Science.gov

Sample records for agency millennium challenge

  1. THE MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE: THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S RESPONSE TO INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responding to the scientific and regulatory challenges of invasive species in a variety of ways. One response has been to use existing programs and regulations, as appropriate, to address invasive species. A recent example is th...

  2. 77 FR 14835 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... CORPORATION Sunshine Act Meeting; Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors; March 22, 2012 AGENCY: Millennium Challenge Corporation. TIME AND DATE: 3 p.m. to 5 p.m., Wednesday, March 22, 2012. PLACE... the public. Dated: March 7, 2012. Melvin F. Williams, Jr., VP/General Counsel and Corporate...

  3. 78 FR 13904 - Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY...: Meeting will be closed to the public. MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED: The Board of Directors (the ``Board'')...

  4. 3 CFR - Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as Chief Executive Officer of the Millennium Challenge Corporation Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May 21, 2012 Designation of Officers of the Millennium Challenge Corporation To Act as...

  5. Vaccinology in the third millennium: scientific and social challenges.

    PubMed

    Poland, Gregory A; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Poland, Caroline M; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Kennedy, Richard B

    2016-04-01

    The epidemiology of deaths due to vaccine-preventable diseases has been significantly and positively altered through the use of vaccines. Despite this, significant challenges remain in vaccine development and use in the third millennium. Both new (Ebola, Chikungunya, Zika, and West Nile) and re-emerging diseases (measles, mumps, and influenza) require the development of new or next-generation vaccines. The global aging of the population, and accumulating numbers of immunocompromised persons, will require new vaccine and adjuvant development to protect large segments of the population. After vaccine development, significant challenges remain globally in the cost and efficient use and acceptance of vaccines by the public. This article raises issues in these two areas and suggests a way forward that will benefit current and future generations. PMID:27039875

  6. Revisiting Public Health Challenges in the New Millennium

    PubMed Central

    Anish, TS; Sreelakshmi, PR

    2013-01-01

    Positive Health of the communities could only be brought out through the interrelationship between conventional health sector and other development sectors. It was a dream that came true when World Health Organization (WHO) accepted Primary Health Care (PHC) as the major tool to achieve its proposed goal of Health For All (HFA) by 2000 A.D., but we could not succeed as expected. Now we have the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which place health at the heart of development but the achievements in health is still challenging. The literature search in this article has been conducted in Pub Med and Google scholar, with the aim to draw references to discuss the major health issues and ways to tackle them. The current article briefly narrates the burden and complexities of challenges faced by the present global health. Revisiting the concept of PHC and reaffirming our solidarity to this philosophy is the need of this hour. PMID:24116303

  7. 77 FR 75198 - Notice of the December 19, 2012, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Information on the meeting may be obtained from Melvin F. Williams, Jr., Vice.... Williams, Jr., VP/General Counsel and Corporate Secretary, Millennium Challenge Corporation. BILLING...

  8. Challenges for physician executives in the millennium marketplace.

    PubMed

    Coile, R C

    1999-01-01

    There will be fundamental change in the Millennium, but not enacted in Washington, D.C. American health care is entering the "post-Managed Care" era in which payers, providers, plans, and patients reconstruct a new, more efficient, and, ultimately, more satisfying health care delivery system. The Millennium landscape of this evolving marketplace will be characterized by the following trends: (1) The "Age Wave" will boost demand: (2) There will be a push from technology; (3) Public/private health reform will be enacted; (4) Employers will use clout; (5) Direct provider contracting will prevail; (6) Government will regulate managed care organizations; (7) Managed Medicare/Medicaid will be restructured; (8) There will be a health plan shakeout; (9) Providers will "push back"; (10) Doctors will get organized; (11) Providers will assume risk; (12) "Report cards" will be widespread; (13) Managing clinical performance will be the core business of providers; and (14) Health consumers will be informed and Internet savvy. PMID:10387279

  9. 75 FR 30440 - Notice of the June 16, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION Notice of the June 16, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine..., June 16, 2010. PLACE: Department of State, 2201 C Street, NW., Washington, DC 20520. FOR...

  10. School Environmental Health Programs and the Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…

  11. 78 FR 52984 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... achieve lasting economic growth and poverty reduction. The Act requires the Millennium Challenge... poverty and generate economic growth in the country. These steps include the submission of reports to the... Candidate Countries: Lower Middle Income Category Armenia Cape Verde El Salvador Guyana Kosovo...

  12. 76 FR 74077 - Notice of the December 15, 2011, Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE..., General Counsel and Corporate Secretary via email at Corporatesecretary@mcc.gov or by telephone at (202... the Cape Verde Compact and the 2012 Selection Process. The agenda items are expected to involve...

  13. Education in Indonesia: Coping with Challenges in the Third Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwadi, Agung; Muljoatmodjo, Suheru

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Indonesian system of education of Islamic schooling, secular education, and out-of-school education. The provision of 9-year universal basic education is planned by 2004. The national plan challenges the education system to facilitate the change in Indonesia's economic structure from an agriculturally based system to one more…

  14. Deep Space Control Challenges of the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Burdick, Garry M.

    1999-01-01

    The exploration of deep space presents a variety of significant control challenges. Long communication delays coupled with challenging new science objectives require high levels of system autonomy and increasingly demanding pointing and control capabilities. Historically, missions based on the use of a large single spacecraft have been successful and popular since the early days of NASA. However, these large spacecraft missions are currently being displaced by more frequent and more focused missions based on the use of smaller and less expensive spacecraft designs. This trend drives the need to design smart software and good algorithms which together with the miniaturization of control components will improve performance while replacing the heavier and more expensive hardware used in the past. NASA's future space exploration will also include mission types that have never been attempted before, posing significant challenges to the underlying control system. This includes controlled landing on small bodies (e.g., asteroids and comets), sample return missions (where samples are brought back from other planets), robotic exploration of planetary surfaces (e.g., intelligent rovers), high precision formation flying, and deep space optical interferometry, While the control of planetary spacecraft for traditional flyby and orbiter missions are based on well-understood methodologies, control approaches for many future missions will be fundamentally different. This paradigm shift will require completely new control system development approaches, system architectures, and much greater levels of system autonomy to meet expected performance in the presence of significant environmental disturbances, and plant uncertainties. This paper will trace the motivation for these changes and will layout the approach taken to meet the new challenges. Emerging missions will be used to explain and illustrate the need for these changes.

  15. Developing nursing's future role: a challenge for the millennium: 1.

    PubMed

    Naughton, M; Nolan, M

    Over the past decade health care in general and nursing in particular have experienced a period of unprecedented change resulting from a variety of factors including demography, advances in technology and the introduction of differing service delivery systems. For nursing this has created a number of tensions, especially between professional aspirations and the demands of a new managerial culture. Many nurses have found themselves torn between the push towards the ideal of individualized holistic care and the reality of resource constrained environments. The new White Paper 'The New NHS: Modern, Dependable' (Secretary of State for Health, 1997) heralds a move away from the 'short termism' of the internal market towards a partnership model of integrated care. It also reaffirms the Government's commitment to further develop the role of the nurse. This article, the first of two, considers the challenges nurses face in responding to a managerial agenda while simultaneously maintaining the development of the nursing profession. The opportunities afforded by the recent White Paper are identified and the need to address a number of current tensions are highlighted. Developments at the Northern General Hospital in Sheffield are briefly described, with the results of a major survey being presented in the second article.

  16. Achieving the health Millennium Development Goals for South Africa: challenges and priorities.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Mickey; Lawn, Joy E; Sanders, David; Barron, Peter; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jewkes, Rachel; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Flisher, Alan J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Tollman, Stephen M; Churchyard, Gavin J; Coovadia, Hoosen

    2009-09-19

    15 years after liberation from apartheid, South Africans are facing new challenges for which the highest calibre of leadership, vision, and commitment is needed. The effect of the unprecedented HIV/AIDS epidemic has been immense. Substantial increases in mortality and morbidity are threatening to overwhelm the health system and undermine the potential of South Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However The Lancet's Series on South Africa has identified several examples of leadership and innovation that point towards a different future scenario. We discuss the type of vision, leadership, and priority actions needed to achieve such a change. We still have time to change the health trajectory of the country, and even meet the MDGs. The South African Government, installed in April, 2009, has the mandate and potential to address the public health emergencies facing the country--will they do so or will another opportunity and many more lives be lost?

  17. Beyond the Millennium Development Goals: public health challenges in water and sanitation.

    PubMed

    Rheingans, R; Dreibelbis, R; Freeman, M C

    2006-01-01

    Over 1 billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.6 billion lack access to appropriate sanitation, greatly contributing to the global burden of disease. The international community has committed to reducing by half the proportion of the world's population lacking access to water and sanitation as a part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, the disease burden due to poor access, is borne primarily by the poorest countries and the poorest people within them. Simply reducing the proportion of people without adequate access will not automatically result in proportional reductions in the related disease burden. The public health challenge inherent in meeting the MDG targets is ensuring that improvements result in access to water and sanitation for the critical at-risk populations. Innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, and locally acceptable water and sanitation interventions and integrating these approaches into existing social institutions, such as schools, markets, and health facilities.

  18. Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Werner Z., Ed.; Weber, Luc E., Ed.

    This collection of 17 essays focuses on the major changes that higher education needs to make so that it can effectively pursue teaching and research and significantly contribute public service in a rapidly changing world. The essays include: (1) "Survey of the Main Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium" (Luc E. Weber); (2) "Meeting…

  19. 76 FR 34273 - Notice of the June 22, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... CORPORATION Notice of the June 22, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting; Sunshine..., June 22, 2011. PLACE: Department of State, 2201 C Street, NW., Washington, DC 20520. FOR FURTHER... to the public. Dated: June 9, 2011. Melvin F. Williams, VP/General Counsel and Corporate...

  20. NOAA administrator reviews agency progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    The approach of the new year is a traditional time to tally up successes, failures, and the path ahead. Jane Lubchenco, administrator of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), examined some agency advances and significant challenges during the 7 December Union Agency Lecture at the AGU Fall Meeting, during a press briefing, and in an interview with Eos. Lubchenco focused on several key areas including the concern about monitoring, mitigating, and managing extreme events; budgetary pressures the agency faces in current fiscal year (FY) 2012 and in FY 2013, with President Barack Obama on 18 November having signed into law a bill, HR 2112, following congressional agreement on a budget legislation conference report; and NOAA's newly released scientific integrity policy (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011).

  1. Global outlook on nutrition and the environment: meeting the challenges of the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Nair, P P

    2000-04-17

    As we enter the new millennium, nearly 800 million of the World's population will remain chronically malnourished. Nearly 200 million children are moderately to severely underweight, while 70 million are severely malnourished. And those who are yet to be born will be faced with the same set of circumstances that predispose them to malnutrition and its consequences. Eradication of nutritional deficiencies among women and children on a global scale are needed to ensure improved quality of life for the next generation of citizens. Primary deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid and trace elements such as zinc are compounded by pollutants caused by human activity. Environmental lead, arsenic, mercury, and other heavy metals that enter the food chain can seriously deplete body stores of iron, vitamin C and other essential nutrients leading to decreased immune defenses, intrauterine growth retardation, impaired psycho-social faculties and other disabilities associated with malnutrition. Increased susceptibilities to communicable diseases, and those provoked by water or insect borne vectors are additional risks encountered by malnourished individuals. Migration of populations from rural to urban centers and the expansion of major metropolitan areas have had a significant and adverse impact on the quality of life of these citizens. In the next 20 years most of the growth in urban populations will be in Asia and Latin America. Urbanization and the resultant burden on limited national resources is a major contributory factor to malnutrition. There are many other lifestyle-associated disabilities such as use of tobacco (cancer) and alcoholism that require active intervention. Within the family unit, socioeconomic factors and the status of women (literacy, economic independence) are major determinants of the quality of life. In the coming century, the World will have to meet these challenges by careful planning and international cooperation. PMID:10813462

  2. The Challenges of Attaining Millennium Development Goals in Education in Africa by 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojogwu, C. N.

    2009-01-01

    Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…

  3. Women at the Millennium, Accomplishments and Challenges Ahead. Facts on Working Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    To benefit from new millennium opportunities, women should take advantage of the burgeoning information technology revolution and growth in other mathematics- and science-based occupations. Among occupations, professional jobs will increase the fastest and add the most employment. Among industries, the computer and data processing services…

  4. 75 FR 52990 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... countries to achieve lasting economic growth and poverty reduction. The Act requires the Millennium... to reduce poverty and generate economic growth in the country. These steps include the submission of... Republic 8. El Salvador ] 9. Georgia 10. Guatemala 11. Indonesia 12. Jordan 13. Kosovo 14. Maldives...

  5. 76 FR 55419 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... countries to achieve lasting economic growth and poverty ] reduction. The Act requires the Millennium... to reduce poverty and generate economic growth in the country. These steps include the submission of..., Belize, Bhutan, Cape Verde, Congo, Republic of the; Egypt, Arab Republic; El Salvador, Fiji,...

  6. Global pollution by organochlorinated endocrine disruptors - possible challenge for mankind at the onset of millennium.

    PubMed

    Langer, P

    2015-01-01

    Author of this review submits a comprehensive report of his long-lasting research regarding the global pollution by endocrine disruptors (EDs), EDs and diabetes and obesity, EDs and the thyroid in highly polluted Slovakia, Ah-receptor: the central pivot responsible for such global "EDs disaster", EDs and immune system, EDs and testosterone, EDs in mothers and newborns, EDs and human genome, and EDs at the beginning of the millennium. PMID:25687678

  7. Remote Sensing in Geography in the New Millennium: Prospects, Challenges, and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jensen, John R.; Morain, Stanley A.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1999-01-01

    Remote sensing science contributes greatly to our understanding of the Earth's ecosystems and cultural landscapes. Almost all the natural and social sciences, including geography, rely heavily on remote sensing to provide quantitative, and indispensable spatial information. Many geographers have made significant contributions to remote sensing science since the 1970s, including the specification of advanced remote sensing systems, improvements in analog and digital image analysis, biophysical modeling, and terrain analysis. In fact, the Remote Sensing Specialty Group (RSSG) is one of the largest specialty groups within the AAG with over 500 members. Remote sensing in concert with a geographic information systems, offers much value to geography as both an incisive spatial-analytical tool and as a scholarly pursuit that adds to the body of geographic knowledge on the whole. The "power" of remote sensing as a research endeavor in geography lies in its capabilities for obtaining synoptic, near-real time data at many spatial and temporal scales, and in many regions of the electromagnetic spectrum - from microwave, to RADAR, to visible, and reflective and thermal infrared. In turn, these data present a vast compendium of information for assessing Earth attributes and characte6stics that are at the very core of geography. Here we revisit how remote sensing has become a fundamental and important tool for geographical research, and how with the advent of new and improved sensing systems to be launched in the near future, remote sensing will further advance geographical analysis in the approaching New Millennium.

  8. The Vanuatu medical supply system – documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew; Gilbert, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Limited human resources are widely recognised as a barrier to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals. Availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel are crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply system. The objective of this paper is to identify the factors which influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Vanuatu. Methods: A qualitative triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, observational workplace surveys and semi-structured focus groups was developed. This research was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the University of Canberra and was funded through a direct grant from the United Nations Population Fund Suva, Pacific sub regional office. Results: During two weeks of data collection, 21 interviews were conducted, observational workplace surveys were completed in 19 facilities and 22 personnel participated in three focus groups across three provinces. The interviewees had a wide range of primary professional groupings and were representative of the Vanuatu health workforce. A complex array of medical supply issues are described from within the three tiered structure of the medical supply system. Conclusion: The results of this research have further informed our understanding of the competencies required by healthcare personnel to conduct medical supply management activities effectively in Pacific Island countries. As a result of this research, a platform is provided for the government of Vanuatu to engage development partners to work toward a sustainable medical supply system. PMID:23093895

  9. Implementing the millennium development food security goals Challenges of the southern African context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, David; Twomlow, Steve; Mupangwa, Walter; van der Zaag, Pieter; Gumbo, Bekithemba

    The Millennium Development Goals’ target to halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger is extremely important in southern Africa, where food security has become increasingly problematic over the last 20 years. One “quick-win” proposal is replenishment of soil nutrients for smallholder farmers, through free or subsidised chemical fertilisers. Other proposals include appropriate irrigation technology, improved inputs and interventions targeted at women. Analysis of over 10 years of agro-hydrological and agro-economic studies from southern African show that a different approach is required to interventions proposed. There are sustainability problems with free chemical fertiliser due to transport costs and ancillary costs. Furthermore, recent studies in Zimbabwe and Mozambique show that significant increases in yield can only be obtained when soil fertility management is combined with good crop husbandry, e.g. timely planting and weeding. Ongoing replenishment of fertility would be dependent on a continued free or subsidised fertiliser supply, and transport system. Increasing access to irrigation will help, but is not the only solution and cannot reach even a majority of farmers. It has been determined that short dryspells are often the major cause of low yields in sub-Saharan Africa. Soil-water conservation approaches, e.g. winter weeding and conservation tillage, can reduce risk and increase yield. The following specific recommendations are made for urgent interventions to contribute sustainably to food security in southern Africa: (i) To increases access to fertiliser, consider development of strong input markets at end-user level. (ii) Intensification of technology transfer, focusing on capacity building for transfer of existing technologies and much closer collaboration between state and NGO sectors, agronomists and water engineers. (iii) Increasing the uptake of soil-water conservation methods, including conservation tillage and weeding, and

  10. Millennium III Challenges: A Major Role for Agricultural Research/Extension/Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report by the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC) ad hoc Committee on Federal Support for Agricultural Research, Extension and Education suggests solutions to major challenges in agricultural research. Three new realities provide a powerful rationale for major new investment in agriculture: dramatic…

  11. The Mars Millennium Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

  12. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the “millennium bug.”

  13. Millennium bug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    After global fears of computer snafus prompted billions of dollars of remedial action, the Y2K bug appears to have vanished with barely a trace. But on January l, taxonomists with the entomology division of Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) reported the discovery of an insect whose scientific and common names will be the "millennium bug."

  14. Approaching the Next Millennium: Educational Service Agencies in the 1990s. ESA Study Series: Report No. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert; Turner, Walter G.

    State-endorsed education service agency (ESA) type organizations are found in 26 state school systems, 23 of which have a complete statewide network serving all local districts. These organizations promote collaboration among local school districts in substate regions or serve as a conduit for implementation of state initiatives. This report…

  15. "Health law, ethics and policy: challenges and new avenues for the 21st century and new millennium".

    PubMed

    Bates, P W

    1999-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the World Health Organization on 7th April 1998 stands at the dawn of a new century and millennium. These symbolic markers encourage reflection on past achievements, scrutiny of current problems, and contemplation of the possibilities and practicalities of coordinated action to promote the global vision of 'Health For All'. Will that global vision remain inspirational, important and inclusive enough to sustain policy commitment, and unite diverse regional, national and local customs and traditions in ethics, human rights and laws so as to overcome inequities in health status, and improve health systems and health services?"

  16. The Papua New Guinea medical supply system - documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Limited human resources are widely recognised as an impediment to achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals in Pacific Island Countries, with the availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply chain. This paper presents our findings as we seek to answer the research question ‘What factors influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Papua New Guinea?’ Methods We used a qualitative, triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, workplace observation and semi-structured focus groups. The parallel use of the interview tool and workplace observation tool allowed identification of ‘know-do’ gaps between what the interviewee said they did in their work practices, and the actual evidence of these practices. Focus groups provided further opportunities for raising and elaborating issues. Results During 2 weeks of data collection we conducted 17 interviews and 15 observational workplace surveys in 15 facilities. Sixteen health personnel participated in 3 focus groups across 2 provinces and one district. An array of medical supply issues across all levels of the medical supply chain were revealed, including standard operating procedures, facilities, transport, emergency medical kits, the cold chain and record keeping. The influence of health worker training and competency was found to be common across all of these issues. Conclusion The factors influencing the availability of medical supplies in PNG consist of a range of interrelating issues, consisting of both simple and complex problems involving the different levels and cadres of workers within the medical supply chain. Health systems sustainability theory suggests that a coordinated approach which addresses the inter-related nature of these issues, led by the PNG government and supported by suitable development partners, will be required for sustainable health

  17. A perspective of health care in the past--insights and challenges for a health care system in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Cicatiello, J S

    2000-01-01

    Health care has been in a state of perpetual change over the past decade. The swirl of activity includes: mergers and acquisitions, downsizing, shortages of nurses, unionizing of physicians, health care cost increases, escalation of pharmaceutical prices, consumerism, managed care, high-tech-low-touch services, the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, declining reimbursement, alternative medicine, Web-based shopping for health care, medicine moving into cyberspace, nanotechnology, advances in digital technology, and a diagnostic boon in high-tech imaging. What this demonstrates is that the broad-based landscape of changes affecting health care in the United States is extensive and incredibly complex. This article provides a perspective of health care in the past, discusses issues and concerns impacting health care today, and articulates some of the challenges and opportunities that are and will continue to shape the future of our health care system in the new millennium. PMID:18188903

  18. Battered Agency Syndrome: The Challenge to Agencies Serving Low-Income Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Diane; Lally, J. Ronald; Quiett, Douglas

    Community-based social service agencies working in low-income communities increasingly function with inadequate support and encounter numerous oppressive external and internal conditions that compromise organizational and staff well-being. Working with many such agencies, WestEd identified stressors that included funding problems, unrealistic…

  19. Principal Challenges Facing Electronic Records Management in Federal Agencies Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Giovanna; Sprehe, J. Timothy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses electronic records management in the federal government. Highlights include managing electronic mail; information technology planning, systems design, and architecture; updating conventional records management; integrating electronic records management with other information technology systems; challenges of end-user training; business…

  20. Millennium development goals and eye health

    PubMed Central

    Faal, Hannah B

    2012-01-01

    In September 2000, world leaders made a commitment to build a more equitable, prosperous and safer world by 2015 and launched the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the previous year, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness in partnership launched the global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020–VISION 2020 the Right to Sight. It has focused on the prevention of a disability-blindness and recognized a health issue–sight as a human right. Both global initiatives have made considerable progress with synergy especially on MDG 1–the reduction of poverty and the reduction in numbers of the blind. A review of the MDGs has identified the need to address disparities within and between countries, quality, and disability. Noncommunicable diseases are emerging as a challenge to the MDGs and Vision 2020:0 the Right to Sight. For the future, up to and beyond 2015, there will be need for both initiatives to continue to work in synergy to address present and emerging challenges. PMID:22944751

  1. Mars Mania: Internet Resources for the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Bob; Davis, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Mars Millennium Project that challenges elementary and secondary school students across the nation to design communities on Mars. Lists the sponsoring organizations, explains how to participate in the project, and suggests appropriate books and Web sites. (LRW)

  2. Aspects of data quality in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Bryant, G

    1998-05-01

    A major topic of concern for the health information management (HIM) professional today is the quality of health care data. Although the coding professional within the HIM department has responsibility for assigning accurate clinical codes, often there are discrepancies or areas that need improvement. What ways are in place now to ensure quality clinical data? Quality programs and projects that can lead us into the next millennium are important to the HIM profession, administrators, health care payers, and state agencies. The challenges that we face are not without solutions. Sharing information and solutions is important for the individual and the profession as a whole. The article discusses four current but different ways in which data quality is looked at and addressed.

  3. Passport to the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Mary Grace

    2001-01-01

    Describes a year-long social studies program called "Passport to the Millennium." Students "travel" around the world learning about the history, geography, culture, and economy of different countries. The program is appropriate for students in elementary to secondary grades. Includes a sample lesson plan. (CMK)

  4. Staff recruitment challenges and interventions in agencies supporting people with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Larson, S A; Hewitt, A; Anderson, L

    1999-02-01

    Recruitment challenges and costs were identified by administrators from 129 randomly selected agencies that provide residential, vocational, and other services to persons with developmental disabilities in Minnesota. Finding qualified applicants was the most difficult staffing problem reported. Common recruitment incentives included providing competitive benefits, allowing time off without pay, and offering paid leave time. Relatively few agencies used innovative strategies (e.g., bonuses for employees who recruit new workers). The average agency had vacancy rates of 6% in direct-support positions and 4% in first-line supervisor positions. On the basis of these findings, one could determine that the cost of advertising and overtime for vacant positions in Minnesota could approach $6.7 million per year.

  5. Operation Protective Edge - A Unique Challenge for a Civilian EMS Agency.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Eli; Strugo, Refael; Wacht, Oren

    2015-10-01

    During July through August 2014, Operation Protective Edge, a military conflict between Israel and the Hamas regime in Gaza, dramatically affected both populations. Magen David Adom (MDA), the Israeli national Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a member of the Red Cross, faced a unique challenge during the conflict: to continue providing crucial service to the entire civilian population of Israel, which was under constant missile threat. This challenge included not only providing immediate care for routine EMS calls under missile threat, but also preparing and delivering immediate care to civilians injured in attacks on major cities, as well as small communities, in Israel. This task is a challenge for a civilian EMS agency that normally operates in a non-military environment, yet, in an instant, must enhance its capability to respond to a considerable threat to its population. During Operation Protective Edge, MDA provided care for 842 wounded civilians and utilized a significant amount of its resources. Providing EMS services for a civilian population in a mixed civilian/military scenario is a challenging task on a national level for an EMS system, especially when the threat lasts for weeks. This report describes MDA's preparedness and operations during Operation Protective Edge, and the unique EMS challenges and dilemmas the agency faced.

  6. Achieving the Millennium Development Goal for Under-five Mortality in Bangladesh: Current Status and Lessons for Issues and Challenges for Further Improvements

    PubMed Central

    Nury, Abu Taher Md. Sanaullah; Hossain, Md. Delwar

    2011-01-01

    The study assessed the achievements in, critically reviewed the relevant issues of, and put forward recommendations for achieving the target of the Millennium Development Goal relating to mortality of children aged less than five years (under-five mortality) in Bangladesh within 2015. To materialize the study objectives, a thorough literature review was done. Mortality of under-five children and infants decreased respectively to 65 from 151 and to 52 from 94 per 1,000 livebirths during 1990-2006. The immunization coverage increased from 54% to 81.9% during the same period. The projection shows that Bangladesh will achieve targeted reduction in under-five mortality and infant mortality within the time limit, except immunization coverage. Neonatal mortality contributed to the majority of childhood deaths. Contribution of neonatal mortality to child mortality was the highest. There were remarkable differences in child mortality by sex, division, and residence. To progress further for achieving the target of MDG relating to child mortality, some issues, such as lower use of maternal healthcare services, hazardous environmental effects on childhood illness, high malnutrition among children, shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding practices, various child injuries leading to death, low healthcare-use of children, probable future threat of financial shortage, and strategies lacking area-wise focus on child mortality, need to be considered. Without these, the achievement of MDG relating to child mortality may not be possible within 2015. PMID:21608418

  7. The African Millennium Villages

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Pedro; Palm, Cheryl; Sachs, Jeffrey; Denning, Glenn; Flor, Rafael; Harawa, Rebbie; Jama, Bashir; Kiflemariam, Tsegazeab; Konecky, Bronwen; Kozar, Raffaela; Lelerai, Eliud; Malik, Alia; Modi, Vijay; Mutuo, Patrick; Niang, Amadou; Okoth, Herine; Place, Frank; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Said, Amir; Siriri, David; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Wang, Karen; Wangila, Justine; Zamba, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agroecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families. PMID:17942701

  8. Challenges for a local service agency to address domestic violence -a case study from rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-08-15

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women's access to legal support.

  9. Bottom-Up Risk Regulation? How Nanotechnology Risk Knowledge Gaps Challenge Federal and State Environmental Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Maria C.; Griffin, Martin P. A.; Tai, Stephanie

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnologies have been called the “Next Industrial Revolution.” At the same time, scientists are raising concerns about the potential health and environmental risks related to the nano-sized materials used in nanotechnologies. Analyses suggest that current U.S. federal regulatory structures are not likely to adequately address these risks in a proactive manner. Given these trends, the premise of this paper is that state and local-level agencies will likely deal with many “end-of-pipe” issues as nanomaterials enter environmental media without prior toxicity testing, federal standards, or emissions controls. In this paper we (1) briefly describe potential environmental risks and benefits related to emerging nanotechnologies; (2) outline the capacities of the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act to address potential nanotechnology risks, and how risk data gaps challenge these regulations; (3) outline some of the key data gaps that challenge state-level regulatory capacities to address nanotechnologies’ potential risks, using Wisconsin as a case study; and (4) discuss advantages and disadvantages of state versus federal approaches to nanotechnology risk regulation. In summary, we suggest some ways government agencies can be better prepared to address nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps and risk management.

  10. Bottom-up risk regulation? How nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps challenge federal and state environmental agencies.

    PubMed

    Powell, Maria C; Griffin, Martin P A; Tai, Stephanie

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnologies have been called the "Next Industrial Revolution." At the same time, scientists are raising concerns about the potential health and environmental risks related to the nano-sized materials used in nanotechnologies. Analyses suggest that current U.S. federal regulatory structures are not likely to adequately address these risks in a proactive manner. Given these trends, the premise of this paper is that state and local-level agencies will likely deal with many "end-of-pipe" issues as nanomaterials enter environmental media without prior toxicity testing, federal standards, or emissions controls. In this paper we (1) briefly describe potential environmental risks and benefits related to emerging nanotechnologies; (2) outline the capacities of the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act to address potential nanotechnology risks, and how risk data gaps challenge these regulations; (3) outline some of the key data gaps that challenge state-level regulatory capacities to address nanotechnologies' potential risks, using Wisconsin as a case study; and (4) discuss advantages and disadvantages of state versus federal approaches to nanotechnology risk regulation. In summary, we suggest some ways government agencies can be better prepared to address nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps and risk management. PMID:18543023

  11. Bottom-up risk regulation? How nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps challenge federal and state environmental agencies.

    PubMed

    Powell, Maria C; Griffin, Martin P A; Tai, Stephanie

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnologies have been called the "Next Industrial Revolution." At the same time, scientists are raising concerns about the potential health and environmental risks related to the nano-sized materials used in nanotechnologies. Analyses suggest that current U.S. federal regulatory structures are not likely to adequately address these risks in a proactive manner. Given these trends, the premise of this paper is that state and local-level agencies will likely deal with many "end-of-pipe" issues as nanomaterials enter environmental media without prior toxicity testing, federal standards, or emissions controls. In this paper we (1) briefly describe potential environmental risks and benefits related to emerging nanotechnologies; (2) outline the capacities of the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act to address potential nanotechnology risks, and how risk data gaps challenge these regulations; (3) outline some of the key data gaps that challenge state-level regulatory capacities to address nanotechnologies' potential risks, using Wisconsin as a case study; and (4) discuss advantages and disadvantages of state versus federal approaches to nanotechnology risk regulation. In summary, we suggest some ways government agencies can be better prepared to address nanotechnology risk knowledge gaps and risk management.

  12. The Millennium Star Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnott, R. W.

    1997-08-01

    Derived from Hipparcos and Tycho observations, the Millennium Star Atlas is a set of 1548 charts covering the entire sky to about magnitude 11. It stands apart from all previous printed atlases in completeness to magnitude 10 and in uniformity around the sky. The generous chart scale has made possible a number of innovations never before seen in a star atlas: arrows on high-proper-motion stars, double-star ticks conveying separation and position angle for a specific modern epoch, distance labels for nearby stars, and variable stars coded by amplitude, period, and type. Among the nonstellar objects plotted, more than 8000 galaxies are shown with aspect ratio and orientation.

  13. Tradition and Culture in the Millennium: Tribal Colleges and Universities. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Linda Sue, Ed.; Gipp, Gerald E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume of The David C. Anchin Research Center Series on Educational Policy in the 21st century: Opportunities, Challenges, and Solutions focuses on tribal colleges and universities. As a recent member of higher education community, tribal colleges and universities provide a unique perspective on higher education policy. Policies and…

  14. Bicentennial Conference on Bibliographic Control for the New Millennium: Confronting the Challenges of Networked Resources and the Web (Washington, DC, November 15-17, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Cataloging Directorate.

    The goals of this conference, sponsored by the Library of Congress Cataloging Directorate, were to develop an overall strategy to address the challenges of improved access to World Wide Web resources through library catalogs and applications of metadata and to identify attainable actions for achieving the objectives of the overall strategy. This…

  15. Strategic Management of Quality and the Challenge of the New Millennium: Prospects for Managing the Tension between Accountability and Improvement in Further and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Jethro

    The prospects for managing the tension between accountability and improvement in further and higher education (FHE) were examined through a literature review and a 5-year ethnographic study of a change management project at a higher education college in Wales. Special attention was paid to the following challenges facing FHE: globalization; the…

  16. 32 CFR 2003.11 - Appeals of agency decisions regarding classification challenges under section 1.8 of the Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appeals of agency decisions regarding classification challenges under section 1.8 of the Order. 2003.11 Section 2003.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY...

  17. 32 CFR 2003.11 - Appeals of agency decisions regarding classification challenges under section 1.8 of the Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appeals of agency decisions regarding classification challenges under section 1.8 of the Order. 2003.11 Section 2003.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY...

  18. 78 FR 49484 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Millennium Bulk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... CFR parts 325 and 332; 73 FR 19594 (April 10, 2008). 3. Alternatives. The EIS will address an array of... (EIS) for the Millennium Bulk Terminals--Longview Shipping Facility Project AGENCY: U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), DoD. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: Millennium Bulk Terminals--Longview, LLC...

  19. COLUMBUS Orbital Facility and Automated Transfer Vehicle: a challenge for agency & industry.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, H; Luttmann, H

    1997-01-01

    Long term continuous operation of the COLUMBUS Orbital Facility (COF) flight- and ground segment requires continuous mission control and operations support capability to ensure proper operation and configuration of the COF systems in support of ongoing science and technology payloads. The ISS logistics scenario will be supported by the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). These operational needs require the built-up of a new ground infrastructure in Europe and USA, enabling an efficient operations for preparation, planning and mission execution. The challenge for the European space community consists in the development and operation of a user friendly operational environment but keeping costs within budgetary constraints. Results of detailed definition studies performed by both agency and industry for the ground infrastructure indicate solutions to those technical and programmatic requirements by using of existing centers and facilities, re-use of C/D phase products (Hardware, Software) and COTS equipment to avoid costly new developments, using engineering expertise of the industrial personnel from flight element phase C/D. The concept for operations execution defines the task sharing between Operations Control Facilities (OCF), Operations Support Facilities and User Operations Sites. Operations support consists of on-line engineering support, off-line engineering support, payload integration, logistics support and crew training support performed by industry. DASA RI has made internal investments in organizational concepts for mission operations as well as in mission technologies and tools based on the standard COLUMBUS Ground Software (CGS) toolset and on knowledge based systems to enable an efficient industrial operations support. These tools are available as prototypes being evaluated in a simulated operational environment.

  20. Identity and Agency: Pleasures and Collegiality among the Challenges of the Doctoral Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Lynn; Amundsen, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    How do doctoral students develop their identities as academics? In this analysis, we explore identity from the perspective of agency--humans as active agents. The analysis was based on the collective data from three earlier studies in different contexts. Embedded in the data were expressions of agency linked to affect--both positive and…

  1. Overcoming subject recruitment challenges: strategies for successful collaboration with novice research agencies.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Patricia G; Yates, Shawna M; Rogers, Bonnie; Healow, Julia M

    2003-02-01

    In most studies, the investigator reaches out to locate potential research subjects using direct strategies such as targeted radio advertising, recruitment posters, and newspaper advertisements. However, other studies may depend on indirect methods of locating potential subjects and work through intermediary contacts in clinics and hospital outpatient departments. Some agency personnel may not have had prior experience with clinical research protocols and may be unfamiliar with screening potential subjects; these personnel are likely to be employed in agencies unaffiliated with academic health sciences centers. In cases in which agency staff members are new to clinical research, special attention is required to keep agency personnel updated about the status of the research and subject recruitment efforts. This article provides an overview of practical tips designed to engage and sustain the interest of novice research agencies in subject recruitment. The article concludes with a case overview of recruitment issues that occurred during a clinical trial addressing occupational low back pain. PMID:12624862

  2. New Millennium EO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fuk K.

    2000-01-01

    The New Millennium Program (NMP) is a NASA technology program that focuses on the validation of advanced spacecraft and instrumentation technologies in space. This program specifically seeks technologies that could significantly benefit future space and Earth science missions by enabling new science capabilities and reducing life cycle costs. These technologies must also require a validation in space to mitigate risks to the first science users, and provide cross-cutting benefits to both NASA's Earth and Space Science enterprises. The NASA Office of Earth Science (OES) directed the NMP to focus the third Earth Observing mission, E03, on innovative measurement concepts that would facilitate remote sensing observations from orbits beyond conventional low-Earth orbit (LEO). These orbits include geosynchronous orbits, highly elliptical orbits, mid-Earth and high-Earth orbits, and other unique vantage points such as L1 and L2. To maximize the input from the Earth science community, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released to solicit innovative measurement concepts for this NMP flight. Because the NMP is a technology validation program, rather than a conventional science program, the NRA required that these measurement concepts employ revolutionary technologies and/or measurement strategies that will enable future science missions from orbits beyond LEO. Another requirement was that a validation in space was needed to reduce real or perceived risks of this concept to future science users. The proposals submitted in response to this NRA were peer reviewed by the NASA OES. The measurement concepts selected through this process will be summarized in this presentation. The E03 measurement concept NRA did not solicit complete mission concepts or flight hardware. Instead, the selected investigators will join integrated project formulation teams to define the mission for the demonstration of the measurement technique and participate in mission design trades and

  3. Malaria and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Owens, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Malaria, as a key disease of poverty, was singled out for special attention in the Millennium Project of 2000. Recent data suggest that malaria incidence and mortality are now declining all over the world. While these figures are cause for celebration, they must be interpreted carefully and with caution, particularly in relation to Africa. There are daunting challenges ahead for those working to achieve malaria eradication, not least of which is the poor quality of the data on which the work is based. In the absence of an affordable and fully effective vaccine, international funding for malaria control needs to be escalated still further. The money is essential to pay for universal access to a set of simple and proven interventions which would save the lives of millions of children over the next 15 years. PMID:25613970

  4. The Challenge of Day Care in the Seventies: One Agency's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenfeld, Harry; Schwimmer, Barbara

    The Jewish Board of Guardians, in collaboration with the Agency for Child Development, developed a program to respond to the complex mental health concerns of children in day care, their families and the communities in which they live. The program includes on-site consultation, staff development sessions and paraprofessional training. In this…

  5. AID: The New Challenge. A Special Report of the Agency for International Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    The programs and policies of the Agency for International Development (AID) in administering American foreign aid are briefly described in this booklet. Short introductory sections discuss the reasons for foreign aid, the interdependence of today's world, and the history of American foreign aid since World War II. The remaining parts of the…

  6. Imaging in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Henry, D A

    2000-10-01

    The last few decades of the 20th century were marked by tremendous advances in diagnostic imaging and related therapeutic procedures. The new millennium holds great promise for more spectacular advances. Continuing evolution of computer technology coupled with existing and evolving digital imaging platforms will serve as a catalyst for significant developments in virtually all areas of imaging. This report surveys the potential of these advances in areas relevant to critical care. PMID:11070806

  7. Bioengineering in the millennium.

    PubMed

    Ranu, H S

    1998-10-01

    This symposium identified the major challenges in biomedical research that will benefit from bioengineering applications. Attention was focused on the important role that bioengineers will play in future advances in biomedical research. There was considerable discussion about how to integrate bioengineering with biological research in meeting the challenges of the twenty-first century. Symposium presenters showcased the accomplishments of NIH-funded bioengineering researches and increased the visibility of bioengineering to NIH leaders, staff, and members of the intramural and extramural research community. Recommendations were also made for future NIH-funded research projects. Attention was also placed on how basic bioengineering research can lead to commercialization of new health care technology and therefore maintain the nation's leadership in this important area. New products, from biotechnology and novel devices for diagnosis and treatment, are marketed through interactions between universities, medical centers, small start-up firms, and larger, more established companies. In the United States the gross revenue of the bioengineering private sector industry involved in the manufacture of health care products already exceeds $40 billion. More then 750 persons attended this bioengineering symposium. Over 110 scientific posters and exhibits relating to biology and medicine were presented. They provided a forum for showcasing NIH-funded bioengineering projects and fostered future collaboration among academic investigators, industry, and members of the small business community. The contributions of Pugwash bioengineer, Maciej Natecz, a member of the Polish Academy of Sciences, was recognized by the Conference Planning Committee. He was honored for his work in nuclear disarmament. Indian medical scientists should note that this symposium provided a framework for the development of technology in biomedical sciences during the Twenty-First Century. Major

  8. Challenges for a Local Service Agency to Address Domestic Violence –A Case Study From Rural Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women’s access to legal support. PMID:25363105

  9. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  10. [Health, equity, and the Millennium Development Goals].

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristina; Mújica, Oscar J

    2004-06-01

    In September 2000 representatives of 189 countries met for the Millennium Summit, which the United Nations convened in New York City, and adopted the declaration that provided the basis for formulating the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The eight goals are part of a long series of initiatives that governments, the United Nations system, and international financial institutions have undertaken to reduce world poverty. Three of the eight goals deal with health, so the health sector will be responsible for implementing, monitoring, and evaluating measures proposed to meet targets that have been formulated: to reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate in children under 5 years of age between 1990 and 2015; to reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality rate between 1990 and 2015; and to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by the year 2015, as well as to halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria, tuberculosis, and other major diseases. The health sector must also work with other parties to achieve targets connected with two other of the goals: to improve access to affordable essential drugs, and to reduce the proportion of persons who do not have safe drinking water. Adopting a strategy focused on the most vulnerable groups-ones concentrated in locations and populations with the greatest social exclusion-would make possible the largest total reduction in deaths among children, thus reaching the proposed target as well as producing greater equity. In the Region of the Americas the principal challenges in meeting the MDGs are: improving and harmonizing health information systems; designing health programs related to the MDGs that bring together the set of services and interventions that have the greatest impact, according to the special characteristics of the populations who are intended to be the beneficiaries; strengthening the political will to support the MDGs; and guaranteeing funding for the measures undertaken to attain the MDGs.

  11. Challenges and benefits in implementing shared inter-agency assessment across the UK: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Miller, Emma; Cameron, Kirsteen

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, each of the four countries in the UK has attempted to resolve continuing difficulties with duplication of assessment and lack of shared information in community care, by developing approaches to shared assessment. Relevant literature reviews have previously focused on challenges to partnership working between health and social care, and on different approaches to assessment. The literature review described here differs in three key respects. Firstly, the literature was selected on the basis that it addressed shared assessment specifically. Secondly, it included evidence from the four countries within the UK, providing a cross-national basis to the evidence. Thirdly, this study was undertaken to identify whether benefits from shared assessment were evident, in addition to the challenges. While the evidence of benefits at this stage is relatively limited, it is clear that some have emerged, including two relating directly to relevant policy objectives: improved communication, service user and carer involvement; improved partnership and joined up working. As approaches to shared assessment are currently under review in Scotland, England and Wales, and implementation underway in Northern Ireland, and in light of the economic recession and demographic challenges, consideration of key aspects of the evidence may be timely.

  12. The challenges of rescaling South African water resources management: Catchment Management Agencies and interbasin transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourblanc, Magalie; Blanchon, David

    2014-11-01

    The implementation of Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs) was supposed to be the cornerstone of the rescaling process of the South African water reform policy. Yet, less than 10 years after the adoption of the National Water Act, the process was suspended for 4 years and by 2012 only two CMAs had been established. Combining approaches in geography and political science, this paper investigates the reasons for the delays in CMAs' implementation in South Africa. It shows that the construction of interbasin transfers (IBTs) since the 1950s by the apartheid regime and nowadays the power struggles between CMAs and the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) are two of the main obstacles to the creation of CMAs planned by the 1998 National Water Act (NWA). Finally, the paper advocates taking the "hydrosocial cycle" as an analytical framework for designing new institutional arrangements that will include both rectifying the legacy of the past (the specific role of DWA) and acknowledging legitimate local interests.

  13. The challenges of treating developmental trauma disorder in a residential agency for youth.

    PubMed

    Levin, Edmund C

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the task of psychiatrists serving youth in residential programs has largely shifted to rendering diagnostic evaluations and prescribing medications. Children in residential facilities are often misdiagnosed and treated with high doses of multiple medications drawn from several different classes of psychopharmaceuticals. The more accurate diagnosis for many of these children, Developmental Trauma Disorder (DTD), reconceptualizes the treatment approach and leads to substantial clinical benefit. Initiating treatment through application of milieu and dynamic psychotherapy and the tapering of medication very likely will encounter the challenges of staff resistance and the modification of the residence's institutional culture. The number of children receiving medication, the amount and number of medications used, and the number of aggressive incident reports fell dramatically over a 2-year period. Regarding mood and conduct disorders as manifestations of past trauma, rather than as biochemical imbalances, is the dominant focus of an analytically-informed treatment of DTD. PMID:19764849

  14. 75 FR 13301 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Solar Millennium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Solar Millennium Amargosa Farm Road Solar Power Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... (EIS) for the Amargosa Farm Road Solar Power Project, Nye County, Nevada, and by this Notice...

  15. Learning for Development: The Commonwealth of Learning and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth of Learning, 2011

    2011-01-01

    World leaders, meeting at the United Nations in 2000, set eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to transform the condition of humankind in the 21st century. These Goals now guide the policies of governments and the priorities of development agencies. These eight goals are: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) Achieve…

  16. Pharmacoeconomics in the new millennium. A pharmaceutical industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Thwaites, R; Townsend, R J

    1998-02-01

    The primary purpose of pharmacoeconomic research is to assist in making healthcare decisions. Rapid growth in the supply of pharmacoeconomic data over the past few years suggests that pharmacoeconomics can be of help in delivering good, cost-effective healthcare. Greater challenges in decision-making coupled with improvements in the techniques of pharmacoeconomic research point to a greater role for pharmacoeconomics into the new millennium. This in turn will have consequences for companies in the pharmaceutical industry. More successful access to markets and better commercialisation of products will be the rewards for those companies committing to pharmacoeconomics and to the broader goal of delivering value for money in healthcare.

