoon variability over the last millennium in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Maisa; Arias, Paola A.; Flores-Aqueveque, Valentina; Seth, Anji; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we assess South American monsoon system (SAMS) variability in the last millennium as depicted by global coupled climate model simulations. High-resolution proxy records for the South American monsoon over this period show a coherent regional picture of a weak monsoon during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and a stronger monsoon during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Due to the small external forcing during the past 1000 years, model simulations do not show very strong temperature anomalies over these two specific periods, which in turn do not translate into clear precipitation anomalies, in contrast with the rainfall reconstructions in South America. Therefore, we used an ad hoc definition of these two periods for each model simulation in order to account for model-specific signals. Thereby, several coherent large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies are identified. The models feature a stronger monsoon during the LIA associated with (i) an enhancement of the rising motion in the SAMS domain in austral summer; (ii) a stronger monsoon-related upper-tropospheric anticyclone; (iii) activation of the South American dipole, which results in a poleward shift of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone; and (iv) a weaker upper-level subtropical jet over South America. The diagnosed changes provide important insights into the mechanisms of these climate anomalies over South America during the past millennium.

  11. Common Deficiencies in Existing Methods for Reconstructing High-Resolution Temperature Fields During the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smerdon, J. E.; Kaplan, A.; Zorita, E.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F. J.; Evans, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    Paleoclimatic reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperatures during the last millennium vary significantly in their estimates of decadal-to-centennial variability. Although several estimates are based on spatially-resolved climate field reconstruction (CFR) methods, comparisons have been limited to mean Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Spatial skill is explicitly investigated for four CFR methods using pseudoproxy experiments derived from two millennial-length coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM) simulations. The adopted pseudoproxy network approximates the spatial distribution of a widely used multi-proxy network and the CFRs target annual temperature variability on a 5-degree latitude-longitude grid. Results indicate that the spatial skill of presently available large-scale CFRs depends on proxy type and location, target data, and the employed reconstruction methodology, although there are widespread consistencies in the general performance of all four methods. While results are somewhat sensitive to the ability of the AOGCMs to resolve ENSO and its teleconnections, important areas such as the ocean basins and much of the Southern Hemisphere are reconstructed with particularly poor skill in both model experiments. New high-resolution proxies from poorly sampled regions may be one of the best means of improving estimates of large-scale CFRs of the last millennium.

  12. A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1–3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

  13. The millennium water vapour drop in the stratosphere in chemistry-climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkop, Sabine; Dameris, Martin; Joeckel, Patrick; Garny, Hella; Lossow, Stefan; Stiller, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the millennium water vapour drop, the abrupt and severe water vapour decline in the stratosphere beginning in year 2000, by means of various simulations using the Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM) EMAC. Since the beginning 1980s, balloon borne stratospheric water vapour measurements and corresponding satellite measurements starting in the early 1990s indicated a long-term steady increase of water vapour concentrations. However, the multi-year data sets also show significant fluctuations on different time scales. In the year 2000, an extraordinary sudden drop of stratospheric water vapour concentration has been observed followed by persistent low values for several years. Solomon et al. (2010) showed that this drop slowed down the rate of increase in global surface temperature over the following decade by about 25%. So far, the stratospheric water vapour variations observed by satellite from 1992 to 2012 are not reproduced by CCM simulations forced by observed changes in sea surface temperatures, greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances (Gettelman et al., 2010, Randel and Jensen, 2013). However, the CCM EMAC is able to reproduce the signature and pattern of the water vapour disturbances in agreement with those derived from observations. In this paper we present results of a hierarchy of simulations with the CCM EMAC, demonstrating that it is possible to retrace the observed water vapour fluctuations in the stratosphere (incl. the millennium drop), if suitable inner and outer boundary conditions are applied.

  14. SCARLET Photovoltaic Concentrator Array Selected for Flight Under NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center continues to demonstrate its expertise in the development and implementation of advanced space power systems. For example, during the past year, the NASA New Millennium Program selected the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) photovoltaic array as the power system for its Deep Space-1 (DS-1) mission. This Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) managed DS-1 mission, which represents the first operational flight of a photovoltaic concentrator array, will provide a baseline for the use of this technology in a variety of future government and commercial applications. SCARLET is a joint NASA Lewis/Ballistic Missile Defense Organization program to develop advanced photovoltaic array technology that uses a unique refractive concentrator design to focus sunlight onto a line of photovoltaic cells located below the optical element. The general concept is based on previous work conducted at Lewis under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with AEC-Able Engineering, Inc., for the Multiple Experiments to Earth Orbit and Return (METEOR) spacecraft. The SCARLET II design selected by the New Millennium Program is a direct adaptation of the smaller SCARLET I array built for METEOR. Even though SCARLET I was lost during a launch failure in October 1995, the hardware (designed, built, and flight qualified within 6 months) provided invaluable information and experience that led to the selection of this technology as the primary power source for DS-1.

  15. A perspective: the new millennium dawns on a new paradigm for cardiology--molecular genetics.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R

    2000-09-01

    Western civilization had two great epochs--the sixth century B.C. and the 18th century. The 21st century is likely to be the third great epoch. Although cardiology has advanced more in the last 50 years than in the previous 2,000, it is likely to advance more in the next two or three decades than in the previous 2,000 years, including those 50 golden years. The engines of ingenuity to provide the thrust for the 21th century will come from molecular genetics and the application of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) techniques. Identification of all human genes (50,000 to 100,000) in the next two to three years will help link thousands of etiologies and risk factors with their respective diseases, which represents a new paradigm in medicine. This is illustrated by the implications to be drawn from familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the 50 new genes already identified to be responsible for cardiac disease. The hope for prevention and treatment of human disease is unprecedented. Twenty diseases account for 80% of the deaths in the Western world and are due to 100 to 200 genes, all of which will be available in a couple of years. The Phoenician alphabet (inclusive of the Greek vowels) of 26 letters launched two millenniums of Western civilization, whereas the DNA alphabet of only four letters will launch and dominate the next millennium.

  16. Impact of Uncertainty of Boundary Conditions on Simulations of the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeGrande, A. N.; Tsigaridis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)-E2-R sampled the broadest range of boundary conditions for simulations of the last millennium, with a dozen different experiments sampling three different volcanic forcing scenarios, three anthropogenic land use change scenarios, and three different solar (TSI) scenarios. This suite of experiment yields 15,000 years of simulations for the last millennium. Here the forcings of these experiments are distilled down into basic fingerprints of each type of change - volcanic, solar, and, anthropogenic land use - to test whether it is feasible to detect these climate changes in various proxy archives. I will illustrate the difficulty in the detection of any of these changes in individual proxy archives, and establish the minimum critieria (given a perfect simulation) to identify solar minima, volcanic eruptions, and large changes in land use. Further, preliminary new results to illustrate the impact of various degrees of sophistication in applying volcanic forcing on the resultant climate signal will be presented. We will also study the impact of atmospheric composition on climate, by presenting results from atmosphere-only model simulations with the GISS-E2 model, which includes interactive gas-phase chemistry and aerosols at decadal-scale time slices, driven by the millennial-length coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations.

  17. Achieving Millennium Development Goals for Health: Building Understanding, Trust and Capacity to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Heidi J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical interventions promise achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals provided social-, capacity- and knowledge-based constraints to scaling up and reaching marginalized people at risk, are addressed, and balance between prevention and treatment is struck. We argue for a new approach: multi-stakeholder capacity building and learning for empowerment: MuSCLE. MuSCLE is used as a way to frame three systemic weaknesses in traditional health science and policy approaches: 1) a lack of engagement with people at risk to build a collective understanding of the contexts of health problems; 2) a lack of multi-criteria evaluation of alternative interventions; and 3) a lack of attention paid to integrated capacity building. The MuSCLE framework responds in three ways: 1) Participatory assessment of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of health, identifying priorities using risk and vulnerability science, and modeling drivers; 2) Selection among intervention alternatives that makes ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political tradeoffs transparent; and 3) Integrated capacity building for sustainable and adaptive interventions. Literature and field lessons support the argument, and guidelines are set down. A MuSCLE approach argues for a transformation in health science and policy in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals for health. PMID:17399849

  18. ENSO response to external forcing in CMIP5 simulations of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thanh

    2017-01-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is dominant mode of interannual climate variability, but its response to external climate forcings remains uncertain. Past studies have limitations including the use of short datasets and the uncertainty contained in reconstructions or simulations of past ENSO variations. To improve our understanding on ENSO variations, it is important to examine its response to these forcings by using multi model simulations since they provide longer datasets and help improving the statistical significance of the results. In this study, Granger causality test is applied to investigate the influence of external forcings on ENSO by using past millennium simulations (period 850-1850 CE) of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. The results show robust influence of volcanic forcing to ENSO during preindustrial times of last millennium. The response of ENSO to solar forcing is more likely to be weak. Detection of GHGs variations signal in ENSO response is not significant. However, this study also indicates that there are uncertainties in the responses of ENSO to solar forcing and GHGs radiative forcing. The possibility of the true causal connection between Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) or GHGs radiative forcing and ENSO cannot be rejected at 95% significance level.

  19. Will man wish to prevail? Some fundamental choices facing humanity early in the Third Millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.L.

    1994-10-01

    With the subtle but occasionally vital exception of vaccination-induced immunity to many of the major infectious diseases, no human today is other than virtually identical biologically to those who greeted the dawn of the Second Millennium, nearly 1000 years ago. Culturally, however, we of the West are quite highly evolved from our ancestors of a millennium ago, primarily due to the advent of means for communicating with ever smaller latencies and ever higher bandwidths over ever greater distances in space and time: printed documents have been supplemented in succession by telephony, radio, video and, just now, the first personal communications sets. Also, within a fraction of a human lifetime from the present moment, the first prosthesis for the human brain has appeared and just very recently has become quite ubiquitous: digital computing systems. We are hardly members of the same species, culturally speaking; people of 1000 years ago would be truly and utterly lost in our communications-intensive civilization, and even a highly educated person from those times would swear that a personal computer equipped with a wireless communications module was as at least a familiar, if not a golem. Conversely, a computer-using person from our own times somehow translated back to 1000 A.D. would likely find the profound isolation and the ``informational slowness`` of life then to be acutely intolerable, certainly to a far greater extent than would a citizen of the High Middle Ages translated back to Augustus Caesar`s Rome.

  20. Solar Imprints on Asian Inland Moisture Fluctuations over the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M.; Zhou, A.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, C.; He, Y.; Yang, W.; Liu, W.; Li, S. H.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Solar irradiance changes are thought to play an important role in natural climate variability. How solar activities affected hydrological changes in westerly-controlled arid central Asia (ACA) on decadal/centennial timescales remains poorly investigated, due to lack of high-quality records. Here we present high-resolution multi-proxy records of lake level changes, and thus effective moisture fluctuations, over the last millennium, from a shoreline sediment core retrieved from Lake Manas, northwestern China. Besides generally confirmed relatively wet conditions during the cool Little Ice Age, records of the geophysical and geochemical indicators, including lightness, calcium counts, and C37 alkenone contents, consistently show substantial and frequent lake level fluctuations, and more importantly, resemble solar irradiance changes. Further, the ~11-year Schwabe cycle, ~70-100-year Gleissberg cycle, and relatively weak spectral power in between, as characters in the sunspot number record, together with the ~200-year Suess-de Vries cycle revealed in the reconstructed total solar irradiance records, are all evident in the higher-resolution calcium and lightness records. Together, our records clearly demonstrate solar imprints on effective moisture fluctuations in ACA over the last millennium, and the occurrence of the Schwabe cycle even during the solar minima.

  1. North Pacific decadal variability in the CMIP5 last millennium simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Laura E.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.

    2016-12-01

    The Pacific ocean-atmosphere system exerts an important influence on the climate of Asia and North America, but the limited length of the observational record prevents a complete understanding of its bidecadal and multidecadal time scales. Paleoclimate reconstructions provide one source of information on longer time scales, although they differ in their estimation of the behavior of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) prior to the instrumental period. Forced general circulation model simulations offer complementary long-term perspectives on both the history and dynamics of this important mode of variability. Here, we analyze the PDO in the ensemble of CMIP5/PMIP3 last millennium (past1000 + historical) simulations. We evaluate the modeled spatial, temporal, and spectral characteristics of this mode, as well as teleconnections between North Pacific variability and global climate. All models produce a mode of North Pacific variability over the last millennium with spatial patterns and spectral power density similar to observations. CCSM, FGOALS, and IPSL best reproduce observed spatial patterns, spectral characteristics, and teleconnections to terrestrial regions used in paleoclimate proxy reconstructions. In these simulations, the PDO shows no consistent response to solar or volcanic forcing.

  2. [Regionalisation of the Millennium Development Goals: markers for assessing child health in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Bedrouni, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) include measurable, quantifiable objectives that facilitate the monitoring of their progress and help focus the work of local authorities intended to improve the living conditions of their populations. Since the adoption of the Declaration of the Millennium in September 2000, Algeria has made considerable progress, with excellent scores for some objectives but substantial delays for others. We also note that even when national averages provide a satisfactory impression, they often hide striking inequalities. This work is thus an attempt to evaluate progress for one of the eight objectives on a less aggregate scale that should permit a more realistic assessment. We thus restrict this article to a single aspect child health. Successive surveys have all confirmed substantial achievements on a national scale. These improvements nonetheless remain insufficient in light of the available resources. For example, the infant mortality rate, one of the most valuable child health indicators, decreased from 46.8 per thousand in 1990 to 25.5 per thousand in 2008. Nonetheless, the same studies showed the persistence of inequalities between geographic areas, urban and rural areas, and between sexes. Additional efforts are thus necessary if we are to reach the objective of reducing the mortality rate of children under 5 years by two-thirds. Results will also be more effective if healthy policy is regionalized, especially through the promotion of the implementation of this goal at the local level.

  3. Testing DARKexp against energy and density distributions of Millennium-II halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolting, Chris; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Hjorth, Jens

    2016-09-01

    We test the DARKexp model for relaxed, self-gravitating, collisionless systems against equilibrium dark matter halos from the Millennium-II simulation. While limited tests of DARKexp against simulations and observations have been carried out elsewhere, this is the first time the testing is done with a large sample of simulated halos spanning a factor of ~ 50 in mass, and using independent fits to density and energy distributions. We show that DARKexp, a one shape parameter family, provides very good fits to the shapes of density profiles, ρ(r), and differential energy distributions, N(E), of individual simulated halos. The best fit shape parameter phi0 obtained from the two types of fits are correlated, though with scatter. Our most important conclusions come from ρ(r) and N(E) that have been averaged over many halos. These show that the bulk of the deviations between DARKexp and individual Millennium-II halos come from halo-to-halo fluctuations, likely driven by substructure, and other density perturbations. The average ρ(r) and N(E) are quite smooth and follow DARKexp very closely. The only deviation that remains after averaging is small, and located at most bound energies for N(E) and smallest radii for ρ(r). Since the deviation is confined to 3-4 smoothing lengths, and is larger for low mass halos, it is likely due to numerical resolution effects.

  4. Knowledge-Based Aid: A Four Agency Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Simon; King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Part of the response of many development cooperation agencies to the challenges of globalisation, ICTs and the knowledge economy is to emphasise the importance of knowledge for development. This paper looks at the discourses and practices of ''knowledge-based aid'' through an exploration of four agencies: the World Bank, DFID, Sida and JICA. It…

  5. EPA Announces Nutrient Recycling Challenge Winners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the winners of Phase I of the Nutrient Recycling Challenge-a competition to develop affordable technologies to recycle nutrients from livestock manure. The winners received

  6. Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Innovation & Challenges

    NASA Video Gallery

    On June 2, 2016, NASA’s Office of the Chief Technologist hosted the Showcase of Innovation Challenges in Washington to present and discuss ideas for innovation across the agency, the government, in...

  7. The concept and challenges of TomoTherapy accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailat, Claude J.; Baechler, Sébastien; Moeckli, Raphael; Pachoud, Marc; Pisaturo, Olivier; Bochud, François O.

    2011-08-01

    A currently used intensity-modulated radiotherapy system is the TomoTherapy® Hi-Art® accelerator (Tomotherapy Inc., Madison, WI, USA), which started clinical treatments at the beginning of the new millennium. The innovative idea behind tomotherapy units is to marry an x-ray computed tomography unit with a linear particle accelerator. This concept has answered some of the needs of the medical physicist community, but epidemiological evaluations are still needed in order to compare the technique with other modalities. This paper summarizes the basic concepts of tomotherapy units as well as current challenges and implications for users.

  8. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  9. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  10. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  11. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  12. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  13. 28 CFR 83.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 83.645 Section 83.645 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  14. Every Child Matters: Every Challenge Met?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straker, Katherine; Foster, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the Every Child Matters agenda on a group of multi-agency professionals with regard to a number of key issues--such as leadership, multi-agency collaboration, and individual practice. One of the main challenges concerning the successful implementation of the ECM agenda is to ensure that effective training is…

  15. Tomorrow's Leisure: Meeting the Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Given the realities of contemporary American life, there are six challenges that will face leisure service providers in the year 2000 and beyond: impact of multiculturalism, environmental concerns, leisure education and values-oriented play, conflict in leisure service goals and strategies, agency coordination and professional development, and…

  16. Featherweight Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Ryan, Larry

    2012-01-01

    As science, technology education, and engineering programs suffer budget cuts, educators continue to seek cost-effective activities that engage students and reinforce standards. The featherweight challenge is a hands-on activity that challenges students to continually refine their design while not breaking the budget. This activity uses one of the…

  17. [National health security agencies: facts and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Houssin, Didier

    2013-10-01

    Despite major changes in its composition over the past two decades, the French health security infrastructure, currently consisting of eight agencies, has endured. This infrastructure has reinforced the French state's capacity to protect the health of its population, but it did not yet provide total protection. The future of national health agencies will depend on their ability to maintain the priority given to public health security ; to preserve credible, high-level scientific expertise ; to meet the challenges of healthcare safety ; and to organize health security at the European level.

  18. Federal Emergency Management Agency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updates Emergency Management Agencies Emergency Management Institute El Niño Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Program Exercise Fact ... Local, State, Tribal and Non-Profit Recovery Resources Region I Region II Region III Region IV Region ...

  19. School Service Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachen, Sylvia; Lipschitz, Beverly

    1970-01-01

    Describes school employment" agency to secure school jobs for interested students. They filled out applications, had interviews and secured recommendations. Program attempted to relieve hall congestion and improve tone of school. (Author/CJ)

  20. Electronic Publishing and Academic Dialogue between Academicians via Online Journals in the New Millennium: A Case of "TOJDE"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demiray, Ugur

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to discuss electronic scholarly publishing and dialogue an academicians in the millennium. There are three main part of this presentation. In the first part focuses on some concepts dealt with electronic publishing and advantages and disadvantages its. The needs of dialog of the academicians are mentioned in the second part of the…

  1. Developing a Model of Compulsory Basic Education Completion Acceleration in Support of Millennium Development Goals in Magelang, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukarno; Haryati, Sri

    2015-01-01

    This article reports Year One of a two-year study to develop a model to accelerate compulsory basic education completion toward Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Magelang, Indonesia. The study focuses on five issues: (1) profile of MDGs in Magelang, (2) achievement of MDGs, (3) problems in MDGs implementation, (4) model of compulsary basic…

  2. Integrative Approaches of Native and Foreign Scholars to Pedology in the Context of Views of the Third Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzminsky, Anatoliy

    2016-01-01

    Problems of appearing and functioning of human study science, i.e. pedology, have been studied in the paper. Theoretical analysis of integrative approaches of native and foreign scholars to pedology in the context of views of the third millennium has been performed. Useful and positive achievements of this science as well as wrong ones determined…

  3. Flight Software Implementation of the Beacon Monitor Expreiment On the NASA New Millennium Deep Space 1 (DS-1) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, R.; Schlutsmeyer, A.

