Science.gov

Sample records for agency rural utilities

  1. Uncommon Schools: An Innovative Approach to Rural Community Organization by County Agencies Utilizing Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Harvey C.

    To recapture the spirit of Thoreau's "uncommon schools," a South Carolina county Department of Social Services (DSS) sought to create a "university" of the community which would provide experiences in the field for students, feed-back to DSS workers from the community and to the local college, and would utilize the resources of…

  2. Effects of Communication and Transportation on Utilization of Agency Services by Rural Poor People in South Carolina. South Carolina State College Research Bulletin No. 5, January 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Marguerite Rogers; Hanna, Kathleen

    Use of five agencies offering adult education, vocational rehabilitation, food stamps, employment, and health services in Orangeburg County by rural poor people in Bowman, Elloree, and North was studied over a two-year period. The study examined whether communication, transportation, or both increased agency use. In Bowman, information about the…

  3. Child Marriage, Agency, and Schooling in Rural Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Graham, Erin; Leal, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationships between child marriage, agency, and schooling in rural Honduras. Through an in-depth qualitative case study, we address the following questions: (1) In what ways, if any, do girls exercise agency in their decision to marry? (2) How might education enhance girls' agency, expanding their choice sets and…

  4. School-Community Agency Collaboration in Rural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Beverly B.

    A multiple-case study examined how schools and community human-services agencies collaborate to meet the needs of at-risk youth in two rural Oregon counties. Four youth services teams (YST) were composed of approximately 10 members each, representing local public schools, county social and health services agencies, and local law enforcement units.…

  5. Rural drug users: factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization.

    PubMed

    Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Tindall, Michele Staton; Garrity, Thomas F; Carlson, Robert G; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a modified version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to identify the correlates of the number of substance abuse treatment episodes received by rural drug users. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with 711 drug users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Descriptive analyses examine rural drug users' substance use histories and retrospective substance abuse treatment service utilization patterns. A negative binomial regression model indicated that selected predisposing, historical health, and enabling factors were significantly associated with the utilization of substance abuse treatment among rural drug users. Despite high levels of recent and lifetime self-reported substance use among these rural drug users, treatment services were underutilized. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of the health care system and characteristics of the external environment associated with rural substance abuse treatment in order to increase utilization among drug users.

  6. Young people and sexual agency in rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bell, Stephen A

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of young people's sexual agency in rural Uganda. Drawing on definitions of agency from within the international development literature, it focuses on: decision-making processes leading to young people's involvement in relationships; actions undertaken to maintain 'secret' relationships in contexts where young people's sexual agency is generally prohibited; transactional and gendered negotiations between young people involved within a relationship; and a range of outcomes arising from young people's sexual activity. An understanding of the dynamics and temporal nature of young people's sexual agency, and the consequences that follow from it, challenges the widely held view that young people do not know what they are doing in relation to their sexual health. This should enable practitioners to identify avenues for developing HIV prevention and sexual health programmes that are more fully based in, and driven by, the realities of young people's sexual lives.

  7. Echocardiogram Utilization among Rural and Urban Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okrah, Kingston; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kaboli, Peter; Cram, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare echocardiography use among urban and rural veterans and whether differences could be accounted for by distance. Methods: We used Veterans Administration (VA) administrative data from 1999 to 2007 to identify regular users of the VA Healthcare System (VA users) who did and did not receive echocardiography. Each veteran was…

  8. 41 CFR 109-43.103 - Agency utilization officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency utilization... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 43-UTILIZATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 43.1-General Provisions § 109-43.103...

  9. 41 CFR 109-43.103 - Agency utilization officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency utilization... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 43-UTILIZATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 43.1-General Provisions § 109-43.103...

  10. 41 CFR 109-43.101 - Agency utilization reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency utilization... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 43-UTILIZATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 43.1-General Provisions § 109-43.101...

  11. 41 CFR 109-43.103 - Agency utilization officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency utilization... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 43-UTILIZATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 43.1-General Provisions § 109-43.103...

  12. 41 CFR 109-43.103 - Agency utilization officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency utilization... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 43-UTILIZATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 43.1-General Provisions § 109-43.103...

  13. 41 CFR 109-43.103 - Agency utilization officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency utilization... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 43-UTILIZATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 43.1-General Provisions § 109-43.103...

  14. 41 CFR 109-43.101 - Agency utilization reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency utilization... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 43-UTILIZATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 43.1-General Provisions § 109-43.101...

  15. 41 CFR 109-43.101 - Agency utilization reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency utilization... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 43-UTILIZATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 43.1-General Provisions § 109-43.101...

