Science.gov

Sample records for agency regional oxidant

  1. LATIN--Latin American Regional News Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, John Spicer

    The establishment of a regional news agency for Latin America to improve the balance of news flow and increase the transmission of news more applicable to regional problems has often been proposed. Despite wide acceptance of the concept, the birth of the Third World's first regional news agency, Agencia Latinoamericana de Informacion (LATIN), has…

  2. Regional variations in burnout rates in a natural resources agency.

    PubMed

    Ihrke, Douglas M; Johnson, Theresa L

    2002-01-01

    This study explores employee burnout within and across the four administrative regions of the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) based on the hypothesis that burnout levels will vary systematically with workload levels. Approximately 1100 District Conservationists (DCs), the front-line operating officers of the NRCS, were surveyed. Results indicate significant variation in workload and burnout levels but no significant association between these two variables within and across regions. Further analysis revealed that a number of important variables help to explain burnout across regions including job design, functional unit cooperation, and adequate staffing. Within regions, the variables that explain burnout are under the categories of leadership, job design, human resource systems, and agency policy. The authors make use of the research findings to develop a set of organization development (OD) recommendations to help the agency deal with burnout within and across regions.

  3. 77 FR 24952 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Regional Haze...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... ICR (August 26, 2009; 74 FR 43118). The last collection request anticipated the program progressing... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Regional Haze... organizations and facilities potentially regulated under the regional haze rule. Title: Regional...

  4. 75 FR 4411 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Department of the Interior Regional Climate Science...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    .... III. Request for Comments On November 19, 2009, we published a Federal Register notice (74 FR 59989...: Hello, and thank you for your comment on Federal Register document, FR Doc. E9-27780. This response... Regional Climate Science Centers AGENCY: United States Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION:...

  5. 7 CFR 210.30 - State agency and Regional office addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 210.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Provisions § 210.30 State agency and Regional office addresses. School food authorities and schools desiring... Office at the address or telephone number listed on the FNS Web site (www.fns.usda.gov/cnd)....

  6. 7 CFR 210.30 - State agency and Regional office addresses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 210.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Provisions § 210.30 State agency and Regional office addresses. School food authorities and schools desiring... Office at the address or telephone number listed on the FNS Web site (www.fns.usda.gov/cnd)....

  7. 78 FR 54813 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maine; Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Nitrogen Exemption and Ozone Transport Region Restructuring AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...; Oxides of Nitrogen Exemption and Ozone Transport Region Restructuring (August 5, 2013). The EPA...

  8. The First Phase of the English Regional Development Agencies' Skills Work: A Report on a Small-Scale Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drodge, Stephen

    A study of three Regional Development Agencies (RDAs) traced development of the skills element of their RES [Regional Economic Strategy] and their progress toward an action plan for skills to implement their strategic objectives. The process involved creating a forum on skills; producing a consultation draft skills strategy; and producing a final…

  9. Increased oxidative stress in barn swallows from the Chernobyl region.

    PubMed

    Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders Pape; Caprioli, Manuela; Saino, Nicola

    2010-02-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident produced the largest unintended release of radionuclides in history, with dramatic consequences for humans and other organisms. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to reduce circulating and stored levels of specific antioxidants in birds and humans, thus potentially increasing oxidative stress. However, overall effects of radioactive exposure on oxidative status have never been investigated in any free ranging vertebrate. We measured plasma antioxidant capacity and concentration of reactive oxygen metabolites in adult barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from colonies with variable background radiation levels in the Chernobyl region in Ukraine and Belarus. We predicted that antioxidants would decrease while reactive oxygen metabolites would increase with exposure to increasing levels of radiation at the breeding sites. Consistent with this expectation, radiation level positively predicted plasma concentration of reactive oxygen metabolites, whereas no significant covariation was found with non-enzymatic plasma antioxidant capacity. An index of oxidative stress was also larger in barn swallows exposed to high contamination levels. Thus, radioactive contamination appeared to be responsible for the increased generation of reactive oxygen metabolites and the imbalance between reactive oxygen metabolites and non-enzymatic plasma antioxidant capacity.

  10. Model of health? Distributed preparedness and multi-agency interventions surrounding UK regional airports.

    PubMed

    Warren, Adam; Bell, Morag; Budd, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    The liberalisation of the European aviation sector has multiplied paths of entry into the United Kingdom (UK) for the international traveller. These changing mobilities necessitate a reconceptualisation of the border as a series of potentially vulnerable nodes occurring within, and extending beyond, national boundaries. In this paper, we consider the border through the lens of port health, the collective term for various sanitary operations enacted at international transport terminals. In the UK, a critical player in the oversight of port health is the Health Protection Agency (HPA), which became a non-Departmental public body in 2005. A major part of port health is preparedness, a set of techniques aimed at managing, and responding to, emergencies of public health concern. More recently, certain jurisdictions have embarked on public health preparedness work across a number of different geographical scales. Using methods pioneered by the military, this form of 'distributed preparedness' is of increased interest to social science and medical scholars. With reference to case studies conducted in localities surrounding two UK regional airports following the 2009-10 H1N1 influenza pandemic, we consider the extent to which distributed preparedness as a concept and a set of practices can inform current debates - in the UK, and beyond - concerning interventions at the border 'within'.

  11. Nitrogen oxides in the troposphere - Global and regional budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The cycle of nitrogen oxides in the troposphere is discussed from both global and regional perspectives. Global sources for NO(x) are estimated to be of magnitude 50 (+ or - 25) x 10 to the 12th gm N/yr. Nitrogen oxides are derived from combustion of fossil fuels (40 percent) and biomass burning (25 percent) with the balance from lightning and microbial activity in soils. Estimates for the rate of removal of NOx based on recent atmospheric and precipitation chemistry data are consistent with global source strengths derived here. Industrial and agricultural activities provide approximately two thirds of the global source for NOx. In North America, sources from combustion of fossil fuels exceed natural sources by a factor of 3-13. Wet deposition removes about one third of the combustion source of NOx over North America, while dry deposition removes a similar amount. The balance is exported from the continent. Deposition of nitrate in precipitation over eastern Canada and the western Atlantic is clearly influenced by sources of NOx in the eastern United States.

  12. A Network for Educational Change in the Great Lakes Region: A View through the Lens of Educational Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Randal E.; Svedkauskaite, Asta

    2008-01-01

    The major purpose of this descriptive report is to provide an overview of the structure, capacity, and roles of educational service agencies (ESAs) across five states--Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin--in the Great Lakes region, within the context of the broader statewide systems of support for educational improvement and progress.…

  13. Predictors of Academic Success for the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination and the Southern Regional Testing Agency Clinical Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efurd, Melissa G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose for conducting this study was to investigate and describe the relationship between applicant criteria for a dental hygiene program and subsequent outcomes on credentialing exams: the National Board Dental Hygiene Exam and the Southern Regional Testing Agency clinical exam. Because admission criteria play a crucial role in applicant…

  14. 32 CFR 775.10 - Relations with state, local and regional agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... which have been established pursuant to Executive Order 12372 of July 14, 1982 (3 CFR, 1982 Comp., p... proponent may gain insights on other agencies' approaches to environmental assessments, surveys, and...

  15. 77 FR 4862 - Agency Requests for Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection: SBTRC Regional Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ...) highlights activities such as counseling, marketing, meetings/ conferences, and services to businesses as... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Quarterly Report Form (DOT F 4502) AGENCY: Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization...

  16. Mapping regional soil water erosion risk in the Brittany-Loire basin for water management agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degan, Francesca; Cerdan, Olivier; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Gautier, Jean-Noël

    2014-05-01

    Soil water erosion is one of the main degradation processes that affect soils through the removal of soil particles from the surface. The impacts for environment and agricultural areas are diverse, such as water pollution, crop yield depression, organic matter loss and reduction in water storage capacity. There is therefore a strong need to produce maps at the regional scale to help environmental policy makers and soil and water management bodies to mitigate the effect of water and soil pollution. Our approach aims to model and map soil erosion risk at regional scale (155 000 km²) and high spatial resolution (50 m) in the Brittany - Loire basin. The factors responsible for soil erosion are different according to the spatial and time scales considered. The regional scale entails challenges about homogeneous data sets availability, spatial resolution of results, various erosion processes and agricultural practices. We chose to improve the MESALES model (Le Bissonnais et al., 2002) to map soil erosion risk, because it was developed specifically for water erosion in agricultural fields in temperate areas. The MESALES model consists in a decision tree which gives for each combination of factors the corresponding class of soil erosion risk. Four factors that determine soil erosion risk are considered: soils, land cover, climate and topography. The first main improvement of the model consists in using newly available datasets that are more accurate than the initial ones. The datasets used cover all the study area homogeneously. Soil dataset has a 1/1 000 000 scale and attributes such as texture, soil type, rock fragment and parent material are used. The climate dataset has a spatial resolution of 8 km and a temporal resolution of mm/day for 12 years. Elevation dataset has a spatial resolution of 50 m. Three different land cover datasets are used where the finest spatial resolution is 50 m over three years. Using these datasets, four erosion factors are characterized and

  17. How Eight State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Identify and Support Low-Performing Schools and Districts. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 068

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergert, Leslie F.; Gleason, Sonia Caus; Urbano, Carole

    2009-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the report, "How Eight State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Identify and Support Low-Performing Schools and Districts." This larger report describes and analyzes how eight state education agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New…

  18. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  19. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  20. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  1. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  2. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  3. 77 FR 50520 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Regional Center Under the Immigrant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... public comment period was previously published in the Federal Register on May 10, 2012, at 77 FR 27473... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Application... Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) will be submitting the...

  4. A Third Party Evaluation of the Region V, Regional Education Service Agency, Career Oriented Education Program: 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Floyd L.; Hartnett, Richard A.

    A comprehensive third-party evaluation of a regional career education project covering an eight-county area in West Virginia focused on the project's most recent year of operation (1975-76). The evaluation attempted to measure the degree of attainment of stated goals and objectives and was designed to develop a guide and lend direction to local…

  5. Health education and agency: a comprehensive program for young women in the Mixteca region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Venguer, Tere; Pick, Susan; Fishbein, Martin

    2007-08-01

    The Si yo estoy bien, mi familia también ("If I am OK then so is my family") is a health and agency education program that was provided over a period of 3 years to 39,000 rural women in Oaxaca, Mexico. The purpose of the article is to describe the development, implementation and evaluation of the program. The theoretical rationale and strategy of this intervention are described, as well as the construction of the program and the implementation. Moreover, an evaluation of the various stages of the program is provided, to enable an assessment of its efficacy, and the scope for dissemination and scaling up.

  6. Determination of a kinetic region in catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sultanov, M. Y.; Sadykhova, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    The catalytic activity of cupric oxide activated with ceric oxide in a braod interval of volumetric velocities was investigated. It was determined that for practical catalysts used in the diffuse region, dilution of the active substance by an inert diluent increases the effectiveness of the catalysts.

  7. Climate change collaboration among natural resource management agencies: lessons learned from two US regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemieux, Christopher J.; Thompson, Jessica; Slocombe, D. Scott; Schuster, Rudy

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that regional collaboration can facilitate adaptation to climate change impacts through integrated planning and management. In an attempt to understand the underlying institutional factors that either support or contest this assumption, this paper explores the institutional factors influencing adaptation to climate change at the regional scale, where multiple public land and natural resource management jurisdictions are involved. Insights from two mid-western US case studies reveal that several challenges to collaboration persist and prevent fully integrative multi-jurisdictional adaptation planning at a regional scale. We propose that some of these challenges, such as lack of adequate time, funding and communication channels, be reframed as opportunities to build interdependence, identify issue-linkages and collaboratively explore the nature and extent of organisational trade-offs with respect to regional climate change adaptation efforts. Such a reframing can better facilitate multi-jurisdictional adaptation planning and management of shared biophysical resources generally while simultaneously enhancing organisational capacity to mitigate negative effects and take advantage of potentially favourable future conditions in an era characterised by rapid climate change.

  8. A multi-agency sutrient dataset used to estimate loads, improve monitoring design, and calibrate regional sutrient SPARROW models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saad, David A.; Schwarz, Gregory; Robertson, Dale M.; Booth, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    Stream-loading information was compiled from federal, state, and local agencies, and selected universities as part of an effort to develop regional SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models to help describe the distribution, sources, and transport of nutrients in streams throughout much of the United States. After screening, 2,739 sites, sampled by 73 agencies, were identified as having suitable data for calculating long-term mean annual nutrient loads required for SPARROW model calibration. These sites had a wide range in nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields, and environmental characteristics in their basins. An analysis of the accuracy in load estimates relative to site attributes indicated that accuracy in loads improve with increases in the number of observations, the proportion of uncensored data, and the variability in flow on observation days, whereas accuracy declines with increases in the root mean square error of the water-quality model, the flow-bias ratio, the number of days between samples, the variability in daily streamflow for the prediction period, and if the load estimate has been detrended. Based on compiled data, all areas of the country had recent declines in the number of sites with sufficient water-quality data to compute accurate annual loads and support regional modeling analyses. These declines were caused by decreases in the number of sites being sampled and data not being entered in readily accessible databases.

  9. Use of wetlands under USEPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) Region 5 Clean Lakes Program. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, J.C.

    1989-05-01

    The EPA's Region V Clean Lakes Program uses several wetlands for controlling degradation of publicly owned, freshwater lakes. The study seeks to determine if the objectives of the Clean Lakes Program are being met by this use of wetlands, and if appropriate institutional arrangements and management techniques are being implemented to manage the wetlands. Conclusions regarding Revion V's use and management of wetlands include: wetland projects are not being monitored adequately for effectiveness and potential negative impacts on ecosystems; other mechanisms which may help to protect wetlands are being employed; management of most wetland projects is decentralized appropriately; most of the wetland projects provide for adequate short-term mass balance studies, prior sedimentation, plant species diversity, water level, retention time, uniform flow of water, and upland pollutant management; and existing evidence suggests that the Clean Lakes wetland projects are instrumental in meeting Program goals and objectives. Based on these conclusions several recommendations for improving wetlands management are reviewed.

  10. A Multi-Agency Nutrient Dataset Used to Estimate Loads, Improve Monitoring Design, and Calibrate Regional Nutrient SPARROW Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saad, D.A.; Schwarz, G.E.; Robertson, D.M.; Booth, N.L.

    2011-01-01

    Stream-loading information was compiled from federal, state, and local agencies, and selected universities as part of an effort to develop regional SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models to help describe the distribution, sources, and transport of nutrients in streams throughout much of the United States. After screening, 2,739 sites, sampled by 73 agencies, were identified as having suitable data for calculating long-term mean annual nutrient loads required for SPARROW model calibration. These sites had a wide range in nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields, and environmental characteristics in their basins. An analysis of the accuracy in load estimates relative to site attributes indicated that accuracy in loads improve with increases in the number of observations, the proportion of uncensored data, and the variability in flow on observation days, whereas accuracy declines with increases in the root mean square error of the water-quality model, the flow-bias ratio, the number of days between samples, the variability in daily streamflow for the prediction period, and if the load estimate has been detrended. Based on compiled data, all areas of the country had recent declines in the number of sites with sufficient water-quality data to compute accurate annual loads and support regional modeling analyses. These declines were caused by decreases in the number of sites being sampled and data not being entered in readily accessible databases. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Probing the interfacial region in polymer-graphene oxide nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, Michael; Boothroyd, Stephen; Johnson, David; Thompson, Richard; Clarke, Nigel; Coleman, Karl

    2015-03-01

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials are excellent candidates as filler materials in nanocomposites due to their extraordinary physical properties and high aspect ratio. We are studying graphene oxide (GO), a highly functionalized form of graphene, due to its relative ease of dispersion within polymer matrices. Interruptions to the pristine two-dimensional carbon network by oxygen-containing groups, which provide functionality, also make GO rather flexible. In this paper we show that GO is wrinkled and rough over a hierarchy of length scales from a few nanometers to a few microns, when it is incorporated in composites with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS). Small-angle neutron scattering measurements, highlighting individual polymer chains, show a decrease in polymer radius of gyration with increasing GO concentration in PMMA/GO nanocomposites. The decrease is consistent with models of a solid interface in a polymer melt. The interface influences the polymer matrix within an interfacial volume stretching on the order of one polymer radius of gyration from the surface. This work is a direct measurement of the effect of the nanofiller upon the polymer matrix and progresses our understanding of interfacial interactions within nanocomposites.

  12. Diurnal and seasonal effects in E region low-latitude nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, A. I.; Cravens, T. E.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of nitric oxide in the lower E region made by the ultraviolet nitric oxide experiment on Atmosphere Explorer C during 1974 are used to demonstrate diurnal and seasonal effects at low latitudes. At the equator, NO increases by about a factor of 2 between sunrise and the early afternoon: this is followed by a small decline toward sunset. Seasonally, NO shows an asymmetry about the equator with more NO on the summer side than on the winter side; at equinox the asymmetry vanishes. These effects are in qualitative accord with the current theoretical understanding of thermospheric nitric oxide.

  13. Differential oxidative stress and DNA damage in rat brain regions and blood following chronic arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Mishra, D; Flora, S J S

    2008-05-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning caused by contaminated drinking water is a wide spread and worldwide problem particularly in India and Bangladesh. One of the possible mechanisms suggested for arsenic toxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study was planned 1) to evaluate if chronic exposure to arsenic leads to oxidative stress in blood and brain - parts of male Wistar rats and 2) to evaluate which brain region of the exposed animals was more sensitive to oxidative injury. Male Wistar rats were exposed to arsenic (50A ppm sodium arsenite in drinking water) for 10A months. The brain was dissected into five major parts, pons medulla, corpus striatum, cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. A number of biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress were studied in blood and different brain regions. Single-strand DNA damage using comet assay was also assessed in lymphocytes. We observed a significant increase in blood and brain ROS levels accompanied by the depletion of GSH/GSSG ratio and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in different brain regions of arsenic-exposed rats. Chronic arsenic exposure also caused significant single-strand DNA damage in lymphocytes as depicted by comet with a tail in arsenic-exposed cells compared with the control cells. On the basis of results, we concluded that the cortex region of the brain was more sensitive to oxidative injury compared with the other regions studied. The present study, thus, leads us to suggest that arsenic induces differential oxidative stress in brain regions with cortex followed by hippocampus and causes single-strand DNA damage in lymphocytes.

  14. Recent Advances in High-Resolution Regional Climate Modeling at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Bullock, O. Russell; Herwehe, Jerold; Spero, Tanya; Nolte, Christopher; Mallard, Megan

    2014-05-01

    The Regional Climate Modeling Team at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been improving the quality of regional climate fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Active areas of research include improving core physics within the WRF model and adapting the physics for regional climate applications, improving the representation of inland lakes that are unresolved by the driving fields, evaluating nudging strategies, and devising techniques to demonstrate value added by dynamical downscaling. These research efforts have been conducted using reanalysis data as driving fields, and then their results have been applied to downscale data from global climate models. The goals of this work are to equip environmental managers and policy/decision makers in the U.S. with science, tools, and data to inform decisions related to adapting to and mitigating the potential impacts of climate change on air quality, ecosystems, and human health. Our presentation will focus mainly on one area of the Team's research: Development and testing of a seamless convection parameterization scheme. For the continental U.S., one of the impediments to high-resolution (~3 to 15 km) climate modeling is related to the lack of a seamless convection parameterization that works across many scales. Since many convection schemes are not developed to work at those "gray scales", they often lead to excessive precipitation during warm periods (e.g., summer). The Kain-Fritsch (KF) convection parameterization in the WRF model has been updated such that it can be used seamlessly across spatial scales down to ~1 km grid spacing. First, we introduced subgrid-scale cloud and radiation interactions that had not been previously considered in the KF scheme. Then, a scaling parameter was developed to introduce scale-dependency in the KF scheme for use with various processes. In addition, we developed new formulations for: (1) convective adjustment timescale; (2) entrainment of

  15. How Eight State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Identify and Support Low-Performing Schools and Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 068

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergert, Leslie F.; Gleason, Sonia Caus; Urbano, Carole

    2009-01-01

    This report describes and analyzes how eight state education agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, and Vermont) identify and support low-performing schools and districts under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Data collection for the report…

  16. How State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Support Data-Driven Decisionmaking in Districts and Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 072. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle A.; Brett, Jessica; Kagle, Melissa; Midouhas, Emily; Sanchez, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The report examines the initiatives of state education agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont, and the Virgin Islands) to support data-driven decisionmaking in districts and schools and describes the service providers hired to support this work. Four…

  17. How State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Support Data-Driven Decisionmaking in Districts and Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 072

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle A.; Brett, Jessica; Kagle, Melissa; Midouhas, Emily; Sanchez, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The report examines the initiatives of state education agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region to support data-driven decisionmaking in districts and schools and describes the service providers hired to support this work. Four components of data-driven decisionmaking initiatives are identified: (1) Centralized data system/warehouse; (2) Tools…

  18. Spectral characteristics of the iron oxides with application to the Martian bright region mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, D. M.; Burns, R. G.; Mee Burns, V.

    1982-01-01

    Reflectance spectra of eight polymorphs of FeOOH and Fe2O3 are determined in order to clarify the nature and significance of the iron oxide mineralogy on Mars. The effect of other components that might interfere with iron oxide absorption features is qualitatively constrained through the use of the Kebulka-Munk theory. It is found that the effect of temperature complicates the identification of a given Fe(3+) phase based on the position of the 6A1-4T1 absorption feature. While the Fe(3+) crystal field transitions are spin forbidden, most of the iron oxide polymorphs exhibit anomalously intense crystal field absorption features due to magnetic coupling between adjacent FeO6 octahedra. It is suggested that the resulting deviations from observed remotely sensed reflectance spectra of Mars may provide a basis for the exclusion of many iron oxide phases as significant components of the Martian Fe(3+) mineralogy. A comparison of these results with the visible region spectra of Martian bright regions indicates that the predominant Fe(3+)-bearing phase may be a magnetically disordered material, such as amorphous gels, some ferric sulphates, and other minerals in which Fe(3+) ions in the crystal structure are not magnetically coupled.

  19. Macrophage nitric oxide synthase gene: two upstream regions mediate induction by interferon gamma and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, C J; Alley, E W; Raval, P; Snowman, A M; Snyder, S H; Russell, S W; Murphy, W J

    1993-01-01

    The promoter region of the mouse gene for macrophage-inducible nitric oxide synthase (mac-NOS; EC 1.14.13.39) has been characterized. A putative TATA box is 30 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. Computer analysis reveals numerous potential binding sites for transcription factors, many of them associated with stimuli that induce mac-NOS expression. To localize functionally important portions of the regulatory region, we constructed deletion mutants of the mac-NOS 5' flanking region and placed them upstream of a luciferase reporter gene. The macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, when transfected with a minimal promoter construct, expresses little luciferase activity when stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), or both. Maximal expression depends on two discrete regulatory regions upstream of the putative TATA box. Region I (position -48 to -209) increases luciferase activity approximately 75-fold over the minimal promoter construct. Region I contains LPS-related responsive elements, including a binding site for nuclear factor interleukin 6 (NF-IL6) and the kappa B binding site for NF-kappa B, suggesting that this region regulates LPS-induced expression of the mac-NOS gene. Region II (position -913 to -1029) alone does not increase luciferase expression, but together with region I it causes an additional 10-fold increase in expression. Together the two regions increase expression 750-fold over activity obtained from a minimal promoter construct. Region II contains motifs for binding IFN-related transcription factors and thus probably is responsible for IFN-mediated regulation of LPS-induced mac-NOS. Delineation of these two cooperative regions explains at the level of transcription how IFN-gamma and LPS act in concert to induce maximally the mac-NOS gene and, furthermore, how IFN-gamma augments the inflammatory response to LPS. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7692452

  20. Effect of oxidation state on Bi mineral speciation in oxidized and reduced granitoids from the Uetsu region, NE Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumino, Yuya; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Nakashima, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bismuth (Bi) mineral speciation and redox state in three types of granitoids from the Uetsu region, northeast Japan is investigated. Electron microprobe analysis of Bi minerals, sphalerite, Mg-Fe-bearing carbonate minerals, and muscovite, as well as sulfur isotope analysis of sulfide minerals and microthermometric study of fluid inclusions reveal that Bi mineral speciation varies according to the redox state of the granitoids. For example, native bismuth and bismuthinite are abundant and Bi sulfosalts are rare in the lowest fS2 and fO2 mineralized zones of the reduced Iwafune granite (S-type, ilmenite-series) while Bi sulfosalts (Bi3+) are abundant and trace amounts of native bismuth (Bi0) and bismuthinite are found in the highest fS2 and fO2 mineralized zones of the oxidized Wasada granodiorite (I-type, magnetite-series). Bismuthinite is a major Bi mineral, and native bismuth and Bi sulfosalts occur in only minor amounts in the mineralized zones of the Nishitagawa granodiorite (I-type, ilmenite-series), which has intermediate fS2 and fO2 to that of the Iwafune and Wasada samples. Our study indicates that Bi mineral speciation related to granitic intrusive activity is controlled by the redox state of the magmatism, such that native bismuth is typical of reducing conditions, whereas Bi sulfosalts are typical of oxidizing conditions.

  1. Sciatic nerve transection modulates oxidative parameters in spinal and supraspinal regions.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Taína; Bosco, Lidiane Dal; Guedes, Renata P; Pavanato, Maria Amália; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Partata, Wania A

    2013-05-01

    Neuropathic pain is a very common dysfunction caused by several types of nerve injury. This condition leads to a variety of pathological changes in central nervous system regions related to pain transmission. It has been demonstrated that nociception is modulated by reactive oxidative species and treatments with antioxidant compounds produce antinociceptive effects. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate oxidative parameters in spinal and supraspinal regions following sciatic nerve transection (SNT). In behavioral assessments, animals showed mechanical allodynia and a significant functional impairment following SNT, measured by von Frey hairs test and sciatic functional index, respectively. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased 3 and 7 days following SNT in cerebral cortex and brainstem. Catalase activity was also increased in cerebral cortex 3 days after SNT. Ascorbic acid levels were decreased 7 days in the spinal cord only in SNT group. We also showed an increase in lipid peroxidation in cerebral cortex and brainstem 3 days after surgery in SNT and sham groups. These results showed that supraspinal regions also exhibit changes in antioxidant activity after SNT and demonstrate an intricate relationship among antioxidant defenses in different regions of the neuro axis related to pain transmission. PMID:23423532

  2. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  3. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  4. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-11-10

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  5. Nitric oxide in star-forming regions: further evidence for interstellar N-O bonds.

    PubMed

    Ziurys, L M; McGonagle, D; Minh, Y; Irvine, W M

    1991-06-01

    Nitric oxide has been newly detected towards several star-forming clouds, including Orion-KL, Sgr B2(N), W33A, W51M, and DR21(OH) via its J = 3/2 --> 1/2 transitions near 150 GHz, using the FCRAO 14 m telescope. Both lambda-doubling components of NO were observed towards all sources. Column densities derived for nitric oxide in these clouds are N approximately 10(15)-10(16) cm-2, corresponding to fractional abundances of f approximately 0.5-1.0 x 10(-8), relative to H2. Towards Orion-KL, the NO line profile suggests that the species arises primarily from hot, dense gas. Nitric oxide may arise from warm material toward the other clouds as well. Nitric oxide in star-forming regions could be synthesized by high-temperature reactions, although the observed abundances do not disagree with values predicted from low-temperature, ion-molecule chemistry by more than one order of magnitude. The abundance of NO, unlike other simple interstellar nitrogen compounds, does appear to be reproduced by chemical models, at least to a good approximation. Regardless of the nature of formation of NO, it appears to be a common constituent of warm, dense molecular clouds. N-O bonds may therefore be more prevalent than previously thought.

  6. The Regional Approach to Information Sharing: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Experiences in Southern Africa and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Linda; Van Wingen, Rachel

    In response to the global outcry for environmental information, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched its International Data Sharing Program in 1989 and began to forge information partnerships with developing nations. The three objectives of the program are to establish EPA as a partner in information exchange, to disseminate…

  7. AN INTER-AGENCY APPROACH FOR DETERMINING REGIONAL LAND COVER AND SPECIES HABITAT CONSERVATION STATUS IN THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST: THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is a national inter-agency program that maps the distribution of plant communities and selected animal species and compares these distributions with land stewardship to identify biotic elements at potential risk of endangerment. GAP uses remote sens...

  8. Revealing the cerebral regions and networks mediating vulnerability to depression: oxidative metabolism mapping of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus; Kanarik, Margus; Kaart, Tanel; Matrov, Denis; Kõiv, Kadri; Mällo, Tanel; Del Río, Joaquin; Tordera, Rosa M; Ramirez, Maria J

    2014-07-01

    The large variety of available animal models has revealed much on the neurobiology of depression, but each model appears as specific to a significant extent, and distinction between stress response, pathogenesis of depression and underlying vulnerability is difficult to make. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that depression occurs in biologically predisposed subjects under impact of adverse life events. We applied the diathesis-stress concept to reveal brain regions and functional networks that mediate vulnerability to depression and response to chronic stress by collapsing data on cerebral long term neuronal activity as measured by cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry in distinct animal models. Rats were rendered vulnerable to depression either by partial serotonergic lesion or by maternal deprivation, or selected for a vulnerable phenotype (low positive affect, low novelty-related activity or high hedonic response). Environmental adversity was brought about by applying chronic variable stress or chronic social defeat. Several brain regions, most significantly median raphe, habenula, retrosplenial cortex and reticular thalamus, were universally implicated in long-term metabolic stress response, vulnerability to depression, or both. Vulnerability was associated with higher oxidative metabolism levels as compared to resilience to chronic stress. Chronic stress, in contrast, had three distinct patterns of effect on oxidative metabolism in vulnerable vs. resilient animals. In general, associations between regional activities in several brain circuits were strongest in vulnerable animals, and chronic stress disrupted this interrelatedness. These findings highlight networks that underlie resilience to stress, and the distinct response to stress that occurs in vulnerable subjects.

  9. Land Use Change Effects on Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Tropical Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, M.

    2003-12-01

    Soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) are the single most important natural source for this gas and also the single largest anthropogenic contribution to the global budget of N2O. The availability of oxygen, inorganic nitrogen, and organic carbon are the three principle limitations to soil emissions of N2O. These limitations play the same roles in soils globally, so there is nothing intrinsically different about processes in the tropical regions versus the temperate and boreal zones. However, the tropical regions are a far more important natural source of soil derived N2O and will increase greatly in importance for anthropogenic emissions in the future. Both the area dedicated to agriculture and the quantity of nitrogenous fertilizer applied are relatively stable in the temperate zone while they are increasing rapidly in the tropical zone. When considering N2O emissions, there are two important eco-regions in the tropics, savannas and forests. In both of these regions, natural ecosystems are being converted to pasture lands and to intensive agriculture. N2O emissions from natural savannas are minimal. Conversion to pasture and to agriculture has limited effects. In savanna systems the natural limitation of nitrogen and the abundance of oxygen combine to minimize N2O emissions from soils. In the forested regions, the situation is different. Tropical forests, particularly in humid areas, are nitrogen rich. Conversion of forests to pastures may lead to a brief pulse (from a few months to a decade) of elevated nitrous oxide emissions. Unless pastures are fertilized, their emissions are generally far below native forest emissions of N2O. Where N fertilizer use is heavy, conversion of forests (or pastures) to agriculture may lead to significant increases in N2O emissions. But under extensive management or careful intensive management, it is possible for agricultural systems in the humid tropics to have lower N2O emissions than native ecosystems.

  10. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia are changing rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight into the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for the period 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and the Beijing municipality, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  11. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-07-01

    Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia change rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight in the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a~mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and Beijing province, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  12. Nitrate-dependent iron oxidation limits iron transport in anoxic ocean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Florian; Löscher, Carolin R.; Fiskal, Annika; Sommer, Stefan; Hensen, Christian; Lomnitz, Ulrike; Wuttig, Kathrin; Göttlicher, Jörg; Kossel, Elke; Steininger, Ralph; Canfield, Donald E.