    1997-01-01

    A new technology that can lower the cost of mission operations on future spacecraft will be tested on the NASA New Millennium Deep Space 1 (DS-1) Mission. This technology, the Beacon Monitor Experiment (BMOX), can be used to reduce the Deep Space Network (DSN) tracking time and its associated costs on future missions.

  4. No Pending National Elections, Who Cares? What Newspaper Publications Reveal about Local Efforts Towards Millennium Development Goal 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Arku, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has become a catch phrase in development discourse. This study is an assessment of the MDG 3: to promote gender equality at all levels of education in Ghana. The Daily Graphic (a newspaper in Ghana) which is Ghana's prominent newspaper was reviewed from 2000 to 2011 to determine the frequency of articles…

  5. The Graceful and Gritty Princess: Managing Notions of Girlhood from the New Nation to the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman-Brunell, Miriam; Eaton, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigate the nearly ubiquitous cultural icon for girls' play, the princess. They survey historical instances of princess play from the beginning of the American republic to the New Millennium, look at the literature concerning princesses in various periods, and discuss the individual recollections about princess play of a number of…

  6. Area and Family Effects on the Psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study Children and Their Older Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…

  7. Assessing the Progress of Gender Parity in Education through Achieving Millennium Development Goals: A Case Study of Quetta District Balochistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Abdul; Bibi, Zainab; Din, Siraj ud

    2012-01-01

    Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…

  8. Private Schools and the Millennium Development Goal of Universal Primary Education: A Census and Comparative Survey in Hyderabad, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Gomathi, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Development literature suggests that private schools serving the poor are not part of the solution to meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education. The study conducted a census and survey of schools in notified slums of Hyderabad, India, to contribute to the sparse literature on the nature and extent of private…

  9. Does Curriculum Matter?: Revisiting Women's Access and Rights to Education in the Context of the UN Millennium Development Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of curriculum to current UN Millennium targets to extend access to education and equality in education for women. It argues, firstly, that it is contradictory to be concerned about women's access to education but leave curriculum out of the discussion; secondly, that curriculum is not adequately seen as a…

  10. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  11. Five Ways the Sustainable Development Goals Are Better than the Millennium Development Goals and Why Every Educationalist Should Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprani, Lily

    2016-01-01

    For 15 years the millennium development goals (MDGs) were a guiding force for many issues affecting the lives of children and young people around the world. Agreed by UN member states in 2001, the eight MDGs were designed as a framework around which states were expected to develop policy priorities and shape their overseas aid spending plans. The…

  12. Subjective Well-Being Approach to the Valuation of International Development: Evidence for the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The subjective well-being approach to the valuation of international development is applied to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Results indicate that the rich countries have particular preference for education, healthcare, and housing; they are willing to accept compensation for a failure to meet the three targets by 2015. The poor…

  13. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  14. US agency for international development

    SciTech Connect

    Pumfrey, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

  15. Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Wanamaker, Alan D; Butler, Paul G; Scourse, James D; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A

    2012-06-12

    Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector.

  16. Five Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "FiveMillenniumCanonofLunarEclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  17. Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original 648-page publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Lunar Eclipse parameter, gamma, eclipse magnitude, geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude), and the circumstances at greatest eclipse (i.e., Sun altitude and azimuth, path width, and central line duration). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  18. Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)-Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses. "It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse(latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  19. New Millennium DS2 electronic packaging an advanced electronic packaging "sandbox".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, G.; D'Agostino, S.

    New Millennium Deep Space 2 (DS2), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), consists of a pair of probes that will be carried to Mars by the Mars Polar Lander. After release from the Lander, both probes enter the atmosphere, impact and penetrate the Martian surface. After impact, a soil sample is taken and analyzed for the presence of water. Other scientific data is collected during descent and after impact. The proposed size and mass of the probes imposed enormous constraints on the packaging of the electronics. To fit the electronics within the probe envelope, the DS2 became a virtual advanced packaging experiment: Chip-on-Board (COB) technology, High Density Interconnect (HDI) technology, and novel flexible interconnects were used in a highly integrated package to meet the requirements. This paper describes the development and testing of the DS2 electronics package and possible follow-on developments at JPL.

  20. Towards realizing the health-related millennium development goals for migrants from Burma in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ditton, Mary J; Lehane, Leigh

    2009-09-01

    ETHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTH-RELATED research on politically oppressed migrant populations differ in significant ways from community health research in other contexts. The United Nations has set goals for such research. The health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were investigated in communities ("clusters") of migrants from Burma living in villages in the Sangkhlaburi District of Thailand, adjacent to the Thai-Burma border. Hunger was experienced regularly in 70% of the households, and 26% of children under 5 years were underweight. Malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS were prevalent. Few households took part in family planning, and there were many large families and disabled children. The health of the migrant populations was compromised by poverty, social exclusion, and under- or unemployment. Stakeholders in discussion groups concurred with the authors that tuberculosis detection and treatment and food production activities were important issues to address in developing projects to improve migrant health. This case study illustrates how the MDGs can be operationally defined.

  1. Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Wanamaker, Alan D.; Butler, Paul G.; Scourse, James D.; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector. PMID:22692542

  2. Chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium*

    PubMed Central

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Facchini Jardim; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2015-01-01

    Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature. PMID:25672302

  3. The worst North American drought year of the last millennium: 1934

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2014-10-01

    During the summer of 1934, over 70% of western North America experienced extreme drought, placing this summer far outside the normal range of drought variability and making 1934 the single worst drought year of the last millennium. Strong atmospheric ridging along the West Coast suppressed cold season precipitation across the Northwest, Southwest, and California, a circulation pattern similar to the winters of 1976-1977 and 2013-2014. In the spring and summer, the drying spread to the Midwest and Central Plains, driven by severe precipitation deficits downwind from regions of major dust storm activity, consistent with previous work linking drying during the Dust Bowl to anthropogenic dust aerosol forcing. Despite a moderate La Niña, contributions from sea surface temperature forcing were small, suggesting that the anomalous 1934 drought was primarily a consequence of atmospheric variability, possibly amplified by dust forcing that intensified and spread the drought across nearly all of western North America.

  4. Structural violence: a barrier to achieving the millennium development goals for women.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Joia S; Barry, Donna J; Satti, Hind; Raymonville, Maxi; Marsh, Sarah; Smith-Fawzi, Mary Kay

    2011-04-01

    In 2000, all 191 United Nations member states agreed to work toward the achievement of a set of health and development goals by 2015. The achievement of these eight goals, the Millennium Development goals (MDGs) is highly dependent on improving the status of women, who play a key role in health and education in families and communities around the world. Yet structural violence, defined as the systematic exclusion of a group from the resources needed to develop their full human potential, remains a significant barrier against women's development and threatens the achievement of the MDGs. Although sound evidence has long existed for improving women's survival, the will to address women's health concretely and holistically is only recently gaining the advocacy needed to change policy. Concrete examples of the integration of approaches to mitigate structural violence within the delivery of health services do exist and should be incorporated into global advocacy for women's health.

  5. Sutherland's legacy in the new millennium: the osteopathic cranial model and modern osteopathy.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, Bruno; Zanier, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cranial osteopathy was introduced by W. G. Sutherland, DO, and became the foundation for setting the rules for use of skull palpation and many other techniques in the many types of dysfunctional patterns that craniosacral therapy treats. Sutherland's theories enabled modern osteopathy to develop and improve. The mechanism of primary respiration as well as the motion of neurocranial and viscerocranial sutures are phenomena intrinsic to the field and can be found in every living organism, independent of thoracic breathing and cardiac impulse. The sphenobasilar synchondrosis (ie, the joint between the base of the occiput and the body of the sphenoid bone) is the pillar supporting the concepts of craniosacral therapy. This article compares the cranial model devised by Sutherland with the present, relevant scientific research, aiming at clarifying the possibility of applying the craniosacral model in the new millennium.

  6. Development of an Ion Thruster and Power Processor for New Millennium's Deep Space 1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Hamley, John A.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Peterson, Todd T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Power, John L.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Anderson, John R.; Bond, Thomas A.; Cardwell, G. I.; Christensen, Jon A.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program (NSTAR) will provide a single-string primary propulsion system to NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 Mission which will perform comet and asteroid flybys in the years 1999 and 2000. The propulsion system includes a 30-cm diameter ion thruster, a xenon feed system, a power processing unit, and a digital control and interface unit. A total of four engineering model ion thrusters, three breadboard power processors, and a controller have been built, integrated, and tested. An extensive set of development tests has been completed along with thruster design verification tests of 2000 h and 1000 h. An 8000 h Life Demonstration Test is ongoing and has successfully demonstrated more than 6000 h of operation. In situ measurements of accelerator grid wear are consistent with grid lifetimes well in excess of the 12,000 h qualification test requirement. Flight hardware is now being assembled in preparation for integration, functional, and acceptance tests.

  7. The largest Last Supper: depictions of food portions and plate size increased over the millennium.

    PubMed

    Wansink, B; Wansink, C S

    2010-05-01

    Portion sizes of foods have been noticably increasing in recent years, but when did this trend begin? If art imitates life and if food portions have been generally increasing with time, we might expect this trend to be reflected in paintings that depict food. Perhaps the most commonly painted meal has been that of Jesus Christ's Last Supper, chronicled in the New Testament of the Bible. A CAD-CAM analysis of the relative food-to-head ratio in 52 representative paintings of the Last Supper showed that the relative sizes of the main dish (entree) (r=0.52, P=0.002), bread (r=0.30, P=0.04), and plates (r=0.46, P=0.02) have linearly increased over the past millennium.

  8. Galaxy Number Counts Applied to a Semi-Analytic Galaxy Model in the Millennium Run Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucklein, Brian; Moody, J. W.; Hintz, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Millennium Run simulation used more than 10 billion particles to trace the evolution of the dark matter distribution in a ΛCDM cosmology in a cubic region of the Universe over 2 billion light-years on a side. This data was used by Croton et al. as the basis of a semi-analytic galaxy model, allowing the region to be populated with more than 9 million galaxies brighter than Mr = -17.4. We visually analyze this galaxy catalog searching for significant voids and then apply galaxy number count (GNC) analysis to the lines-of-sight to these voids. Using Wolf plots, we investigate whether GNC analysis would allow us to locate voids within the sample without the need to first find them visually.

  9. Spatial distribution and velocities of satellite galaxies in the Millennium SimulationÂ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, L.; García Lambas, D.; Navarro, J. F.

    We study the spatial distribution and kinematics of satellites orbiting isolated primary galaxies using a galaxy catalogue constructed applying a semianalytic galaxy formation model to the Millennium Run (Springel et al 2005, Croton et al 2005). In order to compare with observations, satellites samples are constructed by carefully stacking systems of similar halo mass, after appropriate rescaling of their positions and velocities. Our main results are that: (i) the spatial distribution of satellites may be well approximated by an NFW profile with concentration c ~ 6 almost independent of host virial mass; (ii) the velocity dispersion drops substantially from the center outwards, typically by a factor of ~ 2 at the virial radius; and (iii) the velocity ellipsoid is radially anisotropic near the center, becomin gradually more isotropic in the outer regions These trends may very well be obscured in observational samples unless proper care is taken to remove interlopers. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  10. The 2010 millennium technology grand prize: dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gerald J

    2010-08-24

    The 2010 Millennium Technology Grand Prize was awarded to Michael Gratzel for his ground-breaking research that has led to the practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells. Although Gratzel began his research well before nanotechnology had the "buzz" that it does today, the mesoscopic thin films he has developed have paved the way for generations of scientists to exploit the nanoscale for energy conversion. In addition to practical application, his research has led to a deeper understanding of photoinitiated charge-transfer processes at semiconductor interfaces. Here, the key scientific developments that guided early progress in dye-sensitized solar cells are summarized, with emphasis on fundamental advances that have enabled practical application.

  11. The geomagnetic field intensity variations in the Iberian Peninsula during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Akimova, S. V.

    2015-09-01

    The pattern of variations in the intensity of the geomagnetic field starting from the middle of the sixth millennium B.C. is reconstructed from the data about the intensity of the ancient geomagnetic field in the region of the Iberian Peninsula provided by the archaeomagnetic studies of ceramics from archaeological monuments. In this time interval, the intensity of the field widely varies from ~30 to ~90 µT. The smooth variation of the field is superimposed by the variations with characteristic times from thousands to hundreds of years. The intensity variations can be subdivided into two groups: rather sharp variations with a characteristic duration of about 200 years and smooth quasi-harmonic fluctuations with a duration of a few hundred years.

  12. Unforced variability in summer storm track position over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagen, Mary; Zorita, Eduardo; McCarroll, Danny; Loader, Neil; Young, Giles; Robertson, Iain

    2014-05-01

    Gridded past millennium climate reconstructions, encompassing the European continent (e.g. Luterbacher et al 2004), based on proxy records, have previously been generated assuming that spatial temperature covariance across the region behaves in the past in the same way as it does in the observational period. This strategy bears the risk of artificially identifying the same patterns of variability as presently observed and overlooking periodically occurring modes of internal climate variability, that are not uniformly spatio-temporally expressed. Here, we construct regional proxy composites for Europe which are not constrained by the modes of variability expressed in the 20th century, and should thus broadly represent coherent regional summer temperatures back through time, independent from present modes of variability. The proxy data set analysed was provided by the efforts of the EU 6th Framework Millennium project. Proxy data are dominated by tree ring width, density and annual height increment. Four composites are used describing summer temperatures in the Arctic, Central, Pyrenean and Alpine zones of Europe. The proxy data sets cover the period AD 1260-1996. We jointly analyse an ensemble of simulations with global climate models participating in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) included in the 5th Assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) covering the period AD 850-2005, with the above aims in mind. The climate models were driven by estimations of the main external forcings. The implementations of these forcings may vary among simulations, depending on the different estimates used and on the structure of the models themselves. We analyse three simulations (CCSM4, IPSL, MPI-ESM) that, at the time of writing, provide daily data over the period AD 850-2005 obtained with the very same model version through the whole period. The analysis of both proxy and model data allowed us to more precisely identify the behaviour

  13. Hemispherically asymmetric volcanic forcing of tropical hydroclimate during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colose, Christopher M.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    Volcanic aerosols exert the most important natural radiative forcing of the last millennium. State-of-the-art paleoclimate simulations of this interval are typically forced with diverse spatial patterns of volcanic forcing, leading to different responses in tropical hydroclimate. Recently, theoretical considerations relating the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) position to the demands of global energy balance have emerged in the literature, allowing for a connection to be made between the paleoclimate simulations and recent developments in the understanding of ITCZ dynamics. These energetic considerations aid in explaining the well-known historical, paleoclimatic, and modeling evidence that the ITCZ migrates away from the hemisphere that is energetically deficient in response to asymmetric forcing.Here we use two separate general circulation model (GCM) suites of experiments for the last millennium to relate the ITCZ position to asymmetries in prescribed volcanic sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere and related asymmetric radiative forcing. We discuss the ITCZ shift in the context of atmospheric energetics and discuss the ramifications of transient ITCZ migrations for other sensitive indicators of changes in the tropical hydrologic cycle, including global streamflow. For the first time, we also offer insight into the large-scale fingerprint of water isotopologues in precipitation (δ18Op) in response to asymmetries in radiative forcing. The ITCZ shifts away from the hemisphere with greater volcanic forcing. Since the isotopic composition of precipitation in the ITCZ is relatively depleted compared to areas outside this zone, this meridional precipitation migration results in a large-scale enrichment (depletion) in the isotopic composition of tropical precipitation in regions the ITCZ moves away from (toward). Our results highlight the need for careful consideration of the spatial structure of volcanic forcing for interpreting volcanic signals in proxy records

  14. Earliest evidence for cheese making in the sixth millennium BC in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Salque, Mélanie; Bogucki, Peter I; Pyzel, Joanna; Sobkowiak-Tabaka, Iwona; Grygiel, Ryszard; Szmyt, Marzena; Evershed, Richard P

    2013-01-24

    The introduction of dairying was a critical step in early agriculture, with milk products being rapidly adopted as a major component of the diets of prehistoric farmers and pottery-using late hunter-gatherers. The processing of milk, particularly the production of cheese, would have been a critical development because it not only allowed the preservation of milk products in a non-perishable and transportable form, but also it made milk a more digestible commodity for early prehistoric farmers. The finding of abundant milk residues in pottery vessels from seventh millennium sites from north-western Anatolia provided the earliest evidence of milk processing, although the exact practice could not be explicitly defined. Notably, the discovery of potsherds pierced with small holes appear at early Neolithic sites in temperate Europe in the sixth millennium BC and have been interpreted typologically as 'cheese-strainers', although a direct association with milk processing has not yet been demonstrated. Organic residues preserved in pottery vessels have provided direct evidence for early milk use in the Neolithic period in the Near East and south-eastern Europe, north Africa, Denmark and the British Isles, based on the δ(13)C and Δ(13)C values of the major fatty acids in milk. Here we apply the same approach to investigate the function of sieves/strainer vessels, providing direct chemical evidence for their use in milk processing. The presence of abundant milk fat in these specialized vessels, comparable in form to modern cheese strainers, provides compelling evidence for the vessels having being used to separate fat-rich milk curds from the lactose-containing whey. This new evidence emphasizes the importance of pottery vessels in processing dairy products, particularly in the manufacture of reduced-lactose milk products among lactose-intolerant prehistoric farming communities.

  15. ENSO teleconnections with Australian rainfall in coupled model simulations of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Josephine R.; Hope, Pandora; Gergis, Joelle; Henley, Benjamin J.

    2016-07-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the major source of interannual rainfall variability in the Australian region, with the strongest influence over eastern Australia. The strength of this regional ENSO-rainfall teleconnection varies in the observational record. Climate model simulations of the "last millennium" (850-1850 C.E.) can be used to quantify the natural variability of the relationship between ENSO and Australian rainfall on decadal and longer time scales, providing a baseline for evaluating future projections. In this study, historical and last millennium (LM) simulations from six models were obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 3. All models reproduce the observed negative correlation between September to February (SONDJF) eastern Australian rainfall and the NINO3.4 index, with varying skill. In the LM simulations, all models produce decadal-scale cooling over eastern Australia in response to volcanic forcing, as well as a long-term cooling trend. Rainfall variability over the same region is not strongly driven by external forcing, with each model simulating rainfall anomalies of different phase and magnitude. SONDJF eastern Australian rainfall is strongly correlated with ENSO in the LM simulations for all models, although some models simulate periods when the teleconnection weakens substantially for several decades. Changes in ENSO variance play a role in modulating the teleconnection strength, but are not the only factor. The long-term average spatial pattern of the ENSO-Australian rainfall teleconnection is similar in the LM and historical simulations, although the spatial pattern varies over time in the LM simulations.

  16. A tree-ring field reconstruction of Fennoscandian summer hydroclimate variability for the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seftigen, Kristina; Björklund, Jesper; Cook, Edward R.; Linderholm, Hans W.