  16. 41 CFR 109-43.101 - Agency utilization reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency utilization... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 43-UTILIZATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 43.1-General Provisions § 109-43.101...

  17. 41 CFR 109-43.101 - Agency utilization reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency utilization... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 43-UTILIZATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 43.1-General Provisions § 109-43.101...

  18. Utilization of Functional Exercises to Build Regional Emergency Preparedness among Rural Health Organizations in the US.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Jannah M; Bailey, Ginger; Wheeler, Heidi; Meyers, Laura; Medcalf, Sharon J; Hansen, Keith F; Sanger, Kristine K; Lowe, John J

    2017-01-30

    Rural communities face barriers to disaster preparedness and considerable risk of disasters. Emergency preparedness among rural communities has improved with funding from federal programs and implementation of a National Incident Management System. The objective of this project was to design and implement disaster exercises to test decision making by rural response partners to improve regional planning, collaboration, and readiness. Six functional exercises were developed and conducted among three rural Nebraska (USA) regions by the Center for Preparedness Education (CPE) at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (Omaha, Nebraska USA). A total of 83 command centers participated. Six functional exercises were designed to test regional response and command-level decision making, and each 3-hour exercise was followed by a 3-hour regional after action conference. Participant feedback, single agency debriefing feedback, and regional After Action Reports were analyzed. Functional exercises were able to test command-level decision making and operations at multiple agencies simultaneously with limited funding. Observations included emergency management jurisdiction barriers to utilization of unified command and establishment of joint information centers, limited utilization of documentation necessary for reimbursement, and the need to develop coordinated public messaging. Functional exercises are a key tool for testing command-level decision making and response at a higher level than what is typically achieved in tabletop or short, full-scale exercises. Functional exercises enable evaluation of command staff, identification of areas for improvement, and advancing regional collaboration among diverse response partners. Obaid JM , Bailey G , Wheeler H , Meyers L , Medcalf SJ , Hansen KF , Sanger KK , Lowe JJ . Utilization of functional exercises to build regional emergency preparedness among rural health organizations in the US. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(2):1-7.

  19. Even Better Next Time: Making Effective Slide Shows for Rural Social Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace-Whitaker, Virginia

    Practical, detailed steps for producing a slide/tape show are presented in this paper directed to rural social agencies wishing to communicate more effectively with the communities they serve. The paper begins with background information about advertising in relation to the needs and characteristics of rural social agencies and concludes that a…

  20. [Determinants of urban obstetrical service utilization in rural pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Park, J S

    1991-12-01

    This study examines the decisions of rural pregnant women who sought obstetric care elsewhere, especially in an urban area. The principal data source was the "Patients' Survey of 1988", a nationwide data collection. Among 4091 rural pregnant women, 3090 women left their home counties for obstetric care; 1946 women went to small or medium-sized cities, 645 to large cities. Multivariate techniques were used to examine the factors related to selecting urban obstetric care. The analysis shows that younger, abnormally delivered women were more likely to seek urban obstetrical facilities. In addition, medical insurance, the number of registered cars/1000, the number of general hospitals in the county, and the distance to the nearest large city were positively related to the decision to go to any city. However, distance to the nearest small or medium-sized city had a negatively significant effect on urban obstetrical service utilization. (author's modified)

  1. Supporting rural wood industry through timber utilization research. Research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Skog, K.

    1991-10-01

    The report evaluates the potential impact of USDA Forest Service wood utilization and wood energy research on rural employment and income. Recent projections suggest employment will decrease in many forest products industries, such as softwood sawmilling, but will eventually increase in softwood plywood and reconstituated panel mills. Forest products industries expected to provide wages exceeding the average manufacturing production wage include logging, softwood sawmills, millwork, softwood plywood--veneer, structural wood members, particle-board, wood partitions, pulp mills, paper mills, and paperboard mills. Industries expected to pay 90 percent of the average manufacturing production wage include wood kitchen cabinets, mobile homes, prefabricated wood buildings, and wood preservatives.