    2016-11-01

    Iron is an essential element for life on Earth and limits primary production in large parts of the ocean. Oxygen-free continental margin sediments represent an important source of bioavailable iron to the ocean, yet little of the iron released from the seabed reaches the productive sea surface. Even in the anoxic water of oxygen minimum zones, where iron solubility should be enhanced, most of the iron is rapidly re-precipitated. To constrain the mechanism(s) of iron removal in anoxic ocean regions we explored the sediment and water in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru. During our sampling campaign the water column featured two distinct redox boundaries separating oxic from nitrate-reducing (i.e., nitrogenous) water and nitrogenous from weakly sulfidic water. The sulfidic water mass in contact with the shelf sediment contained elevated iron concentrations >300 nM. At the boundary between sulfidic and nitrogenous conditions, iron concentrations dropped sharply to <20 nM coincident with a maximum in particulate iron concentration. Within the iron gradient, we found an increased expression of the key functional marker gene for nitrate reduction (narG). Part of this upregulation was related to the activity of known iron-oxidizing bacteria. Collectively, our data suggest that iron oxidation and removal is induced by nitrate-reducing microbes, either enzymatically through anaerobic iron oxidation or by providing nitrite for an abiotic reaction. Given the important role that iron plays in nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis and respiration, nitrate-dependent iron oxidation likely represents a key-link between the marine biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon.

  13. Diversity of endurance training effects on antioxidant defenses and oxidative damage in different brain regions of adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Chalimoniuk, M; Jagsz, S; Sadowska-Krepa, E; Chrapusta, S J; Klapcinska, B; Langfort, J

    2015-08-01

    Studies on the effect of physical activity on brain oxidative stress, performed mostly in adult rats, have shown that moderate aerobic activity increases resistance to oxidative stress and reduces cellular damage. These effects can greatly differ between various brain regions. The postnatal period of the highest brain sensitivity to various stimuli is adolescence. We hypothesized that endurance training will modify brain antioxidant barrier differently in various regions, depending on their role in locomotion. Therefore, we studied the effect of moderate intensity endurance training on the activities of selected antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, gluthathione peroxidase and catalase and the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (the key index of lipid peroxidation) and glutathione in several brain regions with dissimilar relationship to locomotion, as well as in circulating blood. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the training on nitric oxide synthase activity that may be a major player in exercise-related oxidative stress in brain regions that are directly involved in the locomotion control and execution (the striatum, midbrain and cerebellum). The training significantly enhanced nitric oxide synthase activity only in the latter three regions. Surprisingly, it elevated the activities of all studied antioxidant enzymes (excepting gluthathione peroxidase) in the neocortex, while no appreciable change in these activities was found in either the cerebellum (except for elevated catalase activity), or the striatum, or the midbrain. The training also elevated total glutathione content (a key protector of brain proteins under the conditions of enhanced nitric oxide production) in the cerebellum and striatum, but not in the other regions. The observed brain changes greatly differed from those in circulating blood and did not prevent the training-related increases in oxidative damage as evidenced by elevations in cerebellar and striatal

  14. Regional Heterogeneity of Cerebral Microvessels and Brain Susceptibility to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Susan A.; Santhanam, Anantha Vijay R.; d’Uscio, Livius V.; Katusic, Zvonimir S.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus is one of the earliest and most affected regions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), followed by the cortex while the cerebellum is largely spared. Importantly, endothelial dysfunction is a common feature of cerebral blood vessels in AD. In this study, we sought to determine if regional heterogeneity of cerebral microvessels might help explain the susceptibility of the hippocampus and cortex as compared to the cerebellum. We isolated microvessels from wild type mice from the cerebellum, cortex, and hippocampus to characterize their vascular phenotype. Superoxide anion was significantly higher in microvessels isolated from the cortex and hippocampus as compared to the cerebellum. Importantly, protein levels of NADPH oxidase (NOX)-2 and NOX-4 were significantly higher in the cortical and hippocampal microvessels as compared to microvessels from the cerebellum. In addition, expression of manganese superoxide dismutase protein was significantly lower in microvessels from the cortex and hippocampus as compared to cerebellum while other antioxidant enzymes were unchanged. There was no difference in eNOS protein expression between the microvessels of the three brain regions; however, bioavailability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for eNOS activity, was significantly reduced in microvessels from the hippocampus and cortex as compared to the cerebellum. Higher levels of superoxide and reduced tetrahydrobiopterin bioavailability may help explain the vulnerability of the hippocampus and cortical microvessels to oxidative stress and development of endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26629821

  15. Evaluation of the Relative Importance of Radical Sources in Determining the Regional Tropospheric Oxidation Capacity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, D.; Sanchez, D.; Blake, D. R.; Kim, D. S.; Lee, G.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.; Ahn, J.; Cho, G.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    We will discuss oxidation capacity in the boundary layer of the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) by analyzing a comprehensive field observational datasets of trace gases, radicals, and radical precursors. Two intensive field observations will be discussed. From mid-May to mid-June of 2015, we conducted a field observation in the middle of Seoul, representing a region with high anthropogenic emissions and photochemistry near the source region. We deployed an identical suite of instrumentation (i.e., CO, NOX, O3, SO2, VOCs, ClNO2, HONO, and PANs) at Taehwa Research Forest (TRF), ~ 50 km from the center of Seoul in early September of 2015. The site has been characterized as an ideal region in probing roles of biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) in a moderately polluted regional background. Therefore, the comparisons between two datasets will allow us to assess regional oxidation capacity of a megacity surrounded by forests, which is a typical set-up in the East Asian region. The main focus of the discussion was to investigate the following: (i) relative impact of nighttime radical reservoirs (i.e., HONO and ClNO2) in the morning radical budget in the urban and suburban environments and (ii) relative importance of unconstrained primary and recycling (e.g., BVOC oxidation) OH production at the isoprene dominated TRF region. An observationally constrained box model with detailed VOC chemical oxidation schemes (e.g., MCM) will be used for the comprehensive evaluations.

  16. Probing the transition state region in catalytic CO oxidation on Ru

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, H.; Oberg, H.; Xin, H.; LaRue, J.; Beye, M.; Dell'Angela, M.; Gladh, J.; Ng, M. L.; Sellberg, J. A.; Kaya, S.; Mercurio, G.; Nordlund, D.; Hantschmann, M.; Hieke, F.; Kuhn, D.; Schlotter, W. F.; Dakovski, G. L.; Turner, J. J.; Minitti, M. P.; Mitra, A.; Moeller, S. P.; Fohlisch, A.; Wolf, M.; Wurth, W.; Persson, M.; Norskov, J. K.; Abild-Pedersen, F.; Ogasawara, H.; Pettersson, L. G. M.; Nilsson, A.

    2015-02-12

    Femtosecond x-ray laser pulses are used to probe the CO oxidation reaction on ruthenium (Ru) initiated by an optical laser pulse. On a time scale of a few hundred femtoseconds, the optical laser pulse excites motions of CO and O on the surface, allowing the reactants to collide, and, with a transient close to a picosecond (ps), new electronic states appear in the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum. Density functional theory calculations indicate that these result from changes in the adsorption site and bond formation between CO and O with a distribution of OC–O bond lengths close to the transition state (TS). After 1 ps, 10% of the CO populate the TS region, which is consistent with predictions based on a quantum oscillator model.

  17. Micrometeorological measurement and source region analysis of nitrous oxide fluxes from an agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienhold, F. G.; Welling, M.; Harris, G. W.

    Nitrous oxide (N 2O) fluxes were measured by eddy correlation during a field experiment in August 1993. The measurements took place on a harvested wheat field located in northwest Sealand (Denmark). A. tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) was used for N 2O detection. The N 2O mixing ratio was sampled at a rate of 10 Hz synchronously with the three-dimensional wind data, air temperature, water vapour and carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentrations. Fast Fourier transform methods were applied to analyse spectral and co-spectral power distributions and to compute the fluxes from the covariance functions. Balance of the energy budget indicated adequate frequency coverage of the flux contributions. Continuous measurements were carried out in half hour intervals during daytime and fluxes in the range of 40-120 ng N m -2 s -1 were obtained. The footprint regions for the individual measurements were estimated by Markovian trajectory simulations taking into account the atmospheric stability conditions and wind distributions inferred from the micrometeorological measurements. The influence of adjoining fields with different crops was evident in the Bowen ratio and CO 2 flux, but not noticeable in the N 2O flux. This observation is consistent with supporting analysis of the soil depth dependence of the nitrous oxide production, which indicates that the major contributions arise from levels below 0.9 m.

  18. Hypothesis processing as a new tool to aid managers of mental health agencies in serving long-term regional interests.

    PubMed

    Kochen, M

    1975-10-01

    Mental health planning is partly a political process, involving the articulation of the long-range interests of a regional community, formation of consensus among key people and the appropriate investment of authority, power and responsibility. Conflicts between the short-term self-interests of planners and the long-term general interest usually arise. This paper claims that it is feasible to increase the expected number of cases in which a region's longer-term interest is served without radical changes in existing planning processes or ideologies. The means for doing this are new kinds of information systems that serve planners as tools to increase their awareness about assumptions, hypotheses and problem representations. The conceptual and technological bases for developing such systems stem from progress in artificial intelligence in the direction of hypothesis-processing algorithms. The proposed application to mental health planning is described. Arguments are presented to show how the use of such tools would increase the likelihood that longer-term regional interest are served.

  19. Bacterial methane oxidation in the region of shallow-water gas hydrotherms of the western part of the Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Namsaraev, B.B.; Kachalkin, V.I.; Dulov, L.E.; Obzhirov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Methane content and rates of its oxidation in near-bottom water and bottom sediments were studied in the regions of submarine volcano Epi (New Hebrides Islands), Matupy Harbor (New Britain Island), and Kraternaya Bay (Yankich Island, Kurile Islands). The rate of methane oxidation ranged from 0.0001 to 2.097 {mu}/(1 day) in near-bottom water and from 0.0004 to 37.73 {mu}l/(kg day) in sediments. High concentrations of methane and high temperatures characteristic of the studied ecosystems favor the active process of CH{sub 4} oxidation. 9 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Brachytherapy boost in loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a prospective randomized trial of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstact Background The purpose was to determine whether a brachytherapy boost improves outcomes in patients with advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with standard chemo-radiotherapy. Methods Patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma WHO grades I-III and TNM stages III or non-metastatic stage IV were eligible for this phase III study. Patients were randomized to either arm (A) induction chemotherapy, followed by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with concomitant cisplatin (n = 139) or arm (B), the same schedule plus a brachytherapy boost to the nasopharynx (n = 135). The EBRT doses given were 70 Gy to the primary tumour and positive lymph nodes and 46 Gy to the negative neck. The additional brachytherapy boost in arm (B) was given by either low dose-rate (LDR – 11 Gy) or high dose-rate (HDR – 3 fractions of 3.0 Gy) brachytherapy. The primary endpoint was 3-year overall survival (OS) and secondary endpoints were: local control, regional control, distant metastasis and grade 3–4 adverse events. Results 274 patients were randomized between September 2004 and December 2008. The two arms were comparable with regard to age, gender, stage and grade. 273 patients completed treatment. Median follow-up was 29 months (0.2-67 months). The effect of treatment arm, country, age, gender, WHO pathology, stage (T3-4, N2-3 versus other) and chemotherapy on overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was studied. Stage significantly affected OS (p = 0.024) and DFS (p = 0.018) while age significantly affected OS (p = 0.014). None of the other factors studied were significant. The 3-year LRFS was 60.5% and 54.4% in arms A and B respectively (p = 0.647). The 3-year regional control rate in the neck was 59.7% and 54.3% respectively (p = 0.7). Distant metastasis developed in 59.7% of patients in arm A and 55.4% in arm B (p = 0.377). Patients with T1/T2 N + had a 3 year LRFS of 51.8% in Arm A (62 patients) versus 57.9% in Arm B (67

  1. Map showing areas serviced by public water-supply agencies in 1973 Greater Pittsburgh region, southwestern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beall, Robert M.

    1974-01-01

    Urban water planning, development, and management are many sectored, costly efforts, subject to a multitude of controls and demands including those imposed by nature. One primary concern in development is for providing a dependable and safe water supply. In spite of a bountiful natural availability, the process of satisfying consumer needs involves the resolution of a variety of problems, not the least of which are cooperation and coordination among suppliers. One of the fundamental requisites in seeking sound solutions to developmental and environmental problems is inventory documentation. This map is one facet of documentation; the data listing, given on sheet 2, is the companion inventory. These supplement State, regional, and local efforts directed toward both long-range planning and current evaluation programs. Such documentation also assists the assessment of the effect of one water-management subsystem on hydrologic characteristics.

  2. Use of USGS earth-science products by county planning agencies in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kockelman, William J.

    1976-01-01

    An inventory of the use of USGS products in selected planning studies, plans, ordinances, and other planning activities was made for eight counties in the San Francisco Bay region--a region of almost five million people. This inventory was designed to determine and document the use of the 87 earth-science information products prepared as a part of the San Francisco Bay Region Environment and Resources Planning Study (SFBRS). The inventory showed that: (1) all eight counties had planning staffs who were very familiar with SFBRS products and had made frequent use of such products; (2) all eight counties had prepared planning documents which cite SFBRS products; (3) the types of planning applications most often indicated were: geologic hazards studies, seismic safety and public safety plan elements, general reference, and the preparation and review of environmental impact reports and statements; (4) over 90 percent of the 87 SFBRS products were used at least once, and nine of the products were used over 30 times each for various county planning activities; and (5) at least 85 other USGS products were also used for various county planning activities. After the inventory, selected county officials, employees, and consultants were interviewed and asked--among other things--to indicate any problems in the use of the SFBRS products, to suggest improvements, and to identify any needed or desired earth-science information. The responses showed that: (1) the scales commonly used for working maps were 1:62,500 or larger and for plan implementation were 1:24,000 or larger; (2) only one county had a geologist on its planning staff, although six others had the benefit of geotechnical services from private consulting firms, county engineering staffs, or the State Division of Mines and Geology; (3) seven of the eight counties expressed some problems in using the products, primarily because of their small scale or lack of detail; (4) all eight counties expected to continue to use

  3. Reactive nitrogen oxides in remote regions: Atmospheric concentrations and atmosphere/biosphere exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bakwin, P.S.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations and elements of the atmospheres/biosphere exchange of reactive nitrogen oxides (NO{sub y}) were measured in two disparate, remote ecosystems: the Amazon rain forest in central Brazil (wet season, 1987) and the moist tundra of southwestern Alaska (summer, 1988). Concentrations of total NO{sub y} and the NO{sub y} species NO and NO{sub 2} in both locations were found to be generally low compared to the few other remote continental regions where measurements have been made. In Alaska the concentrations of NO + NO{sub 2} (=NO{sub x}) were in the range (10-20 pptv) thought to be more typical of marine air masses. Occasional observations of higher concentrations, especially in Brazil, indicated that polluted air reached even these remote sites. The soils in both locations were modest sources of NO{sub x} to the atmosphere. In Brazil this source was approximately balanced, during unpolluted periods, by dry deposition of other NO{sub y} species to the forest canopy, while in Alaska the net flux of NO{sub y} was strongly downward. Diurnal variations in the NO{sub y} concentrations and fluxes at both sites suggest that dry deposition rates are controlled by the supply of reactive components such as HNO{sub 3} and that a significant portion of the observed NO{sub y} may consist of compounds with relatively long tropospheric lifetimes which are resistant to dry deposition.

  4. Regional-scale controls on dissolved nitrous oxide in the Upper Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, P. A.; Griffis, T. J.; Baker, J. M.; Lee, X.; Crawford, J. T.; Loken, L. C.; Venterea, R. T.

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt is one of the most intensive agricultural regions of the world and is drained by the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), which forms one of the largest drainage basins in the U.S. While the effects of agricultural nitrate (NO3-) on water quality in the UMR have been well documented, its impact on the production of nitrous oxide (N2O) has not been reported. Using a novel equilibration technique, we present the largest data set of freshwater dissolved N2O concentrations (0.7 to 6 times saturation) and examine the controls on its variability over a 350 km reach of the UMR. Driven by a supersaturated water column, the UMR was an important atmospheric N2O source (+68 mg N2O N m-2 yr-1) that varies nonlinearly with the NO3- concentration. Our analyses indicated that a projected doubling of the NO3- concentration by 2050 would cause dissolved N2O concentrations and emissions to increase by about 40%.

  5. Regional-scale controls on dissolved nitrous oxide in the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, P.A.; Griffis, T.J.; Baker, J.M.; Lee, X.; Crawford, John T.; Loken, Luke; Venterea, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt is one of the most intensive agricultural regions of the world and is drained by the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), which forms one of the largest drainage basins in the U.S. While the effects of agricultural nitrate (NO3-) on water quality in the UMR have been well documented, its impact on the production of nitrous oxide (N2O) has not been reported. Using a novel equilibration technique, we present the largest data set of freshwater dissolved N2O concentrations (0.7 to 6 times saturation) and examine the controls on its variability over a 350 km reach of the UMR. Driven by a supersaturated water column, the UMR was an important atmospheric N2O source (+68 mg N2ONm-2 yr-1) that varies nonlinearly with the NO3-concentration. Our analyses indicated that a projected doubling of the NO3-concentration by 2050 would cause dissolved N2O concentrations and emissions to increase by about 40%.

  6. Nonmethane hydrocarbons at Pico Mountain, Azores: 1. Oxidation chemistry in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmig, D.; Tanner, D. M.; Honrath, R. E.; Owen, R. C.; Parrish, D. D.

    2008-10-01

    Measurements of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) at the Pico Mountain observatory at 2225 m asl on Pico Island, Azores, Portugal, from August 2004 to August 2005 (in part overlapping with the field campaign of the International Consortium on Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation study) were used to investigate NMHC sources and seasonal oxidation chemistry in the central North Atlantic region. Levels of anthropogenic NMHC were characteristic of the marine free troposphere. Their concentrations were low compared to continental sites at higher northern latitudes, but higher than data reported from a similarly located Pacific mountain site at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. These higher NMHC levels are indicative of a greater influence of the adjacent continents on air composition at Pico. Substantially enhanced NMHC concentrations during the summers of 2004 and 2005 were attributed to long-range transport of biomass burning plumes originating from fires in northern Canada, Alaska, and Siberia. This finding exemplifies the continuing impact of biomass burning plumes on atmospheric composition and chemistry many days downwind of these emission sources. Seasonal cycles with lower NMHC concentrations and lower ratios of more reactive to less reactive NMHC during summer reflect the higher degree of photochemical processing occurring during transport. The NMHC concentrations indicate no significant role of chlorine atom oxidation on NMHC. Ozone above 35 ppbv was measured at Pico Mountain throughout all seasons. Enhanced ozone levels were observed in air that had relatively "fresh" photochemical signatures (e.g., ln [propane]/[ethane] > -2.5). During spring-summer air that was more processed ("older" air with ln [propane]/[ethane] < -2.5) on average had lower ozone levels (down to <20 ppbv). This relationship indicates that conditions in the lower free troposphere over the mid-North Atlantic during the spring and summer lead to net photochemical ozone destruction

  7. Ozone precursor levels and responses to emissions reductions: Analysis of regional oxidant model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milford, Jana B.; Gao, Dongfen; Zafirakou, Antigoni; Pierce, Thomas E.

    An analysis of results from the Regional Oxidant Modeling for Northeast Transport (ROMNET) study ( U.S. EPA, 1991, EPA-450/4-91-002a) has investigated the chemical conditions under which air quality was predicted to improve with reductions in ROG and/or NO ξ emissions, or with changes in the composition of ROG emissions. The ROMNET simulations used emissions projected to the year 2005, with meteorological conditions from July 1988. Predicted concentrations of PAN, HNO 3, H 2O 2 and HCHO are shown along with O 3 for the 2005 base case, allowing limited comparisons to be made with field observations and results from other modeling studies. Predicted secondary pollutant concentrations indicate an unusual degree of photochemical activity over much of the model domain, directionally consistent with the extreme nature of the July 1988 episode. Reducing NO ξ emissions was predicted to reduce O 3 in grid cells in which reactive nitrogen (NO y) concentrations were below about 25 ppb, but to be counterproductive for some cells with higher NO y. The New York City area where NO ξ control was predicted to be counterproductive was characterized by very high NO ξ to NO y ratios. Ozone was relatively insensitive to ROG controls in grid cells with NO y concentrations below 5-10 ppb. Comparison of unweighted ROG concentrations with concentrations weighted by HO rate constants (i.e. reactivity) showed that the latter varied less across locations. Predicted spatial gradients of NO y were generally sharper than those of reactivity-weighted ROG, supporting a dominant role for variations in NO y in controlling the sensitivity of ozone to its precursors. Reductions in reactivity-weighted ROG achieved with composition changes were similar to reductions achieved with ROG emissions cuts, explaining the similar response of ozone to these two control strategies.

  8. REGIONAL EMISSIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL WEST REGION, BRAZIL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Arsenite-Oxidation Bacteria From Arsenic-contaminated Groundwater in Blackfoot Disease Region in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H.; Hsiao, S.; Liu, C.; Liao, C.; Chang, F.; Liao, V. H.

    2006-12-01

    Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen of toxicological concern. Although arsenic is generally toxic to life, it has been demonstrated that some microorganisms can use arsenic compounds as electron donors, electron acceptors, or possess arsenic detoxification mechanisms. Increasing evidences suggest that the biogeochemical cycle of arsenic is significant dependent on microbial transformations which affect the distribution and the mobility of arsenic species in the environment. However, the roles of the bacteria in the arsenic cycles are yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we isolate As(V)-As(III) redox bacteria using arsenic-contaminated groundwater in Blackfoot disease region in Taiwan under oxic condition. Two hundred and nineteen arsenic-resistant heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of some bacteria revealed that some of bacteria have been indicated involving in arsenic transformation, while others have not been reported to be associated with arsenic transformation. Of these isolated bacteria, one designated as L7506 was selected for further investigation. Strain L7506 is a Gram- negative, straight to curved rod, and motile bacteria. It belongs to genus Bosea based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The optimal growth condition was at pH 6-7, 37'C in LB medium. Moreover, it was able to grow in the presence of 100mM arsenate. L7506 began to significantly oxidize arsenite (2mM) to arsenate after 3-day incubation and complete the oxidation process after 10-day incubation. To further explore the genetic basis for the regulation of arsenite oxidation, transposon Tn5 mutagenesis was used to identify genetic determinants required for arsenite oxidation in L7506 and it is in progress. Results from this study show that diverse bacteria were isolated from arsenic-contaminated groundwater in Blackfoot disease region in Taiwan. The identified As(III)-oxidizing bacteria may be potentially used for bioremediation of arsenic

  10. Large-scale nitrogen oxide plumes in the tropopause region and implications for ozone

    PubMed

    Brunner; Staehelin; Jeker

    1998-11-13

    Continuous measurements of nitrogen oxide and ozone were performed from a commercial airliner during 1 year at cruising altitudes below and above the tropopause. The upper tropospheric nitrogen oxides distribution was found to be strongly influenced by large-scale plumes extending about 100 to 1300 kilometers along the flight track. The plumes were frequently observed downwind of thunderstorms and frontal systems, which most probably caused upward transport of polluted air from the continental boundary layer or nitrogen oxide production in lightning strokes, or both. Particularly in summer, average ozone concentrations in the plumes were enhanced compared to the tropospheric background levels.

  11. Potential Impacts of two SO2 oxidation pathways on regional sulfate concentrations: acqueous-hase oxidation by NO2 and gas-phase oxidation by Stabilized Criegee Intermediates

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the potential impacts of two additional sulfate production pathways using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. First we evaluate the impact of the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) by nitrogen dioxide using two published rate constants, differing by 1-2...

  12. Production of nitrous oxide in the auroral D and E regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, E. C.; Prasad, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    A study of nitrous oxide formation mechanisms indicates that N2O concentrations greater than 10 to the 9th per cu cm could be produced in IBC III aurora or by lower-level activity lasting for many hours, and, in favorable conditions, the N2O concentration could exceed the local nitric oxide density. An upper limit on the globally averaged N2O production rate from auroral activity is estimated at 2 x 10 to the 27th per second.

  13. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.; Royland, Joyce E.; Richards, Judy E.; Besas, Jonathan; MacPhail, Robert C.

    2011-11-15

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at - 80 Degree-Sign C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure

  14. Ameliorative effects of Bacopa monniera on lead-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Basuri, Charan Kumar; Robinson Taylor, Kendra S; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Rajanna, Sharada; Rajanna, Bettaiya

    2014-07-01

    Bacopa monniera is a rejuvenating herb for brain cells enhancing learning and cognitive ability. In the present investigation, the ameliorative effects of Bacopa monniera were examined against lead-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brain. Male rats were divided into five groups: control (1000 ppm sodium acetate) and exposed (1000 ppm lead acetate) for 4 weeks; DMSA (Meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid)-treated (90 mg/kg body weight/day); Bacopa monniera-treated (BM) (10 mg/kg body weight/day) and a combination of BM + DMSA for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure. After treatment, the whole brain was isolated by sacrificing rats and four regions were separated namely cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex and brain stem. Results indicated a significant (p < 0.05) increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (LPP) and total protein carbonyl content (TPCC) in association with tissue metal content in all the four regions of brain for exposed group compared with their respective controls. However, the lead-induced ROS, LPP, TPCC and tissue metal content were lowered on treatment with Bacopa monniera, almost reaching the control group values in all the above brain regions compared to DMSA and a combination therapy. Results suggest that Bacopa monniera can mitigate the lead induced-oxidative stress tissue specifically by pharmacologic interventions which encompass both chelation as well as antioxidant functions.

  15. 40 CFR 52.1475 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Sulfur oxides. 52.1475 Section 52.1475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1475 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur oxides in the Nevada Intrastate Region. (b) Article...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1475 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Sulfur oxides. 52.1475 Section 52.1475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1475 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur oxides in the Nevada Intrastate Region. (b) Article...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1475 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Sulfur oxides. 52.1475 Section 52.1475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1475 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur oxides in the Nevada Intrastate Region. (b) Article...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1475 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Sulfur oxides. 52.1475 Section 52.1475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1475 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur oxides in the Nevada Intrastate Region. (b) Article...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1475 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Sulfur oxides. 52.1475 Section 52.1475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1475 Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur oxides in the Nevada Intrastate Region. (b) Article...

  20. [Oxidative phosphorylation in different regions of the rat brain following morphine administration].

    PubMed

    Naumov, Iu I; Ivkov, N N; Matiushin, A I

    1976-01-01

    The influence exercised by morphine in a dose of 20 mg/kg, introduced intraperitoneally, and also in concentrations of 10(-3) and 10(-5) "in vitro" on the parameters of oxidative phosphorylation of the brain cortex and stem of rats was studied. Morphine, used in a concentration of 10(-3), is shown to speed up the substrates oxidation rate. During the first days of its administration the narcotic analgetic inhibited oxidation of mitochondia released from the brain stem, and, once habituation to the narcotic had developed, the inhibition ceased to be effective. In "in vivo" experiments and in vitro tests the effect of phosphorylation remained unchanged. The data obtained suggest that with developing habituation in regard to morphine the functions of the brain stem and cortex mitochondria do not undergo any substantial changes. PMID:1024831

  1. CARBARYL EFFECTS ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN REGIONS OF ADOLESCENT AND SENESCENT BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in susceptibility and disease in old age. Understanding age-related susceptibility is crucial in assessing the human health risks of chemicals. Growing evidence implicates as in carbamate toxicity in addition to cholinesterase-inhibit...

  2. Regional-scale controls on dissolved nitrous oxide in the Upper Mississippi River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottom-up estimates of riverine nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assume a constant emission factor (EF5r) that predicts N2O production from anthropogenic nitrogen inputs. This relation ignores any direct stream water biochemical charact...

  3. Analysis of high-voltage metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors with gradual junction in the drift region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jone F.; Ai, Teng-Jen; Tsai, Yan-Lin; Hsu, Hao-Tang; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Hwang, Hann-Ping

    2016-08-01

    The device characteristics and hot-carrier-induced degradation of high-voltage n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors with traditional and gradual junctions in the drift region are studied in this work. The gradual junction used in this study is realized by self-aligned N- implantation through dual thicknesses of screen oxide during N- drift implantation. Compared with traditional devices, devices with gradual junctions have improved off-state breakdown voltage (V BD) without sacrificing on-state driving current and hot-carrier-induced degradation. More improvement in V BD is observed if the dimensions of the device are larger. The mechanism responsible for V BD improvement in devices with gradual junctions is also investigated by using technology computer-aided-design simulations.

  4. Regional Impacts of Woodland Expansion on Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Texas Savannahs: Combining Field, Modeling and Remote Sensing Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Woody encroachment has contributed to documented changes world-wide and locally in the southwestern U.S. Specifically, in North Texas rangelands encroaching mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa) a known N-fixing species has caused changes in aboveground biomass. While measurements of aboveground plant production are relatively common, measures of soil N availability are scarce and vary widely. N trace gas emissions (nitric and nitrous oxide) flom soils reflect patterns in current N cycling rates and availability as they are stimulated by inputs of organic and inorganic N. Quantification of N oxide emissions from savanna soils may depend upon the spatial distribution of woody plant canopies, and specifically upon the changes in N availability and cycling and subsequent N trace gas production as influenced by the shift from herbaceous to woody vegetation type. The main goal of this research was to determine whether remotely sensible parameters of vegetation structure and soil type could be used to quantify biogeochemical changes in N at local, landscape and regional scales. To accomplish this goal, field-based measurements of N trace gases were carried out between 2000-2001, encompassing the acquisition of imaging spectrometer data from the NASA Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) on September 29, 2001. Both biotic (vegetation type and soil organic N) and abiotic (soil type, soil pH, temperature, soil moisture, and soil inorganic N) controls were analyzed for their contributions to observed spatial and temporal variation in soil N gas fluxes. These plot level studies were used to develop relationships between spatially extensive, field-based measurements of N oxide fluxes and remotely sensible aboveground vegetation and soil properties, and to evaluate the short-term controls over N oxide emissions through intensive field wetting experiments. The relationship between N oxide emissions, remotely-sensed parameters (vegetation cover, and

  5. An EPR spin probe method for characterizing changes in the accessible regions of coal upon oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Sady, W.; Kispert, L.D.; Spears, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS) were weathered in air and the structural and chemical changes that upon swelling with toluene and pyridine were, examined by an EPR spin probe method developed in this laboratory. Under mild oxidation conditions and swelling with toluene large structural changes were observed for lignite (Beulah-Zap) which suggested the collapse of the coal structure. This did not occur for higher rank coal. Upon oxidation and swelling with toluene and pyridine an increase occurred in the amino substituted spin probe concentration for coals with the carbon percent above 80%. A maximum was found for the creation of 5 {Angstrom} diameter pores upon swelling with pyridine at 85% C.

  6. An EPR spin probe method for characterizing changes in the accessible regions of coal upon oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Sady, W.; Kispert, L.D.; Spears, D.R.

    1992-09-01

    Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS) were weathered in air and the structural and chemical changes that upon swelling with toluene and pyridine were, examined by an EPR spin probe method developed in this laboratory. Under mild oxidation conditions and swelling with toluene large structural changes were observed for lignite (Beulah-Zap) which suggested the collapse of the coal structure. This did not occur for higher rank coal. Upon oxidation and swelling with toluene and pyridine an increase occurred in the amino substituted spin probe concentration for coals with the carbon percent above 80%. A maximum was found for the creation of 5 {Angstrom} diameter pores upon swelling with pyridine at 85% C.

  7. The oxidation of a gasoline surrogate in the negative temperature coefficient region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhert, David B.; Miller, David L.; Cernansky, Nicholas P.; Owens, Kevin G.