    2014-05-01

    Hydroclimatological extremes, such as droughts and floods, are expected to increase in frequency and intensity with global climate change. An improved knowledge of its natural variability and the underlying physical mechanisms for changes in the hydrological cycle will help understand the response of extreme hydroclimatic events to climate warming. This study presents the first gridded hydroclimatic reconstruction (0.5° × 0.5° grid resolution), as expressed by the warm season Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), for most of Fennoscandia. A point-by-point regression approach is used to develop the reconstruction from a network of moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies spanning over the past millennium. The reconstruction gives a unique opportunity to examine the frequency, severity, persistence, and spatial characteristics of Fennoscandian hydroclimatic variability in the context of the last 1,000 years. The full SPEI reconstruction highlights the seventeenth century as a period of frequent severe and widespread hydroclimatic anomalies. Although some severe extremes have occurred locally throughout the domain over the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the period is surprisingly free from any spatially extensive anomalies. The twentieth century is not anomalous in terms of the number of severe and spatially extensive hydro climatic extremes in the context of the last millennium. Principle component analysis reveals that there are two dominant modes of spatial moisture variability across Fennoscandia. The same patterns are evident in the observational record and in the reconstructed dataset over the instrumental era and two paleoperiods. The 500 mb pressure patterns associated with the two modes suggests the importance of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation.

  17. Time-varying spectral characteristics of ENSO over the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Pandora; Henley, Benjamin J.; Gergis, Joelle; Brown, Josephine; Ye, Hua

    2016-10-01

    The characteristics of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) spectra over the Last Millennium are examined to characterise variability over past centuries. Seven published palaeo-ENSO reconstructions and Nino3.4 from six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-Phase 5 and Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project-Phase 3 (CMIP5-PMIP3) Last Millennium simulations were analysed. The corresponding Historical and pre-industrial Control CMIP5-PMIP3 simulations were also considered. The post-1850 spectrum of each modelled or reconstructed ENSO series captures aspects of the observed spectrum to varying degrees. We note that no single model or ENSO reconstruction completely reproduces the instrumental spectral characteristics. The spectral power across the 2-3 years (near biennial), 3-8 years (classical ENSO) and 8-25 years (decadal) periodicity bands was calculated in a sliding 50 year window, revealing temporal variability in the spectra. There was strong temporal variability in the spectral power of each periodicity band in observed Nino3.4 and SOI and for all reconstructions and simulations of ENSO. Significant peaks in spectral power such as observed in recent decades also occur in some of the reconstructed palaeo-ENSO (around 1600, the early 1700s and 1900) and modelled series (around the major volcanic eruptions of 1258 and 1452). While the recent increase in spectral power might be in response to enhanced greenhouse gas levels, the increase lies within the range of variability across the suite of ENSO reconstructions and simulations examined here. This study demonstrates that the analysis of a suite of ENSO reconstructions and model simulations can build a broader understanding of the time-varying nature of ENSO spectra, and how the nature of the past spectra of ENSO is to some extent dependant on the climate model or palaeo-ENSO reconstruction chosen.

  18. Hemispherically Asymmetric Volcanic Forcing of Tropical Hydroclimate During the Last Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colose, Christopher M.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic aerosols exert the most important natural radiative forcing of the last millennium. State-of-the-art paleoclimate simulations of this interval are typically forced with diverse spatial patterns of volcanic forcing, leading to different responses in tropical hydroclimate. Recently, theoretical considerations relating the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) position to the demands of global energy balance have emerged in the literature, allowing for a connection to be made between the paleoclimate simulations and recent developments in the understanding of ITCZ dynamics. These energetic considerations aid in explaining the well-known historical, paleoclimatic, and modeling evidence that the ITCZ migrates away from the hemisphere that is energetically deficient in response to asymmetric forcing. Here we use two separate general circulation model (GCM) suites of experiments for the last millennium to relate the ITCZ position to asymmetries in prescribed volcanic sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere and related asymmetric radiative forcing. We discuss the ITCZ shift in the context of atmospheric energetics and discuss the ramifications of transient ITCZ migrations for other sensitive indicators of changes in the tropical hydrologic cycle, including global streamflow. For the first time, we also offer insight into the large-scale fingerprint of water isotopologues in precipitation (delta sup 18 Op) in response to asymmetries in radiative forcing. The ITCZ shifts away from the hemisphere with greater volcanic forcing. Since the isotopic composition of precipitation in the ITCZ is relatively depleted compared to areas outside this zone, this meridional precipitation migration results in a large-scale enrichment (depletion) in the isotopic composition of tropical precipitation in regions the ITCZ moves away from (toward). Our results highlight the need for careful consideration of the spatial structure of volcanic forcing for interpreting volcanic signals in

  19. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Hydroclimate, Temperature and Atmospheric Circulation over the Past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Wake, C. P.; Kreutz, K. J.; Winski, D.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S.; Birkel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    While tree ring and lake sediment core studies have revealed a great deal about North Pacific (e.g. Alaska) surface temperature variability over the past millennium, we do not have an equivalent understanding of North Pacific hydroclimate variability or temperatures at high elevations. A millennial-length precipitation proxy record is needed to place late 20th century Alaskan precipitation increases into longer context, and to evaluate hydroclimate changes during the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly. High-elevation summer temperature records would be valuable for understanding the sensitivity of Alaskan glaciers to past warm and cool periods. Here we present an overview of the new Denali Ice Core record collected from the summit plateau (4000 m a.s.l.) of Mt. Hunter (63° N, 151° W) in Denali National Park, Alaska. Two parallel ice cores were collected to bedrock (208 m in length) in May-June 2013, sampled using the Dartmouth continuous melter system, and analyzed for major ions, trace elements, particle concentration and size distribution, and stable isotope ratios at Dartmouth and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire. The cores are dated using robust annual oscillations in dust elements, methanesulfonate, ammonium, and stable isotopes, and validated using major volcanic eruptions recorded as sulfate, chloride and heavy metal spikes, and the 1963 nuclear weapons testing 137Cs spike. Preliminary analyses indicate a significant increase in both summer temperature and annual accumulation over the 20th century, and significant relationships with major ocean-atmospheric modes including the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We compare the new Denali record to the Eclipse Icefield and Mt. Logan ice core records and develop composite records of North Pacific hydroclimate and atmospheric circulation variability over the past millennium.

  20. Stability of ENSO and Its Tropical Pacific Teleconnections over the Last Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Sophie; Legrande, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Determining past changes in the amplitude, frequency and teleconnections of the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is important for understanding its potential sensitivity to future anthropogenic climate change. Palaeo-reconstructions from proxy records provide long-term information of ENSO interactions with the background climatic state through time. However, it remains unclear how ENSO characteristics have changed through time, and precisely which signals proxies record. Proxy interpretations are underpinned by the assumption of stationarity in relationships between local and remote climates, and often utilise archives from single locations located in the Pacific Ocean to reconstruct ENSO histories. Here, we investigate the stationarity of ENSO teleconnections using the Last Millennium experiment of CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) (Taylor et al., 2012). We show that modelled ENSO characteristics vary on decadal- to centennial-scales, resulting from internal variability and external forcings, such as tropical volcanic eruptions. Furthermore, the relationship between ENSO conditions and local climates across the Pacific basin varies throughout the Last Millennium. Results show the stability of teleconnections is regionally dependent and proxies may reveal complex changes in teleconnected patterns, rather than large-scale changes in base ENSO characteristics. As such, proxy insights into ENSO likely require evidence to be synthesised over large spatial areas in order to deconvolve changes occurring in the NINO3.4 region from those pertaining to proxy-relevant local climatic variables. To obtain robust histories of the ENSO and its remote impacts, we recommend interpretations of proxy records should be considered in conjunction with palaeo-reconstructions from within the Central Pacific

  1. Sources and pathways of dust during the Australian "Millennium Drought" decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Chubb, Thomas; Baddock, Matthew; Kelly, Tyler; Tapper, Nigel J.; De Deckker, Patrick; McTainsh, Grant

    2017-01-01

    From the late 1990s to mid-2010, Australia was affected by a prolonged period of drought, the "Millennium Drought," during which numerous severe dust storms crossed the continent. We inspect this period to produce the first continental-scale climatology of air-parcel trajectories that is specific to dust and use it to gain new insights into dust transport dynamics over the eastern half of Australia. The analysis is based upon dust arrival times from airport meteorological observations made at nine mostly coastal cities for 2000-2009. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model was used to calculate 1.26 million backward trajectories from receptor cities, with only those trajectories associated with a dust storm observation considered in the analysis of dust transport. To tie dust trajectories from receptors to likely emission sources, trajectories were linked to six known major dust source regions in and around the Lake Eyre Basin. The Lake Eyre North ephemeral lake system, alluvial-dominated Channel Country, and agricultural Mallee-Riverina regions emerge as important sources for the period, providing variable contributions to different parts of the seaboard as controlled by different front-related wind systems. Our study also provides new detail regarding dust pathways from continental Australia. For the Millennium Drought we identify that the broadly established Southeast Dust Path may be more accurately subdivided into three active pathways, driven by prefrontal northerly winds and a variation in the influence of frontal westerlies. The detail of these pathways has implications for dust delivery from specific Australian sources to different marine environments.

  2. A THOUSAND SHADOWS OF ANDROMEDA: ROTATING PLANES OF SATELLITES IN THE MILLENNIUM-II COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Neil G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Conn, Anthony; Elahi, Pascal; Arias, Veronica; Fernando, Nuwanthika

    2014-03-20

    In a recent contribution, Bahl and Baumgardt investigated the incidence of planar alignments of satellite galaxies in the Millennium-II simulation and concluded that vast, thin planes of dwarf galaxies, similar to that observed in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), occur frequently by chance in Λ-cold dark matter cosmology. However, their analysis did not capture the essential fact that the observed alignment is simultaneously radially extended, yet thin, and kinematically unusual. With the caveat that the Millennium-II simulation may not have sufficient mass resolution to identify confidently simulacra of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, we re-examine that simulation for planar structures, using the same method as employed by Ibata et al. on the real M31 satellites. We find that 0.04% of host galaxies display satellite alignments that are at least as extreme as the observations, when we consider their extent, thickness, and number of members rotating in the same sense. We further investigate the angular momentum properties of the co-planar satellites, and find that the median of the specific angular momentum derived from the line-of-sight velocities in the real M31 structure (1.3 × 10{sup 4} km s{sup –1} kpc) is very high compared to systems drawn from the simulations. This analysis confirms that it is highly unlikely that the observed structure around the Andromeda galaxy is due to a chance occurrence. Interestingly, the few extreme systems that are similar to M31 arise from the accretion of a massive sub-halo with its own spatially concentrated entourage of orphan satellites.

  3. Linking an agency strategic review to increase knowledge management: San Francisco County Human Service Agency.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Led by the agency director, the agency engaged in a Strategic Review, based on a comprehensive assessment of agency performance that identified strategies to improve organizational effectiveness through increased data-informed practice and knowledge management. The Strategic Review gathered information on staff perceptions, perceptions of external stakeholders, changing citywide and neighborhood demographics, policy mandates, and budget and workload issues. The need for the review was based upon multiple, substantial changes not addressed in the 2000 Strategic Plan, including the 2004 merger of the Department of Human Services and the Department of Aging and Adult Services, changes among the executive management team, transitions among key political entities, new policy mandates and changing budget allocations. This case study describes the Strategic Review process and content, summarizing key challenges and lessons related to addressing workload demands, fostering positive staff attitudes, balancing internal and external information needs, and integrating data use and planning processes across the agency.

  4. 38 CFR 48.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 48.645 Section 48.645 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military department, government corporation, government controlled corporation, any other establishment in...

  5. Federal Law on Consumer Deception: An Agency by Agency Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweibel, George J.

    A comprehensive analysis of statutes and regulations on consumer deception administered by thirty government agencies is provided in this report. Each agency's chapter includes a brief description of the agency, and a detailed listing of all deceptive trade practices prohibited by that agency's enabling legislation, regulations, or other sources…

  6. 10 CFR 607.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agency or agency. 607.645 Section 607.645 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the...

  7. 78 FR 59974 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Airspace Operations Challenge (AOC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... Challenge (AOC) AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOTICE: (13-110). ACTION... Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. BILLING CODE 7510-13-P...

  8. Quantifying gas emissions from the “Millennium Eruption” of Paektu volcano, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea/China

    PubMed Central

    Iacovino, Kayla; Ju-Song, Kim; Sisson, Thomas; Lowenstern, Jacob; Kuk-Hun, Ri; Jong-Nam, Jang; Kun-Ho, Song; Song-Hwan, Ham; Oppenheimer, Clive; Hammond, James O. S.; Donovan, Amy; Liu, Kosima W.; Kum-Ran, Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Paektu volcano (Changbaishan) is a rhyolitic caldera that straddles the border between the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and China. Its most recent large eruption was the Millennium Eruption (ME; 23 km3 dense rock equivalent) circa 946 CE, which resulted in the release of copious magmatic volatiles (H2O, CO2, sulfur, and halogens). Accurate quantification of volatile yield and composition is critical in assessing volcanogenic climate impacts but is challenging, particularly for events before the satellite era. We use a geochemical technique to quantify volatile composition and upper bounds to yields for the ME by examining trends in incompatible trace and volatile element concentrations in crystal-hosted melt inclusions. We estimate that the ME could have emitted as much as 45 Tg of S to the atmosphere. This is greater than the quantity of S released by the 1815 eruption of Tambora, which contributed to the “year without a summer.” Our maximum gas yield estimates place the ME among the strongest emitters of climate-forcing gases in the Common Era. However, ice cores from Greenland record only a relatively weak sulfate signal attributed to the ME. We suggest that other factors came into play in minimizing the glaciochemical signature. This paradoxical case in which high S emissions do not result in a strong glacial sulfate signal may present a way forward in building more generalized models for interpreting which volcanic eruptions have produced large climate impacts. PMID:28138521

  9. The Lagoon at Caroline/Millennium Atoll, Republic of Kiribati: Natural History of a Nearly Pristine Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Barott, Katie L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Maragos, James E.; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Zgliczynski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef

  10. The lagoon at Caroline/Millennium atoll, Republic of Kiribati: natural history of a nearly pristine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barott, Katie L; Caselle, Jennifer E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Friedlander, Alan M; Maragos, James E; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian

    2010-06-03

    A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef

  11. 76 FR 13342 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-National School...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... from State child nutrition (CN) and education agencies, as well as local education agencies (LEAs). The information collection will build on existing knowledge by examining current methods of direct certification used by State and local agencies and the challenges facing States and LEAs in attaining high...

  12. Metacognition of Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Janet; Greene, Matthew Jason

    2007-01-01

    The feeling that we are agents, intentionally making things happen by our own actions, is foundational to our understanding of ourselves as humans. People's metacognitions of agency were investigated in 4 experiments. Participants played a game in which they tried to touch downward scrolling Xs and avoid touching Os. Variables that affected…

  13. Youth Media and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauge, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…

  14. Cooperation Among State Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenbarger, James L.; Hansen, Dean M.

    1975-01-01

    Most states have separate agencies to deal with vocational education, adult education, and community colleges. Because current procedures for interagency cooperation are inadequate and often nonproductive, there is a need for a national or extra-state catalyst to encourage cooperation in a positive way. Five strategies for cooperation are…

  15. Environmental challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility.

  16. Challenging Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichle, Joe, Ed.; DePaepe, Paris, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The articles in this feature or theme issue describe successful approaches to positive, community-based management of severe challenging behavior. Programs include: a train-the-trainer strategy for inservice training used across the country; the use of student volunteers as community integration facilitators; a school-based intervention project…

  17. Quill Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Teaching high school students the "grammar" of art--the principles and elements of art and design--while also teaching them about creativity and concept can be difficult. This author has found that combining beginning lessons in line, shape, value, texture, form, and color with projects requiring innovation and inspiration, though challenging, is…

  18. Normativity, agency, and life.

    PubMed

    Barham, James

    2012-03-01

    There is an immense philosophical literature dealing with the notions of normativity and agency, as well as a sizeable and rapidly growing scientific literature on the topic of autonomous agents. However, there has been very little cross-fertilization between these two literatures. As a result, the philosophical literature tends to assume a somewhat outdated mechanistic image of living things, resulting in a quasi-dualistic picture in which only human beings, or the higher animals, can be normative agents properly speaking. From this perspective, the project of 'naturalizing normativity' becomes almost a contradiction in terms. At the same time, the scientific literature tends to misuse 'normativity,' 'agency,' and related terms, assuming that it is meaningful to ascribe these concepts to 'autonomous agents' conceived of as physical systems whose behavior is to be explained in terms of ordinary physical law. From this perspective, the true depth of the difficulty involved in understanding what makes living systems distinctive qua physical systems becomes occluded. In this essay, I begin the attempt to remedy this situation. After some preliminary discussion of terminology and situating of my project within the contemporary philosophical landscape, I make a distinction between two different aspects of the project of naturalizing normativity: (1) the 'Scope Problem,' which consists in saying how widely in nature our concept of normative agency may properly be applied; and (2) the 'Ground Problem,' which consists in rationalizing the phenomenon of normative agency in terms of the rest of our knowledge of nature. Then, in the remainder of this paper, I argue that the Scope Problem ought to be resolved in favor of attributing normative agency, in the proper sense of those words, to living things as such. The Ground Problem will be discussed in a companion paper at a later time.

  19. Early childhood nutritional status in CARICOM countries: an overview with respect to five nutrition related millennium development goals.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Pamela S; Nielsen, Anders L; Willie, Douladel; Durant, Tara C

    2014-01-01

    Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states.

  20. Glacier variations in the Northern Caucasus compared to climatic reconstructions over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomina, Olga; Bushueva, Irina; Dolgova, Ekaterina; Jomelli, Vincent; Alexandrin, Mikhail; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Matskovsky, Vladimir

    2016-05-01

    In the Northern Caucasus, glacier and climatic variations over the past centuries remain insufficiently documented. In this review, we summarized the high-resolution information on glacier and climate fluctuations in the region for the past millennium and provided a synthesis of these two lines of evidence with respect to regional climate change. The key areas considered in the paper are the Elbrus area, the Teberda and Arkhyz valleys in the Western Caucasus and the Cherek Bezengiisky and Tsey valleys in the Eastern Caucasus, where the most paleoclimatic evidence has been retrieved. We focused on the fluctuation records of the ten glaciers that are best documented. To reconstruct changes in glacier length in the past, we used aerial photos, optical space images, repeated photographs and old maps. The ages of moraines were defined with the help of instrumental records, historical images, old maps, and tree-ring dating. Lichenometry was used as a supplementary tool to determine the relative ages of glacial landforms. We reviewed the collection of control points used for the lichenometric curves and determined the time limit of potential use of this method in the Caucasus to be up to one millennium. High-resolution tree-ring-based hydroclimatic reconstructions in the Northern Caucasus are presented based on the reconstruction of June-September temperature (1595-2012 CE), the mass balance reconstruction of the Garabashi Glacier (1800-2008 CE) and the runoff of the Teberda River (low-frequency variations) for May, July and August for 1850-2005 CE. The synthesis of all the available paleoclimatic records revealed several distinct climatic periods. Evidence of a warm interval (traditionally referred to as the "Arkhyz break in glaciation") preceding the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the Caucasus is based on archeological, palynological, geochemical and pedological data. However, the conclusions concerning the duration and magnitude of this warming are still vague due to the low

  1. Sustainable Materials Management Challenge Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) is a systemic approach to using and reusing materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. It represents a change in how our society thinks about the use of natural resources and environmental protection. By looking at a product's entire lifecycle we can find new opportunities to reduce environmental impacts, conserve resources, and reduce costs. There are multiple challenge programs available as part of the SMM program, including the Food Recovery Challenge, the Electronics Challenge, the Federal Green Challenge, and the WasteWise program. As part of EPA's Food Recovery Challenge, organizations pledge to improve their sustainable food management practices and report their results. The SMM Electronics Challenge encourages electronics manufacturers, brand owners and retailers to strive to send 100 percent of the used electronics they collect from the public, businesses and within their own organizations to third-party certified electronics refurbishers and recyclers. The Federal Green Challenge, a national effort under the EPA??s Sustainable Materials Management Program, challenges EPA and other federal agencies throughout the country to lead by example in reducing the federal government's environmental impact. EPA??s WasteWise encourages organizations and businesses to achieve sustainability in their practices and reduce select industrial wastes. WasteWise is part of EPA??s sustaina

  2. Dynamical analysis of the Indian Ocean climate network and its correlation with Australian Millennium Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Laura; Masoller, Cristina; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Ravetti, Martín G.