  2. Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Care Services by Primigravida Females in Urban and Rural Areas of India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Maternal complications and poor perinatal outcome are highly associated with nonutilisation of antenatal and delivery care services and poor socioeconomic conditions of the patient. It is essential that all pregnant women have access to high quality obstetric care throughout their pregnancies. Present longitudinal study was carried out to compare utilization of maternal and child health care services by urban and rural primigravida females. A total of 240 study participants were enrolled in this study. More illiteracy and less mean age at the time of marriage were observed in rural population. Poor knowledge about prelacteal feed, colostrums, tetanus injection and iron-follic acid tablet consumption was noted in both urban and rural areas. Very few study participants from both areas were counselled for HIV testing before pregnancy. More numbers of abortions (19.2%) were noted in urban study participants compared to rural area. Thus utilization of maternal and child health care (MCH) services was poor in both urban and rural areas. A sustained and focussed IEC campaign to improve the awareness amongst community on MCH will help in improving community participation. This may improve the quality, accessibility, and utilization of maternal health care services provided by the government agencies in both rural and urban areas. PMID:24977099

  3. 77 FR 4885 - Rural Business Investment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... / Wednesday, February 1, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 4290 RIN 0570-AA80 Rural Business Investment Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service and Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  4. 76 FR 30904 - Rural Utilities Service Telecommunications Loan and Loan Guarantee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Rural Utilities Service Telecommunications Loan and Loan Guarantee Program... telecommunications systems, equipment and services. The List of Materials historically has been a very useful tool in... to advancing state-of-the-art telecommunications technologies, consistent with our commitment to...

  5. Utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources on the rural-urban fringe in botswana.

    PubMed

    Nkambwe, Musisi; Sekhwela, Mogodisheng B M

    2006-02-01

    This article examines the utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources in the rural-urban fringe zones of Botswana. In the literature for Africa, attention has been given to the availability and utilization of biomass in either urban or rural environments, but the rural-urban fringe has been neglected. Within southern Africa, this neglect is not justified; the rural-urban fringe, not getting the full benefits available in urban environments in Botswana, has developed problems in woody biomass availability and utilization that require close attention. In this article, socioeconomic data on the importance of woody biomass in the Batlokwa Tribal Territory, on the rural-urban fringe of Gaborone, Botswana, were collected together with ecologic data that reveal the utilization characteristics and potential for regrowth of woody biomass. The analysis of these results show that local woody biomass is very important in the daily lives of communities in the rural-urban fringe zones and that there is a high level of harvesting. However, there is no effort in planning land use in the tribal territory to either conserve this resource or provide alternatives to its utilization. The future of woody biomass resources in Botswana's rural-urban fringe is uncertain. The investigators recommend that a comprehensive policy for the development of the rural-urban fringe consider the importance of this resource. The neglect of this resource will have far-reaching implications on the livelihoods of residents as well as the environment in this zone.

  6. Update: Health Insurance and Utilization of Care among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Janice C.; Moore, Charity G.; Baxley, Elizabeth G.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is critical for the development of adult health habits. Disparities between rural and urban adolescents and between minority and white youth can have life-long consequences. Purpose: To compare health insurance coverage and ambulatory care contacts between rural minority adolescents and white and urban adolescents. Methods:…

  7. A New Frontier: Utilizing Charter Schooling to Strengthen Rural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This report, the first in the series, points out that, while urban families increasingly have access to a variety of school options--including charter schools--many rural families have just a single school option. There are numerous examples of rural charter schools that have done great things for students while also benefiting the larger…

  8. 78 FR 64926 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request: Survey of Principals of Rural Schools...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Receiving School Improvement Grants and Using the Transformation AGENCY: Institute of Education Sciences.... ] Title of Collection: Survey of Principals of Rural Schools Receiving School Improvement Grants and Using... schools that received federal School Improvement Grants (SIGs) in cohort 1 and implemented the...

  9. 76 FR 37779 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Rural Utilities Service Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities... Agriculture's (USDA) Rural Utilities Service (RUS) announces the availability of $325,663,157 in loan funds for the Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees Program for fiscal year (FY) 2011. A...

  10. Urban-rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Ningxiu; Liu, Chaojie; Ren, Xiaohui; Liu, Danping; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2016-09-01

    Preventive care service is considered pivotal on the background of demographic ageing and a rise in chronic diseases in China. The disparity in utilization of preventive care services between urban and rural in China is a serious issue. In this paper, we explored factors associated with urban-rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China, and determined how much of the urban-rural disparity was attributable to each determinant of utilization in preventive care services. Using representative sample data from China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2011 (N = 12,976), the present study performed multilevel logistic model to examine the factors that affected utilization of preventive care services in last 4 weeks. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was applied to divide the utilization of preventive care disparity between urban and rural residents into a part that can be explained by differences in observed covariates and unobserved part. The percentage of rural residents utilizing preventive care service in last 4 weeks was lower than that of urban residents (5.1% vs 9.3%). Female, the aged, residents with higher education level and household income, residents reporting self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks and physician-diagnosed chronic disease had higher likelihood of utilizing preventive care services. Household income was the most important factor accounting for 26.6% of urban-rural disparities in utilization of preventive care services, followed by education (21.5%), self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks (7.8%), hypertension (4.4%), diabetes (3.3%), other chronic diseases (0.8%), and health insurance (-1.0%). Efforts to reduce financial barriers for low-income individuals who cannot afford preventive services, increasing awareness of the importance of obtaining preventive health services and providing more preventive health services covered by health insurance, may help to reduce the gap of preventive care services utilization between