  17. Spinoff 2001: Special Millennium Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    For the past 43 years, NASA has devoted its facilities, labor force, and expertise to sharing the abundance of technology developments used for its missions with the nation's industries. These countless technologies have not only successfully contributed to the growth of the U.S. economy, but also to the quality of life on Earth. For the past 25 years, NASA's Spinoff publication has brought attention to thousands of technologies, products, and services that were developed as a direct result of commercial partnerships between NASA and the private business sector. Many of these exciting technologies included advances in ceramics, computer technology, fiber optics, and remote sensing. New and ongoing research at the NASA field centers covers a full spectrum of technologies that will provide numerous advantages for the future, many of which have made significant strides in the commercial market. The NASA Commercial Technology Network plays a large role in transferring this progress. By applying NASA technologies such as data communication, aircraft de-icing technologies, and innovative materials to everyday functions, American consumers and the national economy benefit. Moving forward into the new millennium, these new technologies will further advance our country's position as the world leader in scientific and technical innovation. These cutting-edge innovations represent the investment of the U.S. citizen in the Space Program. Some of these technologies are highlighted in Spinoff 2001, an example of NASA's commitment to technology transfer and commercialization assistance. This year's issue spotlights the commercial technology efforts of NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center. Kennedy's extensive network of commercial technology opportunities has enabled them to become a leader in technology transfer outreach. This kind of leadership is exemplified through Kennedy's recent partnership with the State of Florida, working toward the development of the Space Experiment

  18. A synopsis of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) investment in additive manufacture and what challenges remain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Michael; Smith, Adrien; Margiotta, Jesse

    2014-03-01

    DARPA's interest in additive manufacture dates back to the mid-80s with seedling programs that developed the foundational knowledge and equipment that led to the Solid Freeform Fabrication program in 1990. The drivers for this program included reducing development times by enabling "tool-less" manufacturing as well as integration of design and fabrication tools. DARPA consistently pushed the boundaries of additive manufacture with follow-on programs that expanded the material suite available for 3-D printing as well as new processes that expanded the technology's capability base. Programs such as the Mesoscopic Integrated Conformal Electronics (MICE) program incorporated functionality to the manufacturing processes through direct write of electronics. DARPA's investment in additive manufacture continues to this day but the focus has changed. DARPA's early investments were focused on developing and demonstrating the technology's capabilities. Now that the technology has been demonstrated, there is serious interest in taking advantage of the attributes unique to the processing methodology (such as customization and new design possibilities) for producing production parts. Accordingly, today's investment at DARPA addresses the systematic barriers to implementation rather than the technology itself. The Open Manufacturing program is enabling rapid qualification of new technologies for the manufacturing environment through the development of new modeling and informatics tools. While the technology is becoming more mainstream, there are plenty of challenges that need to be addressed. And as the technology continues to mature, the agency will continue to look for those "DARPA-hard" challenges that enable revolutionary changes in capability and performance for the Department of Defense.

  19. Linking public health, housing, and indoor environmental policy: successes and challenges at local and federal agencies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David E; Kelly, Tom; Sobolewski, John

    2007-06-01

    We describe the successes and challenges faced by federal and local government agencies in the United States as they have attempted in recent years to connect public and environmental health, housing, community development, and building design with environmental, housing, and building laws, codes, and policies. These policies can either contribute to or adversely affect human physical and mental health, with important implications for economic viability, research, policy development, and overall social stability and progress. Policy impediments include tension between housing affordability and health investment that causes inefficient cost-shifting, privacy issues, unclear statutory authority, and resulting gaps in responsibility for housing, indoor air, and the built environment. We contrast this with other environmental frameworks such as ambient air and water quality statutes where the concept of "shared commons" and the "polluter pays" is more robust. The U.S. experiences in childhood lead poisoning prevention, indoor air, and mold provide useful policy insights. Local programs can effectively build healthy homes capacity through local laws and housing codes. The experience of coordinating remediation for mold, asthma triggers, weatherization, and other healthy housing improvements in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, is highlighted. The U.S. experience shows that policymakers should adopt a prevention-oriented, comprehensive multi-disciplinary approach at all levels of government to prevent unhealthy buildings, houses, and communities.

  20. Linking Public Health, Housing, and Indoor Environmental Policy: Successes and Challenges at Local and Federal Agencies in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David E.; Kelly, Tom; Sobolewski, John

    2007-01-01

    We describe the successes and challenges faced by federal and local government agencies in the United States as they have attempted in recent years to connect public and environmental health, housing, community development, and building design with environmental, housing, and building laws, codes, and policies. These policies can either contribute to or adversely affect human physical and mental health, with important implications for economic viability, research, policy development, and overall social stability and progress. Policy impediments include tension between housing affordability and health investment that causes inefficient cost-shifting, privacy issues, unclear statutory authority, and resulting gaps in responsibility for housing, indoor air, and the built environment. We contrast this with other environmental frameworks such as ambient air and water quality statutes where the concept of “shared commons” and the “polluter pays” is more robust. The U.S. experiences in childhood lead poisoning prevention, indoor air, and mold provide useful policy insights. Local programs can effectively build healthy homes capacity through local laws and housing codes. The experience of coordinating remediation for mold, asthma triggers, weatherization, and other healthy housing improvements in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, is highlighted. The U.S. experience shows that policymakers should adopt a prevention-oriented, comprehensive multi-disciplinary approach at all levels of government to prevent unhealthy buildings, houses, and communities. PMID:17589610

  1. Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria through Non-Formal Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpama, Simon Ibor; Asor, Love Joseph; Erim, Costly M.; Adekola, G.

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria is a signatory to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) declaration but till now she has not made any significant milestones in actualizing these human development goals. In spite of the coordinated efforts towards mobilizing those in the formal education system to partially address its implementation challenges, serious gaps still exit…

  2. Are the health Millennium Development Goals appropriate for Eastern Europe and Central Asia?

    PubMed

    Rechel, Bernd; Shapo, Laidon; McKee, Martin

    2005-09-01

    This article argues that the health-related Millennium Development Goals do not appropriately address the challenges faced by the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. By ignoring adult mortality, their achievement would result in relatively small gains in life expectancy. To achieve greater impact, policies in this region must supplement the classical Millennium Development Goals with indicators of adult health, in particular cardiovascular diseases and external causes of death. In addition, countries, with support from the international community, must improve the quality of vital registration data to enable more accurate estimation of the disease burden.

  3. Child health in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M

    2000-10-01

    In today's modern, industrialized and affluent countries, like Japan and Australia, better living conditions and hygiene, plentiful nutritious food and rapid advances in biology and medical technologies have helped to bring about dramatic improvements in child health. The previous heavy burdens of infections and undernutrition have been eliminated or can now be controlled or effectively treated. In these countries, child health standards are higher than ever and expectation of life at birth is much higher than in the past. Some of the technological advances that have helped bring about this transformation are immunization, antimicrobial therapy, successful treatment of childhood leukemias, transplantation of vital organs and implementation of genetic diagnosis and gene therapy. The use of genetically modified foods and the prospects for cloning of humans are areas of intense interest and controversy. However, these advances have their disadvantages (e.g. antibiotic-induced drug resistance). Urbanization has encouraged the 'westernization' of dietary patterns and the long-term 'lifestyle diseases' that can follow in adults. Accidents, violence and drug abuse are major problems in many parts of the world. Changes in attitudes to sexuality and the spread of HIV/AIDS is another major problem, especially in Africa and Asia. Environmental pollution and the degradation of agricultural lands, rivers and seas are also important. Ironically, standards of child health and the prospects for long life in countries like Japan are better than ever before, but social and environmental changes are presenting children and their carers with new and unanswered challenges as we enter the 21 st century and the new millennium.

  4. New Space Industries for the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smitherman, D. V., Jr. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    New Space Industries For the Next Millennium is a final report of the findings from the New Space Industries Workshop held in Washington, DC, in February 1998. The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify what must be done to develop new markets, and to generate plans, milestones and new organizational relationships designed to facilitate the goal of space development. This document provides a summary report on the results of that workshop and is not intended as a statement of NASA or government policy. Previous studies had shown great potential for the development of new markets in space (e.g., travel and entertainment, space solar power, satellite and space transfer services, research and development in space, space manufacturing, and space resources), and a great need for coordination and formation of infrastructures (e.g., space transportation, space business parks, and space utilities), to facilitate the growth of new space businesses. The New Space Industries Workshop brought together government, academia, and industry participants from several previous studies and other professionals interested in the development of space for commercial purposes. Their participation provided input into the role of government and industry in space development as well as the technology needs that will enable space development. The opening of the frontier of space, not just to government missions but to private individuals and commercial business, is a challenge of overarching importance. It is our hope that the workshop and this final report continue in earnest the process of identifying and overcoming the barriers to large-scale public access and development of space in the early years of the next century.

  5. Child health in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M

    2000-10-01

    In today's modern, industrialized and affluent countries, like Japan and Australia, better living conditions and hygiene, plentiful nutritious food and rapid advances in biology and medical technologies have helped to bring about dramatic improvements in child health. The previous heavy burdens of infections and undernutrition have been eliminated or can now be controlled or effectively treated. In these countries, child health standards are higher than ever and expectation of life at birth is much higher than in the past. Some of the technological advances that have helped bring about this transformation are immunization, antimicrobial therapy, successful treatment of childhood leukemias, transplantation of vital organs and implementation of genetic diagnosis and gene therapy. The use of genetically modified foods and the prospects for cloning of humans are areas of intense interest and controversy. However, these advances have their disadvantages (e.g. antibiotic-induced drug resistance). Urbanization has encouraged the 'westernization' of dietary patterns and the long-term 'lifestyle diseases' that can follow in adults. Accidents, violence and drug abuse are major problems in many parts of the world. Changes in attitudes to sexuality and the spread of HIV/AIDS is another major problem, especially in Africa and Asia. Environmental pollution and the degradation of agricultural lands, rivers and seas are also important. Ironically, standards of child health and the prospects for long life in countries like Japan are better than ever before, but social and environmental changes are presenting children and their carers with new and unanswered challenges as we enter the 21 st century and the new millennium. PMID:11059531

  6. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-05-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress has been made. There is not a simple and straight-forward intervention, which by itself will bring maternal mortality significantly down; and it is commonly agreed on that the high maternal mortality can only be addressed if the health system is strengthened. There is a common consensus about the importance of skilled attendance at delivery to address the high, maternal mortality. This consensus is also reflected in the MDG 5, where the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel is considered a key indicator. But even if countries invest massive efforts to increase skilled care, there will be a time lag. In addition, there is a need of major investment in human resources to counter the present momentum of emigration of qualified personnel from low income countries. To address the lack of skilled attendance, alternative strategies should therefore be developed and incorporated within the existing health system. One plausible solution could be to involve lower level providers such as community health workers to provide health facility based care under close supervision of authorized midwives. Upgrade of midlevel staff to provide life-saving obstetric surgery may also be an important innovative strategy. Along with the strategy of aiming at increasing the number of health facility based deliveries and the empowerment of non physicians to provide obstetric surgery, some preventive functions of basic care targeting women who prefer to deliver outside the health facilities should be developed. Finally, political leadership, openness to discuss women's rights, including abortion, and involving the community i.e. MDG 3 is essential to attain MDG 5.

  7. Tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals: reaching consensus on child mortality levels and trends.

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The increased attention to tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including Goal 4 of reducing child mortality, has drawn attention to a number of interrelated technical, operational and political challenges and to the underlying weaknesses of country health information systems upon which reliable monitoring depends. Assessments of child mortality published in 2005, for almost all low-income countries, are based on an extrapolation of the trends observed during the 1990s, rather than on the empirical data for more recent years. The validity of the extrapolation depends on the quality and quantity of the data used, and many countries lack suitable data. In the long run, it is hoped that vital registration or sample registration systems will be established to monitor vital events in a sustainable way. However, in the short run, tracking child mortality in high-mortality countries will continue to rely on household surveys and extrapolations of historical trends. This will require more collaborative efforts both to collect data through initiatives to strengthen health information systems at the country level, and to harmonize the estimation process. The latter objective requires the continued activity of a coordinating group of international agencies and academics that aims to produce transparent estimates -- through the consistent application of an agreed-upon methodology --for monitoring at the international level. PMID:16583082

  8. Voting Rights Issues in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication examines ways to teach about law in the liberal arts. This issue focuses on future voting rights issues by exploring the 2000 presidential election. Articles included are: "Voting Rights in the New Millennium" (Jason F. Kirksey); "Legal and Political Lessons from 'Bush v. Gore'" (David Schultz); "The Ford-Carter Commission and…

  9. NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A. G.; Sherwood, R. L.; Wyman, W.

    2005-03-01

    The New Millennium ST6 project developed the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE)and the Inertial Stellar Compass (ISC). ASE improves a spacecraft's ability to make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and downlink. ISC determines a spacecraft's attitude and adjusts its pointing.

  10. A humanistic psychology for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, C

    2000-11-01

    In this article, it is contended that for the past century psychology has not lived up to its mandate as a trusted guide for the establishment of a well-functioning society. Ten responsibilities of an enlightened psychology for the new millennium that are based on humanistic values are discussed.

  11. Financing the Millennium Development Goals for health and beyond: sustaining the 'Big Push'

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Many of the Millennium Development Goals are not being achieved in the world's poorest countries, yet only five years remain until the target date. The financing of these Goals is not merely insufficient; current evidence indicates that the temporary nature of the financing, as well as challenges to coordinating its delivery and directing it to the most needy recipients, hinder achievement of the Goals in countries that may benefit most. Traditional approaches to providing development assistance for health have not been able to address both prevalent and emergent public health challenges captured in the Goals; these challenges demand sustained forms of financial redistribution through a coordinated mechanism. A global social health protection fund is proposed to address recurring failures in the modern aid distribution mechanism. Such a Fund could use established and effective strategies for aid delivery to mitigate many financial problems currently undermining the Millennium Development Goals initiative. PMID:20932274

  12. Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic and international challenges facing the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness are discussed; and U.S. and Russian programs in testing and correcting children's vision, developing eye safety programs in agriculture and industry, and disseminating information concerning the detection and treatment of cataracts are compared. (SB)

  13. Challenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The events that led to the spectacular destruction of the Space Shuttle "Challenger" in 1986 are detailed here. They show how NASA should have heeded engineers' worries over materials problems resulting from a launch in cold weather. Suggestions are made of how pupils could also learn from this tragedy. (Contains 4 figures and 2 footnotes.)

  14. Tri-Agency Coordination: Challenges and Successes in Creating a Community of Practice among Climate Change Education Principal Investigators funded by NASA, NOAA, and NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; McDougall, C.; Karsten, J. L.; Campbell, D.; Pippin, M. R.; Chambers, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    The effort needed for comprehensive climate change education is far greater than any one institution, education sector, or even federal agency can handle. Recognizing a need to synergistically combine efforts, NSF, NASA, and NOAA have created a collaborative community of their climate change education principal investigators (PIs) through tri-agency coordination. The goals of this tri-agency collaboration are to leverage existing resources, minimize duplicate efforts, and facilitate communication among this emergent community of scientists and educators. NASA, NOAA, and NSF work together to strategically coordinate and support a portfolio of projects focused on climate literacy and education in formal and informal learning environments. The activities of the tri-agency collaboration, including annual meetings for PIs, a catalog of the agencies collective investments in climate change education and the ongoing development of a nascent common evaluation framework, have created a strong national network for effectively engaging diverse audiences with the principles of climate literacy (see Eos Vol. 92, No. 24, 14 June 2011). Last year, after 3 years of active collaboration, similar programs underway at other U.S. Global Change Research Program agencies: the EPA, National Institutes for Environmental Health Sciences, and USDA, were engaged in the collaboration. And, in an attempt to understand the interests of the private sector in this arena, conversations have begun with private philanthropic organizations. This year, as many of the funded projects are maturing, the PI meeting will have a focus on bringing this community together to create a science-theme based tangible outcome that can move the field of climate change education forward. Additional outcomes from this PI meeting will be presented as well as the challenges that were encountered in bringing together institutions with diverse missions, and approaches developed to ensure all parties feel they

  15. Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Close-up view of the liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-51L taken from camera site 39B-2/T3. From this camera position, a cloud of grey-brown smoke can be seen on the right side of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) on a line directly across from the letter 'U' in United States. This was the first visible sign that an SRB joint breach may have occured. On January 28, 1986 frigid overnight temperatures caused normally pliable rubber O-ring seals and putty that are designed to seal and establish joint integrity between the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) joint segments, to become hard and non- flexible. At the instant of SRB ignition, tremendous stresses and pressures occur within the SRB casing and especially at the joint attachmentment points. The failure of the O-rings and putty to 'seat' properly at motor ignition, caused hot exhaust gases to blow by the seals and putty. During Challenger's ascent, this hot gas 'blow by' ultimately cut a swath completely through the steel booster casing; and like a welder's torch, began cutting into the External Tank (ET). It is believed that the ET was compromised in several locations starting in the aft at the initial point where SRB joint failure occured. The ET hydrogen tank is believed to have been breached first, with continuous rapid incremental failure of both the ET and SRB. A chain reaction of events occurring in milliseconds culminated in a massive explosion. The orbiter Challenger was instantly ejected by the blast and went askew into the supersonic air flow. These aerodynamic forces caused structural shattering and complete destruction of the orbiter. Though it was concluded that the G-forces experienced during orbiter ejection and break-up were survivable, impact with the ocean surface was not. Tragically, all seven crewmembers perished.

  16. Translational ethics: a perspective for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Kagarise, M J; Sheldon, G F

    2000-01-01

    Modern medical care is increasingly dependent on the application of science to clinical practice, which occurs through clinical or translational research. We propose the concept of translational ethics, which incorporates the contributions of research codes of ethics that involve the protection of human subjects into the ethics of clinical practice. The modern research environment, which has contributed the scientific tools of modern medicine, has also framed the ethical environment in which medicine is practiced. The single most important contribution of research codes for protection of human research subjects to clinical practice is the doctrine of informed consent. Translational ethics, based on autonomy and informed consent, progresses beyond the narrow interpretation of those 2 concepts. It requires consensual understanding of a spectrum of clinical interventions that are increasingly complicated. Translational ethics helps navigate the ethical ramifications of technological and scientific advances that will increasingly challenge the corporate-oriented health system in the new millennium.

  17. Medical informatics in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Ball, M J; Douglas, J V

    1998-01-01

    In a period of social transformation, we must reinvent health care. For guidance, we can look to the evolving discipline of medical informatics and to the patterns of investment in the practice arena. A top ranked application need, the computerized patient record (CPR) offers cost savings and supports clinical quality and ambulatory care. In the new millennium, we need to define our values with precision and use technology to achieve quality health care.

  18. Space Transportation in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Preston

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of Space Transportation in the New Millennium. Pictures are shown of the space shuttle lift Off, rocket motion, the space shuttle main engine, the space shuttle external tank, the space shuttle solid rocket booster, the X-33, X-34, X-37, X-38, magnetic levitation, the rbcc, nuclear thermal propulsion, anti-matter propulsion system, the NTP or anti-matter concept vehicles, and the Space Elevator.

  19. 'Customerizing' in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, K

    2000-01-01

    Many might challenge the concept of customerizing in the health care systems in the face of financial losses caused by the Balanced Budget Act. But, now more than ever, we should be obsessed with the customer and work relentlessly to understand that the procedure is not the end goal. The experience around that procedure will bond the patient to us, or create a consumer who is left with anger. The secret to success, according to Seybold (1998), is "It's the customer, stupid!" (pp. xvi). She also notes that all we have to do is to focus on making it easier for the customer to work with us. We should pick our customers' brains, visit them, learn what they care about, and make it easier for them to work with us. We can't afford not to $.

  20. 'Customerizing' in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, K

    2000-01-01

    Many might challenge the concept of customerizing in the health care systems in the face of financial losses caused by the Balanced Budget Act. But, now more than ever, we should be obsessed with the customer and work relentlessly to understand that the procedure is not the end goal. The experience around that procedure will bond the patient to us, or create a consumer who is left with anger. The secret to success, according to Seybold (1998), is "It's the customer, stupid!" (pp. xvi). She also notes that all we have to do is to focus on making it easier for the customer to work with us. We should pick our customers' brains, visit them, learn what they care about, and make it easier for them to work with us. We can't afford not to.$

  1. Capacity building in Developing Countries: a challenge ahead for the European Space Agency to continue its successful experience to date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fea, M.

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has built a long tradition and a large experience in the domain of education, training and capacity building throughout its space programmes. As an example, the ESA Science Programme dedicates 1% of its budget to these activities. One of the key reasons for it is the need of closing the loop along the chain from the provider to the user, that is to say between the space and the users elements. In fact, besides the obvious need for technology development, there is actually not very much justification in the long term for a space programme if the user communities are not able to make good use of programme outputs and provide feedback and proper requirements to space agencies. The case of ESA Earth Observation programmes is described to illustrate these considerations, as a way to also implement the European Space Policy and UNISPACE III recommendations. Since its foundation in 1975 and the implementation of its EO programme with the launch of Meteosat-1 in 1977 and the birth of the Earthnet Programme Office in 1978, the European Space Agency is very active in the field of capacity building in developing countries. That is performed through both ESA's specific projects and international co-operation activities. In the latter domain, ESA enjoys a long-standing collaboration with many entities, such as the Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), and organisations, such as WMO, UN and its specialised agencies (FAO, UNESCO, UNEP, and so on). In that respect, the Agency is an active member of the CEOS Working Group on Education (WGEdu) and of the World Summit for Sustainable Development Follow-Up (WSSD) Module 1 group dedicated to education, training and capacity building. The overall ESA strategy targets various citizen communities and takes into account the fact that today's young generations will become tomorrow's professionals and decision makers. ESA's activities in this domain are in particular based on an end-to-end concept

  2. World optometry: the challenges of leadership for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Anthony

    2002-06-01

    The World Council of Optometry has developed a mission and organizational strategies to improve the delivery of eye and vision care around the world, as well as to advance the profession of optometry. Its growth over the past several years is a tribute to the early pioneers in international optometry who unselfishly volunteered their time and expertise to improving the profession and eye and vision care. It also underscores the continued spirit of global volunteerism that energizes the recent leaders who have sustained this growth. Over the past decades, optometry has seen the steady growth of its educational infrastructure, scope of practice, and professional image. It has faced adversity and seized opportunities. Throughout, the overarching raison d'être has been optometry's responsiveness to the public health needs of society. The future growth of optometry within the global health community will depend on expanding this professional growth at an international level, and forging durable strategic alliances that address the significant prevention of blindness imperatives of our generation. PMID:12365681

  3. Challenges for Psychotherapy, Counselling and Guidance at the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugarman, Leonie; Palmer, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the topics of the symposium covered in this issue of the "British Journal of Guidance and Counselling." The papers, focusing primarily on the United Kingdom, comment on the past, present, and future of counseling, guidance, and psychotherapy. Specific topics include the rise of psychoanalysis, the development of the counseling profession,…

  4. Food & nutrition security: challenges in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2013-09-01

    The World Food Summit in 1996 provided a comprehensive definition for food security which brings into focus the linkage between food, nutrition and health. India has been self sufficient in food production since seventies and low household hunger rates. India compares well with developing countries with similar health profile in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR) and under five mortality rate (U5 MR). India fares poorly when underweight in under five children is used as an indicator for food insecurity with rates comparable to that of Subsaharan Africa. If wasting [low body mass index (BMI) for age in children and low BMI in adults] which is closely related to adequacy of current food intake is used as an indictor for the assessment of household food security, India fares better. The nineties witnessed the emergence of dual nutrition burden with persistent inadequate dietary intake and undernutrition on one side and low physical activity / food intake above requirements and overnutrition on the other side. Body size and physical activity levels are two major determinants of human nutrient requirements. The revised recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for Indians takes cognisance of the current body weight and physical activity while computing the energy and nutrient requirements. As both under- and overnutrition are associated with health hazards, perhaps time has come for use of normal BMI as an indicator for food security.

  5. Food & nutrition security: challenges in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2013-09-01

    The World Food Summit in 1996 provided a comprehensive definition for food security which brings into focus the linkage between food, nutrition and health. India has been self sufficient in food production since seventies and low household hunger rates. India compares well with developing countries with similar health profile in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR) and under five mortality rate (U5 MR). India fares poorly when underweight in under five children is used as an indicator for food insecurity with rates comparable to that of Subsaharan Africa. If wasting [low body mass index (BMI) for age in children and low BMI in adults] which is closely related to adequacy of current food intake is used as an indictor for the assessment of household food security, India fares better. The nineties witnessed the emergence of dual nutrition burden with persistent inadequate dietary intake and undernutrition on one side and low physical activity / food intake above requirements and overnutrition on the other side. Body size and physical activity levels are two major determinants of human nutrient requirements. The revised recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for Indians takes cognisance of the current body weight and physical activity while computing the energy and nutrient requirements. As both under- and overnutrition are associated with health hazards, perhaps time has come for use of normal BMI as an indicator for food security. PMID:24135187

  6. The challenge of presenting climate change information to the public and to political stakeholders: coordinated efforts of German environmental agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebener, H.; Linke, C.

    2010-09-01

    In Germany environmental agencies exist both on the country level and on the level of the different federal states of Germany. A regular working group of members of all the environmental agencies discusses the needs and options of presenting regional (resolution of few km) climate information to the public as well as to political stakeholders. As a result of this working group, guidelines have been formulated on how to present regional climate and climate change information. In this presentation, the guidelines developed by the working group will be presented. Examples of good versus bad practice will be given and reasons for the guidelines will be explained. The topics covered include: Definition of ‘climate projection' versus ‘climate forecast', recommendations for use of scenarios, temporal and spatial resolution, reference periods, treatment of model biases and significance, optimal use of colour selection and scaling, and treatment of different model generations. A special focus will be given to the presentation of results from multiple simulations (ensembles), as evidence is mounting that we need to take ensemble results into account for decision making. Examples shown will be for the federal state of Hessen, Germany.

  7. Water resources in the next millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Warren

    As pressures from an exponentially increasing population and economic expectations rise against a finite water resource, how do we address management? This was the main focus of the Dubai International Conference on Water Resources and Integrated Management in the Third Millennium in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2-6 February 2002. The invited forum attracted an eclectic mix of international thinkers from five continents. Presentations and discussions on hydrology policy/property rights, and management strategies focused mainly on problems of water supply, irrigation, and/or ecosystems.

  8. Situational awareness for science funders: information challenges and solutions for funding agencies in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Ashlea; Diwersy, Mario

    2014-02-01

    About 25 years ago, one of our colleagues joined the Wellcome Trust, the world's second largest private biomedical funder. At the time, computers and the Internet were not a regular part of everyday work routines. Today, a quarter of a century later, the Wellcome Trust and other forward thinking funders are leading the way in integrating software, systems, and information technology into their funding processes. While not all research funders have been technologically proactive--some have only recently switched to electronic applications and others still operate with largely document-based processes-almost all funders experience some level of difficulty when it comes to translating technological advances into operational efficiencies and strategic insights. Also, although there are exceptions, funders generally do not share notes. That is scary. It is a rich and perhaps troubling irony that even while they invest billions of dollars in groundbreaking research to solve some of the world's greatest challenges, many funders struggle to find effective solutions to what can seem like pedestrian information challenges:

  9. From Domination to Partnership: Meeting the UN Millennium Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisler, Riane; Corral, Thais

    2005-01-01

    The UN Millennium goals envision a more just and sustainable future. This article explains why there is a need to shift from domination model to a partnership model in meeting the UN Millennium goals. The domination model is a configuration based on top-down rankings of control, while the partnership model is a configuration that can support a…

  10. The Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed-based Approach: where social and natural sciences meet to address today's water resource challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddle, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of governmental organizations at the local, state, and federal level collaborate with nongovernmental organizations and individuals to solve watershed scale problems (Imperial and Koontz, 2007). Such a shift in policy approach from hierarchical regulation to bottom-up collaboration is largely a result of regulator’s recognition of the interdependence of natural and socio-economic systems on a watershed scale (Steelman and Carmin, 2002. Agencies throughout the federal government increasingly favored new governing institutions that encourage cooperation between local actors with conflicting interests, divergent geographic bases, and overlapping administrative jurisdictions to resolve continuing disputes over resource management (Bardach 1998). This favoritism of collaborative over command-and-control approaches for managing nonpoint source pollution led to the development of watershed partnerships and the watershed-based approach (Lubell et al., 2002). This study aims to further collaborative governance scholarship and aid decision-makers in identifying the critical elements of collaborative governance resulting in environmental improvements. To date, this relationship has not been empirically determined, in spite of the fact that collaborative governance is used routinely by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in resolving issues related to watershed management and other applications. This gap in the research is largely due to the lack of longitudinal data. In order to determine whether changes have occurred, environmental data must be collected over relatively long time periods (Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Sabatier, et al., 2005). However, collecting these data is often cost prohibitive. Monitoring water quality is expensive and requires technical expertise, and is often the first line item cut in environmental management budgets. This research is interdisciplinary, looking at the physical, chemical, and biological parameters for 44 waterbodies

  11. Veterinarian challenges to providing a multi-agency response to farm animal welfare problems in Ireland: responding to the human factor.

    PubMed

    Devitt, C; Kelly, P; Blake, M; Hanlon, A; More, S J

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, the authors undertook a study of the challenges facing government and private veterinarians in responding to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents (i.e. the personal problems and difficulties of farmers that can result in farm animal neglect). This paper reports their findings and examines the role of veterinarians in responding to the difficulties of farmers. It also looks at their experiences of attempting to build a multi-agency approach involving veterinary and human support services. This paper builds on a study whereby the authors considered how social, health and attitudinal factors, as well as mental health problems, contribute to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland. An early warning system involving relevant agencies is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. The literature provides examples of private veterinarians combining with support services where there are indicators of animal and human abuse. Yet there are no research examples of government or private veterinarians linking with support services to resolve farm animal welfare cases where there are social, health, and/or mental health difficulties with the herd owner. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians (n = 18) and three with private veterinarians (n = 12). Government veterinarians made contact with support services to seek advice on how best to respond to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents, and/or to seek support for the herd owner. Contact between government and private veterinarians was driven by the former. Communication between agencies was influenced by individual efforts and personal contacts. Formal structures and guidelines, perceived professional capabilities in determining herd owner needs, and client confidentiality concerns among support services and private veterinarians were less influential. The fear of losing clients and the financial implications of this were

  12. Veterinarian challenges to providing a multi-agency response to farm animal welfare problems in Ireland: responding to the human factor.

    PubMed

    Devitt, C; Kelly, P; Blake, M; Hanlon, A; More, S J

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, the authors undertook a study of the challenges facing government and private veterinarians in responding to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents (i.e. the personal problems and difficulties of farmers that can result in farm animal neglect). This paper reports their findings and examines the role of veterinarians in responding to the difficulties of farmers. It also looks at their experiences of attempting to build a multi-agency approach involving veterinary and human support services. This paper builds on a study whereby the authors considered how social, health and attitudinal factors, as well as mental health problems, contribute to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland. An early warning system involving relevant agencies is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. The literature provides examples of private veterinarians combining with support services where there are indicators of animal and human abuse. Yet there are no research examples of government or private veterinarians linking with support services to resolve farm animal welfare cases where there are social, health, and/or mental health difficulties with the herd owner. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians (n = 18) and three with private veterinarians (n = 12). Government veterinarians made contact with support services to seek advice on how best to respond to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents, and/or to seek support for the herd owner. Contact between government and private veterinarians was driven by the former. Communication between agencies was influenced by individual efforts and personal contacts. Formal structures and guidelines, perceived professional capabilities in determining herd owner needs, and client confidentiality concerns among support services and private veterinarians were less influential. The fear of losing clients and the financial implications of this were

  13. Global sediment fluxes during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipal, Victoria; Reick, Christian; Van Oost, Kristof; Hoffmann, Thomas; Pongratz, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Soil redistribution plays an important role in the transport of carbon and nutrients between terrestrial ecosystems. However, quantification of soil redistribution and its effects on the global biogeochemical cycles is currently unknown. This study aims at developing new tools and methods to represent soil redistribution on a global scale, and contribute to the quantification of anthropogenic disturbances to the biogeochemical cycles. We present a new large-scale coarse resolution sediment budget model that can simulate spatial patterns and long-term trends in soil redistribution in floodplains and on hillslope, resulting from external forces such as climate and land use change. First, we validated the model for the Rhine catchment using observed Holocene sediment storage data and observed scaling behavior between sediment storage and catchment area. Then, we applied the model on 20 large river catchments globally, using climate and land cover data from the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) for the last millennium (850 - 2005AD). We show that the model can reproduce current observed sediment yields if uncertainty in the observations is taken into account. Furthermore, we find that the change in erosion rates during the last millennium resulted in a significant increase in sediment storage for different global catchments. We identify land use change as the main driver behind this change in sediment storage. Finally, catchments characteristics, such as area and slope, play an important role in buffering or amplifying the effect of land use and other external forces on the change in erosion and sediment storage.

  14. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854–2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851–2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773–2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  15. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium. PMID:26243340

  16. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Burn, Michael J; Palmer, Suzanne E

    2015-08-05

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68; 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90; 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  17. Atlantic hurricane activity during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, Michael J.; Palmer, Suzanne E.

    2015-08-01

    Hurricanes are a persistent socio-economic hazard for countries situated in and around the Main Development Region (MDR) of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Climate-model simulations have attributed their interdecadal variability to changes in solar and volcanic activity, Saharan dust flux, anthropogenic greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and heat transport within the global ocean conveyor belt. However, the attribution of hurricane activity to specific forcing factors is hampered by the short observational record of Atlantic storms. Here, we present the Extended Hurricane Activity (EHA) index, the first empirical reconstruction of Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the last millennium, derived from a high-resolution lake sediment geochemical record from Jamaica. The EHA correlates significantly with decadal changes in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs; r = 0.68 1854-2008), the Accumulated Cyclone Energy index (ACE; r = 0.90 1851-2010), and two annually-resolved coral-based SST reconstructions (1773-2008) from within the MDR. Our results corroborate evidence for the increasing trend of hurricane activity during the Industrial Era; however, we show that contemporary activity has not exceeded the range of natural climate variability exhibited during the last millennium.

  18. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  19. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next.

    PubMed

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  20. Millennium Global Village-Net: bringing together Millennium Villages throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Andrew S; Negin, Joel; Olayo, Bernard; Bukachi, Frederick; Johnson, Edward; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich

    2009-12-01

    The Millennium Villages Project (MVP), based at The Earth Institute at Columbia University, is a bottom-up, community led approach to show how villages in developing countries can get out of the poverty trap that afflicts more than a billion people worldwide. With well-targeted, practical inputs can help the community invest in a path leading to self-sustaining development. There are 80 Millennium Villages clustered in 10 countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa. MVP is an important development process for empowering communities to invest in a package of integrated interventions aiming to increase food production, improve access to safe water, health care, education and infrastructure. The process benefits from synergies of the integrated approach and relies on community leadership as empowered by proven technological inputs. MVP is committed to a science-based approach to assess and monitor the progress of the communities towards clear objectives; the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and to do so with mechanisms that are scalable and sustainable. This approach offers much more than simply collecting and analyzing data since the mechanism used for recording progress would provide a bridge over the divide which separates the haves and the have-nots (by facilitating the sharing of solutions from one community to another bidirectionally). By so doing, it allows people to enhance their own futures in a sustainable manner. Solutions found in one community are transferable to similar communities in other MVP villages. To achieve this goal, the MVP requires an information and communication system which can provide both necessary infrastructure for monitoring and evaluation, and tools for communicating among the villages, cities and countries. This system is called the Millennium Global Village-Net (MGV-Net). It takes advantage of the latest in open source software (OpenMRS), databases (MySQL), interface terminology, a centralized concept dictionary, and uses appropriate

  1. Basic mechanisms for the new millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1998-09-01

    This part of the Short Course will review the basic mechanisms for radiation effects in semiconductor devices. All three areas of radiation damage will be considered -- total dose, displacement effects, and single event effects. Each of these areas will be discussed in turn. First an overview and background will be provided on the historical understanding of the damage mechanism. Then there will be a discussion of recent enhancements to the understanding of those mechanisms and an up-to-date picture provided of the current state of knowledge. Next the potential impact of each of these damage mechanisms on devices in emerging technologies and how the mechanisms may be used to understand device performance will be described, with an emphasis on those likely to be of importance in the new millennium. Finally some additional thoughts will be presented on how device scaling expected into the next century may impact radiation hardness.

  2. NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Wyman, W.

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of NASA's New Millennium Program is to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing to deploy resources on other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

  3. NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Chmielewski, A.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S.; Davies, A.; Wyman, W.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program is intended to validate advanced technologies in space and thus lower the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on spacecraft of the future. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing to deploy resources on other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

  4. NASA's New Millennium ST6 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. B.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Chien, S. A.; Davies, A.; Sherwood, R. L.; Wyman, W.

    2004-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program validates advanced technologies in space and thus lowers the risk for the first mission user. The New Millennium ST6 project has developed two advanced, experimental technologies for use on future missions. These technologies are the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment and the Inertial Stellar Compass. These technologies will improve a spacecraft's ability to: 1) Make intelligent decisions on what information to gather and send back to the ground 2) Determine its own attitude and adjust its pointing. The significance of these technologies is in making the space missions less dependent on operators on the ground and shift the decision making to the spacecraft itself. Future missions using these technologies will be able to reduce the size of the ground crew lowering the mission cost or allowing re-deployment of resources to other aspects of the mission. Autonomous pointing and science gathering will also allow the spacecraft to react to ephemeral events that otherwise could not be detected in time due to long communication times from deep space. Sciencecraft technology involves feature and change detection, continuous planning technology, and robust execution. It is equipped with software that checks spacecraft performance and has resources to prevent errors. The Inertial Stellar Compass will enable a spacecraft to continuously determine its attitude and recover its orientation after a temporary malfunction or power loss. This is done by the "marriage" of a miniaturized star camera and gyro system. Compass technology uses an active pixel sensor in a star-tracking camera and a three-axis system of microelectromechanical gyros. These technologies will revolutionize future NASA spacecraft and allow mission resources to focus on science goals. This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

  5. Patrick Moore's millennium yearbook : the view from AD 1001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick, Chapman, Allan

    In a year that will probably be remembered almost as much for books about the millennium as for the turn of 2000 A.D itself, Patrick Moore's Millennium Yearbook celebrates.....well, the wrong millennium! This thoroughly entertaining book - which is for everyone, not just astronomers - contains articles on King Alfred's chronological work, reviews of the new Star Catalogue by the Arab Al-Sufi and the latest edition of Ptolemy's Almagast. And foreshadowing the change to metric units by 1000 years, the book uses arabic numbers instead of Roman - but there is a conversion table if you have trouble with the idea of "zero" and prefer the older system.

  6. Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Stephen R; Mooney, Harold A; Agard, John; Capistrano, Doris; Defries, Ruth S; Díaz, Sandra; Dietz, Thomas; Duraiappah, Anantha K; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Perrings, Charles; Reid, Walter V; Sarukhan, José; Scholes, Robert J; Whyte, Anne

    2009-02-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social-ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains limited by focus on discipline-bound sectors of the full social-ecological system. At the same time, some polices and practices intended to improve ecosystem services and human well-being are based on untested assumptions and sparse information. The people who are affected and those who provide resources are increasingly asking for evidence that interventions improve ecosystem services and human well-being. New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Such research will expand the capacity to address fundamental questions about complex social-ecological systems while evaluating assumptions of policies and practices intended to advance human well-being through improved ecosystem services. PMID:19179280

  7. Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Stephen R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Agard, John; Capistrano, Doris; DeFries, Ruth S.; Díaz, Sandra; Dietz, Thomas; Duraiappah, Anantha K.; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Perrings, Charles; Reid, Walter V.; Sarukhan, José; Scholes, Robert J.; Whyte, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social–ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains limited by focus on discipline-bound sectors of the full social–ecological system. At the same time, some polices and practices intended to improve ecosystem services and human well-being are based on untested assumptions and sparse information. The people who are affected and those who provide resources are increasingly asking for evidence that interventions improve ecosystem services and human well-being. New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Such research will expand the capacity to address fundamental questions about complex social–ecological systems while evaluating assumptions of policies and practices intended to advance human well-being through improved ecosystem services. PMID:19179280

  8. Millennium regional PACS management: strategies for successful implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Brad; Romlein, John R.; Gac, Robert J., Jr.; Chacko, Anna K.; Radvany, Martin

    2000-05-01

    With the advent of the new Millennium, Picture Archive and Communications System (PACS) technology has matured to levels sufficient to support open systems based, regional implementations. This shifts the site-centric PACS paradigm into broader scale, impacting facilities, workflow, business plans and ultimately patient care on a regional basis. Prudent and effective management of a regional implementation is critical to overall project success based upon a number of competing influences fundamental to the PACS including network infrastructure, clinical workflow, acquisition modalities, planning documentation, site preparation, acceptance testing, project communication, interface integration issues, etc. Risk mitigation is possible by understanding and managing the interrelationships of these influences through a phased approach with embedded management controls. The overall phases of regional implementation are not unlike site-centric implementations, consisting of Discovery, Planning, Preparation, Installation; Acceptance and Warranty/Maintenance; however, details which manifest over time are what provide significant management challenges. When balanced using a culturally reinforced policy of open, frequent and hands-on communication, regional PACS projects can be successfully implemented maintaining budget, schedule and scope thresholds.

  9. 76 FR 46786 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    .... Box 1565, Pearl River, New York 10965, filed in the above referenced docket an application pursuant to... & Secretary, Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC, One Blue Hill Plaza, Seventh Floor, P.O. Box 1565, Pearl...

  10. Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, James; Evans, J. Scott

    2001-01-01

    The "Photochemical Phenomenology Model for the New Millennium" project tackles the issue of reengineering and extension of validated physics-based modeling capabilities ("legacy" computer codes) to application-oriented software for use in science and science-support activities. While the design and architecture layouts are in terms of general particle distributions involved in scattering, impact, and reactive interactions, initial Photochemical Phenomenology Modeling Tool (PPMT) implementations are aimed at construction and evaluation of photochemical transport models with rapid execution for use in remote sensing data analysis activities in distributed systems. Current focus is on the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data acquired during the CASSINI flyby of Jupiter. Overall, the project has stayed on the development track outlined in the Year 1 annual report and most Year 2 goals have been met. The issues that have required the most attention are: implementation of the core photochemistry algorithms; implementation of a functional Java Graphical User Interface; completion of a functional CORBA Component Model framework; and assessment of performance issues. Specific accomplishments and the difficulties encountered are summarized in this report. Work to be carried out in the next year center on: completion of testing of the initial operational implementation; its application to analysis of the CASSINI/CIRS Jovian flyby data; extension of the PPMT to incorporate additional phenomenology algorithms; and delivery of a mature operational implementation.

  11. Immobile Robots: AI in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian C.; Nayak, P. Pandurang

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of sensor rich, massively distributed, autonomous systems are being developed that have the potential for profound social, environmental, and economic change. These include networked building energy systems, autonomous space probes, chemical plant control systems, satellite constellations for remote ecosystem monitoring, power grids, biosphere-like life support systems, and reconfigurable traffic systems, to highlight but a few. To achieve high performance, these immobile robots (or immobots) will need to develop sophisticated regulatory and immune systems that accurately and robustly control their complex internal functions. To accomplish this, immobots will exploit a vast nervous system of sensors to model themselves and their environment on a grand scale. They will use these models to dramatically reconfigure themselves in order to survive decades of autonomous operations. Achieving these large scale modeling and configuration tasks will require a tight coupling between the higher level coordination function provided by symbolic reasoning, and the lower level autonomic processes of adaptive estimation and control. To be economically viable they will need to be programmable purely through high level compositional models. Self modeling and self configuration, coordinating autonomic functions through symbolic reasoning, and compositional, model-based programming are the three key elements of a model-based autonomous systems architecture that is taking us into the New Millennium.

  12. Meteors and showers a millennium ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2003-08-01

    Meteors can be classified into either sporadic meteors or showery meteors. We compile the meteor records in the astronomical archives in the chronicle of the Koryo dynasty (918-1392), and investigate the spatial distribution of meteor streams along the orbit of the Earth from the 10th to the 14th century. We see that meteors from meteor streams signalize themselves over noisy sporadic meteors, and that the seasonal activity of sporadic meteors is apparently regular. We discover the presence of a few meteor streams by analysing about 700 meteors in the Koryo period. We also compile the records of meteor showers and storms in the chronicles of Korea, Japan, China, Arabia and Europe, and compare their appearance dates with those of showers obtained in our analysis, as well as with the modern observations. We confirm that the three sets of data are in agreement with each other. The representative meteor showers are the Perseids, the Leonids, and the η Aquarids/Orionids pair formed by Halley's comet. The other weak or relic meteor streams are also observable but uncertain. Hence we witness the regularity of meteor activity, which is seen to persist for a millennium.

  13. Premature delivery and the millennium development goal.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal M

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 15 million babies (1 in 10) are born prematurely each year. Prematurity is the leading cause of death among newborns, accounting for 1 million deaths per year, and, after pneumonia, is the second leading cause of death in children under age 5 years. Newborns who do survive preterm delivery (PTD) struggle with visual, auditory, and learning disabilities. In order to reach the fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-4) of reducing the mortality rate in children under age 5 years by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, there must be significantly fewer PTDs. In high-income nations, 50% of babies born at 24 weeks survive, whereas in low-resource nations, this survival rate is not achieved until 32 weeks of gestation. Over 90% of babies born in low-resource settings before 28 weeks die in the first few days of life (< 10% die in high-income nations), a 10:90 survival gap. Over 60% of PTDs worldwide occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Risk factors for PTD include adolescent pregnancy, short interval between births, poor prepregnancy weight (very low or high body mass index), chronic diseases (diabetes and hypertension), infectious disease, substance abuse, cervical incompetence, and poor psychological health. Thus, a commitment to improving maternal health and the quality of prenatal care is necessary to achieve the MDG-4. PMID:22866189

  14. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot... Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is...

  15. Past, Present, and Future Challenges in Earthquake Hazard Mitigation of Indonesia: A Collaborative Work of Geological Agency Indonesia and Geoscience Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayati, S.; Cummins, P. R.; Cipta, A.; Omang, A.; Griffin, J.; Horspool, N.; Robiana, R.; Sulaeman, C.