    2015-04-01

    During the period between the mid-1990s and late 2000s Australia had suffered one of the worst droughts on record. Severe rainfall deficits affected great part of southeast Australia, causing widespread drought conditions and catastrophic bushfires. The "Millennium Drought", as it was called, was unusual in terms of its severity, duration and extent, leaving important environmental and financial damages. One of the most important drivers of Australia climate variability is the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD), that is a coupled ocean and atmosphere phenomenon in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The IOD is measured by an index (DMI) that is the difference between sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the western and eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. Its positive phase is characterized by lower than normal sea surface temperatures in the tropical eastern coast, and higher than normal in the tropical western Indian Ocean. Extreme positive IOD (pIOD) events are associated to severe droughts in countries located over the eastern Indian Ocean, and to severe floods in the western tropical ones. Recent research works projected that the frequency of extreme pIOD events will increase significantly over the twenty-first century and consequently, the frequency of extreme climate conditions in the zones affected by it. In this work we study the dynamics of the Indian Ocean for the period of 1979-2014, by using climate networks of skin temperature and humidity (reanalysis data). Annual networks are constructed by creating links when the Pearson correlation coefficient between two nodes is greater than a specific value. The distance distribution Pd(k), that indicates the fraction of pairs of nodes at distance k, is computed to characterize the dynamics of the network by using Information Theory quantifiers. We found a clear change in the Indian Ocean dynamics and an increment in the network's similarities quantified by the Jensen-Shannon divergence in the late 1990s. We speculate that

  3. Agency, time, and causality

    PubMed Central

    Widlok, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-Western Educational Industrial Rich Democratic people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition. PMID:25414683

  4. Agency, time, and causality.

    PubMed

    Widlok, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-Western Educational Industrial Rich Democratic people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition.

  5. Rapid climate fluctuations over the past millennium: evidence from a lacustrine record of Basomtso Lake, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Wang, Yongbo

    2016-04-01

    Abrupt climate changes and fluctuations over short time scales are superimposed on long-term climate changes. Understanding rapid climate fluctuations at the decadal time scale over the past millennium will enhance our understanding of patterns of climate variability and aid in forecasting climate changes in the future. In this study, climate changes on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past millennium were determined from a 4.82-m-long sediment core from Basomtso Lake. At the centennial time scale, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), Little Ice Age (LIA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) are distinct in the Basomtso region. Rapid climate fluctuations inferred from five episodes with higher sediment input and likely warmer conditions, as well as seven episodes with lower sediment input and likely colder conditions, were well preserved in our record. These episodes with higher and lower sediment input are characterized by abrupt climate changes and short time durations. Spectral analysis indicates that the climate variations at the centennial scale on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau are influenced by solar activity during the past millennium.

  6. Rapid climate fluctuations over the past millennium: evidence from a lacustrine record of Basomtso Lake, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Wang, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Abrupt climate changes and fluctuations over short time scales are superimposed on long-term climate changes. Understanding rapid climate fluctuations at the decadal time scale over the past millennium will enhance our understanding of patterns of climate variability and aid in forecasting climate changes in the future. In this study, climate changes on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past millennium were determined from a 4.82-m-long sediment core from Basomtso Lake. At the centennial time scale, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), Little Ice Age (LIA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) are distinct in the Basomtso region. Rapid climate fluctuations inferred from five episodes with higher sediment input and likely warmer conditions, as well as seven episodes with lower sediment input and likely colder conditions, were well preserved in our record. These episodes with higher and lower sediment input are characterized by abrupt climate changes and short time durations. Spectral analysis indicates that the climate variations at the centennial scale on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau are influenced by solar activity during the past millennium. PMID:27091591

  7. The influence of external forcing on subdecadal variability of regional surface temperature in CMIP5 simulations of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thanh; Sjolte, Jesper; Muscheler, Raimund

    2016-02-01

    We use Granger causality to investigate the influences of external forcings on subdecadal variability of regional near-surface air temperature (SAT) in past millennium simulations (period 850-1850 A.D.) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Our results strengthen the conclusion for robust influence of volcanic forcing on SAT during preindustrial times of the last millennium. The SAT response to solar variations is detected in tropical and subtropical regions. In other regions, this response is weak. The impact of greenhouse gases (GHGs) radiative forcing to regional SAT is weak and uncertain. This is most probably due to the low amplitude of the variations in GHGs and hence weak GHGs forcing during the preindustrial millennium. The low agreement between models in simulating the impacts of solar variations on SAT in several regions suggests the different dynamical responses in these models, possibly associated with inaccurate parameterization of the processes related to solar forcing. Our analysis suggests that internal climate variability played a more significant role than external forcings in short-term SAT variability in the regions of the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, the Arctic, the Antarctic Peninsula, and its surrounding oceans. The possibility of long-term impacts of external forcings on SAT and the uncertainties that might be contained due to effects of internal climate modes other than El Niño-Southern Oscillation underscore the necessity for a more detailed understanding of the dynamical response of SAT to external forcings.

  8. NATO Agency Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    and tested to determine its value. We take seriously the pernicious effects of the so-called “ theory – practice” gap, which would separate the...organized around a specific product or service, there are several that fill purely functional roles , such as the Research and Technology Agency...point, strategy development theory had focused on the forces of technology, size of an organization, and structural variation. In reviewing the

  9. 2 CFR 902.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENERGY Reserved REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 902.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the...

  10. 2 CFR 902.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY Reserved REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 902.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the...

  11. The Challenge and Challenging of Childhood Studies? Learning from Disability Studies and Research with Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisdall, E. Kay M.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood studies have argued for the social construction of childhood, respecting children and childhood in the present, and recognising children's agency and rights. Such perspectives have parallels to, and challenges for, disability studies. This article considers such parallels and challenges, leading to a (re)consideration of research claims…

  12. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  13. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  14. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  15. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  16. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  17. Simulated climate variability in the region of Rapa Nui during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junk, C.; Claussen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Easter Island, an isolated island in the Southeast Pacific, was settled by the Polynesians probably between 600 and 1200 AD and discovered by the Europeans in 1722 AD. While the Polynesians presumably found a profuse palm woodland on Easter Island, the Europeans faced a landscape dominated by grassland. Scientists have examined potential anthropogenic, biological and climatic induced vegetation changes on Easter Island. Here, we analyze observational climate data for the last decades and climate model results for the period 800-1750 AD to explore potential causes for a climatic-induced vegetation change. A direct influence of the ENSO phenomenon on the climatic parameters of Easter Island could not be found in the model simulations. Furthermore, strong climatic trends from a warm Medieval Period to a Little Ice Age or rapid climatic fluctuations due to large volcanic eruptions were not verifiable for the Easter Island region, although they are detectable in the simulations for many regions world wide. Hence we tentatively conclude that large-scale climate changes in the oceanic region around Easter Island might be too small to explain strong vegetation changes on the island over the last millennium.

  18. Spatiotemporal drought variability of the eastern Tibetan Plateau during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yang; Gou, Xiaohua; Gao, Linlin; Yang, Meixue; Zhang, Fen

    2016-11-01

    Tibetan Plateau is the headwater region of many major Asian rivers and very susceptive to climate change. Therefore, knowledge about climate and its spatiotemporal variability in this area is very important for ecological conservation, water resource management and social development. The aim of this study was to reconstruct and analyze the hydroclimate variation on eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP) over many centuries and explore possible forcing factors on regional hydroclimate variability. We used 118 tree-ring chronologies from ETP to reconstruct the gridded May-July Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for the ETP over the last millennium. The reconstruction was developed using an ensemble point-by-point reconstruction method, and a searching region method was used to locate the candidate tree-ring chronologies. The reconstructions have nicely captured the spatial and temporal features of the regional drought variation. The drought variations in south and north of 32.5°N are notably different, which may be related to the divergence influence of North Atlantic Oscillation on the climate systems in the south and north, as well as differences in local climate. Spectral analysis and series comparison suggest that the drought variation in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau has been possibly influenced by solar activity on centurial and longer time scale.

  19. Ranking of tree-ring based temperature reconstructions of the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esper, Jan; Krusic, Paul J.; Ljungqvist, Fredrik C.; Luterbacher, Jürg; Carrer, Marco; Cook, Ed; Davi, Nicole K.; Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Konter, Oliver; Myglan, Vladimir; Timonen, Mauri; Treydte, Kerstin; Trouet, Valerie; Villalba, Ricardo; Yang, Bao; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-08-01

    Tree-ring chronologies are widely used to reconstruct high-to low-frequency variations in growing season temperatures over centuries to millennia. The relevance of these timeseries in large-scale climate reconstructions is often determined by the strength of their correlation against instrumental temperature data. However, this single criterion ignores several important quantitative and qualitative characteristics of tree-ring chronologies. Those characteristics are (i) data homogeneity, (ii) sample replication, (iii) growth coherence, (iv) chronology development, and (v) climate signal including the correlation with instrumental data. Based on these 5 characteristics, a reconstruction-scoring scheme is proposed and applied to 39 published, millennial-length temperature reconstructions from Asia, Europe, North America, and the Southern Hemisphere. Results reveal no reconstruction scores highest in every category and each has their own strengths and weaknesses. Reconstructions that perform better overall include N-Scan and Finland from Europe, E-Canada from North America, Yamal and Dzhelo from Asia. Reconstructions performing less well include W-Himalaya and Karakorum from Asia, Tatra and S-Finland from Europe, and Great Basin from North America. By providing a comprehensive set of criteria to evaluate tree-ring chronologies we hope to improve the development of large-scale temperature reconstructions spanning the past millennium. All reconstructions and their corresponding scores are provided at http://www.blogs.uni-mainz.de/fb09climatology.

  20. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population's access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies.

  1. Teleconnected ocean forcing of Western North American droughts and pluvials during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routson, Cody C.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; McKay, Nicholas P.

    2016-08-01

    Western North America (WNA) is rich in hydroclimate reconstructions, yet questions remain about the causes of decadal-to-multidecadal hydroclimate variability. Teleconnection patterns preserved in annually-resolved tree-ring reconstructed drought maps, and anomalies in a global network of proxy sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions, were used to reassess the evidence linking ocean forcing to WNA hydroclimate variability over the past millennium. Potential forcing mechanisms of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and individual drought and pluvial events-including two multidecadal-length MCA pluvials-were evaluated. We show strong teleconnection patterns occurred during the driest (wettest) years within persistent droughts (pluvials), implicating SSTs as a potent hydroclimate forcing mechanism. The role of the SSTs on longer timescales is more complex. Pacific teleconnection patterns show little long-term change, whereas low-resolution SST reconstructions vary over decades to centuries. While weaker than the tropical Pacific teleconnections, North Atlantic teleconnection patterns and SST reconstructions also show links to WNA droughts and pluvials, and may in part account for longer-term WNA hydroclimate changes. Nonetheless, evidence linking WNA hydroclimate to SSTs still remains sparse and nuanced-especially over long-timescales with a broader range of hydroclimatic variability than characterized during the 20th century.

  2. Multidecadal to multicentury scale collapses of Northern Hemisphere monsoons over the past millennium

    PubMed Central

    Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor J.; Rasmussen, Jessica B. T.; Burns, Stephen J.; Lachniet, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Late Holocene climate in western North America was punctuated by periods of extended aridity called megadroughts. These droughts have been linked to cool eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here, we show both short-term and long-term climate variability over the last 1,500 y from annual band thickness and stable isotope speleothem data. Several megadroughts are evident, including a multicentury one, AD 1350–1650, herein referred to as Super Drought, which corresponds to the coldest period of the Little Ice Age. Synchronicity between southwestern North American, Chinese, and West African monsoon precipitation suggests the megadroughts were hemispheric in scale. Northern Hemisphere monsoon strength over the last millennium is positively correlated with Northern Hemisphere temperature and North Atlantic SST. The megadroughts are associated with cooler than average SST and Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Furthermore, the megadroughts, including the Super Drought, coincide with solar insolation minima, suggesting that solar forcing of sea surface and atmospheric temperatures may generate variations in the strength of Northern Hemisphere monsoons. Our findings seem to suggest stronger (wetter) Northern Hemisphere monsoons with increased warming. PMID:23716648

  3. Filling the Eastern European gap in millennium-long temperature reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Büntgen, Ulf; Kyncl, Tomáš; Ginzler, Christian; Jacks, David S.; Esper, Jan; Tegel, Willy; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Kyncl, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tree ring–based temperature reconstructions form the scientific backbone of the current global change debate. Although some European records extend into medieval times, high-resolution, long-term, regional-scale paleoclimatic evidence is missing for the eastern part of the continent. Here we compile 545 samples of living trees and historical timbers from the greater Tatra region to reconstruct interannual to centennial-long variations in Eastern European May–June temperature back to 1040 AD. Recent anthropogenic warming exceeds the range of past natural climate variability. Increased plague outbreaks and political conflicts, as well as decreased settlement activities, coincided with temperature depressions. The Black Death in the mid-14th century, the Thirty Years War in the early 17th century, and the French Invasion of Russia in the early 19th century all occurred during the coldest episodes of the last millennium. A comparison with summer temperature reconstructions from Scandinavia, the Alps, and the Pyrenees emphasizes the seasonal and spatial specificity of our results, questioning those large-scale reconstructions that simply average individual sites. PMID:23319641

  4. Driving forces of global wildfires over the past millennium and the forthcoming century.

    PubMed

    Pechony, O; Shindell, D T

    2010-11-09

    Recent bursts in the incidence of large wildfires worldwide have raised concerns about the influence climate change and humans might have on future fire activity. Comparatively little is known, however, about the relative importance of these factors in shaping global fire history. Here we use fire and climate modeling, combined with land cover and population estimates, to gain a better understanding of the forces driving global fire trends. Our model successfully reproduces global fire activity record over the last millennium and reveals distinct regimes in global fire behavior. We find that during the preindustrial period, the global fire regime was strongly driven by precipitation (rather than temperature), shifting to an anthropogenic-driven regime with the Industrial Revolution. Our future projections indicate an impending shift to a temperature-driven global fire regime in the 21st century, creating an unprecedentedly fire-prone environment. These results suggest a possibility that in the future climate will play a considerably stronger role in driving global fire trends, outweighing direct human influence on fire (both ignition and suppression), a reversal from the situation during the last two centuries.

  5. Characterizing strong lensing galaxy clusters using the Millennium-XXL and MOKA simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, Carlo; Bonamigo, Mario; Limousin, Marceau; Meneghetti, Massimo; Moscardini, Lauro; Angulo, Raul E.; Despali, Giulia; Jullo, Eric

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the strong lensing statistics in galaxyclusters. We extract dark matter haloes from the Millennium-XXL simulation, compute their Einstein radius distribution, and find a very good agreement with Monte Carlo predictions produced with the MOKA code. The distribution of the Einstein radii is well described by a lognormal distribution, with a considerable fraction of the largest systems boosted by different projection effects. We discuss the importance of substructures and triaxiality in shaping the size of the critical lines for cluster size haloes. We then model and interpret the different deviations, accounting for the presence of a Brightest Central Galaxy (BCG) and two different stellar mass density profiles. We present scaling relations between weak lensing quantities and the size of the Einstein radii. Finally, we discuss how sensible is the distribution of the Einstein radii on the cosmological parameters ΩM - σ8 finding that cosmologies with higher ΩM and σ8 possess a large sample of strong lensing clusters. The Einstein radius distribution may help distinguish Planck13 and WMAP7 cosmology at 3σ.

  6. Forensic anthropology: developments of a classical discipline in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-01-17

    The present brief review is a survey of the role of forensic anthropology (FA) in the new millennium. After an introduction which deals with the expanding definition of the discipline and the issue of professionality and training, the author approaches the role and novel developments of the field, with particular reference to the past 5 years. Such developments are discussed in a sectorial manner, distinguishing the role of research in the areas of forensic anthropology which deal with human remains and those that deal with the living. As regards the "human remains" domain, advances and stalls still present in the fields of species and postmortem interval determination, sexing, aging and attribution of ancestry are stressed. The need for standards in facial reconstruction and positive identification by bone morphology are underlined, as well as the growing role of the anthropologist in detecting signs of trauma. Finally, the relatively new role of the forensic anthropologist in the domain of identification of the living is described, although this area is still underrepresented as regards research activity: these studies concern the strive to devise methods for identifying faces (e.g. in the case of crimes registered by videosurveillance systems), aging living individuals or juveniles represented in pedopornographic material.

  7. Variation of solar activity recorded in Korean chronicles during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-Jin; Jeon, Junhyeok

    2015-08-01

    Korea has a long history in astronomy, which is proved by many observational records written in Korean chronicles. There are 43 sunspot records in Goryeo dynasty (918-1392) and 13 records in Joseon dynasty (1392-1910). According to analysis of Korean historical records, it is known that sunspot records in Goryeo dynasty show well in match with the well-known solar activity of 11.3 years. It means that Korean historical sunspot records show real solar phenomena. Korean sunspot records also show that solar activity decrease in Joseon dynasty compared with the previous ~500 years. In order to know the change of solar activity in detail, we examine Korean historical atmospheric records which can indicate climate change. We first analyze historical frost records. Korean chronicles have around 600 frost records during the last millennium. We find that the climate change shows sign of cooling down when check the variation of epoch that the first and last frost events in each year are written. This result is well in accord with that of historical sunspot records. Therefore, we claim that solar activity decrease during the last thousand years.

  8. Performance of Major Flare Watches from the Max Millennium Program (2001 - 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, D. S.; Gallagher, P. T.; Marquette, W. H.; Milligan, R. O.; Canfield, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    The physical processes that trigger solar flares are not well understood, and significant debate remains around processes governing particle acceleration, energy partition, and particle and energy transport. Observations at high resolution in energy, time, and space are required in multiple energy ranges over the whole course of many flares to build an understanding of these processes. Obtaining high-quality, co-temporal data from ground- and space- based instruments is crucial to achieving this goal and was the primary motivation for starting the Max Millennium program and Major Flare Watch (MFW) alerts, aimed at coordinating observations of all flares ≥ X1 GOES X-ray classification (including those partially occulted by the limb). We present a review of the performance of MFWs from 1 February 2001 to 31 May 2010, inclusive, which finds that (1) 220 MFWs were issued in 3407 days considered (6.5 % duty cycle), with these occurring in 32 uninterrupted periods that typically last 2 - 8 days; (2) 56% of flares ≥ X1 were caught, occurring in 19 % of MFW days; (3) MFW periods ended at suitable times, but substantial gain could have been achieved in percentage of flares caught if periods had started 24 h earlier; (4) MFWs successfully forecast X-class flares with a true skill statistic (TSS) verification metric score of 0.500, that is comparable to a categorical flare/no-flare interpretation of the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Centre probabilistic forecasts (TSS = 0.488).