  11. User-owned utility models for rural electrification

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the history of rural electric cooperatives (REC) in the United States, and the broader question of whether such organizations can serve as a model for rural electrification in other countries. The author points out the features of such cooperatives which have given them stability and strength, and emphasizes that for success of such programs, many of these same features must be present. He definitely feels the cooperative models are not outdated, but they need strong local support, and a governmental structure which is supportive, and in particular not negative.

  12. 7 CFR 1940.329 - Commenting on other Agencies' EIS's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...) Comments should concentrate on those matters of primary importance to FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 and on areas of Agency expertise, such as rural planning and development....

  13. 7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (“the Act”), as amended: (i... of exposure to significant risk to human health; (iv) Section 104(j) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 9604(j...-agency agreement with the United States Environmental Protection Agency, or an administrative...

  14. Knowledge Generation, Organization Dissemination and Utilization for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, George M.

    A "communication system" paradigm for dissemination of appropriate knowledge, information, and technology needed for effective rural development is briefly described. The paradigm describes six categories of interrelated functions, activities, and processes: (1) scientific knowledge production by carrying out basic and applied research; (2)…

  15. Postacute Stroke Rehabilitation Utilization: Are There Differences between Rural-Urban Patients and Taxonomies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Huanguang; Cowper, Diane C.; Tang, Yuhong; Litt, Eric; Wilson, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between Veterans Affairs (VA) stroke patients' poststroke rehabilitation utilization and their residential settings by using 2 common rural-urban taxonomies. Methods: This retrospective study included all VA stroke inpatients in 2001 and 2002. Rehabilitation utilization referred to rehabilitation therapy received…

  16. 76 FR 62055 - Mississippi Delta Energy Agency, Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission, Public Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mississippi Delta Energy Agency, Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission... Practice and Procedures, and the applicable Tariff on file with the Commission, Mississippi Delta...

  17. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the

  18. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the

  19. The Rural – Urban Divide: Health Services Utilization Among Older Mexicans in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos; Ray, Laura A.; Angel, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Context Mexico Purpose Using the health care service utilization model as a framework, this paper will analyze the differences in health care service use among older Mexicans living in urban and rural areas in Mexico. Methods The Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS) data were used to test the applicability of Andersen’s “model of health services” of predisposing (ie, age, sex, etc.), enabling (education, insurance coverage, etc.) and need factors (diabetes, hypertension, etc.) to predict ever being in the hospital and physician visits in the past year by place of residence (urban, rural, semi-rural). Findings Results showed that older Mexicans living in the most rural areas (populations of 2500 or fewer) were significantly less likely to have been hospitalized in the previous year and visited the physician less often (P < .0001) than their urban counterparts. The significant difference in hospitalization between rural and urban residing older Mexicans was largely accounted for by having health care coverage. Certain need factors such as diabetes, previous heart attack, hypertension, depression, and functional limitations predicted frequency of physician visits and hospitalization, but they did not explain variations between rural and urban older Mexicans. Conclusions Not having insurance coverage was associated with a lower likelihood of spending an overnight visit in the hospital and visiting a physician for older Mexicans. This lower utilization may be due to barriers to access rather than better health. PMID:21029168

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.102-2 - Utilization by military agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Utilization by military... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.1-General § 101-26.102-2 Utilization by military agencies. Military activities... the Secretary of a military department in connection with the requirements of that department,...

  1. 41 CFR 101-26.102-2 - Utilization by military agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Utilization by military... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.1-General § 101-26.102-2 Utilization by military agencies. Military activities... the Secretary of a military department in connection with the requirements of that department,...

  2. 41 CFR 101-26.102-2 - Utilization by military agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Utilization by military... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.1-General § 101-26.102-2 Utilization by military agencies. Military activities... the Secretary of a military department in connection with the requirements of that department,...

  3. 41 CFR 101-26.102-2 - Utilization by military agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Utilization by military... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.1-General § 101-26.102-2 Utilization by military agencies. Military activities... the Secretary of a military department in connection with the requirements of that department,...

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.102-2 - Utilization by military agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Utilization by military... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.1-General § 101-26.102-2 Utilization by military agencies. Military activities... the Secretary of a military department in connection with the requirements of that department,...