    2012-12-01

    In the last decade, Indonesia has suffered from earthquakes disaster since four out of twelve of the world's large earthquakes with more than 1000 causalities occurred in Indonesia. The great Sumatra earthquake of December 26, 2004 followed by tsunami which cost 227,898 of lives has brought Indonesia and its active tectonic setting to the world's attention. Therefore the government of Indonesia encourages hazard mitigation efforts that are more focused on the pre-disaster phase. In response to government policy in earthquake disaster mitigation, Geological Agency Indonesia attempts to meet the need for rigorous earthquake hazard map throughout the country in provincial scale in 2014. A collaborative work with Geoscience Australia through short-term training missions; on-going training, mentoring, assistance and studying in Australia, under the auspices of Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR) have accelerated the execution of these maps. Since 2010 to date of collaboration, by using probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) method, provincial earthquake hazard maps of Central Java (2010), West Sulawesi, Gorontalo, and North Maluku (2011) have been published. In 2012, by the same method, the remaining provinces of Sulawesi Island, Papua, North Sumatera and Jambi will be published. In the end of 2014, all 33 Indonesian provinces hazard maps will be delivered. The future challenges are to work together with the stakeholders, to produce district scale maps and establish a national standard for earthquake hazard maps. Moreover, the most important consideration is to build the capacity to update, maintain and revise the maps as recent information available.

  16. Millennium development goals and child undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Patwari, A K

    2013-05-01

    Reduction in prevalence of underweight children (under five years of age) has been included as an indicator for one of the targets to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (Goal 1) of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The most recent MDG report of 2012 indicates that the target of reducing extreme poverty by half has been reached five years ahead of the 2015 deadline but close to one third of children in Southern Asia were underweight. In India, at the historical rate of decline the proportion of underweight children below 3 years, required to be reduced to 26% by 2015, is expected to come down only to about 33%. With barely 3 years left for achieving MDGs, the level of commitment to reduce child undernutrition needs to be gauged and effectiveness of current strategies and programmes ought to be reviewed. Undernutrition in children is not affected by food intake alone; it is also influenced by access to health services, quality of care for the child and pregnant mother as well as good hygiene practices. Would the scenario be different if child undernutrition was a part of Goal 4 of MDGs? What difference it would have made in terms of strategies and programmes if reduction in undernutrition in children underfive was a target instead of an indicator? It is time for nutrition to be placed higher on the development agenda. A number of simple, cost-effective measures to reduce undernutrition in the critical period from conception to two years after birth are available. There is a need for choosing nutrition strategies relevant in Indian context. Experiences from other countries should lead India toward innovative nutritional strategies to reduce underfive undernutrition in the country- that too on a fast track.

  17. Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. E.

    1999-05-01

    Smith College has recently established the Louise B. and Edmund J. Kahn Liberal Arts Institute to foster interdisciplinary scholarship among the faculty. In the 1999-2000 academic year, the Kahn Institute is sponsoring a project entitled "Star Messenger: Galileo at the Millennium." The project will explore the impact of the astronomical discoveries of Galileo and his contemporaries on the Renaissance world-view and also use Galileo's experience as a lens for examining scientific and cultural developments at the symbolic juncture represented by the year 2000. Seven faculty fellows and 10-12 student fellows will participate in a year-long colloquium pursuing these themes, aided by the participation of some five Visiting Fellows. The inaugural public event will be a symposium on the historical Galileo, with presentation by three noted scholars, each of whom will return to campus for a second meeting with the Kahn colloquium. Additional events will include an exhibit of prints, artifacts, and rare books related to Galileo and his time, an early music concert featuring music composed by Galileo's father, and a series of other events sponsored by diverse departments and programs, all related to the broad themes of the Galileo project. The culminating events will be the premiere of a new music theater work, which will encapsulate the insights of the colloquium about human reactions to novel insights about the world, and a symposium presenting the research results of faculty and student fellows. The symposium will feature a capstone lecture by an visionary scholar projecting the implication of historical and contemporary trends into the future.

  18. Agency and intervention.

    PubMed

    Roskies, Adina L

    2015-09-19

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  19. Agency and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Roskies, Adina L.

    2015-01-01

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  20. Radiology system evolution in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Nauert, R C

    2001-01-01

    For many decades the practice of radiology grew slowly in America and was largely a secondary function under the control of hospitals. In more recent times it has vastly expanded its array of diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic abilities. There is increasing consumer logic for direct access. Motivations have grown to create large independent entities with broadly diverse capabilities in order to succeed in the new millennium. Most regional markets are evolving rapidly in terms of managed care penetration, health system formation, physician practice consolidation and aggressive purchaser behavior by employers and consumers. To understand the enormity of healthcare evolution, it is useful to look at the industry's paradigm shifts in recent decades. Virtually every aspect of organizational infrastructure, delivery approaches, and the business environment has evolved markedly during the past fifty years. These changes will accelerate. To succeed financially, radiology groups must strengthen their market positions, technical capabilities, continuums of care and geographic dominance. Equally important is the wisdom of diversifying incomes into related services and businesses that provide additional related revenues. Key factors for successful development include facility market growth, full coverage of managed care contracts, high efficiency and aggressive diversification. A fully evolved system generates significant revenues and profitability by protecting and strengthening its financial position in this environment. That is accomplished through the development of strategically located radiology groups, aggressive alliances with medical practices in allied disciplines, and managed radiology departments and facilities for partner health systems. Organizational success ultimately depends on the ability to accept capitated payments under risk-bearing arrangements. The strategic business plan should be organized with the appropriate levels of detail needed to

  1. Roe v. Wade. Into the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Sanger, A C

    1998-01-01

    In order to take the fight for reproductive rights into the next millennium, women in the US must be reminded of what life was like for women when contraception and abortion were illegal, and the silent majority of women who accept that abortion is a private decision must be marshalled to express their views politically. In the US, abortion was allowed until the mid- to late-1800s when Protestant leaders feared that Protestant births were being outnumbered by births to Irish Roman Catholic immigrants. There was only minimal organized opposition to abortion during the period when it was illegal and millions of women were dying as a result. An estimated 30,000 women died each year of illegal abortion in the US, and by the 1960s, illegal abortion was the greatest killer of women of reproductive age. Organized medicine, which witnessed these tragedies, never rallied to assure women quality reproductive health care. In fact, one of the first projects of the American Medical Association (AMA) was an anti-abortion campaign designed to put competitors out of business. The AMA waited until 1937 to endorse contraception and until the late 1960s to make efforts to legalize abortion. In 1997, the AMA again abandoned women by supporting the ban on late-term abortions. Pro-choice forces should prioritize the promotion of technological advances that will allow women to control conception and abortion. The means of achieving medical abortion and emergency contraception should be available in every physician's office and should be covered by every health insurance scheme. Reproductive health advocates must also work to inspire honesty about sex and sexuality in our sexually-obsessed, sexually-repressed society. Sex education in Denmark has nearly obliterated adolescent pregnancy and led to an 80% decline in the abortion rate over 30 years. In the US, nearly half of women have an abortion, and anti-abortion advocates should face the reality that their wives, daughters, mothers, and

  2. Roe v. Wade. Into the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Sanger, A C

    1998-01-01

    In order to take the fight for reproductive rights into the next millennium, women in the US must be reminded of what life was like for women when contraception and abortion were illegal, and the silent majority of women who accept that abortion is a private decision must be marshalled to express their views politically. In the US, abortion was allowed until the mid- to late-1800s when Protestant leaders feared that Protestant births were being outnumbered by births to Irish Roman Catholic immigrants. There was only minimal organized opposition to abortion during the period when it was illegal and millions of women were dying as a result. An estimated 30,000 women died each year of illegal abortion in the US, and by the 1960s, illegal abortion was the greatest killer of women of reproductive age. Organized medicine, which witnessed these tragedies, never rallied to assure women quality reproductive health care. In fact, one of the first projects of the American Medical Association (AMA) was an anti-abortion campaign designed to put competitors out of business. The AMA waited until 1937 to endorse contraception and until the late 1960s to make efforts to legalize abortion. In 1997, the AMA again abandoned women by supporting the ban on late-term abortions. Pro-choice forces should prioritize the promotion of technological advances that will allow women to control conception and abortion. The means of achieving medical abortion and emergency contraception should be available in every physician's office and should be covered by every health insurance scheme. Reproductive health advocates must also work to inspire honesty about sex and sexuality in our sexually-obsessed, sexually-repressed society. Sex education in Denmark has nearly obliterated adolescent pregnancy and led to an 80% decline in the abortion rate over 30 years. In the US, nearly half of women have an abortion, and anti-abortion advocates should face the reality that their wives, daughters, mothers, and

  3. Radiology system evolution in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Nauert, R C

    2001-01-01

    For many decades the practice of radiology grew slowly in America and was largely a secondary function under the control of hospitals. In more recent times it has vastly expanded its array of diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic abilities. There is increasing consumer logic for direct access. Motivations have grown to create large independent entities with broadly diverse capabilities in order to succeed in the new millennium. Most regional markets are evolving rapidly in terms of managed care penetration, health system formation, physician practice consolidation and aggressive purchaser behavior by employers and consumers. To understand the enormity of healthcare evolution, it is useful to look at the industry's paradigm shifts in recent decades. Virtually every aspect of organizational infrastructure, delivery approaches, and the business environment has evolved markedly during the past fifty years. These changes will accelerate. To succeed financially, radiology groups must strengthen their market positions, technical capabilities, continuums of care and geographic dominance. Equally important is the wisdom of diversifying incomes into related services and businesses that provide additional related revenues. Key factors for successful development include facility market growth, full coverage of managed care contracts, high efficiency and aggressive diversification. A fully evolved system generates significant revenues and profitability by protecting and strengthening its financial position in this environment. That is accomplished through the development of strategically located radiology groups, aggressive alliances with medical practices in allied disciplines, and managed radiology departments and facilities for partner health systems. Organizational success ultimately depends on the ability to accept capitated payments under risk-bearing arrangements. The strategic business plan should be organized with the appropriate levels of detail needed to

  4. Cancer nursing into the millennium: the Robert Tiffany Annual Lecture, Royal Marsden Hospital.

    PubMed

    Yarbro, C H

    1998-06-01

    The nursing profession has shown tremendous adaptability throughout the ages. Cancer nurses have encountered many challenges and changes during this past century that have marked our increasingly rapid progress on the long road of development of cancer nursing. The movement from an illness-focused, hospital-based, physician-dominated health care model to preventive, community-defined and collaborative health care is providing exciting new opportunities for nurses. Advances in science and technology and a more informed consumer present unique challenges as well. Based on the trends and the tremendous breakthroughs occurring during this decade, this article explores visions and dreams of the preferred future of cancer nursing as we march into the next millennium.

  5. 77 FR 68115 - Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 1, 2012, Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Millennium), One Blue Hill Plaza, Seventh... Gas Transmission, L.L.C. in Ramapo, New York and points further east. In addition, depending...

  6. Comet and Asteroid Missions in NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) is designed to develop, test, and flight validate new, advanced technologies for planetary and Earth exploration missions, using a series of low cost spacecraft. Two of NMP's current missions include encounters with comets and asteroids. The Deep Space 1 mission was launched on October 24, 1998 and will fly by asteroid 1992 KD on July 29, 1999, and possibly Comet Wilson-Harrington and/or Comet Borrelly in 2001. The Space Technology 4/Champollion mission will be launched in April, 2003 and will rendezvous with, orbit and land on periodic Comet Tempel 1 in 2006. ST-4/Champollion is a joint project with CNES, the French space agency. The DS-1 mission is going well since launch and has already validated several major technologies, including solar electric propulsion (SEP), solar concentrator arrays, a small deep space transponder, and autonomous navigation. The spacecraft carries two scientific instruments: MICAS, a combined visible camera and UV and IR spectrometers, and PEPE, an ion and electron spectrometer. Testing of the science instruments is ongoing. Following the asteroid encounter in July, 1999, DS-1 will go on to encounters with one or both comets if NASA approves funding for an extended mission. The ST-4/Champollion mission will use an advanced, multi-engine SEP system to effect a rendezvous with Comet P/Tempel 1 in February, 2006, after a flight time of 2.8 years. After orbiting the comet for several months in order to map its surface and determine its gravity field, ST-4/Chainpollion will descend to the comet's surface and will anchor itself with a 3-meter long harpoon. Scientific experiments include narrow and wide angle cameras for orbital mapping, panoramic and near-field cameras for landing site mapping, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, a combined microscope and infrared spectrometer, and physical properties probes. Cometary samples will be obtained from depths up to 1.4 meters. The spacecraft is solar powered

  7. Nuclear energy for the third millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.

    1997-10-01

    The major energy sources of today are expected to last for only a small fraction of the millennium starting three years hence. In the plans of most people, nuclear energy has been ruled out for four separate reasons: 1. The danger of radioactivity from a reactor accident or from reactor products during a long period after reactor shutdown; 2. The proposed fuels, U-235 and also Pu-239, as obtained by presently available procedures will serve only for a limited duration; 3. Energy from nuclear reactors will be more expensive than costs of present alternatives; 4. The possibility of misusing the products for military purposes is an unacceptable danger. The development described below 1 attempts to meet all four objections. Specifically, we propose a structure as an example of future reactors that is deployed two hundred meters underground in loose and dry earth. The reactor is designed to function for thirty years, delivering electrical power on demand up to a level of thousand electrical megawatts. From the time that the reactor is started to the time of its shutdown thirty years later, the functioning is to be completely automatic. This is an obviously difficult condition to fulfill. The most important factor in making it possible is to design and operate the reactor without moving mechanical parts. At the start, the reactor functions on thermal neutrons within a structure containing uranium enriched in U-235 or having an addition of plutonium. That part of the reactor is to deliver energy for approximately one year after which a neighboring portion of the reactor containing thorium has been converted into Th-233 which rather rapidly decays into fissile U-233. This part of the assembly works on fission by fast neutrons. It will heat-up if insufficient thermal energy is withdrawn from the reactor`s core, under the negative feedback action of engineered-in thermostats. Indeed, these specifically designed thermostatic units absorb neutrons if excessive reactor core

  8. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Other Egregious Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2002-01-01

    Argues that 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, providing increased protection against unauthorized access to copyrighted electronic media, and the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act, extending the term of most copyrighted books, unduly burden users of electronic media and books. Discusses the negative impact of recent federal laws to…

  9. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2011-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

  10. Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and partnership; (2)…

  11. Developing an Educational Performance Indicator for New Millennium Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Jo, Il-Hyun; Shin, Jongho; Seo, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    Educational performance based on the learning outcomes of formal schooling in a future knowledge society could be significantly different from that of today. This study investigates the possibilities of developing an educational performance indicator for new-millennium learners (NMLs). The researchers conducted literature reviews, a meeting of…

  12. Skills for the New Millennium. Paper Presentations: Session G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains 14 papers from the skills for the new millennium section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Research on Vocational Education and Training as a Field for Knowledge Development--Starting Points for the…

  13. Critical Thinking for the New Millennium: A Pedagogical Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Andrew Ann Dinkins

    The pedagogical imperative to prepare students to become critical thinkers, critical readers, and critical writers for the coming millennium necessitates a comprehensive college discourse on critical thinking. The paper cites seminars and workshops that incorporate theoretical and practical dimensions of teaching critical-analytical thinking…

  14. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 1: Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

  15. Literacy: The First Decade of the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack; Ortlieb, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of literacy instruction has remained constant since the beginning of the new millennium, literacy trends have shifted, often alongside acts of legislation. Areas of literacy education that were once overlooked in the past like adolescent literacy and RTI are now receiving increased attention, whereas areas of literacy like…

  16. Meaning, Mission, and the Next Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.

    A decade after "A Nation at Risk" three new reports raise concerns about American higher education. The Wingspread Report on higher education challenges institutions of higher education to assess their myriad activities to see how effectively they are "taking values seriously,""putting student learning first," and "creating a nation of learners."…

  17. Foster Care: Agencies Face Challenges Securing Stable Homes for Children of Substance Abusers. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    This study examined the extent and characteristics of parental substance abuse among foster care cases, the difficulties agencies face in making timely permanency decisions for foster children with substance abusing parents, and initiatives that address reunifying families or achieving other permanency outcomes in a timely manner for foster…

  18. Quality in Cross-Border Higher Education and Challenges for the Internationalization of National Quality Assurance Agencies in the Asia-Pacific Region: The Taiwanese Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Angela Yung-chi

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border higher education has created a need to build capacity -- particularly in the internationalization dimension -- for national quality assurance agencies to evaluate cross-border education provided by foreign educational providers, or jointly by local and foreign institutions. This is quickly becoming a key issue in the Asia-Pacific…

  19. The potential impact of plant biotechnology on the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dawei; Bassie, Ludovic; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Dashevskaya, Svetlana; Farre, Gemma; Rivera, Sol M; Banakar, Raviraj; Bai, Chao; Sanahuja, Georgina; Arjó, Gemma; Avilla, Eva; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Ugidos-Damboriena, Nerea; López, Alberto; Almacellas, David; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Hahne, Gunther; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international development targets for the year 2015 that aim to achieve relative improvements in the standards of health, socioeconomic status and education in the world's poorest countries. Many of the challenges addressed by the MDGs reflect the direct or indirect consequences of subsistence agriculture in the developing world, and hence, plant biotechnology has an important role to play in helping to achieve MDG targets. In this opinion article, we discuss each of the MDGs in turn, provide examples to show how plant biotechnology may be able to accelerate progress towards the stated MDG objectives, and offer our opinion on the likelihood of such technology being implemented. In combination with other strategies, plant biotechnology can make a contribution towards sustainable development in the future although the extent to which progress can be made in today's political climate depends on how we deal with current barriers to adoption.

  20. The potential impact of plant biotechnology on the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dawei; Bassie, Ludovic; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Dashevskaya, Svetlana; Farre, Gemma; Rivera, Sol M; Banakar, Raviraj; Bai, Chao; Sanahuja, Georgina; Arjó, Gemma; Avilla, Eva; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Ugidos-Damboriena, Nerea; López, Alberto; Almacellas, David; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Hahne, Gunther; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international development targets for the year 2015 that aim to achieve relative improvements in the standards of health, socioeconomic status and education in the world's poorest countries. Many of the challenges addressed by the MDGs reflect the direct or indirect consequences of subsistence agriculture in the developing world, and hence, plant biotechnology has an important role to play in helping to achieve MDG targets. In this opinion article, we discuss each of the MDGs in turn, provide examples to show how plant biotechnology may be able to accelerate progress towards the stated MDG objectives, and offer our opinion on the likelihood of such technology being implemented. In combination with other strategies, plant biotechnology can make a contribution towards sustainable development in the future although the extent to which progress can be made in today's political climate depends on how we deal with current barriers to adoption. PMID:21249369

  1. Issues of maternal health in Pakistan: trends towards millennium development goal 5.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammd Faraz Arshad; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar

    2014-06-01

    Pakistan has third highest burden of maternal and children mortality across the globe. This grim situation is further intensified by flaws of planning and implementation set forth in health sector. Natural calamities (earth quakes, floods), disease outbreaks and lack of awareness in different regions of country also further aggravate this situation. Despite of all these limitations, under the banner of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a special focus and progress in addressing maternal health issue (set as goal 5) has been made over the last decade. In this review, improvement and short falls pertaining to Goal 5 Improve maternal health have been analyzed in relation to earlier years. A decline in maternal mortality ratio (MMR) (490 maternal deaths in 1990 to 260 maternal deaths per 100,000 women in 2010) is observed. Reduction in MMR by three quarters was not achieved but a decline from very high mortality to high mortality index was observed. Increase usage of contraceptives (with contraceptive prevalence rate of 11.8 in 1990 to 37 in 2013) also shed light on women awareness about their health and social issues. Based on progress level assessment (WHO guidelines),access of Pakistani women to universal reproductive health unit falls in moderate category in 2010 as compared to earlier low access in 1990. From the data it looks that still a lot of effort is required for achieving the said targets. However, keeping in view all challenges, Pakistan suffered in the said duration, like volatile peace, regional political instability, policy implementation constrains, population growth, this slow but progressive trend highlight a national resilience to address the havoc challenge of maternal health. These understandings and sustained efforts will significantly contribute a best possible accomplishment in Millennium Development Goal 5 by 2015. PMID:25252492

  2. Sports medicine in the new millennium: a vision for 2020.

    PubMed

    Miller, T W; Kraus, R F; Adams, J; Bilyeu, J; Ogilvie, B

    1999-09-01

    Globalisation, empowerment and technological change will determine the emerging directions in sports medicine in the new millennium. Networks and alliances of scientist and clinician services, as well as electronic profiling of athletes' learning styles, genetic predisposition and other variables, will enhance the spectrum of sports medicine services. Visionary direction will require changes in the organisational paradigms employed, the communication of information to athletes and coaches and the methodologies of assessment. An emphasis on prevention science and clinical and educational interventions will require a clearer focus. The sports medicine scientist and clinician of today must utilise the endowments suggested by Covey and the multiple intelligence models advanced by Gardner in capturing the clarity of focus for sports medicine in the new millennium.

  3. Successful behavioral health business development for the millennium.

    PubMed

    Pyrce, J M

    1998-08-01

    The business development framework for provider positioning, market share, and competition has significantly shifted in the late 1990s as providers prepare for the millennium. The use of the Marketing Four Ps is a helpful tool for providers to thoroughly evaluate their product/service viability, pricing objectives, promotional mix, and place accessibility, and will allow organizations to reposition in their marketplace, maximize market share, and develop new partnerships with previous competitors.

  4. Peatlands and the C cycle during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, Angela; Charman, Dan; Brewer, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The last millennium (850-1850 AD) has seen significant changes in climate and in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. This relatively recent time period can be used to assess the peatland contribution to the global carbon cycle, as; 1) the peat accumulation record can be readily assembled from a representative range of peatlands worldwide; 2) climate and greenhouse variability over this time period is reasonably well-known for many regions and; 3) the spatial variability in modern climate space can be used to assess the relationship between peat accumulation and climate variables. Here we present the results of a global compilation of peat accumulation rates over the last 1000 years based on existing published and unpublished data and acquisition of new data in critical regions, especially in the tropics. The new global dataset comprises: a) a set of high temporal resolution sites for which variations of the rate of carbon accumulation during the last millennium in relation to past climate fluctuations can be analysed (e.g. the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) to Little Ice Age (LIA) transition in northern high latitudes). b) a set of low temporal resolution sites for which an overall carbon accumulation rate for the whole of the millennium period is calculated. This low-resolution but more sizeable dataset allows for the analysis of potential regional differences and overall contribution of peatlands to the C cycle in the last thousand years. Furthermore, we use the natural range of climate variation across sites to explore the relationship between total carbon accumulation over the last millennium and bioclimatic variables characteristic of each site. We conclude by discussing the implications of the relationships between past climate and peat accumulation for the global carbon cycle.

  5. Successful behavioral health business development for the millennium.

    PubMed

    Pyrce, J M

    1998-08-01

    The business development framework for provider positioning, market share, and competition has significantly shifted in the late 1990s as providers prepare for the millennium. The use of the Marketing Four Ps is a helpful tool for providers to thoroughly evaluate their product/service viability, pricing objectives, promotional mix, and place accessibility, and will allow organizations to reposition in their marketplace, maximize market share, and develop new partnerships with previous competitors. PMID:10182149

  6. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

  7. Achieving Millennium Development Goal 5, the improvement of maternal health.

    PubMed

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Edwards, Joan E

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the progress made toward the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5, the improvement of maternal health. Maternal mortality rates (MMR) remain high globally, and in the United States there have been recent increases in MMR. Interventions to improve global maternal health are described. Nurses should be aware of the enduring epidemic of global maternal mortality, advocate for childbearing women, and contribute to implementing effective interventions to reduce maternal mortality. PMID:20673318

  8. An Evaluation of a Behavioural Support Team for Adults with a Learning Disability and Behaviours That Challenge from a Multi-Agency Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Rose; Horsley, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Dudley Behavioural Support Team (BST) was set up based on Positive Behavioural Support (PBS) principles to support individuals with behaviours that challenge. The Winterbourne Review emphasises the importance of developing high-quality specialist community services and the Ensuring Quality Services (Local Government Association & NHS…

  9. Hemophilia A in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2013-07-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked hereditary bleeding disorder due to the deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). According to the degree of FVIII deficiency, mild, moderate or severe forms are recognized. Although patients with mild hemophilia A usually bleed excessively only after trauma or surgery, those with severe hemophilia experience frequent episodes of spontaneous or excessive bleeding after minor trauma, particularly into joints and muscles. The modern management of hemophilia began in the 1970s and is actually based upon several plasma-derived or recombinant FVIII products. In addition, the synthetic drug desmopressin can be used to prevent or treat bleeding episodes in patients with mild hemophilia A. Long-term and continuous substitution therapy (prophylaxis), the recommended treatment in severe hemophilia, prevents bleeding and the resultant joint damage. In the last twenty years the high standard of hemophilia care has greatly improved the quality of life of patients and their life expectancy has reached that of the non-hemophilic male population, at least in high-income countries. The most serious and challenging complication of treatment of hemophilia A is the development of inhibitors, which renders FVIII concentrate infusion ineffective and exposes patients to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In this narrative review, the actual knowledge on the clinical features and management of patients with hemophilia A is summarized.

  10. North Atlantic westerlies during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasskog, Kristian; Bakke, Jostein; Ringkjøb Nielsen, Pål; Meidell, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    Understanding North Atlantic decadal-scale climate variability is crucial in order to make projections of future climate change and to assess anthropogenic impacts on climate. However, reconstructing past changes in atmospheric circulation patterns from proxy data is particularly challenging, and different proxy reconstructions often show conflicting results. Winter accumulation dominates the annual mass-balance of glaciers along the west coast of Norway, and because the winter accumulation is highly sensitive to changes in the strength of wintertime westerly winds, these glaciers are potentially valuable recorders of past atmospheric circulation. Here we present a 1200-year long spatiotemporal reconstruction of Nordfonna, a maritime plateau glacier in western Norway, based on an integrated study of terrestrial moraine sequences, sub-glacial topography, and multi-proxy records from two distal glacier-fed lakes located at the opposite sides of the glacier in a west-east transect. We use temporal changes in the west-to-east tilt of the Equilibrium-Line-Altitude (ELA) across the ice cap to infer the strength of North-Atlantic westerly winds over the past 1200 years, and validate our high-resolution (5-yr) record against instrumental data. While multidecadal fluctuations in the regional ELA can be explained largely by changes in North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (i.e. the AMO), our data suggests that the local 'Little Ice Age' maximum glacier expansion (AD 1700-1750) was caused mainly by strengthened wintertime westerlies. The wintertime westerlies over southern Norway are closely linked to the leading mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic, known as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and our record therefore represents a unique proxy of past changes in the NAO.

  11. Technology Development for Human Exploration Beyond LEO in the New Millennium IAA-13-3 Strategies and Plans for Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Trevathan, Joseph R.; Baird, R. Scott; Simon, Tom; Peters, T.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As we look forward into the new millennium, the extension of human presence beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) looms large in the plans of NASA. The Agency's Strategic Plan specifically calls out the need to identify and develop technologies for 100 and 1000-day class missions beyond LEO. To meet the challenge of these extended duration missions, it is important that we learn how to utilize the indigenous resources available to us on extraterrestrial bodies. This concept, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) can greatly reduce the launch mass & cost of human missions while reducing the risk. These technologies may also pave the way for the commercial development of space. While no specific target beyond LEO is identified in NASA's Strategic Plan, mission architecture studies have been on-going for the Moon, Mars, Near-Earth Asteroids and Earth/Moon & Earth/Sun Libration Points. As a result of these studies, the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M) through the Johnson and Kennedy Space Centers, is leading the effort to develop ISRU technologies and systems to meet the current and future needs of human missions beyond LEO and on to Mars. This effort also receives support from the NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research (Code U), the Office of Space Science (Code S), and the Office of Aerospace Technology (Code R). This paper will present unique developments in the area of fuel and oxidizer production, breathing air production, water production, C02 collection, separation of atmospheric gases, and gas liquefaction and storage. A technology overview will be provided for each topic along with the results achieved to date, future development plans, and the mission architectures that these technologies support.

  12. Inter-hemispheric temperature variability over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukom, Raphael; Gergis, Joëlle; Karoly, David J.; Wanner, Heinz; Curran, Mark; Elbert, Julie; González-Rouco, Fidel; Linsley, Braddock K.; Moy, Andrew D.; Mundo, Ignacio; Raible, Christoph C.; Steig, Eric J.; van Ommen, Tas; Vance, Tessa; Villalba, Ricardo; Zinke, Jens; Frank, David

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's climate system is driven by a complex interplay of internal chaotic dynamics and natural and anthropogenic external forcing. Recent instrumental data have shown a remarkable degree of asynchronicity between Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere temperature fluctuations, thereby questioning the relative importance of internal versus external drivers of past as well as future climate variability. However, large-scale temperature reconstructions for the past millennium have focused on the Northern Hemisphere, limiting empirical assessments of inter-hemispheric variability on multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Here, we introduce a new millennial ensemble reconstruction of annually resolved temperature variations for the Southern Hemisphere based on an unprecedented network of terrestrial and oceanic palaeoclimate proxy records. In conjunction with an independent Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction ensemble, this record reveals an extended cold period (1594-1677) in both hemispheres but no globally coherent warm phase during the pre-industrial (1000-1850) era. The current (post-1974) warm phase is the only period of the past millennium where both hemispheres are likely to have experienced contemporaneous warm extremes. Our analysis of inter-hemispheric temperature variability in an ensemble of climate model simulations for the past millennium suggests that models tend to overemphasize Northern Hemisphere-Southern Hemisphere synchronicity by underestimating the role of internal ocean-atmosphere dynamics, particularly in the ocean-dominated Southern Hemisphere. Our results imply that climate system predictability on decadal to century timescales may be lower than expected based on assessments of external climate forcing and Northern Hemisphere temperature variations alone.

  13. Northern high latitude climate variability of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Heather J.

    This work explores the causes of northern high-latitude climate variations over the last millennium, and industrial and future periods. Attribution studies are performed on a suite of global climate simulations, and four historical reconstructions of Greenland surface temperatures and precipitation (two of which are new to this work). The simulations followed the protocols of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 3 and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. At least half of the multi-decadal variability in simulated Greenland climate variations over the last millennium is reproduced by a linear, empirically-generated model including terms for volcanic emissions, solar insolation changes (including total solar irradiance and orbital components) and an index associated with latitudinal shifts in the North Atlantic jet. Empirical model parameters are obtained by regressing simulated Greenland temperatures and precipitation against time series for each of the response variables. Greenhouse gas radiative forcing changes are unimportant to simulated Greenland conditions over the last millennium, although they dominate after the mid-20th century. Most of the historical Greenland climate reconstructions are restricted to the industrial period, due to a lack of spatially-comprehensive climate records. They exhibit substantial differences in the timing, phasing and amplitudes of past climate variations, due to regional sensitivities in the source data and the reconstruction methodologies. Reconstructions indicate that Greenland temperatures did not begin to follow hemispheric greenhouse gas warming patterns until the mid-1990s. This discrepancy indicates either that the warming hiatus was associated with internal climate variability, or that the simulations are missing processes important to Greenland climate. For example, indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols are not captured in the climate model employed here. All of the external climate forcings

  14. Halo Pairs in the Millennium Simulation: Love and Deception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J.

    2013-10-01

    In this work I investigate the statistical properties of a huge catalog of closely interacting pairs of dark matter haloes, extracted from the Millennium Simulation database. Only haloes that reach a minimum mass ≥ 8.6 × 1010 M⊙ h-1 (corresponding to 100 particles) are considered. Close pairs are selected if they come within a critical distance dcrit. I explore the effects of replacing dcrit = 1 Mpc h-1 → 200 kpc h-1 on the evolution of separations, lifetimes, total masses and mass ratios of these pairs.

  15. Vision-21: Space Travel for the Next Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The papers from this symposium, that was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on April 3-4, 1990, are presented. The theme selected for the symposium was space travel for the next millennium. It was hoped that the participants would allow their focus to consider possible advances in technologies for space travel not just for currently envisioned projects, but for possibilities beyond the next generation and the next thousand years. About half of the contributed papers focussed on propulsion and the other half on other issues related to space travel.

  16. Theoretical mechanics: Crowd synchrony on the Millennium Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strogatz, Steven H.; Abrams, Daniel M.; McRobie, Allan; Eckhardt, Bruno; Ott, Edward

    2005-11-01

    Soon after the crowd streamed on to London's Millennium Bridge on the day it opened, the bridge started to sway from side to side: many pedestrians fell spontaneously into step with the bridge's vibrations, inadvertently amplifying them. Here we model this unexpected and now notorious phenomenon - which was not due to the bridge's innovative design as was first thought - by adapting ideas originally developed to describe the collective synchronization of biological oscillators such as neurons and fireflies. Our approach should help engineers to estimate the damping needed to stabilize other exceptionally crowded footbridges against synchronous lateral excitation by pedestrians.

  17. Implications of high amplitude atmospheric CO2 fluctuations on past millennium climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk

    2010-05-01

    Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (< 10 ppmv). A modelling experiment taking into account firn-densification based smoothing processes in the D47 ice core proved, however, that the amplitude difference between the stomata record and the D47 ice-core can be explained by natural smoothing processes in the ice (van Hoof et al., 2005). This observation gives credence to the existence of high-amplitude CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium and suggests that high resolution ice core CO2 records should be regarded as a smoothed representation of the atmospheric CO2 signal. In the present study, potential marine and terrestrial sources and sinks associated with the observed atmospheric CO2 perturbation will be discussed. The magnitude of the observed CO2 variability implies that inferred changes in CO2 radiative forcing are of a similar magnitude as variations ascribed to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. solar forcing and volcanism), therefore challenging the IPCC concept of CO2 as an insignificant preindustrial climate forcing factor. References Barnola J.M., M. Anklin, J. Porcheron, D. Raynaud, J. Schwander and B. Stauffer 1995. CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice

  18. A Millennium Learning Goal for Education Post-2015: A Question of Outcomes or Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Angeline M.

    2011-01-01

    As the target year for the current Millennium Development Goal of universal completion of primary education approaches, three World Bank economists have proposed its replacement with a Millennium Learning Goal. This is part of a trend of increased privileging of learning outcomes. The proposal is assessed from the perspective of human rights-based…

  19. 76 FR 22094 - Millennium Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... (NGA) as amended, to construct, own, and operate the Corning Flow Reversal Project at Millennium's... two existing valves and adding six new valves and piping at Millennium's Corning compressor station in... the increased MAOP is necessary to permit it to occasionally reverse the flow of natural gas on...

  20. Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief, No. 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisen, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which set targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women by 20151. The need for additional development funding, if the MDGs are to be achieved by 2015, is…

  1. The Society of Nuclear Medicine in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Carretta, R F

    2000-07-01

    The Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM), which was first organized in January 1954 by 12 men at the Davenport Hotel in Spokane, WA, has evolved into an international educational organization. It has more than 15,000 members, including physicians, scientists, technologists, and industrialists. The SNM has embarked on a new strategic plan that will make it the premier educational and scientific organization representing the specialty of nuclear medicine. The role of the Society in the new millennium and its relationship with other international nuclear medicine societies continue to evolve. The opportunity for joint educational programs, interchange of ideas, research, an international journal, educational activities, and the sharing of professional experiences awaits the SNM and its members in the new millennium. The Society has also reached out to other organizations and physicians who are involved in the clinical practice of nuclear medicine to forge new alliances that will strengthen the specialty of nuclear medicine. These alliances will allow nuclear medicine physicians to speak with a unified voice when faced with regulatory and reimbursement issues and will help in advancing the research, education, and clinical mission of the SNM. PMID:10928386

  2. Progress in deciphering the information content of the 'glycome'--a crescendo in the closing years of the millennium.

    PubMed

    Feizi, T

    2000-01-01

    The closing years of the second millennium have been uplifting for carbohydrate biology. Optimism that oligosaccharide sequences are bearers of crucial biological information has been borne out by the constellation of efforts of carbohydrate chemists, biochemists, immunochemists, and cell- and molecular biologists. The direct involvement of specific oligosaccharide sequences in protein targeting and folding, and in mechanisms of infection, inflammation and immunity is now unquestioned. With the emergence of families of proteins with carbohydrate-binding activities, assignments of information content for defined oligosaccharide sequences will become more common, but the pinpointing and elucidation of the bioactive domains on oligosaccharides will continue to pose challenges even to the most experienced carbohydrate biologists. The neoglycolipid technology incorporates some of the key requirements for this challenge: namely the resolution of complex glycan mixtures, and ligand binding coupled with sequence determination by mass spectrometry.

  3. The New Millennium Program: Validating Advanced Technologies for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minning, Charles P.; Luers, Philip

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the activities of the New Millennium Program (NMP) in validating advanced technologies for space missions. The focus of these breakthrough technologies are to enable new capabilities to fulfill the science needs, while reducing costs of future missions. There is a broad spectrum of NMP partners, including government agencies, universities and private industry. The DS-1 was launched on October 24, 1998. Amongst the technologies validated by the NMP on DS-1 are: a Low Power Electronics Experiment, the Power Activation and Switching Module, Multi-Functional Structures. The first two of these technologies are operational and the data analysis is still ongoing. The third program is also operational, and its performance parameters have been verified. The second program, DS-2, was launched January 3 1999. It is expected to impact near Mars southern polar region on 3 December 1999. The technologies used on this mission awaiting validation are an advanced microcontroller, a power microelectronics unit, an evolved water experiment and soil thermal conductivity experiment, Lithium-Thionyl Chloride batteries, the flexible cable interconnect, aeroshell/entry system, and a compact telecom system. EO-1 on schedule for launch in December 1999 carries several technologies to be validated. Amongst these are: a Carbon-Carbon Radiator, an X-band Phased Array Antenna, a pulsed plasma thruster, a wideband advanced recorder processor, an atmospheric corrector, lightweight flexible solar arrays, Advanced Land Imager and the Hyperion instrument

  4. Doctoral Theses from Nursing Postgraduate Programs in Brazil and their Association with the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Fernandes, Josicélia Dumet; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Millennium Development Goals are centered around combatting poverty and other social evils all over the world. Thus, this study seeks to identify the Millennium Development Goals as an object of study in theses from Postgraduate Nursing Programs in Brazil scoring 5 (national excellence) and 6 or 7 (international excellence), and evaluate the association between the score for the program and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. METHOD: Exploratory descriptive document research. Data were collected from the Notes on Indicators/Coordination for Higher Education Personnel Improvement for the 15 Postgraduate Nursing Courses scoring between 5 and 7 in the three-year-period of 2010/2012. RESULTS: of the 8 Millennium Development Objectives, 6 were dealt with in the theses. There was an association (Fisher's exact test p-value=0.0059) between the distribution of the theses and the program scores in relation to the Millennium Development Objectives (p-valor=0.0347) CONCLUSION: the doctoral theses were slightly related to the Millennium Development Objectives, covering the population's economic development, health conditions and quality of life. It is recommended that Postgraduate Programs in Nursing pay closer attention to the Millennium Development Objectives.. PMID:26312631

  5. Questions of identity in the millennium round of Commonwealth censuses.

    PubMed

    Christopher, A J

    2006-11-01

    All Commonwealth census authorities have posed questions about identity in the millennium round of enumerations. The most controversial issue has been ethnicity. No universal definition or classification system has been devised and each of the 71 states and dependencies has tended to pursue the enquiry in virtual isolation from its neighbours. The attempt to describe the population in terms of race and ethnicity has been inherited from the colonial era. More recently the requirements of monitoring affirmative-action programmes in multicultural populations have resulted in the introduction or refinement of questions on these categories. A few states-a small minority of Commonwealth countries-remain hostile to such enquiries. Where the issues of race and identity are not pursued, questions of nationality, language, and religion often fill the gaps left, adding further refinements to the definition of identity. An examination of current questioning about identity in Commonwealth censuses reveals a highly complex picture.

  6. The last total solar eclipse of the millennium in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguc, A.; Atac, T.; Altas, L.

    1999-03-01

    The last total solar eclipse of the millennium will be observed from Turkey which bridges two continents and has been the cradle of so many past civilizations. Wouldn't you like to witness this magnificent event in the mystic ambiance of central Anatolia which offers its guests Turkish hospitality and a lot of historical examples of paganism, Christianity and Islam. Among the countries from which the eclipse will be visible, Turkey seems to be one of the most suitable countries in terms of its climate and observational facilities. Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute has arranged fieldwork on the eclipse path to determine the suitable points for the observations. The shadow of the moon will be first seen from the Black Sea coast at 14:20 L.T. It will then pass through central Anatolia and will leave Turkey from south-east at 14:42 L.T.

  7. Questions of identity in the millennium round of Commonwealth censuses.

    PubMed

    Christopher, A J

    2006-11-01

    All Commonwealth census authorities have posed questions about identity in the millennium round of enumerations. The most controversial issue has been ethnicity. No universal definition or classification system has been devised and each of the 71 states and dependencies has tended to pursue the enquiry in virtual isolation from its neighbours. The attempt to describe the population in terms of race and ethnicity has been inherited from the colonial era. More recently the requirements of monitoring affirmative-action programmes in multicultural populations have resulted in the introduction or refinement of questions on these categories. A few states-a small minority of Commonwealth countries-remain hostile to such enquiries. Where the issues of race and identity are not pursued, questions of nationality, language, and religion often fill the gaps left, adding further refinements to the definition of identity. An examination of current questioning about identity in Commonwealth censuses reveals a highly complex picture. PMID:17060057

  8. Interdecadal Modulation of ENSO Amplitude During the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Xie, S.; Cook, E.; Huang, G.; D'Arrigo, R.; Liu, F.; Ma, J.; Zheng, X.

    2010-12-01

    El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of interannual variability, and affects climate around the globe. ENSO amplitude displays considerable variations on the instrumental record, and its future change is highly uncertain. Here we analyze a newly updated version of the tree-ring derived North American Drought Atlas (NADA) for the past 1100 years, and show that ENSO variance displays a quasi-regular cycle of 50-90 years. Interannual variability and its low-frequency amplitude modulation in NADA are in broad agreement with independent proxy records in the Pacific and surrounding regions. Large volcanic eruptions tend to trigger El Niño, but for the past millennium solar variations seem to drive amplitude modulation of ENSO. Simulating the quasi-periodic ENSO amplitude modulation may hold the key to improving models and their prediction of ENSO behavior in global warming.

  9. Technology readiness levels for the new millennium program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Minning, C. P.; Stocky, J. F.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP) seeks to advance space exploration by providing an in-space validating mechanism to verify the maturity of promising advanced technologies that cannot be adequately validated with Earth-based testing alone. In meeting this objective, NMP uses NASA Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) as key indicators of technology advancement and assesses development progress against this generalized metric. By providing an opportunity for in-space validation, NMP can mature a suitable advanced technology from TRL 4 (component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment) to a TRL 7 (system prototype demonstrated in an Earth-based space environment). Spaceflight technology comprises a myriad of categories, types, and functions, and as each individual technology emerges, a consistent interpretation of its specific state of technological advancement relative to other technologies is problematic.

  10. Did the Millennium Development Goals Change Trends in Child Mortality?

    PubMed

    French, Declan

    2016-10-01

    There has been little assessment of the role the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have had in progressing international development. There has been a 41% reduction in the under-five mortality rate worldwide from 1990 to 2011 and an acceleration in the rate of reduction since 2000. This paper explores why this has occurred, and results for all developing countries indicate that it is not due to more healthcare or public health interventions but is driven by a coincidental burst of economic growth. Although the MDGs are considered to have played an important part in securing progress against poverty, hunger and disease, there is very little evidence to back this viewpoint up. A thorough analysis of the successes and failures of the MDGs is therefore necessary before embarking on a new round of global goals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

  12. Exocrine drainage in vascularized pancreas transplantation in the new millennium

    PubMed Central

    El-Hennawy, Hany; Stratta, Robert J; Smith, Fowler

    2016-01-01

    The history of vascularized pancreas transplantation largely parallels developments in immunosuppression and technical refinements in transplant surgery. From the late-1980s to 1995, most pancreas transplants were whole organ pancreatic grafts with insulin delivery to the iliac vein and diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions to the urinary bladder (systemic-bladder technique). The advent of bladder drainage revolutionized the safety and improved the success of pancreas transplantation. However, starting in 1995, a seismic change occurred from bladder to bowel exocrine drainage coincident with improvements in immunosuppression, preservation techniques, diagnostic monitoring, general medical care, and the success and frequency of enteric conversion. In the new millennium, pancreas transplants are performed predominantly as pancreatico-duodenal grafts with enteric diversion of the pancreatic ductal secretions coupled with iliac vein provision of insulin (systemic-enteric technique) although the systemic-bladder technique endures as a preferred alternative in selected cases. In the early 1990s, a novel technique of venous drainage into the superior mesenteric vein combined with bowel exocrine diversion (portal-enteric technique) was designed and subsequently refined over the next ≥ 20 years to re-create the natural physiology of the pancreas with first-pass hepatic processing of insulin. Enteric drainage usually refers to jejunal or ileal diversion of the exocrine secretions either with a primary enteric anastomosis or with an additional Roux limb. The portal-enteric technique has spawned a number of newer and revisited techniques of enteric exocrine drainage including duodenal or gastric diversion. Reports in the literature suggest no differences in pancreas transplant outcomes irrespective of type of either venous or exocrine diversion. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on exocrine drainage in the new millennium (the purported

  13. Challenges to the Common Good in the Age of Globalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Benjamin R.

    2000-01-01

    Explains that the challenge for the next millennium is preserving and securing the common good against the forces associated with globalization. Discusses globalization in detail, the privatization of public power, the commercialization of what is privatized, and the infantilization and homogeneity of consumers. (CMK)

  14. African Higher Education: Challenges for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew; Altbachl, Philip G.

    2004-01-01

    African higher education, at the beginning of the new millennium, faces unprecedented challenges. Not only is the demand for access unstoppable, especially in the context of Africa's traditionally low postsecondary attendance levels, but higher education is recognized as a key force for modernization and development. Africa's academic institutions…

  15. TIQ (Technical IQ)--a survival skill for the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, K

    2000-01-01

    Managing in the new technocracy of the new millennium will be challenging but also much more exciting than the work we do now. Twenty years ago, nurse managers weren't held accountable for the level of knowledge about financial outcomes that is expected now. The same will be true for technology. With electronic medical records, innovations in medical treatments, and the impact of the information and technologic revolution on the entire world, the interface between technology assessment, operationalizing technology, and continually upgrading staff to know what the implications of the technology revolution are will be imperative for success. That means that we must influence schools of nursing to include technology in their content now, and to help us prepare this generation of health care leaders to take a full seat at the leadership table to manage these complexities in the future. The success of the leader of the future will be measured by that person's ability to integrate the very complex issues of patient care and technology in a way that makes sense for patients, the organization, and the staff who will be working in a very complex environment. The leader's TIQ will be as important as other intelligences in the next 20 years.