    2009-03-15

    This experimental study investigated the preignition reactivity behavior of a gasoline surrogate in a pressurized flow reactor over the low and intermediate temperature regime (600-800 K) at elevated pressure (8 atm). The surrogate mixture, a volumetric blend of 4.6% 1-pentene, 31.8% toluene, 14.0% n-heptane, and 49.6% 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane (iso-octane), was shown to reproduce the low and intermediate temperature reactivity of full boiling range fuels in a previous study. Each of the surrogate components were examined individually to identify the major intermediate species in order to improve existing kinetic models, where appropriate, and to provide a basis for examining constituent interactions in the surrogate mixture. n-Heptane and 1-pentene started reacting at 630 K and 640 K, respectively, and both fuels exhibited a strong negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior starting at 700 and 710 K, respectively. Iso-octane showed a small level of reactivity at 630 K and a weak NTC behavior starting at 665 K. Neat toluene was unreactive at these temperatures. The surrogate started reacting at 630 K and exhibited a strong NTC behavior starting at 693 K. The extent of fuel consumption varied for each of the surrogate constituents and was related to their general autoignition behavior. Most of the intermediates identified during the surrogate oxidation were species observed during the oxidation of the neat constituents; however, the surrogate mixture did exhibit a significant increase in intermediates associated with iso-octane oxidation, but not from n-heptane. While neat toluene was unreactive at these temperatures, in the mixture it reacted with the radical pool generated by the other surrogate components, forming benzaldehyde, benzene, phenol, and ethyl-benzene. The observed n-heptane, iso-octane, and surrogate oxidation behavior was compared to predictions using existing kinetic models. The n-heptane model reasonably predicted the disappearance of the fuel

  8. Evaluating uncertainties in nitrous oxide emission inventories with multi-scale observations for an agriculture-dominated region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Lee, X.; Griffis, T. J.; Baker, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Although agriculture accounts for about 80% of the global anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, large uncertainties exist in regional inventories of N2O emissions from agriculture. The uncertainties mainly include poorly quantified plant flux, large heterogeneity of direct N2O emissions from cropland, and underestimated N2O lost through leaching and run off. To evaluate these uncertainties we conducted observations on three contrasting scales in the Midwest U.S., an agriculture dominated region (Zhang et al., 2014a). Observations at the plant, ecosystem, and regional scales include: 1) N2O flux measurements from the aboveground section of corn and soybean plants using newly designed plant chamber; 2) N2O flux-gradient measurements in a soybean-corn rotation field; and 3) N2O concentration measurements at 3 m and 200 m level on a communication tower (KCMP tower, 44°41'19''N, 93°4'22''W) that were used to estimate regional N2O fluxes with boundary layer methods (Zhang et al., 2014b). With these observations we evaluated the uncertainties in two frequently-used N2O inventories: EDGAR42 (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research, release version 4.2); and a national GHG inventory (U.S. EPA, 2014). The results indicate that EDGAR42 and EPA inventory underestimated N2O emissions for the region around the KCMP tower at least by a factor of three and two respectively. The underestimation is not likely caused by neglecting N2O flux from crops since N2O fluxes from unfertilized soybean and fertilized corn plants were about one magnitude lower than N2O emissions from the soil-plant ecosystem. The direct N2O emissions from cropland accounted for less than 20% of the regional flux, suggesting a significant influence by other sources and indirect emissions in the regional N2O budget. ReferencesU.S. EPA (2014) Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2012, 529 pp., Washington, D.C.. X Zhang, X Lee, TJ Griffis, AE Andrews, JM Baker, MD Erickson

  9. Hyperhomocysteinemia impairs regional blood flow: involvements of endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Toda, Noboru; Okamura, Tomio

    2016-09-01

    Increasing evidence support the idea that hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is responsible for pathogenesis underlying cerebral, coronary, renal, and other vascular circulatory disorders and for hypertension. Impaired synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in the endothelium or increased production of asymmetric dimethylarginine and activated oxygen species are involved in the impairment of vasodilator effects of NO. Impaired circulation in the brain derived from reduced synthesis and actions of NO would be an important triggering factor to dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Reduced actions of NO and brain hypoperfusion trigger increased production of amyloid-β that inhibits endothelial function, thus establishing a vicious cycle for impairing brain circulation. HHcy is involved in the genesis of anginal attack and coronary myocardial infarction. HHcy is also involved in renal circulatory diseases. The homocysteine (Hcy)-induced circulatory failure is promoted by methionine and is prevented by increased folic acid and vitamin B6/B12. Eliminating poor life styles, such as smoking and being sedentary; keeping favorable dietary habits; and early treatment maintaining constitutive NOS functions healthy, reducing oxidative stresses would be beneficial in protecting HHcy-induced circulatory failures. PMID:27417104

  10. Oxidation of basaltic tephras: Influence on reflectance in the 1 micron region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, William H.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a ongoing study into the products of hydrovolcanism, tuffs were examined from the Cerro Colorado and Pavant Butte tuff cones. The former resides in the northeastern corner of the Pinacate Volcanic Field in Sonara, Mexico and the latter is in the Black Rock Desert of southern Utah. Numerous samples were collected and many of these had their Vis/IR reflectance measured. It seems likely that in the palagonite tuffs there is a combination of nanocrystalline ferric oxide phases contributing to the UV absorption edge, but not to the 1 micron band, plus more crystalline ferric oxides which do contribute to that band as well as ferrous iron within unaltered sideromelane which is skewing the band center to longer wavelengths. This work has implications for the study of Mars. The present work indicates that when ferrous and ferric iron phases are both present, their combined spectral contribution is a single band in the vicinity of 1 micron. The center, depth, and width of that feature has potential to be used to gauge the relative proportions of ferrous and ferric iron phases.

  11. Effects of striatal nitric oxide production on regional cerebral blood flow and seizure development in rats exposed to extreme hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Gasier, Heath G; Demchenko, Ivan T; Allen, Barry W; Piantadosi, Claude A

    2015-12-01

    The endogenous vasodilator and signaling molecule nitric oxide has been implicated in cerebral hyperemia, sympathoexcitation, and seizures induced by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) at or above 3 atmospheres absolute (ATA). It is unknown whether these events in the onset of central nervous system oxygen toxicity originate within specific brain structures and whether blood flow is diverted to the brain from peripheral organs with high basal flow, such as the kidney. To explore these questions, total and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured in brain structures of the central autonomic network in anesthetized rats in HBO2 at 6 ATA. Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, cardiovascular hemodynamics, and renal blood flow (RBF) were also monitored. As expected, mean arterial blood pressure and total and regional CBF increased preceding EEG spikes while RBF was unaltered. Of the brain structures examined, the earliest rise in CBF occurred in the striatum, suggesting increased neuronal activation. Continuous unilateral or bilateral striatal infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester attenuated CBF responses in that structure, but global EEG discharges persisted and did not differ from controls. Our novel findings indicate that: 1) cerebral hyperemia in extreme HBO2 in rats does not occur at the expense of renal perfusion, highlighting the remarkable autoregulatory capability of the kidney, and 2) in spite of a sentinel increase in striatal blood flow, additional brain structure(s) likely govern the pathogenesis of HBO2-induced seizures because EEG discharge latency was unchanged by local blockade of striatal nitric oxide production and concomitant hyperemia.

  12. Hydroalcoholic seed extract of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) alleviates lead-induced oxidative stress in different regions of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Williams, Dale; Rajanna, Sharada; Bettaiya, Rajanna

    2014-06-01

    Lead exposure is known to cause apoptotic neurodegeneration and neurobehavioral abnormalities in developing and adult brain by impairing cognition and memory. Coriandrum sativum is an herb belonging to Umbelliferae and is reported to have a protective effect against lead toxicity. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to evaluate the protective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum seed against lead-induced oxidative stress. Male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups: control group: 1,000 mg/L of sodium acetate; exposed group: 1,000 mg/L lead acetate for 4 weeks; C. sativum treated 1 (CST1) group: 250 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure; C. sativum treated 2 (CST2) group: 500 mg/kg body weight/day for seven consecutive days after 4 weeks of lead exposure. After the exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the whole brain was immediately isolated and separated into four regions: cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and brain stem along with the control group. After sacrifice, blood was immediately collected into heparinized vials and stored at 4 °C. In all the tissues, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation products (LPP), and total protein carbonyl content (TPCC) were estimated following standard protocols. An indicator enzyme for lead toxicity namely delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity was determined in the blood. A significant (p<0.05) increase in ROS, LPP, and TPCC levels was observed in exposed rat brain regions, while δ-ALAD showed a decrease indicating lead-induced oxidative stress. Treatment with the hydroalcoholic seed extract of C. sativum resulted in a tissue-specific amelioration of oxidative stress produced by lead.

  13. Global and Regional Decreases in Tropospheric Oxidants from Photochemical Effects of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul

    2003-01-01

    We evaluate the sensitivity of tropospheric OH, O3, and O3 precursors to photochemical effects of aerosols not usually included in global models: (1) aerosol scattering and absorption of ultraviolet radiation and (2) reactive uptake of HO', NO2, and NO3. Our approach is to couple a global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS- CHEM) with aerosol fields from a global 3-D aerosol model (GOCART). Reactive uptake by aerosols is computed using reaction probabilities from a recent review (gamma(sub HO2) = 0.2, gamma(sub NO2) = 10(exp -4), gamma(sub NO3) = l0(exp -3). Aerosols decrease the O3 - O((sup 1)D) photolysis frequency by 5-20% at the surface throughout the Northern Hemisphere (largely due to mineral dust) and by a factor of 2 in biomass burning regions (largely due to black carbon). Aerosol uptake of HO2 accounts for 10-40% of total HOx radical ((triple bonds)OH + peroxy) loss in the boundary layer over polluted continental regions (largely due to sulfate and organic carbon) and for more than 70% over tropical biomass burning regions (largely due to organic carbon). Uptake of NO2 and NO3 accounts for 10-20% of total HNO3 production over biomass burning regions and less elsewhere. Annual mean OH concentrations decrease by 9% globally and by 5-35% in the boundary layer over the Northern Hemisphere. Simulated CO increases by 5- 15 ppbv in the remote Northern Hemisphere, improving agreement with observations. Simulated boundary layer O3 decreases by 15- 45 ppbv over India during the biomass burning season in March and by 5-9 ppbv over northern Europe in August, again improving comparison with observations. We find that particulate matter controls would increase surface O3 over Europe and other industrial regions.

  14. Sulfate Aerosol Formation and Oxidation Pathways on Haze Event over East Asia Region Focusing on Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D.; Koo, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    The aerosol transports from China largely contribute to high PM (Particulate Matter) concentration in Korea. Especially, secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) such as nitrate, sulfate and ammonium are largely transported from China to Korea during haze event. The measured PM2.5 (Particle Matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5㎛) concentrations at the supersite monitoring stations in Korea are normally over 100 ug/m3 and SIAs are major chemical species with more than 70% of PM2.5 during the event. According to our air quality forecast model, sulfate concentrations are largely under-predicted in winter and slightly over-predicted in summer. Those discrepancies between model predicted and observed sulfate concentrations are mainly due to uncertainties of precursor emissions of NOx, SO2, and VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) and chemical mechanism of the sulfate formation in the chemical forecast model of CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality Model). Formation of sulfate is chemically linked to primary emissions of sulfur dioxide and to be abundancy of atmospheric oxidants such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, methyl hydroperoxide, and peroxyacetic acid. All of these oxidant species are formed via photochemical reactions with NOx and VOCs. The aim of this work is to investigate the dependency of sulfate formation on oxidant levels in winter and summer during episode event using CMAQ and its sulfate tracking probing tool. The sensitivity of the precursor emissions of SO2, NOx, VOCs and NH3 was also tested to understand the pathways of the sulfate formation. The results show that long range transport from China is a major factor to determine sulfate level in Korea during haze events and dominant mechanisms in the sulfate formation are the gas-phase OH and aqueous phase H2O2 reactions. NOx-SO2-VOCs chemical regimes for the sulfate formation is the VOCs limited regimes in Korea. The further details of the sensitivity run of the precursor emissions and

  15. Nickel Confined in the Interlayer Region of Birnessite: an Active Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Thenuwara, Akila C; Cerkez, Elizabeth B; Shumlas, Samantha L; Attanayake, Nuwan H; McKendry, Ian G; Frazer, Laszlo; Borguet, Eric; Kang, Qing; Remsing, Richard C; Klein, Michael L; Zdilla, Michael J; Strongin, Daniel R

    2016-08-22

    We report a synthetic method to enhance the electrocatalytic activity of birnessite for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) by intercalating Ni(2+) ions into the interlayer region. Electrocatalytic studies showed that nickel (7.7 atomic %)-intercalated birnessite exhibits an overpotential (η) of 400 mV for OER at an anodic current of 10 mA cm(-2) . This η is significantly lower than the η values for birnessite (η≈700 mV) and the active OER catalyst β-Ni(OH)2 (η≈550 mV). Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that a competition among the interactions between the nickel cation, water, and birnessite promote redox chemistry in the spatially confined interlayer region. PMID:27151204

  16. Vertical Profiles as Observational Constraints on Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in an Agricultural Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusede, S.; Diskin, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    We use diurnal variability in near-surface N2O vertical profiles to derive N2O emission rates. Our emissions estimates are ~3 times greater than are accounted for by inventories, a discrepancy in line with results from previous studies using different approaches. We quantify the surface N2O concentration's memory of local surface emissions on previous days to be 50-90%. We compare measured profiles both over and away from a dense N2O source region in the San Joaquin Valley, finding that profile shapes, diurnal variability, and changes in integrated near-surface column abundances are distinct according to proximity to source areas. To do this work, we use aircraft observations from the wintertime DISCOVER-AQ project in California's San Joaquin Valley, a region of intense agricultural activity.

  17. Quality in Cross-Border Higher Education and Challenges for the Internationalization of National Quality Assurance Agencies in the Asia-Pacific Region: The Taiwanese Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Angela Yung-chi

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border higher education has created a need to build capacity -- particularly in the internationalization dimension -- for national quality assurance agencies to evaluate cross-border education provided by foreign educational providers, or jointly by local and foreign institutions. This is quickly becoming a key issue in the Asia-Pacific…

  18. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S PM SUPERSITES PROGRAM - A MAJOR SUCCESSFUL COLLABORATIVE AIR QUALITY PROGRAM SUPPORTING STATES AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THEIR APPROACHES TO REDUCE PM LEVELS IN AIR ON URBAN AND REGIONAL SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program (Program) is a nationwide air quality methods, measurement, modeling, and data analysis program initiated through cooperative agreements with leading universities in the United States. The Progr...

  19. Alterations in catecholamine turnover in specific regions of the rat brain following acute exposure to nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Karuri, A R; Kugel, G; Engelking, L R; Kumar, M S

    1998-04-01

    The effects of nitrous oxide (N2O) on steady-state concentrations and turnover rates of catecholamines in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, brain stem, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord were determined in rats. Animals were exposed for 2 h to either 60% N2O or air. Immediately following exposure, all animals were injected intraperitoneally with alpha-methylparatyrosine (alphaMPT), a competitive inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase, and sacrificed at 0, 30, or 90 min postinjection. Brain catecholamine concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). Results indicate that N2O exposure significantly elevates steady-state concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) in the hypothalamus and striatum yet decreases amine levels in the brain stem region. Steady-state levels of dopamine (DA) were not significantly altered in any region of the CNS by N2O exposure. Acute exposure to N2O also resulted in significant decreases in the turnover rate of NE in the brain stem, yet it increased turnover of this amine in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, and striatum. Acute exposure to N2O resulted in a decreased turnover rate of DA in the hippocampus and striatum. In contrast, N2O appears to increase DA turnover in the olfactory bulb. These results indicate that acute exposure to N2O in rats causes region-specific alterations in steady-state levels and turnover rates of DA and NE within the central nervous system.

  20. Regional Sources of Nitrous Oxide over the United States: Seasonal Variation and Spatial Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S. M.; Kort, E. A.; Hirsch, A. I.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Andrews, A. E.; Xu, X.; Tian, H.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Michalak, A. M.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents top-down constraints on the magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonality of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions over the central United States. We analyze data from tall towers in 2004 and 2008 using a high resolution Lagrangian particle dispersion model paired with both geostatistical and Bayesian inversions. Our results indicate peak N{sub 2}O emissions in June with a strong seasonal cycle. The spatial distribution of sources closely mirrors data on fertilizer application with particularly large N{sub 2}O sources over the US Cornbelt. Existing inventories for N{sub 2}O predict emissions that differ substantially from the inverse model results in both seasonal cycle and magnitude. We estimate a total annual N{sub 2}O budget over the central US of 0.9-1.2 TgN/yr and an extrapolated budget for the entire US and Canada of 2.1-2.6 TgN/yr. By this estimate, the US and Canada account for 12-15% of the total global N{sub 2}O source or 32-39% of the global anthropogenic source as reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2007.

  1. Variation of D-region nitric-oxide density with solar activity and season at the dip equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarty, D. K.; Pakhomov, S. V.; Beig, G.

    1989-01-01

    To study the solar control on electron density (N sub e) in the equatorial D region, a program was initiated with Soviet collaboration in 1979. A total of 31 rockets were launched during the high solar activity period, and 47 rockets during the low solar activity period, from Thumba to measure the N sub e profiles. Analysis of the data shows that the average values of N sub e for the high solar activity period are higher by a factor of about 2 to 3 compared to the low solar activity values. It was found that a single nitric oxide density, (NO), profile cannot reproduce all the observed N sub e profiles. An attempt was made to reproduce theoretically the observed N sub e profiles by introducing variation in (NO) for the different solar activity periods and seasons.

  2. Comparison of remifentanil versus regional anaesthesia in children anaesthetised with isoflurane/nitrous oxide. International Remifentanil Paediatric Anaesthesia Study group.

    PubMed

    Prys-Roberts, C; Lerman, J; Murat, I; Taivainen, T; Lopez, T; Lejus, C; Spahr-Schopfer, I; Splinter, W; Kirkham, A J

    2000-09-01

    We compared the efficacy and safety of a remifentanil (0.25 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)-based balanced anaesthetic technique with a bupivacaine-based regional anaesthetic technique in an open label, multicentre study in 271 ASA physical status 1 or 2 children aged 1-12 years. Subjects requiring major intra-abdominal, urological or orthopaedic surgery were randomly allocated to receive either intravenous remifentanil (group R; n = 185) or epidural bupivacaine (group B; n = 86) with isoflurane/nitrous oxide for their anaesthesia. The majority of children in both groups (85% in group R, 78% in group B) showed no defined response to skin incision, and although the mean increase in systolic blood pressure (+11 mm Hg) was significantly greater in group R than in group B, this change did not represent a serious haemodynamic disturbance. More children in group R (31%) required interventions to treat hypotension and/or bradycardia than those in group B (12%), but these were easily managed by administration of fluids or anticholinergic drugs. Adverse events, mainly nausea and/or vomiting, occurred in 45% of group R and 42% of group B (NS). The adverse event profile of remifentanil in this study was typical of a potent mu-opioid receptor agonist. Remifentanil was as effective as epidural or caudal block in providing analgesia and suppressing physiological responses to surgical stimuli in children aged between 1 and 12 years undergoing major abdominal, urological, or orthopaedic surgery under isoflurane/nitrous oxide anaesthesia.

  3. Comparison of remifentanil versus regional anaesthesia in children anaesthetised with isoflurane/nitrous oxide. International Remifentanil Paediatric Anaesthesia Study group.

    PubMed

    Prys-Roberts, C; Lerman, J; Murat, I; Taivainen, T; Lopez, T; Lejus, C; Spahr-Schopfer, I; Splinter, W; Kirkham, A J

    2000-09-01

    We compared the efficacy and safety of a remifentanil (0.25 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)-based balanced anaesthetic technique with a bupivacaine-based regional anaesthetic technique in an open label, multicentre study in 271 ASA physical status 1 or 2 children aged 1-12 years. Subjects requiring major intra-abdominal, urological or orthopaedic surgery were randomly allocated to receive either intravenous remifentanil (group R; n = 185) or epidural bupivacaine (group B; n = 86) with isoflurane/nitrous oxide for their anaesthesia. The majority of children in both groups (85% in group R, 78% in group B) showed no defined response to skin incision, and although the mean increase in systolic blood pressure (+11 mm Hg) was significantly greater in group R than in group B, this change did not represent a serious haemodynamic disturbance. More children in group R (31%) required interventions to treat hypotension and/or bradycardia than those in group B (12%), but these were easily managed by administration of fluids or anticholinergic drugs. Adverse events, mainly nausea and/or vomiting, occurred in 45% of group R and 42% of group B (NS). The adverse event profile of remifentanil in this study was typical of a potent mu-opioid receptor agonist. Remifentanil was as effective as epidural or caudal block in providing analgesia and suppressing physiological responses to surgical stimuli in children aged between 1 and 12 years undergoing major abdominal, urological, or orthopaedic surgery under isoflurane/nitrous oxide anaesthesia. PMID:10947750

  4. Protocols for evaluating oxidant mechanisms for urban and regional models. Rept. for Apr 89-Apr 92

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, H.E.; Gery, M.W.; Carter, W.P.L.

    1992-06-01

    Procedures have been developed for evaluating chemical kinetics mechanisms that are candidates for use in urban and regional air quality simulation models. To accomplish the goal, a task force of experimentalists and modelers was assembled to address issues related to developing protocols for evaluating mechanisms against smog chamber data. The efforts of the task force were scrutinized in two workshops attended by national and international experts on smog chamber experimentation and model development. Based on the work undertaken by the task force and the input received from the committee of experts, a protocol was formulated that involves testing mechanisms against a standard data base of smog chamber experiments. The protocol describes the types and number of chamber experiments that should be used in the evaluation and how the evaluation should be conducted.

  5. Tillage and N-source influence soil-emitted nitrous oxide in the Alberta Parkland region

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke , R L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E D.

    1999-01-01

    Zero tillage systems are receiving attention as possible strategies for sequestering atmospheric carbon. This benefit may be offset by increased N2O emissions, which have been reported for soils under zero tillage (ZT) compared to those under more intensive tillage (IT). Comparisons of N2O emissions from the two systems have been restricted to the growing season, but substantial losses of N2O have been reported during spring thaw events in many regions. Inorganic and organic additions of nitrogen and fallowing have also been shown to increase levels of soil-emitted N2O. The objectives for this study were: (i) to confirm that losses of N2O are higher under ZT than under IT in Alberta Parkland agroecosystems; (ii) to compare the relative influence of urea fertilizer (56 or 100 kg N h--1), field pea residue (dry matter at 5 Mg h--1), sheep manure (dry matter at 40 Mg h--1) additions, and fallow on total N2O losses; and (iii) to investigate possible interactions between fertility and tillage treatments. Gas samples were collected using vented soil covers at three sites near Edmonton, Alberta during 1993, 1994, and 1995. Gas samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector. Estimated annual N2O loss ranged from 0.1 to 4.0 kg N ha-1. Emissions during summer were slightly higher, similar, or lower on ZT compared to those under IT, but were consistently lower on ZT plots during spring thaw. Combined estimates (spring plus summer) of N2O loss under ZT were equal to or lower than those under IT. Highest overall losses were observed on fallow plots, followed by fertilizer, pea residue, and then either manure or control plots. We conclude that ZT management systems have potential for reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in the Alberta Parkland region.

  6. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in pesticide sprayers in Thessaly Region (Greece). Implications of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Koureas, Michalis; Tsezou, Aspasia; Tsakalof, Andreas; Orfanidou, Timoklia; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-10-15

    The widespread use of pesticides substances nowadays largely guarantees the protection of crops and people from undesired pests. However, exposure to pesticides was related to a variety of human health effects. The present study was conducted in the region of Thessaly which is characterized by intensive agricultural activities and wide use of pesticides. The study aimed at estimating the oxidative damage to DNA in different subpopulations in Thessaly region (Greece) and investigating its correlation with exposure to pesticides and other potential risk factors. In total, the study involved 80 pesticide sprayers, 85 rural residents and 121 individuals, inhabitants of the city of Larissa. Demographic characteristics, habits, medical history and exposure history of the participants to pesticides were recorded by personal interviews. Blood and urine samples were collected from all participants. For the measurement of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites were quantified in urine, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and the oxidation by-product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined by Enzyme Immuno-Assay. Urinary metabolite concentrations were not associated with 8-OHdG levels but it was found that pesticide sprayers had significantly higher levels of 8-OHdG (p=0.007) in comparison to the control group. Last season's exposure to insecticides and fungicides, expressed as total area treated multiplied by the number of applications, showed a statistically significant association with the risk of having high 8-OHdG levels [RR: 2.19 (95%CI:1.09-4.38) and RR: 2.32 (95% CI:1.16-4.64) respectively]. Additionally, from the subgroups of pesticides examined, seasonal exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides [RR: 2.22 (95% CI:1.07-4.63)] and glufosinate ammonium [RR: 3.26 (95% CI:1.38-7.69)] was found to have the greater impact on 8-OHdG levels. This study produced findings

  7. Uniform distributions of glucose oxidation and oxygen extraction in gray matter of normal human brain: No evidence of regional differences of aerobic glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Fahmeed; Herman, Peter; Bailey, Christopher J; Møller, Arne; Globinsky, Ronen; Fulbright, Robert K; Rothman, Douglas L; Gjedde, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Regionally variable rates of aerobic glycolysis in brain networks identified by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) imply regionally variable adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regeneration. When regional glucose utilization is not matched to oxygen delivery, affected regions have correspondingly variable rates of ATP and lactate production. We tested the extent to which aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation power R-fMRI networks by measuring quantitative differences between the oxygen to glucose index (OGI) and the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in normal human brain (resting awake, eyes closed). Regionally uniform and correlated OEF and OGI estimates prevailed, with network values that matched the gray matter means, regardless of size, location, and origin. The spatial agreement between oxygen delivery (OEF≈0.4) and glucose oxidation (OGI ≈ 5.3) suggests that no specific regions have preferentially high aerobic glycolysis and low oxidative phosphorylation rates, with globally optimal maximum ATP turnover rates (VATP ≈ 9.4 µmol/g/min), in good agreement with (31)P and (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. These results imply that the intrinsic network activity in healthy human brain powers the entire gray matter with ubiquitously high rates of glucose oxidation. Reports of departures from normal brain-wide homogeny of oxygen extraction fraction and oxygen to glucose index may be due to normalization artefacts from relative PET measurements. PMID:26755443

  8. The evolution and impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Asia and the Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Phillips, Glyn O

    2009-05-01

    The Asia and the Pacific region was within the IAEA program on radiation and tissue banking, the most active region. Most of the tissue banks in the Asia and the Pacific region were developed during the late 1980s and 1990s. The initial number of tissue banks established or supported by the IAEA program in the framework of the RCA Agreement for Asia and the Pacific region was 18. At the end of 2006, the number of tissue banks participating, in one way or another in the IAEA program was 59. Since the beginning of the implementation of the IAEA program in Asia and the Pacific region 63,537 amnion and 44,282 bone allografts were produced and 57,683 amnion and 36,388 bone allografts were used. The main impact of the IAEA program in the region was the following: the establishment or consolidation of at least 59 tissue banks in 15 countries in the region (the IAEA supported directly 16 of these banks); the improvement on the quality and safety of tissues procured and produced in the region reaching international standards; the implementation of eight national projects, two regional projects and two interregional projects; the elaboration of International Standards, a Code of Practice and a Public Awareness Strategies and, the application of quality control and quality assurances programs in all participating tissue banks.

  9. The Role of the Exo-Xis Region in Oxidative Stress-Mediated Induction of Shiga Toxin-Converting Prophages

    PubMed Central

    Licznerska, Katarzyna; Dydecka, Aleksandra; Bloch, Sylwia; Topka, Gracja; Nejman-Faleńczyk, Bożena; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that these genetic elements could be involved in the regulation of lysogenization and prophage induction processes. The effects were dramatic in Shiga toxin-converting phage Φ24B after treatment with oxidative stress-inducing agent, hydrogen peroxide, while they were less pronounced in bacteriophage λ and in both phages irradiated with UV. The hydrogen peroxide-caused prophage induction was found to be RecA-dependent. Importantly, in hydrogen peroxide-treated E. coli cells lysogenic for either λ or Φ24B, deletion of the exo-xis region resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of expression of the S.O.S. regulon genes. Moreover, under these conditions, a dramatic decrease in the levels of expression of phage genes crucial for lytic development (particularly xis, exo, N, cro, O, Q, and R) could be observed in Φ24B-, but not in λ-bearing cells. We conclude that genes located in the exo-xis region are necessary for efficient expression of both host S.O.S regulon in lysogenic bacteria and regulatory genes of Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophage Φ24B. PMID:26798427

  10. Regional and long-range transport scenarios for photo-oxidants on the Mediterranean basin in summer

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, M.; Mantilla, E.; Salvador, R.; Kallos, G.

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric research, begun in 1988, has shown that the dynamics of air pollutants in the Mediterranean basin in summer are governed by processes ranging from local to large meso-scale with diurnal cycles. Large scale convection over some regions, and up-slope winds in others, can inject aged pollutants into the Mid-troposphere, where they can participate in long-range processes within Southern and Central Europe. Two scenarios have been identified for the regional and long-range transport of photo-oxidants and other pollutants within, and out of, the Western Mediterranean basin. The first scenario involves the pollutants injected over the Spanish Central Plateau directly into the mid-troposphere, and the second, the reservoir layers created along the Mediterranean coast. In the second scenario the key components are: the semi-permanent high(er) pressure area over the colder waters in the Gulf of Lion-Western Mediterranean basin, the mountain ranges which surround it, and the coastal processes. During the day the coastal circulations renovate the upper reservoir layers while the lower ones are drawn inland with the sea-breeze, and effective flow is mostly perpendicular to the coast.

  11. Effect of Centella asiatica leaf powder on oxidative markers in brain regions of prepubertal mice in vivo and its in vitro efficacy to ameliorate 3-NPA-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Shinomol, George K; Muralidhara

    2008-11-01

    Centella asiatica (CA) is a common medicinal plant used in the ayurvedic system of medicine to treat various ailments and as a memory enhancer. Despite its extensive usage in children, data on its ability to modulate neuronal oxidative stress in prepubertal rodents are limited. Hence in the present study we have addressed primarily two questions (i) whether dietary intake of CA leaf powder possess the propensity to modulate endogenous oxidative markers in mouse brain regions and (ii) the efficacy of CA aqueous extract to abrogate 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA)-induced oxidative stress in brain mitochondria in vitro. Prepubertal male mice were fed CA-incorporated diet (0.5 and 1%) for 4 weeks, and biochemical markers of oxidative stress in brain regions were determined. Mice fed CA showed significant diminution in the levels of malondialdehyde (30-50%), reactive oxygen species (32-42%) and hydroperoxide levels (30-35%), which was accompanied by enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes in all brain regions. While the levels of reduced glutathione and total thiols were elevated, the protein carbonyl content was decreased in brain among CA-fed mice. Interestingly, the oxidative markers among brain mitochondria of CA-fed mice were also significantly diminished (malondialdehyde, 25%; ROS, 30%; hydroperoxides, 35% and protein carbonyls, 28%). Further, the aqueous extract of CA showed significant free radical scavenging activity determined in established chemical test systems (viz., DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity). Furthermore, the aqueous extract of CA markedly ameliorated the 3-NPA induced oxidative stress response in brain mitochondria under in vitro exposure,. Taken together, these data suggest that CA has the propensity to modulate both endogenous and neurotoxicant induced oxidative impairments in the brain and may be effectively employed as a neuroprotective adjuvant to abrogate oxidative stress in vivo. PMID:18539017

  12. The evolution and impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in the Latin American region.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Phillips, Glyn O

    2009-05-01

    Since 1993, the IAEA supported the establishment or the consolidation of seven tissue banks in the region. As a direct or indirect consequence of the implementation of the IAEA program, more than 53 tissue banks are now operating in the participating countries. The fast development of tissue banks in the Latin America region under the ARCAL Agreement and with the financial and technical support of the IAEA program made it necessary to train new tissue bank operators and medical personnel. In general, 90 tissue bank operators and medical personnel were trained in the training centre of Buenos Aires. Another six tissue bank operators and medical personnel were trained in the International Training Centre of Singapore. The main impact of the IAEA program in the region was the following: the establishment or consolidation of fifty-three tissue banks in nine countries in the region; the implementation of five national projects, allocating $1,006,737 dollars for this purpose and of one regional project allocating $284,741 dollars for this purpose; the use of the IAEA Standards, the IAEA Code of Practice and the IAEA Public Awareness Strategies in several tissue banks in the region; the application of quality control and quality assurances manuals in all of the participating countries.