  5. Implementation and Utilization Characteristics of a Rural, School-Linked Mental Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Garret D.; Radunovich, Heidi Liss; Cornette, Michelle M.; Wiens, Brenda A.; Roy, Antara

    2008-01-01

    We examined variables associated with treatment engagement in a real-world therapeutic setting. The model of care examined involved school-linked mental health care for children and their families in a rural county. Service utilization characteristics, as well as child- and treatment-specific variables were examined in relation to their impact on…

  6. Utilization of Mammography Services among Elderly Rural and Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…

  7. The Rural-Urban Divide: Health Services Utilization among Older Mexicans in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos; Ray, Laura A.; Angel, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Mexico. Purpose: Using the health care service utilization model as a framework, this paper will analyze the differences in health care service use among older Mexicans living in urban and rural areas in Mexico. Methods: The Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS) data were used to test the applicability of Andersen's "model of health…

  8. Deployment-related sequelae and treatment utilization in rural and urban war veterans in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Whealin, Julia M; Stotzer, Rebecca L; Pietrzak, Robert H; Vogt, Dawne; Shore, Jay; Morland, Leslie; Southwick, Steven M

    2014-02-01

    This study compared common deployment-related health issues and correlates of mental health service utilization among rural and urban veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) living in Hawaii. Frequency of utilization of a broad range of mental health resources, including clergy/spiritual leaders, videoconference/online programs, and traditional/alternative healers, was also characterized. A random sample of 116 rural and 117 urban ethnoracially diverse veterans completed a mail survey. Rural veterans were more likely than urban veterans to meet screening criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), deployment-related concussion with persistent postconcussive symptoms, and alcohol use problems. Over one third of veterans who desired help for a mental health problem reported no current use of any services. Rural veterans were more likely than urban veterans to have accessed Veteran Readjustment Centers, but they did not differ with respect to utilization of other services. Correlates of mental health service utilization included higher education, PTSD, and lower mental-health-related quality of life. Results of this study underscore the need for dissemination efforts to enable OEF/OIF/OND veterans to access mental health resources.

  9. Determinants of Maternity Care Services Utilization among Married Adolescents in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Alagarajan, Manoj; Singh, Lucky

    2012-01-01

    Background Coupled with the largest number of maternal deaths, adolescent pregnancy in India has received paramount importance due to early age at marriage and low contraceptive use. The factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescents in rural India are poorly discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the data from third wave of National Family Health Survey (2005–06), available in public domain for the use by researchers, this paper examines the factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescent women (aged 15–19 years) in rural India. Three components of maternal healthcare service utilization were measured: full antenatal care, safe delivery, and postnatal care within 42 days of delivery for the women who gave births in the last five years preceding the survey. Considering the framework on causes of maternal mortality proposed by Thaddeus and Maine (1994), selected socioeconomic, demographic, and cultural factors influencing outcome events were included as the predictor variables. Bi-variate analyses including chi-square test to determine the difference in proportion, and logistic regression to understand the net effect of predictor variables on selected outcomes were applied. Findings indicate the significant differences in the use of selected maternal healthcare utilization by educational attainment, economic status and region of residence. Muslim women, and women belonged to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes are less likely to avail safe delivery services. Additionally, adolescent women from the southern region utilizing the highest maternal healthcare services than the other regions. Conclusions The present study documents several socioeconomic and cultural factors affecting the utilization of maternal healthcare services among rural adolescent women in India. The ongoing healthcare programs should start targeting household

  10. Utilization survey of a rural creek fishery in central Alabama.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Ellen S; Wilson, Natalie; Wacksman, Mitch; Loper, John R; Schell, John D; Fowler, Alan

    2012-03-01

    A one-year angler intercept survey was conducted on Choccolocco Creek, a rural, limited access tributary to the Coosa River in northeastern Alabama. The purpose of the survey was to collect data and information about the behaviors and fish consumption habits of the recreational anglers who fish there. Nine survey locations were included in the stratified sampling plan, and sampling occurred throughout daylight hours, on weekdays and weekends/holidays, during all four seasons of the year. Surveys were completed on a total of 101 survey days between June 28, 2008 and June 27, 2009.(6) Seventy-two anglers were observed fishing during the survey period, and 52 (72%) of those individuals agreed to participate in the survey. Based on the information collected by the survey clerks, the angler population fishes the Creek between 1 and 54 times per year, with an average frequency of seven trips per year. The average number of months fished was three months per year, with a range of one to nine months. Only 15% of the anglers who participated in the survey (eight individuals) had succeeded in catching fish by the end of their trips, and only four of those individuals (8%) had retained any of the fish they had caught for consumption. Reasons provided for not retaining fish were that they either only fished for sport, did not catch enough fish to eat, or the fish they caught were too small to keep. Because so few anglers used and harvested fish from the resource, fish consumption rates could not be determined with a high degree of confidence. However, from these limited data it was estimated that the three anglers for whom consumption rates could be estimated had annualized average daily fish consumption rates of 0.14, 0.44, and 7.9 grams per day (g/day). The majority of anglers traveled less than 10 miles to fish the Creek. It was estimated that a total population of 173 anglers use the Creek each year. The results of this survey indicated that Choccolocco Creek is a local