  16. The future of end-stage renal disease care: nephrology enters a new millennium.

    PubMed

    Hoffart, N; Nissenson, A R

    1998-10-01

    There are many challenges facing the discipline of nephrology as we enter the next millennium. There will be a continuing increase in the number of patients requiring renal replacement therapy, with older, sicker patients predominating. At the same time the available workforce to provide care to these patients is not growing quickly enough to keep up with the demand. In the broader health care delivery system, consolidation of services, vertical and horizontal integration, a continued move to for-profit entities, and constant pressure on cost containment will increasingly characterize the immediate future. The rapidity with which health care delivery and financing are changing will make it difficult for patients and health care professionals alike, but it will also offer opportunities. In nephrology, development of a collaborative model of care has already begun and will be an important part of the response to this changing care environment. Collaborative care and the application of the principles of chronic disease management to renal patients will provide the best opportunities to capitalize on new technologies and treatments as they become available and to streamline and improve the care delivery process. This should lead to improved quality of care for renal patients, while constraining costs and providing for continued professional growth and satisfaction.

  17. The Internet and the menopause consultation: menopause management in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Grant P; Currie, Heather

    2005-09-01

    The Internet was born in 1969; it was originally developed so that computers could share information on research and development in the scientific and military fields. The original Internet consisted of four university computers networked in the United States. Email became available two years later. The infant Internet initially required complex computing knowledge to be used. However, this was all to change with the development of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s, which made the Internet much more widely accessible. The Internet has since grown at a phenomenal rate and has evolved into a global communications tool. It is by nature anarchic, in that it is an unrestricted broadcast medium. Although this lack of censorship is a strength, it is also a weakness. The quality of information available on the Web is variable and discernment is required. With the growth of e-health, medicine and its allied specialties are faced with the challenges of providing their services in a novel way while maintaining the first principle of medicine, primum non nocere (first, do no harm). This provision of e-health care is in its infancy and this review explores issues arising from the use of the Internet as a medium for organizing menopausal health care in the third millennium. PMID:16157001

  18. Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Laaser, Ulrich; Theisling, Mareike; Tapia, Leticia; Borisch, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs. The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention. Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework. PMID:25249060

  19. Access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).

    PubMed

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon has been fully engaged with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. This paper examines the situation of access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), establishes whether Cameroon is on the track of meeting the MDGs in these domains and proposes actions to be taken to bring it closer to these objectives. Based on analyzed data obtained from national surveys, government ministries, national statistical offices, bibliographic research, reports and interviews, it argues that Cameroon will not reach the water and sanitation MGDs. While Cameroon is not yet on track to meet the targets of the MDGs for water and sanitation, it has made notable progress since 1990, much more needs to be done to improve the situation, especially in rural areas. In 2006, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and the coverage in urban centres is 88%, significantly better than the 47% in rural areas. However, rapid urbanization has rendered existing infrastructure inadequate with periurban dwellers also lacking access to safe drinking water. Sanitation coverage is also poor. In urban areas only 58% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, and the rate in rural areas is 42%. Women and girls shoulder the largest burden in collecting water, 15% of urban and 18% rural populations use improved drinking water sources over 30 minutes away. Cameroon faces the following challenges in reaching the water and sanitation MDGs: poor management and development of the resources, coupled with inadequate political will and commitment for the long term; rapid urbanization; urban and rural poverty and regulation and legislative lapses. The authors propose that: bridging the gap between national water policies and water services; recognizing the role played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the attainment of MDGs; developing a Council Water Resource Management

  20. Recent Trends in Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Brazil: Progress Toward Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Giugliani, Elsa; Maranhão, Ana Goretti; Monteiro, Carlos A.; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Bustreo, Flavia; Merialdi, Mario; Victora, Cesar G.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed Brazil's efforts in reducing child mortality, improving maternal and child health, and reducing socioeconomic and regional inequalities from 1990 through 2007. We compiled and reanalyzed data from several sources, including vital statistics and population-based surveys. We also explored the roles of broad socioeconomic and demographic changes and the introduction of health sector and other reform measures in explaining the improvements observed. Our findings provide compelling evidence that proactive measures to reduce health disparities accompanied by socioeconomic progress can result in measurable improvements in the health of children and mothers in a relatively short interval. Our analysis of Brazil's successes and remaining challenges to reach and surpass Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 can provide important lessons for other low- and middle-income countries. PMID:20724669

  1. Health literacy and the Millennium Development Goals: United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) regional meeting background paper (abstracted).

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a health literacy "lens" to look at key global health challenges, including the achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the reduction of disease burden due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Available global evidence is summarized related to: assessment of the impact of health literacy on health and development; identification of measures for reporting progress; exploring ways to strengthen multisectoral collaboration at the national, regional, and international levels to undertake joint actions for increasing health literacy; finding ways to promote better access and use of information through information and communication technology and empowerment; and building capacity for sustained action to increase health literacy. Key action messages are identified. Findings presented informed the 2009 ECOSOC Ministerial Declaration on Health Literacy.

  2. Opportunities and Challenges of Bilingualism. Contributions to the Sociology of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Li, Ed.; Dewaele, Jean-Marc, Ed.; Housen, Alex, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines, from an international perspective, opportunities and challenges of societal bilingualism in the new millennium. The 18 papers include the following: "Introduction: Opportunities and Challenges of Bilingualism" (Li Wei, Jean-Marc Dewaele, and Alex Housen); "'Holy Languages' in the Context of Societal…

  3. 77 FR 70835 - Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... in accordance with 51 U.S.C. 20144(c). The 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams... Robot Challenge is a prize competition designed to encourage development of new technologies...

  4. 76 FR 56819 - Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... 42 U.S.C. 2451(314)(d). The 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to... technologies of interest and value to NASA and the nation. The 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge is a...

  5. [Primary health care and the millennium development goals].

    PubMed

    Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C

    2012-01-01

    Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty

  6. [Primary health care and the millennium development goals].

    PubMed

    Faye, A; Bob, M; Fall, A; Fall, C

    2012-01-01

    Member countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) met in Alma Ata (8-12 September 1978) to define and advocate the implementation of primary health care (PHC) worldwide, above all, in developing countries, which had a real need to review their strategies for meeting the health needs of their populations. They did not suspect that 20 years later the vision they displayed would remain undeniably relevant. Here we examine the similarities and points of convergence of their declaration about PHC with the Millennium Development Goals that seek today to reduce poverty across the world. An exhaustive and analytic literature review was conducted to collect those similarities. Further analysis of the definitions, objectives, principles and recommendations of the Alma Ata Declaration and the Millennium Declaration reveals multiple dependencies and fundamental points of similarity between these two representations. Almost all states have pledged to achieve the eight MDG by 2015: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as essential health care, based on practical methods and techniques that are both scientifically sound and socially acceptable, universally accessible to all individuals and all families of the community, through their full participation and at a cost that the community and countries can afford at all stages of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It is an integral part of economic and social development. The following principles are involved in the achievement of both primary health care and the MDG: social equity, community participation, and intersectorality. Public health is an essential condition of poverty

  7. Remote Sensing in Geography in the New Millennium: Prospects, Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Jensen, John R.; Ridd, Merrill K.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As noted in the first edition of Geography in America, the term remote sensing was coined in the early 1960's by geographers to describe the process of obtaining data by use of both photographic and nonphotographic instruments. Although this is still a working definition today, a more explicit and updated definition as it relates to geography can be phrased as: "remote sensing is the science, art, and technology of identifying, characterizing, measuring, and mapping of Earth surface, and near earth surface, phenomena from some position above using photographic or nonphotographic instruments." Both patterns and processes may be the object of investigation using remote sensing data. The science dimension of geographic remote sensing is rooted in the fact that: a) it is dealing with primary data, wherein the investigator must have an understanding of the environmental phenomena under scrutiny, and b) the investigator must understand something of the physics of the energy involved in the sensing instrument and the atmospheric pathway through which the energy passes from the energy source, to the Earth object to the sensor.

  8. 76 FR 12134 - Notice of the March 23, 2011 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ..., General Counsel and Corporate Secretary via e-mail at Corporatesecretary@mcc.gov or by telephone at (202... upcoming compact closeouts, approach to results reporting and an update on compact operations. The agenda... to the public. Dated: March 1, 2011. Melvin F. Williams, Jr., VP/General Counsel and...

  9. The Challenge of Teaching Psychopharmacology in the New Millennium: The Role of Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Ira D.; Zisook, Sidney

    2005-01-01

    Objective: For a variety of pedagogical, political and financial reasons, there are major problems in achieving effective teaching of cutting-edge psychopharmacology for psychiatric residents. This article focuses on ways to improve the teaching/learning process, in part through the use of structured curricula. The authors review 1) attempted…

  10. Preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission in the new millennium: the challenge of breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Louise; Stein, Zena; Susser, Mervyn

    2004-01-01

    Short courses of antiretroviral drugs have greatly enhanced the prospect of reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission. Yet transmission by breast feeding clouds hopes for this seemingly simple intervention. We revisit mathematical models to assess the competing risks associated with feeding by breast vs. formula. These indicate that, in the less developed world where the HIV epidemic predominates, neither option, unmodified, offers a reasonable choice for HIV-positive women. Where infant mortality rates are greater than about 40 per 1000 live births, if formula were made available to HIV-infected women only, the excess number of deaths that would result from formula use would be approximately the same or greater than the number of HIV infections that might be prevented. Only at lower infant mortality rates, less than about 40 per 1000, is the risk greater on the breast. There are thus no good grounds for the total avoidance of breast feeding under all conditions. Research to develop and test safer infant feeding alternatives is an urgent priority. On the one hand, ways to reduce HIV transmission while preserving breast feeding, as exclusive breast feeding could do, need to be fully tested. On the other hand, ways to reduce non-HIV morbidity and mortality associated with formula feeding, as educational or sanitary interventions could do, equally need testing. With either approach, a necessary foundation for implementing all the core components of preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission is competent counselling for mothers. Innovative approaches are needed to mobilise and train effective counsellors among health care workers and, as appropriate, community members.

  11. The CE/SE Method: a CFD Framework for the Challenges of the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Yu, Sheng-Tao

    2001-01-01

    The space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method, which was originated and is continuously being developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is a high-resolution, genuinely multidimensional and unstructured-mesh compatible numerical method for solving conservation laws. Since its inception in 1991, the CE/SE method has been used to obtain highly accurate numerical solutions for 1D, 2D and 3D flow problems involving shocks, contact discontinuities, acoustic waves, vortices, shock/acoustic waves/vortices interactions, shock/boundary layers interactions and chemical reactions. Without the aid of preconditioning or other special techniques, it has been applied to both steady and unsteady flows with speeds ranging from Mach number = 0.00288 to 10. In addition, the method has unique features that allow for (i) the use of very simple non-reflecting boundary conditions, and (ii) a unified wall boundary treatment for viscous and inviscid flows. The CE/SE method was developed with the conviction that, with a solid foundation in physics, a robust, coherent and accurate numerical framework can be built without involving overly complex mathematics. As a result, the method was constructed using a set of design principles that facilitate simplicity, robustness and accuracy. The most important among them are: (i) enforcing both local and global flux conservation in space and time, with flux evaluation at an interface being an integral part of the solution procedure and requiring no interpolation or extrapolation; (ii) unifying space and time and treating them as a single entity; and (iii) requiring that a numerical scheme be built from a nondissipative core scheme such that the numerical dissipation can be effectively controlled and, as a result, will not overwhelm the physical dissipation. Part I of the workshop will be devoted to a discussion of these principles along with a description of how the ID, 2D and 3D CE/SE schemes are constructed. In Part II, various applications of the CE/SE method, particularly those involving chemical reactions and acoustics, will be presented. The workshop will be concluded with a sketch of the future research directions.

  12. 76 FR 69290 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... full below and updates the report published September 7, 2011 (76 FR 55419) to reflect the issuance of... Senegal Sierra Leone Solomon Islands Somalia Tajikistan Tanzania Timor-Leste Togo Uganda Vietnam...

  13. 77 FR 21111 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... set forth in full below and updates the report published November 8, 2011 (76 FR 69291). \\1\\ The...-Leste India Togo Indonesia Tuvalu Iraq Uganda Kenya Vanuatu Kiribati Vietnam Kyrgyz Republic* Yemen*...

  14. 77 FR 53917 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... from the low income to lower middle income categories in FY 2013 will go into effect for FY 2016... Liberia Malawi Mauritania Micronesia Moldova Mongolia Mozambique Nepal Niger Nigeria Pakistan Papua New... drug-transit or major illicit drug producing country for FY 2012 (Presidential Determination No....

  15. 75 FR 71465 - Notice of the December 15, 2010 Millennium Challenge Corporation Board of Directors Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Information on the meeting may be obtained from Melvin Williams, Jr., Vice President... public. Dated: November 19, 2010. Melvin F. Williams, Jr., VP/General Counsel and Corporate...

  16. World Libraries on the Information Superhighway: Preparing for the Challenges of the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Patricia Diamond, Ed.; Bertot, John Carlo, Ed.

    This book represents the thoughts and experiences of librarians and academics on the changing role of libraries in a global networked community. The first section of the book looks at the agendas for national libraries in a digital world. Issues covered include content and delivery, national policy and practice and strategies for success in a…

  17. Challenges to meet: food and nutrition security in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Lipton, M

    2001-05-01

    Before about 1750 there was no substantial secular fall in protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) over large areas, nor reason to expect it. We have since learned that sufficient economic advance (poverty reduction) plus scientific advance (in medicine and food production) are achievable to eliminate mass PEM. The two advances are linked via increased demand for labour, and hence wages and employment, for those formerly too poor to afford adequate food. The extra employment income arises first from smallholder and employee food production, and later, as labour is released, from a wide range of specialised, increasingly non-farm, production, with employment income traded for food. This process eliminated mass hunger in Europe in 1750-1960. Only by 1975 had PEM in the developing world retreated to (very high) 1936-8 levels, but it fell sharply in Asia and Latin America in 1975-1990, due to unprecedented growth in staples yields, smallholder and farm employment income, and hence the poor's purchasing power over food. However, since 1990, poverty reduction has slowed (before reaching most of Africa), alongside much slower-staples yield growth, increasing water shortages, and big shifts of grain and land from man to farm animals. These trends prefigure declining progress against PEM in coming decades, unless there is renewed, employment-intensive food-staples-yield growth. That process requires reorienting crop biotechnology and water science towards the needs of small tropical farmers and their staple food crops, and shifting land towards them. Mass PEM is indeed largely due to inadequate 'food entitlements' by the hungry, but will not be remedied without growth in their employment, based on further advances in food-staples yields per unit land and water. Recent evidence suggests that early PEM may increase lifelong risks of infection and/or degenerative disease. This factor would increase the 'squeeze' on health resources in low-income countries, between the diseases of poverty and those of old age. That situation increases the need to readdress PEM by renewed progress in food production and land distribution.

  18. 77 FR 19360 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... ``candidate countries'' for MCA assistance for FY 2012 based on their per capita income levels and their... it: Meets one of the following tests: Has a per capita income that is not greater than the World Bank's lower middle income country threshold for such fiscal year ($3,975 GNI per capita for FY12);...

  19. Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

    Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for

  20. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  1. Preparing for the third millennium: the views of life informatics.

    PubMed

    Li, Z R; Tian, A J; Yang, Y Y

    1998-01-01

    The chief aspects of this paper are the condition of the birth of life informatics and its tasks, basic concepts, principles, and structure. There are three phases of combining informatics with medicine: product, technological, and theoretic application of which the goals are respectively the informatization of numerical and word processing, data of medical treatment, and the knowledge of medicine. While reached the third phase we have dealt with two types of biological information, physical and nonphysical, i.e., body information (i.e., the information about body's components and structure), and life information (i.e., the information about life codes and life programs). Life informatics is a main branch of bioinformatics. It is a new member of the medical informatics family, and as such is younger than health informatics, nursing informatics, and dental informatics. It's task is to assist biologists and medical doctors to recognize and interfere the human life information procedure just as they are doing well with human body's matter and energy system. Its basic concepts are life information, life information medicine, and life information therapy. Its most important principles are information materialism, general informatics, and information determinism. Its main branches are biomolecule, cellular, organic, individual, and social informatics. In the third millennium, the life informatics will be a leading discipline in biology, medicine and informatics, which will gradually influence modern philosophy and other humanities.

  2. Asian monsoon extremes and humanity's response over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, B. M.; Lieberman, V. B.; Zottoli, B.

    2012-12-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has seen significant development in the production of paleo proxies for the Asian monsoon, exemplified by the Monsoon Asian Drought Atlas that was comprised of more than 300 tree ring chronologies. Noteworthy among them is the Vietnamese cypress tree-ring record which reveals that the two worst droughts of the past 7 centuries, each more than a decade in length, coincided with the demise of the Khmer civilization at Angkor in the early 15th century CE. The 18th century was nearly as tumultuous a period across Southeast Asia, where several polities fell against a backdrop of epic decadal-scale droughts. At this time all of the region's charter states saw rapid realignment in the face of drought, famine, disease and a raft of related and unrelated social issues. Several other droughts, some more extreme but of lesser duration, punctuate the past millennium, but appear to have had little societal impact. Historical documentation is being used not only to provide corroborative evidence of tree-ring reconstructed climate extremes, but to attempt to understand the dynamics of the coupled human-natural systems involved, and to define what kinds of thresholds need to be reached before societies respond. This paleo perspective can assist our analyses of the role of climate extremes in the collapse or disruption of regional societies, a subject of increasing concern given the uncertainties surrounding projections for future climate across the highly populated areas of Asia.

  3. Internal medicine, art and science in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Muñoz C, Félix

    2013-02-01

    Internal medicine, art and science in the third millennium is a statement that Medicine is not only science. It acts on the sick individual to reestablish a natural state as a curative art. Medical art, commissioned by an individual or a society, is service. It requires vocation to obtain satisfaction. However due to the incidence of value changes, market globalization, technological and industrial development, the patient/physician relationship is becoming a user/provider relationship. Physician-related factors such as a higher health care demand, resource shortage and a progressive specialization have also influenced this change of paradigm. This is causing dissatisfaction, loss of self-esteem and a lower ethical commitment among professionals. We need to recover a professional repertoire of ideas in the context of a global ethics. Responsibility and co-responsibility are ethical principles addressed to technological civilizations and their collateral effects on people and environment that lead to a "responsible globalization". We also need a scientific futurology to define risks and avoid errors. In this era of progressive specialization, Internal Medicine, with its holistic vision of mankind, may play a fundamental role in the field of bioethics.

  4. Gulf Stream density structure and transport during the past millennium.

    PubMed

    Lund, David C; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean; Curry, William B

    2006-11-30

    The Gulf Stream transports approximately 31 Sv (1 Sv = 10(6) m(3) s(-1)) of water and 1.3 x 10(15) W of heat into the North Atlantic ocean. The possibility of abrupt changes in Gulf Stream heat transport is one of the key uncertainties in predictions of climate change for the coming centuries. Given the limited length of the instrumental record, our knowledge of Gulf Stream behaviour on long timescales must rely heavily on information from geologic archives. Here we use foraminifera from a suite of high-resolution sediment cores in the Florida Straits to show that the cross-current density gradient and vertical current shear of the Gulf Stream were systematically lower during the Little Ice Age (ad approximately 1200 to 1850). We also estimate that Little Ice Age volume transport was ten per cent weaker than today's. The timing of reduced flow is consistent with temperature minima in several palaeoclimate records, implying that diminished oceanic heat transport may have contributed to Little Ice Age cooling in the North Atlantic. The interval of low flow also coincides with anomalously high Gulf Stream surface salinity, suggesting a tight linkage between the Atlantic Ocean circulation and hydrologic cycle during the past millennium.

  5. Internal medicine, art and science in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Muñoz C, Félix

    2013-02-01

    Internal medicine, art and science in the third millennium is a statement that Medicine is not only science. It acts on the sick individual to reestablish a natural state as a curative art. Medical art, commissioned by an individual or a society, is service. It requires vocation to obtain satisfaction. However due to the incidence of value changes, market globalization, technological and industrial development, the patient/physician relationship is becoming a user/provider relationship. Physician-related factors such as a higher health care demand, resource shortage and a progressive specialization have also influenced this change of paradigm. This is causing dissatisfaction, loss of self-esteem and a lower ethical commitment among professionals. We need to recover a professional repertoire of ideas in the context of a global ethics. Responsibility and co-responsibility are ethical principles addressed to technological civilizations and their collateral effects on people and environment that lead to a "responsible globalization". We also need a scientific futurology to define risks and avoid errors. In this era of progressive specialization, Internal Medicine, with its holistic vision of mankind, may play a fundamental role in the field of bioethics. PMID:23732495

  6. Intensification of southwestern Indonesian rainfall over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konecky, Bronwen L.; Russell, James M.; Rodysill, Jessica R.; Vuille, Mathias; Bijaksana, Satria; Huang, Yongsong

    2013-01-01

    Modern precipitation in Indonesia is strongly correlated to variations in the Asian/Australasian monsoons, the Walker circulation, and migrations of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), but controls on multidecadal to millennial rainfall variations are less clear. We present a new, high-resolution, precipitation proxy reconstruction from Lake Lading (8°S, 113°E), Java, from 850 Common Era (C.E.) to present, based on the δD of terrestrial plant waxes. We find that rainfall has steadily increased in Java over the past millennium. This increase persists into the twentieth century despite evidence from other tropical proxy records for a northward ITCZ migration during the last two centuries, which should introduce drier conditions to Java. Aspects of this long-term increase in rainfall resemble records from the Northern Hemisphere, tropical Indo-Pacific, suggesting that strengthening Walker circulation played an important role in this long-term increase in rainfall and decrease in the δD of precipitation, while ITCZ variations may have been important to climate variations on multidecadal to centennial timescales.

  7. 77 FR 72337 - Apps for Vehicles Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Apps for Vehicles Challenge AGENCY: Office of Energy... Vehicles: improving safety and fuel efficiency through technology innovation''. DATES: See, 1. Key Challenge Dates & Deadlines in SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. ADDRESSES: The Apps for Vehicles Challenge...

  8. Life in a landfill slum, children's health, and the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James L; Watson, Lindsey M; Nikitin, Ivan V; Ansariadi; La Ane, Ruslan; Maidin, Alimin

    2015-12-01

    People living in slums can be considered left behind with regard to national successes in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the living and working conditions of waste pickers and their children in a landfill slum located in the largest city in eastern Indonesia. A total of 113 people from the landfill slum and 1184 people from the general population participated in face-to-face interviews. Municipal solid waste (MSW) was analyzed for metals, metalloids and fecal indicator bacteria. Ambient air quality including particulate matter was measured in the landfill. Households in the landfill slum were 5.73 (p=0.04) times more likely to be below the international poverty line (MDG 1: Poverty) and 15.6 times (p<0.01) more likely to have no one in the household possessing a primary education (MDG 2: Universal Education), and 107 times (p<0.01) more likely not to have improved sanitation facilities (MDG 7: Environmental Sustainability) when compared to the general population. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death in children under five in Indonesia. Young children living in the landfill slum were 2.87 times (p=0.02) more likely to develop diarrhea than their general population counterparts. Other survey results and environmental measurements suggest that landfill slum children have additional adverse health effects (e.g. infections and poisoning). Poverty underlies several MDG issues that directly or indirectly affect child health. Therefore, eradicating extreme poverty will continue to be the most critical challenge for the MDGs beyond 2015.

  9. Millennium Development Goal Four and Child Health Inequities in Indonesia: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schröders, Julia; Wall, Stig; Kusnanto, Hari; Ng, Nawi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 calls for reducing mortality of children under-five years by two-thirds by 2015. Indonesia is on track to officially meet the MDG 4 targets by 2015 but progress has been far from universal. It has been argued that national level statistics, on which MDG 4 relies, obscure persistent health inequities within the country. Particularly inequities in child health are a major global public health challenge both for achieving MDG 4 in 2015 and beyond. This review aims to map out the situation of MDG 4 with respect to disadvantaged populations in Indonesia applying the Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework. The specific objectives are to answer: Who are the disadvantaged populations? Where do they live? And why and how is the inequitable distribution of health explained in terms of the SDH framework? Methods and Findings We retrieved studies through a systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published in 1995-2014. The PRISMA-Equity 2012 statement was adapted to guide the methods of this review. The dependent variables were MDG 4-related indicators; the independent variable “disadvantaged populations” was defined by different categories of social differentiation using PROGRESS. Included texts were analyzed following the guidelines for deductive content analysis operationalized on the basis of the SDH framework. We identified 83 studies establishing evidence on more than 40 different determinants hindering an equitable distribution of child health in Indonesia. The most prominent determinants arise from the shortcomings within the rural health care system, the repercussions of food poverty coupled with low health literacy among parents, the impact of low household decision-making power of mothers, and the consequences of high persistent use of traditional birth attendants among ethnic minorities. Conclusion This review calls for enhanced understanding of the determinants and pathways that create

  10. Learner Agency within the Design of an EAP Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seppälä, Riina

    2015-01-01

    To meet the demands of today's society and working life, higher education should support the development of learner agency. How the agency of individual learners emerges in university courses and what kind of agency empowers the learners to face new challenges should be considered. In this article, the focus is on learner agency enabled and…

  11. The CMIP6/PMIP4 Last Millennium Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungclaus, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Climate has varied considerably during the late Holocene and these changes left their traces in history (Medieval Climate Optimum, Little Ice Age). However, the relative magnitude of natural fluctuations due to internal variability of the Earth's climate system and to variations in the external forcing and the present global warming, attributed to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is still under debate. Investigating the response to (mainly) natural forcing under climatic background conditions not too different from today is crucial for an improved understanding of climate variability, circulation, and regional connectivity. Simulations over the last millennium (LM) allow assessing climate variability on decadal and longer scales and provide information on predictability under forced and unforced conditions. In providing in-depth model evaluation with respect to observations and paleoclimatic reconstructions, LM simulations serve to understand origins and consequences of systematic model biases. PMIP4 Tier-1 includes the standard LM simulation covering 850 to 1849 CE and a subsequent "historical" (1850 - 2010 CE) experiment as a minimum requirement. In addition to changes in Earth's orbit and greenhouse gas concentrations, the models are forced by variations in solar irradiance, volcanic aerosol load, and anthropogenic land-cover. As part of Tier-2, the modeling groups are asked to provide additional simulations in the form of ensembles, single forcing experiments, as well as sensitivity runs using alternative forcing combinations. The extension of the simulations to cover the complete last two millennia (0 CE to present) is also part of Tier-2. We describe the experimental design of the LM simulations and discuss the protocol on new forcing and boundary conditions. We discuss recent advances in the reconstruction of solar, volcanic, and land-cover changes and their implementation in the CMIP6 models. PMIP4 aims to provide forcing datasets that are consistent with

  12. First Results from The Last Millennium Climate Reanalysis Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim, G. J.; Steig, E. J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Noone, D. C.; Anderson, D. M.; Tardif, R.; Steiger, N. J.; Perkins, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    Paleoclimate proxies provide the only measured record of Earth's climate history, but they are noisy and sparse in space and time. Climate model simulations provide dynamically consistent spatial fields, but lack a direct connection to specific climate states prior to the instrumental record. Paleoclimate data assimilation (PDA) provides an optimally weighted estimate of the climate state from these two sources of information based on their error characteristics. The Last Millennium Climate Reanalysis Project (LMR) uses an ensemble-based PDA method and annually-resolved proxy records to reconstruct Earth's climate for the past 1000 years on a regular latitude--longitude grid. First results of the LMR project are reported here. Proxy records used in the first LMR reconstructions include: trees (ring width and wood density), corals (d18O and luminescence), ice cores (d18O), and a small number of sediment and speleothem records. A component of the data assimilation approach that distinguishes it from other techniques concerns the use of proxy system models to estimate the proxy from climate variables from a model simulation. Proxies are linearly related to 2-meter air temperature in a calibration dataset. Given a prior estimate of the climate from a model (here, a randomly sampled 1000-year control integration of CCSM4), we estimate the proxy value from the linear relationship (derived independently from the model). LMR analyses are compared against both existing gridded reanalysis records and withheld proxy records. Results show a cooling trend in global-mean air temperature during 1000-1900 CE, which derives primarily from cooling of the Northern Hemisphere extratropics, offset by weak tropical warming. There is no evidence of a Medieval Climate Anomaly. During the 20th century, the LMR estimate of the global-mean air temperature compares very closely with other reanalysis products. Skill appears insensitive to the calibration dataset used to derive the proxy system

  13. Investigate the Federal Agencies for Experiential Spots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Claudia

    1993-01-01

    Alerts career counselors to thousands of co-op, intern, and summer job opportunities that Central Intelligence Agency and other federal agencies offer each year. Notes that challenge is in locating the right job for the student. Provides information on where to call for information about federal employment, pay scales for federal experiential…

  14. Free solar lanterns to below poverty line girls in India: a step toward achieving millennium development goals.

    PubMed

    Garg, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Development sectors like health cannot function in isolation. Intersectoral coordination between various departments helps in bringing a positive change in the health-seeking behavior of society in the long run. The decision by the Government of India to provide free solar lanterns (lamps) to the school-going girls of below poverty line families is a welcome step in this context. This initiative would help in reducing the number of school dropout girls and thus help in improving the health indicators that are directly related to women's education. Thus it is an initiative that will help in attainment of Millennium Development Goals through women's education and empowerment. Along with that, the environment-friendly approach will definitely have an impact on health of the girls by switching from kerosene/wood stoves to solar lantern light. Also this initiative would pave the path of real "intersectoral coordination" in the health sector in India that is marred with watertight functioning of various departments. There is an urgent need to popularize the scheme and involve different stakeholders like corporate houses, media, nongovernment organizations, multinational welfare agencies, and local governing bodies for ensuring the availability and utilization of solar lanterns in India.

  15. Using Technology for Enhancing Teaching and Learning in Bangladesh: Challenges and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohel, M. Mahruf C.; Kirkwood, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of media and technologies for enhancing teaching and learning is an important current trend to overcome the challenges of schooling and teacher training in the changing world. Many countries in the Global South are trying to adopt technologies in their school and teacher training systems to achieve the UN Millennium Development…

  16. Radiocarbon Variability in the Tropical Pacific During the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Cobb, K. M.; Druffel, E. R.; Griffin, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    The strength of upwelling in the tropical Pacific strongly influences global climate, as demonstrated during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) extremes. Understanding the causes of past variability in tropical Pacific upwelling will help to predict how future climate may evolve under radiative forcing caused by the increase in greenhouse gases. We measured radiocarbon (14C) records in corals collected from Palmyra (6°°N, 162°°W) and Christmas (2°°N, 157°°W) Islands, located in the central tropical Pacific, to reconstruct high-resolution variations in tropical Pacific upwelling over the last millennium. Corals incorporate 14C/12C ratios equal to those in the dissolved inorganic carbon of surrounding seawater, and thus provide monthly-resolved records of surface ocean radiocarbon concentrations back through time. Surface ocean waters are more enriched with radiocarbon than deep waters, owing to the atmospheric source for radiocarbon. Upwelled waters are depleted in radiocarbon because significant radioactive decay has occurred during their isolation in the deeper ocean. Previous work with central tropical Pacific corals has determined that upwelled waters are approximately -55‰° to -65‰° in this region, while currents flowing from the west Pacific to the east Pacific carry waters with a higher 14C signature, roughly -38‰, and waters from the east have a value of -72‰° (Konishi et. al, 1981, Druffel, 1981). Therefore, variations in 14C in the Palmyra and Christmas corals reflect the mixing of the cool, radiocarbon-depleted, waters associated with equatorial upwelling and the warm, radiocarbon-enriched waters advected from the western tropical Pacific. Oxygen isotopic (δ18O) analyses of the Palmyra and Christmas fossil corals reveal a rich climatic history of interannual to centennial variability (Cobb et al., 2003). Our approach targets specific time intervals associated with strong interannual to centennial δ18O anomalies for high

  17. The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaino, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

  18. A new millennium for health care IT: the year 2000 conversion.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R L

    1998-03-01

    The new millennium. It means many things for many people, from astrologers to information technology (IT) professionals. But the latter, especially those in health care, have good reason to be concerned. Because for the majority of computer systems, January 1,2000, marks both the beginning of a new decade and total system chaos.

  19. What Colleges and Universities Need To Know about the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lide, Casey

    1999-01-01

    Discusses provisions of interest to college administrators and faculty in the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, focusing on two sections: limitations on infringement liability for "service providers," and prohibitions on circumvention of technological-protection measures. Definitions and legal implications are examined, and actions campuses…

  20. Nothing but the Truth? The United Nations and the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, with the target for achievement set at 2015. On the UN website a special section is devoted to the MDGs. In this article the website as it was presented in late 2013 is examined. Although the website was easy to negotiate, it was difficult to ascertain any…

  1. Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

  2. Behind the Public Face of Kew: Education and Conservation in the Millennium Seed Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Angela

    2010-01-01

    At its Wakehurst Place garden in West Sussex, the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, has established the UK home of one of the world's largest conservation projects, the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB) partnership, a global project to conserve biodiversity by collecting and preserving seeds. This article describes what the MSB partnership does, how seeds are…

  3. Skill Standards for Information Technology. Millennium Edition. Building a Foundation for Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NorthWest Center for Emerging Technologies, Bellevue, WA.

    This document presents skill standards for technology occupations. An overview describes national context, changes in the updated "Millennium Edition" of the skill standards, trends in information technology, and curriculum informed by skill standards. Skill standards are presented for eight career clusters in information technology (i.e.,…

  4. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 3: Adolescent Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

  5. Is the Millennium Goal on Education Tackling the Ethical Requirements of a Diverse and Multicultural World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosquera, Katia Ximena Mosquera; Mosquera, Maura Nasly Mosquera

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an invitation to reflect on the ethical foundations underlying the Millennium Declaration of September 2000, approved by the 189 member states of the United Nations, in which they committed themselves to improve the living conditions of humanity, with special focus on developing countries. It is noteworthy that this proposal, which…

  6. Education Finance in the New Millennium. Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaikind, Stephen, Ed.; Fowler, William J., Ed.

    This yearbook reaffirms the connections between the field of education finance and the wider education community. Among the topics it examines are curricula reform, outcome assessment, accountability, community control, and privatization. Twelve chapters include: (1) "Education Finance in the New Millennium: Overview and Summary" (Stephen Chaikind…

  7. The Impact of ICT Use on New Millennium Learners' Educational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Heo, Heeok; Kim, Minjeong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) use on the educational performance of new millennium learners (NMLs). Even though many factors might influence individual performance besides ICT use itself, the research focus was on the relationship between the behavioral patterns of…

  8. Knowledge of Millennium Development Goals among University Faculty in Uganda and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Nabachwa, Mary Sonko; Chamberlain, Jean; Nakalembe, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the level of knowledge of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) among university faculty. The assessment is based on data from 197 academic unit or faculty heads randomly selected from universities in Uganda and Kenya. Frequency distributions and logistic regression were used for analysis. Slightly more than one in three…

  9. Accelerating the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana: Literacy, the Missing Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagoe, Michael Ayitey

    2011-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some…

  10. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 4: Adult Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

  11. The New Millennium and an Education That Captures the Basic Spirit of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    This document discusses reflections of the old and new millennium on education that capture the basic spirit of science. The explanation includes basic scientific ideas in physical sciences, earth systems, solar system and space; living systems; basic scientific thinking; the basic distinction between science and technology; basic connections…

  12. Governing by Partnerships: Dilemmas in Swedish Education Policy at the Turn of the Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, governing through partnerships has become more and more common and is today reflected in a range of policy areas. In the following article, governing through partnerships is analysed in Swedish education policy around the turn of the millennium, where the notion of partnership has had a large impact. Using as its point of…

  13. Schooling Entrepreneurs: Entrepreneurship, Governmentality and Education Policy in Sweden at the Turn of the Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus; Hertzberg, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Departing from Michel Foucault's concept of governmentality, the focus of this article is the introduction of entrepreneurial education in Swedish education policy at the turn of the millennium. We analyze the various meanings attached to the concepts of "entrepreneur" and "entrepreneurship" in education policy documents,…

  14. Implications for Art Education in the Third Millennium: Art Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Most would agree that today's art education is far more complex than art activities such as making pumpkin paintings in October. For one, art education continually evolves in response to arts technology integration. What exactly are the implications for art education in the new millennium? In this article, the author presents and shows some of the…

  15. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Medicine Today and in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Luke

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the role and future of medicine and medically oriented interventions for children and youth with autism spectrum disorder. Included in the discussion are the diagnostic issues and medication treatments available currently and those that will become available in the new millennium. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  16. Toward an Essential Ethic for Teaching Science in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Irene de la Bretonne

    The purpose of this study was to identify and explore values and views that might underlie an essential ethic for teaching science in the new millennium. With such an ethic, teachers may be better able to prepare young people to form and fully participate in communities that restore and sustain Earth. Reviewed in the literature for this study were…

  17. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began an innovative scholarship program that provides full financial support to low-income minority students across the United States. The Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program has already awarded more than 10,000 scholarships to exceptional students, with the ultimate goal of funding at least 20,000…

  18. Literacy for the New Millennium. Volume 2: Childhood Literacy. Praeger Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on literacy.…

  19. North Atlantic summer storm tracks over Europe dominated by internal variability over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagen, Mary H.; Zorita, Eduardo; McCarroll, Danny; Zahn, Matthias; Young, Giles H. F.; Robertson, Iain

    2016-08-01

    Certain large, sustained anomalies in European temperatures in the past millennium are probably the result of internal variation. Such internal variations can modulate regional temperatures away from the expected response to greenhouse gas forcing. Here we assess the causes of European summer temperature variability over the past millennium using temperature observations, simulations and reconstructions. We find multidecadal-mean summer temperatures have varied within a span of 1 K, largely controlled by external forcing. By contrast, we find subcontinental variations, described by the temperature contrast between northern and southern Europe (the meridional temperature gradient), vary with a span of 2 K, and are controlled by internal processes. These variations are the result of redistributions of precipitation and cloud cover linked to oscillations in the position of the summer storm track. In contrast to recent twentieth-century winter-time trends, variations of the summer storm track over the past millennium show a weak response to external forcing, and instead are dominated by stochastic internal variability. We argue that the response of European summer temperatures to anthropogenic greenhouse forcing is likely to be spatially modulated by the same stochastic internal processes that have caused periods of cool, wet summers in northern Europe over the last millennium.

  20. The Impact of Streaming on Attainment at Age Seven: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Samantha; Hallam, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between stream placement and the academic progress made by children in England in Year 2 of primary school, drawing on data from the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). The MCS is a sample of 19,000 children born across the UK around the turn of the century and their families. Academic progress was…

  1. Poverty, Education, Gender and the Millennium Development Goals: Reflections on Boundaries and Intersectionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concerned with poverty, education and gender (MDG 1, MDG 2 and MDG 3). Despite considerable achievements associated with the MDG approach, which entails international and national target setting and monitoring, a sharp distinction between areas of social policy is entailed. In addition…

  2. Post-Compulsory Education and the New Millennium. Higher Education Policy Series 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David E., Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    Contributors to this collection deal with many of the most important issues facing further education in the United Kingdom and present a graphic picture of the kinds of problems facing colleges as they move into the new millennium. The chapters are: (1) "The Changing Framework of Post-16 Education - The Rhetoric of Reform" (Colin Griffin and David…

  3. Global Inequality, Capabilities, Social Justice: The Millennium Development Goal for Gender Equality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for gender equality in education by 2005 has been criticised for its grandiose ambition, its failure to adequately conceptualise the nature of gender inequality or the diverse forms this takes, the inadequate policies developed to put the goal into practice and the limited measurements used for monitoring. The…

  4. Untreatable infections?--The challenge of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Parry, C M

    1998-06-01

    The triumph of antibiotics over bacterial pathogens that has occurred in the latter half of this century looks increasingly threatened as we approach the new millennium. Increasing resistance in important pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Shigella, and Streptococcus pneumoniae threatens the lives of millions. The increasing problems with drug resistance in (C. diphtheriae, Salmonella typhi and the pneumococcus in Vietnam are presented as examples of the challenge confronting tropical countries.

  5. Comparison of simulated and reconstructed variations in East African hydroclimate over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, François; Goosse, Hugues; Graham, Nicholas E.; Verschuren, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    The multi-decadal to centennial hydroclimate changes in East Africa over the last millennium are studied by comparing the results of forced transient simulations by six general circulation models (GCMs) with published hydroclimate reconstructions from four lakes: Challa and Naivasha in equatorial East Africa, and Masoko and Malawi in southeastern inter-tropical Africa. All GCMs simulate fairly well the unimodal seasonal cycle of precipitation in the Masoko-Malawi region, while the bimodal seasonal cycle characterizing the Challa-Naivasha region is generally less well captured by most models. Model results and lake-based hydroclimate reconstructions display very different temporal patterns over the last millennium. Additionally, there is no common signal among the model time series, at least until 1850. This suggests that simulated hydroclimate fluctuations are mostly driven by internal variability rather than by common external forcing. After 1850, half of the models simulate a relatively clear response to forcing, but this response is different between the models. Overall, the link between precipitation and tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the pre-industrial portion of the last millennium is stronger and more robust for the Challa-Naivasha region than for the Masoko-Malawi region. At the inter-annual timescale, last-millennium Challa-Naivasha precipitation is positively (negatively) correlated with western (eastern) Indian Ocean SST, while the influence of the Pacific Ocean appears weak and unclear. Although most often not significant, the same pattern of correlations between East African rainfall and the Indian Ocean SST is still visible when using the last-millennium time series smoothed to highlight centennial variability, but only in fixed-forcing simulations. This means that, at the centennial timescale, the effect of (natural) climate forcing can mask the imprint of internal climate variability in large-scale teleconnections.

  6. Science for avian conservation: priorities for the new millennium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, J.M.; Petit, D.R.; Sauer, J.R.; Samuel, M.D.; Johnson, F.A.; Fornwall, M.D.; Korschgen, C.E.; Bennett, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, bird conservation activities have become the preeminent natural resource conservation effort in North America. Maturation of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP), establishment of Partners in Flight (PIF), and creation of comprehensive colonial waterbird and shorebird conservation plans have stimulated unprecedented interest in, and funding for, bird conservation in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and other countries in the western hemisphere. Key to that success in the United States has been active collaboration among federal, state and local governments, conservation organizations, academia, and industry. The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), which has primary statutory responsibility for migratory bird conservation and management, has been a key partner. Despite the great strides that have been made in bird conservation science, historical approaches to research and monitoring have often failed to provide sufficient information and understanding to effectively manage bird populations at large spatial scales. That shortcoming, and the lack of an integrated strategy and comprehensive set of research priorities, is more evident in light of the goals established by the North American Bird Conservation Initiative (NABCI). The NABCI is a trinational, coalition-driven effort to provide an organizational umbrella for existing conservation initiatives. The expanded focus of NABCI and individual bird conservation initiatives is to work together in an integrated, holistic fashion to keep common birds common and to increase populations of declining, threatened, and endangered species. To assist bird conservation initiatives in defi ning goals and developing new approaches to effective research, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the research agency of DOI, convened a workshop, a??Science for Avian Conservation: Understanding, Modeling, and Applying Ecological Relationships,a?? on 31 Octobera??2 November 2000, which brought

  7. Did Tanzania Achieve the Second Millennium Development Goal? Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoti, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Development Goal "Achieve universal primary education", the challenges faced, along with the way forward towards achieving the fourth Sustainable Development Goal "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". Statistics show that Tanzania has made very promising steps…

  8. Cooperative Education in the New Millennium: Implications for Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Cal

    1997-01-01

    Colleges and universities are being challenged to examine their mission, structure, and delivery of services for two reasons with far-reaching implications for cooperative education. The first is the move from an industrial to a postindustrial economy. The second deals with incorrect assumptions about learning based on outmoded information and…

  9. Schooling and Environment in Latin America in the Third Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gaudiano, Edgar

    2007-01-01

    This article develops an historical and contemporary Latin-American perspective on the issues raised by Stevenson's 1987 article, "Schooling and Environmental Education: Contradictions in Purpose and Practice". It shows that since its inception as a pedagogical field in the 1970s, environmental education has faced many challenges and resistances…

  10. Health Literacy and the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma; Oyitso, Mabel; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examined health related challenges facing Nigeria. They argued that the relationship between literacy and health in today's knowledge-based economy further puts pressure on countries like Nigeria to raise its literacy rates if it is to compete in the global market. This line of thought is based on the fact that in…

  11. Innovative medicines: new regulatory procedures for the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Rasi, Guido; Bonini, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Despite tremendous progress in science and increasing investment in research and development, patients' access to innovative medicines remains limited. This is in part due to increasing regulatory requirements for product authorisation and cost-constrained national health systems. At the European Medicines Agency (EMA), we have tried to address these constraints by adapting our organisation and activities to changing business models, new technologies, and the current and emerging health needs in Europe. The main EMA initiatives to provide patients with effective, safe and affordable medicines are reviewed.