  9. Household water treatment and the millennium development goals: keeping the focus on health.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas F

    2010-10-01

    Waterborne diseases such as diarrhea are a major killer in low-income settings, particularly of young children. For those without access to safe drinking water, household water treatment, such as boiling, chlorinating, and filtering water in the home, when combined with safe storage (HWTS) can significantly improve water quality and prevent disease, thereby contributing to the child survival and other health priorities encompassed within the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). There is uncertainly, however, about whether HWTS should count toward the MDG water target, which promotes "sustainable access to safe drinking water". This paper reviews the relevant research and concludes that it should not. Although HWTS can significantly improve water quality, it does not improve water quantity and access-key aspects of the MDG water target that are essential for optimal improvements in health and development. A policy that excludes HWTS from the MDG water target will discourage governments from diverting scarce public resources from comprehensive and long-term improvements in water supplies. At the same time, the health-oriented MDGs provide a sufficient case for scaling up effective and appropriate HWTS among target populations. Moreover, a health-based strategy for HWTS will help ensure that promotion of the intervention is driven by measurable improvements in outcomes rather than inputs, thus encouraging advances in both hardware and programmatic delivery that will make HWTS more effective, appropriate, and accessible to vulnerable populations.

  10. Hunting for genes for hypertension: the Millennium Genome Project for Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tabara, Yasuharu; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Miki, Tetsuro

    2012-06-01

    The Millennium Genome Project for Hypertension was started in 2000 to identify genetic variants conferring susceptibility to hypertension, with the aim of furthering the understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition and realizing genome-based personalized medical care. Two different approaches were launched, genome-wide association analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellite markers, and systematic candidate gene analysis, under the hypothesis that common variants have an important role in the etiology of common diseases. These multilateral approaches identified ATP2B1 as a gene responsible for hypertension in not only Japanese but also Caucasians. The high blood pressure susceptibility conferred by certain alleles of ATP2B1 has been widely replicated in various populations. Ex vivo mRNA expression analysis in umbilical artery smooth muscle cells indicated that reduced expression of this gene associated with the risk allele may be an underlying mechanism relating the ATP2B1 variant to hypertension. However, the effect size of a SNP was too small to clarify the entire picture of the genetic basis of hypertension. Further, dense genome analysis with accurate phenotype data may be required.

  11. Going Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: An Index System of Human Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wu; Dietz, Thomas; Kramer, Daniel Boyd; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the linkages between ecosystem services (ES) and human well-being (HWB) is crucial to sustain the flow of ES for HWB. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) provided a state-of-the-art synthesis of such knowledge. However, due to the complexity of the linkages between ES and HWB, there are still many knowledge gaps, and in particular a lack of quantitative indicators and integrated models based on the MA framework. To fill some of these research needs, we developed a quantitative index system to measure HWB, and assessed the impacts of an external driver – the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake – on HWB. Our results suggest that our proposed index system of HWB is well-designed, valid and could be useful for better understanding the linkages between ES and HWB. The earthquake significantly affected households' well-being in our demonstration sites. Such impacts differed across space and across the five dimensions of the sub-index (i.e., the basic material for good life, security, health, good social relations, and freedom of choice and action). Since the conceptual framework is based on the generalizable MA framework, our methods should also be applicable to other study areas. PMID:23717635

  12. A millennium of metallurgy recorded by lake sediments from Morococha, Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Colin A; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P; Kittleson, John L

    2007-05-15

    To date, information concerning pre-Colonial metallurgy in South America has largely been limited to the archaeological record of artifacts. Here, we reconstruct a millennium of smelting activity in the Peruvian Andes using the lake-sediment stratigraphy of atmospherically derived metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Sb, Bi, and Ti) and lead isotopic ratios (206Pb/ 207Pb) associated with smelting from the Morococha mining region in the central Peruvian Andes. The earliest evidence for metallurgy occurs ca. 1000 A.D., coinciding with the fall of the Wari Empire and decentralization of local populations. Smelting during this interval appears to have been aimed at copper and copper alloys, because of large increases in Zn and Cu relative to Pb. A subsequent switch to silver metallurgy under Inca control (ca. 1450 to conquest, 1533 A.D.) is indicated by increases in Pb, Sb, and Bi, a conclusion supported by further increases of these metals during Colonial mining, which targeted silver extraction. Rapid development of the central Andes during the 20th century raised metal burdens by an order of magnitude above previous levels. Our results represent the first evidence for pre-Colonial smelting in the central Peruvian Andes, and corroborate the sensitivity of lake sediments to pre-Colonial metallurgical activity suggested by earlier findings from Bolivia.

  13. A utility perspective on the deployment of CCTs into the next millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Mudd, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The successful Clean Coal Technology projects which are being discussed in this conference are all a testament to the positive advancements that can be made with environmentally superior technologies when the government and industry cooperate in the context of a properly funded and a well thought-out program. Many of the technologies developed in the Clean Coal Technology Program have taken a competitive position in the marketplace, and many others are on the verge of being competitive in the marketplace. Based on the success of the Clean Coal Technology Program, one would expect that they would be ready for full deployment in the marketplace with the approach of the next millennium. This is not happening. There are several hurdles that impede their deployment. Some of those hurdles, such as the higher first-of-a-kind cost and technology risk factors that accompany not-yet mature technologies, have existed since the initiation of the Clean Coal Technology Program. However, several new hurdles are impeding the market penetration of Clean Coal Technologies. Those hurdles include the radically different marketplace due to the restructuring of the electric utility industry, a soft market, the difficulty in financing new power plants, low natural gas prices, and lower-cost and higher-efficiency natural gas combined cycle technology.

  14. State downsizing as a determinant of infant mortality and achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4.

    PubMed

    Palma-Solís, Marco Antonio; Alvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos; Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the worldwide effect of state downsizing policies on achievement of U.N. Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) on infant mortality rates. In an ecological retrospective cohort study of 161 countries, from 1978 to 2002, the authors analyzed changes in government consumption (GC) as determining exposure to achievement of MDG4. Descriptive methods and a multiple logistic regression were applied to adjust for changes in gross domestic product, level of democracy, and income inequality. Excess infant mortality in the exposed countries, attributable to reductions in GC, was estimated. Fifty countries were found to have reduced GC, and 111 had increased GC. The gap in infant mortality rate between these groups of countries doubled in the study period. Non-achievement of MDG4 was associated with reductions in GC and increases in income inequality. The excess infant mortality attributable to GC reductions in the exposed countries from 1990 to 2002 was 4,473,348 deaths. The probability of achieving MDG4 seems to be seriously compromised for many countries because of reduced public sector expenditure during the last 25 years of the 20th century, in response to World Bank/International Monetary Fund Washington Consensus policies. This seeming contradiction between the goals of different U.N. branches may be undermining achievement of MDG4 and should be taken into account when developing future global governance policy.

  15. Impact of training on emergency resuscitation skills: Impact on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5.

    PubMed

    Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2015-11-01

    Although significant progress has been made towards Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 and 5 targets, maternal and neonatal mortality rates remain unacceptably high in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The potential for improvements in maternal and neonatal health outcomes with increased facility utilization in these countries is undermined by a lack of appropriate and timely treatment. Skilful emergency resuscitation can be the difference between life and death; therefore, training in emergency resuscitation is essential for health-care practitioners at all levels, with regular refresher sessions to ensure skill retention. Whilst there is little robust evidence on the impact of resuscitation training interventions on practitioner skills or patient outcomes, such training interventions are likely to have the greatest impact if integrated into a broader approach to improve the quality of care. Accelerated investments in training must go hand in hand with ensuring the availability of quality equipment and upgrading infrastructure to reduce the gap between current MDG status and what is achieved by the end of 2015; and to accelerate reductions in mortality rates beyond 2015 towards new Countdown targets.

  16. Multidecadal to multicentury scale collapses of Northern Hemisphere monsoons over the past millennium.

    PubMed

    Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor J; Rasmussen, Jessica B T; Burns, Stephen J; Lachniet, Matthew

    2013-06-11

    Late Holocene climate in western North America was punctuated by periods of extended aridity called megadroughts. These droughts have been linked to cool eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here, we show both short-term and long-term climate variability over the last 1,500 y from annual band thickness and stable isotope speleothem data. Several megadroughts are evident, including a multicentury one, AD 1350-1650, herein referred to as Super Drought, which corresponds to the coldest period of the Little Ice Age. Synchronicity between southwestern North American, Chinese, and West African monsoon precipitation suggests the megadroughts were hemispheric in scale. Northern Hemisphere monsoon strength over the last millennium is positively correlated with Northern Hemisphere temperature and North Atlantic SST. The megadroughts are associated with cooler than average SST and Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Furthermore, the megadroughts, including the Super Drought, coincide with solar insolation minima, suggesting that solar forcing of sea surface and atmospheric temperatures may generate variations in the strength of Northern Hemisphere monsoons. Our findings seem to suggest stronger (wetter) Northern Hemisphere monsoons with increased warming.

  17. Dust at the Poles during the Past Three Millennium: Linkages to Climate and Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, J. R.; Arienzo, M. M.; Chellman, N.; Curran, M. A.; Fritzsche, D.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Mulvaney, R.; Sigl, M.; Steffensen, J. P.; Wilson, A.; Yau, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Continental dust plays an important role in climate forcing, by interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation and by impacting albedo when deposited on bright surfaces such as fresh snow. Continental dust may also play an important role in ocean fertilization and carbon sequestration. Because the lifetime of dust aerosol in the atmosphere is only on the order of days to weeks, spatial and temporal variability in concentrations and fluxes is high and understanding of recent and long term changes is limited. Therefore, understanding of natural variations and climate drivers of continental dust, and potential climate feedbacks on longer timescales is critical. Here we present and discuss continuous, high depth resolution measurements of a range of dust proxies in high latitude ice cores from the Arctic and Antarctic. Sub-annually resolved measurements provide insights into the temporal variations in dust deposition. Included are traditional proxies such as non-sea-salt (nss) calcium and insoluble particle number and size distribution as well as less traditional proxies such as rare earth elements which together provide important insights into how dust sources and transport may have changed in the past. We compare these detailed dust records with climate and land use proxies to investigate drivers of dustiness during the last three millennium.

  18. Social Work Gerontological Practice: The Need for Faculty Development in the New Millennium.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Barbara; Silverstone, Barbara; June Simmons, W; Volland, Patricia J; Howe, Judith L

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need to upgrade the gerontological knowledge and skills of practicing social workers. Geriatrics and gerontology, as specialized fields of knowledge, have not been sufficiently integrated into formal academic training programs. There are major trends in the health care environment which impact on social work education, including technological advances, a shift from inpatient to outpatient and community care settings, increasing diversity of the older population, and client and family participation in decisionmaking. These trends necessitate social work education to emphasize new content areas in gerontology and the development of new skills in clinical, case management, care coordination, and teamwork. A significant obstacle to the preparation of future social workers to deliver the complex services needed by older adults and their families is a serious shortage of social work faculty in gerontology. Sustained and broad initiatives, such as the John A. Hartford Foundation funded Geriatric Social Work Faculty Scholars Program, are needed to develop academic and practice-based faculty in gerontology. This is crucial if social work is to maintain an important service role in the new millennium.

  19. Teleconnected ocean forcing of Western North American droughts and pluvials during the last millennium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Routson, Cody C.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; McKay, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Western North America (WNA) is rich in hydroclimate reconstructions, yet questions remain about the causes of decadal-to-multidecadal hydroclimate variability. Teleconnection patterns preserved in annually-resolved tree-ring reconstructed drought maps, and anomalies in a global network of proxy sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions, were used to reassess the evidence linking ocean forcing to WNA hydroclimate variability over the past millennium. Potential forcing mechanisms of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and individual drought and pluvial events—including two multidecadal-length MCA pluvials—were evaluated. We show strong teleconnection patterns occurred during the driest (wettest) years within persistent droughts (pluvials), implicating SSTs as a potent hydroclimate forcing mechanism. The role of the SSTs on longer timescales is more complex. Pacific teleconnection patterns show little long-term change, whereas low-resolution SST reconstructions vary over decades to centuries. While weaker than the tropical Pacific teleconnections, North Atlantic teleconnection patterns and SST reconstructions also show links to WNA droughts and pluvials, and may in part account for longer-term WNA hydroclimate changes. Nonetheless, evidence linking WNA hydroclimate to SSTs still remains sparse and nuanced—especially over long-timescales with a broader range of hydroclimatic variability than characterized during the 20th century.

  20. SATELLITES AROUND MASSIVE GALAXIES SINCE z {approx} 2: CONFRONTING THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION WITH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Quilis, Vicent; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2012-06-20

    Minor merging has been postulated as the most likely evolutionary path to produce the increase in size and mass observed in the massive galaxies since z {approx} 2. In this Letter, we directly test this hypothesis, comparing the population of satellites around massive galaxies in cosmological simulations versus the observations. We use state-of-the-art, publically available, Millennium I and II simulations, and the associated semi-analytical galaxy catalogs to explore the time evolution of the fraction of massive galaxies that have satellites, the number of satellites per galaxy, the projected distance at which the satellites locate from the host galaxy, and the mass ratio between the host galaxies and their satellites. The three virtual galaxy catalogs considered here overproduce the fraction of galaxies with satellites by a factor ranging between 1.5 and 6 depending on the epoch, whereas the mean projected distance and ratio of the satellite mass over host mass are in closer agreement with data. The larger pull of satellites in the semi-analytical samples could suggest that the size evolution found in previous hydrodynamical simulations is an artifact due to the larger number of infalling satellites compared to the real universe. These results advise us to revise the physical ingredients implemented in the semi-analytical models in order to reconcile the observed and computed fraction of galaxies with satellites, and eventually, it would leave some room for other mechanisms explaining the galaxy size growth not related to the minor merging.

  1. Meeting the millennium development goals in Sub-saharan Africa: what about mental health?

    PubMed

    Skeen, Sarah; Lund, Crick; Kleintjes, Sharon; Flisher, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Mental health is a crucial public health and development issue in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), a region where little progress has been made towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In this paper we argue that not only will limited progress in achieving these targets have a significant impact on mental health, but it will be impossible to achieve some of these aspirations in the absence of addressing mental health concerns. We consider the strong relationship of mental health with dimensions of human development represented in the MDGs, including reducing poverty, achieving universal primary education, decreasing child mortality rates, improving maternal health, HIV, environmental factors and improving the lives of those living in informal settlements. With these links in mind, we examine the mental health context in SSA settings and provide some specific examples of best practice for addressing mental health and the MDGs. It is recommended that the role of mental health interventions in accelerating the realization of the MDGs is investigated; further efforts are dedicated to probing the impact of different development projects upon mental health outcomes, and that mental health is declared a global development priority for the remainder of the MDG period and beyond.

  2. Century/millennium internal climate oscillations in an ocean-atmosphere-continental ice sheet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchfield, Edward G.; Wang, Huaxiao; Rich, Jonathan J.

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrate in a simple climate model that there exist nonlinear feedbacks between the atmosphere, ocean, and ice sheets capable of producing century/millennium timescale internal oscillations resembling those seen in the paleoclimate record. Feedbacks involve meridional heat and salt transports in the North Atlantic, surface ocean freshwater fluxes associated with melting and growing continental ice sheets in the northen hemisphere and with Atlantic to Pacific water vapor transport. The positive feedback between the production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and the meridional salt transport by the Atlantic thermohaline circulation tends to destabilize the climate system, while the negative feedback between the freshwater flux, either to or from the continental ice sheets, and meridional heat flux to the high-latitude North Atlantic, accomplished by the thermohaline circulation, stabilizes the system. The thermohaline circulation plays a central role in both positive and negative feedbacks because of its transport of both heat and salt. Because of asymmetries between the growth and melt phases the oscillations are, in general, accompanied by a growing or decreasing ice volume over each cycle, which in the model is reflected by increasing or decreasing mean salinity.

  3. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Fakir Md.; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population’s access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies. PMID:26891310

  4. Health Research and Millennium Development Goals: Identifying the Gap From Public Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    El Lawindi, Mona I; Galal, Yasmine S; Khairy, Walaa A

    2015-08-23

    Assessing the research output within the universities could provide an effective means for tracking the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) progress. This analytical database study was designed to assess the trend of research theses conducted by the Public Health Department (PHD), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University during the period 1990 to 2014 as related to the: MDGS, Faculty and department research priority plans and to identify the discrepancies between researchers' priorities versus national and international research priorities. A manual search of the theses was done at the Postgraduate Library using a specially designed checklist to chart adherence of each thesis to: MDGs, Faculty and department research plans (RPs). The theses' profile showed that the highest research output was for addressing the MDGS followed by the PHD and Faculty RPs. Compliance to MDGs 5 and 6 was obvious, whereas; MDGs 2, 3, and 7 were not represented at all after year 2000. No significant difference was found between PH theses addressing the Faculty RPs and those which were not before and after 2010. A significantly lower percent of PH theses was fulfilling the PHD research priorities compared to those which were not after 2010. This study showed a definite decline in research output tackling the MDGS and PHD research priorities, with a non-significant increase in the production of theses addressing the Faculty RPs. The present study is a practical model for policy makers within the universities to develop and implement a reliable monitoring and evaluation system for assessment of research output.

  5. Influence of external climate forcing on coastal upwelling systems analysed in ensemble of past millennium climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tim, Nele; Zorita, Eduardo; Hünicke, Birgit; Yi, Xin; Emeis, Kay

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems are highly productive coastal ocean areas where nutrient rich, cold water upwells by the action of favorable winds. Observations over the 20th century and ocean sediment records, which may be indicative of upwelling, display an intensification due to stronger external climate forcing, such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations or changes in solar irradiance. This intensification is compatible with the hypothesis put forward by Bakun (1990) that a stronger external radiative forcing should lead to a more intense coastal upwelling. Here, we analyze ensemble of simulations covering the past millennium with the aim of identifying and quantifying the role of external climate forcing on upwelling in the major Eastern Boundary Upwelling System. We analyse the decadal variability and centennial trends of upwelling in ensemble of simulations with the global climate model MPI-ESM covering the past millennium, the last 150 years and the next 100 years. The future simulations were driven by three IPCC scenarios of concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, RCP2.5, RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5. For the past millennium and the last 150 years, coastal upwelling does not show any imprint of external forcing. This result indicates that chaotic internal variability has dominated upwelling intensity in major upwelling regions over the last thousand years and even since industrialisation up to present. For the 21st century, all ensemble members show a consistent and significant intensification of upwelling in the strongest scenario RCP8.5 for the Benguela upwelling region, consistent and significant weakening for Morocco and California, and no significant change for the Peruvian upwelling. Weaker scenarios do not produce consistent long-term trends that are replicated in all ensemble members. The results are confirmed by analysing another ensemble of past millennium simulations with the model CESM-CAM5 (Community Earth System Model

  6. Developing Moral Agency through Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This paper poses the following question: When, in spite of knowing that it is wrong, people go on to hurt others, what does this mean for the development of moral agency? We begin by defining moral agency and briefly sketching relations between moral agency and other concepts. We then outline what three extant literatures suggest about this…

  7. The role and value of conservation agency research.

    PubMed

    Roux, Dirk J; Kingsford, Richard T; McCool, Stephen F; McGeoch, Melodie A; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C

    2015-06-01

    Governments charge their conservation agencies to safeguard biodiversity through protected areas and threat mitigation. Increasingly, conservation management and policy need to be supported by rigorous evidence provided by science. As such, institutional arrangements should consider and enable effective scientific research and information dissemination. What role can in-house agency research play in responding to this challenge? We examined the research capabilities of three conservation agencies from Australia, South Africa, and United States. Seven indicators were used to characterize the reliability and relevance of agency research. We found similarities among agencies in their patterns of peer-reviewed publication, cultures of research collaboration, and tendencies to align research with organizational objectives. Among the many and diverse activities that constitute the role of a contemporary agency researcher, we emphasize two key research dimensions: reliability, achieved through peer-reviewed research output, and relevance, achieved through active stakeholder engagement. Amid increasingly challenging realities for conservation of ecosystems, agency science functions are vital to providing the evidence base required for effective management and policy development.