  11. Outness, Stigma, and Primary Health Care Utilization among Rural LGBT Populations

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, J.; Shaver, John; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have noted significant health disadvantages experienced by LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) populations in the US. While several studies have identified that fears or experiences of stigma and disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity to health care providers are significant barriers to health care utilization for LGBT people, these studies have concentrated almost exclusively on urban samples. Little is known about the impact of stigma specifically for rural LGBT populations, who may have less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive care than LGBT people in urban centers. Methodology LBGT individuals residing in rural areas of the United States were recruited online to participate in a survey examining the relationship between stigma, disclosure and “outness,” and utilization of primary care services. Data were collected and analyzed regarding LGBT individuals’ demographics, health care access, health risk factors, health status, outness to social contacts and primary care provider, and anticipated, internalized, and enacted stigmas. Results Higher scores on stigma scales were associated with lower utilization of health services for the transgender & non-binary group, while higher levels of disclosure of sexual orientation were associated with greater utilization of health services for cisgender men. Conclusions The results demonstrate the role of stigma in shaping access to primary health care among rural LGBT people and point to the need for interventions focused towards decreasing stigma in health care settings or increasing patients’ disclosure of orientation or gender identity to providers. Such interventions have the potential to increase utilization of primary and preventive health care services by LGBT people in rural areas. PMID:26731405

  12. 41 CFR 102-79.15 - What objectives must an Executive agency strive to meet in providing assignment and utilization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Executive agency strive to meet in providing assignment and utilization of space services? 102-79.15 Section... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 79-ASSIGNMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SPACE Assignment and Utilization of Space § 102-79.15 What objectives must an Executive agency strive to meet in...

  13. 41 CFR 102-79.15 - What objectives must an Executive agency strive to meet in providing assignment and utilization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Executive agency strive to meet in providing assignment and utilization of space services? 102-79.15 Section... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 79-ASSIGNMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SPACE Assignment and Utilization of Space § 102-79.15 What objectives must an Executive agency strive to meet in...

  14. The role of clean coal technologies in a deregulated rural utility market

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    The nation`s rural electric cooperatives own a high proportion of coal-fired generation, in excess of 80 percent of their generating capacity. As the electric utility industry moves toward a competitive electricity market, the generation mix for electric cooperatives is expected to change. Distributed generation will likely serve more customer loads than is now the case, and that will lead to an increase in gas-fired generation capacity. But, clean low-cost central station coal-fired capacity is expected to continue to be the primary source of power for growing rural electric cooperatives. Gasification combined cycle could be the lowest cost coal based generation option in this new competitive market if both capital cost and electricity production costs can be further reduced. This paper presents anticipated utility business scenarios for the deregulated future and identifies combined cycle power plant configurations that might prove most competitive.

  15. 7 CFR 1940.589 - Rural Business Enterprise Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural Business Enterprise Grants. 1940.589 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.589 Rural Business Enterprise Grants. (a) Amount available...

  16. 7 CFR 1940.589 - Rural Business Enterprise Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural Business Enterprise Grants. 1940.589 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.589 Rural Business Enterprise Grants. (a) Amount available...

  17. 7 CFR 1940.589 - Rural Business Enterprise Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Rural Business Enterprise Grants. 1940.589 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.589 Rural Business Enterprise Grants. (a) Amount available...

  18. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural Business Opportunity Grants. 1940.593 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.593 Rural Business Opportunity Grants. (a) Amount available...

  19. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural Business Opportunity Grants. 1940.593 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.593 Rural Business Opportunity Grants. (a) Amount available...

  20. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Rural Business Opportunity Grants. 1940.593 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.593 Rural Business Opportunity Grants. (a) Amount available...

  1. Challenges for a local service agency to address domestic violence -a case study from rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-08-15

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women's access to legal support.