  12. The quest for quality blood banking program in the new millennium the American way.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Un

    2002-08-01

    For an industry to succeed and satisfy its customers, "QUALITY" must be a primary goal. Quality has been central to blood banking from its inception, with the evolution of a Quality Program since the opening of the first blood bank in U.S. at the Cook County Hospital in 1937. Over the ensuing decades, continuous scientific progress in blood preservation, filters, viral and blood group testing, crossmatching, automation, and computerization including bar coding, etc. has contributed to the quality and safety of the blood products and transfusion service. However, with the advent of the AIDS era, an increasingly sensitized and informed public is continuously demanding that the highest level of quality be achieved and maintained in all processes involved in providing all blood products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) introduced the concept of a "zero risk blood supply" as the industry goal. Furthermore, the cost containment and resource-constrained environment have changed the complexity of the quality practice. Both regulatory agencies such as the FDA, the Health Care Financing Administration [HCFA, which was recently renamed as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) in July, 2001], and the State Department of Health, and accrediting agencies, such as the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the College of American Pathologists (CAP), and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), require blood banks and transfusion services to establish and follow a Quality Control and Quality Assurance Program for their licensing, certification and accreditation. Every laboratory has to comply with the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA '88) quality requirements being implemented by the CMS. The FDA guidelines assist facilities in compliance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). The AABB's Quality System Essentials (QSE) are based on these specifications and provide additional guidance in

  13. The quest for quality blood banking program in the new millennium the American way.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Un

    2002-08-01

    For an industry to succeed and satisfy its customers, "QUALITY" must be a primary goal. Quality has been central to blood banking from its inception, with the evolution of a Quality Program since the opening of the first blood bank in U.S. at the Cook County Hospital in 1937. Over the ensuing decades, continuous scientific progress in blood preservation, filters, viral and blood group testing, crossmatching, automation, and computerization including bar coding, etc. has contributed to the quality and safety of the blood products and transfusion service. However, with the advent of the AIDS era, an increasingly sensitized and informed public is continuously demanding that the highest level of quality be achieved and maintained in all processes involved in providing all blood products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) introduced the concept of a "zero risk blood supply" as the industry goal. Furthermore, the cost containment and resource-constrained environment have changed the complexity of the quality practice. Both regulatory agencies such as the FDA, the Health Care Financing Administration [HCFA, which was recently renamed as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) in July, 2001], and the State Department of Health, and accrediting agencies, such as the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the College of American Pathologists (CAP), and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), require blood banks and transfusion services to establish and follow a Quality Control and Quality Assurance Program for their licensing, certification and accreditation. Every laboratory has to comply with the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA '88) quality requirements being implemented by the CMS. The FDA guidelines assist facilities in compliance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). The AABB's Quality System Essentials (QSE) are based on these specifications and provide additional guidance in

  14. The occupational role of women in military service: validation of occupation and prevalence of exposures in the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler C; Jacobson, Isabel G; Smith, Besa; Hooper, Tomoko I; Ryan, Margaret A K

    2007-08-01

    To better understand the US military's global peacekeeping and combat operations, which may expose a growing population of American service women to challenging occupations and environments. Concordance between self-reported and electronic occupation codes for female participants in the Millennium Cohort was measured using kappa statistics. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to assess the odds of five self-reported potentially toxic environmental exposures or disturbing experiences among different occupational categories, while adjusting for demographic and military characteristics, including deployment. Self-reported occupations were moderately to highly reliable when compared with electronic occupation data. Active-duty and Reserve/Guard females differentially reported witnessing death or trauma and exposure to chemical or biological warfare, depleted uranium, or pesticides. Findings suggest that self-reported occupation can be used with a high degree of confidence. Occupational groups with higher odds of reporting military exposures of concern will be followed longitudinally through 2022 and prospectively compared using baseline and follow-up evaluations. PMID:17613091

  15. Coordinating Canada's research response to global health challenges: the Global Health Research Initiative.

    PubMed

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Zarowsky, Christina; Frank, John; Mhatre, Sharmila; Aslanyan, Garry; Perry, Alita; Previsich, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The Global Health Research Initiative (GHRI) involving the Canadian International Development Agency, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Health Canada and the International Development Research Centre seeks to coordinate Canada's research response to global health challenges. In light of numerous calls to action both nationally and internationally, an orientation to applied health policy and systems research, and to public health research and its application is required to redress global inequalities in wealth and health and to tackle well-documented constraints to achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Over the last four years, the GHRI has funded close to 70 research program development and pilot projects. However, longer-term investment is needed. The proposed dollars 100 million Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership Program is such a response, and is intended to support teams of researchers and research users to develop, test and implement innovative approaches to strengthening institutional capacity, especially in low- and middle-income countries; to generating knowledge and its effective application to improve the health of populations, especially those most vulnerable; and to strengthen health systems in those countries. While Canada stands poised to act, concerted leadership and resources are still required to support "research that matters" for health and development in low- and middle-income countries.

  16. Coordinating Canada's research response to global health challenges: the Global Health Research Initiative.

    PubMed

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Zarowsky, Christina; Frank, John; Mhatre, Sharmila; Aslanyan, Garry; Perry, Alita; Previsich, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The Global Health Research Initiative (GHRI) involving the Canadian International Development Agency, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Health Canada and the International Development Research Centre seeks to coordinate Canada's research response to global health challenges. In light of numerous calls to action both nationally and internationally, an orientation to applied health policy and systems research, and to public health research and its application is required to redress global inequalities in wealth and health and to tackle well-documented constraints to achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Over the last four years, the GHRI has funded close to 70 research program development and pilot projects. However, longer-term investment is needed. The proposed dollars 100 million Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership Program is such a response, and is intended to support teams of researchers and research users to develop, test and implement innovative approaches to strengthening institutional capacity, especially in low- and middle-income countries; to generating knowledge and its effective application to improve the health of populations, especially those most vulnerable; and to strengthen health systems in those countries. While Canada stands poised to act, concerted leadership and resources are still required to support "research that matters" for health and development in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:16512323

  17. Nature versus nurture segues to choice versus circumstance in the new millennium: one consideration for an integrative biopsychosocial philosophy, art, and science of chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Objective This commentary discusses the evolving sociocultural roles and sociocultural authority of chiropractic. Discussion The complex interconnectivity of the biological, psychological, and social aspects of our individual and collective well-being has occupied centuries of “nature versus nurture” philosophical debate, creative art, and scientific work. What has emerged is a better understanding of how our human development is affected by the circumstances of what we are born with (ie, nature) and how we are shaped by the circumstances that we are born into (ie, nurture). Conclusion In the new millennium, a cumulative challenge to the emerging integrative biopsychosocial health care disciplines is one of reconciling “circumstance versus choice”; that is, advancing individually and collectively the fullest actualization of human potential through the philosophy, art, and science of autonomy and empowerment. PMID:22693464

  18. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders, including authorized holders outside the classifying agency, who want to challenge the classification status...

  19. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders, including authorized holders outside the classifying agency, who want to challenge the classification status...

  20. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders, including authorized holders outside the classifying agency, who want to challenge the classification status...

  1. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders, including authorized holders outside the classifying agency, who want to challenge the classification status...

  2. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders, including authorized holders outside the classifying agency, who want to challenge the classification status...

  3. The Results Act: a challenging management framework.

    PubMed

    Caudle, S L

    2001-01-01

    This article provides the reader with a basic understanding of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993. The Act requires federal agencies to institute a planning and reporting management framework to achieve results. It also identifies challenges federal agencies face in implementing a stronger results management approach and promising practices agencies can use in crafting their management approach. PMID:14680035

  4. Women's right to health and the Millennium Development Goals: promoting partnerships to improve access.

    PubMed

    Shaw, D

    2006-09-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MGD) represent a commitment of 189 member states that adopted them during the Millennium Summit in September 2000. This UN General Assembly recognized that gender equality and women's empowerment are both central to achieving sustainable development by means of combating poverty, hunger and disease. Neither reproductive nor sexual health was explicitly articulated in the original MDGs and indicators-a critical omission, as globally women are more disadvantaged than men. However, a clear link exists between all of the MDGs and the reproductive and sexual health of women, who cannot contribute to sustainable development, unless their right to health is met through improved access. The FIGO 2006 World Report on Women's Health addresses many issues critical to the success of the MDGs, with a focus on how partnerships have become a crucial vehicle to improve access to health for women.

  5. Making NEPA more effective and economical for the new millennium

    SciTech Connect

    HANSEN,ROGER P.; WOLFF,THEODORE A.

    2000-03-08

    This paper focuses on a ten-element strategy for streamlining the NEPA process in order to achieve the Act's objectives while easing the considerable burden on agencies, the public, and the judicial system. In other words, this paper proposes a strategy for making NEPA work better and cost less. How these ten elements are timed and implemented is critical to any successful streamlining. The strategy elements discussed in this paper, in no particular order of priority, are as follows: (1) integrate the NEPA process with other environmental compliance and review procedures; (2) accelerate the decision time for determining the appropriate level of NEPA documentation; (3) conduct early and thorough internal EIS (or EA) scoping before public scoping or other public participation begins; (4) organize and implement public scoping processes that are more participatory than confrontational; (5) maintain an up-to-date compendium of environmental baseline information; (6) prepare more comprehensive, broad-scope umbrella EISs that can be used effectively for tiering; (7) encourage preparation of annotated outlines with detailed guidance that serve as a road map for preparation of each EIS or EA; (8) decrease the length and complexity of highly technical portions of NEPA documents; (9) increase and systematize NEPA compliance outreach, training, and organizational support; and (10) work diligently to influence the preparation of better organized, shorter, and more readable NEPA documents.

  6. A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Raible, Christoph C.; Casado, Mathieu; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of variability in winter atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, with large impacts on temperature, precipitation and storm tracks, and therefore also on strategic sectors such as insurance, renewable energy production, crop yields and water management. Recent developments in dynamical methods offer promise to improve seasonal NAO predictions, but assessing potential predictability on multi-annual timescales requires documentation of past low-frequency variability in the NAO. A recent bi-proxy NAO reconstruction spanning the past millennium suggested that long-lasting positive NAO conditions were established during medieval times, explaining the particularly warm conditions in Europe during this period; however, these conclusions are debated. Here, we present a yearly NAO reconstruction for the past millennium, based on an initial selection of 48 annually resolved proxy records distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and built through an ensemble of multivariate regressions. We validate the approach in six past-millennium climate simulations, and show that our reconstruction outperforms the bi-proxy index. The final reconstruction shows no persistent positive NAO during the medieval period, but suggests that positive phases were dominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The reconstruction also reveals that a positive NAO emerges two years after strong volcanic eruptions, consistent with results obtained from models and satellite observations for the Mt Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines.

  7. A model-tested North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction for the past millennium.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Raible, Christoph C; Casado, Mathieu; Yiou, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the major source of variability in winter atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere, with large impacts on temperature, precipitation and storm tracks, and therefore also on strategic sectors such as insurance, renewable energy production, crop yields and water management. Recent developments in dynamical methods offer promise to improve seasonal NAO predictions, but assessing potential predictability on multi-annual timescales requires documentation of past low-frequency variability in the NAO. A recent bi-proxy NAO reconstruction spanning the past millennium suggested that long-lasting positive NAO conditions were established during medieval times, explaining the particularly warm conditions in Europe during this period; however, these conclusions are debated. Here, we present a yearly NAO reconstruction for the past millennium, based on an initial selection of 48 annually resolved proxy records distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and built through an ensemble of multivariate regressions. We validate the approach in six past-millennium climate simulations, and show that our reconstruction outperforms the bi-proxy index. The final reconstruction shows no persistent positive NAO during the medieval period, but suggests that positive phases were dominant during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The reconstruction also reveals that a positive NAO emerges two years after strong volcanic eruptions, consistent with results obtained from models and satellite observations for the Mt Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines.

  8. Entering the New Millennium: Dilemmas in Arms Control

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,JAMES

    1999-11-01

    The end of the Cold War finds the international community no longer divided into two opposing blocks. The concerns that the community now faces are becoming more fluid, less focused, and, in many ways, much less predictable. Issues of religion, ethnicity, and nationalism; the possible proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction; and the diffusion of technology and information processing throughout the world community have greatly changed the international security landscape in the last decade. Although our challenges appear formidable, the United Nations, State Parties, nongovernmental organizations, and the arms control community are moving to address and lessen these concerns through both formal and informal efforts. Many of the multilateral agreements (e.g., NPT, BWC, CWC, CTBT, MTCR), as well as the bilateral efforts that are taking place between Washington and Moscow employ confidence-building and transparency measures. These measures along with on-site inspection and other verification procedures lessen suspicion and distrust and reduce uncertainty, thus enhancing stability, confidence, and cooperation.

  9. An occupational reproductive research agenda for the third millennium.

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Christina C; Schnorr, Teresa M; Daston, George P; Grajewski, Barbara; Marcus, Michele; McDiarmid, Melissa; Murono, Eisuke; Perreault, Sally D; Schrader, Steven M; Shelby, Michael

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant public health concern about the potential effects of occupational exposure to toxic substances on reproductive outcomes. Several toxicants with reported reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus present potential exposure to workers. Examples of these include heavy metals, organic solvents, pesticides and herbicides, and sterilants, anesthetic gases, and anticancer drugs used in health care. Many other substances are suspected of producing reproductive or developmental toxicity but lack sufficient data. Progress has been limited in identifying hazards and quantifying their potencies and in separating the contribution of these hazards from other etiologic factors. Identifying the causative agents, mechanisms by which they act, and any potential target populations, present the opportunity to intervene and protect the reproductive health of workers. The pace of laboratory studies to identify hazards and to underpin the biologic plausibility of effects in humans has not matched the pace at which new chemicals are introduced into commerce. Though many research challenges exist today, recent technologic and methodologic advances have been made that allow researchers to overcome some of these obstacles. The objective of this article is to recommend future directions in occupational reproductive health research. By bridging interdisciplinary gaps, the scientific community can work together to improve health and reduce adverse outcomes. PMID:12676620

  10. Accounting for Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    Children are increasingly described as agents and agency is important to arguments for children's rights and participation. Yet agency is rarely defined or theorised in childhood studies. This article reviews common uses and meanings of agency and argues that critical, social conceptualisations have yet to be extensively taken up in childhood…

  11. 40 CFR 36.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 36.645 Section 36.645 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department,...

  12. Balancing food and population in Nepal in the next millennium.

    PubMed

    Chitrakar, P L

    1997-07-01

    This article discusses the future need to balance population growth with the food supply in Nepal. Current efforts to meet food needs are hampered by steadily deteriorating environmental conditions. Nepal is both an agricultural country and a food exporting country. The recent declines in food production make it a low-income, food deficit country. In 1994-95, there were 16 districts in the mountains, 33 districts in the hills, and 6 districts in the terai that had food deficits. 73.3% of the 75 districts had food deficits in 1994-95. Deficits are caused by low production and high growth of population in food growing districts. Population may reach 23.3 million persons by the year 2000. As population pressure increases, all potentially cultivable land may be brought under cultivation, including forested areas. Soil degradation and other environmental deficits in the natural resource base will be further exacerbated. In addition to stress on the natural resource base and population growth, an additional problem is malnutrition caused by insufficient food consumption. The most vulnerable groups affected by malnutrition and undernourishment are preschool children and pregnant or lactating women. The challenge is to increase food production without diminishing the available resources. By 2011, Nepal will need 5.6 tons of food, or an increase of 66% in food production. 3.3 million tons were produced in 1994-95. The old development strategies have not worked. New ones are needed that include multilevel planning. Integrated regional planning is included in the new 9th 5-Year Plan to increase food production and reduce population growth. PMID:12293768

  13. 75 FR 21044 - Notice of Centennial Challenges 2011 CAFE Green Flight Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Centennial Challenges 2011 CAFE Green Flight Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2011 CAFE Green Flight Challenge. SUMMARY: This notice is issued in accordance with 42 U.S.C. 2451(314)(d). The 2011 CAFE...

  14. Mountains in the third millennium - a decade of droughts and water scarcity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, C.; Shaban, A.; Belete, T.

    2012-04-01

    Droughts and water scarcity have touched the Alps, Mediterranean and East African mountain chains more intensively since the beginning of the third millennium and pose a major challenge for water management. The year 2011 has been no exception, with the lowest river levels on record over the past 50 years even for alpine rivers. Although considerable climate fluctuations and persistent droughts have occurred in the past, it is quite remarkable that the five hottest summers over the past 500 years in Europe and the Alps have all been concentrated after 2002, falling far outside their normal historical distribution. In most mountain chains drought phenomena are persistent over large areas and over a variety of scales. The hydrological consequences, such as decreased rain- and snowfall, drying of springs, decreased river and groundwater discharge, lowering of lake levels and excessive evaporation etc. are considerable. Seasonality has been considerably affected, with the summer extending well into the spring and autumn. Mountain-fed rivers have experienced unusually low discharge over the last 10 years, with a decreasing trend both in summer and winter discharge. These hydrological changes have multiple impacts on availability of drinking water and the energy sector, decreasing hydroelectric production and availability of cooling water for the nuclear industry and negatively effecting river navigation, irrigation agriculture as well as winter tourism in mountains. Despite these naturally-induced shortcomings, adaptation has not always been rational. In some cases, maladaptation has led to overexploitation of water resources during drought conditions, exasperating water scarcity. For example, for the tourism sector in the Alps, water demand for drinking water and artificial snow making lies far above the available resources during the winter season for numerous resorts. This has long term environmental and socio-economic impacts such as destruction of wetlands

  15. The third age, the Third World and the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Diczfalusy, E

    1996-01-01

    In the year 2000, world population will exceed 6200 million and life expectancy will be over 68 years. The UN population projections for the coming 20 years after 1996 range from a low of 7100 million to a high of 7800 million. Between 1950 and 1992, in developing countries, life expectancy at birth increased by 29 years in China, by 24 years in India and Indonesia, by 21 years in Bangladesh, and by 16 years in Brazil. The gender difference in life expectancy is only 1 year in India, but 6 years in a number of developed countries. Corresponding increases in Australia were from 12.2 to 14.7 years for men and from 14.9 to 18.8 years for women. By the year 2025, the UN projects that the elderly (65 years and older) will constitute 10% of the population in Asia and more than 20% in North America and Europe, whereas 1.8% of the population of Asia, 4.6% of North America, and 6.4% of Europe will be very old (80 years and older). By the year 2030, there may be 1200 million postmenopausal women around the world, 76% of them in the developing countries. During the period 1990-2025 the elderly population of Sweden will increase by 33%, whereas that of Indonesia will increase by 414%. Between 2000 and 2100, the global population aged 15 years or younger will gradually decrease from 31.4% to 18.3%, while the population aged 65 and over will increase from 6.8% to 21.6%. The persistence of poverty in developing countries combined with aging poses a formidable challenge because the majority of old people receive little special support. The epidemiological dimension of aging embraces mortality and morbidity. Each year 39 million people die in the developing world mainly from infectious and parasitic diseases, noncommunicable and communicable diseases, and injuries. In the developed countries 11 million die primarily from cardiovascular diseases and malignant neoplasms. In the developing countries noncommunicable diseases represent 87% of the disease burden resulting in increased

  16. Health inequities, environmental insecurity and the attainment of the millennium development goals in sub-Saharan Africa: the case study of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben

    2006-09-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia's MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia's systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource "brain drain", among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or "quick wins" that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

  17. Wound healing. New modalities for a new millennium.

    PubMed

    Williams, R L; Armstrong, D G

    1998-01-01

    intended purpose of correction of abnormal tissue oxygen tensions than are growth factors for the intended purpose of growth. Similarly, skin substitutes are limited in their application and have not been tried in patients with ABIs < 0.7 or TcPO2 values < 30 mm Hg. In our view, hyperbaric therapy probably can be combined successfully with allogenic grafts and human skin equivalents in this group of patients. Hyperbaric therapy can generate a sufficient granulation base in which these products should be able to close properly selected wounds successfully. No studies of this combined modality approach exist. Finally, regardless of the modality used to aid in wound closure, long-term outcomes probably depend more on neuropathy and large vessel disease than on microangiopathy and local wound-healing defects. The modalities presented in this article must prove to be both cost effective and practical before they are widely disseminated. Nevertheless, the ability to manipulate the local wound environment is no longer inviolate as was once presumed, and current investigations continue to advance therapeutic options in this most fascinating and challenging discipline.

  18. 32 CFR 1907.25 - Action on challenge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Action on Challenges § 1907.25 Action on challenge. (a) Action by Agency Release Panel. The Executive Secretary...

  19. The Extratropical Northern Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction during the Last Millennium Based on a Novel Method.

    PubMed

    Xing, Pei; Chen, Xin; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate history of the past millennium reconstructed solely from tree-ring data is prone to underestimate the amplitude of low-frequency variability. In this paper, we aimed at solving this problem by utilizing a novel method termed "MDVM", which was a combination of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and variance matching techniques. We compiled a set of 211 tree-ring records from the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (30-90°N) in an effort to develop a new reconstruction of the annual mean temperature by the MDVM method. Among these dataset, a number of 126 records were screened out to reconstruct temperature variability longer than decadal scale for the period 850-2000 AD. The MDVM reconstruction depicted significant low-frequency variability in the past millennium with evident Medieval Warm Period (MWP) over the interval 950-1150 AD and pronounced Little Ice Age (LIA) cumulating in 1450-1850 AD. In the context of 1150-year reconstruction, the accelerating warming in 20th century was likely unprecedented, and the coldest decades appeared in the 1640s, 1600s and 1580s, whereas the warmest decades occurred in the 1990s, 1940s and 1930s. Additionally, the MDVM reconstruction covaried broadly with changes in natural radiative forcing, and especially showed distinct footprints of multiple volcanic eruptions in the last millennium. Comparisons of our results with previous reconstructions and model simulations showed the efficiency of the MDVM method on capturing low-frequency variability, particularly much colder signals of the LIA relative to the reference period. Our results demonstrated that the MDVM method has advantages in studying large-scale and low-frequency climate signals using pure tree-ring data.

  20. Precipitation Changes in the Western Tropical Pacific over the past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, J. N.; Sachs, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Global changes in precipitation patterns are potentially one of the most important impacts in a warming climate. Understanding the changes in spatial and temporal patterns of natural hydrologic variability over the past millennium is imperative to making accurate predictions of future changes in hydroclimate. In this study we present a decadal-resolution proxy reconstruction of rainfall variability over the past millennium from a marine lake in Palau. Palau is located in the Western Pacific Warm Pool, which is a primary source of heat and moisture to the extratropics. Multidecadal to Centennial-scale changes in Palau's hydroclimate may indicate fundamental changes in Walker circulation or fluctuations in the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. We use the proxy technique of compound-specific hydrogen isotope analysis to reconstruct rainfall in this study. This approach is based on the fact that the hydrogen isotopic ratio (δD) of membrane lipids of aquatic algae reflects the δD of lake surface water. The δD of the lake surface water, in turn, varies as a function of the amount of rainfall. We observe several large (ca. 40‰) centennial-scale shifts in the δD of dinosterol in Palau over the course of the past millennium. There is a shift to dryer conditions in Palau ca. 1600-1800 A.D., which is consistent with a southward shift in the mean position of the ITCZ observed in other records spanning the tropical Pacific Ocean during this period. Another shift to dry conditions occurs ca. 1350-1500 A.D. Both of these dry periods correspond to archeological evidence of abandonment of settlements and/or increased fortifications in Palau. Positive correlation with two additional records of hydroclimatic variability from the Indonesia indicate that the Palau δDdinosterol record reflects broad scale regional shifts in precipitation.

  1. A multi-proxy model-tested NAO reconstruction for the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Pablo; Lehner, Flavio; Casado, Mathieu; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Yiou, Pascal; Raible, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we propose a new last millennium reconstruction of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic. For this purpose, we use a selection of 60 annually to decadally resolved proxy records from different archives (ice cores, tree rings, speleothems, and lake and ocean sediments), which are distributed around the Atlantic Ocean and continental boundaries. These records are selected for showing a significant correlation with the longest instrumental NAO time series. The reconstruction is based on a Principal Component Regression (PCR) technique using a subset of the initial predictors. Two pseudo-proxy studies based on the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) and the last millennium PMIP3 simulations are performed to validate the choice of proxies and therefore produce a model and reanalysis-consistent NAO. This is a novel approach in which proxy and model worlds are combined with the aim of improving the reliability of the reconstruction. An ensemble of reconstructions is additionally generated to explore the potential uncertainties inherent to the reconstruction method (i.e. calibration period, number of PCs retained, level of significance imposed, and data smoothing). Thus, we provide a robust benchmark that enables us to test recent hypotheses. For example, no persistent positive NAO phase is observed during medieval times, in clear contrast with the bi-proxy NAO reconstruction by Trouet et al (2009). Furthermore, no significant link between the winter NAO and the external forcings is identified, thus opposed to previous results with climate models. Finally, our millennial reconstruction depicts a remarkable shift around 1450 AD, characterised by a fast negative-to-positive NAO transition lying within the range of recent winter NAO excursions. This result supports that 20th century NAO variability is not unprecedent in the context of the last millennium, in line with the IPCC AR5.

  2. The Extratropical Northern Hemisphere Temperature Reconstruction during the Last Millennium Based on a Novel Method

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Pei; Chen, Xin; Luo, Yong; Nie, Suping; Zhao, Zongci; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Shaowu

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate history of the past millennium reconstructed solely from tree-ring data is prone to underestimate the amplitude of low-frequency variability. In this paper, we aimed at solving this problem by utilizing a novel method termed “MDVM”, which was a combination of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and variance matching techniques. We compiled a set of 211 tree-ring records from the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (30–90°N) in an effort to develop a new reconstruction of the annual mean temperature by the MDVM method. Among these dataset, a number of 126 records were screened out to reconstruct temperature variability longer than decadal scale for the period 850–2000 AD. The MDVM reconstruction depicted significant low-frequency variability in the past millennium with evident Medieval Warm Period (MWP) over the interval 950–1150 AD and pronounced Little Ice Age (LIA) cumulating in 1450–1850 AD. In the context of 1150-year reconstruction, the accelerating warming in 20th century was likely unprecedented, and the coldest decades appeared in the 1640s, 1600s and 1580s, whereas the warmest decades occurred in the 1990s, 1940s and 1930s. Additionally, the MDVM reconstruction covaried broadly with changes in natural radiative forcing, and especially showed distinct footprints of multiple volcanic eruptions in the last millennium. Comparisons of our results with previous reconstructions and model simulations showed the efficiency of the MDVM method on capturing low-frequency variability, particularly much colder signals of the LIA relative to the reference period. Our results demonstrated that the MDVM method has advantages in studying large-scale and low-frequency climate signals using pure tree-ring data. PMID:26751947

  3. The millennium Cohort Study: a 21-year prospective cohort study of 140,000 military personnel.

    PubMed

    Gray, Gregory C; Chesbrough, Karen B; Ryan, Margaret A K; Amoroso, Paul; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D; Hooper, Tomoko I; Riddle, James R

    2002-06-01

    Does military service, in particular operational deployment, result in a higher risk of chronic illness among military personnel and veterans? The Millennium Cohort Study, the largest Department of Defense prospective cohort study ever conducted, will attempt to answer this question. The probability-based sample of 140,000 military personnel will be surveyed every 3 years during a 21-year period. The first questionnaire, scheduled for release in summer 2001, will be sent to 30,000 veterans who have been deployed to southwest Asia, Bosnia, or Kosovo since August 1997 and 70,000 veterans who have not been deployed to these conflict areas. Twenty thousand new participants will be added to the group in each of the years 2004 and 2007 to complete the study population of 140,000. The participants will have the option of completing the study questionnaire either on the paper copy received in the mail or through the World Wide Web-based version, which is available at www.MillenniumCohort.org. This will be one of the first prospective studies ever to offer such an option. The initial survey instrument will collect data regarding demographic characteristics, self-reported medical conditions and symptoms, and health-related behaviors. Validated instruments will be incorporated to capture self-assessed physical and mental functional status (Short Form for Veterans), psychosocial assessment (Patient Health Questionnaire), and post-traumatic stress disorder (Patient Checklist-17). Information obtained from the survey responses will be linked with other military databases, including data on deployment, occupation, vaccinations, health care utilization, and disability. In addition to revealing changes in veterans' health status over time, the Millennium Cohort Study will serve as a data repository, providing a solid foundation upon which additional epidemiological studies may be constructed.

  4. Palaeoceanographic changes in Hornsund Fjord (Spitsbergen, Svalbard) over the last millennium: new insights from ancient DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowska, Joanna; Zajączkowski, Marek; Łącka, Magdalena; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Esling, Philippe; Pawlowski, Jan

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a reconstruction of climate-driven environmental changes over the last millennium in Hornsund Fjord (Svalbard), based on sedimentological and micropalaeontological records. Our palaeo-investigation was supported by an analysis of foraminiferal ancient DNA (aDNA), focusing on the non-fossilized monothalamous species. The main climatic fluctuations during the last millennium were the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, AD 1000-1600), the Little Ice Age (LIA, AD 1600-1900) and the modern warming (MW, AD 1900 to present). Our study indicates that the environmental conditions in Hornsund during the MWP and the early LIA (before ˜ AD 1800) were relatively stable. The beginning of the LIA (˜ AD 1600) was poorly evidenced by the micropalaeontological record but was well marked in the aDNA data by an increased proportion of monothalamous foraminifera, especially Bathysiphon sp. The early LIA (˜ 1600 to ˜ AD 1800) was marked by an increase in the abundance of sequences of Hippocrepinella hirudinea and Cedhagenia saltatus. In the late LIA (after ˜ AD 1800), the conditions in the fjord became glacier-proximal and were characterized by increased meltwater outflows, high sedimentation and a high calving rate. This coincided with an increase in the percentages of sequences of Micrometula sp. and Vellaria pellucidus. During the MW, the major glacier fronts retreated rapidly to the inner bays, which limited the iceberg discharge to the fjord's centre and caused a shift in the foraminiferal community that was reflected in both the fossil and aDNA records. The palaeoceanographic changes in the Hornsund fjord over the last millennium were driven mainly by the inflow of shelf-originated water masses and glacial activity. However, the environmental changes were poorly evidenced in the micropalaeontological record, but they were well documented in our aDNA data. We considerably increased the number of potential proxy species by including monothalamous foraminifera in the

  5. Climate Forcing Reconstructions for Use in PMIP Simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.; Jungclaus, J.H.; Steinhilber, F.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Ammann, C. M.; Bard, E.; Braconnot, P.; Crowley, T. J.; Delayque, G.; Joos, F.; Krivova, N. A.; Muscheler, R.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Pongratz, J.; Shindell, D. T.; Solanki, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations of climate over the Last Millennium (850-1850 CE) have been incorporated into the third phase of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3). The drivers of climate over this period are chiefly orbital, solar, volcanic, changes in land use/land cover and some variation in greenhouse gas levels. While some of these effects can be easily defined, the reconstructions of solar, volcanic and land use-related forcing are more uncertain. We describe here the approach taken in defining the scenarios used in PMIP3, document the forcing reconstructions and discuss likely implications.

  6. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

    PubMed Central

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date. PMID:27795754

  7. The impact of globalisation, free trade and technology on food and nutrition in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    McMichael, P

    2001-05-01

    The millennium promises a dramatic politicisation of the food question. In addition to the prominent issues of food security, hunger and nutrition, bioengineering, food safety and quality, there are related issues of environmental sustainability, power, sovereignty and rights. All these issues are deeply implicated in the current corporate form of globalisation, which is transforming historic global arrangements by subordinating public institutions and the question of food security to private solutions. The present paper questions the self-evident association between globalisation and nutritional improvement.

  8. The impact of globalisation, free trade and technology on food and nutrition in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    McMichael, P

    2001-05-01

    The millennium promises a dramatic politicisation of the food question. In addition to the prominent issues of food security, hunger and nutrition, bioengineering, food safety and quality, there are related issues of environmental sustainability, power, sovereignty and rights. All these issues are deeply implicated in the current corporate form of globalisation, which is transforming historic global arrangements by subordinating public institutions and the question of food security to private solutions. The present paper questions the self-evident association between globalisation and nutritional improvement. PMID:11681637

  9. A Multi-proxy Reconstruction of Spatial and Temporal Variations in Asian Summer Temperatures Over the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, F.; Ge, Q.; Yang, B.; Li, J.; Yang, F.; Ljungqvist, F. C.; Solomina, O.; Nakatsuka, T.; Wang, N.; Zhao, S.; Xu, C.; Fang, K.; Fan, Z.; Gaire, N. P.; Zafar, M. U.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate climate variability in Asia during the last millennium, the spatial and temporal evolution of summer (June-July-August; JJA) temperature in eastern and south-central Asia is reconstructed using multi-proxy records and the regularized expectation maximization (RegEM) algorithm with truncated total least squares (TTLS), under a point-by-point regression (PPR) framework. The temperature index reconstructions show that the late 20th century was the warmest period in Asia over the past millennium. The temperature field reconstructions illustrate that temperatures in central, eastern, and southern China during the 11th and 13th centuries, and in western Asia during the 12th century, were significantly higher than those in other regions, and comparable to levels in the 20th century. Except for the most recent warming, all identified warm events showed distinct regional expressions and none were uniform over the entire reconstruction area. The main finding of the study is that spatial temperature patterns have, on centennial timescales, varied greatly over the last millennium. Moreover, seven climate model simulations, from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), over the same region of Asia, are all consistent with the temperature index reconstruction at the 99 % confidence level. Only spatial temperature patterns extracted as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) from the GISS-E2-R and MPI-ESM-P model simulations are significant and consistent with the temperature field reconstruction over the past millennium in Asia at the 90 % confidence level. This indicates that both the reconstruction and the simulations depict the temporal climate variability well over the past millennium. However, the spatial simulation or reconstruction capability of climate variability over the past millennium could be still limited. For reconstruction, some grid points do not pass validation tests and reveal the need for more proxies with high temporal

  10. 78 FR 38304 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to the Office of Management and Budget for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Financial Report for the Endowment Challenge Grant Program AGENCY... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Financial Report for the...

  11. Antiracist Education and Curriculum Transformation for Equity and Justice in the New Millennium: United States and South African Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Karen B. McClean; Seepe, Sipho

    1999-01-01

    Highlights the racist history and continued struggles of two nations to end racism through the assistance and advocacy of antiracist multicultural education. Internationalization has been the key to promoting curriculum transformation through exploring antiracist views and scholarship. Both South Africa and the United States have far to go.…

  12. Making Sense of the Complexity of Social Identity in Relation to Achievement: A Sociological Challenge in the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Carla

    2001-01-01

    Argues that inadequate explanations about why academic performance is socially stratified lies with the failure to make sense of the complexity of social identity. Refers to articles in the 2001 theme issue of Sociology of Education to provide examples. Discusses need for further study on childrens' performance in U.S. schools. (CAJ)

  13. Coherent anti-phasing between solar forcing and tropical Pacific climate over the past millennium: derivation and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile-Geay, J.; Cobb, K.; Mann, M. E.; Wittenberg, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    Using a compilation of the most recent, high-resolution proxy data from the tropics, and a state-of-the-art climate reconstruction technique (RegEM iTTLS; Emile-Geay et al, submitted), we reconstruct sea-surface temperature (SST) in the central equatorial Pacific (NINO3.4 region) over the past millennium. Using frozen network experiments and pseudoproxy validation, the reconstruction is found skillful back to 1150 C.E., with inevitable amplitude reduction before 1500 C.E. due to the paucity of proxy predictors. Despite this caveat, wavelet coherency analysis reveals a marked anticorrelation between solar forcing (as estimated from cosmogenic isotope concentrations; Bard et al., 2007; Steinhilber et al., 2009) and the reconstructed NINO3.4 in the ~sim205-year spectral range (DeVries cycle). The phase angle between both signals is 156 ± 33o in this range, indicating that periods of high solar irradiance coincide with cool conditions in the NINO3.4 region, with time lag of 14 ± 19 years. We find this result robust to the reconstruction method, estimate of solar forcing, or analysis method used to estimate the phasing. We then discuss the implication of this result for the response of tropical Pacific climate to radiative forcing. While the anti-phasing seems to favor the ``ocean dynamical thermostat'' hypothesis of Clement et al [1996], this feedback appears subdued in most IPCC-class coupled general circulation models (CGCMs), where it is almost completely compensated by changes in the Pacific trade winds, linked to changes in the vertical structures of atmospheric moisture and temperature (Knutson & Manabe 1995; Held & Soden 2006; Vecchi et al. 2006). If the reconstruction is correct that past NINO3.4 SSTs have varied out of phase with solar irradiance on bicentennial scales, this would pose a new challenge both for CGCM simulations and for our understanding of the equatorial Pacific response to radiative forcing Clement, A. C., Seager, R., Cane, M. A., and Zebiak

  14. Testing DARKexp against energy and density distributions of Millennium-II halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolting, Chris; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Hjorth, Jens

    2016-09-01

    We test the DARKexp model for relaxed, self-gravitating, collisionless systems against equilibrium dark matter halos from the Millennium-II simulation. While limited tests of DARKexp against simulations and observations have been carried out elsewhere, this is the first time the testing is done with a large sample of simulated halos spanning a factor of ~ 50 in mass, and using independent fits to density and energy distributions. We show that DARKexp, a one shape parameter family, provides very good fits to the shapes of density profiles, ρ(r), and differential energy distributions, N(E), of individual simulated halos. The best fit shape parameter phi0 obtained from the two types of fits are correlated, though with scatter. Our most important conclusions come from ρ(r) and N(E) that have been averaged over many halos. These show that the bulk of the deviations between DARKexp and individual Millennium-II halos come from halo-to-halo fluctuations, likely driven by substructure, and other density perturbations. The average ρ(r) and N(E) are quite smooth and follow DARKexp very closely. The only deviation that remains after averaging is small, and located at most bound energies for N(E) and smallest radii for ρ(r). Since the deviation is confined to 3-4 smoothing lengths, and is larger for low mass halos, it is likely due to numerical resolution effects.

  15. Chagas disease: an impediment in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Von, Anna; Hidron, Alicia; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Tellez, Ildefonso; Barragán, Maribel; Jones, Danielle; Náquira, Cesar G; Mendez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Background Achieving sustainable economic and social growth through advances in health is crucial in Latin America within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Discussion Health-related Millennium Development Goals need to incorporate a multidimensional approach addressing the specific epidemiologic profile for each region of the globe. In this regard, addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease of American trypanosomiasis, will play a key role to enable the most impoverished populations in Latin America the opportunity to achieve their full potential. Most cases of Chagas disease occur among forgotten populations because these diseases persist exclusively in the poorest and the most marginalized communities in Latin America. Summary Addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with T. cruzi infection will contribute to improve the health of the most impoverished populations in Latin America and will ultimately grant them with the opportunity to achieve their full economic potential. PMID:17725836

  16. SCARLET Photovoltaic Concentrator Array Selected for Flight Under NASA's New Millennium Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center continues to demonstrate its expertise in the development and implementation of advanced space power systems. For example, during the past year, the NASA New Millennium Program selected the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET) photovoltaic array as the power system for its Deep Space-1 (DS-1) mission. This Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) managed DS-1 mission, which represents the first operational flight of a photovoltaic concentrator array, will provide a baseline for the use of this technology in a variety of future government and commercial applications. SCARLET is a joint NASA Lewis/Ballistic Missile Defense Organization program to develop advanced photovoltaic array technology that uses a unique refractive concentrator design to focus sunlight onto a line of photovoltaic cells located below the optical element. The general concept is based on previous work conducted at Lewis under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with AEC-Able Engineering, Inc., for the Multiple Experiments to Earth Orbit and Return (METEOR) spacecraft. The SCARLET II design selected by the New Millennium Program is a direct adaptation of the smaller SCARLET I array built for METEOR. Even though SCARLET I was lost during a launch failure in October 1995, the hardware (designed, built, and flight qualified within 6 months) provided invaluable information and experience that led to the selection of this technology as the primary power source for DS-1.

  17. Solar Imprints on Asian Inland Moisture Fluctuations over the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, M.; Zhou, A.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, C.; He, Y.; Yang, W.; Liu, W.; Li, S. H.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Solar irradiance changes are thought to play an important role in natural climate variability. How solar activities affected hydrological changes in westerly-controlled arid central Asia (ACA) on decadal/centennial timescales remains poorly investigated, due to lack of high-quality records. Here we present high-resolution multi-proxy records of lake level changes, and thus effective moisture fluctuations, over the last millennium, from a shoreline sediment core retrieved from Lake Manas, northwestern China. Besides generally confirmed relatively wet conditions during the cool Little Ice Age, records of the geophysical and geochemical indicators, including lightness, calcium counts, and C37 alkenone contents, consistently show substantial and frequent lake level fluctuations, and more importantly, resemble solar irradiance changes. Further, the ~11-year Schwabe cycle, ~70-100-year Gleissberg cycle, and relatively weak spectral power in between, as characters in the sunspot number record, together with the ~200-year Suess-de Vries cycle revealed in the reconstructed total solar irradiance records, are all evident in the higher-resolution calcium and lightness records. Together, our records clearly demonstrate solar imprints on effective moisture fluctuations in ACA over the last millennium, and the occurrence of the Schwabe cycle even during the solar minima.

  18. Achieving Millennium Development Goals for Health: Building Understanding, Trust and Capacity to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Heidi J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical interventions promise achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals provided social-, capacity- and knowledge-based constraints to scaling up and reaching marginalized people at risk, are addressed, and balance between prevention and treatment is struck. We argue for a new approach: multi-stakeholder capacity building and learning for empowerment: MuSCLE. MuSCLE is used as a way to frame three systemic weaknesses in traditional health science and policy approaches: 1) a lack of engagement with people at risk to build a collective understanding of the contexts of health problems; 2) a lack of multi-criteria evaluation of alternative interventions; and 3) a lack of attention paid to integrated capacity building. The MuSCLE framework responds in three ways: 1) Participatory assessment of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of health, identifying priorities using risk and vulnerability science, and modeling drivers; 2) Selection among intervention alternatives that makes ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political tradeoffs transparent; and 3) Integrated capacity building for sustainable and adaptive interventions. Literature and field lessons support the argument, and guidelines are set down. A MuSCLE approach argues for a transformation in health science and policy in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals for health. PMID:17399849

  19. A tree-ring reconstruction of the South Asian summer monsoon index over the past millennium

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Li, Jianping; Wilson, Rob J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) is a major atmospheric synoptic climate system affecting nearly a quarter of the human population. Climate proxy data derived from tree rings, ice cores, speleothems, and other sources can all contribute to an understanding of SASM variability prior to instrumental period. Here, we develop an optimal information extraction (OIE) method, which we use to reconstruct the SASM index (SASMI) over the last millennium using 15 tree-ring chronologies. The record generated is significantly correlated (r = 0.7, p < 0.01) with the instrumental SASMI record on annual timescales; this correlation is higher than that obtained in any previous study. The reconstructed SASMI captures 18 of 26 (69%) reordered historical famine events in India over the last millennium; notably, 11 of 16 short events with durations of 1–3 years are accurately depicted in our reconstruction. Moreover, the reconstructed SASMI is positively correlated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on multi-decadal timescales implying that variations in solar activity may influence the SASM. Based on the response of SASM to 34 significant volcanic events using the superposed epoch analysis, the volcanic forcing may drive a weak SASM in the second year of an eruption. PMID:25338702

  20. Emerging diseases and implications for Millennium Development Goals in Africa by 2015 - an overview.

    PubMed

    Aluwong, Tagang; Bello, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Emerging zoonotic diseases have assumed increasing fundamental importance in both public and animal health, as the last few years have seen a steady increase of new cases, each emerging from an unsuspected geographic area and causing serious problems, often leading to mortalities among animals and humans. The reasons for disease emergence or re-emergence are multiple and include certain major factors, such as expansion of the human population, climate change and globalisation of trade. Further contributing issues, such as the increased movement of animal species, microbial evolution, ecological disruption, changes in human behaviour, all imply that emerging diseases will not only continue to occur, but the rate of their emergence will also increase. These will constitute constraints for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals by African Governments by 2015. There is no doubt that the current trend calls for more and stronger partnerships between national and international organisations, veterinary and medical communities, environmentalists, academics and policy-makers of various governments on the continent within the context of the global 'One Health' movement. This article attempts to analyse the impact of emerging diseases and the implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by the year 2015. PMID:20560123

  1. Will man wish to prevail? Some fundamental choices facing humanity early in the Third Millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.L.

    1994-10-01

    With the subtle but occasionally vital exception of vaccination-induced immunity to many of the major infectious diseases, no human today is other than virtually identical biologically to those who greeted the dawn of the Second Millennium, nearly 1000 years ago. Culturally, however, we of the West are quite highly evolved from our ancestors of a millennium ago, primarily due to the advent of means for communicating with ever smaller latencies and ever higher bandwidths over ever greater distances in space and time: printed documents have been supplemented in succession by telephony, radio, video and, just now, the first personal communications sets. Also, within a fraction of a human lifetime from the present moment, the first prosthesis for the human brain has appeared and just very recently has become quite ubiquitous: digital computing systems. We are hardly members of the same species, culturally speaking; people of 1000 years ago would be truly and utterly lost in our communications-intensive civilization, and even a highly educated person from those times would swear that a personal computer equipped with a wireless communications module was as at least a familiar, if not a golem. Conversely, a computer-using person from our own times somehow translated back to 1000 A.D. would likely find the profound isolation and the ``informational slowness`` of life then to be acutely intolerable, certainly to a far greater extent than would a citizen of the High Middle Ages translated back to Augustus Caesar`s Rome.

  2. Emerging diseases and implications for Millennium Development Goals in Africa by 2015 - an overview.

    PubMed

    Aluwong, Tagang; Bello, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Emerging zoonotic diseases have assumed increasing fundamental importance in both public and animal health, as the last few years have seen a steady increase of new cases, each emerging from an unsuspected geographic area and causing serious problems, often leading to mortalities among animals and humans. The reasons for disease emergence or re-emergence are multiple and include certain major factors, such as expansion of the human population, climate change and globalisation of trade. Further contributing issues, such as the increased movement of animal species, microbial evolution, ecological disruption, changes in human behaviour, all imply that emerging diseases will not only continue to occur, but the rate of their emergence will also increase. These will constitute constraints for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals by African Governments by 2015. There is no doubt that the current trend calls for more and stronger partnerships between national and international organisations, veterinary and medical communities, environmentalists, academics and policy-makers of various governments on the continent within the context of the global 'One Health' movement. This article attempts to analyse the impact of emerging diseases and the implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by the year 2015.