  13. Differential role of nitric oxide in regional sympathetic responses to stimulation of NTS A2a adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Scislo, Tadeusz J; Tan, Nobusuke; O'Leary, Donal S

    2005-02-01

    Our previous studies showed that preganglionic adrenal (pre-ASNA), renal (RSNA), lumbar, and postganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activities (post-ASNA) are inhibited after stimulation of arterial baroreceptors, nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and glutamatergic and P2x receptors and are activated after stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors. However, stimulation of adenosine A2a receptors inhibited RSNA and post-ASNA, whereas it activated pre-ASNA. Because the effects evoked by NTS A2a receptors may be mediated via activation of nitric oxide (NO) mechanisms in NTS neurons, we tested the hypothesis that NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors would attenuate regional sympathetic responses to NTS A2a receptor stimulation, whereas NO donors would evoke contrasting responses from pre-ASNA versus RSNA and post-ASNA. Therefore, in chloralose/urethane-anesthetized rats, we compared hemodynamic and regional sympathetic responses to microinjections of selective A2a receptor agonist (CGS-21680, 20 pmol/50 nl) after pretreatment with NOS inhibitors Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10 nmol/100 nl) and 1-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]imidazole (100 pmol/100 nl) versus pretreatment with vehicle (100 nl). In addition, responses to microinjections into the NTS of different NO donors [40 and 400 pmol/50 nl sodium nitroprusside (SNP); 0.5 and 5 nmol/50 nl 3,3-bis(aminoethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-triazene (DETA NONOate, also known as NOC-18), and 2 nmol/50 nl 3-(2-hydroxy-2-nitroso-1-propylhydrazino)-1-propanamine (PAPA NONOate, also known as NOC-15)], the NO precursor L-arginine (10-50 nmol/50 nl), and sodium glutamate (500 pmol/50 nl) were evaluated. SNP, DETA NONOate, and PAPA NONOate activated pre-ASNA and inhibited RSNA and post-ASNA, whereas l-arginine and glutamate microinjected into the same site of the NTS inhibited all these sympathetic outputs. Decreases in heart rate and depressor or biphasic responses accompanied the neural responses. Pretreatment with NOS inhibitors

  14. An organizational field approach to resource environments in healthcare: comparing entries of hospitals and home health agencies in the San Francisco Bay region.

    PubMed Central

    Ruef, M; Mendel, P; Scott, W R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To draw together insights from three perspectives (health economics, organizational ecology, and institutional theory) in order to clarify the factors that influence entries of providers into healthcare markets. A model centered on the concept of an organizational field is advanced as the level of analysis best suited to examining the assortment and interdependence of organizational populations and the institutional forces that shape this co-evolution. In particular, the model argues that: (1) different populations of healthcare providers partition fiscal, geographic, and demographic resource environments in order to ameliorate competition and introduce service complementarities; and (2) competitive barriers to entry within populations of providers vary systematically with regulatory regimens. DATA SOURCES: County-level entries of hospitals and home health agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area using data from the American Hospital Association (1945-1991) and California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (1976-1991). Characteristics of the resource environment are derived from the Area Resource File (ARF) and selected government censuses. METHODS OF ANALYSIS: A comparative design is applied to contrast influences on hospital and home health agency entries during the post-World War II period. Empirical estimates are obtained using Poisson and negative binomial regression models. RESULTS: Hospital and HHA markets are partitioned primarily by the age and education of consumers and, to a lesser extent, by urbanization levels and public funding expenditures. Such resource partitioning allows independent HHAs to exist comfortably in concentrated hospital markets. For both hospitals and HHAs, the barriers to entry once generated by oligopolistic concentration have declined noticeably with the market-oriented reforms of the past 15 years. CONCLUSION: A field-level perspective demonstrates that characteristics of local resource environments

  15. The Education Service Agency--Where Next?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levis, Rae M.

    Chapter 1 of this study introduces the education service agency (ESA) by briefly examining its history and reviewing recent research on its present status. Identifying three basic ESA patterns (special district, regionalized agencies, and cooperative agencies), the initial chapter observes that, although most ESA's were not established until the…

  16. Pulsed laser deposited indium tin oxides as alternatives to noble metals in the near-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xu; Mak, C. L.; Zhang, Shiyu; Wang, Zhewei; Yuan, Wenjia; Ye, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide thin films with thickness around 200 nm were deposited on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition technology. The microstructure and the electrical and optical properties of the ITO films deposited under different oxygen pressures and substrate temperatures were systematically investigated. Distinct different x-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the crystallinity of ITO films was highly influenced by deposition conditions. The highest carrier concentration of the ITO films was obtained as 1.34  ×  1021 cm‑3 with the lowest corresponding resistivity of 2.41  ×  10‑4 Ω cm. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to retrieve the dielectric permittivity of the ITO films to estimate their potential as plasmonic materials in the near-infrared region. The crossover wavelength (the wavelength where the real part of the permittivity changes from positive to negative) of the ITO films exhibited high dependence on the deposition conditions and was optimized to as low as 1270 nm. Compared with noble metals (silver or gold etc), the lower imaginary part of the permittivity (<3) of ITO films suggests the potential application of ITO in the near-infrared range.

  17. Pulsed laser deposited indium tin oxides as alternatives to noble metals in the near-infrared region.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; Mak, C L; Zhang, Shiyu; Wang, Zhewei; Yuan, Wenjia; Ye, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide thin films with thickness around 200 nm were deposited on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition technology. The microstructure and the electrical and optical properties of the ITO films deposited under different oxygen pressures and substrate temperatures were systematically investigated. Distinct different x-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the crystallinity of ITO films was highly influenced by deposition conditions. The highest carrier concentration of the ITO films was obtained as 1.34  ×  10(21) cm(-3) with the lowest corresponding resistivity of 2.41  ×  10(-4) Ω cm. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to retrieve the dielectric permittivity of the ITO films to estimate their potential as plasmonic materials in the near-infrared region. The crossover wavelength (the wavelength where the real part of the permittivity changes from positive to negative) of the ITO films exhibited high dependence on the deposition conditions and was optimized to as low as 1270 nm. Compared with noble metals (silver or gold etc), the lower imaginary part of the permittivity (<3) of ITO films suggests the potential application of ITO in the near-infrared range. PMID:27054885

  18. Pulsed laser deposited indium tin oxides as alternatives to noble metals in the near-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xu; Mak, C. L.; Zhang, Shiyu; Wang, Zhewei; Yuan, Wenjia; Ye, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide thin films with thickness around 200 nm were deposited on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition technology. The microstructure and the electrical and optical properties of the ITO films deposited under different oxygen pressures and substrate temperatures were systematically investigated. Distinct different x-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the crystallinity of ITO films was highly influenced by deposition conditions. The highest carrier concentration of the ITO films was obtained as 1.34  ×  1021 cm-3 with the lowest corresponding resistivity of 2.41  ×  10-4 Ω cm. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to retrieve the dielectric permittivity of the ITO films to estimate their potential as plasmonic materials in the near-infrared region. The crossover wavelength (the wavelength where the real part of the permittivity changes from positive to negative) of the ITO films exhibited high dependence on the deposition conditions and was optimized to as low as 1270 nm. Compared with noble metals (silver or gold etc), the lower imaginary part of the permittivity (<3) of ITO films suggests the potential application of ITO in the near-infrared range.

  19. Analysis of the 16 Environmental Protection Agency priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high performance liquid chromatography-oxidized diamond film electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bouvrette, Pierre; Hrapovic, Sabahudin; Male, Keith B; Luong, John H T

    2006-01-27

    The capabilities of using boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films as electrode materials for analysis of the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after a liquid chromatographic separation were evaluated. The BDD electrode was able to detect all 16 PAHs with high sensitivity due to the low background current and wide potential window. The method provided detection limits ranging from 12-40 nM (3-10 ppb) and repeatable results over consecutive analysis. Calibration curves were linear up to at least 10 microM for all PAHs. The work shows the promising use of diamond as an amperometric detector in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), especially for PAHs and other hydrophobic aromatic compounds.

  20. Mapping frequencies of endogenous oxidative damage and the kinetic response to oxidative stress in a region of rat mtDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Driggers, W J; Holmquist, G P; LeDoux, S P; Wilson, G L

    1997-01-01

    Genomic DNA is constantly being damaged and repaired and our genomes exist at lesion equilibrium for damage created by endogenous mutagens. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has the highest lesion equilibrium frequency recorded; presumably due to damage by H2O2 and free radicals generated during oxidative phosphorylation processes. We measured the frequencies of single strand breaks and oxidative base damage in mtDNA by ligation-mediated PCR and a quantitative Southern blot technique coupled with digestion by the enzymes endonuclease III and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase. Addition of 5 mM alloxan to cultured rat cells increased the rate of oxidative base damage and, by several fold, the lesion frequency in mtDNA. After removal of this DNA damaging agent from culture, the single strand breaks and oxidative base damage frequency decreased to levels slightly below normal at 4 h and returned to normal levels at 8 h, the overshoot at 4 h being attributed to an adaptive up-regulation of mitochondrial excision repair activity. Guanine positions showed the highest endogenous lesion frequencies and were the most responsive positions to alloxan-induced oxidative stress. Although specific bases were consistently hot spots for damage, there was no evidence that removal of these lesions occurred in a strand-specific manner. The data reveal non-random oxidative damage to several nucleotides in mtDNA and an apparent adaptive, non-strand selective response for removal of such damage. These are the first studies to characterize oxidative damage and its subsequent removal at the nucleotide level in mtDNA. PMID:9336469

  1. Prophylactic neuroprotective property of Centella asiatica against 3-nitropropionic acid induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in brain regions of prepubertal mice.

    PubMed

    Shinomol, George K; Muralidhara

    2008-11-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of Centella asiatica (a well known plant in ayurvedic medicine) globally, evidence demonstrating its protective efficacy against neurotoxicants in animal models is limited. 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NPA), a fungal toxin is a well known neurotoxicant which induces selective striatal pathology similar to that seen in Huntington's disease. The present study aimed to understand the neuroprotective efficacy of a standardized aqueous extract of C. asiatica (CA) against 3-NPA-induced early oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in striatum and other brain regions. We determined the extent of oxidative stress in cytosol and mitochondria of brain regions of male mice (4wk old) given CA prophylaxis (5mg/kgbw) for 10 days followed by 3-NPA administration (i.p., 75mg/kgbw/d) on the last 2 days. The neurotoxicant elicited marked oxidative stress in the untreated mice as evidenced by elevated levels of malondialdehyde, ROS levels and hydroperoxides in the striatum (cytosol and mitochondria), while CA prophylaxis completely attenuated the 3-NPA-induced oxidative stress. 3-NPA also caused significant oxidative stress and protein oxidation in cytosol/mitochondria of other brain regions as well which were predominantly abolished by CA prophylaxis. Significant depletion of GSH levels, total thiols and perturbations in antioxidant enzymic defences in striatum and other brain regions discernible among 3-NPA administered mice were also protected with CA prophylaxis. Interestingly, CA prophylaxis offered varying degree of protection against 3-NPA-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions viz., reduction in the activity of succinic dehydrogenase, ETC enzymes and decreased mitochondrial viability. Collectively these findings clearly suggest that short-term oral intake of a standardized aqueous extract of CA confers marked resistance against the 3-NPA-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in brain. Although the precise mechanism

  2. Assessing known pathways for HO2 loss in aqueous atmospheric aerosols: Regional and global impacts on tropospheric oxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Joel A.; Jaeglé, Lyatt; McNeill, V. Faye

    2008-03-01

    We present a study of the potential importance of known reaction pathways for HO2 loss in atmospheric aerosols. As a baseline case, we calculate the reaction probability for HO2 loss by its self-reaction in aqueous particles. Detailed calculations assessed the effects of aerosol pH, temperature, particle size, and aqueous phase diffusion limitations on the rate of HO2 loss by this process. An algebraic parameterization of the reaction probability, γHO2, due to self-reaction is valid for aerosol pH < 6 and the existence of a homogeneous gas-phase HOx source greater than 1 × 105 molec cm-3 s-1. In this formulation γHO2 depends strongly on particle phase, size, pH and temperature; the latter causing γHO2 > 0.1 in the upper troposphere and γHO2 < 0.01 in the extra-polar lower troposphere. We contrast the self-reaction pathway with catalytic oxidation by dissolved Cu ions. Using IMPROVE network data we assess the atmospheric importance and uncertainties associated with the Cu pathway. Simulations of tropospheric chemistry were performed using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with different parameterizations of γHO2. Relative to simulations where γHO2 = 0 for all aerosol types, assuming that only the aqueous-phase self-reaction proceeds on pollution and sea salt particles causes global annual mean differences in surface OH, HO2, and H2O2 of -1, -2, and +2%, respectively. These minor effects of heterogeneous loss are significantly different from a simulation assuming γHO2 = 0.2 on all particles, as is currently recommended, with implications for predictions of regional HOx levels, ozone production rates and their sensitivity to NOx.

  3. Response of the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) region 5 states to the nonpoint source reporting requirements of the 1987 Clean Water Act amendments. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hautman, N.

    1988-01-01

    This report attempts to determine the extent of nonpoint source pollution in Region V. The report analyzes and summarizes the nonpoint source and clean lakes reports required under the Clean Water Act amendments of 1987. The reports share common elements such as a focus on agricultural sources and the use of hard data as well as professional judgment. However, they differ in overall design, definitions of key elements, level of analysis, thoroughness, and effectiveness. The summary considers the reports from two aspects: structure and the extent to which they comply with Sec. 319 and U.S. EPA reports as they are constructed. Information in the 305 (b) reports adds to the scope of each state's nonpoint source program and is referred to here. Following the summary is a discussion, accompanied by appropriate tables, of the nonpoint source pollution extent.

  4. Development of FeCoB/Graphene Oxide based microwave absorbing materials for X-Band region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sukanta; Chandra Nayak, Ganesh; Sahu, S. K.; Oraon, Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    This work explored the microwave absorption capability of Graphene Oxide and Graphene Oxide coated with FeCoB for stealth technology. Epoxy based microwave absorbing materials were prepared with 30% loading of Graphene Oxide, FeCoB alloy and Graphene Oxide coated with FeCoB. Graphene Oxide and FeCoB were synthesized by Hummer's and Co-precipitation methods, respectively. The filler particles were characterized by FESEM, XRD and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer techniques. Permittivity, permeability and reflection loss values of the composite absorbers were measured with vector network analyzer which showed a reflection loss value of -7.86 dB, at 10.72 GHz, for single layered Graphene Oxide/Epoxy based microwave absorbers which can be correlated to the absorption of about 83.97% of the incident microwave energy. Reflection loss value of FeCoB/Epoxy based microwave absorber showed -13.30 dB at 11.67 GHz, which corresponded to maximum absorption of 93.8%. However, reflection loss values of Graphene Oxide coated with FeCoB/Epoxy based single-layer absorber increased to -22.24 dB at 12.4 GHz which corresponds to an absorption of 99% of the incident microwave energy.

  5. Difference in chemical reactions in bulk plasma and sheath regions during surface modification of graphene oxide film using capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung-Youp; Kim, Chan; Kim, Hong Tak

    2015-09-14

    Reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) films were obtained from capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma treatment of spin-coated graphene oxide (GO) films at room temperature. Variations were evaluated according to the two plasma treatment regions: the bulk plasma region (R{sub bulk}) and the sheath region (R{sub sheath}). Reduction and nitridation of the GO films began as soon as the NH{sub 3} plasma was exposed to both regions. However, with the increase in treatment time, the reduction and nitridation reactions differed in each region. In the R{sub bulk}, NH{sub 3} plasma ions reacted chemically with oxygen functional groups on the GO films, which was highly effective for reduction and nitridation. While in the R{sub sheath}, physical reactions by ion bombardment were dominant because plasma ions were accelerated by the strong electrical field. The accelerated plasma ions reacted not only with the oxygen functional groups but also with the broken carbon chains, which caused the removal of the GO films by the formation of hydrocarbon gas species. These results showed that reduction and nitridation in the R{sub bulk} using capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma were very effective for modifying the properties of r-GO films for application as transparent conductive films.

  6. Latin-American Regional Developments in Space Technology and International Cooperation - Columbian Space Policy: An Approach to Create a National Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenales-Vergara, Oscar A.

    2002-01-01

    Space exploration is a great human adventure: culturally, scientifically, technologically and industrially. Since the earliest of times, civilizations have been united in their awe of, and inspiration by, the cosmos, as testified in particularly by the peoples and cultures of the Central and South American continent in pre-Columbian times. Today, space systems have become an essential tool for the scientific disciplines related to the knowledge of the universe, including our own planet and its close or its remote environment. The main objective of this research is to explain the way in which Colombia, rich in myths and secular legends connecting mankind to the universe, must in the present tackle the issue of its development of space activities. The context in which it could be carried out is also described, along with a perspective of the current state of science and technology in the space sector on a global scale. Any modern nation is concerned with its independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support the concept of countries in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields for our tomorrow. This research thus proposes to demonstrate how in a time that can be regarded as one of the most serious crises in its history, Colombia could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space matter capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phase of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

  7. Nitrous oxide and methane in two tropical estuaries in a peat-dominated region of northwestern Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Denise; Bange, Hermann W.; Warneke, Thorsten; Rixen, Tim; Müller, Moritz; Mujahid, Aazani; Notholt, Justus

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries are sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. However, our present knowledge of N2O and CH4 emissions from estuaries in the tropics is very limited because data are scarce. In this study, we present first measurements of dissolved N2O and CH4 from two estuaries in a peat-dominated region of northwestern Borneo. Two campaigns (during the dry season in June 2013 and during the wet season in March 2014) were conducted in the estuaries of the Lupar and Saribas rivers. Median N2O concentrations ranged between 7.2 and 12.3 nmol L-1 and were higher in the marine end-member (13.0 ± 7.0 nmol L-1). CH4 concentrations were low in the coastal ocean (3.6 ± 0.2 nmol L-1) and higher in the estuaries (medians between 10.6 and 64.0 nmol L-1). The respiration of abundant organic matter and presumably anthropogenic input caused slight eutrophication, which did not lead to hypoxia or enhanced N2O concentrations, however. Generally, N2O concentrations were not related to dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations. Thus, the use of an emission factor for the calculation of N2O emissions from the inorganic nitrogen load leads to an overestimation of the flux from the Lupar and Saribas estuaries. N2O was negatively correlated with salinity during the dry season, which suggests a riverine source. In contrast, N2O concentrations during the wet season were not correlated with salinity but locally enhanced within the estuaries, implying that there were additional estuarine sources during the wet (i.e., monsoon) season. Estuarine CH4 distributions were not driven by freshwater input but rather by tidal variations. Both N2O and CH4 concentrations were more variable during the wet season. We infer that the wet season dominates the variability of the N2O and CH4 concentrations and subsequent emissions from tropical estuaries. Thus, we speculate that any changes in the Southeast Asian monsoon system will lead to changes in the N2O and CH4 emissions from these

  8. Performance enhancement of a plasmonic structure comprising of indium oxide-zirconium dioxide-silver-zinc oxide intermediate layers working in visible and infrared wavelength region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmachari, Kaushik; Ray, Mina

    2016-07-01

    Modeling of a fused silica (SiO2) glass prism-based plasmonic structure comprising of indium oxide (In2O3)-zirconium dioxide (ZrO2)-silver (Ag)-zinc oxide (ZnO) intermediate layers showing enhancement in sensitivity and figure-of-merit (FOM) in visible and infrared regime has been reported in this paper. Performance of the proposed plasmonic structure has been demonstrated in terms of sensitivity, half width (HW), detection accuracy (DA), and FOM parameters in visible (632.8 nm) and infrared (1200 nm) wavelength of light. High sensitivity of fused silica glass material, In2O3, ZnO films along with high DA and high FOM of Ag and inclusion of ZrO2 as an oxidation protective layer in between In2O3 and Ag have been the most exciting and advantageous features of our proposed structure. Simulated sensitivity values of our proposed structure were found to be 73.8 deg/RIU at 632.8 nm wavelength and it was found enhanced to 109.6 deg/RIU at 1200 nm wavelength and simulated FOM values were also found enhanced from 23.3544 RIU-1 at 632.8 nm to 62.6285 RIU-1 at 1200 nm wavelength for change in sensing layer refractive indices from 1.30 RIU to 1.35 RIU.

  9. Performance enhancement of a plasmonic structure comprising of indium oxide-zirconium dioxide-silver-zinc oxide intermediate layers working in visible and infrared wavelength region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmachari, Kaushik; Ray, Mina

    2016-07-01

    Modeling of a fused silica (SiO2) glass prism-based plasmonic structure comprising of indium oxide (In2O3)-zirconium dioxide (ZrO2)-silver (Ag)-zinc oxide (ZnO) intermediate layers showing enhancement in sensitivity and figure-of-merit (FOM) in visible and infrared regime has been reported in this paper. Performance of the proposed plasmonic structure has been demonstrated in terms of sensitivity, half width (HW), detection accuracy (DA), and FOM parameters in visible (632.8 nm) and infrared (1200 nm) wavelength of light. High sensitivity of fused silica glass material, In2O3, ZnO films along with high DA and high FOM of Ag and inclusion of ZrO2 as an oxidation protective layer in between In2O3 and Ag have been the most exciting and advantageous features of our proposed structure. Simulated sensitivity values of our proposed structure were found to be 73.8 deg/RIU at 632.8 nm wavelength and it was found enhanced to 109.6 deg/RIU at 1200 nm wavelength and simulated FOM values were also found enhanced from 23.3544 RIU-1 at 632.8 nm to 62.6285 RIU-1 at 1200 nm wavelength for change in sensing layer refractive indices from 1.30 RIU to 1.35 RIU.

  10. Early diagenetic partial oxidation of organic matter and sulfides in the Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Excello Shale Member of the Fort Scott Limestone and equivalents, northern Midcontinent region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, J.R.; Leventhal, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    A process of early diagenetic partial oxidation of organic matter and sulfides has altered the chemical composition of the Middle Pennsylvanian Excello Shale Member of the Fort Scott Limestone and equivalents in the northern Midcontinent region. This process was identified by comparison of organic carbon contents, Rock-Eval hydrogen indices, organic carbon ??13C and element compositions of core and surface mine samples of the Excello Shale Member with analyses of three other underlying and overlying organic-matter-rich marine shales (offshore shale lithofacies) from southern Iowa, northern Missouri, eastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma. The end product of the partial oxidation process is shale with relatively low contents of hydrogen-poor, C13-enriched organic matter, lower contents of sulfur and sulfide-forming elements, and relatively unchanged contents of phosphorus and many trace elements (e.g. Cr, Ni, and V). However, because of lower organic carbon contents, element/organic carbon ratios are greatly increased. The partial oxidation process apparently took place during subaerial exposure of the overlying marine carbonate member (Blackjack Creek Member of the Fort Scott Limestone) following a marine regression when meteoric waters percolated down to the level of the Excello muds allowing oxidation of organic matter and sulfides. This hypothesis is supported by earlier workers, who have identified meteoric carbonate cements within, and soil horizons at the top of the Blackjack Creek Member. The period of oxidation is constrained in that organic matter and sulfides in the Little Osage Shale Member of the Fort Scott Limestone and equivalents (immediately overlying the Blackjack Creek Member) appear unaltered. Similar alteration of other shales in the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian sections may be local to regional in extent and would depend on the extent and duration of the marine regression and be influenced by local variations in permeability and topography

  11. Serum Oxidized LDL Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy in Mthatha Region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a powerful natural prooxidant derived from native LDL by cell-mediated oxidation. Such oxidation occurs more easily in glycated LDL as observed in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated and compared selected biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant (TAO) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without retinopathy in the Mthatha region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The participants totaled to 140 and this number comprised 98 diabetic patients on treatment, stratified by diabetes (54) and diabetes with retinopathy (44). Forty-two nondiabetic healthy controls made up the 140. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, serum ox-LDL, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and TAO levels were measured. A statistically significant increase in FPG, HbA1c, TBARS, and ox-LDL and a significant decrease in TAO levels were seen in T2DM patients with retinopathy as compared to controls. A significant negative correlation was observed between TAO and ox-LDL levels in the diabetic group. In multiple linear regression analyses, duration of diabetes, triglyceride, TAO, and LDL cholesterol were found to be significantly associated with ox-LDL. In multiple logistic regression analyses, ox-LDL [OR 1.02 (1.01–1.03), P = 0.005] was the only risk factor and was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy. PMID:27433285

  12. 40 CFR 52.675 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides-Eastern Idaho Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... acid plant discharge stack per the requirements of 40 CFR 60.13 and 60.84. (B) Continuously monitoring... calculations shall be in conformance with 40 CFR 60.84. For the 300 acid plant, average SO2 emission rates... of Sulfur Oxide Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Plants) of the “Rules and Regulations for the Control...

  13. 40 CFR 52.675 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides-Eastern Idaho Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... acid plant discharge stack per the requirements of 40 CFR 60.13 and 60.84. (B) Continuously monitoring... calculations shall be in conformance with 40 CFR 60.84. For the 300 acid plant, average SO2 emission rates... of Sulfur Oxide Emissions from Sulfuric Acid Plants) of the “Rules and Regulations for the Control...

  14. Toluene effects on Oxidative Stress in Brain regions of Young-adult, Middleage,and Senescent Brown Norway Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress plays a role in the adver...

  15. TOLUENE EFFECTS ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN REGIONS OF YOUNG-ADULT, MIDDLE-AGE AND SENESCENT BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging-related susceptibility to environmental chemicals is poorly understood. Oxidative stress (OS) appears to play an important role in susceptibility and disease in old age. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to test whether OS is a potential toxicity pathway for tol...

  16. Regional Air Quality Model Application of the Aqueous-Phase Photo Reduction of Atmospheric Oxidized Mercury by Dicarboxylic Acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    In most ecosystems, atmospheric deposition is the primary input of mercury. The total wet deposition of mercury in atmospheric chemistry models is sensitive to parameterization of the aqueous-phase reduction of divalent oxidized mercury (Hg2+). However, most atmospheric chemistry...

  17. The relation between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 over the United States: a geographical comparison by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai; Hoff, Raymond M; Engel-Cox, Jill A

    2009-11-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) acquired from satellite measurements demonstrates good correlation with particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in some regions of the United States and has been used for monitoring and nowcasting air quality over the United States. This work investigates the relation between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD and PM2.5 over the 10 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-defined geographic regions in the United States on the basis of a 2-yr (2005-2006) match-up dataset of MODIS AOD and hourly PM2.5 measurements. The AOD retrievals demonstrate a geographical and seasonal variation in their relation with PM2.5. Good correlations are mostly observed over the eastern United States in summer and fall. The southeastern United States has the highest correlation coefficients at more than 0.6. The southwestern United States has the lowest correlation coefficient of approximately 0.2. The seasonal regression relations derived for each region are used to estimate the PM2.5 from AOD retrievals, and it is shown that the estimation using this method is more accurate than that using a fixed ratio between PM2.5 and AOD. Two versions of AOD from Terra (v4.0.1 and v5.2.6) are also compared in terms of the inversion methods and screening algorithms. The v5.2.6 AOD retrievals demonstrate better correlation with PM2.5 than v4.0.1 retrievals, but they have much less coverage because of the differences in the cloud-screening algorithm.

  18. Oxidative capacity and radical chemistry in the polluted atmosphere of Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta region: analysis of a severe photochemical smog episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Likun; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xinfeng; Saunders, Sandra; Blake, Donald; Louie, Peter K. K.; Luk, Connie W. Y.; Simpson, Isobel; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Zhe; Gao, Yuan; Lee, Shuncheng; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-08-01

    We analyze a photochemical smog episode to understand the oxidative capacity and radical chemistry of the polluted atmosphere in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) is constrained by an intensive set of field observations to elucidate the budgets of ROx (ROx = OH+HO2+RO2) and NO3 radicals. Highly abundant radical precursors (i.e. O3, HONO and carbonyls), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) facilitate strong production and efficient recycling of ROx radicals. The OH reactivity is dominated by oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), followed by aromatics, alkenes and alkanes. Photolysis of OVOCs (except for formaldehyde) is the dominant primary source of ROx with average daytime contributions of 34-47 %. HONO photolysis is the largest contributor to OH and the second-most significant source (19-22 %) of ROx. Other considerable ROx sources include O3 photolysis (11-20 %), formaldehyde photolysis (10-16 %), and ozonolysis reactions of unsaturated VOCs (3.9-6.2 %). In one case when solar irradiation was attenuated, possibly by the high aerosol loadings, NO3 became an important oxidant and the NO3-initiated VOC oxidation presented another significant ROx source (6.2 %) even during daytime. This study suggests the possible impacts of daytime NO3 chemistry in the polluted atmospheres under conditions with the co-existence of abundant O3, NO2, VOCs and aerosols, and also provides new insights into the radical chemistry that essentially drives the formation of photochemical smog in the high-NOx environment of Hong Kong and the PRD region.

  19. Oxidative titrations of reduced cytochrome aa3: anisotropic extinction behavior observed in the heme alpha-band region.

    PubMed

    Schroedl, N A; Hartzell, C R

    1977-04-01

    Direct chemical titrations of reduced, purified cytochrome aa3 were monitored at 604 nm. Anaerobic oxidation by potassium ferricyanide or 1,1'-bis(hydroxymethyl)-ferricinium ion was compared with the natural substrate, molecular oxygen. The four electrons from reduced cytochrome aa3 were donated to one oxygen molecule, resulting in a linear titration with only fully oxidized or fully reduced enzyme molecules present. Unlike the linear or sigmoidal titrations which resulted from various reductive titrations reported previously, pronounced hyperbolic curves were obtained with the chemical oxidants. The midpoint potential values exhibited by the four metal centers of cytochrome aa3 were determined by computer simulation of the titration curves. A high potential pair of components (heme a = 340 mV, Cu = 340 mV) and a low potential pair (heme a = 220 mV, Cu = 240 mV) were observed, consistent with literature values. Unique to these equilibrium studies was a split in the heme a extinction coefficients at 604 nm. The low potential heme a component contributed 80-85% to the total absorbance change. A polarographic assay was used to verify that the integrity of cytochrome aa3 remained intact during equilibrium titrations spanning several hours. These experimental results indicate that simple chemical reversibility does not exist for cytochrome aa3 under anaerobic conditions.

  20. Mutational analysis of the redox-sensitive transcriptional regulator OxyR: regions important for oxidation and transcriptional activation.