  8. The Role and Value of Conservation Agency Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Dirk J.; Kingsford, Richard T.; McCool, Stephen F.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C.

    2015-06-01

    Governments charge their conservation agencies to safeguard biodiversity through protected areas and threat mitigation. Increasingly, conservation management and policy need to be supported by rigorous evidence provided by science. As such, institutional arrangements should consider and enable effective scientific research and information dissemination. What role can in-house agency research play in responding to this challenge? We examined the research capabilities of three conservation agencies from Australia, South Africa, and United States. Seven indicators were used to characterize the reliability and relevance of agency research. We found similarities among agencies in their patterns of peer-reviewed publication, cultures of research collaboration, and tendencies to align research with organizational objectives. Among the many and diverse activities that constitute the role of a contemporary agency researcher, we emphasize two key research dimensions: reliability, achieved through peer-reviewed research output, and relevance, achieved through active stakeholder engagement. Amid increasingly challenging realities for conservation of ecosystems, agency science functions are vital to providing the evidence base required for effective management and policy development.

  9. Staffing Smaller Police Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, David A.; Colombo, Michael

    2010-01-01

    All aspects of police work are challenging both professionally and personally. Police officers are accustomed to shift work, mandatory overtime, schedule adjustments for training, holidays and disasters, recalls and required off-duty court appearances. Police officers traditionally work eight hours per day, five day weeks (otherwise known as a 5/8…

  10. Safeguards by Design Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    2016-09-13

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines Safeguards as a system of inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials as part of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. IAEA oversees safeguards worldwide. Safeguards by Design (SBD) involves incorporation of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation during the design phase of a facility, rather that after the fact. Design challenge goals are the following: Design a system of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation for inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials. Cost should be minimized to work with the IAEA’s limited budget. Dose to workers should always be as low are reasonably achievable (ALARA). Time is of the essence in operating facilities and flow of material should not be interrupted significantly. Proprietary process information in facilities may need to be protected, thus the amount of information obtained by inspectors should be the minimum required to achieve the measurement goal. Then three different design challenges are detailed: Plutonium Waste Item Measurement System, Marine-based Modular Reactor, and Floating Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP).

  11. Monsoon dynamics over the past millennium on the southern-central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlborn, Marieke; Haberzettl, Torsten; Kasper, Thomas; Henkel, Karoline; Doberschütz, Stefan; Daut, Gerhard; Reinwarth, Bastian; Ju, Jianting; Wang, Junbo; Zhu, Liping; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has experienced abrupt climate change superimposed by a gradual weakening of the summer monsoon systems during the Holocene. Although lake sediment records from the Tibetan Plateau are considered to be particularly sensitive to climate variations a holistic picture of the spatial and temporal monsoon evolution is still lacking due to the interplay of different moisture-transporting wind systems (Indian summer monsoon, East Asian summer monsoon, Westerlies). Closing this data gap is important since the Tibetan Plateau is a key area for understanding the climate evolution and its impact on the availability of current and future water resources in Central Asia. Hence, well-dated and high-resolution records are essential to improve the understanding of the spatial and temporal monsoonal evolution. To investigate the hydrological cycle indicating past monsoon variability on the southern-central Tibetan Plateau, records of several lakes were studied along an E-W-transect including Nam Co, Tangra Yumco, Taro Co and a small lake named TT Lake. In this study, a high-resolution sediment record from TT Lake (31.10° N, 86.57° E; 4,745 m asl) was investigated to reveal monsoonal dynamics and northern hemispheric climate oscillations over the past millennium. The 9 m deep TT Lake has a surface area of ~14,500 sqm and is located ~1,500 m west and 205 m above the recent western shoreline of Tangra Yumco. Terraces of former lake level highstands indicate that the TT Lake was part of the Tangra Yumco, but the timing remains unknown. Three sediment gravity cores, obtained in 2011 and 2012, were investigated with geochemical and sedimentological methods. By now a sedimentological core description, magnetic susceptibility data, radiocarbon age determinations, XRF scanning data, and grain size data are available. Further bio-geochemical as well as magnetostratigraphic analyses are in progress. The sedimentological description of the 50 to 89 cm long cores revealed

  12. Modelling Uncertainties in the Climate of the Last Millennium: the ASTER Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loutre, M.; Mouchet, A.; Fichefet, T.; Goosse, H.; Huybrechts, P.

    2008-12-01

    The LOVECLIM model (Driesschaert et al., 2007; Goosse et al., 2007) is used to simulate the climate of the last millennium with several 'climate' parameter sets yielding different sensitivities of the climate and the carbon cycle model. The purpose of these simulations is twofold. We intend to assess first the role of the carbon cycle on the climate, and second, the ability of the different selected parameter sets to drive the model within the range of the observed climate, and further to assess the uncertainty related to these parameters. The high frequency variability of the forcings is taken into account. For each set of parameters, LOVECLIM is driven by the natural evolution of insolation, solar irradiance and stratospheric aerosol concentrations due to volcanic activity as well as by changes caused by human activities such as deforestation, CO2 emission or concentration changes, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases other than CO2 (including ozone) and in sulphate aerosol load. Several transient experiments are conducted for each parameter set. A first transient simulation (CONC) is forced with reconstructed atmospheric CO2 concentration. In the next two simulations, the emissions of carbon are taken into account, the model computing the corresponding atmospheric CO2 concentration. First (EMIS), the emissions due both to the land use changes and the fossil fuel burning are provided. Second (EFOR), only the emissions from fossil fuel burning are provided in addition to the vegetation change related to deforestation. The Northern Hemisphere annual mean temperatures simulated by the model according to the different parameter sets and carbon cycle sensitivities do not show striking differences. The general pattern shows slightly warmer conditions in the early part of the simulation and cooler ones during the Little Ice Age. At last, the global warming of the last century is also clearly simulated. The response of the carbon cycle to the evolution of

  13. The Aegean in the Early 7th Millennium BC: Maritime Networks and Colonization.

    PubMed

    Horejs, B; Milić, B; Ostmann, F; Thanheiser, U; Weninger, B; Galik, A

    The process of Near Eastern neolithization and its westward expansion from the core zone in the Levant and upper Mesopotamia has been broadly discussed in recent decades, and many models have been developed to describe the spread of early farming in terms of its timing, structure, geography and sociocultural impact. Until now, based on recent intensive investigations in northwestern and western Anatolia, the discussion has mainly centred on the importance of Anatolian inland routes for the westward spread of neolithization. This contribution focuses on the potential impact of east Mediterranean and Aegean maritime networks on the spread of the Neolithic lifestyle to the western edge of the Anatolian subcontinent in the earliest phases of sedentism. Employing the longue durée model and the concept of 'social memory', we will discuss the arrival of new groups via established maritime routes. The existence of maritime networks prior to the spread of farming is already indicated by the high mobility of Epipalaeolithic/Mesolithic groups exploring the Aegean and east Mediterranean seas, and reaching, for example, the Cyclades and Cyprus. Successful navigation by these early mobile groups across the open sea is attested by the distribution of Melian obsidian. The potential existence of an additional Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) obsidian network that operated between Cappadocia/Cilicia and Cyprus further hints at the importance of maritime coastal trade. Since both the coastal and the high seas networks were apparently already well established in this early period, we may further assume appropriate knowledge of geographic routes, navigational technology and other aspects of successful seafaring. This Mesolithic/PPN maritime know-how package appears to have been used by later groups, in the early 7th millennium calBC, exploring the centre of the Anatolian Aegean coast, and in time establishing some of the first permanent settlements in that region. In the present paper, we

  14. Global Emissions of Terpenoid VOCs from Terrestrial Vegetation in the Last Millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, Alex B.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-06-16

    We investigated the millennial variability of global BVOC emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene and Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ8 GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have signicant short term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during during 1750-1850 and 1000- 15 1200, respectively) and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1 (15% and 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1 (10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% 19 20 less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1 (10% and 4% higher than during1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar We investigated the millennial variability of global BVOC emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene and Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ8GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends ofglobal isoprene emissions to be mostly a*ected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid

  15. Ethnic differences in longitudinal latent verbal profiles in the millennium cohort study*

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Yvonne; Sacker, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Development of verbal skills during early childhood and school age years is consequential for children’s educational achievement and adult outcomes. We examine ethnic differences in longitudinal latent verbal profiles and assess the contribution of family process and family resource factors to observed differences. Methods: Using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study and the latent profile analysis, we estimate longitudinal latent verbal profiles using verbal skills measured 4 times from age 3–11 years. We investigate the odds of verbal profiles by ethnicity (reported in infancy), and the extent observed differences are mediated by the home learning environment, family routines, and psychosocial environment (measured at age 3). Results: Indian children were twice as likely (OR = 2.14, CI: 1.37–3.33) to be in the high achieving profile, compared to White children. Socioeconomic markers attenuated this advantage to nonsignificance. Pakistani and Bangladeshi children were significantly more likely to be in the low performing group (OR = 2.23, CI: 1.61–3.11; OR = 3.37, CI: 2.20–5.17, respectively). Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors had the strongest mediating influence on the association between lower achieving profiles and Pakistani children, whereas for Bangladeshi children, there was mediation by the home learning environment, family routines, and psychosocial factors. Conclusion: Family process and resource factors explain ethnic differences in longitudinal latent verbal profiles. Family resources explain verbal advantages for Indian children, whereas a range of home environment and socioeconomic factors explain disparities for Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. Future policy initiatives focused on reducing ethnic disparities in children’s development should consider supporting and enhancing family resources and processes. PMID:27999155

  16. Reconstructing the behaviour of a major SW Greenland tidewater glacier over the last millennium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Danni; Mair, Doug W. F.; Rea, Brice R.; Schofield, J. Ed; Lea, James M.; Kamenos, Nick; Schoenrock, Kate; Stachnik, Lukasz

    2016-04-01

    Greenlandic tidewater glaciers have experienced widespread retreat over the last century. However, information on their dynamics prior to this are poorly constrained due to a lack of observations and paucity, in many cases of mapped or mappable deglacial evidence. Especially lacking is evidence for tidewater glacier advance during the Little Ice Age (LIA). This severely restricts our understanding of the long-term (centennial-millennial timescale) relationships between climate and calving at marine terminating margins in Greenland and elsewhere. Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS) is the most dynamic tidewater glacier in southwest Greenland having retreated >22 km since its LIA-maximum (c. 1761). This project takes advantage of the site's unique combination of terrestrial evidence of glacier change (glacial geomorphology, sedimentology, and Norse archaeology) and novel marine evidence (coralline algae) to reconstruct both its advance and retreat over the last millennium. We present glacial geomorphological mapping, which followed a morphstratigraphic approach, using a combination of aerial photos, a DEM and field mapping. Radiocarbon dating from peat sequences were used to determine the timing and rates of advance of KNS to the LIAmax. This has provided evidence for pre-LIA moraines, deglacial and neoglacial, and rapid changes in meltwater routing that may have contributed to the abandonment of nearby Norse settlements. Isotopic analysis of annually banded coralline algae (Lithothamnion glaciale), collected during summer 2015, will provide proxy evidence for changes in fjord water conditions. This data will contribute towards a millennial timescale record of tidewater glacier dynamics that will help to validate models linking calving to climate.

  17. Maternal employment and breast-feeding initiation: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer S; Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Maternal employment rates have increased rapidly in recent years and little is known about how this influences whether women start breast feeding. We examined data from the Millennium Cohort Study to determine whether a mother's employment status (full-time, part-time, self-employed, on leave, not employed/student) and employment characteristics are related to breast-feeding initiation. This analysis comprised 14 830 white mothers from Britain and Ireland (6917 employed) with singleton babies, born from 2000 to 2002. Information was obtained on infant feeding history and mother's employment when the cohort child was 9 months old. We found that women employed full-time were less likely to initiate breast feeding than mothers who were not employed/students, after adjustment for confounding factors [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89, 0.96]; however, there were no differences in breast-feeding initiation between mothers employed part-time, self-employed, or on leave and mothers who were not employed/students. Among employed mothers, those who returned to work within 4 months postpartum were less likely to start breast feeding than women who returned at 5 or 6 months [aRR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92, 0.99], and women who returned within the first 6 weeks were much less likely to start breast feeding [aRR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.94]. Mothers returning for financial reasons were also less likely to initiate breast feeding [aRR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93, 0.99] than those who returned for other reasons. Policies to increase breast feeding should address how both the time and circumstances of a mother's return to employment postpartum influence whether she decides to start breast feeding.

  18. Interannual to centennial variability of the South Asian summer monsoon over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feng; Fang, Keyan; Xu, Chenxi; Guo, Zhengtang; Borgaonkar, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    Proxy-based reconstructions have indicated that the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) has shown interannual- to centennial-scale oscillations over the past millennium; however, the variability and mechanisms that operate over different timescales remain to be explicitly identified. This is firstly because of the inadequate spatial representation within previous SASM reconstructions, which is caused by the scarcity of tree-ring records from the core monsoon region. This study used eight additional Indian tree-ring width chronologies from the core region of the SASM to update the reconstructed SASM index that covers the past 1105 years. We found that the most significant interannual variability of SASM is mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over the past few hundred years. The decadal/multidecadal oscillations show a high negative/positive correlation with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)/Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) after the late 19th century. The centennial component of the SASM, which accounts for 19.4% of the total variance, begins to weaken from the mid-13th century and reaches a minimum in the mid-15th century. The component gradually strengthens again to reach its peak in the early 17th century, followed by a decline trend toward recent. The centennial variations agree well with historical changes in solar activity before the nineteenth century that caused changes in land-sea thermal contrast. However, the close linkage between the SASM and solar activity has weakened since the Industrial era, probably because of the enhanced influence of anthropogenic aerosol emissions.

  19. Pan-Continental Droughts in North America over the Last Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Cook, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Regional droughts are common in North America, but pan-continental droughts extending across multiple regions, including the 2012 event, are rare relative to single-region events. Here, the tree-ring-derived North American Drought Atlas is used to investigate drought variability in four regions over the last millennium, focusing on pan-continental droughts. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the central plains (CP), Southwest (SW), and Southeast (SE) regions experienced drier conditions and increased occurrence of droughts and the Northwest (NW) experienced several extended pluvials. Enhanced MCA aridity in the SW and CP manifested as multidecadal megadroughts. Notably, megadroughts in these regions differed in their timing and persistence, suggesting that they represent regional events influenced by local dynamics rather than a unified, continental-scale phenomena. There is no trend in pan-continental drought occurrence, defined as synchronous droughts in three or more regions. SW, CP, and SE (SW+CP+SE) droughts are the most common, occurring in 12 percent of all years and peaking in prevalence during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; patterns involving three other regions occur in about 8 percent of years. Positive values of the Southern Oscillation index (La Nina conditions) are linked to SW, CP, and SE (SW+CP+SE) droughts and SW, CP, and NW (SW+CP+NW) droughts, whereas CP, NW, and SE (CP+NW+SE) droughts are associated with positive values of the Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. While relatively rare, pan-continental droughts are present in the paleo record and are linked to defined modes of climate variability, implying the potential for seasonal predictability. Assuming stable drought teleconnections, these events will remain an important feature of future North American hydroclimate, possibly increasing in their severity in step with other expected hydroclimate responses to increased greenhouse gas forcing.

  20. Estimating the climate variability of the last millennium on the East Antarctic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Thomas; Laepple, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative knowledge about the climate variability on the Antarctic continent is crucial to attribute and detect the anthropogenic influence, and to understand the past and future evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet. Isotope records from firn and ice cores provide information about Holocene climate variability but strong non-climate effects hamper their quantitative interpretation, especially in low-accumulation regions. So far, the magnitude and time-scale dependency of both the climate signal and the noise is largely unknown. Here, we combine 16 annually-resolved firn cores spanning the last 200 years, three records covering the last millennium as well as surface snow data from the Amundsenisen region on the East Antarctic plateau. By means of a spectral correction technique we can separate the climate signal from noise and derive, for the first time, a time-scale dependent estimate of East-Antarctic temperature variability. Our preliminary results indicate that, unlike the raw isotope data, the obtained temperature variability for our study region shows a scaling behavior with more variability on longer time scales, similar to estimates from marine SST records. The noise levels we find are in accordance with the independent surface snow sampling results from Kohnen station. An analysis of the variability in current climate models on the other hand suggests less variability on centennial time scales. The discrepancy between the model and data-based results indicates either deficiencies in the model simulations, or further unknown processes affecting the ice-core records. Our estimate of East-Antarctic climate variability thus highlights the importance of an improved understanding of Holocene climate and ice-core derived variability.

  1. Monsoon extremes and society over the past millennium on mainland Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Brendan M.; Fletcher, Roland; Wang, Shi-Yu Simon; Zottoli, Brian; Pottier, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The early 21st century has seen vigorous scientific interest in the Asian monsoon and significant development of paleo-proxies of monsoon strength. These include the Monsoon Asian Drought Atlas - a 700-year, gridded reconstruction of hydroclimate derived from 327 tree ring records - and several long speleothem records from China and India. Similar progress has been made on the study of monsoon climate dynamics through re-analysis data products and General Circulation Model diagnostics. The story has emerged of a variable monsoon over the latter Holocene, with extended droughts and anomalously wet episodes that occasionally and profoundly influenced the course of human history. We focus on Southeast Asia where an anomalous period of unstable climate coincided with the demise of the capital of the Khmer Empire at Angkor between the 14th and the 16th centuries, and we suggest that protracted periods of drought and deluge rain events, the latter of which damaged Angkor's extensive water management systems, may have been a significant factor in the subsequent transfer of the political capital away from Angkor. The late 16th and early 17th century experienced climate instability and the collapse of the Ming Dynasty in China under a period of drought, while Tonkin experienced floods and droughts throughout the 17th century. The 18th century was a period of great turmoil across Southeast Asia, when all of the region's polities saw great unrest and rapid realignment during one of the most extended periods of drought of the past millennium. New paleo-proxy records and the incorporation of historical documentation will improve future analyses of the interaction between climate extremes, social behavior and the collapse or disruption of regional societies, a subject of increasing concern given the uncertainties surrounding projections for future climate.