  3. The South American Monsoon Variability over the Last Millennium in CMIP5/PMIP3 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, M.; Arias, P. A.; Flores-Aqueveque, V.; Seth, A.; Vuille, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we assess South American Monsoon System (SAMS) variability throughout the Last Millennium as depicted by the Coupled Modelling Intercomparison Project version 5/Paleo Modelling Intercomparison Project version 3 (CMIP5/PMIP3) simulations. High-resolution proxy records for the South American monsoon over this period show a coherent regional picture of a weak monsoon during the Medieval Climate Anomaly period and a stronger monsoon during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Due to the small forcing during the past 1000 years, CMIP5/PMIP3 model simulations do not show very strong temperature anomalies over these two specific periods, which in turn do not translate into clear precipitation anomalies, as suggested by rainfall reconstructions in South America. However, with an ad-hoc definition of these two periods for each model simulation, several coherent large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies were identified. The models feature a stronger Monsoon during the LIA associated with: (i) an enhancement of the rising motion in the SAMS domain in austral summer, (ii) a stronger monsoon-related upper-troposphere anticyclone, (iii) activation of the South American dipole, which results to a certain extent in a poleward shift in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone and (iv) a weaker upper-level sub tropical jet over South America, this providing important insights into the mechanisms of these climate anomalies over South America during the past millennium.

  4. The South American monsoon variability over the last millennium in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Maisa; Arias, Paola A.; Flores-Aqueveque, Valentina; Seth, Anji; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we assess South American monsoon system (SAMS) variability in the last millennium as depicted by global coupled climate model simulations. High-resolution proxy records for the South American monsoon over this period show a coherent regional picture of a weak monsoon during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and a stronger monsoon during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Due to the small external forcing during the past 1000 years, model simulations do not show very strong temperature anomalies over these two specific periods, which in turn do not translate into clear precipitation anomalies, in contrast with the rainfall reconstructions in South America. Therefore, we used an ad hoc definition of these two periods for each model simulation in order to account for model-specific signals. Thereby, several coherent large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies are identified. The models feature a stronger monsoon during the LIA associated with (i) an enhancement of the rising motion in the SAMS domain in austral summer; (ii) a stronger monsoon-related upper-tropospheric anticyclone; (iii) activation of the South American dipole, which results in a poleward shift of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone; and (iv) a weaker upper-level subtropical jet over South America. The diagnosed changes provide important insights into the mechanisms of these climate anomalies over South America during the past millennium.

  5. Negotiating with Subscription Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Judy; Basch, N. Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This first in a two-part series on how librarians can negotiate services and prices with subscription agencies focuses on how vendors operate. Factors that influence agency costs, revenues, and service charges are described, including economies of scale, discounts from publishers, and prepayment and cash flow. (seven references) (LRW)

  6. Home Health Agency Work Environments and Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. Objectives: To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Methods and Design: Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Results: Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Conclusion: Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care. PMID:25215647

  7. The Challenges of the 21st Century for Vocational Education and Training. International Conference on Vocational Education and Training Proceedings (Helsinki, Finland, August 24-28, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    The following are among the 52 papers included: "A Vision of Vocational Education and Training for the Approaching Millennium" (Mndebele); "Challenges for the 21st Century for Technical-Vocational Education and Training from Global, Regional and National Perspectives" (Basu); "A Customer-Oriented Approach for Curriculum Development in Vocational…

  8. Agency, communion and entitlement.

    PubMed

    Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Magdalena A; Piotrowski, Jarosław P; Clinton, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the relationship between agency, communion, and the active, passive, and revenge forms of entitlement is examined. Results indicate that active entitlement was positively related to agency, negatively to communion (Study 1), and unrelated to unmitigated agency and communion (Study 2). Passive entitlement was positively related to communion (in regular and unmitigated forms) and negatively related to agency (in both forms). Revenge entitlement was positively related to agency (unmitigated and regular), and negatively related to both regular and unmitigated communal orientations. Detected relationships were independent from self-esteem (Study 1). The findings are discussed in relation to distinctions between narcissistic and healthy entitlement, and within the context of the three-dimensional model of entitlement. PMID:25594535

  9. Knowledge-Based Aid: A Four Agency Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Simon; King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Part of the response of many development cooperation agencies to the challenges of globalisation, ICTs and the knowledge economy is to emphasise the importance of knowledge for development. This paper looks at the discourses and practices of ''knowledge-based aid'' through an exploration of four agencies: the World Bank, DFID, Sida and JICA. It…

  10. Clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Questions for this month's clinical challenge are based on articles in this issue. The clinical challenge is endorsed by the RACGP Quality Improvement and Continuing Professional Development (QI&CPD) program and has been allocated four Category 2 points (Activity ID:59922). Answers to this clinical challenge are available immediately following successful completion online at http://gplearning.racgp.org.au. Clinical challenge quizzes may be completed at any time throughout the 2014-16 triennium; therefore, the previous months' answers are not published. Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by four suggested answers or completions. Select the most appropriate statement as your answer. PMID:27606376

  11. Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Innovation & Challenges

    NASA Video Gallery

    On June 2, 2016, NASA’s Office of the Chief Technologist hosted the Showcase of Innovation Challenges in Washington to present and discuss ideas for innovation across the agency, the government, in...

  12. The concept and challenges of TomoTherapy accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailat, Claude J.; Baechler, Sébastien; Moeckli, Raphael; Pachoud, Marc; Pisaturo, Olivier; Bochud, François O.

    2011-08-01

    A currently used intensity-modulated radiotherapy system is the TomoTherapy® Hi-Art® accelerator (Tomotherapy Inc., Madison, WI, USA), which started clinical treatments at the beginning of the new millennium. The innovative idea behind tomotherapy units is to marry an x-ray computed tomography unit with a linear particle accelerator. This concept has answered some of the needs of the medical physicist community, but epidemiological evaluations are still needed in order to compare the technique with other modalities. This paper summarizes the basic concepts of tomotherapy units as well as current challenges and implications for users.

  13. 34 CFR 84.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 84.645 Section 84.645 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  14. 28 CFR 83.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 83.645 Section 83.645 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  15. Featherweight Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Ryan, Larry

    2012-01-01

    As science, technology education, and engineering programs suffer budget cuts, educators continue to seek cost-effective activities that engage students and reinforce standards. The featherweight challenge is a hands-on activity that challenges students to continually refine their design while not breaking the budget. This activity uses one of the…

  16. E-Learning Pedagogy in the Third Millennium: The Need for Combining Social and Cognitive Constructivist Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Uschi

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of the characteristics of education and educational institutions of the third millennium shows that predominant features are flexibility, inclusiveness, collaboration, authenticity, relevance and extended institutional boundaries. Roles of both students and teachers have changed significantly as educational goals have broadened to…

  17. Squashing the Millennium Bug: A Year 2000 Compliance Guide for Elementary/Secondary Schools and School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Mark; Carlson, Robert; Dexter, David; Karinch, Samantha; Kaplan, Heather

    This guide was developed to assist the nation's elementary and secondary schools and school districts address their Year 2000 (Y2K) problem. The guide is divided into three sections: Squashing the Millennium Bug Step-by-Step; Remediating Specific Types of Systems; and Appendix. The first chapter presents the following steps for tackling the Year…

  18. 75 FR 71144 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Solar Millennium, LLC, Amargosa Farm Road...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... impacts of the proposed project was published in the Federal Register on March 19, 2010 (75 FR 13301) for... the Final EIS was published in the Federal Register on October 15, 2010 (75 FR 63503). The Final EIS... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Solar Millennium,...

  19. 77 FR 16838 - Notice to All Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 10079-Millennium State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Notice to All Interested Parties of the Termination of the Receivership of 10079--Millennium State Bank of Texas, Dallas, TX Notice is hereby given that the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation...

  20. Does Curriculum Matter?: Revisiting Women's Access and Rights to Education in the Context of the UN Millennium Development Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of curriculum to current UN Millennium targets to extend access to education and equality in education for women. It argues, firstly, that it is contradictory to be concerned about women's access to education but leave curriculum out of the discussion; secondly, that curriculum is not adequately seen as a…

  1. Flight Software Implementation of the Beacon Monitor Expreiment On the NASA New Millennium Deep Space 1 (DS-1) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, R.; Schlutsmeyer, A.

    1997-01-01

    A new technology that can lower the cost of mission operations on future spacecraft will be tested on the NASA New Millennium Deep Space 1 (DS-1) Mission. This technology, the Beacon Monitor Experiment (BMOX), can be used to reduce the Deep Space Network (DSN) tracking time and its associated costs on future missions.

  2. Prevalence of Parent-Reported ASD and ADHD in the UK: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Rodgers, Lauren R.; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Ford, Tamsin

    2014-01-01

    The UK prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were estimated from the Millennium Cohort Study. Case definition was if a doctor or health care professional had ever told parents that their child had ASD and/or ADHD. Data were collected in 2008/2009 for 14,043 children. 1.7%…

  3. Developing a Model of Compulsory Basic Education Completion Acceleration in Support of Millennium Development Goals in Magelang, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukarno; Haryati, Sri

    2015-01-01

    This article reports Year One of a two-year study to develop a model to accelerate compulsory basic education completion toward Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Magelang, Indonesia. The study focuses on five issues: (1) profile of MDGs in Magelang, (2) achievement of MDGs, (3) problems in MDGs implementation, (4) model of compulsary basic…

  4. Five Ways the Sustainable Development Goals Are Better than the Millennium Development Goals and Why Every Educationalist Should Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprani, Lily

    2016-01-01

    For 15 years the millennium development goals (MDGs) were a guiding force for many issues affecting the lives of children and young people around the world. Agreed by UN member states in 2001, the eight MDGs were designed as a framework around which states were expected to develop policy priorities and shape their overseas aid spending plans. The…

  5. Subjective Well-Being Approach to the Valuation of International Development: Evidence for the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The subjective well-being approach to the valuation of international development is applied to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Results indicate that the rich countries have particular preference for education, healthcare, and housing; they are willing to accept compensation for a failure to meet the three targets by 2015. The poor…

  6. Assessing the Progress of Gender Parity in Education through Achieving Millennium Development Goals: A Case Study of Quetta District Balochistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Abdul; Bibi, Zainab; Din, Siraj ud

    2012-01-01

    Using secondary data of Government Schools and literacy department for 10 years that is 2000-2010, this paper assesses the progress on the issue of gender equality within the framework of education related Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in district Quetta. The assessment is based on the selected indicators of goals by applying descriptive…

  7. Area and Family Effects on the Psychopathology of the Millennium Cohort Study Children and Their Older Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    Background: To model and compare contextual (area and family) effects on the psychopathology of children nested in families nested in areas. Method: Data from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study were used. The final study sample was 9,630 children clustered in 6,052 families clustered in 1,681 Lower-layer Super Output Areas.…

  8. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  9. Private Schools and the Millennium Development Goal of Universal Primary Education: A Census and Comparative Survey in Hyderabad, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Gomathi, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Development literature suggests that private schools serving the poor are not part of the solution to meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of universal primary education. The study conducted a census and survey of schools in notified slums of Hyderabad, India, to contribute to the sparse literature on the nature and extent of private…

  10. No Pending National Elections, Who Cares? What Newspaper Publications Reveal about Local Efforts Towards Millennium Development Goal 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Arku, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has become a catch phrase in development discourse. This study is an assessment of the MDG 3: to promote gender equality at all levels of education in Ghana. The Daily Graphic (a newspaper in Ghana) which is Ghana's prominent newspaper was reviewed from 2000 to 2011 to determine the frequency of articles…

  11. The Halo Merger Rate in the Millennium Simulation and Implications for Observed Galaxy Merger Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Bouché, Nicolas; Naab, Thorsten; Sternberg, Amiel

    2009-08-01

    We have developed a new method to extract halo merger rates from the Millennium Simulation. First, by removing superfluous mergers that are artifacts of the standard friends-of-friends (FOF) halo identification algorithm, we find a lower merger rate compared to previous work. The reductions are more significant at lower redshifts and lower halo masses, and especially for minor mergers. Our new approach results in a better agreement with predictions from the extended Press-Schechter model. Second, we find that the FOF halo finder overestimates the halo mass by up to 50% for halos that are about to merge, which leads to an additional ≈20% overestimate of the merger rate. Therefore, we define halo masses by including only particles that are gravitationally bound to their FOF groups. We provide new best-fitting parameters for a global formula to account for these improvements. In addition, we extract the merger rate per progenitor halo, as well as per descendant halo. The merger rate per progenitor halo is the quantity that should be related to observed galaxy merger fractions when they are measured via pair counting. At low-mass/redshift, the merger rate increases moderately with mass and steeply with redshift. At high enough mass/redshift (for the rarest halos with masses a few times the "knee" of the mass function), these trends break down, and the merger rate per progenitor halo decreases with mass and increases only moderately with redshift. Defining the merger rate per progenitor halo also allows us to quantify the rate at which halos are being accreted onto larger halos, in addition to the minor and major merger rates. We provide an analytic formula that converts any given merger rate per descendant halo into a merger rate per progenitor halo. Finally, we perform a direct comparison between observed merger fractions and the fraction of halos in the Millennium Simulation that have undergone a major merger during the recent dynamical friction time, and find a

  12. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  13. Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Wanamaker, Alan D; Butler, Paul G; Scourse, James D; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector.

  14. Surface changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last millennium

    PubMed Central

    Wanamaker, Alan D.; Butler, Paul G.; Scourse, James D.; Heinemeier, Jan; Eiríksson, Jón; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Richardson, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous investigations, the dynamical origins of the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age remain uncertain. A major unresolved issue relating to internal climate dynamics is the mode and tempo of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability, and the significance of decadal-to-centennial scale changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation strength in regulating the climate of the last millennium. Here we use the time-constrained high-resolution local radiocarbon reservoir age offset derived from an absolutely dated annually resolved shell chronology spanning the past 1,350 years, to reconstruct changes in surface ocean circulation and climate. The water mass tracer data presented here from the North Icelandic shelf, combined with previously published data from the Arctic and subtropical Atlantic, show that surface Atlantic meridional overturning circulation dynamics likely amplified the relatively warm conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the relatively cool conditions during the Little Ice Age within the North Atlantic sector. PMID:22692542

  15. Millennium Development Goals progress: a perspective from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    English, Mike; English, Rex; English, Atti

    2015-02-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is a highly diverse geo-political region. Any brief discussion of the progress made over the last 15 years towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will therefore not do justice to the true complexity of context and events. Our focus will be MDG4-to reduce child mortality by 66% from 1990 levels. We will touch briefly on MDG1, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, MDG2, to achieve universal primary education, and MDG5, to improve maternal health, which are inextricably linked with child well-being. We will also draw on an eclectic mix of additional global indicators. Acknowledging the limitations of this approach, we first offer a summary of expected progress and then point to debates on future goals.

  16. Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: Evidence from high resolution sea ice reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massé, Guillaume; Rowland, Steven J.; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Jacob, Jeremy; Jansen, Eystein; Belt, Simon T.

    2008-05-01

    A high resolution account of Icelandic sea ice over the last millennium has been constructed using a novel proxy based on the presence in sediments of a biomarker (IP 25) produced by sea ice algae. Comparison with historical sea ice records demonstrates a strong correlation between documented sea ice occurrences and the IP 25 proxy. An excellent agreement is also observed between the IP 25 record and a diatom-based sea surface temperature reconstruction obtained from the same core and the Crowley and Lowery Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction. Using this approach, we provide new historical sea ice data for periods where records are scarce or absent and evidence for abrupt changes to sea ice and/or climate conditions around Iceland during the Little Ice Age.

  17. Chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Facchini Jardim; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva dos

    2015-01-01

    Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature.

  18. Measuring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals and the missing millions.

    PubMed

    Carr-Hill, Roy A

    2013-01-01

    The 2015 target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is fast approaching, but there is very little discussion of the validity of the indicators used to measure progress. In particular, there has been little attention given to the problems that arise when assessments of progress are based on household surveys. These are inappropriate for obtaining information about the poorest of the poor. Typically, they omit by design those not in households because they are homeless; those who are in institutions; and mobile, nomadic or pastoralist populations; and, in practice, household surveys will typically under-represent those in fragile, disjointed or multiple occupancy households; and those in urban slums and insecure areas of a country. Those six subgroups constitute a pretty comprehensive ostensive definition of the "poorest of the poor." Between 300 and 500 million people--mainly in developing countries--will be missed worldwide from the sampling frames of household surveys.

  19. Tree-ring crossdates for a First Millennium AD advance of Tebenkof Glacier, southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, David J.; Wiles, Gregory C.; Calkin, Parker E.

    2009-01-01

    Tree-ring crossdates from glacially killed logs show that Tebenkof Glacier advanced into a forefield forest in the AD 710s and 720s. Recession from this First Millennium AD (FMA) advance occurred before the 950s, after which the ice margin readvanced in the 1280s to 1320s at the start of the Little Ice Age (LIA). A more extensive LIA advance was underway from the 1640s to 1670s, and the terminus stayed at or near its LIA maximum until the 1890s. These are the first absolute tree-ring crossdates for a FMA glacier advance in North America and support growing evidence from northwestern North America and Europe for a significant cool interval in the centuries around AD 500.

  20. Galaxy Number Counts Applied to a Semi-Analytic Galaxy Model in the Millennium Run Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucklein, Brian; Moody, J. W.; Hintz, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Millennium Run simulation used more than 10 billion particles to trace the evolution of the dark matter distribution in a ΛCDM cosmology in a cubic region of the Universe over 2 billion light-years on a side. This data was used by Croton et al. as the basis of a semi-analytic galaxy model, allowing the region to be populated with more than 9 million galaxies brighter than Mr = -17.4. We visually analyze this galaxy catalog searching for significant voids and then apply galaxy number count (GNC) analysis to the lines-of-sight to these voids. Using Wolf plots, we investigate whether GNC analysis would allow us to locate voids within the sample without the need to first find them visually.

  1. Spatial distribution and velocities of satellite galaxies in the Millennium SimulationÂ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, L.; García Lambas, D.; Navarro, J. F.

    We study the spatial distribution and kinematics of satellites orbiting isolated primary galaxies using a galaxy catalogue constructed applying a semianalytic galaxy formation model to the Millennium Run (Springel et al 2005, Croton et al 2005). In order to compare with observations, satellites samples are constructed by carefully stacking systems of similar halo mass, after appropriate rescaling of their positions and velocities. Our main results are that: (i) the spatial distribution of satellites may be well approximated by an NFW profile with concentration c ~ 6 almost independent of host virial mass; (ii) the velocity dispersion drops substantially from the center outwards, typically by a factor of ~ 2 at the virial radius; and (iii) the velocity ellipsoid is radially anisotropic near the center, becomin gradually more isotropic in the outer regions These trends may very well be obscured in observational samples unless proper care is taken to remove interlopers. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  2. Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original 648-page publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Lunar Eclipse parameter, gamma, eclipse magnitude, geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude), and the circumstances at greatest eclipse (i.e., Sun altitude and azimuth, path width, and central line duration). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  3. Five Millennium Catalog of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "FiveMillenniumCanonofLunarEclipses." It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse (latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  4. Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 (2000 BCE to 3000 CE)-Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenak, Fred; Meeus, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This catalog is a supplement to the "Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses. "It includes additional information for each eclipse that could not be included in the original publication because of size limits. The data tabulated for each eclipse include the catalog number, canon plate number, calendar date, Terrestrial Dynamical Time of greatest eclipse, (Delta)T, lunation number, Saros number, eclipse type, Quincena Solar Eclipse parameter, gamma, penumbral and umbral eclipse magnitudes, durations of penumbral, partial and total eclipse phases, and geographic coordinates of greatest eclipse(latitude and longitude). The Canon and the Catalog both use the same solar and lunar ephemerides as well as the same values of (Delta)T. This 1-to-1 correspondence between them will enhance the value of each. The researcher may now search, evaluate, and compare eclipses graphically (Canon) or textually (Catalog).

  5. The worst North American drought year of the last millennium: 1934

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2014-10-01

    During the summer of 1934, over 70% of western North America experienced extreme drought, placing this summer far outside the normal range of drought variability and making 1934 the single worst drought year of the last millennium. Strong atmospheric ridging along the West Coast suppressed cold season precipitation across the Northwest, Southwest, and California, a circulation pattern similar to the winters of 1976-1977 and 2013-2014. In the spring and summer, the drying spread to the Midwest and Central Plains, driven by severe precipitation deficits downwind from regions of major dust storm activity, consistent with previous work linking drying during the Dust Bowl to anthropogenic dust aerosol forcing. Despite a moderate La Niña, contributions from sea surface temperature forcing were small, suggesting that the anomalous 1934 drought was primarily a consequence of atmospheric variability, possibly amplified by dust forcing that intensified and spread the drought across nearly all of western North America.

  6. Development of an Ion Thruster and Power Processor for New Millennium's Deep Space 1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Hamley, John A.; Haag, Thomas W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Peterson, Todd T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Power, John L.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Anderson, John R.; Bond, Thomas A.; Cardwell, G. I.; Christensen, Jon A.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program (NSTAR) will provide a single-string primary propulsion system to NASA's New Millennium Deep Space 1 Mission which will perform comet and asteroid flybys in the years 1999 and 2000. The propulsion system includes a 30-cm diameter ion thruster, a xenon feed system, a power processing unit, and a digital control and interface unit. A total of four engineering model ion thrusters, three breadboard power processors, and a controller have been built, integrated, and tested. An extensive set of development tests has been completed along with thruster design verification tests of 2000 h and 1000 h. An 8000 h Life Demonstration Test is ongoing and has successfully demonstrated more than 6000 h of operation. In situ measurements of accelerator grid wear are consistent with grid lifetimes well in excess of the 12,000 h qualification test requirement. Flight hardware is now being assembled in preparation for integration, functional, and acceptance tests.

  7. Pakistan and the Millennium Development Goals for Maternal and Child Health: progress and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-01-01

    The world has made substantial progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, but many countries are projected to fall short of achieving their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 targets. The major objective of this paper is to examine progress in Pakistan in reducing maternal and child mortality and malnutrition over the last two decades. Data from recent national and international surveys suggest that Pakistan lags behind on all of its MDGs related to maternal and child health and, for some indicators especially related to nutrition, the situation has worsened from the baseline of 1990. Progress in addressing key social determinants such as poverty, female education and empowerment has also been slow and unregulated population growth has further compromised progress. There is a need to integrate the various different sectors and programmes to achieve the desired results effectively and efficiently as many of the determinants and influencing factors are outside the health sector. PMID:26744152

  8. Chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium*

    PubMed Central

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Criado, Roberta Facchini Jardim; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2015-01-01

    Chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with HLA-linked genetic factors, especially with class II or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. New second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. Old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathophysiology of the disease, such as cyclosporine and omalizumab have been developed and used as treatments. The purpose of this article is to describe the current state of knowledge on aspects of chronic urticaria such as, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the current therapeutic approach proposed in the literature. PMID:25672302

  9. Measuring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals and the missing millions.

    PubMed

    Carr-Hill, Roy A

    2013-01-01

    The 2015 target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is fast approaching, but there is very little discussion of the validity of the indicators used to measure progress. In particular, there has been little attention given to the problems that arise when assessments of progress are based on household surveys. These are inappropriate for obtaining information about the poorest of the poor. Typically, they omit by design those not in households because they are homeless; those who are in institutions; and mobile, nomadic or pastoralist populations; and, in practice, household surveys will typically under-represent those in fragile, disjointed or multiple occupancy households; and those in urban slums and insecure areas of a country. Those six subgroups constitute a pretty comprehensive ostensive definition of the "poorest of the poor." Between 300 and 500 million people--mainly in developing countries--will be missed worldwide from the sampling frames of household surveys. PMID:23713207

  10. Millennium Development Goals progress: a perspective from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    English, Mike; English, Rex; English, Atti

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is a highly diverse geo-political region. Any brief discussion of the progress made over the last 15 years towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will therefore not do justice to the true complexity of context and events. Our focus will be MDG4—to reduce child mortality by 66% from 1990 levels. We will touch briefly on MDG1, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, MDG2, to achieve universal primary education, and MDG5, to improve maternal health, which are inextricably linked with child well-being. We will also draw on an eclectic mix of additional global indicators. Acknowledging the limitations of this approach, we first offer a summary of expected progress and then point to debates on future goals. PMID:25613971

  11. Millennium Development Goals progress: a perspective from sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    English, Mike; English, Rex; English, Atti

    2015-02-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is a highly diverse geo-political region. Any brief discussion of the progress made over the last 15 years towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will therefore not do justice to the true complexity of context and events. Our focus will be MDG4-to reduce child mortality by 66% from 1990 levels. We will touch briefly on MDG1, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, MDG2, to achieve universal primary education, and MDG5, to improve maternal health, which are inextricably linked with child well-being. We will also draw on an eclectic mix of additional global indicators. Acknowledging the limitations of this approach, we first offer a summary of expected progress and then point to debates on future goals. PMID:25613971

  12. Pakistan and the Millennium Development Goals for Maternal and Child Health: progress and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhatti, Zaid; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-01-01

    The world has made substantial progress in reducing maternal and child mortality, but many countries are projected to fall short of achieving their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 targets. The major objective of this paper is to examine progress in Pakistan in reducing maternal and child mortality and malnutrition over the last two decades. Data from recent national and international surveys suggest that Pakistan lags behind on all of its MDGs related to maternal and child health and, for some indicators especially related to nutrition, the situation has worsened from the baseline of 1990. Progress in addressing key social determinants such as poverty, female education and empowerment has also been slow and unregulated population growth has further compromised progress. There is a need to integrate the various different sectors and programmes to achieve the desired results effectively and efficiently as many of the determinants and influencing factors are outside the health sector.

  13. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Hydroclimate, Temperature and Atmospheric Circulation over the Past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Wake, C. P.; Kreutz, K. J.; Winski, D.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S.; Birkel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    While tree ring and lake sediment core studies have revealed a great deal about North Pacific (e.g. Alaska) surface temperature variability over the past millennium, we do not have an equivalent understanding of North Pacific hydroclimate variability or temperatures at high elevations. A millennial-length precipitation proxy record is needed to place late 20th century Alaskan precipitation increases into longer context, and to evaluate hydroclimate changes during the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly. High-elevation summer temperature records would be valuable for understanding the sensitivity of Alaskan glaciers to past warm and cool periods. Here we present an overview of the new Denali Ice Core record collected from the summit plateau (4000 m a.s.l.) of Mt. Hunter (63° N, 151° W) in Denali National Park, Alaska. Two parallel ice cores were collected to bedrock (208 m in length) in May-June 2013, sampled using the Dartmouth continuous melter system, and analyzed for major ions, trace elements, particle concentration and size distribution, and stable isotope ratios at Dartmouth and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire. The cores are dated using robust annual oscillations in dust elements, methanesulfonate, ammonium, and stable isotopes, and validated using major volcanic eruptions recorded as sulfate, chloride and heavy metal spikes, and the 1963 nuclear weapons testing 137Cs spike. Preliminary analyses indicate a significant increase in both summer temperature and annual accumulation over the 20th century, and significant relationships with major ocean-atmospheric modes including the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We compare the new Denali record to the Eclipse Icefield and Mt. Logan ice core records and develop composite records of North Pacific hydroclimate and atmospheric circulation variability over the past millennium.

  14. Acid sulfate soils and human health--a Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

    PubMed

    Ljung, Karin; Maley, Fiona; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-11-01

    Acid sulfate soils have been described as the "nastiest soils on earth" because of their strong acidity, increased mobility of potentially toxic elements and limited bioavailability of nutrients. They only cover a small area of the world's total problem soils, but often have significant adverse effects on agriculture, aquaculture and the environment on a local scale. Their location often coincides with high population density areas along the coasts of many developing countries. As a result, their negative impacts on ecosystems can have serious implications to those least equipped for coping with the low crop yields and reduced water quality that can result from acid sulfate soil disturbance. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment called on by the United Nations in 2000 emphasised the importance of ecosystems for human health and well-being. These include the service they provide as sources of food and water, through the control of pollution and disease, as well as for the cultural services ecosystems provide. While the problems related to agriculture, aquaculture and the environment have been the focus of many acid sulfate soil management efforts, the connection to human health has largely been ignored. This paper presents the potential health issues of acid sulfate soils, in relation to the ecosystem services identified in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. It is recognised that significant implications on food security and livelihood can result, as well as on community cohesiveness and the spread of vector-borne disease. However, the connection between these outcomes and acid sulfate soils is often not obvious and it is therefore argued that the impact of such soils on human well-being needs to be recognised in order to raise awareness among the public and decision makers, to in turn facilitate proper management and avoid potential human ill-health.

  15. Preliminary multiproxy surface air temperature field reconstruction for China over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feng; Yang, Bao; Von Gunten, Lucien

    2013-04-01

    We present the first millennial-length gridded field reconstruction of annual temperature for China, and analyze the reconstruction for spatiotemporal changes and associated uncertainties, based on a network of 415 well-distributed and accurately dated climatic proxy series. The new reconstruction method is a modified form of the point-by-point regression (PPR) approach. The main difference is the incorporation of the "composite plus scale" (CPS) and "Regularized errors-in-variables" (EIV) algorithms to allow for the assimilation of various types of the proxy data. Furthermore, the search radius is restricted to a grid size; this restriction helps effectively exclude proxy data possibly correlated with temperature but belonging to a different climate region. The results indicate that: 1) the past temperature record in China is spatially heterogenic, with variable correlations between cells in time; 2) the late 20th century warming in China probably exceeds mean temperature levels at any period of the past 1000 years, but the temperature anomalies of some grids in eastern China during the Medieval climate anomaly period are warmer than during the modern warming; 3) the climatic variability in the eastern and western regions of China was not synchronous during much of the last millennium, probably due to the influence of the Tibetan Plateau. Our temperature reconstruction may serve as a reference to test simulation results over the past millennium, and help to finely analyze the spatial characteristics and the driving mechanism of the past temperature variability. However, the lower reconstruction skill scores for some grid points underline that the present set of available proxy data series is not yet sufficient to accurately reconstruct the heterogeneous climate of China in all regions, and that there is the need for more highly resolved temperature proxies, particularly in the Tibetan Plateau.

  16. Stability of ENSO and Its Tropical Pacific Teleconnections over the Last Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Sophie; Legrande, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Determining past changes in the amplitude, frequency and teleconnections of the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is important for understanding its potential sensitivity to future anthropogenic climate change. Palaeo-reconstructions from proxy records provide long-term information of ENSO interactions with the background climatic state through time. However, it remains unclear how ENSO characteristics have changed through time, and precisely which signals proxies record. Proxy interpretations are underpinned by the assumption of stationarity in relationships between local and remote climates, and often utilise archives from single locations located in the Pacific Ocean to reconstruct ENSO histories. Here, we investigate the stationarity of ENSO teleconnections using the Last Millennium experiment of CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) (Taylor et al., 2012). We show that modelled ENSO characteristics vary on decadal- to centennial-scales, resulting from internal variability and external forcings, such as tropical volcanic eruptions. Furthermore, the relationship between ENSO conditions and local climates across the Pacific basin varies throughout the Last Millennium. Results show the stability of teleconnections is regionally dependent and proxies may reveal complex changes in teleconnected patterns, rather than large-scale changes in base ENSO characteristics. As such, proxy insights into ENSO likely require evidence to be synthesised over large spatial areas in order to deconvolve changes occurring in the NINO3.4 region from those pertaining to proxy-relevant local climatic variables. To obtain robust histories of the ENSO and its remote impacts, we recommend interpretations of proxy records should be considered in conjunction with palaeo-reconstructions from within the Central Pacific

  17. Hemispherically asymmetric volcanic forcing of tropical hydroclimate during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colose, Christopher M.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    Volcanic aerosols exert the most important natural radiative forcing of the last millennium. State-of-the-art paleoclimate simulations of this interval are typically forced with diverse spatial patterns of volcanic forcing, leading to different responses in tropical hydroclimate. Recently, theoretical considerations relating the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) position to the demands of global energy balance have emerged in the literature, allowing for a connection to be made between the paleoclimate simulations and recent developments in the understanding of ITCZ dynamics. These energetic considerations aid in explaining the well-known historical, paleoclimatic, and modeling evidence that the ITCZ migrates away from the hemisphere that is energetically deficient in response to asymmetric forcing.Here we use two separate general circulation model (GCM) suites of experiments for the last millennium to relate the ITCZ position to asymmetries in prescribed volcanic sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere and related asymmetric radiative forcing. We discuss the ITCZ shift in the context of atmospheric energetics and discuss the ramifications of transient ITCZ migrations for other sensitive indicators of changes in the tropical hydrologic cycle, including global streamflow. For the first time, we also offer insight into the large-scale fingerprint of water isotopologues in precipitation (δ18Op) in response to asymmetries in radiative forcing. The ITCZ shifts away from the hemisphere with greater volcanic forcing. Since the isotopic composition of precipitation in the ITCZ is relatively depleted compared to areas outside this zone, this meridional precipitation migration results in a large-scale enrichment (depletion) in the isotopic composition of tropical precipitation in regions the ITCZ moves away from (toward). Our results highlight the need for careful consideration of the spatial structure of volcanic forcing for interpreting volcanic signals in proxy records

  18. The Epidemiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in the US Military: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark S; Welsh, Marleen; Porter, Chad K; Nieh, Chiping; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary; Hooper, Tomoko I

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Functional gastrointestinal disorders occur more frequently among deployed veterans, although studies evaluating the relative impact of risk factors, including stress and antecedent infectious gastroenteritis (IGE), are limited. We examined risk factors for new-onset irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) among active duty participants in the military's Millennium Cohort Study. METHODS: Medical encounter data from 2001 to 2009, limited to Cohort members on active duty, were used to identify incident IBS cases (any and highly probable). IGE was identified using medical encounter or self-report. Covariate data were obtained from the Millennium Cohort Study surveys and analyzed using Cox proportional hazards methods. RESULTS: Overall, 41,175 Cohort members met the eligibility criteria for inclusion and 314 new-onset cases of IBS were identified among these. Significant risk factors (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval) included antecedent IGE (2.05, 1.53–2.75), female gender (1.96, 1.53–2.52), number of life stressors (1: 1.82, 1.37–2.41; 2: 2.86, 2.01–4.06; 3+: 6.69, 4.59–9.77), and anxiety syndrome (1.74, 1.17–2.58). Limited to highly probable IBS, a stronger association with antecedent IGE was observed, particularly when based on medical encounter records (any IGE: 2.20, 1.10–4.43; medical encounter IGE only: 2.84, 1.33–6.09). Precedent anxiety or depression and IGE interacted with increased IBS risk compared with IGE alone. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm previous studies on the association between sociodemographic or life stressors and IBS. IGE was significantly associated with IBS risk. Whether deployed or not, US service members often encounter repeated exposure to high levels of stress, which, combined with other environmental factors such as IGE, may result in long-term debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26729548

  19. Enhanced Formation Flying for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) New Millennium Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Quinn, David

    1997-01-01

    With scientific objectives for Earth observation programs becoming more ambitious and spacecraft becoming more autonomous, the need for new technical approaches on the feasibility of achieving and maintaining formations of spacecraft has come to the forefront. The trend to develop small low cost spacecraft has led many scientists to recognize the advantage of flying several spacecraft in formation, an example of which is shown in the figure below, to achieve the correlated instrument measurements formerly possible only by flying many instruments on a single large platform. Yet, formation flying imposes additional complications on orbit maintenance, especially when each spacecraft has its own orbit requirements. However, advances in automation proposed by GSFC Codes 550 and 712 allow more of the burden in maneuver planning and execution to be placed onboard the spacecraft, mitigating some of the associated operational concerns. The purpose of this analysis is to develop the fundamentals of formation flying mechanics, concepts for understanding the relative motion of free flying spacecraft, and an operational control theory for formation maintenance of the Earth Observing-1 (EO-l) spacecraft that is part of the New Millennium. Results of this development can be used to determine the appropriateness of formation flying for a particular case as well as the operational impacts. Applications to the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) Earth Observing System (EOS) and New Millennium (NM) were highly considered in analysis and applications. This paper presents the proposed methods for the guidance and control of the EO-1 spacecraft to formation fly with the Landsat-7 spacecraft using an autonomous closed loop three axis navigation control, GPS, and Cross link navigation support. Simulation results using various fidelity levels of modeling, algorithms developed and implemented in MATLAB, and autonomous 'fuzzy logic' control using AutoCon will be presented. The results of these

  20. Pacific and Atlantic influences on Mesoamerican climate over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D. W.; Burnette, D. J.; Diaz, J. Villanueva; Heim, R. R.; Fye, F. K.; Paredes, J. Cerano; Soto, R. Acuna; Cleaveland, M. K.

    2012-09-01

    A new tree-ring reconstruction of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for Mesoamerica from AD 771 to 2008 identifies megadroughts more severe and sustained than any witnessed during the twentieth century. Correlation analyses indicate strong forcing of instrumental and reconstructed June PDSI over Mesoamerica from the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Spectral analyses of the 1,238-year reconstruction indicate significant concentrations of variance at ENSO, sub-decadal, bi-decadal, and multidecadal timescales. Instrumental and model-based analyses indicate that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation is important to warm season climate variability over Mexico. Ocean-atmospheric variability in the Atlantic is not strongly correlated with the June PDSI reconstruction during the instrumental era, but may be responsible for the strong multidecadal variance detected in the reconstruction episodically over the past millennium. June drought indices in Mesoamerica are negatively correlated with gridded June PDSI over the United States from 1950 to 2005, based on both instrumental and reconstructed data. Interannual variability in this latitudinal moisture gradient is due in part to ENSO forcing, where warm events favor wet June PDSI conditions over the southern US and northern Mexico, but dryness over central and southern Mexico (Mesoamerica). Strong anti-phasing between multidecadal regimes of tree-ring reconstructed June PDSI over Mesoamerica and reconstructed summer (JJA) PDSI over the Southwest has also been detected episodically over the past millennium, including the 1950-1960s when La Niña and warm Atlantic SSTs prevailed, and the 1980-1990s when El Niño and cold Atlantic SSTs prevailed. Several Mesoamerican megadroughts are reconstructed when wetness prevailed over the Southwest, including the early tenth century Terminal Classic Drought, implicating El Niño and Atlantic SSTs in this intense and widespread drought that may have contributed to social

  1. Earliest evidence for cheese making in the sixth millennium BC in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Salque, Mélanie; Bogucki, Peter I; Pyzel, Joanna; Sobkowiak-Tabaka, Iwona; Grygiel, Ryszard; Szmyt, Marzena; Evershed, Richard P

    2013-01-24

    The introduction of dairying was a critical step in early agriculture, with milk products being rapidly adopted as a major component of the diets of prehistoric farmers and pottery-using late hunter-gatherers. The processing of milk, particularly the production of cheese, would have been a critical development because it not only allowed the preservation of milk products in a non-perishable and transportable form, but also it made milk a more digestible commodity for early prehistoric farmers. The finding of abundant milk residues in pottery vessels from seventh millennium sites from north-western Anatolia provided the earliest evidence of milk processing, although the exact practice could not be explicitly defined. Notably, the discovery of potsherds pierced with small holes appear at early Neolithic sites in temperate Europe in the sixth millennium BC and have been interpreted typologically as 'cheese-strainers', although a direct association with milk processing has not yet been demonstrated. Organic residues preserved in pottery vessels have provided direct evidence for early milk use in the Neolithic period in the Near East and south-eastern Europe, north Africa, Denmark and the British Isles, based on the δ(13)C and Δ(13)C values of the major fatty acids in milk. Here we apply the same approach to investigate the function of sieves/strainer vessels, providing direct chemical evidence for their use in milk processing. The presence of abundant milk fat in these specialized vessels, comparable in form to modern cheese strainers, provides compelling evidence for the vessels having being used to separate fat-rich milk curds from the lactose-containing whey. This new evidence emphasizes the importance of pottery vessels in processing dairy products, particularly in the manufacture of reduced-lactose milk products among lactose-intolerant prehistoric farming communities. PMID:23235824

  2. A THOUSAND SHADOWS OF ANDROMEDA: ROTATING PLANES OF SATELLITES IN THE MILLENNIUM-II COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Neil G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Conn, Anthony; Elahi, Pascal; Arias, Veronica; Fernando, Nuwanthika

    2014-03-20

    In a recent contribution, Bahl and Baumgardt investigated the incidence of planar alignments of satellite galaxies in the Millennium-II simulation and concluded that vast, thin planes of dwarf galaxies, similar to that observed in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), occur frequently by chance in Λ-cold dark matter cosmology. However, their analysis did not capture the essential fact that the observed alignment is simultaneously radially extended, yet thin, and kinematically unusual. With the caveat that the Millennium-II simulation may not have sufficient mass resolution to identify confidently simulacra of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, we re-examine that simulation for planar structures, using the same method as employed by Ibata et al. on the real M31 satellites. We find that 0.04% of host galaxies display satellite alignments that are at least as extreme as the observations, when we consider their extent, thickness, and number of members rotating in the same sense. We further investigate the angular momentum properties of the co-planar satellites, and find that the median of the specific angular momentum derived from the line-of-sight velocities in the real M31 structure (1.3 × 10{sup 4} km s{sup –1} kpc) is very high compared to systems drawn from the simulations. This analysis confirms that it is highly unlikely that the observed structure around the Andromeda galaxy is due to a chance occurrence. Interestingly, the few extreme systems that are similar to M31 arise from the accretion of a massive sub-halo with its own spatially concentrated entourage of orphan satellites.

  3. Modeling of severe persistent droughts over eastern China during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.; Shen, C.; Cheng, H.; Xu, Y.

    2014-05-01

    We use proxy data and modeled data from 1000 year model simulations with a variety of climate forcings to examine the occurrence of severe event of persistent drought over eastern China during the last millennium and diagnose the mechanisms. Results show that the model was able to roughly simulate most of these droughts over the study area during the last millennium such as those that occurred during the periods of 1123-1152, 1197-1223, 1353-1363, 1428-1449, 1479-1513, and 1632-1645. Our analyses suggest that these six well-captured droughts may caused by the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) weakening. Study on the wavelet transform and spectral analysis reveals these events occurred all at the statistically significant 15-35-year timescale. A modeled data intercomparison suggests the possibility that solar activity may be the primary driver in the occurrence of the 1129-1144, 1354-1365, 1466-1491 and 1631-1648 droughts as identified by the model. However another possibility that these events may be related to internal variability cannot be excluded. Although the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) plays an important role in monsoon variability, a temporally consistent relationship between the droughts and SST pattern in the Pacific Ocean could not be found either in the modeled or proxy data. Our analyses also indicate that large volcanic eruptions play a role as an amplifier in the drought of 1631-1648 and caused the droughts of 1830-1853 and 1958-1976, which was identified by the model.

  4. Florida Current surface temperature and salinity variability during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, David C.; Curry, William

    2006-06-01

    The salinity and temperature of the Florida Current are key parameters affecting the transport of heat into the North Atlantic, yet little is known about their variability on centennial timescales. Here we report replicated, high-resolution foraminiferal records of Florida Current surface hydrography for the last millennium from two coring sites, Dry Tortugas and the Great Bahama Bank. The oxygen isotopic composition of Florida Current surface water (δ18Ow) near Dry Tortugas increased 0.4‰ during the course of the Little Ice Age (LIA) (˜1200-1850 A.D.), equivalent to a salinity increase of 0.8-1.5. On the Great Bahama Bank, where surface waters are influenced by the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, δ18Ow increased by 0.3‰ during the last 200 years. Although a portion (˜0.1‰) of this shift may be an artifact of anthropogenically driven changes in surface water ΣCO2, the remaining δ18Ow signal implies a 0.4-1 increase in salinity after 200 years B.P. The simplest explanation of the δ18Ow data is southward migration of the Atlantic Hadley circulation during the LIA. Scaling of the δ18Ow records to salinity using the modern low-latitude δ18Ow-S slope produces an unrealistic reversal in the salinity gradient between the two sites. Only if δ18Ow is scaled to salinity using a high-latitude δ18Ow-S slope can the records be reconciled. Variable atmospheric 14C paralleled Dry Tortugas δ18Ow, suggesting that solar irradiance paced centennial-scale migration of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone and changes in Florida Current salinity during the last millennium.

  5. Earliest evidence for cheese making in the sixth millennium BC in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Salque, Mélanie; Bogucki, Peter I; Pyzel, Joanna; Sobkowiak-Tabaka, Iwona; Grygiel, Ryszard; Szmyt, Marzena; Evershed, Richard P

    2013-01-24

    The introduction of dairying was a critical step in early agriculture, with milk products being rapidly adopted as a major component of the diets of prehistoric farmers and pottery-using late hunter-gatherers. The processing of milk, particularly the production of cheese, would have been a critical development because it not only allowed the preservation of milk products in a non-perishable and transportable form, but also it made milk a more digestible commodity for early prehistoric farmers. The finding of abundant milk residues in pottery vessels from seventh millennium sites from north-western Anatolia provided the earliest evidence of milk processing, although the exact practice could not be explicitly defined. Notably, the discovery of potsherds pierced with small holes appear at early Neolithic sites in temperate Europe in the sixth millennium BC and have been interpreted typologically as 'cheese-strainers', although a direct association with milk processing has not yet been demonstrated. Organic residues preserved in pottery vessels have provided direct evidence for early milk use in the Neolithic period in the Near East and south-eastern Europe, north Africa, Denmark and the British Isles, based on the δ(13)C and Δ(13)C values of the major fatty acids in milk. Here we apply the same approach to investigate the function of sieves/strainer vessels, providing direct chemical evidence for their use in milk processing. The presence of abundant milk fat in these specialized vessels, comparable in form to modern cheese strainers, provides compelling evidence for the vessels having being used to separate fat-rich milk curds from the lactose-containing whey. This new evidence emphasizes the importance of pottery vessels in processing dairy products, particularly in the manufacture of reduced-lactose milk products among lactose-intolerant prehistoric farming communities.