    PubMed Central

    Kullik, I; Toledano, M B; Tartaglia, L A; Storz, G

    1995-01-01

    OxyR is a redox-sensitive transcriptional regulator of the LysR family which activates the expression of genes important for the defense against hydrogen peroxide in Escherichia coli and Samonella typhimurium. OxyR is sensitive to oxidation and reduction, and only oxidized OxyR is able to activate transcription of its target genes. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we found that one cysteine residue (C-199) is critical for the redox sensitivity of OxyR, and a C-199-->S mutation appears to lock the OxyR protein in the reduced form. We also used a random mutagenesis approach to isolate eight constitutively active mutants. All of the mutations are located in the C-terminal half of the protein, and four of the mutations map near the critical C-199 residue. In vivo as well as in vitro transcription experiments showed that the constitutive mutant proteins were able to activate transcription under both oxidizing and reducing conditions, and DNase I footprints showed that this activation is due to the ability of the mutant proteins to induce cooperative binding of RNA polymerase. Unexpectedly, RNA polymerase was also found to reciprocally affect OxyR binding. PMID:7868602

  1. Characterization of Arbequina virgin olive oils produced in different regions of Brazil and Spain: Physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Borges, Thays H; Pereira, José Alberto; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Lara, Luis; Oliveira, Adelson F; Seiquer, Isabel

    2017-01-15

    Production of virgin olive oil is beginning in Brazil. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the EVOO Arbequina from Brazil in comparison with Spanish Arbequina from different regions. Quality parameters, oxidative stability, pigments, colour and fatty acid profile were assessed, and relationships with geographic and climatic conditions were studied. All the samples presented good quality and met EU standards for extra-virgin olive oil, but there were significant differences between regions and countries for many of the parameters evaluated. Major differences between Brazilian and Spanish samples were observed for free acidity and colour of the oils, as well as minor variations in the fatty acid profile. The colour differences were related to rainfall, whereas the fatty acid content was strongly influenced by altitude and temperature. These results highlight the fact that geographic area and environmental factors influence the characteristics of Arbequina oil and play an important role in newly introduced cultivars. PMID:27542498

  2. Characterization of Arbequina virgin olive oils produced in different regions of Brazil and Spain: Physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Borges, Thays H; Pereira, José Alberto; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Lara, Luis; Oliveira, Adelson F; Seiquer, Isabel

    2017-01-15

    Production of virgin olive oil is beginning in Brazil. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the EVOO Arbequina from Brazil in comparison with Spanish Arbequina from different regions. Quality parameters, oxidative stability, pigments, colour and fatty acid profile were assessed, and relationships with geographic and climatic conditions were studied. All the samples presented good quality and met EU standards for extra-virgin olive oil, but there were significant differences between regions and countries for many of the parameters evaluated. Major differences between Brazilian and Spanish samples were observed for free acidity and colour of the oils, as well as minor variations in the fatty acid profile. The colour differences were related to rainfall, whereas the fatty acid content was strongly influenced by altitude and temperature. These results highlight the fact that geographic area and environmental factors influence the characteristics of Arbequina oil and play an important role in newly introduced cultivars.

  3. Novel Vertical 3D Structure of TaOx-based RRAM with Self-localized Switching Region by Sidewall Electrode Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Muxi; Cai, Yimao; Wang, Zongwei; Fang, Yichen; Liu, Yefan; Yu, Zhizhen; Pan, Yue; Zhang, Zhenxing; Tan, Jing; Yang, Xue; Li, Ming; Huang, Ru

    2016-01-01

    A novel vertical 3D RRAM structure with greatly improved reliability behavior is proposed and experimentally demonstrated through basically compatible process featuring self-localized switching region by sidewall electrode oxidation. Compared with the conventional structure, due to the effective confinement of the switching region, the newly-proposed structure shows about two orders higher endurance (>108 without verification operation) and better retention (>180h@150 °C), as well as high uniformity. Corresponding model is put forward, on the base of which thorough theoretical analysis and calculations are conducted as well, demonstrating that, resulting from the physically-isolated switching from neighboring cells, the proposed structure exhibits dramatically improved reliability due to effective suppression of thermal effects and oxygen vacancies diffusion interference, indicating that this novel structure is very promising for future high density 3D RRAM application. PMID:26884054

  4. Assessment of oxidative stress indices in a marine macro brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck) from comparable polluted coastal regions of the Arabian Sea, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Dusmant; Jena, Karmabeer; Pise, Navnath M; Jagtap, Tanaji G

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems were assessed in a marine brown alga Padina tetrastromatica, commonly occurring from the tropics. Lipid peroxidation (LPX) and H2O2 were measured as oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant defences were measured as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and ascorbic acid (AsA), in order to understand their dissimilarity with respect to pollution levels from selective locations along the central west coast of India. A significant increased levels of LPX, H2O2, CAT and GST were observed in samples from relatively polluted localities (Colaba and Karwar) when compared to less polluted locality (Anjuna), while AsA concentration was higher in algal samples from worst polluted region of Colaba. Heavy metals such as Cd and Pb were also higher in the vicinity of polluted areas compared to reference area. Variation of oxidative stress indices in response to accumulation of heavy metals within P. tetrastromatica could be used as molecular biomarkers in assessment and monitoring environmental quality of ecologically sensitive marine habitats.

  5. Optical constants of off-stoichiometric aluminum oxide thin film in 6-20 nm soft-X-ray/extreme ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Mangalika; Sharma, Saurabh; Singh, Amol; Modi, Mohammed H.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the optical constants of a sputter-deposited aluminum oxide thin film are measured in the soft-X-ray wavelength region of 6-20 nm using an angle-dependent X-ray reflectivity technique at the Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source. The chemical composition of the aluminum oxide thin film is analyzed by an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity results indicate that the density of the film is lower (2.93 g·cm-3) than that of bulk alumina (3.97 g·cm-3). The experimentally obtained optical constants correlate with the film composition and density. It is found that the experimentally measured delta and beta values are 5-33% higher than the tabulated values except those near the Al L edge (17 nm) region, where the experimentally obtained beta values are 7-20% lower and the delta values are 50-120% higher. This large mismatch observed between the experimental values and Henke et al. data is attributed to the reduced film density and the presence of a mixed phase of AlO x and Al2O3, as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  6. Origin of biotite-hornblende-garnet coronas between oxides and plagioclase in olivine metagabbros, Adirondack region, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, P.R.; McLelland, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Complex multivariant reactions involving Fe-Ti oxide minerals, plagioclase and olivine have produced coronas of biotite, hornblende and garnet between ilmenite and plagioclase in Adirondack olivine metagabbros. Both the biotite (6-10% TiO2) and the hornblende (3-6% TiO2) are exceptionally Titanium-rich. The garnet is nearly identical in composition to the garnet in coronas around olivine in the same rocks. The coronas form in two stages: (a) Plagioclase+Fe-Ti Oxides+Olivine+water =Hornblende+Spinel+Orthopyroxene??Biotite +more-sodic Plagioclase (b) Hornblende+Orthopyroxene??Spinel+Plagioclase =Garnet+Clinopyroxene+more-sodic Plagioclase The Orthopyroxene and part of the clinopyroxene form adjacent to olivine. Both reactions are linked by exchange of Mg2+ and Fe2+ with the reactions forming pyroxene and garnet coronas around olivine in the same rocks. The reactions occur under granulite fades metamorphic conditions, either during isobaric cooling or with increasing pressure at high temperature. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  7. NASA participation in the 1980 Persistent Elevated Pollution Episode/Northeast Regional Oxidant Study (PEPE/NROS) Project: Operational aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddrea, G. L., Jr.; Bendura, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A field experiment designed to further understand the formation and transport of visibility reducing aerosols and to characterize regional scale air masses and urban plumes is described. Measurements were made primarily in the Ohio River Valley region. The NASA participation included obtaining measurements for the determination of mixing layer height and ozone profiles by using airborne remote sensor systems such as the ultraviolet differential absorption lidar, the high spectral resolution lidar, and the laser absorption spectrometer. Other NASA systems included the microwave atmospheric remote sensor, tethered balloons, an in situ measurements aircraft, and several photometer/transmissiometer systems.

  8. Accounting for Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    Children are increasingly described as agents and agency is important to arguments for children's rights and participation. Yet agency is rarely defined or theorised in childhood studies. This article reviews common uses and meanings of agency and argues that critical, social conceptualisations have yet to be extensively taken up in childhood…

  9. 40 CFR 36.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 36.645 Section 36.645 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department,...

  10. Examining the Impact of Regional-Scale Air Quality Regulations on Human Health Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NOx State Implementation Plan Call was issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides from the electric power sector to curtail the regional transport of the secondarily-formed pollutant, ozone. As emission control actions often...

  11. Origin and fluxes of nitrous oxide along a latitudinal transect in western North Pacific: Controls and regional significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breider, Florian; Yoshikawa, Chisato; Abe, Hitomi; Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2015-07-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an atmospheric trace gas playing an important role in both radiative forcing and stratospheric ozone depletion. The oceans are the second most important natural source of N2O. The magnitude of the flux of this source is poorly constrained. Moreover, the relative importance of the microbial processes leading to the formation or the consumption of N2O in oceans remains unclear. We present here fluxes and isotope and isotopomer signatures of N2O measured at three stations located along a latitudinal transect in subtropical and subarctic western North Pacific. These results indicate that about 30% to 55% of the oceanic flux of N2O to the atmosphere originates from the deep euphotic and shallow aphotic zones. The sea-to-air fluxes of N2O calculated using an isotope mass balance model indicate that the emission rate of N2O in subarctic waters is about 2 times higher than in oligotrophic subtropical waters suggesting that nutrient-rich water coming from the western subarctic gyre stimulates the N2O production. Moreover, isotopomer analysis has revealed that in shallow water N2O originates from nitrification and nitrifier denitrification processes, and its distribution in the water column is partly controlled by the incident solar radiation. The results of this study contribute to better constrain the global N2O budget and provide important information to better predict the future evolution of the oceanic emissions of N2O.

  12. Distribution coefficients (Kd) of strontium and significance of oxides and organic matter in controlling its partitioning in coastal regions of Japan.

    PubMed

    Takata, Hyoe; Tagami, Keiko; Aono, Tatsuo; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-08-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 resulted in the release of large quantities of a long-lived radioactive strontium (i.e. (90)Sr; half-life: 28.8 y) into the coastal areas of Japan. (90)Sr release was dispersed and mixed into the water column, and will eventually be deposited into sediment. Because factors controlling seawater-sediment partitioning in the coastal marine environments are not fully understood, we developed seawater-sediment distribution coefficients, Kd (L/kg), for Sr in coastal regions of Japan by means of sediment-water partitioning experiments. (85)Sr was used as a radiotracer and conditions were designed to mimic the environmental systems of the sampling sites as closely as possible. Experimentally determined Kd values (Kd-ex) varied between 0.3 and 3.3 L/kg (mean, 1.4 L/kg), and the variation in Kd-ex was attributed to the percentage of Sr in the exchangeable fraction in the sediment. Kd-ex values were used, along with the measured concentrations of (88)Sr, a stable naturally occurring Sr isotope in seawater and sediment, to estimate the concentrations of exchangeable Sr in the sediment. Estimates ranged from 2.1 to 24.3 μg/kg, or 1.3-15.7% of the total (88)Sr concentration in the sediment. Significant correlations existed between the estimated concentrations of exchangeable Sr, and the organic matter and the oxide/hydrous oxide contents. When organic contents were greater than 0.38%, Sr binds to organic surface sites more strongly than to the other sites. Results indicate that binding of Sr to the surface of sedimentary particles was influenced by grain size, iron and manganese oxides, and organic matter. Furthermore, the information presented here could be useful to estimate Kd values for anthropogenic (90)Sr in sediment in the coastal marine environment.

  13. Expression of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Endothelin-1 in Skin Tissue from Amputated Limbs of Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Groeneweg, J. George; Antonissen, Claudia Heijmans; Huygen, Frank J. P. M.; Zijlstra, Freek J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Impaired microcirculation during the chronic stage of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is related to increased vasoconstriction, tissue hypoxia, and metabolic tissue acidosis in the affected limb. Endothelial dysfunction is suggested to be the main cause of diminished blood flow. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelin-1(ET-1) relative to vascular density represented by the endothelial marker CD31-immunoreactivity in the skin tissue of patients with chronic CRPS. Methods. We performed immunohistochemical staining on sections of skin specimens obtained from the amputated limbs (one arm and one leg) of two patients with CRPS. Results. In comparison to proximal specimens we found an increased number of migrated endothelial cells as well as an increase of eNOS activity in distal dermis specimens. Conclusions. We found indications that endothelial dysfunction plays a role in chronic CRPS. PMID:18663383

  14. Direct x-ray imaging system using an amplified metal-oxide-semiconductor imager in the 4-13-nm wavelength region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haga, Tsuneyuki; Kinoshita, Hiroo

    1995-10-01

    We describe a direct x-ray imaging system that uses an amplified metal-oxide-semiconductor imager to detect soft x rays directly for real-time imaging. From the absolute sensitivity of this system as measured through the use of a monochromatic synchrotron radiation beam and a GaAsP Schottky-type photodiode, the minimum sensitivity at a wavelength of 13 nm was estimated to be greater than 108 photons mm-2. This is sufficient to detect soft x rays directly for real-time imaging. Onion cell observations at wavelengths of 4.3 and 4.6 nm indicate that x-ray absorption by the carbon in the cells was detected. This is a promising imaging system for the soft x-ray region in which conventional CCD's are difficult to use.

  15. Endothelial cytosolic proteins bind to the 3' untranslated region of endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA: regulation by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, J; Sánchez de Miguel, L; Montón, M; Casado, S; López-Farré, A

    1997-01-01

    Changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression may be involved in the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation dysfunction associated with several vascular diseases. In the present work, we demonstrate that eNOS mRNA contains a previously undescribed cis element in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). A U+C-rich segment in the 3' UTR is critical in complex formation with bovine aortic endothelial cell cytosolic proteins. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which destabilizes eNOS mRNA, increased the binding activity of the cytosolic proteins in a time-dependent manner. These data suggest that endothelial cytosolic proteins bind to the 3' UTR of eNOS mRNA. These proteins may play a role in TNF-alpha-induced eNOS mRNA destabilization. PMID:9315630

  16. The influence of electron energy quantization in a space-charge region on the accumulation capacitance of InAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Kovchavtsev, A. P. Tsarenko, A. V.; Guzev, A. A.; Polovinkin, V. G.; Nastovjak, A. E.; Valisheva, N. A.; Aksenov, M. S.

    2015-09-28

    The influence of electron energy quantization in a space-charge region on the accumulation capacitance of the InAs-based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) has been investigated by modeling and comparison with the experimental data from Au/anodic layer(4-20 nm)/n-InAs(111)A MOSCAPs. The accumulation capacitance for MOSCAPs has been calculated by the solution of Poisson equation with different assumptions and the self-consistent solution of Schrödinger and Poisson equations with quantization taken into account. It was shown that the quantization during the MOSCAPs accumulation capacitance calculations should be taken into consideration for the correct interface states density determination by Terman method and the evaluation of gate dielectric thickness from capacitance-voltage measurements.

  17. Analytical model for an asymmetric double-gate MOSFET with gate-oxide thickness and flat-band voltage variations in the subthreshold region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong Hyeon; Yun, Ilgu

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes an analytical model for an asymmetric double-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (DG MOSFET) with varying gate-oxide thickness (tox) and flat-band voltage (Vfb) in the subthreshold region. Since such variations cannot be completely avoided, the modeling of their behaviors is essential. The analytical model is developed by solving a 2D Poisson equation with a varying channel doping concentration (NA). To solve the 2D Poisson equation of the asymmetric DG MOSFET, a perturbation method is used to separate the solution of the channel potential into basic and perturbed terms. Since the basic terms can be regarded as the equations derived from a general symmetric doped DG MOSFET, the conventional analytical model is adopted. In addition, a solution related to the perturbed terms for the asymmetric structures is obtained using Fourier series. Based on the obtained channel potential, the electrical characteristics of the drive current (IDS) are expressed in the analytical model. The prediction of the electrical characteristics by the analytical model shows excellent agreement when compared with commercially available 2D numerical device simulation results with respect to not only tox and Vfb variations but also channel length and NA variations.

  18. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  19. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  20. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  1. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  2. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  3. Multilateral Agencies and Higher Education Reform in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Gomez, Roberto; Alcantara, Armando

    2001-01-01

    Using recent policy proposals, including joint efforts, by four multilateral agencies--two international in scope (UNESCO, World Bank) and two regional (Economic Commission for Latin America, Interamerican Development Bank)--discusses agencies' position on higher education reform in Latin America. Examines each agency's focus and identifies…

  4. Agency and intervention.

    PubMed

    Roskies, Adina L

    2015-09-19

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  5. Agency and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Roskies, Adina L.

    2015-01-01

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  6. Bromine oxide in polar regions: Possible origin of BrO seen from GOME-2 satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begoin, Mathias; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    As all halogens, bromine plays an important role in atmospheric ozone chemistry. In polar regions during springtime, a nearly complete destruction of ozone can be observed in widespread parts of Arctic and Antarctic polar boundary layer. Bromine has been identified as key halogen in this process and can be rapidly released from sea salt to the gas phase by autocatalytic heterogeneous reactions (so called bromine explosion). Together with ozone it reacts among others to bromine monoxide, which can be observed In-Situ or by absorption spectroscopy from the ground and from satellite. Further BrO has a large impact on deposition of gaseous mercury to the surface, from where it can easily enter the sensitive polar ecosystem. The exact mechanism leading to initial bromine release as well as the influence of transport and chemical recycling processes for the evolution of observed BrO concentrations is still not completely understood. Satellite observations of BrO columns contain both, the tropospheric and the stratospheric amounts. Usually the stratospheric BrO is quite homogeneous and can be removed by assuming climatological values. However, in cases of strongly varying tropopause heights, the influence of stratospheric BrO on the signal can be underestimated leading to uncertainties in the derived tropospheric BrO amounts. In this study, BrO measurements of the satellite instrument GOME-2 on MetOp-A in com-bination with calculations of the particle dispersion model FLEXPART are used to gain new information about the vertical spreading of BrO. By using distinctive BrO events observable for several days and over large areas and considering variations in tropopause heights the origin of bromine during events with enhanced BrO values is investigated and conclusions are drawn on the applicability of satellite observations.

  7. Negotiating with Subscription Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Judy; Basch, N. Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This first in a two-part series on how librarians can negotiate services and prices with subscription agencies focuses on how vendors operate. Factors that influence agency costs, revenues, and service charges are described, including economies of scale, discounts from publishers, and prepayment and cash flow. (seven references) (LRW)

  8. Agency, communion and entitlement.

    PubMed

    Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Magdalena A; Piotrowski, Jarosław P; Clinton, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the relationship between agency, communion, and the active, passive, and revenge forms of entitlement is examined. Results indicate that active entitlement was positively related to agency, negatively to communion (Study 1), and unrelated to unmitigated agency and communion (Study 2). Passive entitlement was positively related to communion (in regular and unmitigated forms) and negatively related to agency (in both forms). Revenge entitlement was positively related to agency (unmitigated and regular), and negatively related to both regular and unmitigated communal orientations. Detected relationships were independent from self-esteem (Study 1). The findings are discussed in relation to distinctions between narcissistic and healthy entitlement, and within the context of the three-dimensional model of entitlement. PMID:25594535

  9. 34 CFR 84.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 84.645 Section 84.645 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  10. 28 CFR 83.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 83.645 Section 83.645 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  11. Regional scale analysis of nitrous oxide emissions within the U.S. Corn Belt and the potential role of episodic hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffis, T. J.; Lee, X.; Baker, J. M.; Russelle, M.; Zhang, X.; Millet, D. B.; Venterea, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a long-lived greenhouse gas that has the third largest radiative forcing on the Earth-Atmosphere system and has become the most important stratospheric ozone depleting substance of the 21st century. The rapid increase in N2O concentrations over the last century is primarily attributed to the Haber-Bosch process and the green revolution. Predicting future concentrations and developing mitigation strategies for N2O is a critical environmental challenge as pressure mounts on agricultural ecosystems to deliver more products to a burgeoning population. Bottom-up (process/inventory) and top-down (global) strategies are used to constrain the global N2O budget, but have been inadequately tested by data collected at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Two-years of tall tower (regional-scale) high-frequency N2O concentration data and boundary layer budget techniques were used to quantify the regional budget and assess bottom-up and top-down emission factors within the U.S. Corn Belt. Here we show that regional flux estimates were 2 to 9-fold greater than bottom-up emission estimates provided by the EDGAR, IPCC, and GEIA assessments. Using our regional flux data we derived "internal" and "external" emission factors that relate directly to the bottom-up and top-down perspectives on constraining the global N2O cycle. The internal and external emission factors were 4.0 and 5.6%, respectively, and significantly larger than that derived from bottom-up approaches. It is hypothesized that this bias is caused by episodic leakage mechanisms that can only be accounted for at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales.N2O emission hot spots from agricultural drainage ditches are shown to exceed 60 nmol m-2 s-1 and, at times, are about 60-fold greater than typical field-scale fluxes. Our data and analyses suggest that many field-scale studies that quantify greenhouse gas emissions will significantly underestimate the true net radiative forcing of

  12. Estimation of regional emissions of nitrous oxide from 1997 to 2005 using multinetwork measurements, a chemical transport model, and an inverse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Golombek, A.; Prinn, R.; Weiss, R.; Fraser, P.; Simmonds, P.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Hall, B.; Elkins, J.; Steele, P.; Langenfelds, R.; Krummel, P.; Dutton, G.; Porter, L.

    2008-09-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important ozone-depleting gas and greenhouse gas with multiple uncertain emission processes. Global nitrous oxide observations, the Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH) and an inverse method were used to optimally estimate N2O emissions from twelve source regions around the globe. MATCH was used with forecast center reanalysis winds at T62 resolution (192 longitude by 94 latitude surface grid, and 28 vertical levels) from 1 July 1996 to 30 June 2006. The average concentrations of N2O in the lowest four layers of the model were then compared with the monthly mean observations from four national/international networks measuring at 65 surface sites. A 12-month-running-mean smoother was applied to both the model results and the observations, due to the fact that the model was not able to reproduce the very small observed seasonal cycles. The inverse method was then used to solve for the time-averaged regional emissions of N2O for two time periods (1 January 1997 to 31 December 2001 and 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2005). The best estimate inversions assume that the model stratospheric destruction rates, which lead to a global N2O lifetime of 125 years, are correct. It also assumes normalized emission spatial distributions within each region from Bouwman et al. (1995). We conclude that global N2O emissions with 66% probability errors are 16.3-1.2+1.5 and 15.4-1.3+1.7 TgN (N2O) a-1, for 1997-2001 and 2001-2005 respectively. Emissions from the equator to 30°N increased significantly from the initial Bouwman et al. (1995) estimates while emissions from southern oceans (30°S-90°S) decreased significantly. The quoted uncertainties include both the measurement errors and modeling uncertainties estimated using a separate flexible 12-box model. We also found that 23 ± 4% of the N2O global total emissions come from the ocean, which is slightly smaller than the Bouwman et al. (1995) estimate. For the estimation of emissions from the

  13. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  18. Effect of sibutramine on 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid levels and selected oxidative biomarkers on brain regions of female rats in the presence of zinc.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, David C; García, Ernestina H; Mejía, Gerardo B; Olguín, Hugo J; Jiménez, Francisca T; Soto, Erick B; Del Angel, Daniel S; Aparicio, Liliana C

    2012-05-01

    A number of drugs, like sibutramine, which are used clinically in weight control, act on serotonergic metabolism. However, their relation with zinc and free radical (FR) production in central nervous system remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sibutramine and zinc on FR production. Female Wistar rats (about 250 g) were used in this study. The animals received 400 μg/kg of zinc and 10 mg/kg of sibutramine intraperitoneally every 36 hr for 15 days. At the end of the study, the rats were killed and their brains used for the measurement of lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ), calcium and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) levels, all by means of validated methods. Corporal weight and food consumption were found to be decreased in the zinc/sibutramine group. TBARS decreased in cortex, hemispheres and medulla oblongata. GSH decreased in cortex, hemispheres and cerebellum in the sibutramine group. Zinc given alone and in combination with sibutramine decreased H(2) O(2) concentration in cortex, hemispheres and cerebellum but increased calcium and 5-HIAA concentration in all brain regions. Our results suggest that sibutramine and zinc are associated with weight loss, an effect that was more pronounced in the group treated with both drugs. Reduction in oxidative stress may be involved in these effects.

  19. Role of the anterior region of the third ventricle in the cardiovascular responses produced by systemic injection of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. J.; Whalen, E. J.; Beltz, T. G.; Johnson, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined whether a prior electrolytic lesion of the tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V) would affect the increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and the fall in heart rate (HR) produced by systemic injection of the nitric oxide synthesis (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 25 micromol/kg, i.v.) in conscious rats. L-NAME produced a smaller increase in MAP in AV3V-lesion than in sham-lesion rats (+19+/-3 vs. +40+/-3 mmHg, respectively; P<0.05). In contrast, L-NAME produced similar falls in HR in the AV3V-lesion and sham-lesion rats (-103+/-15 vs. -97+/-8 bpm, respectively; P<0.05). These findings demonstrate that the L-NAME-induced pressor response is dependent upon the integrity of the AV3V region, whereas the L-NAME-induced bradycardia is not. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B. V.

  20. Effect of Regional-Scale Transport on Oxidants in the Vicinity of Philadelphia During the 1999 NE-OPS Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bian, Randy X.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Easter, Richard C.

    2002-08-28

    A new meteorological-chemical modeling system is used to determine the relative contribution of regional-scale transport and local photochemical production on air quality over Philadelphia. The model performance is evaluated using surface and airborne meteorological and chemical measurements made during a 30-day period in July and August of 1999 as part of the Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NE-OPS). Good agreement between the simulations and observations was obtained. The bias in the vicinity of Philadelphia over the simulation period was -5.8 ppb for the peak ozone mixing ratio during the day and 2.0 ppb for the minimum ozone mixing ratio at night. Layers of ozone above the convective boundary layer were measured by both research aircraft and ozonesondes during the morning between 09 and 11 EDT. The modeling system demonstrates that upwind vertical mixing processes the previous afternoon, subsequent horizontal transport aloft, and depletion of ozone by NO titration within the stable boundary layer at night lead to the development of these layers. Ozone aloft was then entrained into the growing convective boundary, contributing to surface ozone concentrations. Through a series of sensitivity studies, we find that most of the ozone is the result of emissions in the vicinity of Philadelphia and Chesapeake Bay area, but up to 30-40% of the ozone during high-ozone episodes was due to transport from upwind sources. Local emissions and meteorological conditions were largely responsible for one high-ozone episode because of light winds.

  1. A MCM modeling study of the effects of nitryl chloride on oxidant budgets, ozone production, VOC lifetimes, and halogen recycling in polluted regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, T. P.; Thornton, J. A.; Wolfe, G. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Bon, D.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Li, S.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) is produced at night by reactions of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) on chloride containing particles. Nitryl chloride is photolyzed during the day to liberate highly reactive chlorine atoms. This chemistry takes place primarily in urban environments where the concentrations of N2O5 precursors (NOx and ozone) are high, though it can likely occur in remote regions at lower intensity. Recent field measurements have illustrated the potential importance of ClNO2 as a chlorine atom source and a NOx reservoir. However, the fate of these chlorine atoms and the overall impact of ClNO2 remain unclear. To this end we have incorporated ClNO2 production, photolysis, and subsequent Cl-atom reactions into an existing Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM version 3.2) based model framework. Cl-atom reactions with alkenes and alcohols not presently part of the MCM have also been added. Using observational constraints from the CalNex 2010 field study, we assess the dominant reactive sinks and sources of chlorine atoms over the course of a model day. Relative to model runs excluding ClNO2 formation, the presence of ClNO2 produces marked changes on a variety of species important to tropospheric chemistry and air quality (e.g. O3, RO2, OH, HO2, ClOx). For example a 50% yield of ClNO2 (max ClNO2 of 1.5 ppb) from nighttime N2O5 reactions leads to a ~10% enhancement in integrated ozone production. VOC and NOx lifetimes are shorter due primarily to enhanced OH from propagation of RO2 produced by Cl-atom chemistry under high NOx. The impact of ClNO2 on daytime halogen atom recycling is substantial, with order of magnitude higher daytime Cl2 production predicted with ClNO2 chemistry than without. In fact, incorporation of ClNO2 could help explain daytime levels of Cl2 observed in polluted coastal regions. Additionally, we highlight a set of chlorinated VOC oxidation products that are predicted to form at small, but potentially detectable levels in regions with similar VOC

  2. 75 FR 57463 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft... for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO X , and...

  3. 75 FR 11877 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft... (welfare-based) NAAQS for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X ). Because NO X , SO...

  4. 75 FR 20595 - Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: First External Review Draft (75 FR 11877; March 12, 2010... AGENCY Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides... a proposal addressing the nitrogen oxides (NO X ) and sulfur oxides (SO X ) secondary...

  5. The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avksentev, Alexey; Negrobova, Elena; Kramareva, Tatiana; Moiseeva, Evgenya

    2016-04-01

    The dependence of the discharge of nitrous oxide by ordinary chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia from the content of humus, nitrogen and enzymatic activity Alexey Avksentev, Elena Negrobova, Tatiana Kramareva, Evgenya Moiseeva 394000 Voronezh, Universitetskaya square, 1 Voronezh State University Nitrous oxide is emitted by soil as a result of microbiological processes, ranks third in the list of aggressive greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane. Nitrous oxide is formed during nitrification and denitrification of ammonia that enters the soil during microbial decomposition of complex organic compounds. Denitrification can be direct and indirect. In the microbiological process of recovery of nitrates involved of the organic substance. In aerobic conditions microorganisms denitrificator behave like normal saprotrophs and oxidize organic matter in the act of breathing oxygen. Thus, they operate at different times two enzyme systems: the electron transport chain with an oxygen acceptor in aerobic and restoration of nitrates under anaerobic conditions. Investigation of the emission of nitrous oxide by ordinary Chernozem steppe of the Central-Chernozem Region showed that it depends on the type of cenosis and the content of available forms of nitrogen. Natural ecosystems emit nitrous oxide more than the soil of arable land. The dependence of the emission of nitrous oxide from the humus content shows positive trend, but the aggregation of data, significant differences are not detected. Research shows that nitrous oxide emissions are seasonal. So the autumn season is characterized by nitrous oxide emissions than spring. Enzymatic processes are an important link in the biological cycle of elements and, consequently, participate in the process of decomposition of organic matter, nitrification and other processes. Analysis of the data on enzyme activity of ordinary Chernozem and the intensity of emission of N20 shows a clear relationship between

  6. Synthesis of optically active Fjord-region 11,12-diol 13,14-epoxides and the K-region 9,10-oxide of the carcinogen benzo(g)chrysene

    SciTech Connect

    Bushman, D.R.; Lehr, R.E. ); Grossman, S.J.; Jerina, D.M. )

    1989-07-21

    Optically pure enantiomers of the diastereomeric pair of benzo(g)chrysene-11,12-diol 13,14-epoxides (Scheme VI) were synthesized from (11R,12R)- and (11S,12S)-dihydroxy-11,12-dihydrobenzo(g)chrysenes (16(R,R) and 16(S,S)). Two routes were employed to synthesize the racemic dihydrodiol 16. Although the Prevost method for introduction of the trans-vicinal oxygen atoms at C{sub 11} and C{sub 12} of 13,14-dihydrobenzo(g)chrysene (7) proceeded poorly, introduction of the trans-vicinal oxygen atoms was readily achieved by hydration of the tetrahydro 11,12-epoxide (9, Scheme II) or by NaBH{sub 4} reduction of benzo(g)chrysene-11,12-dione (17, Scheme IV). The latter method is the most effective for the synthesis of the racemic dihydrodiol 16, whereas the former method is preferred for the preparation of substantial amounts of the enantiomers of 16 since the diastereomeric bis-(-)-menthyloxy esters of the tetrahydrodiol 11 (Scheme V) are much more effectively separated by HPLC than are the corresponding derivatives of the dihydrodiol 16. The conformational preference of the hydroxyl groups in the series-1 diol epoxide in which the benzylic 11-hydroxyl group and the epoxide oxygen are cis (19, Figure 2) was found to be dependent upon solvent, with a quasidiequatorial conformation being preferred in DMSO-d{sub 6} and a quasidiaxial conformation being preferred in CDCl{sub 3}. As anticipated from prior studies of the rates of hydrolysis of the 3,4-diol 1,2-epoxides of benzo(c)phenanthrene, the present 11,12-diol 13,14-epoxides are relatively stable in neutral, aqueous media. Enantiomers of the K-region 9,10-oxide 24 were prepared from benzo(g)chrysene (Scheme IX).