  2. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P. Craig; Buyon, Lucas E.; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the “big three” diseases—namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria—has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda

  3. Tree ring effects and ice core acidities clarify the volcanic record of the first millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillie, M. G. L.; McAneney, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 Plummer et al., in presenting the volcanic chronology of the Antarctic Law Dome ice core, chose to list connections to acid layers in other ice cores and also possible chronological coincidences between ice acid dates and the precise dates of frost damage, and/or reduced growth in North American bristlecone pines. We disagree with the chronological links indicated by Plummer et al. for the period before AD 700, and in this paper we show that a case can be made that better linkages between ice acid and tree ring effects occur for this period if the ice chronologies are systematically moved forward by around 7 years, consistent with a hypothesis published by Baillie in 2008. In the paper we seek to explore the proposition that frost damage rings in North American bristlecone pines are a very useful indicator of the dates of certain large explosive volcanic eruptions; the dating of major eruptions being critical for any clear understanding of volcanic forcing. This paper cannot prove that there is an error in the Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05), and in equivalent ice chronologies from the Antarctic, however, it does provide a coherent argument for an apparent ice dating offset. If the suggested offset were to prove correct it would be necessary to locate where the error occurs in the ice chronologies and in this regard the dating of the increasingly controversial Icelandic Eldgjá eruption in the AD 930s, and the China/Korean Millennium eruption which occurs some 7 years after Eldgjá, may well be critical. In addition, if the offset were to be substantiated it would have implications for the alleged identification of tephra at 429.3 m in the Greenland GRIP core, currently attributed to the Italian volcano Vesuvius and used as a critical zero error point in the GICC05 chronology.

  4. Global emissions of terpenoid VOCs from terrestrial vegetation in the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Acosta Navarro, J C; Smolander, S; Struthers, H; Zorita, E; Ekman, A M L; Kaplan, J O; Guenther, A; Arneth, A; Riipinen, I

    2014-06-16

    We investigated the millennial variability (1000 A.D.-2000 A.D.) of global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene, and Lund-Potsdam-Jena-General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission trends were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have significant short-term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr(-1) (13% and 19% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively), and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr(-1)(15% and 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr(-1)(10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr(-1) (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr(-1)(10% and 4% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.

  5. Patterns and Pathways of Evolving Catchment Response in NE Italy on a Millennium Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, L. P. H. Rens; Feiken, H. Rik

    2015-04-01

    The meso-scale landscape dynamics model, CALEROS, has been developed to simulate the interactions between climate, soil production and erosion, vegetation and land use on geomorphological to human time scales. Starting from an initial landscape consisting of a DTM, soil distribution and underlying lithology, the landscape is free to develop in response to the imposed climate variability and seismicity. In addition to changes in soil distribution and bedrock lowering, this includes the establishment of vegetation as conditioned by a selection of plant functional types and, optionally, population and land use dynamics as conditioned by land use scenarios specifying technological and dietary constraints for different periods. As such CALEROS is well-suited to investigate the relative impacts of climate, land cover and human activities on the hydrological catchment response and the associated sediment fluxes due to soil erosion and mass movements. Here we use CALEROS to investigate the redistribution of water and sediment across a medium-sized catchment in NE Italy. Starting from the same initial conditions, the catchment is subjected respectively to conditions corresponding to the present-day sub-alpine and montane climates of NE Italy, with and without the introduction of agriculture around 5000 BC. For these two catchments, we establish patterns of co-evolution in soil properties and vegetation under pristine and anthropogenically impacted conditions on a millennium-scale. Using summary statistics to describe the emergent properties, we then delineate areas of uniform morphology and describe the various pathways of development. This information allows us to identify elements of consistent hydrological response and the associated transfer of material across different scales. It also provides essential information on feedbacks and the resulting convergence or divergence in landscape development under the impact of climatic events or human intervention. Although the

  6. Going Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: An Index System of Human Dependence on Ecosystem Services

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wu; Dietz, Thomas; Liu, Wei; Luo, Junyan; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) estimated that two thirds of ecosystem services on the earth have degraded or are in decline due to the unprecedented scale of human activities during recent decades. These changes will have tremendous consequences for human well-being, and offer both risks and opportunities for a wide range of stakeholders. Yet these risks and opportunities have not been well managed due in part to the lack of quantitative understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. Here, we propose an index of dependence on ecosystem services (IDES) system to quantify human dependence on ecosystem services. We demonstrate the construction of the IDES system using household survey data. We show that the overall index and sub-indices can reflect the general pattern of households' dependences on ecosystem services, and their variations across time, space, and different forms of capital (i.e., natural, human, financial, manufactured, and social capitals). We support the proposition that the poor are more dependent on ecosystem services and further generalize this proposition by arguing that those disadvantaged groups who possess low levels of any form of capital except for natural capital are more dependent on ecosystem services than those with greater control of capital. The higher value of the overall IDES or sub-index represents the higher dependence on the corresponding ecosystem services, and thus the higher vulnerability to the degradation or decline of corresponding ecosystem services. The IDES system improves our understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. It also provides insights into strategies for alleviating poverty, for targeting priority groups of conservation programs, and for managing risks and opportunities due to changes of ecosystem services at multiple scales. PMID:23717634

  7. Improved power-law estimates from multiple samples provided by millennium climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, S. V.; Räisänen, P.; Silen, J.; Järvinen, H.; Laaksonen, A.

    2015-02-01

    Using the long annual mean temperature time series provided by millennium Earth System Model simulations and a method of discrete Fourier transform with varying starting point and length of time window together with averaging, we get good fits to power laws between two characteristic oscillatory timescales of the model climate: multidecadal (50-80 years) and El Nino (3-6 years) timescales. For global mean temperature, we fit β ˜ 0.35 in a relation S( f) ˜ f - β in a simulation without external climate forcing and β over 0.7 in a simulation with external forcing included. The power law is found both with and without external forcing despite the forcings, e.g. the volcanic forcing, not showing similar behaviour, indicating a nonlinear temperature response to time-varying forcing. We also fit a power law with β ˜ 8 to the narrow frequency range between El Nino frequencies (up to 1/(3.2 years)) and the Nyquist frequency (1/(2 years)). Also, monthly mean temperature time series are considered and a decent power-law fit for frequencies above 1/year is obtained. Regional variability in best-fit β is explored, and the impact of choosing the frequency range on the result is illustrated. When all resolved frequencies are used, land areas seem to have lower βs than ocean areas on average, but when fits are restricted to frequencies below 1/(6 years), this difference disappears, while regional differences still remain. Results compare well with measurements both for global mean temperature and for the central England temperature record.

  8. Combined dendro-documentary evidence of Central European hydroclimatic springtime extremes over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Brázdil, Rudolf; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Hofmann, Jutta; Kontic, Raymond; Kyncl, Tomáš; Pfister, Christian; Chromá, Kateřina; Tegel, Willy

    2011-12-01

    A predicted rise in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and associated effects on the Earth's climate system likely imply more frequent and severe weather extremes with alternations in hydroclimatic parameters expected to be most critical for ecosystem functioning, agricultural yield, and human health. Evaluating the return period and amplitude of modern climatic extremes in light of pre-industrial natural changes is, however, limited by generally too short instrumental meteorological observations. Here we introduce and analyze 11,873 annually resolved and absolutely dated ring width measurement series from living and historical fir ( Abies alba Mill.) trees sampled across France, Switzerland, Germany, and the Czech Republic, which continuously span the AD 962-2007 period. Even though a dominant climatic driver of European fir growth was not found, ring width extremes were evidently triggered by anomalous variations in Central European April-June precipitation. Wet conditions were associated with dynamic low-pressure cells, whereas continental-scale droughts coincided with persistent high-pressure between 35 and 55°N. Documentary evidence independently confirms many of the dendro signals over the past millennium, and further provides insight on causes and consequences of ambient weather conditions related to the reconstructed extremes. A fairly uniform distribution of hydroclimatic extremes throughout the Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age and Recent Global Warming may question the common believe that frequency and severity of such events closely relates to climate mean stages. This joint dendro-documentary approach not only allows extreme climate conditions of the industrial era to be placed against the backdrop of natural variations, but also probably helps to constrain climate model simulations over exceptional long timescales.

  9. Assessing reconstruction techniques of the Atlantic Ocean circulation variability during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Ortega, Pablo; González-Rouco, Fidel; Montoya, Marisa

    2017-02-01

    We assess the use of the meridional thermal-wind transport estimated from zonal density gradients to reconstruct the oceanic circulation variability during the last millennium in a forced simulation with the ECHO-G coupled climate model. Following a perfect-model approach, model-based pseudo-reconstructions of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the Florida Current volume transport (FCT) are evaluated against their true simulated variability. The pseudo-FCT is additionally verified as proxy for AMOC strength and compared with the available proxy-based reconstruction. The thermal-wind component reproduces most of the simulated AMOC variability, which is mostly driven by internal climate dynamics during the preindustrial period and by increasing greenhouse gases afterwards. The pseudo-reconstructed FCT reproduces well the simulated FCT and reasonably well the variability of the AMOC strength, including the response to external forcing. The pseudo-reconstructed FCT, however, underestimates/overestimates the simulated variability at deep/shallow levels. Density changes responsible for the pseudo-reconstructed FCT are mainly driven by zonal temperature differences; salinity differences oppose but play a minor role. These results thus support the use of the thermal-wind relationship to reconstruct the oceanic circulation past variability, in particular at multidecadal timescales. Yet model-data comparison highlights important differences between the simulated and the proxy-based FCT variability. ECHO-G simulates a prominent weakening in the North Atlantic circulation that contrasts with the reconstructed enhancement. Our model results thus do not support the reconstructed FC minimum during the Little Ice Age. This points to a failure in the reconstruction, misrepresented processes in the model, or an important role of internal ocean dynamics.

  10. Going beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: an index system of human dependence on ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wu; Dietz, Thomas; Liu, Wei; Luo, Junyan; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) estimated that two thirds of ecosystem services on the earth have degraded or are in decline due to the unprecedented scale of human activities during recent decades. These changes will have tremendous consequences for human well-being, and offer both risks and opportunities for a wide range of stakeholders. Yet these risks and opportunities have not been well managed due in part to the lack of quantitative understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. Here, we propose an index of dependence on ecosystem services (IDES) system to quantify human dependence on ecosystem services. We demonstrate the construction of the IDES system using household survey data. We show that the overall index and sub-indices can reflect the general pattern of households' dependences on ecosystem services, and their variations across time, space, and different forms of capital (i.e., natural, human, financial, manufactured, and social capitals). We support the proposition that the poor are more dependent on ecosystem services and further generalize this proposition by arguing that those disadvantaged groups who possess low levels of any form of capital except for natural capital are more dependent on ecosystem services than those with greater control of capital. The higher value of the overall IDES or sub-index represents the higher dependence on the corresponding ecosystem services, and thus the higher vulnerability to the degradation or decline of corresponding ecosystem services. The IDES system improves our understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. It also provides insights into strategies for alleviating poverty, for targeting priority groups of conservation programs, and for managing risks and opportunities due to changes of ecosystem services at multiple scales.

  11. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine- Ginseng (I): Etymology, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Market and Regulations

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine–ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people’s uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng. PMID:19601793

  12. Forced changes to twentieth century ENSO diversity in a last Millennium context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Samantha; Capotondi, Antonietta; Fasullo, John; Otto-Bliesner, Bette

    2017-03-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) exhibits considerable differences between the evolution of individual El Niño and La Niña events (`ENSO diversity'), with significant implications for impacts studies. However, the degree to which external forcing may affect ENSO diversity is not well understood, due to both internal variability and potentially compensatory contributions from multiple forcings. The Community Earth System Model Last Millennium Ensemble (CESM LME) provides an ideal testbed for studying the sensitivity of twentieth century ENSO to forced climate changes, as it contains many realizations of the 850-2005 period with differing combinations of forcings. Metrics of ENSO amplitude and diversity are compared across LME simulations, and although forced changes to ENSO amplitude are generally small, forced changes to diversity are often detectable. Anthropogenic changes to greenhouse gas and ozone/aerosol emissions modify the persistence of Eastern and Central Pacific El Niño events, through shifts in the upwelling and zonal advective feedbacks; these influences generally cancel one another over the twentieth century. Other forcings can also be quite important: land use changes amplify Eastern Pacific El Niño events via modulating zonal advective heating, and orbital forcing tends to preferentially terminate twentieth century Central Pacific El Niño events due to enhanced eastern Pacific cooling during boreal winter and spring. Our results indicate that multiple anthropogenic and natural forcings can have substantial impacts on ENSO diversity, and suggest that correctly representing the net ENSO diversity response to climate change will depend on the precise balance between all these influences.

  13. First dairying in green Saharan Africa in the fifth millennium BC.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Julie; Evershed, Richard P; Salque, Mélanie; Cramp, Lucy; Bruni, Silvia; Ryan, Kathleen; Biagetti, Stefano; di Lernia, Savino

    2012-06-20

    In the prehistoric green Sahara of Holocene North Africa-in contrast to the Neolithic of Europe and Eurasia-a reliance on cattle, sheep and goats emerged as a stable and widespread way of life, long before the first evidence for domesticated plants or settled village farming communities. The remarkable rock art found widely across the region depicts cattle herding among early Saharan pastoral groups, and includes rare scenes of milking; however, these images can rarely be reliably dated. Although the faunal evidence provides further confirmation of the importance of cattle and other domesticates, the scarcity of cattle bones makes it impossible to ascertain herd structures via kill-off patterns, thereby precluding interpretations of whether dairying was practiced. Because pottery production begins early in northern Africa the potential exists to investigate diet and subsistence practices using molecular and isotopic analyses of absorbed food residues. This approach has been successful in determining the chronology of dairying beginning in the 'Fertile Crescent' of the Near East and its spread across Europe. Here we report the first unequivocal chemical evidence, based on the δ(13)C and Δ(13)C values of the major alkanoic acids of milk fat, for the adoption of dairying practices by prehistoric Saharan African people in the fifth millennium bc. Interpretations are supported by a new database of modern ruminant animal fats collected from Africa. These findings confirm the importance of 'lifetime products', such as milk, in early Saharan pastoralism, and provide an evolutionary context for the emergence of lactase persistence in Africa.

  14. Early puberty in 11-year-old girls: Millennium Cohort Study findings

    PubMed Central

    Zilanawala, Afshin; Sacker, Amanda; Hiatt, Robert; Viner, Russell

    2017-01-01

    Objective Early puberty in girls is linked to some adverse outcomes in adolescence and mid-life. We address two research questions: (1) Are socioeconomic circumstances and ethnicity associated with early onset puberty? (2) Are adiposity and/or psychosocial stress associated with observed associations? Design Longitudinal data on 5839 girls from the UK Millennium Cohort Study were used to estimate associations between ethnicity, family income, adiposity and psychosocial stress with a marker of puberty. Main outcome measure Reported menstruation at age 11 years. Results All quoted ORs are statistically significant. Girls in the poorest income quintile were twice as likely (OR=2.1), and the second poorest quintile nearly twice as likely (OR=1.9) to have begun menstruation compared with girls in the richest income quintile. Estimates were roughly halved on adjustment for Body Mass Index and markers of psychosocial stress (poorest, OR=1.5; second poorest, OR=1.5). Indian girls were over 3 times as likely compared with whites to have started menstruation (OR=3.5) and statistical adjustments did not attenuate estimates. The raised odds of menstruation for Pakistani (OR=1.9), Bangladeshi (OR=3.3) and black African (OR=3.0) girls were attenuated to varying extents, from about a third to a half, on adjustment for income and adiposity. Conclusions In contemporary UK, excess adiposity and psychosocial stress were associated with social inequalities in early puberty, while material disadvantage and adiposity were linked to ethnic inequalities in early puberty among girls. PMID:27672135

  15. Time-slice last millennium experiments with interactive gas-phase chemistry and aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigaridis, K.; Legrande, A. N.; Koch, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary results from coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations with interactive gas-phase chemistry and aerosols are presented. These experiments are decadal scale time-slices within millennial-length simulations performed with the GISS GCM (ModelE), using two different ocean models. The boundary conditions for the transient simulations follow the last millennium coordinated PMIP3 experiment protocol. This experiment directly links in with other pre-Industrial experiments being completed as part of IPCC AR5, using the same model and resolution as in GISS IPCC AR5. Preliminary time-slice results from the early medieval and Maunder Minimum periods will be presented. The impact of the presence of short-lived gases and aerosols on the simulated climate is studied. An initial attempt to identify previously omitted additional forcing mechanisms will be performed during these contrasting climate periods, in short duration experiments driven by ocean conditions from the transient experiments. The results presented are the initial runs from a larger set of experiments that will assess the climate impact of changes to dust, sea-salt, and ocean-derived sulfate, biomass burning ozone-precursors and aerosols, organic carbon, wetland methane emissions, and a final set with all components. These species are standard components in the GISS model’s 20th century simulations, so that we may compare millennial variability characteristics with those better constrained from more recent climate periods. Dust and sea-salt are wind-driven aerosols from deserts and oceans, sulfate comes from oxidation of volcanic and oceanic precursors, while organic carbon comes from biomass burning, secondary plant sources and primary oceanic emissions. Comparison of model and proxy records will test model-simulated mechanisms while the model provides insight into factors contributing to proxy variability. The addition of potentially important forcing mechanisms will enable a more comprehensive

  16. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P Craig; Buyon, Lucas E; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the "big three" diseases--namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria--has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda.

  17. Modern to millennium-old greenhouse gases emitted from freshwater ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, F.; Laurion, I.; Preskienis, V.; Fortier, D.; Xu, X.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    Ponds and lakes are widespread across the rapidly changing permafrost environments. Aquatic systems play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles, especially in greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges between terrestrial systems and the atmosphere. The source, speciation and emission of carbon released from permafrost landscapes are strongly influenced by local specific conditions rather than general environmental setting. This study reports on GHG ages and emission rates from aquatic systems on Bylot Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Dissolved and ebullition gas samples were collected during the summer season from different types of water bodies located in a highly dynamic periglacial valley: polygonal ponds, collapsed ice-wedge trough ponds, and larger lakes overlying unfrozen soils (talik). The results showed strikingly different ages and fluxes depending on aquatic system types. Polygonal ponds were net sinks of dissolved CO2, but variable sources of dissolved CH4. They presented the highest ebullition fluxes, one or two orders of magnitude higher than from other ponds and lakes. Trough ponds appeared as substantial GHG sources, especially when their edges were actively eroding. Both types of ponds produced modern to hundreds of years old (<550 yr BP) GHG, even if trough ponds could contain much older carbon (>2000 yr BP) derived from freshly eroded peat. Lakes had small dissolved and ebullition fluxes, however they released much older GHG, including millennium-old CH4 (up to 3500 yr BP) sampled from lake central areas. Acetoclastic methanogenesis dominated at all study sites and there was minimal, if any, methane oxidation in gas emitted through ebullition. These findings provide new insights on the variable role of permafrost aquatic systems as a positive feedback mechanism on climate.