  2. Husbands' involvement in delivery care utilization in rural Bangladesh: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A primary cause of high maternal mortality in Bangladesh is lack of access to professional delivery care. Examining the role of the family, particularly the husband, during pregnancy and childbirth is important to understanding women's access to and utilization of professional maternal health services that can prevent maternal mortality. This qualitative study examines husbands' involvement during childbirth and professional delivery care utilization in a rural sub-district of Netrokona district, Bangladesh. Methods Using purposive sampling, ten households utilizing a skilled attendant during the birth of the youngest child were selected and matched with ten households utilizing an untrained traditional birth attendant, or dhatri. Households were selected based on a set of inclusion criteria, such as approximate household income, ethnicity, and distance to the nearest hospital. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted in Bangla with husbands in these households in June 2010. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results By purposefully selecting households that differed on the type of provider utilized during delivery, common themes--high costs, poor transportation, and long distances to health facilities--were eliminated as sufficient barriers to the utilization of professional delivery care. Divergent themes, namely husbands' social support and perceived social norms, were identified as underlying factors associated with delivery care utilization. We found that husbands whose wives utilized professional delivery care provided emotional, instrumental and informational support to their wives during delivery and believed that medical intervention was necessary. By contrast, husbands whose wives utilized an untrained dhatri at home were uninvolved during delivery and believed childbirth should take place at home according to local traditions. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence about male

  3. Feasibility of utilizing pedometer diaries in a rural African American community-based walking intervention for health promotion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Limited research is available on the feasibility or effectiveness of utilizing pedometer diaries in community-based interventions targeting rural, low socioeconomic, African American populations. The objectives of this walking intervention study were to assess participant adherence to maint...

  4. Residual Barriers for Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Services: Community Perceptions From Rural Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Zahid; Zaidi, Shehla; Riaz, Atif

    2016-01-01

    Low utilization of maternal and child care services in rural areas has constrained Pakistan from meeting targets of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. This study explores community barriers in accessing Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services in ten remote rural districts of Pakistan. It further presents how the barriers differ across a range of MCH services, and also whether the presence of Community Health Workers (CHWs) reduces client barriers. Qualitative methods were used involving altogether sixty focus group discussions with mothers, their spouses and community health workers. Low awareness, formidable distances, expense, and poorly functional services were the main barriers reported, while cultural and religious restrictions were lesser reported. For preventive services including antenatal care (ANC), facility deliveries, postnatal care (PNC), childhood immunization and family planning, the main barrier was low awareness. Conversely, formidable distances and poorly functional services were the main reported constraints in the event of maternal complications and acute child illnesses. The study also found that clients residing in areas served by CHWs had better awareness only of ANC and family planning, while other MCH services were overlooked by the health worker program. The paper highlights that traditional policy emphasis on health facility infrastructure expansion is not likely to address poor utilization rates in remote rural areas. Preventive MCH services require concerted attention to building community awareness, task shifting from facility to community for services provision, and re-energization of CHW program. For maternal and child emergencies there is strong community demand to utilize health facilities, but this will require catalytic support for transport networks and functional health care centers. PMID:26925902

  5. Determinants of Utilization of Eye Care Services in a Rural Adult Population of a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolutife A.; Ashaye, Adeyinka O.; Owoaje, Eme T.; Baiyeroju, Aderonke M.; Ajayi, Benedictus G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the factors that determine the utilization of eye care services in a rural community in South-Western Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey using a multistage sampling technique was conducted. The main outcome measure was self-reported previous consultation of an orthodox medical facility for eye care. Results: The study sample included 643 participants. Only 122 (19%) respondents had previously visited orthodox facilities in search of eye care and 24% of those with presenting visual acuity <6/18 had sought eye care. Characteristics associated with previous utilization of eye care services were age of =70 years (odds ratio [OR] ≥ 1.7, P = 0.02); male gender (OR = 1.5, P = 0.04); literacy (OR = 1.7, P = 0.007); and residing close to an eye care facility (OR = 2.8, P < 0.001). Blind respondents were three times more likely to seek eye care (P < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that factors associated with increased likelihood of utilization of eye care services included age ≥70 years; literacy; residence close to an eye facility; being diabetic or hypertensive; history of ocular symptoms, and blindness. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a significant proportion (75%) of adults in the study area are not utilizing eye care services and that blindness is an important determinant of utilization of eye care services. Health education and awareness campaigns about the importance and benefits of seeking eye care early, and the provision of community-based eye care programs are essential to boost the uptake of eye care services in this community as well as other rural areas of West Africa. PMID:26957847