  7. 20 CFR 658.605 - Communication of findings to State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Communication of findings to State agencies... Compliance With Job Service Regulations § 658.605 Communication of findings to State agencies. (a) The... agency violation of JS regulations or its State agency program budget plan, the Regional...

  8. Federal Law on Consumer Deception: An Agency by Agency Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweibel, George J.

    A comprehensive analysis of statutes and regulations on consumer deception administered by thirty government agencies is provided in this report. Each agency's chapter includes a brief description of the agency, and a detailed listing of all deceptive trade practices prohibited by that agency's enabling legislation, regulations, or other sources…

  9. 10 CFR 607.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agency or agency. 607.645 Section 607.645 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the...

  10. 2 CFR 182.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 182.645 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department,...

  11. 2 CFR 182.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 182.645 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department,...

  12. Agency Training Centers for Federal Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Training.

    Planned to provide management and training officials throughout the Federal Government with up-to-date information on agency operated training centers, this directory gives, for each center, the purpose, programs or courses offered, eligibility for attendance, and sources for further information. Ten regional centers of the Civil Service…

  13. Evaluation of Space-Based Constraints on Global Nitrogen Oxide Emissions with Regional Aircraft Measurements over and Downwind of Eastern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Sioris, Christopher E.; Chance, Kelly; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Flocke, Frank M.; Bertram, Timothy H.; Wooldridge, Paul J.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Neuman, J. Andy; Swanson, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    We retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) columns for May 2004 to April 2005 from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument to derive top-down emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2) via inverse modeling with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Simulated NO 2 vertical profiles used in the retrieval are evaluated with airborne measurements over and downwind of North America (ICARTT); a northern midlatitude lightning source of 1.6 Tg N/yr minimizes bias in the retrieval. Retrieved NO2 columns are validated (r2 = 0.60, slope = 0.82) with coincident airborne in situ measurements. The top-down emissions are combined with a priori information from a bottom-up emission inventory with error weighting to achieve an improved a posteriori estimate of the global distribution of surface NOx emissions. Our a posteriori NOx emission inventory for land surface NOx emissions (46.1 Tg N/yr) is 22% larger than the GEIA-based a priori bottom-up inventory for 1998, a difference that reflects rising anthropogenic emissions, especially from East Asia A posteriori NOx emissions for East Asia (9.8 Tg N/yr) exceed those from other continents. The a posteriori inventory improves the GEOS-Chem simulation of NOx, peroxyacetylnitrate, and nitric acid with respect to airborne in situ measurements over and downwind of New York City. The a posteriori is 7% larger than the EDGAR 3.2FT2000 global inventory, 3% larger than the NEI99 inventory for the United States, and 68% larger than a regional inventory for 2000 for eastern Asia. SCIAMACHY NO2 columns over the North Atlantic show a weak plume from lightning NO(x).

  14. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  15. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  16. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  17. Youth Media and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauge, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…

  18. Strengthening Career Human Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    Rooted in A. Bandura's (1982, 2001b) social cognitive theory, the notion of human agency has received considerable attention in vocational and career psychology for the last 2 decades, especially with the recent emergence of social constructivist thinking in the field. This article continues in the same direction. In reviewing the notion of human…

  19. Metacognition of Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Janet; Greene, Matthew Jason

    2007-01-01

    The feeling that we are agents, intentionally making things happen by our own actions, is foundational to our understanding of ourselves as humans. People's metacognitions of agency were investigated in 4 experiments. Participants played a game in which they tried to touch downward scrolling Xs and avoid touching Os. Variables that affected…

  20. Depth-related coupling relation between methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOBs) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) in a marine sediment core from the Dongsha region, the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Fu, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Qing; Xiao, Xi; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Peng, Juan; Wu, Chou-Fei; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2014-12-01

    The vertical distributions of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOBs) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) in the marine sediment core of DH-CL14 from the Dongsha region, the South China Sea, were investigated. To enumerate MOBs and SRBs, their specific genes of pmoA and apsA were quantified by a culture-independent molecular biological technique, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The result shows that the pmoA gene copies per gram of sediments reached the maximum of 1,118,679 at the depth of 140-160 cm. Overall considering the detection precision, sample amount, measurement cost, and sensitivity to the seepage of methane from the oil/gas reservoirs or gas hydrates, we suggest that the depth of 140-160 cm may be the optimal sampling position for the marine microbial exploration of oils, gases, and gas hydrates in the Dongsha region. The data of the pmoA and apsA gene copies exhibit an evident coupling relation between MOBs and SRBs as illustrated in their vertical distributions in this sediment core, which may well be interpreted by a high sulfate concentration inhibiting methane production and further leading to the reduction of MOBs. In comparison with the numbers of the pmoA and apsA copies at the same sediment depth, we find out that there were two methane-oxidizing mechanisms of aerobic and anaerobic oxidation in this sediment core, i.e., the aerobic oxidation with free oxygen dominantly occurred above the depth of 210-230 cm, while the anaerobic oxidation with the other electron acceptors such as sulfates and manganese-iron oxides happened below the depth of 210-230 cm.

  1. Depth-related coupling relation between methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOBs) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) in a marine sediment core from the Dongsha region, the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Fu, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Qing; Xiao, Xi; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Peng, Juan; Wu, Chou-Fei; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2014-12-01

    The vertical distributions of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOBs) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) in the marine sediment core of DH-CL14 from the Dongsha region, the South China Sea, were investigated. To enumerate MOBs and SRBs, their specific genes of pmoA and apsA were quantified by a culture-independent molecular biological technique, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The result shows that the pmoA gene copies per gram of sediments reached the maximum of 1,118,679 at the depth of 140-160 cm. Overall considering the detection precision, sample amount, measurement cost, and sensitivity to the seepage of methane from the oil/gas reservoirs or gas hydrates, we suggest that the depth of 140-160 cm may be the optimal sampling position for the marine microbial exploration of oils, gases, and gas hydrates in the Dongsha region. The data of the pmoA and apsA gene copies exhibit an evident coupling relation between MOBs and SRBs as illustrated in their vertical distributions in this sediment core, which may well be interpreted by a high sulfate concentration inhibiting methane production and further leading to the reduction of MOBs. In comparison with the numbers of the pmoA and apsA copies at the same sediment depth, we find out that there were two methane-oxidizing mechanisms of aerobic and anaerobic oxidation in this sediment core, i.e., the aerobic oxidation with free oxygen dominantly occurred above the depth of 210-230 cm, while the anaerobic oxidation with the other electron acceptors such as sulfates and manganese-iron oxides happened below the depth of 210-230 cm. PMID:25064353

  2. Effective dose assessment in the maxillofacial region using thermoluminescent (TLD) and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosemeters: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, D; Wolff, J; Rottke, D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology dosemeters with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) (TLD 100; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) in the maxillofacial area. Methods: Organ and effective dose measurements were performed using 40 TLD and 20 MOSFET dosemeters that were alternately placed in 20 different locations in 1 anthropomorphic RANDO® head phantom (the Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY). The phantom was exposed to four different CBCT default maxillofacial protocols using small (4 × 5 cm) to full face (20 × 17 cm) fields of view (FOVs). Results: The TLD effective doses ranged between 7.0 and 158.0 µSv and the MOSFET doses between 6.1 and 175.0 µSv. The MOSFET and TLD effective doses acquired using four different (FOV) protocols were as follows: face maxillofacial (FOV 20 × 17 cm) (MOSFET, 83.4 µSv; TLD, 87.6 µSv; −5%); teeth, upper jaw (FOV, 8.5 × 5.0 cm) (MOSFET, 6.1 µSv; TLD, 7.0 µSv; −14%); tooth, mandible and left molar (FOV, 4 × 5 cm) (MOSFET, 10.3 µSv; TLD, 12.3 µSv; −16%) and teeth, both jaws (FOV, 10 × 10 cm) (MOSFET, 175 µSv; TLD, 158 µSv; +11%). The largest variation in organ and effective dose was recorded in the small FOV protocols. Conclusions: Taking into account the uncertainties of both measurement methods and the results of the statistical analysis, the effective doses acquired using MOSFET dosemeters were found to be in good agreement with those obtained using TLD dosemeters. The MOSFET dosemeters constitute a feasible alternative for TLDs for the effective dose assessment of CBCT devices in the maxillofacial region. PMID:25143020

  3. Dissolved greenhouse gases (nitrous oxide and methane) associated with the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen region (KEOPS 2 cruise) in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farías, L.; Florez-Leiva, L.; Besoain, V.; Sarthou, G.; Fernández, C.

    2015-03-01

    The concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), were measured in the Kerguelen Plateau region (KPR). The KPR is affected by an annual microalgal bloom caused by natural iron fertilization, and this may stimulate the microbes involved in GHG cycling. This study was carried out during the KEOPS 2 cruise during the austral spring of 2011. Oceanographic variables, including N2O and CH4, were sampled (from the surface to 500 m depth) in two transects along and across the KRP, the north-south (TNS) transect (46°-51° S, ~ 72° E) and the east-west (TEW) transect (66°-75° E, ~ 48.3° S), both associated with the presence of a plateau, polar front (PF) and other mesoscale features. The TEW presented N2O levels ranging from equilibrium (105%) to slightly supersaturated (120%) with respect to the atmosphere, whereas CH4 levels fluctuated dramatically, being highly supersaturated (120-970%) in areas close to the coastal waters of the Kerguelen Islands and in the PF. The TNS showed a more homogenous distribution for both gases, with N2O and CH4 levels ranging from 88 to 171% and 45 to 666% saturation, respectively. Surface CH4 peaked at southeastern stations of the KPR (A3 stations), where a phytoplankton bloom was observed. Both gases responded significantly, but in contrasting ways (CH4 accumulation and N2O depletion), to the patchy distribution of chlorophyll a. This seems to be associated to the supply of iron from various sources. Air-sea fluxes for N2O (from -10.5 to 8.65, mean 1.25 ± 4.04 μmol m-2 d-1) and for CH4 (from 0.32 to 38.1, mean 10.01 ± 9.97 μmol-2 d-1) indicated that the KPR is both a sink and a source for N2O, as well as a considerable and variable source of CH4. This appears to be associated with biological factors, as well as the transport of water masses enriched with Fe and CH4 from the coastal area of the Kerguelen Islands. These previously unreported results for the Southern Ocean suggest an intense

  4. Agency, time, and causality

    PubMed Central

    Widlok, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-Western Educational Industrial Rich Democratic people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition. PMID:25414683

  5. Sources of methane and nitrous oxide in California's Central Valley estimated through direct airborne flux and positive matrix factorization source apportionment of groundbased and regional tall tower measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Abhinav

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are two major greenhouse gases that contribute significantly to the increase in anthropogenic radiative-forcing causing perturbations to the earth's climate system. In a watershed moment in the state's history of environmental leadership and commitment, California, in 2006, opted for sharp reductions in their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adopted a long-term approach to address climate change that includes regulation of emissions from individual emitters and source categories. There are large CH4 and N2O emissions sources in the state, predominantly in the agricultural and waste management sector. While these two gases account for < 10% of total annual greenhouse gas emissions of the state, large uncertainties exist in their `bottom-up' accounting in the state GHG inventory. Additionally, an increasing number of `top-down' studies based on ambient observations point towards underestimation of their emissions in the inventory. Three intensive field observation campaigns that were spatially and temporally diverse took place between 2010 and 2013 in the Central Valley of California where the largest known sources of CH4 and N2O (e.g. agricultural systems and dairies) and potentially significant CH4 sources (e.g. oil and gas extraction) are located. The CalNex (California Nexus - Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) field campaign during summer 2010 (May 15 - June 30) took place in the urban core of Bakersfield in the southern San Joaquin Valley, a city whose economy is built around agriculture and the oil and gas industry. During summer of 2011, airborne measurements were performed over a large spatial domain, all across and around the Central Valley as part of the CABERNET (California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects) study. Next, a one-year continuous field campaign (WGC 2012-13, June 2012 - August 2013) was conducted at the Walnut Grove tall tower near the Sacramento

  6. 2 CFR 902.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY Reserved REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 902.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the...

  7. 2 CFR 182.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 182.645 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS GOVERNMENTWIDE.... Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military department,...

  8. 31 CFR 20.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 20.645 Section 20.645 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.645 Federal agency or...

  9. 38 CFR 48.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 48.645 Section 48.645 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  10. 22 CFR 208.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 208.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  11. 22 CFR 208.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 208.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  13. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  14. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  15. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  16. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  17. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  18. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  19. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  20. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  1. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  2. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  3. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  4. 21 CFR 1404.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1404.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  5. 31 CFR 19.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the...

  6. 22 CFR 1508.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definitions § 1508.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency of the executive branch. Other agencies of the Federal government...

  7. EPA/IFP (Environmental Protection Agency/Institute Francais Du Petrole) European workshop on the emission of nitrous oxide from fossil-fuel combustion: Rueil-Malmaison, France, June 1-2, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.V.; Srivastava, R.K.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of an EPA/Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) cosponsored workshop addressing direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fossil-fuel combustion. The third in a series, it was held at the IFP in Rueil-Malmaison, France, on June 1-2, 1988. Increasing atmospheric N2O concentrations have been linked to depletion of stratospheric ozone (O3) and to global-climate warming. The combustion of fossil fuels has been identified as a potential major anthropogenic source of N2O. The workshop had two goals: (1) to exchange information among various international research and industrial groups that are involved in N2O chemistry, modeling, and measurement; and (2) to develop a network for coordinating future related efforts.

  8. Developing Moral Agency through Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This paper poses the following question: When, in spite of knowing that it is wrong, people go on to hurt others, what does this mean for the development of moral agency? We begin by defining moral agency and briefly sketching relations between moral agency and other concepts. We then outline what three extant literatures suggest about this…

  9. Establishment of a non-governmental regional approach to La Plata River Basin integrated watershed management promoted throughout three international workshops supported by UN and Japanese agencies, led by ILEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagno, Alberto; Yamashiki, Yosuke; Mugetti, Ana

    2002-08-01

    The La Plata River Basin is one of the largest international river basins in the world, with an area of about 3 million km2. It spreads across five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), and its water resources are essential for their economic development. Together with reservoir development, extensive deforestation, intensive agriculture practices and large urban developments took place in the Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay basins, affecting environmental conditions and raising important issues concerning water resources use and conservation. Therefore, the need to promote participatory and cooperative efforts among water resources stakeholders, as well as the systematic exchange of information and experiences on common regional problems among organizations and experts from throughout the basin who are devoted to water resources use and management, was reported by researchers and managers gathered at the First and Second International Workshops on Regional Approaches for Reservoir Development and Management in the La Plata River Basin (held in 1991 and 1994). As a concrete response to this need, the efforts of a number of organizations from various countries within the basin, with the support of international and national governmental organizations, resulted in the foundation of La Plata River Basin Environmental Research and Management Network (RIGA) in March 2001. This was within the framework of the Third International Workshop, which was precisely one of the short-term activities included in the RIGA Action Plan. During the preparatory processes for the RIGA Network, the presence of Japanese cooperation supporting the La Plata River Basin Workshops through a non-governmental international organization (ILEC) played an important role in stimulating such an organization-based joint approach in the basin. This outcome, although not originally planned, constituted a welcomed byproduct of its main specific interest in the region, which was the

  10. Electrolytic oxidation of anthracite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Patton, K.M.; Heard, I.

    1981-01-01

    An anthracite slurry can be oxidized only with difficulty by electrolytic methods in which aqueous electrolytes are used if the slurry is confined to the region of the anode by a porous pot or diaphragm. However, it can be easily oxidized if the anthracite itself is used as the anode. No porous pot or diaphragm is needed. Oxidative consumption of the coal to alkali-soluble compounds is found to proceed preferentially at the edges of the aromatic planes. An oxidation model is proposed in which the chief oxidants are molecular and radical species formed by the electrolytic decomposition of water at the coal surface-electrolyte interface. The oxidation reactions proposed account for the opening of the aromatic rings and the subsequent formation of carboxylic acids. The model also explains the observed anisotropic oxidation and the need for the porous pot or diaphragm used in previous studies of the oxidation of coal slurries. ?? 1981.

  11. 40 CFR 255.20 - Preliminary identification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary identification of regions. 255.20 Section 255.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES IDENTIFICATION OF REGIONS AND AGENCIES FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Procedures for Identifying Regions and Agencies § 255.20...

  12. 40 CFR 255.22 - Establishing regional boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Establishing regional boundaries. 255.22 Section 255.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES IDENTIFICATION OF REGIONS AND AGENCIES FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Procedures for Identifying Regions and Agencies § 255.22 Establishing...

  13. Species of conservation concern and environmental stressors: local regional and global effects: Chapter 6 in The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership science and research synthesis: science to support land management in southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pendleton, Burton

    2013-01-01

    Species conservation has traditionally been based on individual species within the context of their requisite habitat, which is generally defined as the communities and ecosystems deemed necessary for their presence. Conservation decisions are hampered by the fact that environmental stressors that poetically threaten the persistence of species can operate at organizational levels larger than the habitat or home range of a focal species. Resource managers must therefore simultaneously consider local, regional, and/or global scale stressors for effective conservation and management of species of concern. The wide ranging effects associated with global stressors such as climate change may exceed or exacerbate the effects of local or regional stressors, they still need to understand the direct and interactive effects of global stressors and ultimately how they affect the lands they manage. Conservation of species in southern Nevada is further complication by the fact that the region includes one of the largest and fastest growing urban centers in North America. To accomplish the goal of species conservation, resource managers must identify actionable management options that mitigate the effects of local and regional stressor in the context of the effects of global stressors that are beyond their control. Species conservation is typically focused on a subset often referred to as species of conservation concern that have either demonstrated considerable decline or are naturally rare or have limited distributions. Stressors can directly and indirectly impact species in a variety of ways and through a diversity of mechanisms. Some stressors have been more intense in the past (e.g., livestock grazing) whereas other are now only emerging as new stressors (e.g., solar energy development, climate change). The primary stressors affecting southern Nevada ecosystems are listed in table 2.1 and reviewed in detail in Chapter 2. This chapter addresses Dub-goal 1.4 in the SNAP

  14. Neuromodulation, agency and autonomy.

    PubMed

    Glannon, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulation consists in altering brain activity to restore mental and physical functions in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders and brain and spinal cord injuries. This can be achieved by delivering electrical stimulation that excites or inhibits neural tissue, by using electrical signals in the brain to move computer cursors or robotic arms, or by displaying brain activity to subjects who regulate that activity by their own responses to it. As enabling prostheses, deep-brain stimulation and brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are forms of extended embodiment that become integrated into the individual's conception of himself as an autonomous agent. In BCIs and neurofeedback, the success or failure of the techniques depends on the interaction between the learner and the trainer. The restoration of agency and autonomy through neuromodulation thus involves neurophysiological, psychological and social factors.

  15. 40 CFR 121.27 - Notification to licensing or permitting agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Notification to licensing or permitting agency. 121.27 Section 121.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Administrator § 121.27 Notification to licensing or permitting agency. If the Regional Administrator, after...

  16. Perspectives: A Journal of Research and Opinion about Educational Service Agencies, 1995-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, William G., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the first four volumes of the annual serial publication "Perspectives: A Journal of Research and Opinion about Educational Service Agencies." Educational service agencies (ESAs) have various names and characteristics across states, but all provide services to local education agencies in a specific geographic region. ESAs…

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs A Appendix A to Part 45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... Protection Agency Training Programs Administering office Headquarters Regional Office of Air, Noise,...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs A Appendix A to Part 45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS... Protection Agency Training Programs Administering office Headquarters Regional Office of Air, Noise,...

  19. Trends of deposition fluxes and loadings of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the artificial Three Northern Regions Shelter Forest across northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Leiming; Gao, Hong; Shen, Yanjie; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    This study provides the first estimate of dry deposition fluxes of criteria air pollutants (SO2 and NOx) across the Three Northern Regions Shelter Forest (TNRSF) region in Northern China and their long-term trends from 1982 to 2010 using the inferential method. Dry deposition velocities of SO2 and NOx increased in many places of the TNRSF up to 118.2% for SO2 and 112.1% for NOx over the last three decades due to the increased vegetation coverage over the TNRSF. The highest atmospheric deposition fluxes of SO2 and NOx were found in the Central-North China region, followed by the Northeast and the Northwest China regions of the TNRSF. A total of 820,000 t SO2 and 218,000 t NOx was estimated to be removed from the atmosphere through dry deposition process over the TNRSF from 1982 to 2010. About 50% of the total removal occurred in the Central-North China region. The estimated total SO2 and NOx dry deposition fluxes from 1982 to 2010 between a TNRSF site in this region and an adjacent farmland outside the TNRSF showed that the fluxes of these two chemicals at the TNRSF site were the factors of 2-3 greater than their fluxes in the farmland.

  20. 78 FR 13333 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information... of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency,...

  1. Southern states` routing agency report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states` routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  2. Southern States` Routing Agency Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  3. Southern states' routing agency report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states' routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  4. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  5. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Noncoding Regions of Rad51C Do Not Change the Risk of Unselected Breast Cancer but They Modulate the Level of Oxidative Stress and the DNA Damage Characteristics: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gresner, Peter; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Jablonska, Ewa; Stepnik, Maciej; Zambrano Quispe, Oscar; Twardowska, Ewa; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Deleterious and missense mutations of RAD51C have recently been suggested to modulate the individual susceptibility to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and unselected ovarian cancer, but not unselected breast cancer (BrC). We enrolled 132 unselected BrC females and 189 cancer-free female subjects to investigate whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non-coding regions of RAD51C modulate the risk of BrC, and whether they affect the level of oxidative stress and the extent/characteristics of DNA damage. Neither SNPs nor reconstructed haplotypes were found to significantly affect the unselected BrC risk. Contrary to this, carriers of rs12946522, rs16943176, rs12946397 and rs17222691 rare-alleles were found to present significantly increased level of blood plasma TBARS compared to respective wild-type homozygotes (p<0.05). Furthermore, these carriers showed significantly decreased fraction of oxidatively generated DNA damage (34% of total damaged DNA) in favor of DNA strand breakage, with no effect on total DNA damage, unlike respective wild-types, among which more evenly distributed proportions between oxidatively damaged DNA (48% of total DNA damage) and DNA strand breakage was found (p<0.0005 for the difference). Such effects were found among both the BrC cases and healthy subjects, indicating that they cannot be assumed as causal factors contributing to BrC development. PMID:25343521

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in noncoding regions of Rad51C do not change the risk of unselected breast cancer but they modulate the level of oxidative stress and the DNA damage characteristics: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gresner, Peter; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Jablonska, Ewa; Stepnik, Maciej; Zambrano Quispe, Oscar; Twardowska, Ewa; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Deleterious and missense mutations of RAD51C have recently been suggested to modulate the individual susceptibility to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and unselected ovarian cancer, but not unselected breast cancer (BrC). We enrolled 132 unselected BrC females and 189 cancer-free female subjects to investigate whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non-coding regions of RAD51C modulate the risk of BrC, and whether they affect the level of oxidative stress and the extent/characteristics of DNA damage. Neither SNPs nor reconstructed haplotypes were found to significantly affect the unselected BrC risk. Contrary to this, carriers of rs12946522, rs16943176, rs12946397 and rs17222691 rare-alleles were found to present significantly increased level of blood plasma TBARS compared to respective wild-type homozygotes (p<0.05). Furthermore, these carriers showed significantly decreased fraction of oxidatively generated DNA damage (34% of total damaged DNA) in favor of DNA strand breakage, with no effect on total DNA damage, unlike respective wild-types, among which more evenly distributed proportions between oxidatively damaged DNA (48% of total DNA damage) and DNA strand breakage was found (p<0.0005 for the difference). Such effects were found among both the BrC cases and healthy subjects, indicating that they cannot be assumed as causal factors contributing to BrC development.

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in noncoding regions of Rad51C do not change the risk of unselected breast cancer but they modulate the level of oxidative stress and the DNA damage characteristics: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gresner, Peter; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Jablonska, Ewa; Stepnik, Maciej; Zambrano Quispe, Oscar; Twardowska, Ewa; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Deleterious and missense mutations of RAD51C have recently been suggested to modulate the individual susceptibility to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and unselected ovarian cancer, but not unselected breast cancer (BrC). We enrolled 132 unselected BrC females and 189 cancer-free female subjects to investigate whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non-coding regions of RAD51C modulate the risk of BrC, and whether they affect the level of oxidative stress and the extent/characteristics of DNA damage. Neither SNPs nor reconstructed haplotypes were found to significantly affect the unselected BrC risk. Contrary to this, carriers of rs12946522, rs16943176, rs12946397 and rs17222691 rare-alleles were found to present significantly increased level of blood plasma TBARS compared to respective wild-type homozygotes (p<0.05). Furthermore, these carriers showed significantly decreased fraction of oxidatively generated DNA damage (34% of total damaged DNA) in favor of DNA strand breakage, with no effect on total DNA damage, unlike respective wild-types, among which more evenly distributed proportions between oxidatively damaged DNA (48% of total DNA damage) and DNA strand breakage was found (p<0.0005 for the difference). Such effects were found among both the BrC cases and healthy subjects, indicating that they cannot be assumed as causal factors contributing to BrC development. PMID:25343521

  8. Action, agency and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Frith, Chris D

    2014-03-01

    In a series of experiments Marc Jeannerod revealed that we have very little awareness of the details and causes of our actions. We are, however, vividly aware of being in control of our actions and this gives us a sense of responsibility. These feelings arise, first, from intentional binding which creates a perception of agency, linking an intentional action to its outcome and, second, from the counterfactual reasoning that we could have chosen some other action. These feelings of responsibility play a critical role in creating social cohesion since they allow people to be held to account for deliberate antisocial behaviour. Jeannerod's studies also showed that we are unaware of how little we know about our actions and so are happy to make up stories about the nature and causes of our behaviour. These stories often do not correspond with the underlying cognitive and neural processes, but they can be changed through instructions and through discussion with others. Our experience of responsibility for action emerges during our upbringing through exposure to our culture. This creates consensus about the causes of behaviour, but not necessarily accuracy. PMID:24036357

  9. 7 CFR 3021.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal agency or agency. 3021.645 Section 3021.645 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL...

  10. 7 CFR 3021.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agency or agency. 3021.645 Section 3021.645 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL...

  11. 2 CFR 182.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 182.645 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved GOVERNMENTWIDE.... Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military department,...

  12. 45 CFR 630.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal agency or agency. 630.645 Section 630.645 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.645 Federal...

  13. 45 CFR 630.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal agency or agency. 630.645 Section 630.645 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.645 Federal...

  14. 45 CFR 630.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal agency or agency. 630.645 Section 630.645 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.645 Federal...

  15. 45 CFR 630.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal agency or agency. 630.645 Section 630.645 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.645 Federal...

  16. 45 CFR 630.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal agency or agency. 630.645 Section 630.645 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.645 Federal...

  17. 78 FR 27044 - Agency Organization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... FR 33165 (June 15, 2007). Table of Contents I. Background II. Changes to Part 3002 III. Effective... 39 CFR Part 3002 Agency Organization AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule..., seal, and individual office components. This rule reflects changes to the Commission's...

  18. 40 CFR 255.20 - Preliminary identification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 255.20 Section 255.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES IDENTIFICATION OF REGIONS AND AGENCIES FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Procedures for Identifying... planning agencies, water quality and solid waste management planning agencies, cities, and counties...

  19. Embodiment, agency, and attitude change.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Cheryl A; Lord, Charles G; Bond, Charles F

    2009-12-01

    Attitude embodiment effects occur when the position or movement of a person's physical body changes the way the person evaluates an object. The present research investigated whether attitude embodiment effects depend more on biomechanical factors or on inferential cues to causal agency. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that actual movements of the physical body are not necessary to create attitude embodiment effects when inferential cues imply agency for another person's physical movements. Experiment 3 showed that actual movements of the physical body are not sufficient to create attitude embodiment effects when inferential cues imply nonagency for those movements. In all 3 experiments, inferential cues to agency played a more important role in attitude embodiment effects than did actual agency, suggesting that theories of embodiment and attitude embodiment need to consider inferential cues to agency alongside biomechanical mechanisms.

  20. REGIONAL CONFERENCE SUMMARIES, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    AN AVERAGE OF 200 TEACHER EDUCATORS, STATE DIRECTORS, LAYMEN, AND REPRESENTATIVES OF VARIOUS AGENCIES ATTENDED EACH OF NINE REGIONAL CONFERENCES CONDUCTED THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES TO DISCUSS THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES AND PROBLEMS IN PLANNING AND CONDUCTING VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MAJOR SPEECHES PRESENTED…

  1. White light Z-scan measurements of ultrafast optical nonlinearity in reduced graphene oxide nanosheets in the 400–700 nm region

    SciTech Connect

    Perumbilavil, Sreekanth; Sankar, Pranitha; Priya Rose, T.; Philip, Reji

    2015-08-03

    Wavelength dispersion of optical power limiting is an important factor to be considered while designing potential optical limiters for laser safety applications. We report the observation of broadband, ultrafast optical limiting in reduced graphene oxide (rGO), measured by a single open aperture Z-scan using a white light continuum (WLC) source. WLC Z-scan is fast when the nonlinearity is to be measured over broad wavelength ranges, and it obviates the need for an ultrafast tunable laser making it cost-economic compared to conventional Z-scan. The nonlinearity arises from nondegenerate two-photon absorption, owing mostly to the crystallinity and extended π conjugation of rGO.

  2. 40 CFR 1.61 - Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator, within the boundaries of their Regions, for the execution of the Regional Programs of the Agency... approval authority for proposed State standards and implementation plans; and (g) Providing for overall...

  3. Electronic structure of the conduction band of the interface region of ultrathin films of substituted perylenedicarboximides and the germanium oxide surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komolov, A. S.; Lazneva, E. F.; Gerasimova, N. B.; Panina, Yu. A.; Baramygin, A. V.; Pshenichnyuk, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    The results of the investigation of the electronic structure of the conduction band and the interfacial potential barrier during the formation of interfaces of dioctyl-substituted perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C8) and diphenyl-substituted perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-Ph) ultrathin films with the oxidized germanium surface have been presented. The experimental results have been obtained using the very low energy electron diffraction (VLEED) technique in the total current spectroscopy (TCS) mode at energies in the range from 5 to 20 eV above the Fermi level E F. The positions of the maxima of the fine structure of total current spectra (FSTCS) of the PTCDI-C8 and PTCDI-Ph films differ significantly in the energy range from 9 to 20 eV above the Fermi level E F, which can be associated with the difference between the substituents of the chosen molecules, dioctyl- and diphenyl-, respectively. At the same time, the positions of the lowenergy maxima in the FSTCS spectra at an energy 6-7 eV above the Fermi level E F for the PTCDI-C8 and PTCDI-Ph films almost coincide with each other. It has been suggested that these maxima are attributed to the electronic states of the perylene core of the molecules under investigation. The process of the formation of interfacial potential barriers of the PTCDI-C8 and PTCDI-Ph films with the oxidized germanium surface has been analyzed. It has been found that the work functions of the surface, E vac- E F, differ little from 4.6 ± 0.1 eV over the entire range of organic coating thicknesses from 0 to 6 nm.

  4. Post-ischaemic mild hypothermia inhibits apoptosis in the penumbral region by reducing neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity and thereby preventing endothelin-1-induced hydroxyl radical formation.