  6. Hemispherically Asymmetric Volcanic Forcing of Tropical Hydroclimate During the Last Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colose, Christopher M.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Vuille, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic aerosols exert the most important natural radiative forcing of the last millennium. State-of-the-art paleoclimate simulations of this interval are typically forced with diverse spatial patterns of volcanic forcing, leading to different responses in tropical hydroclimate. Recently, theoretical considerations relating the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) position to the demands of global energy balance have emerged in the literature, allowing for a connection to be made between the paleoclimate simulations and recent developments in the understanding of ITCZ dynamics. These energetic considerations aid in explaining the well-known historical, paleoclimatic, and modeling evidence that the ITCZ migrates away from the hemisphere that is energetically deficient in response to asymmetric forcing. Here we use two separate general circulation model (GCM) suites of experiments for the last millennium to relate the ITCZ position to asymmetries in prescribed volcanic sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere and related asymmetric radiative forcing. We discuss the ITCZ shift in the context of atmospheric energetics and discuss the ramifications of transient ITCZ migrations for other sensitive indicators of changes in the tropical hydrologic cycle, including global streamflow. For the first time, we also offer insight into the large-scale fingerprint of water isotopologues in precipitation (delta sup 18 Op) in response to asymmetries in radiative forcing. The ITCZ shifts away from the hemisphere with greater volcanic forcing. Since the isotopic composition of precipitation in the ITCZ is relatively depleted compared to areas outside this zone, this meridional precipitation migration results in a large-scale enrichment (depletion) in the isotopic composition of tropical precipitation in regions the ITCZ moves away from (toward). Our results highlight the need for careful consideration of the spatial structure of volcanic forcing for interpreting volcanic signals in

  7. A Thousand Shadows of Andromeda: Rotating Planes of Satellites in the Millennium-II Cosmological Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Ibata, Neil G.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Conn, Anthony; Elahi, Pascal; Arias, Veronica; Fernando, Nuwanthika

    2014-03-01

    In a recent contribution, Bahl & Baumgardt investigated the incidence of planar alignments of satellite galaxies in the Millennium-II simulation and concluded that vast, thin planes of dwarf galaxies, similar to that observed in the Andromeda galaxy (M31), occur frequently by chance in Λ-cold dark matter cosmology. However, their analysis did not capture the essential fact that the observed alignment is simultaneously radially extended, yet thin, and kinematically unusual. With the caveat that the Millennium-II simulation may not have sufficient mass resolution to identify confidently simulacra of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, we re-examine that simulation for planar structures, using the same method as employed by Ibata et al. on the real M31 satellites. We find that 0.04% of host galaxies display satellite alignments that are at least as extreme as the observations, when we consider their extent, thickness, and number of members rotating in the same sense. We further investigate the angular momentum properties of the co-planar satellites, and find that the median of the specific angular momentum derived from the line-of-sight velocities in the real M31 structure (1.3 × 104 km s-1 kpc) is very high compared to systems drawn from the simulations. This analysis confirms that it is highly unlikely that the observed structure around the Andromeda galaxy is due to a chance occurrence. Interestingly, the few extreme systems that are similar to M31 arise from the accretion of a massive sub-halo with its own spatially concentrated entourage of orphan satellites.

  8. ENSO teleconnections with Australian rainfall in coupled model simulations of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Josephine R.; Hope, Pandora; Gergis, Joelle; Henley, Benjamin J.

    2016-07-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the major source of interannual rainfall variability in the Australian region, with the strongest influence over eastern Australia. The strength of this regional ENSO-rainfall teleconnection varies in the observational record. Climate model simulations of the "last millennium" (850-1850 C.E.) can be used to quantify the natural variability of the relationship between ENSO and Australian rainfall on decadal and longer time scales, providing a baseline for evaluating future projections. In this study, historical and last millennium (LM) simulations from six models were obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 3. All models reproduce the observed negative correlation between September to February (SONDJF) eastern Australian rainfall and the NINO3.4 index, with varying skill. In the LM simulations, all models produce decadal-scale cooling over eastern Australia in response to volcanic forcing, as well as a long-term cooling trend. Rainfall variability over the same region is not strongly driven by external forcing, with each model simulating rainfall anomalies of different phase and magnitude. SONDJF eastern Australian rainfall is strongly correlated with ENSO in the LM simulations for all models, although some models simulate periods when the teleconnection weakens substantially for several decades. Changes in ENSO variance play a role in modulating the teleconnection strength, but are not the only factor. The long-term average spatial pattern of the ENSO-Australian rainfall teleconnection is similar in the LM and historical simulations, although the spatial pattern varies over time in the LM simulations.

  9. US agency for international development

    SciTech Connect

    Pumfrey, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

  10. 32 CFR 1907.24 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Action on Challenges § 1907.24 Designation of authority to hear challenges. The Deputy..., established pursuant to 32 CFR 1900.41, as the Agency authority to hear and decide challenges under...

  11. 32 CFR 1907.24 - Designation of authority to hear challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Action on Challenges § 1907.24 Designation of authority to hear challenges. The Deputy..., established pursuant to 32 CFR 1900.41, as the Agency authority to hear and decide challenges under...

  12. Linking an agency strategic review to increase knowledge management: San Francisco County Human Service Agency.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Led by the agency director, the agency engaged in a Strategic Review, based on a comprehensive assessment of agency performance that identified strategies to improve organizational effectiveness through increased data-informed practice and knowledge management. The Strategic Review gathered information on staff perceptions, perceptions of external stakeholders, changing citywide and neighborhood demographics, policy mandates, and budget and workload issues. The need for the review was based upon multiple, substantial changes not addressed in the 2000 Strategic Plan, including the 2004 merger of the Department of Human Services and the Department of Aging and Adult Services, changes among the executive management team, transitions among key political entities, new policy mandates and changing budget allocations. This case study describes the Strategic Review process and content, summarizing key challenges and lessons related to addressing workload demands, fostering positive staff attitudes, balancing internal and external information needs, and integrating data use and planning processes across the agency.

  13. Linking an agency strategic review to increase knowledge management: San Francisco County Human Service Agency.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Led by the agency director, the agency engaged in a Strategic Review, based on a comprehensive assessment of agency performance that identified strategies to improve organizational effectiveness through increased data-informed practice and knowledge management. The Strategic Review gathered information on staff perceptions, perceptions of external stakeholders, changing citywide and neighborhood demographics, policy mandates, and budget and workload issues. The need for the review was based upon multiple, substantial changes not addressed in the 2000 Strategic Plan, including the 2004 merger of the Department of Human Services and the Department of Aging and Adult Services, changes among the executive management team, transitions among key political entities, new policy mandates and changing budget allocations. This case study describes the Strategic Review process and content, summarizing key challenges and lessons related to addressing workload demands, fostering positive staff attitudes, balancing internal and external information needs, and integrating data use and planning processes across the agency. PMID:22409611

  14. Federal Law on Consumer Deception: An Agency by Agency Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweibel, George J.

    A comprehensive analysis of statutes and regulations on consumer deception administered by thirty government agencies is provided in this report. Each agency's chapter includes a brief description of the agency, and a detailed listing of all deceptive trade practices prohibited by that agency's enabling legislation, regulations, or other sources…

  15. 10 CFR 607.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agency or agency. 607.645 Section 607.645 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the...

  16. 2 CFR 182.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 182.645 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department,...

  17. 2 CFR 182.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 182.645 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department,...

  18. The lagoon at Caroline/Millennium atoll, Republic of Kiribati: natural history of a nearly pristine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Barott, Katie L; Caselle, Jennifer E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Friedlander, Alan M; Maragos, James E; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef

  19. The Lagoon at Caroline/Millennium Atoll, Republic of Kiribati: Natural History of a Nearly Pristine Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Barott, Katie L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Maragos, James E.; Obura, David; Rohwer, Forest L.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Zgliczynski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp.) grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA), microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima). Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine coral reef

  20. 78 FR 59974 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Airspace Operations Challenge (AOC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... Challenge (AOC) AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NOTICE: (13-110). ACTION... Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. BILLING CODE 7510-13-P...

  1. Youth Media and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauge, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…

  2. Strengthening Career Human Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    Rooted in A. Bandura's (1982, 2001b) social cognitive theory, the notion of human agency has received considerable attention in vocational and career psychology for the last 2 decades, especially with the recent emergence of social constructivist thinking in the field. This article continues in the same direction. In reviewing the notion of human…

  3. Metacognition of Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Janet; Greene, Matthew Jason

    2007-01-01

    The feeling that we are agents, intentionally making things happen by our own actions, is foundational to our understanding of ourselves as humans. People's metacognitions of agency were investigated in 4 experiments. Participants played a game in which they tried to touch downward scrolling Xs and avoid touching Os. Variables that affected…

  4. Design and integration of small RTPV generators with new millennium spacecraft for outer solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's recently inaugurated New Millennium program, with its emphasis on miniaturized spacecraft, has generated interest in a low-power (10-30 W), low-mass, high-efficiency RTPV (Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic) power system. This led to a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored design study of such a system, which was assigned to OSC (formerly Fairchild) personnel, who have been conducting similar studies of a 75 W RTPV system for the Pluto Express Mission, with very encouraging results. The 75 W design employed two 250 W general purpose heat source (GPHS) modules that DOE had previously developed and safety-qualified for various space missions. These modules were too large for the small RTPVs described in this paper. To minimize the need for new development and safety verification studies, OSC generated derivative designs for 125 W and 62.5 W heat source modules containing identical fuel pellets, clads, impact shell and thermal insulation. OSC also generated a novel heat source support scheme to reduce the heat losses through the structural supports, and a new and much simpler radiator structure, eliminating the need for honeycombs and heat pipes. OSCs previous RTPV study had been based on the use of GaSb PV cells and spectrally selective IR filters that had been partially developed and characterized by Boeing (now EDTEK) personnel. They had supplied us with spectral data on filter reflectivities and cell quantum efficiencies. Two sets of data were furnished: one based on actual measurements made in 1993, and a more optimistic set based on projected performance improvements. Even the measured data set yielded significantly better system performance than present thermoelectric systems, but the projected data yielded much better system performance. Because of these encouraging results, OSC in the fall of 1994 initiated an experimental program at EDTEK to develop improved filters and cells, to demonstrate how much

  5. Glacier variations in the Northern Caucasus compared to climatic reconstructions over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomina, Olga; Bushueva, Irina; Dolgova, Ekaterina; Jomelli, Vincent; Alexandrin, Mikhail; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Matskovsky, Vladimir

    2016-05-01

    In the Northern Caucasus, glacier and climatic variations over the past centuries remain insufficiently documented. In this review, we summarized the high-resolution information on glacier and climate fluctuations in the region for the past millennium and provided a synthesis of these two lines of evidence with respect to regional climate change. The key areas considered in the paper are the Elbrus area, the Teberda and Arkhyz valleys in the Western Caucasus and the Cherek Bezengiisky and Tsey valleys in the Eastern Caucasus, where the most paleoclimatic evidence has been retrieved. We focused on the fluctuation records of the ten glaciers that are best documented. To reconstruct changes in glacier length in the past, we used aerial photos, optical space images, repeated photographs and old maps. The ages of moraines were defined with the help of instrumental records, historical images, old maps, and tree-ring dating. Lichenometry was used as a supplementary tool to determine the relative ages of glacial landforms. We reviewed the collection of control points used for the lichenometric curves and determined the time limit of potential use of this method in the Caucasus to be up to one millennium. High-resolution tree-ring-based hydroclimatic reconstructions in the Northern Caucasus are presented based on the reconstruction of June-September temperature (1595-2012 CE), the mass balance reconstruction of the Garabashi Glacier (1800-2008 CE) and the runoff of the Teberda River (low-frequency variations) for May, July and August for 1850-2005 CE. The synthesis of all the available paleoclimatic records revealed several distinct climatic periods. Evidence of a warm interval (traditionally referred to as the "Arkhyz break in glaciation") preceding the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the Caucasus is based on archeological, palynological, geochemical and pedological data. However, the conclusions concerning the duration and magnitude of this warming are still vague due to the low

  6. Early childhood nutritional status in CARICOM countries: an overview with respect to five nutrition related millennium development goals.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, Pamela S; Nielsen, Anders L; Willie, Douladel; Durant, Tara C

    2014-01-01

    Previous reviews of nutritional status in children under 5 years describe the Caribbean grouped with Latin America. This paper focuses specifically on the Caribbean and the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration that have bearing on childhood development. The results indicate that CARICOM countries have made progress in terms of child health as assessed by gross health indicators. Yet, the millennium generation experiences coexistence of undernutrition and overweight in early childhood. The associations of GNI with markers such as poverty indices are somewhat inconsistent with traditional findings and highlight a need to reassess the causes of infant mortality and low birth weight. However, a lack of systematic local data has hampered progress on an individual country basis. Interventions that deal more pointedly with country specific needs are required including those targeting obesity if the MDGs are to be attained by all member states.

  7. The Future of Small Telescopes In The New Millennium. Volume II - The Telescopes We Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswalt, T. D.

    2003-06-01

    An invaluable reference for any student, scientist or administrator, using small telescopes for research. An essential collection of data and opinions for those charged with setting scientific and funding priorities. This three-volume set, The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium details the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and how their future productivity can be maximized. Over 70 experts from all corners of the international astronomical community have created a definitive reference on the present and future of "big science with small telescopes." Despite highly publicized closures of telescopes smaller than 4-m in aperture at national facilities and their omission from national science priority studies, the oft-lamented demise of the small telescope has been greatly exaggerated. In fact, the future of these workhorses of astronomy will be brighter than ever if creative steps are taken now. This three-volume set defines the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and the ways in which a productive future for them can be realized. A wide cross-section of the astronomical community has contributed to a definitive assessment of the present and a vision for the future. Volume 2: The Telescopes We Use Small cost-effective optical-, radio- and space-based facilities face similar problems in scientific prioritization and funding. Volume 2 highlights how current small facilities are evolving to meet the scientific priorities and economical realities of the 21st century through standardization of instrumentation, use of off-the-shelf technology, specialization, optical improvements, new modes of scheduling, automation, and internet access. The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium is a fundamental resource for those looking to undertake new projects with small telescopes, for those that are responsible for their operation, and for those called upon to help set scientific

  8. A climate simulation of the first millennium AD using a comprehensive Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sebastian; Zorita, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Investigations of past climate using fully coupled comprehensive Earth System Models are restricted by the large computational costs of these simulations. Here we present first results from an on-going simulation with the MPI-ESM-P starting in year 100 BC. The simulation is forced with changes in orbital forcing and long-term solar variations augmented by a synthetic 11-year cycle including an interactive ozone cycle. For the first time also changes in volcanic activity are implemented based on the reconstruction method by Crowley and Unterman (2012). The basis of the extended volcanic forcing in terms of aerosol optical depth and effective radius are new sulfate estimations from ice cores from Greenland (NEEM) and Antarctica (WAIS) presented by Sigl et al. (2013). Because the NEEM record only reaches back as far as 79 AD, the time until 100 BC was filled by earlier information contained in the Dye 3 and GRIP record (Clausen et al., 1997). Compared to the 2nd millennium AD, the first millennium does however show a considerably reduced amount of large explosive tropical eruptions. On hemispheric and global scale the large outbreaks around the years 530 and 740 AD are well reflected as negative temperature anomalies. The 79 AD Vesuvius eruption does not however produce a pronounced hemispheric signal. The amount of sulphate ejected into the stratosphere may have been too low for a sustained hemispheric-scale cooling. The large eruption of 530 AD (so called 'mystic cloud') is however well reflected within the temperature evolution and is more pronounced over the northern hemisphere during summertime. On longer, multi-centennial, time scales, global temperatures show a slight decrease. This decrease is more pronounced over the NH hemisphere during JJA and is caused by the decline in the TOA short wave incoming radiation. Over the extratropical SH changes in orbital forcing are not reflected in temperature trends as clearly as over the NH due to the larger oceanic and

  9. The Future of Small Telescopes In The New Millennium. Volume I - Perceptions, Productivities, and Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswalt, T. D.

    2003-06-01

    An invaluable reference for any student, scientist or administrator, using small telescopes for research. An essential collection of data and opinions for those charged with setting scientific and funding priorities. This three-volume set, The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium details the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and how their future productivity can be maximized. Over 70 experts from all corners of the international astronomical community have created a definitive reference on the present and future of "big science with small telescopes." Despite highly publicized closures of telescopes smaller than 4-m in aperture at national facilities and their omission from national science priority studies, the oft-lamented demise of the small telescope has been greatly exaggerated. In fact, the future of these workhorses of astronomy will be brighter than ever if creative steps are taken now. This three-volume set defines the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and the ways in which a productive future for them can be realized. A wide cross-section of the astronomical community has contributed to a definitive assessment of the present and a vision for the future. Volume 1: Perceptions, Productivities, and Policies Beginning with a summary of recent national scientific priority-setting efforts, Volume 1 examines the public's and the astronomical community's own perceptions of and misconceptions about small telescope productivity. These shape the future scientific research that will be done with telescopes smaller than 4-m in aperture, and the number of astronomers that will have access to them. The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium is a fundamental resource for those looking to undertake new projects with small telescopes, for those that are responsible for their operation, and for those called upon to help set scientific priorities for the coming decade. It

  10. The nursing shortage ... will we become an endangered species or near extinction in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Lanford, A; Hardesty, P

    1998-12-01

    In conclusion, it is obvious to each of us that the nursing shortage issue is complex. There are no simple solutions. In the acute care arena we can expect to see the usual recruitment wars using sign-on bonuses, increased salaries for per diem staff, internship programs and all sorts of methods used in the past to recruit needed staff. It is that sort of crisis management and short term thinking that has plagued the profession in the past. These are bandaid efforts especially in light of the factors of supply vs demand with short-term quick fixes. There must be, however, more efforts towards addressing the long-term issues such as wage compression, differentiated practice and pay, effective models of care delivery, educating the public about nursing, and public/government funding more nursing education and research at all levels. There may need to be a federal subsidy for nursing education and recruitment included to affect the magnitude of this potential societal problem. The profession is at a crossroads. One thing is certain however, this nursing shortage is different and will get worse before it gets better. Let's not let the demand for nurses become so large and supply become so small that we are an endangered species or near extinction in the new millennium. What will be the scenario for nurses in 2050? Are we, as the largest healthcare profession, so complacent about our continued existence that we are at a point of paralysis? Are we in such a state of deep depression in response to current changing environment that we will allow ourselves to be devoured by our predators. Are we cannibalistic as we eat our young and chew on our own unresolved internal issues with a lack of action? Are we septic as a result of our own self-inflicted professional wounds? Our profession must become immediately aware of our possibly tenuous future. We must work together as a community of nurses to strategically address the areas of recruitment, education, retention and

  11. Determining temperature changes in Western Iceland over the last millennium: issues and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caseldine, Chris; Langdon, Peter; Holmes, Naomi; Thompson, Gareth; Wastegard, Stefan; Larsen, Gudrun; Davies, Siwan; Leng, Melanie; Croudace, Ian

    2010-05-01

    High resolution multi-proxy studies of a core from Baulárvallavatn, western Iceland provide a record of climatic changes since the deposition of the Landnám tephra deposited in AD870±2. Derivation of the climate record has encountered a series of issues relating both to chronology and to proxy interpretation; but a millennial sequence of chironomid-based temperature change has been produced. Chronologically problems relate both to radiocarbon dating and tephrochronology. The lake is surrounded by loessial soils that have suffered from erosion, especially following settlement (the sedimentation rate in the lake has increased from 0.014mm yr-1 pre-settlement to 0.05mm yr-1 post-settlement). This has involved redeposition of both old carbon and tephra shards from earlier eruptions into the sediment. Thus post-Landnám radiocarbon dates are all relatively uniform between 2405-2155±30 BP. The high background levels of tephra made determination of specific post-Landnám horizons extremely difficult. Following over 550 individual shard analyses, and coupled with 137Cs dating of the uppermost sediments an age depth model was produced for the last millennium to provide a chronology for the climate proxies. Chironomid analyses at a resolution of c.10 yrs per sample showed a climatic response that is seen in the first axis of the PCA, rather than the Icelandic chironomid-July air temperature transfer function. The PCA axis correlates with winter/spring and autumn temperatures, possibly reflecting a response to summer season length rather than the expected response to July temperature. However, this has yet to be calibrated in more specific quantitative terms. The core was also subjected to ITRAX scanning; which identified key tephra horizons and reflected the relative consistency of sediment deposition over the last millennium. Oxygen isotope analyses of a limited number of diatom samples have also been undertaken and are the subject of continued research, as is diatom

  12. Simulated cold events in the northern North Atlantic during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Zanchettin, Davide; Lohmann, Katja; Jungclaus, Johann

    2014-05-01

    Paleoceanographic data show large inter-decadal cold excursions in sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the western subpolar gyre region and north of Iceland throughout the last millennium. A series of such events could have contributed to demise the Norse settlements over Greenland during the 13th to the 15th century due to associated deteriorating environmental conditions in the region. However, spatial extent, attribution and mechanism(s) of these cold events are not known. In this contribution, we use climate model simulations to clarify the role of the ocean and of coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics in triggering these cold events, and to assess whether they can be explained by internal climate variability alone. Specifically, we investigate the North Atlantic-Arctic climate variability in a 1000-year control run describing an unperturbed pre-industrial climate, and in a 3-member ensemble of full-forcing transient simulations of the last millennium. Simulations are performed with the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model for paleo-applications. In the control and transient simulations, we identified cold events of similar amplitude and duration to the reconstructed data. Spatial patterns and temporal evolutions of simulated cold events are similar in both simulation types. In the transient runs, furthermore, they do not robustly coincide with periods of strong external forcing (e.g. of major volcanic eruptions). We therefore conclude that such events can emerge because of internally-generated regional climate variability alone. Local ocean-atmosphere coupled processes in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region appear as key part of the mechanism of simulated cold events. In particular, they are typically associated with the onset of prolonged positive sea-level pressure anomalies over the North Atlantic and associated weaker and south-eastward displaced subpolar gyre. The salt transport reduction by the Irminger Current together with an intensification of the

  13. The Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in the Last Millennium and two IPCC Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, P.; Montoya, M.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F.

    2008-12-01

    This work focuses on the simulation and description of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability during the last millennium and its projection into future scenarios. Five simulations performed with the ECHO-G atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) are used in this study: one 1000-yr long control run (CTRL), two forced simulations of the last millennium (FOR1 and FOR2) and two IPCC scenario simulations (A2 and B2) covering the 21st century. In the forced millennial experiments changes in three forcing factors are considered: solar irradiance, the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols and greenhouse gas concentrations. The long-term mean AMOC streamfunction exhibits a realistic circulation, with values close to estimates. The temporal evolution of the AMOC is analysed by means of the Meridional Overturning Index (MOI), defined as the maximum AMOC streamfunction value. The forced runs evidence a weakening of the MOI beginning in the industrial era and increasing in intensity in the future scenario simulations, accounting for a final decrease of up to 40% with respect to the mean preindustrial value. Both the Fourier and wavelet spectrums of the MOI series show an AMOC behaviour close to that of a red noise process; variance exceeds that of an AR(1) at interannual and interdecadal timescales. In the high-frequency (periods < 10 yr), the AMOC is directly responding to atmosphere dynamics, driven by changes in wind-forced Ekman transport at the ocean surface. Several local overturning indices are used, leading to the identification of three main driving patterns: one associated to the NAO, another to ENSO and the last one linked to a local anticyclonic cell over the North Atlantic. All these results are common to the control and the forced runs. In the low frequency (periods > 10 yr) the AMOC is characterized by basin-scale streamfunction anomalies propagating in time. In this case several differences are found among the simulations

  14. Oscillations of solar activity - the main climate-forming factor in millennium scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorozov, S. V.; Budovy, V. I.; Medvedev, V. A.

    Here is advanced and substantiated the hypothesis of existence of the physical mechanism, by means of which alteration of solar activity leads to change of the "greenhouse effect". This hypothetical mechanism can be the following one. The increase of solar activity leads to considerable magnification of ultra-violet radiation in a solar spectrum and to increase of ion concentration in the upper stratums of an atmosphere (including upper troposphere). Accordingly, the rise of condensation kernels concentration (of water vapour) occurs, and, as a result, the transparency decrease of an atmosphere concerning infrared radiation of the Earth takes place. For checkout of the hypothesis the simplified physical-statistical model of energy-balance of atmosphere and hydrosphere is constructed. The modelling of the global temperatures and the temperature in the different regions of the North hemisphere was made. The effective coefficients of the model take into account, in particular, the features of ocean and atmosphere circulation. They were determined with use of step-by-step procedure of correction based on a Monte-Carlo method, under condition of achievement of the greatest correspondence between simulated and actual values of global temperature. The constructed model allows to explain (without attraction of the anthropogenous factor) modern global warming, and also known data about temperature oscillations during second millennium. The comparative analysis of model results with independently reconstructed regional temperatures, including Central England (1000-1659 years), China (1000-1990 years), Gulf of Alaska and Pacific Northwest (1752-1983 years), shows their good enough correspondence which allows to assume, that the solar activity oscillations really can be the main climate-forming factor in millennium scale. Moreover, there had been detected the close correlation between the rate of increase of CO2 concentration and the simulated temperature of the upper layer of

  15. From home to hospital, a continuum of care: making progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Edwards, C; Saha, S

    2011-09-01

    The Lutheran Aid to Medicine in Bangladesh (LAMB) health and development project in rural Bangladesh has developed an integrated maternal and child healthcare system providing appropriate, accessible and affordable health services for the poor, through a home-to-hospital, continuum-of-care approach. LAMB is thus an example of how high-quality maternity health services accessible to women of all socio-economic classes in a rural context can be provided, making progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5.

  16. Rapid climate fluctuations over the past millennium: evidence from a lacustrine record of Basomtso Lake, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Wang, Yongbo

    2016-04-01

    Abrupt climate changes and fluctuations over short time scales are superimposed on long-term climate changes. Understanding rapid climate fluctuations at the decadal time scale over the past millennium will enhance our understanding of patterns of climate variability and aid in forecasting climate changes in the future. In this study, climate changes on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past millennium were determined from a 4.82-m-long sediment core from Basomtso Lake. At the centennial time scale, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), Little Ice Age (LIA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) are distinct in the Basomtso region. Rapid climate fluctuations inferred from five episodes with higher sediment input and likely warmer conditions, as well as seven episodes with lower sediment input and likely colder conditions, were well preserved in our record. These episodes with higher and lower sediment input are characterized by abrupt climate changes and short time durations. Spectral analysis indicates that the climate variations at the centennial scale on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau are influenced by solar activity during the past millennium.

  17. Rapid climate fluctuations over the past millennium: evidence from a lacustrine record of Basomtso Lake, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Wang, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Abrupt climate changes and fluctuations over short time scales are superimposed on long-term climate changes. Understanding rapid climate fluctuations at the decadal time scale over the past millennium will enhance our understanding of patterns of climate variability and aid in forecasting climate changes in the future. In this study, climate changes on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past millennium were determined from a 4.82-m-long sediment core from Basomtso Lake. At the centennial time scale, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), Little Ice Age (LIA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) are distinct in the Basomtso region. Rapid climate fluctuations inferred from five episodes with higher sediment input and likely warmer conditions, as well as seven episodes with lower sediment input and likely colder conditions, were well preserved in our record. These episodes with higher and lower sediment input are characterized by abrupt climate changes and short time durations. Spectral analysis indicates that the climate variations at the centennial scale on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau are influenced by solar activity during the past millennium. PMID:27091591

  18. The influence of external forcing on subdecadal variability of regional surface temperature in CMIP5 simulations of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thanh; Sjolte, Jesper; Muscheler, Raimund

    2016-02-01

    We use Granger causality to investigate the influences of external forcings on subdecadal variability of regional near-surface air temperature (SAT) in past millennium simulations (period 850-1850 A.D.) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Our results strengthen the conclusion for robust influence of volcanic forcing on SAT during preindustrial times of the last millennium. The SAT response to solar variations is detected in tropical and subtropical regions. In other regions, this response is weak. The impact of greenhouse gases (GHGs) radiative forcing to regional SAT is weak and uncertain. This is most probably due to the low amplitude of the variations in GHGs and hence weak GHGs forcing during the preindustrial millennium. The low agreement between models in simulating the impacts of solar variations on SAT in several regions suggests the different dynamical responses in these models, possibly associated with inaccurate parameterization of the processes related to solar forcing. Our analysis suggests that internal climate variability played a more significant role than external forcings in short-term SAT variability in the regions of the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, the Arctic, the Antarctic Peninsula, and its surrounding oceans. The possibility of long-term impacts of external forcings on SAT and the uncertainties that might be contained due to effects of internal climate modes other than El Niño-Southern Oscillation underscore the necessity for a more detailed understanding of the dynamical response of SAT to external forcings.

  19. Rapid climate fluctuations over the past millennium: evidence from a lacustrine record of Basomtso Lake, southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xingqi; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Wang, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Abrupt climate changes and fluctuations over short time scales are superimposed on long-term climate changes. Understanding rapid climate fluctuations at the decadal time scale over the past millennium will enhance our understanding of patterns of climate variability and aid in forecasting climate changes in the future. In this study, climate changes on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past millennium were determined from a 4.82-m-long sediment core from Basomtso Lake. At the centennial time scale, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), Little Ice Age (LIA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) are distinct in the Basomtso region. Rapid climate fluctuations inferred from five episodes with higher sediment input and likely warmer conditions, as well as seven episodes with lower sediment input and likely colder conditions, were well preserved in our record. These episodes with higher and lower sediment input are characterized by abrupt climate changes and short time durations. Spectral analysis indicates that the climate variations at the centennial scale on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau are influenced by solar activity during the past millennium. PMID:27091591

  20. Agency, time, and causality

    PubMed Central

    Widlok, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-Western Educational Industrial Rich Democratic people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition. PMID:25414683

  1. Child malnutrition and the Millennium Development Goals: much haste but less speed?

    PubMed

    Oruamabo, Raphael S

    2015-02-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide a framework for measuring the progress of nations. Several of these goals relate to child malnutrition, which remains an important contributor to child morbidity and mortality, accounting for approximately 45% of child deaths globally. A high proportion of undernourished children still live in Africa and parts of Asia, and the uneven rate of reduction in the prevalence of various types of child malnutrition among different income groups worldwide is worrying. Attempts to reduce child malnutrition should therefore begin from the grassroots by improving primary healthcare services in developing countries with particular focus on basic requirements. Adequate nutrition should be provided from birth, through infancy, preschool and early childhood to adolescence. The overall strategy should be one of careful and meticulous planning involving all development sectors with an emphasis on a bottom-up approach within a stable and disciplined polity; the MDGs will be only be useful if they are seen not as narrow objectives with unidirectional interventions but as multifaceted and co-ordinated. The setting of deadlines, whether 2015 or 2035, should not be emphasised so as to avoid hasty decision making. The top priority should be the implementation of the essential social services of basic education, primary healthcare, nutrition, reproductive health care, water and sanitation in partnership with the developed economies.

  2. Low dimensional description of pedestrian-induced oscillation of the Millennium Bridge.

    PubMed

    Abdulrehem, Mahmoud M; Ott, Edward

    2009-03-01

    When it opened to pedestrian traffic in the year 2000, London's Millennium Bridge exhibited an unwanted, large side-to-side oscillation, which was apparently due to a resonance between the stepping frequency of walkers and one of the bridge modes. Models for this event, and similar events on other bridges, have been proposed. The model most directly addressing the synchronization mechanism of individual walkers and the resulting global response of the bridge-pedestrian system is the one developed by Eckhardt et al. [Phys. Rev. E 75, 021110 (2007)]. This model treats individual walkers with a phase oscillator description and is inherently high dimensional with system dimensionality (N+2), where N is the number of walkers. In the present work we use a method proposed by Ott and Antonsen [Chaos 18, 037113 (2008)] to reduce the model of Eckhardt et al. to a low dimensional dynamical system, and we employ this reduced description to study the global dynamics of the bridge/pedestrian interaction. More generally, this treatment serves as an interesting example of the possibility of low dimensional macroscopic behavior in large systems of coupled oscillators.

  3. Characterizing strong lensing galaxy clusters using the Millennium-XXL and MOKA simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giocoli, Carlo; Bonamigo, Mario; Limousin, Marceau; Meneghetti, Massimo; Moscardini, Lauro; Angulo, Raul E.; Despali, Giulia; Jullo, Eric

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the strong lensing statistics in galaxyclusters. We extract dark matter haloes from the Millennium-XXL simulation, compute their Einstein radius distribution, and find a very good agreement with Monte Carlo predictions produced with the MOKA code. The distribution of the Einstein radii is well described by a lognormal distribution, with a considerable fraction of the largest systems boosted by different projection effects. We discuss the importance of substructures and triaxiality in shaping the size of the critical lines for cluster size haloes. We then model and interpret the different deviations, accounting for the presence of a Brightest Central Galaxy (BCG) and two different stellar mass density profiles. We present scaling relations between weak lensing quantities and the size of the Einstein radii. Finally, we discuss how sensible is the distribution of the Einstein radii on the cosmological parameters ΩM - σ8 finding that cosmologies with higher ΩM and σ8 possess a large sample of strong lensing clusters. The Einstein radius distribution may help distinguish Planck13 and WMAP7 cosmology at 3σ.

  4. Hunting for genes for hypertension: the Millennium Genome Project for Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tabara, Yasuharu; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Miki, Tetsuro

    2012-06-01

    The Millennium Genome Project for Hypertension was started in 2000 to identify genetic variants conferring susceptibility to hypertension, with the aim of furthering the understanding of the pathogenesis of this condition and realizing genome-based personalized medical care. Two different approaches were launched, genome-wide association analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellite markers, and systematic candidate gene analysis, under the hypothesis that common variants have an important role in the etiology of common diseases. These multilateral approaches identified ATP2B1 as a gene responsible for hypertension in not only Japanese but also Caucasians. The high blood pressure susceptibility conferred by certain alleles of ATP2B1 has been widely replicated in various populations. Ex vivo mRNA expression analysis in umbilical artery smooth muscle cells indicated that reduced expression of this gene associated with the risk allele may be an underlying mechanism relating the ATP2B1 variant to hypertension. However, the effect size of a SNP was too small to clarify the entire picture of the genetic basis of hypertension. Further, dense genome analysis with accurate phenotype data may be required.

  5. A utility perspective on the deployment of CCTs into the next millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Mudd, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The successful Clean Coal Technology projects which are being discussed in this conference are all a testament to the positive advancements that can be made with environmentally superior technologies when the government and industry cooperate in the context of a properly funded and a well thought-out program. Many of the technologies developed in the Clean Coal Technology Program have taken a competitive position in the marketplace, and many others are on the verge of being competitive in the marketplace. Based on the success of the Clean Coal Technology Program, one would expect that they would be ready for full deployment in the marketplace with the approach of the next millennium. This is not happening. There are several hurdles that impede their deployment. Some of those hurdles, such as the higher first-of-a-kind cost and technology risk factors that accompany not-yet mature technologies, have existed since the initiation of the Clean Coal Technology Program. However, several new hurdles are impeding the market penetration of Clean Coal Technologies. Those hurdles include the radically different marketplace due to the restructuring of the electric utility industry, a soft market, the difficulty in financing new power plants, low natural gas prices, and lower-cost and higher-efficiency natural gas combined cycle technology.

  6. Social Work Gerontological Practice: The Need for Faculty Development in the New Millennium.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Barbara; Silverstone, Barbara; June Simmons, W; Volland, Patricia J; Howe, Judith L

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need to upgrade the gerontological knowledge and skills of practicing social workers. Geriatrics and gerontology, as specialized fields of knowledge, have not been sufficiently integrated into formal academic training programs. There are major trends in the health care environment which impact on social work education, including technological advances, a shift from inpatient to outpatient and community care settings, increasing diversity of the older population, and client and family participation in decisionmaking. These trends necessitate social work education to emphasize new content areas in gerontology and the development of new skills in clinical, case management, care coordination, and teamwork. A significant obstacle to the preparation of future social workers to deliver the complex services needed by older adults and their families is a serious shortage of social work faculty in gerontology. Sustained and broad initiatives, such as the John A. Hartford Foundation funded Geriatric Social Work Faculty Scholars Program, are needed to develop academic and practice-based faculty in gerontology. This is crucial if social work is to maintain an important service role in the new millennium.

  7. Distribution, geochemistry and age of the Millennium eruptives of Changbaishan volcano, Northeast China -- A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chunqing; You, Haitao; Liu, Jiaqi; Li, Xin; Gao, Jinliang; Chen, Shuangshuang

    2014-04-01

    Large explosive volcanic eruptions generate extensive regional tephra deposits that provide favorable conditions for identifying the source of volcanoes, comparing the sedimentary strata of a region and determining their ages. The tephra layer, referred to as BTm, generated by the Millennium eruption of Changbaishan volcano, is widely distributed in Northeast China, Japan, D.P.R. Korea, and the nearby coastal area of Russia. It forms part of the widespread northeast Asian strata and is significant for establishing an isochronal stratigraphic framework. However, research on the temporal characterization and stratigraphic correlation of associated strata using this tephra layer is mainly concentrated in and near Japan. In northeastern China, this tephra layer is seldom seen and its application in stratigraphic correlations is even rarer. More importantly, the determination of accurate ages for both distal and proximal tephras has been debated, leading to controversy in discussions of its environmental impacts. Stratigraphic records from both distal and proximal Changbaishan ash show that this eruption generally occurred between 1,012 and 1,004 cal yr BP. Geochemical comparison between Changbaishan ash and the Quaternary widespread ash around Japan illustrates that Changbaishan ash is a continuous composition from rhyolitic to trachytic and its ratio of FeOT to CaO is usually greater than 4, which can be used as a distinguishing identifier among worldwide contemporary eruptions.

  8. Distribution, geochemistry and age of the Millennium eruptives of Changbaishan volcano, Northeast China — A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chunqing; You, Haitao; Liu, Jiaqi; Li, Xin; Gao, Jinliang; Chen, Shuangshuang

    2014-06-01

    Large explosive volcanic eruptions generate extensive regional tephra deposits that provide favorable conditions for identifying the source of volcanoes, comparing the sedimentary strata of a region and determining their ages. The tephra layer, referred to as B-Tm, generated by the Millennium eruption of Changbaishan volcano, is widely distributed in Northeast China, Japan, D.P.R. Korea, and the nearby coastal area of Russia. It forms part of the widespread northeast Asian strata and is significant for establishing an isochronal stratigraphic framework. However, research on the temporal characterization and stratigraphic correlation of associated strata using this tephra layer is mainly concentrated in and near Japan. In northeastern China, this tephra layer is seldom seen and its application in stratigraphic correlations is even rarer. More importantly, the determination of accurate ages for both distal and proximal tephras has been debated, leading to controversy in discussions of its environmental impacts. Stratigraphic records from both distal and proximal Changbaishan ash show that this eruption generally occurred between 1,012 and 1,004 cal yr BP. Geochemical comparison between Changbaishan ash and the Quaternary widespread ash around Japan illustrates that Changbaishan ash is a continuous composition from rhyolitic to trachytic and its ratio of FeOT to CaO is usually greater than 4, which can be used as a distinguishing identifier among worldwide contemporary eruptions.

  9. Century/millennium internal climate oscillations in an ocean-atmosphere-continental ice sheet model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchfield, Edward G.; Wang, Huaxiao; Rich, Jonathan J.

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrate in a simple climate model that there exist nonlinear feedbacks between the atmosphere, ocean, and ice sheets capable of producing century/millennium timescale internal oscillations resembling those seen in the paleoclimate record. Feedbacks involve meridional heat and salt transports in the North Atlantic, surface ocean freshwater fluxes associated with melting and growing continental ice sheets in the northen hemisphere and with Atlantic to Pacific water vapor transport. The positive feedback between the production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and the meridional salt transport by the Atlantic thermohaline circulation tends to destabilize the climate system, while the negative feedback between the freshwater flux, either to or from the continental ice sheets, and meridional heat flux to the high-latitude North Atlantic, accomplished by the thermohaline circulation, stabilizes the system. The thermohaline circulation plays a central role in both positive and negative feedbacks because of its transport of both heat and salt. Because of asymmetries between the growth and melt phases the oscillations are, in general, accompanied by a growing or decreasing ice volume over each cycle, which in the model is reflected by increasing or decreasing mean salinity.

  10. Going Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: An Index System of Human Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wu; Dietz, Thomas; Kramer, Daniel Boyd; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the linkages between ecosystem services (ES) and human well-being (HWB) is crucial to sustain the flow of ES for HWB. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) provided a state-of-the-art synthesis of such knowledge. However, due to the complexity of the linkages between ES and HWB, there are still many knowledge gaps, and in particular a lack of quantitative indicators and integrated models based on the MA framework. To fill some of these research needs, we developed a quantitative index system to measure HWB, and assessed the impacts of an external driver – the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake – on HWB. Our results suggest that our proposed index system of HWB is well-designed, valid and could be useful for better understanding the linkages between ES and HWB. The earthquake significantly affected households' well-being in our demonstration sites. Such impacts differed across space and across the five dimensions of the sub-index (i.e., the basic material for good life, security, health, good social relations, and freedom of choice and action). Since the conceptual framework is based on the generalizable MA framework, our methods should also be applicable to other study areas. PMID:23717635

  11. E-health in the new millennium: a research and practice agenda.

    PubMed

    Metaxiotis, Kostas; Ptochos, Dimitrios; Psarras, John

    2004-01-01

    Advances in telecommunications, automated processes, web technologies and wireless computing are already forcing dramatic changes in a variety of sectors, ranging from business and industry to education and health. Yet, the electronic business space, in a broader sense, is still in a relatively early state of evolution, and it is only recently that policy makers have started looking at the potential of applying the tools and techniques of e-commerce to the tasks of other sectors. The use of the internet as a source of health information and connectivity between healthcare providers and consumers has increased interest in e-health. E-health offers the rich potential of supplementing traditional delivery of services and channels of communication in ways that extend the healthcare organisation's ability to meet the needs of its patients. To date, some e-health applications have improved the quality of healthcare, and later they will lead to substantial cost savings. However, e-health is not simply a technology but a complex technological and relational process. In this sense, practitioners and researchers who want to successfully exploit e-health need to pay attention to various pending issues that have to be addressed. The aim of this paper is to propose a novel taxonomy for e-health research in the new millennium by instantaneously presenting the current status with some major themes of e-health research. PMID:18048218

  12. Filling the Eastern European gap in millennium-long temperature reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Büntgen, Ulf; Kyncl, Tomáš; Ginzler, Christian; Jacks, David S; Esper, Jan; Tegel, Willy; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Kyncl, Josef

    2013-01-29

    Tree ring-based temperature reconstructions form the scientific backbone of the current global change debate. Although some European records extend into medieval times, high-resolution, long-term, regional-scale paleoclimatic evidence is missing for the eastern part of the continent. Here we compile 545 samples of living trees and historical timbers from the greater Tatra region to reconstruct interannual to centennial-long variations in Eastern European May-June temperature back to 1040 AD. Recent anthropogenic warming exceeds the range of past natural climate variability. Increased plague outbreaks and political conflicts, as well as decreased settlement activities, coincided with temperature depressions. The Black Death in the mid-14th century, the Thirty Years War in the early 17th century, and the French Invasion of Russia in the early 19th century all occurred during the coldest episodes of the last millennium. A comparison with summer temperature reconstructions from Scandinavia, the Alps, and the Pyrenees emphasizes the seasonal and spatial specificity of our results, questioning those large-scale reconstructions that simply average individual sites. PMID:23319641

  13. Scaling regimes and linear/nonlinear responses of last millennium climate to volcanic and solar forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Varotsos, Costas

    2016-02-01

    At scales much longer than the deterministic predictability limits (about 10 days), the statistics of the atmosphere undergoes a drastic transition, the high-frequency weather acts as a random forcing on the lower-frequency macroweather. In addition, up to decadal and centennial scales the equivalent radiative forcings of solar, volcanic and anthropogenic perturbations are small compared to the mean incoming solar flux. This justifies the common practice of reducing forcings to radiative equivalents (which are assumed to combine linearly), as well as the development of linear stochastic models, including for forecasting at monthly to decadal scales. In order to clarify the validity of the linearity assumption and determine its scale range, we use last millennium simulations, with both the simplified Zebiak-Cane (ZC) model and the NASA GISS E2-R fully coupled GCM. We systematically compare the statistical properties of solar-only, volcanic-only and combined solar and volcanic forcings over the range of timescales from 1 to 1000 years. We also compare the statistics to multiproxy temperature reconstructions. The main findings are (a) that the variability in the ZC and GCM models is too weak at centennial and longer scales; (b) for longer than ≈ 50 years, the solar and volcanic forcings combine subadditively (nonlinearly) compounding the weakness of the response; and (c) the models display another nonlinear effect at shorter timescales: their sensitivities are much higher for weak forcing than for strong forcing (their intermittencies are different) and we quantify this with statistical scaling exponents.

  14. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-15

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population's access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies.

  15. Satellites around Massive Galaxies Since z ~ 2: Confronting the Millennium Simulation with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quilis, Vicent; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2012-06-01

    Minor merging has been postulated as the most likely evolutionary path to produce the increase in size and mass observed in the massive galaxies since z ~ 2. In this Letter, we directly test this hypothesis, comparing the population of satellites around massive galaxies in cosmological simulations versus the observations. We use state-of-the-art, publically available, Millennium I and II simulations, and the associated semi-analytical galaxy catalogs to explore the time evolution of the fraction of massive galaxies that have satellites, the number of satellites per galaxy, the projected distance at which the satellites locate from the host galaxy, and the mass ratio between the host galaxies and their satellites. The three virtual galaxy catalogs considered here overproduce the fraction of galaxies with satellites by a factor ranging between 1.5 and 6 depending on the epoch, whereas the mean projected distance and ratio of the satellite mass over host mass are in closer agreement with data. The larger pull of satellites in the semi-analytical samples could suggest that the size evolution found in previous hydrodynamical simulations is an artifact due to the larger number of infalling satellites compared to the real universe. These results advise us to revise the physical ingredients implemented in the semi-analytical models in order to reconcile the observed and computed fraction of galaxies with satellites, and eventually, it would leave some room for other mechanisms explaining the galaxy size growth not related to the minor merging.

  16. Signatures of climate variability in water stable isotopes across the globe modeled for the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjolte, J.; Sturm, C.; Werner, M.; Lohmann, G.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Muscheler, R.