  18. Global emissions of terpenoid VOCs from terrestrial vegetation in the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Acosta Navarro, J C; Smolander, S; Struthers, H; Zorita, E; Ekman, A M L; Kaplan, J O; Guenther, A; Arneth, A; Riipinen, I

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the millennial variability (1000 A.D.–2000 A.D.) of global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene, and Lund-Potsdam-Jena-General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission trends were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have significant short-term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr−1 (13% and 19% less than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively), and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr−1(15% and 20% less than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr−1(10% and 6% higher than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr−1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr−1(10% and 4% higher than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation. PMID:25866703

  19. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine--ginseng (I): etymology, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, market and regulations.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine- ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people's uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng.

  20. Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa’s children and women of childbearing age live?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have prompted an expansion in approaches to deriving health metrics to measure progress toward their achievement. Accurate measurements should take into account the high degrees of spatial heterogeneity in health risks across countries, and this has prompted the development of sophisticated cartographic techniques for mapping and modeling risks. Conversion of these risks to relevant population-based metrics requires equally detailed information on the spatial distribution and attributes of the denominator populations. However, spatial information on age and sex composition over large areas is lacking, prompting many influential studies that have rigorously accounted for health risk heterogeneities to overlook the substantial demographic variations that exist subnationally and merely apply national-level adjustments. Here we outline the development of high resolution age- and sex-structured spatial population datasets for Africa in 2000-2015 built from over a million measurements from more than 20,000 subnational units, increasing input data detail from previous studies by over 400-fold. We analyze the large spatial variations seen within countries and across the continent for key MDG indicator groups, focusing on children under 5 and women of childbearing age, and find that substantial differences in health and development indicators can result through using only national level statistics, compared to accounting for subnational variation. Progress toward meeting the MDGs will be measured through national-level indicators that mask substantial inequalities and heterogeneities across nations. Cartographic approaches are providing opportunities for quantitative assessments of these inequalities and the targeting of interventions, but demographic spatial datasets to support such efforts remain reliant on coarse and outdated input data for accurately locating risk groups. We have shown here that sufficient data exist to map the

  1. Global irrigated area map (GIAM), derived from remote sensing, for the end of the last millennium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, P.S.; Biradar, C.M.; Noojipady, P.; Dheeravath, V.; Li, Y.; Velpuri, M.; Gumma, M.; Gangalakunta, O.R.P.; Turral, H.; Cai, X.; Vithanage, J.; Schull, M.A.; Dutta, R.

    2009-01-01

    A Global Irrigated Area Map (GIAM) has been produced for the end of the last millennium using multiple satellite sensor, secondary, Google Earth and groundtruth data. The data included: (a) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 3-band and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 10 km monthly time-series for 1997-1999, (b) Syste me pour l'Observation de la Terre Vegetation (SPOT VGT) NDVI 1 km monthly time series for 1999, (c) East Anglia University Climate Research Unit (CRU) rainfall 50km monthly time series for 1961-2000, (d) Global 30 Arc-Second Elevation Data Set (GTOPO30) 1 km digital elevation data of the World, (e) Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (JERS-1 SAR) data for the rain forests during two seasons in 1996 and (f) University of Maryland Global Tree Cover 1 km data for 1992-1993. A single mega-file data-cube (MFDC) of the World with 159 layers, akin to hyperspectral data, was composed by re-sampling different data types into a common 1 km resolution. The MFDC was segmented based on elevation, temperature and precipitation zones. Classification was performed on the segments. Quantitative spectral matching techniques (SMTs) used in hyperspectral data analysis were adopted to group class spectra derived from unsupervised classification and match them with ideal or target spectra. A rigorous class identification and labelling process involved the use of: (a) space-time spiral curve (ST-SC) plots, (b) brightness-greenness-wetness (BGW) plots, (c) time series NDVI plots, (d) Google Earth very-high-resolution imagery (VHRI) 'zoom-in views' in over 11 000 locations, (e) groundtruth data broadly sourced from the degree confluence project (3 864 sample locations) and from the GIAM project (1 790 sample locations), (f) high-resolution Landsat-ETM+ Geocover 150m mosaic of the World and (g) secondary data (e.g. national and global land use and land cover data). Mixed classes were resolved based on decision tree

  2. Underdiagnosis of malnutrition in infants and young children in Rwanda: implications for attainment of the Millennium Development Goal to end poverty and hunger.

    PubMed

    Binagwaho, Agnès; Agbonyitor, Mawuena; Rukundo, Alphonse; Ratnayake, Niloo; Ngabo, Fidel; Kayumba, Josephine; Dowdle, Bridget; Chopyak, Elena; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2011-12-29

    Progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) to end poverty and hunger has lagged behind attainment of other MDGs due to chronic poverty and worldwide inequity in access to adequate health care, food, clean water, and sanitation. Despite ongoing challenges, Rwanda has experienced economic progress and the expansion of the national public health system during the past 20 years. However, protein-energy malnutrition in children under five is still a major concern for physicians and government officials in Rwanda. Approximately 45% of children under the age of five in Rwanda suffer from chronic malnutrition, and one in four is undernourished. For years, health facilities in Rwanda have used incorrect growth references for measuring nutritional status of children despite the adoption of new standards by the World Health Organization in 2006. Under incorrect growth references used in Rwanda, a number of children under five who were severely underweight were not identified, and therefore were not treated for malnutrition, thus potentially contributing to the under five mortality rate. Given that one in ten children suffer from malnutrition worldwide, it is imperative that all countries with a burden of malnutrition adopt the most up-to-date international standards for measuring malnutrition, and that the problem is brought to the forefront of international public health initiatives. For low income countries in the process of improving economic conditions, as Rwanda is, increasing the identification and treatment of malnutrition can promote the advancement of MDG1 as well as physical and cognitive development in children, which is imperative for advancing future economic progress.

  3. EPA SBIR Recipient -- Winner of the 2013 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Faraday Technology, a 2011 Environmental Protection Agency Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) recipient, was recently announced as a winner of the 2013 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards.

  4. Climate changes of the last millennium inferred from borehole temperatures: Results from the Czech Republic—Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodri, Louise; Čermák, Vladimir

    1995-12-01

    Ground surface temperature histories were reconstructed from the temperature logs of eleven boreholes drilled in the Czech Republic. The study has identified several climate episodes during the past millennium, when the ground surface temperature oscillated with an amplitude of at least 2-3 K. Pronounced warming by up to 2 K characterized the beginning of the 20th century. The results seem to correlate well with climate reconstructions based on proxy data, and also with the long-term meteorological records. The paper represents the first part of a more extensive study aimed to propose a regional pattern of the past climate change derived from geothermal data in Central Europe.

  5. Impact of volcanic eruptions on the climate of the 1st millennium AD in a comprehensive climate simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sebastian; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The climate of the 1st millennium AD shows some remarkable differences compared to the last millennium concerning variation in external forcings. Together with an orbitally induced increased solar insolation during the northern hemisphere summer season and a general lack of strong solar minima, the frequency and intensity of large tropical and extratropical eruptions is decreased. Here we present results of a new climate simulation carried out with the comprehensive Earth System Model MPI-ESM-P forced with variations in orbital, solar, volcanic and greenhouse gas variations and land use changes for the last 2,100 years. The atmospheric model has a horizontal resolution of T63 (approx. 125x125 km) and therefore also allows investigations of regional-to-continental scale climatic phenomena. The volcanic forcing was reconstructed based on a publication by Sigl et al. (2013) using the sulfate records of the NEEM and WAIS ice cores. To obtain information on the aerosol optical depth (AOD) these sulfate records were scaled to an established reconstruction from Crowley and Unterman (2010), which is also a standard forcing in the framework of CMIP5/PMIP3. A comparison between the newly created data set with the Crowley and Unterman dataset reveals that the new reconstruction shows in general weaker intensities, especially of the large tropical outbreaks and fewer northern hemispheric small-to-medium scale eruptions. However, the general pattern in the overlapping period is similar. A hypothesis that can be tested with the simulation is whether the reduced volcanic intensity of the 1st millennium AD contributed to the elevated temperature levels over Europe, evident within a new proxy-based reconstruction. On the other hand, the few but large volcanic eruptions, e.g. the 528 AD event, also induced negative decadal-scale temperature anomalies. Another interesting result of the simulation relates to the 79 AD eruption of the Vesuvius, which caused the collapse of the city of

  6. Students Make a Plan: Understanding Student Agency in Constraining Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniewicz, Laura; Williams, Kevin; Brown, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on Archer's perspectives on the agency/structure relationship, this paper explains situations where students in varied, challenging circumstances find ways to negotiate difficult conditions. It reports on a 2007 study undertaken through a survey at three quite different universities in three South African provinces, addressing…

  7. Learning in and for Multi-Agency Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Harry; Leadbetter, Jane; Warmington, Paul; Edwards, Anne; Martin, Deirdre; Popova, Anna; Apostolov, Apostol; Middleton, David; Brown, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the challenges faced by organisations and individual professionals, as new practices are developed and learned in multi-agency work settings. The practices examined in the paper involve working responsively across professional boundaries with at-risk young people. The paper draws on evidence from the Learning in and for…

  8. 34 CFR 84.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... means any United States executive department, military department, government corporation, government... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 84.645 Section 84.645 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  9. 24 CFR 21.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 21.645 Section 21.645 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.645 Federal...

  10. 24 CFR 21.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 21.645 Section 21.645 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.645 Federal...

  11. Communication Laboratories: Genesis, Assessment, Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Kathleen; Shockley-Zalabak, Pamela; Hackman, Michael Z.

    2000-01-01

    Claims the quality of educational preparation in basic communication skills is insufficient for students to compete in the new millennium. Discusses the communication laboratory as one educational strategy for addressing the issue of communication competency. Describes the rationale for creating a communication laboratory, curricula and…

  12. 78 FR 67344 - American Energy Data Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY American Energy Data Challenge AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of a four-part competition. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)...

  13. The Threat or Challenge of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Marvin L.; Brody, Ralph

    1974-01-01

    Social service agencies can improve accountability to their clients in specific ways. These techniques borrow some of the language and principles of management science and can be applied successfully only if social workers accept the challenge posed by accountability and view these concepts as compatible with professional values. (Author)

  14. CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MUTAGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MUTAGENESIS
    Michael D. Waters
    US Environmental Protection Agency, MD-51A, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 USA

    Our rapidly growing understanding of the structure of the human genome is forming the basis for numerous new...

  15. Emission Inventory: A local agency`s approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kestler, S.L.; Bien, D.L.; Gruber, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    The Department of Environmental Services-Air Quality Management (D.O.E.S.-A.Q.M.) in southwestern Ohio has inventoried stationary sources since the mid-1970`s. That inventory has changed over the years from one of unknown data quality to one of high quality and substantial use by the public, agency personnel and industry. Since 1990, the scope of the agency`s inventory has broadened to include the compilation of a local area source inventory every three years. This presentation explores a local agency`s {open_quotes}real life{close_quotes} approach to compiling their emission inventory. We will discuss the improvements made and the pitfalls encountered in the inventory process over the years.

  16. Volcanoes and ENSO in millennium simulations: global impacts and regional reconstructions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2013-02-01

    The impacts and cooperative effects of volcanic eruptions and ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) are analyzed in a millennium simulation for 800-2005 AD using the earth system model (ESM) ECHAM5/MPIOM/JSBACH subject to anthropogenic and natural forcings. The simulation comprises two ensembles, a first with weak (E1, five members) and a second with strong (E2, three members) variability total solar irradiance. In the analysis, the 21 most intense eruptions are selected in each ensemble member. Volcanoes with neutral ENSO states during two preceding winters cause a global cooling in the year after eruptions up to -2.5°C. The nonsignificant positive values in the tropical Pacific Ocean indicate an El Niño-like warming. In the winter after an eruption, warming is mainly found in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea in E2 warming extends to Siberia and central Asia. The recovery times for the volcano-induced cooling (average for 31 eruptions) vary globally between 1 and 12 years. There is no significant increase of El Niño events after volcanic eruptions in both ensembles. The simulated temperature and the drought indices are compared with corresponding reconstructions in East Asia. Volcanoes cause a dramatic cooling in west China (-2°C) and a drought in East China during the year after the eruption. The reconstructions show similar cooling patterns with smaller magnitudes and confirm the dryness in East China. Without volcanoes, El Niño events reduce summer precipitation in the North, while South China becomes wetter; La Niña events cause opposite effects. El Niño events in the winters after eruptions compensate the cooling caused by volcanoes in most regions of China (consistent with reconstructions), while La Niña events intensify the cooling (up to -2.5°C). The simulated and reconstructed drought indices show tripole patterns which are altered by El Niño events. The simulated impact of the Tambora eruption in 1815, which caused the "year without summer

  17. Atlantic and Pacific Influences on Mesoamerican Climate Over the Past Millennium (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D. W.; Burnette, D. J.; Villanueva, J.; Cleaveland, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    Montezuma baldcypress (Taxodium mucronatum) trees in Queretaro have been used to develop the first exactly dated millennium-long tree-ring chronology in central Mexico. The chronology is sensitive to both precipitation and temperature, and has been used to reconstruct the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for June from AD 771-2008 for a large sector of Mesoamerica (most of central and southern Mexico). Fourier-transform spectral analyses of the 1,238-year long reconstruction indicate strong concentrations of variance at frequencies associated with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO; representing over 14% of the total reconstructed variance between periods of 4.5 and 5.5 years), and at multi-decadal frequencies potentially associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO; representing over 10% of the total variance between periods of 50 and 75 years). Weaker but statistically significant concentrations of variance are also detected with the Multi-Taper Method of spectral analysis at subdecadal timescales potentially linked with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO; 7.5 years) and at timescales possibly associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (~33 years). The reconstruction is significantly correlated with sea surface temperatures (SST) in the ENSO cold tongue region from 1871-2008 (during the boreal cool season, DJFM), and this SST correlation strengthens in the 20th Century (1931-2008). Summer drought tends to develop over central Mexico during El Nino events, and the record warm events observed in 1983 and 1998 were associated with the two most extremely dry June PDSI conditions in the past 1,238 years (reconstructed ranks 1 and 2 for 1983 and 1998, respectively). The reconstruction is also significantly correlated with SSTs over the tropical North Atlantic, and is coherent with long instrument-based indices of the NAO at periods near 7.5 years, but only during the 20th century. The June PDSI reconstruction is coherent (P<0.05) with a 600

  18. Sediment records of highly variable mercury inputs to mountain lakes in Patagonia during the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Meili, M.; Rizzo, A.; Daga, R.; Arribére, M.

    2010-04-01

    High Hg levels in the pristine lacustrine ecosystems of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, a protected zone situated in the Andes of Northern Patagonia, Argentina, have initiated further investigations on Hg cycling and source identification. Here we report Hg records in sedimentary sequences to identify atmospheric sources during the past millennium. In addition to global transport and deposition, a potential atmospheric Hg source to be considered is the local emissions associated with volcanic activity, because the Park is situated in the Southern Volcanic Zone. Two sediment cores were extracted from Lake Tonček, a small, high-altitude system reflecting mainly direct inputs associated with atmospheric contributions, and Lake Moreno Oeste, a much larger and deeper lake having an extended watershed covered mostly by native forest. The sedimentary sequences were dated based on both 210Pb and 137Cs profiles. In addition, tephra layers were identified and geochemically characterized for chronological application and to investigate any association of volcanic eruptions with Hg records. Hg concentrations in sediments were measured along with 32 other elements, as well as organic matter, subfossil chironomids, and biogenic silica. Observed background Hg concentrations, determined from the sequence domains with lower values, ranged from 50 to 100 ng g-1 dry weight (DW), whereas the surficial layers reached 200 to 500 ng g-1 DW. In addition to this traditional pattern, however, two deep domains in both sequences showed dramatically increased Hg levels reaching 400 to 650 ng g-1 DW; the upper dated to the 18th to 19th centuries, and the lower around the 13th century. These concentrations are not only elevated in the present profiles but also many-fold above the background values determined in other fresh water sediments, as were also the Hg fluxes, reaching 120 to 150 μg m-2 y-1 in Lake Tonček . No correlation was observed between Hg concentrations and the contents of

  19. Sediment records of highly variable mercury inputs to mountain lakes in Patagonia during the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Meili, M.; Rizzo, A.; Daga, R.; Arribére, M.

    2009-12-01

    High Hg levels in the pristine lacustrine ecosystems of the Nahuel Huapi National Park, a protected zone situated in the Andes of Northern Patagonia, Argentina, have initiated further investigations on Hg cycling and source identification. Here we report Hg records in sedimentary sequences aiming at identifying atmospheric sources during the past millennium. In addition to global transport and deposition, a potential atmospheric Hg source to be considered is the local emissions associated with volcanic activity, considering that the Park is situated in the Southern Volcanic Zone. Two sediment cores were extracted from Lake Tonček, a small, high-altitude system reflecting mainly direct inputs associated with atmospheric contributions, and Lake Moreno Oeste, a much larger and deeper lake having an extended watershed covered mostly by native forest. The sedimentary sequences were dated based on both 210Pb and 137Cs profiles. In addition, tephra layers were identified and geochemically characterized for chronological application and to investigate any association of volcanic eruptions with Hg records. Hg concentrations in sediments were measured along with 32 other elements, as well as organic matter, fossil chironomids, and biogenic silica. Observed background Hg concentrations, determined from the sequence domains with lower values, ranged from 50 to 100 ng g-1 DW (dry weight), whereas the surficial layers reached 200 to 500 ng g-1 DW. In addition to this traditional pattern, however, two deep domains in both sequences showed dramatically increased Hg levels reaching 400 to 650 ng g-1 DW; the upper dated to the 18th to 19th centuries, and the lower around the 13th century. These concentrations are not only elevated in the present profiles but also many-fold above the background values determined in other fresh water sediments, as were also the Hg fluxes, reaching 120 to 150 μg m-2 y-1 in Lake Tonček. No correlation was observed between Hg concentrations and the

  20. Parental Perception of Weight Status: Influence on Children’s Diet in the Gateshead Millennium Study

    PubMed Central

    Almoosawi, Suzana; Jones, Angela R.; Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Pearce, Mark S.; Collins, Heather; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recognising overweight and obesity is critical to prompting action, and consequently preventing and treating obesity. The present study examined the association between parental perceptions of child weight status and child’s diet. Methods Participants were members of the Gateshead Millennium Study. Parental perception of their child’s weight status was assessed using a questionnaire and compared against International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for childhood overweight and obesity when the children were aged 6–8 years old. Diet was assessed at age 6-8years old using the FAST (Food Assessment in Schools Tool) food diary method. The association between parental perception and dietary patterns as defined by Principal Components Analysis, was assessed using multivariate regression after adjustment for child’s gender, child’s weight status, maternal body mass index (BMI), maternal education and deprivation status. Results Of the 361 parents who provided complete data on confounders and on their perception of their child’s weight status, 63 (17%) parents perceived their child as being of ‘normal’ weight or ‘overweight’ when they were actually ‘overweight’ or ‘obese’, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, parents who misperceived their child’s weight had children with a lower ‘healthy’ dietary pattern score compared to children whose parents correctly perceived their weight (β = -0.88; 95% CI: -1.7, -0.1; P-value = 0.028). This association was found despite higher consumption of reduced sugar carbonated drinks amongst children whose parents incorrectly perceived their weight status compared to children whose parents perceived their weight correctly (52.4% vs. 33.6%; P-value = 0.005). Conclusions In conclusion, children whose parents did not correctly perceive their weight status scored lower on the ‘healthy’ dietary pattern. Further research is required to define parents’ diets based on their perception status