    PubMed

    Van Hemelrijck, An; Hachimi-Idrissi, Said; Sarre, Sophie; Ebinger, Guy; Michotte, Yvette

    2005-09-01

    Previously, we showed that treatment with resuscitative, post-ischaemic mild hypothermia (34 degrees C for 2 h) reduced apoptosis in the penumbra (cortex), but not in the core (striatum) of an endothelin-1 (Et-1)-induced focal cerebral infarct in the anaesthetized rat. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate by which pathways resuscitative mild hypothermia exerts its neuroprotective effect in this model. The amino acids glutamate, serine, glutamine, alanine, taurine, arginine and the NO-related compound citrulline were sampled from the striatum and cortex of the ischaemic hemisphere using in vivo microdialysis. The in vivo salicylate trapping method was applied for monitoring hydroxyl radical formation via 2,3 dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3 DHBA) detection. Caspase-3, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity and the volume of ischaemic damage were determined 24 h after the insult. In both the striatum and the cortex, Et-1-induced increases in glutamate, taurine and alanine were refractory to mild hypothermia. However, mild hypothermia significantly attenuated the ischaemia-induced 2,3 DHBA levels and the nNOS immunoreactivity in the cortex, but not in the striatum. These observations were associated with a decreased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. These results suggest that mild hypothermia exerts its neuroprotective effect in the penumbra partially by reducing nNOS activity and thereby preventing oxidative stress. Furthermore, we confirm our previous findings that the neuroprotective effect of resuscitative hypothermia is not mediated by changes in ischaemia-induced amino acid release as they could not be associated with the ischaemia-induced damage in the Et-1 rat model.

  5. 40 CFR 52.2771 - Classification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... classifications: Air quality control region Pollutant Particulate matter Sulfur oxides Nitrogen dioxide Carbon monoxide Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) U.S. Virgin Islands IA IA III III III...

  6. 78 FR 53452 - Notice of Workshop and Call for Information on Integrated Science Assessment for Oxides of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; call for... National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) and oxides of sulfur (SO X... for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur-- Ecological Criteria (EPA 600/R-08/082F), published in...

  7. Oxidative stress induces the acquisition of cancer stem-like phenotype in breast cancer detectable by using a Sox2 regulatory region-2 (SRR2) reporter

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Keshav; Gupta, Nidhi; Zhang, Haifeng; Alshareef, Abdulraheem; Alqahtani, Hind; Bigras, Gilbert; Lewis, Jamie; Douglas, Donna; Kneteman, Norman; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Lai, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified a novel intra-tumoral dichotomy in breast cancer based on the differential responsiveness to a Sox2 reporter (SRR2), with cells responsive to SRR2 (RR) being more stem-like than unresponsive cells (RU). Here, we report that RR cells derived from MCF7 and ZR751 displayed a higher tolerance to oxidative stress than their RU counterparts, supporting the concept that the RR phenotype correlates with cancer stemness. Sox2 is directly implicated in this differential H2O2 tolerance, since siRNA knockdown of Sox2 in RR cells leveled this difference. Interestingly, H2O2 converted a proportion of RU cells into RR cells, as evidenced by their expression of luciferase and GFP, markers of SRR2 activity. Compared to RU cells, converted RR cells showed a significant increase in mammosphere formation and tolerance to H2O2. Converted RR cells also adopted the biochemical features of RR cells, as evidenced by their substantial increase in Sox2-SRR2 binding and the expression of 3 signature genes of RR cells (CD133, GPR49 and MUC15). Lastly, the H2O2-induced RU/RR conversion was detectable in a SCID mouse xenograft model and primary tumor cells. To conclude, the H2O2-induced RU/RR conversion has provided a novel model to study the acquisition of cancer stemness and plasticity. PMID:26683522

  8. X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy of Cr(III) (hydr)oxides: analysis of the K-pre-edge region.

    PubMed

    Frommer, Jakob; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Czekaj, Izabela; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2009-11-01

    Pre-edge spectral features below the main X-ray absorption K-edge of transition metals show a pronounced chemical sensitivity and are promising sources of structural information. Nevertheless, the use of pre-edge analysis in applied research is limited because of the lack of definite theoretical peak-assignments. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting the chromium K-pre-edge features in trivalent chromium-bearing oxides and oxyhydroxides. The selected phases varied in the degree of octahedral polymerization and the degree of iron-for-chromium substitution in the crystal structure. We investigated the pre-edge fine structure by means of high-energy-resolution fluorescence detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy and by 1s2p resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy. Multiplet theory and full multiple-scattering calculations were used to analyze the experimental data. We show that the chromium K-pre-edge contains localized and nonlocalized transitions. Contributions arising from nonlocalized metal-metal transitions are sensitive to the nearest metal type and to the linkage mode between neighboring metal octahedra. Analyzing these transitions opens up new opportunities for investigating the local coordination environment of chromium in poorly ordered solids of environmental relevance.

  9. No evidence for linkage in the promoter region of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS2) in a Danish type 1 diabetes population.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, J; Pociot, F; Kristiansen, O P; Karlsen, A E; Nerup, J

    2000-08-01

    Exposure of human pancreatic islets to a mixture of cytokines induces expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), impairs beta-cell function and induces apoptosis. Exposing human islets to high amounts of NO from chemical NO-donors causes DNA strand breaks and mitochondrial damage, suggesting that NO is deleterious to human beta-cells. Hence, we consider the gene encoding iNOS in beta-cells, NOS2, a candidate gene for type 1 diabetes in humans. In the present study we have tested three identified polymorphisms within the promoter sequence of the human NOS2 gene in a type 1 diabetic family material comprising 154 affected sib-pair families and 103 affected simplex families (1143 individuals in total). PCR-based amplification of the polymorphic loci were established. Linkage analysis was performed using the extended transmission disequilibrium testing (ETDT). A Bsal RFLP was found not to be polymorphic in 20 type 1 diabetic patients and 14 healthy control subjects and was not analysed further. In affected cases a nine allele CCTTT repeat and a bi-allelic TAAA repeat revealed allelewise Petdt of 0.52 and 0.60, respectively. ETDT applied to (TAAA)n; (CCTTT)n haplotypes demonstrated random transmission from heterozygous parents to affected offspring. In conclusion, the tested polymorphisms within the NOS2 gene promoter did not show evidence for linkage to type 1 diabetes in a Danish family material.

  10. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  11. Administering Our State Library Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFrane, Gerard

    1970-01-01

    A satire on the application of scientific management principles to a state library agency. Covers relationships of the state librarian to staff, the profession, and state and federal governments. (Author/JS)

  12. 40 CFR 1508.16 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead agency. 1508.16 Section 1508.16 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.16 Lead agency. Lead agency means the agency or agencies preparing or having taken primary responsibility for preparing...

  13. 40 CFR 1508.16 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lead agency. 1508.16 Section 1508.16 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.16 Lead agency. Lead agency means the agency or agencies preparing or having taken primary responsibility for preparing...

  14. 40 CFR 1508.16 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lead agency. 1508.16 Section 1508.16 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.16 Lead agency. Lead agency means the agency or agencies preparing or having taken primary responsibility for preparing...

  15. 40 CFR 1508.16 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead agency. 1508.16 Section 1508.16 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.16 Lead agency. Lead agency means the agency or agencies preparing or having taken primary responsibility for preparing...

  16. 31 CFR 800.218 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead agency. 800.218 Section 800.218... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.218 Lead agency. The term lead agency means an agency designated by the... activity for which the Chairperson designates it as a lead agency, including all or a portion of a...

  17. 31 CFR 800.218 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead agency. 800.218 Section 800.218... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.218 Lead agency. The term lead agency means an agency designated by the... activity for which the Chairperson designates it as a lead agency, including all or a portion of a...

  18. 40 CFR 1508.16 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead agency. 1508.16 Section 1508.16 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.16 Lead agency. Lead agency means the agency or agencies preparing or having taken primary responsibility for preparing...

  19. 31 CFR 800.218 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead agency. 800.218 Section 800.218... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.218 Lead agency. The term lead agency means an agency designated by the... activity for which the Chairperson designates it as a lead agency, including all or a portion of a...

  20. 31 CFR 800.218 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lead agency. 800.218 Section 800.218... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.218 Lead agency. The term lead agency means an agency designated by the... activity for which the Chairperson designates it as a lead agency, including all or a portion of a...

  1. 31 CFR 800.218 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lead agency. 800.218 Section 800.218... FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.218 Lead agency. The term lead agency means an agency designated by the... activity for which the Chairperson designates it as a lead agency, including all or a portion of a...

  2. Association of mercury and selenium with altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress in diving ducks from the San Francisco Bay region, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pendleton, G.W.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Marn, C.M.

    1998-02-01

    Adult male greater scaup (Aythya marila), surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata), and ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) were collected from Suisun Bay and coastal Tomales Bay in the greater San Francisco Bay area to assess exposure to inorganic contaminants. Hepatic Se concentrations were highest in greater scaup and surf scoters in Suisun Bay, whereas hepatic Hg was highest in greater scaup and surf scoters from Tomales Bay. Hepatic Se and Hg were lower in ruddy ducks and did not differ between locations. Hepatic supernatants were assayed for enzymes related to glutathione metabolism and antioxidant activity, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH peroxidase), glutathione reductase (GSSG reductase), and glutathione-S-transferase (GSH transferase). Glutathione peroxidase activity was higher in surf scoters and ruddy ducks, and G-6-PDH was higher in greater scaup and surf scoters from Suisun Bay than Tomales Bay. Glutathione reductase (GSSG) was higher in SS from Suisun Bay. The ratio of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) was greater in all species from Tomales Bay. The following significant relationships were found in one or more species with increasing hepatic Hg concentration; lower body, liver, and heart weights; decreased hepatic GSH concentration and G-6-PDH and GSH peroxidase activities; increased ratio of GSSG to GSH; and increased GSSG reductase activity. With increasing hepatic Se concentration, GSH peroxidase increased, but GSH decreased. It is concluded that measurement of associated enzymes in conjunction with thiol status may be a useful bioindicator to discriminate between Hg and Se effects. Concentrations of Hg and Se and the above variables affected have been associated with adverse effects on reproduction and neurological function in experimental studies with mallards.

  3. The effect of local and regional sources on the isotopic composition of nitrous oxide in the tropical free troposphere and tropopause layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croteau, P. L.; Atlas, E. L.; Schauffler, S.; Blake, D. R.; Diskin, G. S.; Boering, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and plays a significant role in controlling stratospheric ozone, yet there remain significant uncertainties in its budget and biogeochemical cycling. While measurements of N2O isotopic composition on the small spatial scales of soil studies and shipboard sampling have been useful in understanding the biogeochemistry of N2O, their extrapolation to the global budget has been difficult due to large variability that depends sensitively on environmental parameters. Here, we present measurements and analysis of the isotopic composition of N2O (δ15Nbulk, δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, and δ18O) from whole-air samples collected by the NASA WB-57 and DC-8 aircraft from 500m to 19km as part of the Costa Rica Aura Validation Experiment (CRAVE) and the Tropical Composition Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaigns in January-February 2006 and July-August 2007, respectively. The vertical profiles of isotopic composition showed predictable, repeatable patterns consistent with the influence of a surface source at lower altitudes and the influence of stratospheric photochemistry above the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The correlations of the N2O isotopic compositions with marine tracers at lower altitudes are consistent with a predominantly oceanic source, although a soil source cannot be ruled out. For samples collected in a combustion plume at 14 km, the measurements show a strong depletion in 15N at the central nitrogen atom (i.e. low δ15Nα values), providing new information about the isotopic composition of N2O from combustion/biomass burning. This new dataset demonstrates that a coherent picture of the vertical distribution of the isotopic composition of N2O in the tropics is possible at currently attainable precisions and that its variations from 500m to the lower stratosphere is a useful tool for investigating the N2O budget and its biogeochemical cycling.

  4. Association of mercury and selenium with altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress in diving ducks from the San Francisco Bay region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Marn, C.M.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    Adult male greater scaup (Aythya marila) (GS), surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)(SS), and ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) (RD) were collected from Suisun Bay and coastal Tomales Bay in the greater San Francisco Bay area to assess exposure to inorganic contaminants. Hepatic selenium (Se) concentrations were highest in GS (geometric mean = 67 ppm, dw) and SS (119 ppm) in Suisun Bay, whereas hepatic mercury (Hg) was highest (19 ppm) in GS and SS from Tomales Bay. Hepatic Se and Hg were lower in RD and did not differ between locations. Hepatic supernatants were assayed for enzymes related to glutathione metabolism and antioxidant activity including: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-peroxidase), glutathione reductase (GSSG-reductase), and glutathione-S-transferase (GSH-transferase). GSH-peroxidase activity was higher in SS and RD, and G-6-PDH higher in GS and SS from Suisun Bay than Tomales Bay. GSSG-reductase was higher in SS from Suisun Bay. The ratio of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) was greater in all species from Tomales Bay. The following significant relationships were found in one or more species with increasing hepatic Hg concentration: lower body, liver and heart weights; decreased hepatic GSH concentration, G-6-PDH and GSH-peroxidase activities; increased ratio of GSSG to GSH, and increased GSSG-reductase activity. With increasing hepatic Se concentration, GSH-peroxidase increased but GSH decreased. It is concluded that measurement of associated enzymes in conjunction with thiol status may be a useful bioindicator to discriminate between Hg and Se effects. Concentrations of mercury and selenium and variable affected have been associated with adverse effects on reproduction and neurological function in experimental studies with mallards.

  5. Genetic engineering and autonomous agency.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Linda

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the genetic manipulation of sexual orientation at the embryo stage could have a detrimental effect on the subsequent person's later capacity for autonomous agency. By focussing on an example of sexist oppression I show that the norms and expectations expressed with this type of genetic manipulation can threaten the development of autonomous agency and the kind of social environment that makes its exercise likely. PMID:14989287

  6. Coordinating activities between NOAA and other agencies.

    PubMed

    Fritz, A T; Buchman, M F

    1997-11-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) mandate protection of public health, welfare, and the environment at Superfund hazardous waste sites. The NCP requires lead response agenciesto integrate baseline risk assessments into the remedial process that "assess threats to the environment." EPA policy statements direct regional offices to perform thorough, consistent ecological risk assessments, and stress the importance of coordination and technical consultation with the natural resource trustees. As a Federal natural trustee, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) role and responsibilities within the CERCLA process also are defined and mandated by Federal law. NOAA is responsible for identifying sites in the coastal zone that may affect natural resources, evaluating injury to trust resources, and providing technical advice on assessments and remedial and restoration alternatives. Statutes require lead cleanup agencies and trustee agencies to notify and coordinate with each other during CERCLA response. Over the past ten years, NOAA has gained valuable experience and technical expertise in environmental assessments and in evaluating contaminated aquatic environments. NOAA fulfills its responsibilities through an effective network of Coastal Resource Coordinators (CRCs) who can rapidly respond to local technical requirements and priorities, and coordinate effectively with technical and trustee representatives. In addition to CRCs, an interdisciplinary support group provides technical expertise in the scientific disciplines required to respond to the needs of regional activities. NOAA provides CRCs to coastal EPA regional offices for technical support, and to act as liaisons with Federal and state natural resource trustee agencies. The CRCs help EPA and other lead response agencies identify and assess risks to coastal resources

  7. Coordinating activities between NOAA and other agencies.

    PubMed

    Fritz, A T; Buchman, M F

    1997-11-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) mandate protection of public health, welfare, and the environment at Superfund hazardous waste sites. The NCP requires lead response agenciesto integrate baseline risk assessments into the remedial process that "assess threats to the environment." EPA policy statements direct regional offices to perform thorough, consistent ecological risk assessments, and stress the importance of coordination and technical consultation with the natural resource trustees. As a Federal natural trustee, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) role and responsibilities within the CERCLA process also are defined and mandated by Federal law. NOAA is responsible for identifying sites in the coastal zone that may affect natural resources, evaluating injury to trust resources, and providing technical advice on assessments and remedial and restoration alternatives. Statutes require lead cleanup agencies and trustee agencies to notify and coordinate with each other during CERCLA response. Over the past ten years, NOAA has gained valuable experience and technical expertise in environmental assessments and in evaluating contaminated aquatic environments. NOAA fulfills its responsibilities through an effective network of Coastal Resource Coordinators (CRCs) who can rapidly respond to local technical requirements and priorities, and coordinate effectively with technical and trustee representatives. In addition to CRCs, an interdisciplinary support group provides technical expertise in the scientific disciplines required to respond to the needs of regional activities. NOAA provides CRCs to coastal EPA regional offices for technical support, and to act as liaisons with Federal and state natural resource trustee agencies. The CRCs help EPA and other lead response agencies identify and assess risks to coastal resources

  8. 49 CFR Attachment 3 - Offices Within Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies for Information Regarding the Agencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Attachment 3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC.... Attachment 3—Offices Within Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies for Information Regarding...

  9. What level of self-care agency in mental illness? The factors affecting self-care agency and self-care agency in patients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Çiftçi, Bahar; Yıldırım, Naci; Şahin Altun, Özlem; Avşar, Gülçin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate self-care agency and the factors affecting self-care agency in patients with psychiatric disorders. The population of the study comprised patients diagnosed with mental disorders at the clinics of psychiatry in Erzurum Regional Training and Research Hospital and Atatürk University Research Hospital. Patient information forms and the Self-Care Agency Scale were used to collect the study data. Psychiatric nurse collected the data from the patients face to face. This study determined that the average age of the patients was determined to be 32.19±1.11. The findings indicated that the mean self-care agency level of the patients was 79.3±23.2. It was also found that the differences between sex, educational status, socio-economic status, and self-care agency levels were statistically significant (p<0.05). In conclusion, the patients' self-care agency levels were determined to be mid-level. The findings suggest that people with mental disorders have difficulty identifying their need for self-care. Thus, periodic training programs are necessary to increase self-care levels and further research studies of this type should be done on larger groups.

  10. What's Happening to Regional Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Back in November, voters in the North East of England overwhelmingly rejected the move towards an elected regional assembly. The scale of the defeat (three to one) of a Government-backed scheme was a rude awakening for the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and the range of regional agencies created since 1997. After all, it was felt that the…

  11. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional vulnerability assessment, or ReVA, is an approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by the Office of Research and Development of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The assessment is done at the scale of EPA region...

  12. Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 002F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds ( CAS No . 1306 - 38 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2009 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER Th

  13. 77 FR 17464 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information...) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions...

  14. 77 FR 20616 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information... Price Survey;'' Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is...

  15. 78 FR 54637 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; State Educational Agency, Local...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; State Educational Agency, Local Educational... information technology. Please note that written comments received in response to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: State Educational Agency, Local Educational Agency,...

  16. 76 FR 12016 - Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Local and Regional Food Aid Procurement Projects AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural... and Regional Food Aid Procurement Pilot Project (USDA LRP Project). All available funding for field...: Jamie Fisher, Chief, Local and Regional Procurement, Food Assistance Division, Foreign...

  17. 76 FR 69736 - Primus Solutions, Inc., and Arctic Slope Regional Corp.; Transfer of Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Primus Solutions, Inc., and Arctic Slope Regional Corp.; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental... Primus Solutions, Inc., and its subcontractor, Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (ASRC) in ]...

  18. 76 FR 61695 - Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy (Preliminary)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... AGENCY Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy (Preliminary) AGENCY: Environmental... the Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy (Preliminary) for public review and.... EPA-HQ-OA-2011-0798. President Barack Obama established the Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration...

  19. 38 CFR 0.735-1 - Agency ethics officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... program, pursuant to 5 CFR 2638.201-204. (b) Deputy ethics officials. (1) The Regional Counsel are deputy..., under the DAEO's supervision, pursuant to 5 CFR 2638.204. (2) The alternate DAEO, the DAEO's staff, and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agency ethics...

  20. 41 CFR 105-69.200 - Agency and legislative liaison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency and legislative liaison. 105-69.200 Section 105-69.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General...

  1. 41 CFR 105-60.104 - Records of other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Records of other agencies. 105-60.104 Section 105-60.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General...

  2. 38 CFR 0.735-1 - Agency ethics officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... program, pursuant to 5 CFR 2638.201-204. (b) Deputy ethics officials. (1) The Regional Counsel are deputy..., under the DAEO's supervision, pursuant to 5 CFR 2638.204. (2) The alternate DAEO, the DAEO's staff, and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency ethics...

  3. 41 CFR 105-60.104 - Records of other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of other agencies. 105-60.104 Section 105-60.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General...

  4. Educational Service Agencies and Media Technology in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzocchi, Judith

    As part of a study of the pros and cons of organizing regional educational service agencies to provide special programs and services involving media technology to groups of local districts that find it difficult to meet such needs when acting independently, a survey of state departments of education was conducted to gather information about…

  5. 44 CFR 206.5 - Assistance by other Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE General § 206.5 Assistance by other Federal agencies. (a) In any declared major disaster, the Administrator, Assistant Administrator for the Disaster Operations Directorate, or the Regional Administrator may direct any Federal...

  6. US EPA: A USER AGENCY PERSPECTIVE ON POLAR SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agency uses satellite sensor observations in its work on measuring, monitoring and modeling the environment and human health. It generates observations in collaboration with states, local and regional governments, tribes and others, and is a consumer of observations from a v...

  7. Awe, uncertainty, and agency detection.

    PubMed

    Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Graham, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Across five studies, we found that awe increases both supernatural belief (Studies 1, 2, and 5) and intentional-pattern perception (Studies 3 and 4)-two phenomena that have been linked to agency detection, or the tendency to interpret events as the consequence of intentional and purpose-driven agents. Effects were both directly and conceptually replicated, and mediational analyses revealed that these effects were driven by the influence of awe on tolerance for uncertainty. Experiences of awe decreased tolerance for uncertainty, which, in turn, increased the tendency to believe in nonhuman agents and to perceive human agency in random events. PMID:24247728

  8. Agency-Hired Hotel Housekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Sanon, Marie-Anne V.

    2014-01-01

    Hotel housekeepers experience unique workplace hazards and characteristics that increase their risks for poor health outcomes. Today’s agency-hiring practices may further marginalize hotel housekeepers and negatively impact their health. Yet the impact of such hiring practices on the health of this vulnerable worker group remains unexplored. This article presents the debate regarding agency-hiring practices and how these practices may influence the health and well-being of hotel housekeepers. Implications for occupational health nurses are also discussed. PMID:24512722

  9. 40 CFR 255.22 - Establishing regional boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishing regional boundaries. 255.22 Section 255.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES IDENTIFICATION OF REGIONS AND AGENCIES FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Procedures for Identifying Regions and...

  10. 40 CFR 1501.6 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperating agencies. 1501.6 Section 1501.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.6 Cooperating agencies. The purpose of this section is to emphasize agency cooperation early in the NEPA...

  11. 5 CFR 370.109 - Agency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency plans. 370.109 Section 370.109... PROGRAM § 370.109 Agency plans. Before detailing agency employees or receiving private sector employees under this part, an agency must establish an Information Technology Exchange Program Plan. The plan...

  12. 40 CFR 1508.12 - Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency. 1508.12 Section 1508.12 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.12 Federal agency. Federal agency means all agencies of the Federal Government. It does not mean the Congress,...

  13. 40 CFR 1507.3 - Agency procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agency procedures. 1507.3 Section 1507.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AGENCY COMPLIANCE § 1507.3 Agency... environmental impact statements. (c) Agency procedures may include specific criteria for providing...

  14. 40 CFR 1508.12 - Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal agency. 1508.12 Section 1508.12 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.12 Federal agency. Federal agency means all agencies of the Federal Government. It does not mean the Congress,...

  15. 40 CFR 1508.12 - Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal agency. 1508.12 Section 1508.12 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.12 Federal agency. Federal agency means all agencies of the Federal Government. It does not mean the Congress,...

  16. 40 CFR 1508.12 - Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal agency. 1508.12 Section 1508.12 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.12 Federal agency. Federal agency means all agencies of the Federal Government. It does not mean the Congress,...

  17. 40 CFR 1507.3 - Agency procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency procedures. 1507.3 Section 1507.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AGENCY COMPLIANCE § 1507.3 Agency... environmental impact statements. (c) Agency procedures may include specific criteria for providing...

  18. 40 CFR 1507.3 - Agency procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency procedures. 1507.3 Section 1507.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AGENCY COMPLIANCE § 1507.3 Agency... environmental impact statements. (c) Agency procedures may include specific criteria for providing...

  19. 29 CFR 98.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agency. 98.910 Section 98.910 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other...

  20. 29 CFR 98.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Agency. 98.910 Section 98.910 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other...

  1. 29 CFR 98.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency. 98.910 Section 98.910 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other...

  2. 29 CFR 98.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agency. 98.910 Section 98.910 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other...

  3. 29 CFR 98.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Agency. 98.910 Section 98.910 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other...

  4. 40 CFR 1501.5 - Lead agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead agencies. 1501.5 Section 1501.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.5 Lead agencies. (a) A lead agency shall supervise the preparation of an environmental impact statement if more...

  5. 40 CFR 1501.5 - Lead agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lead agencies. 1501.5 Section 1501.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.5 Lead agencies. (a) A lead agency shall supervise the preparation of an environmental impact statement if more...

  6. 40 CFR 1501.5 - Lead agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead agencies. 1501.5 Section 1501.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.5 Lead agencies. (a) A lead agency shall supervise the preparation of an environmental impact statement if more...

  7. 40 CFR 1501.5 - Lead agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lead agencies. 1501.5 Section 1501.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.5 Lead agencies. (a) A lead agency shall supervise the preparation of an environmental impact statement if more...

  8. 40 CFR 1501.5 - Lead agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lead agencies. 1501.5 Section 1501.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.5 Lead agencies. (a) A lead agency shall supervise the preparation of an environmental impact statement if more...

  9. 32 CFR 148.6 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency review. 148.6 Section 148.6 National... Inspections of Facilities § 148.6 Agency review. Agencies will continue to review and assess the potential... government. As this review continues, agencies creating or modifying facilities databases will do so in...

  10. 40 CFR 166.25 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agency review. 166.25 Section 166.25... Health Exemptions § 166.25 Agency review. (a) General. The Agency will review all requests as... is needed. The Agency will review the application and other available data necessary to make...

  11. 45 CFR 13.27 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Agency review. 13.27 Section 13.27 Public Welfare... ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 13.27 Agency review. (a) The... an appeal of the merits. (b) If either the applicant or the agency's litigating party seeks review...

  12. 40 CFR 166.25 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency review. 166.25 Section 166.25... Health Exemptions § 166.25 Agency review. (a) General. The Agency will review all requests as... is needed. The Agency will review the application and other available data necessary to make...

  13. 14 CFR 1262.308 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency review. 1262.308 Section 1262.308... PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 1262.308 Agency review. (a) Within 30 calendar days of... applicant or agency counsel may seek Agency review of the decision; or, the NASA Administrator, upon...

  14. 22 CFR 901.11 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Agency. 901.11 Section 901.11 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.11 Agency. Agency means the Department of State, the Agency for International Development, the U.S. Information...

  15. Environmental protection agency aircraft emissions standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittredge, G. D.

    1977-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from aircraft were investigated in order to determine: (1) the extent to which such emissions affect air quality in air quality control regions throughout the United States; and (2) the technological feasibility of controlling such emissions. The basic information supporting the need for aircraft emissions standards is summarized. The EPA ambient air quality standards are presented. Only the primary (health related) standards are shown. Of the six pollutants, only the first three, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides, are influenced significantly by aircraft.

  16. The Many Faces of Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This forum article is a response to the article by Alandeom W. Oliveira, Patterson Rogers, Cassie F. Quigley, Denis Sambursky, Kimberly Barss, and Seema Rivera, The article explores agency from the perspective of both personal action and an understanding of causality within environmental systems, and it explores environmental read-alouds as…

  17. Harry Potter: Agency or Addiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This article considers limitations on agency for characters in the Harry Potter novels, in particular, how far they are driven by an addictive yearning for their beloved dead. As well as Harry's yearning for his dead parents, Dumbledore's guilt, Snape's longing and Slughorn's craving can be read as evidence of addiction rather than love, while the…

  18. Epistemological Agency in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report and discuss research that sought to explore how the individually purposeful nature of new employee workplace learning might be understood through its conception as epistemological agency, that is, the personally mediated construction of knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: Using a sociocultural…

  19. Young Writers' Construction of Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ros

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers young learners' construction of agency in the context of classroom writing lessons. It draws on data from the Esmee Fairbairn-funded project, "From Talk to Text: Using Talk to Support Writing", which investigated the relationship between talk and writing in early years classrooms. The paper reports on results from in-depth…

  20. Workforce Training Agency Program Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This report contains program evaluations of Washington state agencies represented on the Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board: Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC), and Employment Security Department (ESD). OSPI's report uses data from the graduate…

  1. Promoter polymorphism T-786C, 894G→T at exon 7 of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene are associated with risk of osteoporosis in Sichuan region male residents

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zuchao; Zhang, Yu; Qiu, Guixing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between genetic polymorphism of T-786C in promoter region, 894G→T at exon 7 of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene and osteoporosis (OP) disease. Method: The genotypes of 350 patients with osteoporosis and 350 healthy controls were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The allele ratios and genotype distributions in the patients and controls were assessed using the Pearson χ2-test. Odds ratios (OR) with two tailed P-values and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated as a measure of the association of the eNOS genotypes with OP. Result: the C allele distribution frequency of T-786C eNOS gene in OP group (8.5%) was significantly higher than that in control group (3.9%), relative risk (OR) of OP associated with the CC genotype was 2.68 (95% CI, 0.92 to 1.37). The T allele frequency of 894G→T at exon 7 in eNOS gene in OP group (11.5%) was also significantly higher than that in control group (5.2%), OR of OP associated with the TT genotype was 2.60 (all P<0.05). Conclusion: The analysis results indicated that both T-786C in promoter region and 894G→T at exon 7 of eNOS gene might be genetic predisposal factors of OP, these polymorphisms may be independently or synergic with other loci to have an impact on the incidence of OP. PMID:26823879

  2. Oxidants and oxidation in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The 1994 BOC Priestley Conference was held at Bucknell University in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, from June 24 through June 27, 1994. This conference, managed by the American Chemical Society (ACS), was a joint celebration with the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) commemorating Joseph Priestley's arrival in the U.S. and his discovery of oxygen. The basic theme of the conference was 'Oxidants and Oxidation in the Earth's Atmosphere,' with a keynote lecture on the history of ozone. A distinguished group of U.S. and international atmospheric chemists addressed the issues dominating current research and policy agendas. Topics crucial to the atmospheric chemistry of global change and local and regional air pollution were discussed. The program for the conference included four technical sessions on the following topics: (1) Oxidative Fate of Atmospheric Pollutants; (2) Photochemical Smog and Ozone; (3) Stratospheric Ozone; and (4) Global Tropospheric Ozone.

  3. A study on the high temperature-dependence of the electrical properties in a solution-deposited zinc-tin-oxide thin-film transistor operated in the saturation region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kyeong Min; Bae, Byung Seong; Jung, Myunghee; Yun, Eui-Jung

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effects of high temperatures in the range of 292 - 393 K on the electrical properties of solution-processed amorphous zinc-tin-oxide (a-ZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) operated in the saturation region. The fabricated a-ZTO TFTs have a non-patterned bottom gate and top contact structure, and they use a heavily-doped Si wafer and SiO2 as a gate electrode and a gate insulator layer, respectively. In a-ZTO TFTs, the trap release energy ( E TR ) was deduced by using Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. The decreasing E TR toward zero with increasing gate voltage (the density of trap states ( n s )) in the a-ZTO active layer can be attributed to a shift of the Fermi level toward the mobility edge with increasing gate voltage. The TFTs with low gate voltage (low n s ) exhibit multiple trap and release characteristics and show thermally-activated behavior. In TFTs with a high gate voltage (high n s ), however, we observe decreasing mobility and conductivity with increasing temperature at temperatures ranging from 303 to 363 K. This confirms that the E TR can drop to zero, indicating a shift of the Fermi level beyond the mobility edge. Hence, the mobility edge is detected at the cusp between thermally-activated transport and band transport.