    2015-12-01

    Geological records of water stable isotopes ranging from the tropics to the poles are some of the most important sources for understanding past climate variability. Enabling fractionation of water stable isotopes in the hydrological cycle of Earth System Models (ESMs) provides a theoretical framework for understanding the climate signal in paleoclimatic isotope records and testing hypothesis of climate change. Here we present a 1200-year long simulation driven by natural and anthropogenic forcings, making the simulation equivalent to the standard ESM simulations of the past millennium. We investigate the main climatic signals and processes that drive the composition of the modeled water stable isotopes in key regions of paleoclimate archives such as Greenland, South East Asia and Antarctica. This includes the influence of the major atmospheric circulation patterns at mid and high latitudes, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation and Antarctic Oscillation, and the monsoon systems at the low latitudes. In connection with these patterns we discuss atmosphere-ocean interactions and the time scales of the different climate modes and their signature in water stable isotopes in precipitation.

  17. Multidecadal to multicentury scale collapses of Northern Hemisphere monsoons over the past millennium

    PubMed Central

    Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor J.; Rasmussen, Jessica B. T.; Burns, Stephen J.; Lachniet, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Late Holocene climate in western North America was punctuated by periods of extended aridity called megadroughts. These droughts have been linked to cool eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here, we show both short-term and long-term climate variability over the last 1,500 y from annual band thickness and stable isotope speleothem data. Several megadroughts are evident, including a multicentury one, AD 1350–1650, herein referred to as Super Drought, which corresponds to the coldest period of the Little Ice Age. Synchronicity between southwestern North American, Chinese, and West African monsoon precipitation suggests the megadroughts were hemispheric in scale. Northern Hemisphere monsoon strength over the last millennium is positively correlated with Northern Hemisphere temperature and North Atlantic SST. The megadroughts are associated with cooler than average SST and Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Furthermore, the megadroughts, including the Super Drought, coincide with solar insolation minima, suggesting that solar forcing of sea surface and atmospheric temperatures may generate variations in the strength of Northern Hemisphere monsoons. Our findings seem to suggest stronger (wetter) Northern Hemisphere monsoons with increased warming. PMID:23716648

  18. State downsizing as a determinant of infant mortality and achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4.

    PubMed

    Palma-Solís, Marco Antonio; Alvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos; Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the worldwide effect of state downsizing policies on achievement of U.N. Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) on infant mortality rates. In an ecological retrospective cohort study of 161 countries, from 1978 to 2002, the authors analyzed changes in government consumption (GC) as determining exposure to achievement of MDG4. Descriptive methods and a multiple logistic regression were applied to adjust for changes in gross domestic product, level of democracy, and income inequality. Excess infant mortality in the exposed countries, attributable to reductions in GC, was estimated. Fifty countries were found to have reduced GC, and 111 had increased GC. The gap in infant mortality rate between these groups of countries doubled in the study period. Non-achievement of MDG4 was associated with reductions in GC and increases in income inequality. The excess infant mortality attributable to GC reductions in the exposed countries from 1990 to 2002 was 4,473,348 deaths. The probability of achieving MDG4 seems to be seriously compromised for many countries because of reduced public sector expenditure during the last 25 years of the 20th century, in response to World Bank/International Monetary Fund Washington Consensus policies. This seeming contradiction between the goals of different U.N. branches may be undermining achievement of MDG4 and should be taken into account when developing future global governance policy. PMID:19492631

  19. Social inequalities in wheezing in children: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, David C; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Smyth, Rosalind; Law, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Wheezing in childhood is socially patterned, but it is unclear what factors explain the social differences.Regression analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study, based on 11 141 singleton children who participated at ages 9 months and 3, 5 and 7 years. Relative risk ratios (RRR) for early and persistent/relapsing wheeze were estimated using multinomial regression, according to measures of socioeconomic circumstances. Maternal, antenatal and early-life characteristics were assessed as potential mediators.Children of mothers with no educational qualifications were more likely to have both wheeze types, compared to children of mothers with degree-level qualifications (RRR 1.53, 95% CI 1.26-1.86 for early wheeze; 1.32 95% CI 1.04-1.67 for persistent/relapsing wheeze). Controlling for maternal age, smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding removed the elevated risk of wheezing. Male sex, maternal age, body mass index, atopy, smoking during pregnancy, preterm birth, breastfeeding, exposure to other children and furry pets were independently associated with wheezing, but the pattern of association varied between wheezing types.In this representative UK cohort, adjustment for maternal smoking during pregnancy and breastfeeding removed the socioeconomic inequalities in common wheezing phenotypes. Policies to reduce the social gradient in these risk factors may reduce inequalities in wheezing and asthma.

  20. 15th Chapter of Surgeons Lecture: Surgeon of the new millennium--surgeon, scientist and scholar.

    PubMed

    Tan, S K

    2004-11-01

    The surgeon of the new millennium has come a long way from his humble beginnings in the Middle Ages as the lowly barber-surgeon. The skills and techniques developed by outstanding surgeons like Astley Cooper of the 19th century have withstood the test of time and have been refined by subsequent generations of surgical masters. The scientific basis of modern surgery was put on a firm footing in the early 19th century through the discovery of anaesthesia and microorganisms as a cause of many diseases and surgical complications. The 20th century brought about rapid progress in medicine, information technology (IT) and the life sciences, and closed with a big bang with the completion of the sequencing of the human genome. For the surgeon of the 21st century to remain relevant, he must embrace the concept of the Total Surgeon. Not doing so will render him irrelevant in the course of time, for having good surgical technique alone is insufficient. He must also lead in scientific endeavours to push the frontiers of the life sciences in attempts to solve the insoluble, and be scholarly in thought, attitude and behaviour. In other words, he must be a Surgeon-Scientist-Scholar.

  1. Reconstruction of Precipitation in North America Over The Last Millennium Using Multiple Proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouillette, D. J.; Mann, M. E.; Miller, S. K.; Rutherford, S. D.; Steinman, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Past work in making long-term reconstructions of precipitation and deriving estimates of hydro-climatic variability from those reconstructions was based largely in tree-ring proxy records. More recent work that was focused on the Pacific Northwest region of the United States employed oxygen isotope data derived from lake sediments to reconstruct winter precipitation for the last 1500 y and yielded that wet conditions prevailed in winter during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) period (900-1300 AD) and drier winters prevailed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) period (1450-1850 AD), which somewhat contradicted findings derived from tree-ring records alone. The work that we present here exploits this notion that multiple paleo-climate proxies are required for robust long-term reconstructions of precipitation. We are making a precipitation reconstruction for approximately the last millennium over a large area of land in North America spanning from approximately central Mexico to southern Canada. A Regularized Expectation Maximization (RegEM) algorithm is employed, with some modifications aimed at accommodating use of multiple types of proxy record. Some early results from this work will be presented.

  2. The twentieth century was the wettest period in northern Pakistan over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treydte, Kerstin S.; Schleser, Gerhard H.; Helle, Gerhard; Frank, David C.; Winiger, Matthias; Haug, Gerald H.; Esper, Jan

    2006-04-01

    Twentieth-century warming could lead to increases in the moisture-holding capacity of the atmosphere, altering the hydrological cycle and the characteristics of precipitation. Such changes in the global rate and distribution of precipitation may have a greater direct effect on human well-being and ecosystem dynamics than changes in temperature itself. Despite the co-variability of both of these climate variables, attention in long-term climate reconstruction has mainly concentrated on temperature changes. Here we present an annually resolved oxygen isotope record from tree-rings, providing a millennial-scale reconstruction of precipitation variability in the high mountains of northern Pakistan. The climatic signal originates mainly from winter precipitation, and is robust over ecologically different sites. Centennial-scale variations reveal dry conditions at the beginning of the past millennium and through the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, with precipitation increasing during the late nineteenth and the twentieth centuries to yield the wettest conditions of the past 1,000 years. Comparison with other long-term precipitation reconstructions indicates a large-scale intensification of the hydrological cycle coincident with the onset of industrialization and global warming, and the unprecedented amplitude argues for a human role.

  3. Ranking of tree-ring based temperature reconstructions of the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esper, Jan; Krusic, Paul J.; Ljungqvist, Fredrik C.; Luterbacher, Jürg; Carrer, Marco; Cook, Ed; Davi, Nicole K.; Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Konter, Oliver; Myglan, Vladimir; Timonen, Mauri; Treydte, Kerstin; Trouet, Valerie; Villalba, Ricardo; Yang, Bao; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-08-01

    Tree-ring chronologies are widely used to reconstruct high-to low-frequency variations in growing season temperatures over centuries to millennia. The relevance of these timeseries in large-scale climate reconstructions is often determined by the strength of their correlation against instrumental temperature data. However, this single criterion ignores several important quantitative and qualitative characteristics of tree-ring chronologies. Those characteristics are (i) data homogeneity, (ii) sample replication, (iii) growth coherence, (iv) chronology development, and (v) climate signal including the correlation with instrumental data. Based on these 5 characteristics, a reconstruction-scoring scheme is proposed and applied to 39 published, millennial-length temperature reconstructions from Asia, Europe, North America, and the Southern Hemisphere. Results reveal no reconstruction scores highest in every category and each has their own strengths and weaknesses. Reconstructions that perform better overall include N-Scan and Finland from Europe, E-Canada from North America, Yamal and Dzhelo from Asia. Reconstructions performing less well include W-Himalaya and Karakorum from Asia, Tatra and S-Finland from Europe, and Great Basin from North America. By providing a comprehensive set of criteria to evaluate tree-ring chronologies we hope to improve the development of large-scale temperature reconstructions spanning the past millennium. All reconstructions and their corresponding scores are provided at http://www.blogs.uni-mainz.de/fb09climatology.

  4. Household water treatment and the millennium development goals: keeping the focus on health.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas F

    2010-10-01

    Waterborne diseases such as diarrhea are a major killer in low-income settings, particularly of young children. For those without access to safe drinking water, household water treatment, such as boiling, chlorinating, and filtering water in the home, when combined with safe storage (HWTS) can significantly improve water quality and prevent disease, thereby contributing to the child survival and other health priorities encompassed within the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). There is uncertainly, however, about whether HWTS should count toward the MDG water target, which promotes "sustainable access to safe drinking water". This paper reviews the relevant research and concludes that it should not. Although HWTS can significantly improve water quality, it does not improve water quantity and access-key aspects of the MDG water target that are essential for optimal improvements in health and development. A policy that excludes HWTS from the MDG water target will discourage governments from diverting scarce public resources from comprehensive and long-term improvements in water supplies. At the same time, the health-oriented MDGs provide a sufficient case for scaling up effective and appropriate HWTS among target populations. Moreover, a health-based strategy for HWTS will help ensure that promotion of the intervention is driven by measurable improvements in outcomes rather than inputs, thus encouraging advances in both hardware and programmatic delivery that will make HWTS more effective, appropriate, and accessible to vulnerable populations.

  5. Simulated climate variability in the region of Rapa Nui during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junk, C.; Claussen, M.

    2011-06-01

    Rapa Nui, an isolated island in the Southeast Pacific, was settled by the Polynesians most likely around 1200 AD and was discovered by the Europeans in 1722 AD. While the Polynesians presumably found a profuse palm woodland on Rapa Nui, the Europeans faced a landscape dominated by grassland. Scientists have examined potential anthropogenic, biological and climatic induced vegetation changes on Rapa Nui. Here, we analyse observational climate data for the last decades and climate model results for the period 800-1750 AD to explore the potential for a climatic-induced vegetation change. A direct influence of the ENSO phenomenon on the climatic parameters of Rapa Nui could not be found in the model simulations. Furthermore, strong climatic trends from a warm Medieval Period to a Little Ice Age or rapid climatic fluctuations due to large volcanic eruptions were not verifiable for the Rapa Nui region, although they are detectable in the simulations for many regions world wide. Hence, we tentatively conclude that large-scale climate changes in the oceanic region around Rapa Nui might be too small to explain strong vegetation changes on the island over the last millennium.

  6. Simulated climate variability in the region of Rapa Nui during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junk, C.; Claussen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Easter Island, an isolated island in the Southeast Pacific, was settled by the Polynesians probably between 600 and 1200 AD and discovered by the Europeans in 1722 AD. While the Polynesians presumably found a profuse palm woodland on Easter Island, the Europeans faced a landscape dominated by grassland. Scientists have examined potential anthropogenic, biological and climatic induced vegetation changes on Easter Island. Here, we analyze observational climate data for the last decades and climate model results for the period 800-1750 AD to explore potential causes for a climatic-induced vegetation change. A direct influence of the ENSO phenomenon on the climatic parameters of Easter Island could not be found in the model simulations. Furthermore, strong climatic trends from a warm Medieval Period to a Little Ice Age or rapid climatic fluctuations due to large volcanic eruptions were not verifiable for the Easter Island region, although they are detectable in the simulations for many regions world wide. Hence we tentatively conclude that large-scale climate changes in the oceanic region around Easter Island might be too small to explain strong vegetation changes on the island over the last millennium.

  7. The twentieth century was the wettest period in northern Pakistan over the past millennium.

    PubMed

    Treydte, Kerstin S; Schleser, Gerhard H; Helle, Gerhard; Frank, David C; Winiger, Matthias; Haug, Gerald H; Esper, Jan

    2006-04-27

    Twentieth-century warming could lead to increases in the moisture-holding capacity of the atmosphere, altering the hydrological cycle and the characteristics of precipitation. Such changes in the global rate and distribution of precipitation may have a greater direct effect on human well-being and ecosystem dynamics than changes in temperature itself. Despite the co-variability of both of these climate variables, attention in long-term climate reconstruction has mainly concentrated on temperature changes. Here we present an annually resolved oxygen isotope record from tree-rings, providing a millennial-scale reconstruction of precipitation variability in the high mountains of northern Pakistan. The climatic signal originates mainly from winter precipitation, and is robust over ecologically different sites. Centennial-scale variations reveal dry conditions at the beginning of the past millennium and through the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, with precipitation increasing during the late nineteenth and the twentieth centuries to yield the wettest conditions of the past 1,000 years. Comparison with other long-term precipitation reconstructions indicates a large-scale intensification of the hydrological cycle coincident with the onset of industrialization and global warming, and the unprecedented amplitude argues for a human role.

  8. Teleconnected ocean forcing of Western North American droughts and pluvials during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routson, Cody C.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; McKay, Nicholas P.

    2016-08-01

    Western North America (WNA) is rich in hydroclimate reconstructions, yet questions remain about the causes of decadal-to-multidecadal hydroclimate variability. Teleconnection patterns preserved in annually-resolved tree-ring reconstructed drought maps, and anomalies in a global network of proxy sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions, were used to reassess the evidence linking ocean forcing to WNA hydroclimate variability over the past millennium. Potential forcing mechanisms of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and individual drought and pluvial events-including two multidecadal-length MCA pluvials-were evaluated. We show strong teleconnection patterns occurred during the driest (wettest) years within persistent droughts (pluvials), implicating SSTs as a potent hydroclimate forcing mechanism. The role of the SSTs on longer timescales is more complex. Pacific teleconnection patterns show little long-term change, whereas low-resolution SST reconstructions vary over decades to centuries. While weaker than the tropical Pacific teleconnections, North Atlantic teleconnection patterns and SST reconstructions also show links to WNA droughts and pluvials, and may in part account for longer-term WNA hydroclimate changes. Nonetheless, evidence linking WNA hydroclimate to SSTs still remains sparse and nuanced-especially over long-timescales with a broader range of hydroclimatic variability than characterized during the 20th century.

  9. Social Work Gerontological Practice: The Need for Faculty Development in the New Millennium.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Barbara; Silverstone, Barbara; June Simmons, W; Volland, Patricia J; Howe, Judith L

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need to upgrade the gerontological knowledge and skills of practicing social workers. Geriatrics and gerontology, as specialized fields of knowledge, have not been sufficiently integrated into formal academic training programs. There are major trends in the health care environment which impact on social work education, including technological advances, a shift from inpatient to outpatient and community care settings, increasing diversity of the older population, and client and family participation in decisionmaking. These trends necessitate social work education to emphasize new content areas in gerontology and the development of new skills in clinical, case management, care coordination, and teamwork. A significant obstacle to the preparation of future social workers to deliver the complex services needed by older adults and their families is a serious shortage of social work faculty in gerontology. Sustained and broad initiatives, such as the John A. Hartford Foundation funded Geriatric Social Work Faculty Scholars Program, are needed to develop academic and practice-based faculty in gerontology. This is crucial if social work is to maintain an important service role in the new millennium. PMID:27135560

  10. A millennium of metallurgy recorded by lake sediments from Morococha, Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Colin A; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P; Kittleson, John L

    2007-05-15

    To date, information concerning pre-Colonial metallurgy in South America has largely been limited to the archaeological record of artifacts. Here, we reconstruct a millennium of smelting activity in the Peruvian Andes using the lake-sediment stratigraphy of atmospherically derived metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Sb, Bi, and Ti) and lead isotopic ratios (206Pb/ 207Pb) associated with smelting from the Morococha mining region in the central Peruvian Andes. The earliest evidence for metallurgy occurs ca. 1000 A.D., coinciding with the fall of the Wari Empire and decentralization of local populations. Smelting during this interval appears to have been aimed at copper and copper alloys, because of large increases in Zn and Cu relative to Pb. A subsequent switch to silver metallurgy under Inca control (ca. 1450 to conquest, 1533 A.D.) is indicated by increases in Pb, Sb, and Bi, a conclusion supported by further increases of these metals during Colonial mining, which targeted silver extraction. Rapid development of the central Andes during the 20th century raised metal burdens by an order of magnitude above previous levels. Our results represent the first evidence for pre-Colonial smelting in the central Peruvian Andes, and corroborate the sensitivity of lake sediments to pre-Colonial metallurgical activity suggested by earlier findings from Bolivia. PMID:17547165

  11. A millennium of metallurgy recorded by lake sediments from Morococha, Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Colin A; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P; Kittleson, John L

    2007-05-15

    To date, information concerning pre-Colonial metallurgy in South America has largely been limited to the archaeological record of artifacts. Here, we reconstruct a millennium of smelting activity in the Peruvian Andes using the lake-sediment stratigraphy of atmospherically derived metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Sb, Bi, and Ti) and lead isotopic ratios (206Pb/ 207Pb) associated with smelting from the Morococha mining region in the central Peruvian Andes. The earliest evidence for metallurgy occurs ca. 1000 A.D., coinciding with the fall of the Wari Empire and decentralization of local populations. Smelting during this interval appears to have been aimed at copper and copper alloys, because of large increases in Zn and Cu relative to Pb. A subsequent switch to silver metallurgy under Inca control (ca. 1450 to conquest, 1533 A.D.) is indicated by increases in Pb, Sb, and Bi, a conclusion supported by further increases of these metals during Colonial mining, which targeted silver extraction. Rapid development of the central Andes during the 20th century raised metal burdens by an order of magnitude above previous levels. Our results represent the first evidence for pre-Colonial smelting in the central Peruvian Andes, and corroborate the sensitivity of lake sediments to pre-Colonial metallurgical activity suggested by earlier findings from Bolivia.

  12. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population's access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies. PMID:26891310

  13. Driving forces of global wildfires over the past millennium and the forthcoming century.

    PubMed

    Pechony, O; Shindell, D T

    2010-11-01

    Recent bursts in the incidence of large wildfires worldwide have raised concerns about the influence climate change and humans might have on future fire activity. Comparatively little is known, however, about the relative importance of these factors in shaping global fire history. Here we use fire and climate modeling, combined with land cover and population estimates, to gain a better understanding of the forces driving global fire trends. Our model successfully reproduces global fire activity record over the last millennium and reveals distinct regimes in global fire behavior. We find that during the preindustrial period, the global fire regime was strongly driven by precipitation (rather than temperature), shifting to an anthropogenic-driven regime with the Industrial Revolution. Our future projections indicate an impending shift to a temperature-driven global fire regime in the 21st century, creating an unprecedentedly fire-prone environment. These results suggest a possibility that in the future climate will play a considerably stronger role in driving global fire trends, outweighing direct human influence on fire (both ignition and suppression), a reversal from the situation during the last two centuries.

  14. Multidecadal to multicentury scale collapses of Northern Hemisphere monsoons over the past millennium.

    PubMed

    Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor J; Rasmussen, Jessica B T; Burns, Stephen J; Lachniet, Matthew

    2013-06-11

    Late Holocene climate in western North America was punctuated by periods of extended aridity called megadroughts. These droughts have been linked to cool eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here, we show both short-term and long-term climate variability over the last 1,500 y from annual band thickness and stable isotope speleothem data. Several megadroughts are evident, including a multicentury one, AD 1350-1650, herein referred to as Super Drought, which corresponds to the coldest period of the Little Ice Age. Synchronicity between southwestern North American, Chinese, and West African monsoon precipitation suggests the megadroughts were hemispheric in scale. Northern Hemisphere monsoon strength over the last millennium is positively correlated with Northern Hemisphere temperature and North Atlantic SST. The megadroughts are associated with cooler than average SST and Northern Hemisphere temperatures. Furthermore, the megadroughts, including the Super Drought, coincide with solar insolation minima, suggesting that solar forcing of sea surface and atmospheric temperatures may generate variations in the strength of Northern Hemisphere monsoons. Our findings seem to suggest stronger (wetter) Northern Hemisphere monsoons with increased warming.

  15. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Fakir Md.; Khan, Safayet; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Hussain, Sumaira; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population’s access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies. PMID:26891310

  16. Forensic anthropology: developments of a classical discipline in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-01-17

    The present brief review is a survey of the role of forensic anthropology (FA) in the new millennium. After an introduction which deals with the expanding definition of the discipline and the issue of professionality and training, the author approaches the role and novel developments of the field, with particular reference to the past 5 years. Such developments are discussed in a sectorial manner, distinguishing the role of research in the areas of forensic anthropology which deal with human remains and those that deal with the living. As regards the "human remains" domain, advances and stalls still present in the fields of species and postmortem interval determination, sexing, aging and attribution of ancestry are stressed. The need for standards in facial reconstruction and positive identification by bone morphology are underlined, as well as the growing role of the anthropologist in detecting signs of trauma. Finally, the relatively new role of the forensic anthropologist in the domain of identification of the living is described, although this area is still underrepresented as regards research activity: these studies concern the strive to devise methods for identifying faces (e.g. in the case of crimes registered by videosurveillance systems), aging living individuals or juveniles represented in pedopornographic material.

  17. SATELLITES AROUND MASSIVE GALAXIES SINCE z {approx} 2: CONFRONTING THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION WITH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Quilis, Vicent; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2012-06-20

    Minor merging has been postulated as the most likely evolutionary path to produce the increase in size and mass observed in the massive galaxies since z {approx} 2. In this Letter, we directly test this hypothesis, comparing the population of satellites around massive galaxies in cosmological simulations versus the observations. We use state-of-the-art, publically available, Millennium I and II simulations, and the associated semi-analytical galaxy catalogs to explore the time evolution of the fraction of massive galaxies that have satellites, the number of satellites per galaxy, the projected distance at which the satellites locate from the host galaxy, and the mass ratio between the host galaxies and their satellites. The three virtual galaxy catalogs considered here overproduce the fraction of galaxies with satellites by a factor ranging between 1.5 and 6 depending on the epoch, whereas the mean projected distance and ratio of the satellite mass over host mass are in closer agreement with data. The larger pull of satellites in the semi-analytical samples could suggest that the size evolution found in previous hydrodynamical simulations is an artifact due to the larger number of infalling satellites compared to the real universe. These results advise us to revise the physical ingredients implemented in the semi-analytical models in order to reconcile the observed and computed fraction of galaxies with satellites, and eventually, it would leave some room for other mechanisms explaining the galaxy size growth not related to the minor merging.

  18. [Orphans, AIDS, and the Millennium Development Goals: models and capacity to act].

    PubMed

    Kojoué Kamga, Larissa

    2009-01-01

    The impact of HIV/AIDS on children is considerable. Parental illness and loss affect their children's psychosocial, economic and family well-being, limit the children's access to basic social services and undermining their chances of survival and their future. Although these children, orphaned and vulnerable because of HIV/AIDS, present a true social crisis, they have, since the beginning of the epidemic, been largely left out of the global and national fight against AIDS. The aim of this study is to analyse the achievement of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6 through the support for these children in Africa. Using an inductive comprehensive approach based on the history of the fight against AIDS in three countries Cameroon, Uganda and South Africa, we seek to show that achievement of the MDGs is largely contextual. The weaknesses, deficiencies and policy failures of MDGs should not be treated as mere technical or local issues. They involve political and social questions that are not new. The second approach, from a top-down perspective, helped us to study the State in action. What can we learn about the State's capacity to reach the MDGs by 2015 from the care they currently provide to orphaned and vulnerable children? PMID:20185389

  19. Driving forces of global wildfires over the past millennium and the forthcoming century

    PubMed Central

    Pechony, O.; Shindell, D. T.

    2010-01-01

    Recent bursts in the incidence of large wildfires worldwide have raised concerns about the influence climate change and humans might have on future fire activity. Comparatively little is known, however, about the relative importance of these factors in shaping global fire history. Here we use fire and climate modeling, combined with land cover and population estimates, to gain a better understanding of the forces driving global fire trends. Our model successfully reproduces global fire activity record over the last millennium and reveals distinct regimes in global fire behavior. We find that during the preindustrial period, the global fire regime was strongly driven by precipitation (rather than temperature), shifting to an anthropogenic-driven regime with the Industrial Revolution. Our future projections indicate an impending shift to a temperature-driven global fire regime in the 21st century, creating an unprecedentedly fire-prone environment. These results suggest a possibility that in the future climate will play a considerably stronger role in driving global fire trends, outweighing direct human influence on fire (both ignition and suppression), a reversal from the situation during the last two centuries. PMID:20974914

  20. Impact of training on emergency resuscitation skills: Impact on Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5.

    PubMed

    Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2015-11-01

    Although significant progress has been made towards Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 and 5 targets, maternal and neonatal mortality rates remain unacceptably high in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The potential for improvements in maternal and neonatal health outcomes with increased facility utilization in these countries is undermined by a lack of appropriate and timely treatment. Skilful emergency resuscitation can be the difference between life and death; therefore, training in emergency resuscitation is essential for health-care practitioners at all levels, with regular refresher sessions to ensure skill retention. Whilst there is little robust evidence on the impact of resuscitation training interventions on practitioner skills or patient outcomes, such training interventions are likely to have the greatest impact if integrated into a broader approach to improve the quality of care. Accelerated investments in training must go hand in hand with ensuring the availability of quality equipment and upgrading infrastructure to reduce the gap between current MDG status and what is achieved by the end of 2015; and to accelerate reductions in mortality rates beyond 2015 towards new Countdown targets.

  1. Health Research and Millennium Development Goals: Identifying the Gap From Public Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    El Lawindi, Mona I; Galal, Yasmine S; Khairy, Walaa A

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the research output within the universities could provide an effective means for tracking the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) progress. This analytical database study was designed to assess the trend of research theses conducted by the Public Health Department (PHD), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University during the period 1990 to 2014 as related to the: MDGS, Faculty and department research priority plans and to identify the discrepancies between researchers' priorities versus national and international research priorities. A manual search of the theses was done at the Postgraduate Library using a specially designed checklist to chart adherence of each thesis to: MDGs, Faculty and department research plans (RPs). The theses' profile showed that the highest research output was for addressing the MDGS followed by the PHD and Faculty RPs. Compliance to MDGs 5 and 6 was obvious, whereas; MDGs 2, 3, and 7 were not represented at all after year 2000. No significant difference was found between PH theses addressing the Faculty RPs and those which were not before and after 2010. A significantly lower percent of PH theses was fulfilling the PHD research priorities compared to those which were not after 2010. This study showed a definite decline in research output tackling the MDGS and PHD research priorities, with a non-significant increase in the production of theses addressing the Faculty RPs. The present study is a practical model for policy makers within the universities to develop and implement a reliable monitoring and evaluation system for assessment of research output. PMID:26652084

  2. Detection and Attribution of the surface air temperature during last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dongdong; Zhou, Tianjun; Man, Wenmin

    2016-04-01

    An optimal detection method was employed to compare the reconstructed and model-simulated changes of surface air temperature during last millennium. Model simulations are from CESM1-CAM5, which include 28-member ensembles in total, i.e., 5-member ensembles volcanic forcing runs, 4-member ensembles solar forcing runs, 3-member ensembles forcing runs for land use, orbital, greenhouse gases, and 10-member ensembles runs from combined 5 individual external forcing. Analyses were conducted from hemispherical to continental scale. Results show that combined effect of all the external forcings can be detected for both Northern and Southern Hemisphere, and for the continent of Europe, Arctic and Antarctic. The influence of volcanic eruption and solar activity can be detected for all the hemispheres and nearly all the continents of North Hemisphere. Land use forcing can be detected for all the continents of Northern Hemisphere, but only detected for one continent of Southern Hemisphere, i.e., South America. The orbital forcing is detected for all the continents of Northern Hemisphere, but not detected for the Northern Hemisphere as whole. Influence of greenhouse gases can rarely be detected from hemispherical to continental scale.

  3. E-health in the new millennium: a research and practice agenda.

    PubMed

    Metaxiotis, Kostas; Ptochos, Dimitrios; Psarras, John

    2004-01-01

    Advances in telecommunications, automated processes, web technologies and wireless computing are already forcing dramatic changes in a variety of sectors, ranging from business and industry to education and health. Yet, the electronic business space, in a broader sense, is still in a relatively early state of evolution, and it is only recently that policy makers have started looking at the potential of applying the tools and techniques of e-commerce to the tasks of other sectors. The use of the internet as a source of health information and connectivity between healthcare providers and consumers has increased interest in e-health. E-health offers the rich potential of supplementing traditional delivery of services and channels of communication in ways that extend the healthcare organisation's ability to meet the needs of its patients. To date, some e-health applications have improved the quality of healthcare, and later they will lead to substantial cost savings. However, e-health is not simply a technology but a complex technological and relational process. In this sense, practitioners and researchers who want to successfully exploit e-health need to pay attention to various pending issues that have to be addressed. The aim of this paper is to propose a novel taxonomy for e-health research in the new millennium by instantaneously presenting the current status with some major themes of e-health research.

  4. The critical loads concept: milestone or millstone for the new millennium?

    PubMed

    Cresser, M S

    2000-04-17

    The significance of the introduction of the critical loads concept in the closing decades of the 20th century is considered critically, both in the context of its potential in planning pollution abatement strategies over a range of regional spatial and temporal scales and in terms of its more general impact upon atmospheric pollution effects research. Based upon perceived strengths and shortcomings of the concept and of the ways in which it has thus far been applied, a brief assessment is made also of its possible role in the opening decade of the new millennium. It is concluded that the validity of some of the fundamental underpinning concepts and of the data being used for their application could, and should, be questioned. Nevertheless, environmental pollution management and abatement policy planning will continue to require application of the critical loads concept or something very similar, both in existing and novel areas of application, for the sustainable management of soil and water resources in the long term.

  5. South China Sea hydrological changes and Pacific Walker Circulation variations over the last millennium.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Sun, Liguang; Oppo, Delia W; Wang, Yuhong; Liu, Zhonghui; Xie, Zhouqing; Liu, Xiaodong; Cheng, Wenhan

    2011-01-01

    The relative importance of north-south migrations of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) versus El Niño-Southern Oscillation and its associated Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC) variability for past hydrological change in the western tropical Pacific is unclear. Here we show that north-south ITCZ migration was not the only mechanism of tropical Pacific hydrologic variability during the last millennium, and that PWC variability profoundly influenced tropical Pacific hydrology. We present hydrological reconstructions from Cattle Pond, Dongdao Island of the South China Sea, where multi-decadal rainfall and downcore grain size variations are correlated to the Southern Oscillation Index during the instrumental era. Our downcore grain size reconstructions indicate that this site received less precipitation during relatively warm periods, AD 1000-1400 and AD 1850-2000, compared with the cool period (AD 1400-1850). Including our new reconstructions in a synthesis of tropical Pacific records results in a spatial pattern of hydrologic variability that implicates the PWC.

  6. 2 CFR 902.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY Reserved REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 902.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the...

  7. 2 CFR 182.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 182.645 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS GOVERNMENTWIDE.... Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military department,...

  8. Influence of external climate forcing on coastal upwelling systems analysed in ensemble of past millennium climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tim, Nele; Zorita, Eduardo; Hünicke, Birgit; Yi, Xin; Emeis, Kay

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems are highly productive coastal ocean areas where nutrient rich, cold water upwells by the action of favorable winds. Observations over the 20th century and ocean sediment records, which may be indicative of upwelling, display an intensification due to stronger external climate forcing, such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations or changes in solar irradiance. This intensification is compatible with the hypothesis put forward by Bakun (1990) that a stronger external radiative forcing should lead to a more intense coastal upwelling. Here, we analyze ensemble of simulations covering the past millennium with the aim of identifying and quantifying the role of external climate forcing on upwelling in the major Eastern Boundary Upwelling System. We analyse the decadal variability and centennial trends of upwelling in ensemble of simulations with the global climate model MPI-ESM covering the past millennium, the last 150 years and the next 100 years. The future simulations were driven by three IPCC scenarios of concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, RCP2.5, RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5. For the past millennium and the last 150 years, coastal upwelling does not show any imprint of external forcing. This result indicates that chaotic internal variability has dominated upwelling intensity in major upwelling regions over the last thousand years and even since industrialisation up to present. For the 21st century, all ensemble members show a consistent and significant intensification of upwelling in the strongest scenario RCP8.5 for the Benguela upwelling region, consistent and significant weakening for Morocco and California, and no significant change for the Peruvian upwelling. Weaker scenarios do not produce consistent long-term trends that are replicated in all ensemble members. The results are confirmed by analysing another ensemble of past millennium simulations with the model CESM-CAM5 (Community Earth System Model

  9. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  10. 38 CFR 48.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 48.645 Section 48.645 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  11. 22 CFR 208.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 208.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  12. 22 CFR 208.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 208.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  13. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  14. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  15. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  16. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  17. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  18. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  19. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  20. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  1. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  2. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  3. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  4. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  5. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  6. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  7. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  8. Staffing Smaller Police Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, David A.; Colombo, Michael

    2010-01-01

    All aspects of police work are challenging both professionally and personally. Police officers are accustomed to shift work, mandatory overtime, schedule adjustments for training, holidays and disasters, recalls and required off-duty court appearances. Police officers traditionally work eight hours per day, five day weeks (otherwise known as a 5/8…

  9. 32 CFR 1907.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1907.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Action on Challenges § 1907.22 Challenges barred by res judicata. The Executive Secretary...

  10. 32 CFR 1907.22 - Challenges barred by res judicata.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 1907.22 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO § 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Action on Challenges § 1907.22 Challenges barred by res judicata. The Executive Secretary...

  11. Developing Moral Agency through Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This paper poses the following question: When, in spite of knowing that it is wrong, people go on to hurt others, what does this mean for the development of moral agency? We begin by defining moral agency and briefly sketching relations between moral agency and other concepts. We then outline what three extant literatures suggest about this…

  12. The role and value of conservation agency research.

    PubMed

    Roux, Dirk J; Kingsford, Richard T; McCool, Stephen F; McGeoch, Melodie A; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C

    2015-06-01

    Governments charge their conservation agencies to safeguard biodiversity through protected areas and threat mitigation. Increasingly, conservation management and policy need to be supported by rigorous evidence provided by science. As such, institutional arrangements should consider and enable effective scientific research and information dissemination. What role can in-house agency research play in responding to this challenge? We examined the research capabilities of three conservation agencies from Australia, South Africa, and United States. Seven indicators were used to characterize the reliability and relevance of agency research. We found similarities among agencies in their patterns of peer-reviewed publication, cultures of research collaboration, and tendencies to align research with organizational objectives. Among the many and diverse activities that constitute the role of a contemporary agency researcher, we emphasize two key research dimensions: reliability, achieved through peer-reviewed research output, and relevance, achieved through active stakeholder engagement. Amid increasingly challenging realities for conservation of ecosystems, agency science functions are vital to providing the evidence base required for effective management and policy development. PMID:25840698

  13. The role and value of conservation agency research.

    PubMed

    Roux, Dirk J; Kingsford, Richard T; McCool, Stephen F; McGeoch, Melodie A; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C

    2015-06-01

    Governments charge their conservation agencies to safeguard biodiversity through protected areas and threat mitigation. Increasingly, conservation management and policy need to be supported by rigorous evidence provided by science. As such, institutional arrangements should consider and enable effective scientific research and information dissemination. What role can in-house agency research play in responding to this challenge? We examined the research capabilities of three conservation agencies from Australia, South Africa, and United States. Seven indicators were used to characterize the reliability and relevance of agency research. We found similarities among agencies in their patterns of peer-reviewed publication, cultures of research collaboration, and tendencies to align research with organizational objectives. Among the many and diverse activities that constitute the role of a contemporary agency researcher, we emphasize two key research dimensions: reliability, achieved through peer-reviewed research output, and relevance, achieved through active stakeholder engagement. Amid increasingly challenging realities for conservation of ecosystems, agency science functions are vital to providing the evidence base required for effective management and policy development.

  14. The Role and Value of Conservation Agency Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Dirk J.; Kingsford, Richard T.; McCool, Stephen F.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Foxcroft, Llewellyn C.

    2015-06-01

    Governments charge their conservation agencies to safeguard biodiversity through protected areas and threat mitigation. Increasingly, conservation management and policy need to be supported by rigorous evidence provided by science. As such, institutional arrangements should consider and enable effective scientific research and information dissemination. What role can in-house agency research play in responding to this challenge? We examined the research capabilities of three conservation agencies from Australia, South Africa, and United States. Seven indicators were used to characterize the reliability and relevance of agency research. We found similarities among agencies in their patterns of peer-reviewed publication, cultures of research collaboration, and tendencies to align research with organizational objectives. Among the many and diverse activities that constitute the role of a contemporary agency researcher, we emphasize two key research dimensions: reliability, achieved through peer-reviewed research output, and relevance, achieved through active stakeholder engagement. Amid increasingly challenging realities for conservation of ecosystems, agency science functions are vital to providing the evidence base required for effective management and policy development.

  15. La Niña-Induced Rainfall Events in East Java, Indonesia During the Past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunghino, B.; Rodysill, J. R.; Russell, J. M.; Bijaksana, S.

    2012-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern oscillation and associated changes in the Walker Circulation are major controls on variability in precipitation and convection across the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite the importance of these phenomena to Pacific, as well as global rainfall, there is considerable debate over whether radiative heating of the tropical Pacific Ocean enhances or reduces Walker Circulation strength and ENSO variability. Paleolimnological reconstructions from Peru (Moy et al., 2002, Nature) and the Galapagos (Conroy et al., 2008, Quat. Sci. Rev.) suggest large variations in precipitation and surface runoff driven by El Niño events during the past millennium at one of ENSO's centers of action in the eastern Pacific. However, these records are rectified signals in that they unable to record ENSO's other phase, La Niña, which results in anomalously high rainfall in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool region. To gain new perspective on the history of rainfall on the western end of the Walker Circulation over the last 1,200 years, we present a new record of runoff from the southwestern edge of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool. Our runoff record is constructed with grain size and magnetic susceptibility data from a sediment core from Lake Lading, located in East Java, Indonesia. This core consists of laminated sediments accumulating at 0.45 cm/yr, allowing us to reconstruct surface runoff at 2.2 yr resolution. Runoff events preserved in the well-dated core-top sediments correspond to high monthly rainfall anomalies in instrumental data, and all runoff events between 1950 and 2010 occur during La Niña years. Our data suggests highly variable surface runoff over the past millennium at the multi-decadal timescale, but indicates relatively weak variability at the multi-centennial band, i.e. the well-known Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). During the Medieval Climate Anomaly, when the Asian Summer Monsoon was strong, variations in surface runoff appear to be

  16. Global Emissions of Terpenoid VOCs from Terrestrial Vegetation in the Last Millennium

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, Alex B.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-06-16

    We investigated the millennial variability of global BVOC emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene and Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ8 GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have signicant short term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during during 1750-1850 and 1000- 15 1200, respectively) and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1 (15% and 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1 (10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% 19 20 less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1 (10% and 4% higher than during1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar We investigated the millennial variability of global BVOC emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene and Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ8GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends ofglobal isoprene emissions to be mostly a*ected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid

  17. Monsoon dynamics over the past millennium on the southern-central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlborn, Marieke; Haberzettl, Torsten; Kasper, Thomas; Henkel, Karoline; Doberschütz, Stefan; Daut, Gerhard; Reinwarth, Bastian; Ju, Jianting; Wang, Junbo; Zhu, Liping; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has experienced abrupt climate change superimposed by a gradual weakening of the summer monsoon systems during the Holocene. Although lake sediment records from the Tibetan Plateau are considered to be particularly sensitive to climate variations a holistic picture of the spatial and temporal monsoon evolution is still lacking due to the interplay of different moisture-transporting wind systems (Indian summer monsoon, East Asian summer monsoon, Westerlies). Closing this data gap is important since the Tibetan Plateau is a key area for understanding the climate evolution and its impact on the availability of current and future water resources in Central Asia. Hence, well-dated and high-resolution records are essential to improve the understanding of the spatial and temporal monsoonal evolution. To investigate the hydrological cycle indicating past monsoon variability on the southern-central Tibetan Plateau, records of several lakes were studied along an E-W-transect including Nam Co, Tangra Yumco, Taro Co and a small lake named TT Lake. In this study, a high-resolution sediment record from TT Lake (31.10° N, 86.57° E; 4,745 m asl) was investigated to reveal monsoonal dynamics and northern hemispheric climate oscillations over the past millennium. The 9 m deep TT Lake has a surface area of ~14,500 sqm and is located ~1,500 m west and 205 m above the recent western shoreline of Tangra Yumco. Terraces of former lake level highstands indicate that the TT Lake was part of the Tangra Yumco, but the timing remains unknown. Three sediment gravity cores, obtained in 2011 and 2012, were investigated with geochemical and sedimentological methods. By now a sedimentological core description, magnetic susceptibility data, radiocarbon age determinations, XRF scanning data, and grain size data are available. Further bio-geochemical as well as magnetostratigraphic analyses are in progress. The sedimentological description of the 50 to 89 cm long cores revealed

  18. First dairying in green Saharan Africa in the fifth millennium BC.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Julie; Evershed, Richard P; Salque, Mélanie; Cramp, Lucy; Bruni, Silvia; Ryan, Kathleen; Biagetti, Stefano; di Lernia, Savino

    2012-06-21

    In the prehistoric green Sahara of Holocene North Africa-in contrast to the Neolithic of Europe and Eurasia-a reliance on cattle, sheep and goats emerged as a stable and widespread way of life, long before the first evidence for domesticated plants or settled village farming communities. The remarkable rock art found widely across the region depicts cattle herding among early Saharan pastoral groups, and includes rare scenes of milking; however, these images can rarely be reliably dated. Although the faunal evidence provides further confirmation of the importance of cattle and other domesticates, the scarcity of cattle bones makes it impossible to ascertain herd structures via kill-off patterns, thereby precluding interpretations of whether dairying was practiced. Because pottery production begins early in northern Africa the potential exists to investigate diet and subsistence practices using molecular and isotopic analyses of absorbed food residues. This approach has been successful in determining the chronology of dairying beginning in the 'Fertile Crescent' of the Near East and its spread across Europe. Here we report the first unequivocal chemical evidence, based on the δ(13)C and Δ(13)C values of the major alkanoic acids of milk fat, for the adoption of dairying practices by prehistoric Saharan African people in the fifth millennium bc. Interpretations are supported by a new database of modern ruminant animal fats collected from Africa. These findings confirm the importance of 'lifetime products', such as milk, in early Saharan pastoralism, and provide an evolutionary context for the emergence of lactase persistence in Africa. PMID:22722200

  19. Going Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: An Index System of Human Dependence on Ecosystem Services

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wu; Dietz, Thomas; Liu, Wei; Luo, Junyan; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) estimated that two thirds of ecosystem services on the earth have degraded or are in decline due to the unprecedented scale of human activities during recent decades. These changes will have tremendous consequences for human well-being, and offer both risks and opportunities for a wide range of stakeholders. Yet these risks and opportunities have not been well managed due in part to the lack of quantitative understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. Here, we propose an index of dependence on ecosystem services (IDES) system to quantify human dependence on ecosystem services. We demonstrate the construction of the IDES system using household survey data. We show that the overall index and sub-indices can reflect the general pattern of households' dependences on ecosystem services, and their variations across time, space, and different forms of capital (i.e., natural, human, financial, manufactured, and social capitals). We support the proposition that the poor are more dependent on ecosystem services and further generalize this proposition by arguing that those disadvantaged groups who possess low levels of any form of capital except for natural capital are more dependent on ecosystem services than those with greater control of capital. The higher value of the overall IDES or sub-index represents the higher dependence on the corresponding ecosystem services, and thus the higher vulnerability to the degradation or decline of corresponding ecosystem services. The IDES system improves our understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. It also provides insights into strategies for alleviating poverty, for targeting priority groups of conservation programs, and for managing risks and opportunities due to changes of ecosystem services at multiple scales. PMID:23717634

  20. Tree ring effects and ice core acidities clarify the volcanic record of the first millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillie, M. G. L.; McAneney, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 Plummer et al., in presenting the volcanic chronology of the Antarctic Law Dome ice core, chose to list connections to acid layers in other ice cores and also possible chronological coincidences between ice acid dates and the precise dates of frost damage, and/or reduced growth in North American bristlecone pines. We disagree with the chronological links indicated by Plummer et al. for the period before AD 700, and in this paper we show that a case can be made that better linkages between ice acid and tree ring effects occur for this period if the ice chronologies are systematically moved forward by around 7 years, consistent with a hypothesis published by Baillie in 2008. In the paper we seek to explore the proposition that frost damage rings in North American bristlecone pines are a very useful indicator of the dates of certain large explosive volcanic eruptions; the dating of major eruptions being critical for any clear understanding of volcanic forcing. This paper cannot prove that there is an error in the Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05), and in equivalent ice chronologies from the Antarctic, however, it does provide a coherent argument for an apparent ice dating offset. If the suggested offset were to prove correct it would be necessary to locate where the error occurs in the ice chronologies and in this regard the dating of the increasingly controversial Icelandic Eldgjá eruption in the AD 930s, and the China/Korean Millennium eruption which occurs some 7 years after Eldgjá, may well be critical. In addition, if the offset were to be substantiated it would have implications for the alleged identification of tephra at 429.3 m in the Greenland GRIP core, currently attributed to the Italian volcano Vesuvius and used as a critical zero error point in the GICC05 chronology.