  4. Managing Cooperation and Complexity in Education: The Case of Educational Service Agencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Janet A.; And Others

    Educational Service Agencies (ESA's) are public education agencies that provide specialized programs and services to a group of school districts in a specified geographical region and to the state department of education. Most states have encouraged the development of ESA's that have either evolved out of county districts or have been created to…

  5. 78 FR 53013 - Agency Information Collection (Submission of School Catalog to the State Approving Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Submission of School Catalog to the State Approving Agency... INFORMATION: Title: Submission of School Catalog to the State Approving Agency. OMB Control Number: 2900-0568... catalog to State approving agency when applying for approval of a new course. State approval agencies...

  6. 36 CFR 1231.14 - May the records of terminated agencies be transferred to another agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies be transferred to another agency? 1231.14 Section 1231.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... EXECUTIVE AGENCY TO ANOTHER § 1231.14 May the records of terminated agencies be transferred to another... may be transferred to another executive agency that inherits the function. All such transfers must...

  7. 36 CFR 1231.14 - May the records of terminated agencies be transferred to another agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agencies be transferred to another agency? 1231.14 Section 1231.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... EXECUTIVE AGENCY TO ANOTHER § 1231.14 May the records of terminated agencies be transferred to another... may be transferred to another executive agency that inherits the function. All such transfers must...

  8. 77 FR 53203 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... System, ASPEN, by the CMS Regional Offices. Should any question arise regarding the structure of the... worksheet designed to facilitate key punching into ASPEN by the state agency after the survey is...

  9. Recognizing, Determining, and Addressing Entrepreneurial Innovations by Superintendents of Emerging or Established Educational Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfstrom, Kari M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation describes how entrepreneurial superintendents of educational service agencies (ESAs) recognize, determine and address common and distinct innovative characteristics within emerging or established regional educational environments. Because internal and external factors assist in recognizing innovative practices, this study…

  10. 75 FR 11620 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Request for Extension of Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... 40 Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), regional transportation planning agencies, counties... to transportation planning, program development, and project selection. Its purposes are to improve... and Streamlining that represent the three important strategic planning and performance goals for...

  11. 49 CFR 222.17 - How can a State agency become a recognized State agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS General § 222.17 How can a State agency become a recognized State agency? (a) Any State agency responsible for highway-rail grade crossing safety and/or highway and road safety...

  12. 49 CFR 222.17 - How can a State agency become a recognized State agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS General § 222.17 How can a State agency become a recognized State agency? (a) Any State agency responsible for highway-rail grade crossing safety and/or highway and road safety...

  13. 49 CFR 222.17 - How can a State agency become a recognized State agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS General § 222.17 How can a State agency become a recognized State agency? (a) Any State agency responsible for highway-rail grade crossing safety and/or highway and road safety...

  14. 49 CFR 222.17 - How can a State agency become a recognized State agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS General § 222.17 How can a State agency become a recognized State agency? (a) Any State agency responsible for highway-rail grade crossing safety and/or highway and road safety...

  15. 49 CFR 222.17 - How can a State agency become a recognized State agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS General § 222.17 How can a State agency become a recognized State agency? (a) Any State agency responsible for highway-rail grade crossing safety and/or highway and road safety...

  16. Changing regional emissions of airborne pollutants reflected in the chemistry of snowpacks and wetfall in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, 1993–2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, George P.; Miller, Debra C.; Morris, Kristi H.; McMurray, Jill A.; Port, Garrett M.; Caruso, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Wintertime precipitation sample data from 55 Snowpack sites and 17 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network Wetfall sites in the Rocky Mountain region were examined to identify long-term trends in chemical concentration, deposition, and precipitation using Regional and Seasonal Kendall tests. The Natural Resources Conservation Service snow-telemetry (SNOTEL) network provided snow-water-equivalent data from 33 sites located near Snowpack- and NADP Wetfall-sampling sites for further comparisons. Concentration and deposition of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, and sulfate were tested for trends for the period 1993–2012. Precipitation trends were compared between the three monitoring networks for the winter seasons and downward trends were observed for both Snowpack and SNOTEL networks, but not for the NADP Wetfall network. The dry-deposition fraction of total atmospheric deposition, relative to wet deposition, was shown to be considerable in the region. Potential sources of regional airborne pollutant emissions were identified from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2011 National Emissions Inventory, and from long-term emissions data for the period 1996–2013. Changes in the emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide were reflected in significant trends in snowpack and wetfall chemistry. In general, ammonia emissions in the western USA showed a gradual increase over the past decade, while ammonium concentrations and deposition in snowpacks and wetfall showed upward trends. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide declined while regional trends in snowpack and wetfall concentrations and deposition of nitrate and sulfate were downward.

  17. HOMOGENEOUS CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Homogeneous Catalytic Oxidations of Hydrocarbons in Alternative Solvent Systems

    Michael A. Gonzalez* and Thomas M. Becker, Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, ...

  18. Natural resource manager perceptions of agency performance on climate change.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Christopher J; Thompson, Jessica L; Dawson, Jackie; Schuster, Rudy M

    2013-01-15

    An important precursor to the adoption of climate change adaptation strategies is to understand the perceived capacity to implement and operationalize such strategies. Utilizing an importance-performance analysis (IPA) evaluation framework, this article presents a comparative case study of federal and state land and natural resource manager perceptions of agency performance on factors influencing adaptive capacity in two U.S. regions (northern Colorado and southwestern South Dakota). Results revealed several important findings with substantial management implications. First, none of the managers ranked the adaptive capacity factors as a low priority. Second, managers held the perception that their agencies were performing either neutrally or poorly on most factors influencing adaptive capacity. Third, gap analysis revealed that significant improvements are required to facilitate optimal agency functioning when dealing with climate change-related management issues. Overall, results suggest that a host of institutional and policy-oriented (e.g., lack of clear mandate to adapt to climate change), financial and human resource (e.g., inadequate staff and financial resources), informational (e.g., inadequate research and monitoring programs) and contextual barriers (e.g., sufficient regional networks to mitigate potential transboundary impacts) currently challenge the efficient and effective integration of climate change into decision-making and management within agencies working in these regions. The IPA framework proved to be an effective tool to help managers identify and understand agency strengths, areas of concern, redundancies, and areas that warrant the use of limited funds and/or resource re-allocation in order to enhance adaptive capacity and maximize management effectiveness with respect to climate change.

  19. 76 FR 6471 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Information Collection --Extension Without Change: Local Union Report (EEO-3). SUMMARY: In... will be posted without change, including any personal information you provide. Copies of...

  20. 77 FR 65548 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... revision to the previously approved EEO-5 under the PRA's emergency processing procedures. 77 FR 39238... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Information Collection--Extension Without Change: Elementary-Secondary Staff Information...

  1. 76 FR 6470 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Information Collection--Request For An Extension Without Change: State and Local Government Information Report (EEO-4). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Equal...

  2. 78 FR 11175 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Information Collection--Revised: Demographic Information on Applicants for Federal Employment... (Demographic Information on Applicants, OMB No. 3046-0046) to include disability status data. DATES:...

  3. 76 FR 6470 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Information Collection--Extension Without Change: Elementary-Secondary Staff Information Report (EEO-5). SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act, the Equal...

  4. 34 CFR 303.21 - Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... part, public agency includes the lead agency and any other political subdivision of the State that is responsible for providing early intervention services to children eligible under this part and their...

  5. 77 FR 16022 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Program. The information to be collected from Partner plants includes: background data, including contact...: background data, including contact information, information on primary energy consumption and energy saving... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Office...

  6. 76 FR 70994 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... strategy, and its belief that increased energy efficiency and use of alternative energy sources are... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: Energy Efficiency...

  7. 5 CFR 362.104 - Agency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... identified in § 362.101 (e.g., OPM Internship Program); (2) State the delegations of authority for the agency... summer jobs; (6) Include a commitment from the agency to: (i) Provide to OPM any information it...

  8. 5 CFR 362.104 - Agency requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... identified in § 362.101 (e.g., OPM Internship Program); (2) State the delegations of authority for the agency... summer jobs; (6) Include a commitment from the agency to: (i) Provide to OPM any information it...

  9. 2 CFR 180.950 - Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS OMB... Federal agency. Federal agency means any United States executive department, military department,...

  10. 2 CFR 180.950 - Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS OMB... Federal agency. Federal agency means any United States executive department, military department,...

  11. Metal-Catalyzed Oxidation and Photo-oxidation of Glucagon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    The oxidation of glucagon by the H2O2/Cu(2+) system and by simulated sunlight was studied using HPLC-MS methodologies. It was found that copper ion-catalyzed oxidation is much faster in the residue 1-12 region than in photo-oxidation, but it is slower than photo-oxidation in the residue 18-29 region. This difference is due to the unique feature of the primary sequence of glucagon. The residue 1-12 region contains His-1 and Asp-9 that can bind to Cu(2+) ions and catalyze the oxidation of His-1 and Tyr-10, while the residue 18-29 region lacks these charged residues near the liable Met-27 and Trp-25 and hence no catalysis by the neighboring groups occurs. Fragment (residue 13-17) was more stable than the other regions of the peptide toward photo-oxidation because it contains only one oxidizable residue, Tyr-13. These findings may help explain the mechanism of action of glucagon and provide some hints for the development of effective anti-diabetic drug molecules and stable glucagon formulations.

  12. Metal-Catalyzed Oxidation and Photo-oxidation of Glucagon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    The oxidation of glucagon by the H2O2/Cu(2+) system and by simulated sunlight was studied using HPLC-MS methodologies. It was found that copper ion-catalyzed oxidation is much faster in the residue 1-12 region than in photo-oxidation, but it is slower than photo-oxidation in the residue 18-29 region. This difference is due to the unique feature of the primary sequence of glucagon. The residue 1-12 region contains His-1 and Asp-9 that can bind to Cu(2+) ions and catalyze the oxidation of His-1 and Tyr-10, while the residue 18-29 region lacks these charged residues near the liable Met-27 and Trp-25 and hence no catalysis by the neighboring groups occurs. Fragment (residue 13-17) was more stable than the other regions of the peptide toward photo-oxidation because it contains only one oxidizable residue, Tyr-13. These findings may help explain the mechanism of action of glucagon and provide some hints for the development of effective anti-diabetic drug molecules and stable glucagon formulations. PMID:27435200

  13. Human inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression depends on chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)- and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (elF4E)-mediated nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport.

    PubMed

    Bollmann, Franziska; Fechir, Katrin; Nowag, Sebastian; Koch, Kathrin; Art, Julia; Kleinert, Hartmut; Pautz, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Human inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is regulated on the expressional level mostly by post-transcriptional mechanisms modulating the mRNA stability. Another important step in the control of eukaryotic gene expression is the nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport. Most cellular mRNAs are exported via the TAP/Nxt complex of proteins. However, some mRNAs are transported by a different mechanism involving the nuclear export receptor CRM1. Treatment of DLD-1 cells with the CRM1 inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB) or anti-CRM1 siRNAs reduced cytokine-induced iNOS expression. We could demonstrate that the iNOS mRNA is exported from the nucleus in a CRM1-dependent manner. Since CRM1 itself does not possess any RNA binding affinity, an adapter protein is needed to mediate CRM1-dependent mRNA export. Western blot experiments showed that the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E is retained in the nucleus after LMB treatment. Blockade of eIF4E by ribavirin or overexpression of the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) decreased iNOS expression due to reduced iNOS mRNA export from the nucleus. Transfection experiments provide evidence that the 3'-untranslated region of the iNOS mRNA is involved in eIF4E-mediated iNOS mRNA transport. In summary, CRM1 and eIF4E seem to play an important role in the nucleocytoplasmic export of human iNOS mRNA.

  14. 77 FR 13313 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy. ] ACTION: Agency information collection activities: Information... Price Survey;'' Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is...

  15. 76 FR 69251 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice and request... of information that DOE is developing for submission to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency,...

  16. 77 FR 19275 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy, DoE. ACTION: Notice and Request... of information that DOE is developing for submission to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency,...

  17. 77 FR 57080 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Information Administration Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... 1995. Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for...

  18. 40 CFR 1500.6 - Agency authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agency authority. 1500.6 Section 1500.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.6 Agency authority. Each agency shall interpret the provisions of the Act as a supplement to its...

  19. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary of... instructions issued by OPM, a contribution to the CSRS equal to the amount required to be contributed for...

  20. 5 CFR 2638.403 - Agency compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency compliance. 2638.403 Section 2638.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Correction of Executive Branch Agency...

  1. 5 CFR 2638.403 - Agency compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency compliance. 2638.403 Section 2638.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Correction of Executive Branch Agency...

  2. 5 CFR 2638.103 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES General Provisions § 2638.103 Agency regulations. Each agency may, subject to the prior approval of the Office of Government Ethics, issue...

  3. 5 CFR 2638.403 - Agency compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency compliance. 2638.403 Section 2638.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Correction of Executive Branch Agency...

  4. British Chinese Children: Agency and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Carmen Lau

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that Chinese young people are passive beings with little or no agency is a dominant theme within the academic literature. However PhD research findings demonstrate how British Chinese adolescents (aged 11-14) do exhibit varying degrees of agency in their lives. Here, agency is understood as individuals having the capacity to act, to…

  5. 5 CFR 300.606 - Agency authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency authority. 300.606 Section 300.606 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.606 Agency authority. An agency may expand on these restrictions...

  6. 5 CFR 300.606 - Agency authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency authority. 300.606 Section 300.606 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.606 Agency authority. An agency may expand on these restrictions...

  7. 75 FR 42726 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and request for... Management and Budget (OMB) to extend for three years the emergency Information Collection Request Title: OE... of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency,...

  8. 76 FR 13172 - Placer County Water Agency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Placer County Water Agency Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with... Filed: February 23, 2011 d. Applicant: Placer County Water Agency e. Name of Project: Middle Fork... Manager, Placer County Water Agency, 144 Ferguson Road, Auburn, CA 95603; Telephone: (530) 823-4490....

  9. 29 CFR 1604.6 - Employment agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.6 Employment agencies. (a) Section 703(b) of the Civil Rights Act specifically... of sex. The Commission has determined that private employment agencies which deal exclusively with one sex are engaged in an unlawful employment practice, except to the extent that such agencies...

  10. Advertising Agencies: An Analysis of Industry Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandra J.

    Noting that advertising agencies have not been examined as a collective industry, this paper looks at the development and structure of the advertising agency industry. The first portion of the paper discusses the development of the agency. The remaining two sections deal with trends in and the structure of the industry including: (1) the growth of…

  11. 5 CFR 2638.103 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES General Provisions § 2638.103 Agency regulations. Each agency may, subject to the prior approval of the Office of Government Ethics, issue...

  12. 5 CFR 2638.403 - Agency compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency compliance. 2638.403 Section 2638.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Correction of Executive Branch Agency...

  13. 5 CFR 2638.403 - Agency compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency compliance. 2638.403 Section 2638.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES Correction of Executive Branch Agency...

  14. 40 CFR 1501.6 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... environmental issue, which should be addressed in the statement may be a cooperating agency upon request of the... 1501.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.6... earliest possible time. (2) Use the environmental analysis and proposals of cooperating agencies...

  15. 40 CFR 1501.6 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental issue, which should be addressed in the statement may be a cooperating agency upon request of the... 1501.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.6... earliest possible time. (2) Use the environmental analysis and proposals of cooperating agencies...

  16. 40 CFR 1501.6 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... environmental issue, which should be addressed in the statement may be a cooperating agency upon request of the... 1501.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.6... earliest possible time. (2) Use the environmental analysis and proposals of cooperating agencies...

  17. 40 CFR 1501.6 - Cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental issue, which should be addressed in the statement may be a cooperating agency upon request of the... 1501.6 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.6... earliest possible time. (2) Use the environmental analysis and proposals of cooperating agencies...

  18. 5 CFR 300.606 - Agency authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency authority. 300.606 Section 300.606 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.606 Agency authority. An agency may expand on these restrictions...

  19. 5 CFR 300.606 - Agency authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency authority. 300.606 Section 300.606 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.606 Agency authority. An agency may expand on these restrictions...

  20. 5 CFR 300.606 - Agency authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency authority. 300.606 Section 300.606 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.606 Agency authority. An agency may expand on these restrictions...

  1. Agency, Language Learning, and Multilingual Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the notion of agency in language learning and use as discursively, historically, and socially mediated. It further explores how agency can be understood as variously enabled and constrained as individuals move from one cultural, linguistic, and/or geographical space to another. These explorations focus on how agency is…

  2. 5 CFR 720.205 - Agency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency plans. 720.205 Section 720.205...) AFFIRMATIVE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program § 720.205 Agency plans. (a) Each agency must have an up-to-date equal opportunity recruitment program plan covering recruitment...

  3. 5 CFR 330.602 - Agency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; and (3) Operation of the agency's Reemployment Priority List under subpart B of 5 CFR part 330. (b... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency plans. 330.602 Section 330.602... PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Agency Career Transition Assistance Plans (CTAP) for Local Surplus and...

  4. 5 CFR 720.205 - Agency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency plans. 720.205 Section 720.205...) AFFIRMATIVE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program § 720.205 Agency plans. (a) Each agency must have an up-to-date equal opportunity recruitment program plan covering recruitment...

  5. 5 CFR 720.303 - Agency programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... devotion of adequate resources to the program. (c) Problem Analysis. (1) Annually, OPM will provide... on this analysis, agencies shall develop methods to improve the recruitment, hiring, placement, and... each agency shall assign overall program responsibility to an appropriate agency official. The...

  6. 5 CFR 752.606 - Agency records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... preclude his or her release. (e) Agency decision. (1) In arriving at its decision, the agency will consider... reason(s) for the decision and advise the employee of any grievance rights under paragraph (f) of this section. The agency must deliver the notice of decision to the employee on or before the effective date...

  7. 5 CFR 330.212 - Agency flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency flexibilities. 330.212 Section 330..., SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.212 Agency flexibilities. An agency may provide the following flexibilities within its written RPL policies established under...

  8. 5 CFR 330.212 - Agency flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency flexibilities. 330.212 Section 330..., SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.212 Agency flexibilities. An agency may provide the following flexibilities within its written RPL policies established under...

  9. 5 CFR 330.212 - Agency flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency flexibilities. 330.212 Section 330..., SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.212 Agency flexibilities. An agency may provide the following flexibilities within its written RPL policies established under...

  10. 40 CFR 13.39 - Agency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Agency determination. 13.39 Section 13.39 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Referral of Debts to IRS for Tax Refund Offset § 13.39 Agency determination. (a) Following review of...

  11. 40 CFR 166.25 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency review. 166.25 Section 166.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and...

  12. 40 CFR 13.39 - Agency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency determination. 13.39 Section 13.39 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Referral of Debts to IRS for Tax Refund Offset § 13.39 Agency determination. (a) Following review of...

  13. 40 CFR 13.39 - Agency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency determination. 13.39 Section 13.39 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Referral of Debts to IRS for Tax Refund Offset § 13.39 Agency determination. (a) Following review of...

  14. 75 FR 5304 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... the joint Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Web site, http://www.fueleconomy.gov ; (5... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice and Request for... is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency, including whether...

  15. 40 CFR 13.39 - Agency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agency determination. 13.39 Section 13.39 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Referral of Debts to IRS for Tax Refund Offset § 13.39 Agency determination. (a) Following review of...

  16. 40 CFR 13.39 - Agency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agency determination. 13.39 Section 13.39 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Referral of Debts to IRS for Tax Refund Offset § 13.39 Agency determination. (a) Following review of...

  17. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  18. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  19. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  20. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  1. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  2. 7 CFR 3017.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency. 3017.910 Section 3017.910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT...

  3. 22 CFR 1006.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Agency. 1006.910 Section 1006.910 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department,...

  4. 22 CFR 1006.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Agency. 1006.910 Section 1006.910 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department,...

  5. 22 CFR 1006.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Agency. 1006.910 Section 1006.910 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department,...

  6. 34 CFR 85.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency... Debarment and Suspension system under Executive orders 12549 and 12689. Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR,...

  7. 22 CFR 1006.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Agency. 1006.910 Section 1006.910 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department,...

  8. 22 CFR 1006.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Agency. 1006.910 Section 1006.910 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department,...

  9. 34 CFR 85.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.910 Agency. Agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency... Debarment and Suspension system under Executive orders 12549 and 12689. (Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR,...

  10. 2 CFR 180.950 - Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES.... Federal agency means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency or...

  11. 2 CFR 180.950 - Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS OMB GUIDELINES TO AGENCIES ON... means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency or any other agency...

  12. 23 CFR 635.105 - Supervising agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.105 Supervising agency. (a) The STD has responsibility... authorizing performance of the work by a local public agency or other Federal agency. The STD shall be... projects are completed in conformance with approved plans and specifications. (b) Although the STD...

  13. 75 FR 12532 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on March 23, 2010, at...

  14. 76 FR 35869 - International Energy Agency meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on June 28, 2011, at...

  15. 77 FR 61583 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on October 17 and 18,...

  16. 77 FR 69613 - International Energy Agency Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meeting AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: A meeting involving members of the Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA)...

  17. 76 FR 69714 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on November 16-17,...

  18. 77 FR 16826 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy, DoE. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on March 28 and 29,...

  19. 78 FR 36542 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on June 24, 2013, at...

  20. 78 FR 16665 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on March 25 and 26,...

  1. 77 FR 36271 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on June 26, 2012, at...

  2. 76 FR 14003 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on March 22, 2011, at...

  3. 75 FR 34724 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on June 29, 2010, at...

  4. 75 FR 67711 - International Energy Agency Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY International Energy Agency Meetings AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The Industry Advisory Board (IAB) to the International Energy Agency (IEA) will meet on November 16, 2010,...

  5. 5 CFR 250.203 - Agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT IN AGENCIES Strategic Human Capital Management § 250.203 Agency responsibilities. (a) To assist in the assessment of the management of human capital in the Federal Government, and to help meet the..., heads of agencies or their designees must maintain a current human capital plan and provide OPM...

  6. 28 CFR 800.5 - Agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency components. 800.5 Section 800.5 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 800.5 Agency components. (a) CSOSA. (1) Office of the Director (including...

  7. 28 CFR 800.5 - Agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agency components. 800.5 Section 800.5 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 800.5 Agency components. (a) CSOSA. (1) Office of the Director (including...

  8. 28 CFR 800.5 - Agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency components. 800.5 Section 800.5 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 800.5 Agency components. (a) CSOSA. (1) Office of the Director (including...

  9. 28 CFR 800.5 - Agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agency components. 800.5 Section 800.5 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 800.5 Agency components. (a) CSOSA. (1) Office of the Director (including...

  10. 5 CFR 532.209 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lead agency. 532.209 Section 532.209... Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.209 Lead agency. (a) The Office of Personnel Management shall select a lead agency for each appropriated and nonappropriated fund wage area based on the number of...

  11. 34 CFR 303.22 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lead agency. 303.22 Section 303.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.22 Lead agency. Lead agency means the...

  12. 34 CFR 303.22 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Lead agency. 303.22 Section 303.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.22 Lead agency. Lead agency means the...

  13. 43 CFR 10010.11 - Lead agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lead agencies. 10010.11 Section 10010.11... Initiating the NEPA Process § 10010.11 Lead agencies. (a) The Commission will serve as lead, or, as appropriate, joint-lead agency for any NEPA procedure that is sponsored by or otherwise significantly...

  14. 43 CFR 10010.11 - Lead agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lead agencies. 10010.11 Section 10010.11... Initiating the NEPA Process § 10010.11 Lead agencies. (a) The Commission will serve as lead, or, as appropriate, joint-lead agency for any NEPA procedure that is sponsored by or otherwise significantly...

  15. 43 CFR 10010.11 - Lead agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lead agencies. 10010.11 Section 10010.11... Initiating the NEPA Process § 10010.11 Lead agencies. (a) The Commission will serve as lead, or, as appropriate, joint-lead agency for any NEPA procedure that is sponsored by or otherwise significantly...

  16. 34 CFR 303.22 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead agency. 303.22 Section 303.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.22 Lead agency. Lead agency means the...

  17. 5 CFR 532.209 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lead agency. 532.209 Section 532.209... Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.209 Lead agency. (a) The Office of Personnel Management shall select a lead agency for each appropriated and nonappropriated fund wage area based on the number of...

  18. 5 CFR 532.209 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lead agency. 532.209 Section 532.209... Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.209 Lead agency. (a) The Office of Personnel Management shall select a lead agency for each appropriated and nonappropriated fund wage area based on the number of...

  19. 43 CFR 10010.11 - Lead agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lead agencies. 10010.11 Section 10010.11... Initiating the NEPA Process § 10010.11 Lead agencies. (a) The Commission will serve as lead, or, as appropriate, joint-lead agency for any NEPA procedure that is sponsored by or otherwise significantly...

  20. 5 CFR 532.209 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lead agency. 532.209 Section 532.209... Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.209 Lead agency. (a) The Office of Personnel Management shall select a lead agency for each appropriated and nonappropriated fund wage area based on the number of...

  1. 5 CFR 532.209 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lead agency. 532.209 Section 532.209... Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.209 Lead agency. (a) The Office of Personnel Management shall select a lead agency for each appropriated and nonappropriated fund wage area based on the number of...

  2. 5 CFR 720.304 - Agency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... year. (d) Plan Certification. Each agency must certify to OPM by December 1 of each year that it has an... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency plan. 720.304 Section 720.304...) AFFIRMATIVE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Disabled Veterans Affirmative Action Program § 720.304 Agency plan. (a)...

  3. 5 CFR 720.304 - Agency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... year. (d) Plan Certification. Each agency must certify to OPM by December 1 of each year that it has an... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency plan. 720.304 Section 720.304...) AFFIRMATIVE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS Disabled Veterans Affirmative Action Program § 720.304 Agency plan. (a)...

  4. ENVIROSAT-2000 report: Federal agency satellite requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, D. (Editor); Wolzer, I. (Editor); Blake, N.; Jarman, J.; Lichy, D.; Pangburn, T.; Mcardle, R.; Paul, C.; Shaffer, L.; Thorley, G.

    1985-01-01

    The requirement of Federal agencies, other than NOAA, for the data and services of civil operational environmental satellites (both polar orbiting and geostationary) are summarized. Agency plans for taking advantage of proposed future Earth sensing space systems, domestic and foreign, are cited also. Current data uses and future requirements are addressed as identified by each agency.

  5. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  6. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  7. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  8. Principles of the Unification of Our Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Klas

    2011-01-01

    Do we need principles of the unification of our agency, our mode of acting? Immanuel Kant and Christine Korsgaard argue that the reflective structure of our mind forces us to have some conception of ourselves, others and the world--including our agency--and that it is through will and reason, and in particular principles of our agency, that we…

  9. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part...

  10. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part...

  11. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part...

  12. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part...

  13. 31 CFR 6.15 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency review. 6.15 Section 6.15... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 6.15 Agency review. Either the applicant or agency counsel may seek review of the initial decision on the fee application, or the...

  14. 49 CFR 6.35 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agency review. 6.35 Section 6.35 Transportation... PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 6.35 Agency review. Where Department review of the underlying decision is permitted, either the applicant or agency counsel, may seek review of the...

  15. 49 CFR 1016.309 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Agency review. 1016.309 Section 1016.309... Agency review. In the event the adjudicative officer is not the entire Board, the applicant or agency counsel may seek review of the initial decision on the fee application, or the Board may review...

  16. 29 CFR 1604.6 - Employment agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.6 Employment agencies. (a) Section 703(b) of the Civil Rights Act specifically... of sex. The Commission has determined that private employment agencies which deal exclusively with one sex are engaged in an unlawful employment practice, except to the extent that such agencies...

  17. 29 CFR 1604.6 - Employment agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.6 Employment agencies. (a) Section 703(b) of the Civil Rights Act specifically... of sex. The Commission has determined that private employment agencies which deal exclusively with one sex are engaged in an unlawful employment practice, except to the extent that such agencies...

  18. 29 CFR 1604.6 - Employment agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.6 Employment agencies. (a) Section 703(b) of the Civil Rights Act specifically... of sex. The Commission has determined that private employment agencies which deal exclusively with one sex are engaged in an unlawful employment practice, except to the extent that such agencies...

  19. 29 CFR 1604.6 - Employment agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.6 Employment agencies. (a) Section 703(b) of the Civil Rights Act specifically... of sex. The Commission has determined that private employment agencies which deal exclusively with one sex are engaged in an unlawful employment practice, except to the extent that such agencies...

  20. 77 FR 2054 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: Office of... of information that DOE is developing for submission to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the agency,...

  1. 5 CFR 532.703 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency review. 532.703 Section 532.703... Grading Reviews and Appeals § 532.703 Agency review. (a) Each agency shall establish a system processing an employee's application for review of the correctness of the series, grade or title of the...

  2. 49 CFR 1016.309 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency review. 1016.309 Section 1016.309... Agency review. In the event the adjudicative officer is not the entire Board, the applicant or agency counsel may seek review of the initial decision on the fee application, or the Board may review...

  3. 49 CFR 1016.309 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agency review. 1016.309 Section 1016.309... Agency review. In the event the adjudicative officer is not the entire Board, the applicant or agency counsel may seek review of the initial decision on the fee application, or the Board may review...

  4. 31 CFR 6.15 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency review. 6.15 Section 6.15... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 6.15 Agency review. Either the applicant or agency counsel may seek review of the initial decision on the fee application, or the...

  5. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  6. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  7. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  8. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  9. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  10. Understanding collective agency in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Beier, Katharina; Jordan, Isabella; Wiesemann, Claudia; Schicktanz, Silke

    2016-09-01

    Bioethicists tend to focus on the individual as the relevant moral subject. Yet, in highly complex and socially differentiated healthcare systems a number of social groups, each committed to a common cause, are involved in medical decisions and sometimes even try to influence bioethical discourses according to their own agenda. We argue that the significance of these collective actors is unjustifiably neglected in bioethics. The growing influence of collective actors in the fields of biopolitics and bioethics leads us to pursue the question as to how collective moral claims can be characterized and justified. We pay particular attention to elaborating the circumstances under which collective actors can claim 'collective agency.' Specifically, we develop four normative-practical criteria for collective agency in order to determine the conditions that must be given to reasonably speak of 'collective autonomy'. For this purpose, we analyze patient organizations and families, which represent two quite different kinds of groups and can both be conceived as collective actors of high relevance for bioethical practice. Finally, we discuss some practical implications and explain why the existence of a shared practice of trust is of immediate normative relevance in this respect. PMID:26948497

  11. US agency for international development

    SciTech Connect

    Pumfrey, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

  12. 40 CFR 255.24 - Procedure for identifying interstate regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure for identifying interstate regions. 255.24 Section 255.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES IDENTIFICATION OF REGIONS AND AGENCIES FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Procedures for...

  13. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  14. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  15. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  16. 36 CFR 1231.14 - May the records of terminated agencies be transferred to another agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the records of terminated agencies be transferred to another agency? 1231.14 Section 1231.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... agency? The records of executive agencies whose functions are terminated or are in process of...

  17. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  18. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  19. 28 CFR 58.20 - Minimum qualifications agencies shall meet to become and remain approved agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... qualifications agencies shall meet to become and remain approved agencies. To meet the minimum qualifications set forth in § 58.19, and in addition to the other requirements set forth in this part, agencies and... any limited English proficient client; (4) The agency's funding sources; (5) The...

  20. 28 CFR 58.14 - Automatic expiration of agencies' status as approved agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic expiration of agencies' status...) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE BANKRUPTCY REFORM ACTS OF 1978 AND 1994 § 58.14 Automatic expiration of agencies... approved agency immediately prior to the date it last obtained approval to be an approved agency, such...