  6. Disparities in the Utilization of Laparoscopic Surgery for Colon Cancer in Rural Nebraska: A Call for Placement and Training of Rural General Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Kelli; Soliman, Amr S.; Schmid, Kendra; Rettig, Bryan; Ryan, June; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    Background Advances in medical technology are changing surgical standards for colon cancer treatment. The laparoscopic colectomy is equivalent to the standard open colectomy while providing additional benefits. It is currently unknown what factors influence utilization of laparoscopic surgery in rural areas and if treatment disparities exist. The objectives of this study were to examine demographic and clinical characteristics associated with receiving laparoscopic colectomy and to examine the differences between rural and urban patients who received either procedure. Methods This study utilized a linked dataset of Nebraska Cancer Registry and hospital discharge data on colon cancer patients diagnosed and treated in the entire state of Nebraska from 2008–2011 (N=1,062). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of receiving the laparoscopic treatment. Results Rural colon cancer patients were 40% less likely to receive laparoscopic colectomy compared to urban patients. Independent predictors of receiving laparoscopic colectomy were younger age (<60), urban residence, ≥3 comorbidities, elective admission, smaller tumor size, and early stage at diagnosis. Additionally, rural patients varied demographically compared to urban patients. Conclusions Laparoscopic surgery is becoming the new standard of treatment for colon cancer and important disparities exist for rural cancer patients in accessing the specialized treatment. As cancer treatment becomes more specialized, the importance of training and placement of general surgeons in rural communities must be a priority for health care planning and professional training institutions. PMID:25951881

  7. Catholics using contraceptives: religion, family planning, and interpretive agency in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2008-06-01

    Research on how religion shapes contraceptive practices and fertility has paid insufficient attention to how people interpret religious teachings. This study draws on ethnographic fieldwork in Degollado, Mexico, to describe generational and social-contextual differences in how women interpret and use religious doctrine to achieve their fertility desires without jeopardizing their standing as devout Catholics. Contrasting the family planning beliefs and practices of young Mexican women with those of older women (many of whom are the younger women's parents and in-laws), in a rural town in which the religious regulation of everyday life is pervasive, reveals how a common set of religious teachings and principles can be used to guide two different generational strategies for fertility regulation. The ethnographic data presented here highlight the creativity with which people use religious frameworks to justify their behavior. Research exploring how religion--and culture more broadly--influences fertility and contraceptive use should give greater attention to the dynamic interplay between cultural beliefs and institutions, social context, and interpretive agency. (STUDIES

  8. Self-reported morbidity and health service utilization in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Warren; King, Nia; Humphries, Sally; Little, Matthew; Dewey, Cate

    2016-07-01

    In Tamil Nadu, India, improvements have been made toward developing a high-quality, universally accessible healthcare system. However, some rural residents continue to confront significant barriers to obtaining healthcare. The primary objective of this study was to investigate self-reported morbidity, health literacy, and healthcare preferences, utilization, and experiences in order to identify priority areas for government health policies and programs. Drawing on 66 semi-structured interviews and 300 household surveys (including 1693 individuals), administered in 26 rural villages in Tamil Nadu's Krishnagiri district, we found that the prevalence of self-reported major health conditions was 22.3%. There was a large burden of non-communicable and chronic diseases, and the most common major morbidities were: connective tissue problems (7.6%), nervous system and sense organ diseases (5.0%), and circulatory and respiratory diseases (2.5%). Increased age and decreased education level were associated with higher odds of reporting most diseases. Low health literacy levels resulted in individuals seeking care only once pain interfered with daily activities. As such, individuals' health-seeking behaviour depended on which strategy was believed to result in the fastest return to work using the fewest resources. Although government facilities were the most common healthcare access point, they were mistrusted; 48.8% and 19.2% of respondents perceived inappropriate treatment protocols and corruption, respectively, at public facilities. Conversely, 93.3% of respondents reported high treatment cost as the main barrier to accessing private facilities. Our results highlight that addressing the chronic and non-communicable disease burdens amongst rural populations in this context will require health policies and village-level programs that address the low health literacy and the issues of rural healthcare accessibility and acceptability.

  9. Rural health development in Ethiopia. Problems of utilization of traditional healers.

    PubMed

    Slikkerveer, L J

    1982-01-01

    In Ethiopia, a pluralistic complex of multiple and simultaneous medical care utilization has constituted the Ethiopian variant of medical pluralism in East Africa, where through a process of acculturation, Cushitic, Arabic and Amharic medical traditions co-exist with cosmopolitan medicine. On request of the central government, joint medical-sociological and anthropological research between in Universities of Addis Ababa and Leiden was conducted in the Eastern Highlands with the main objective to formulate recommendations for the improvement and extension of the health care facilities in the rural areas. The situational analysis revealed relatively low utilization rates of the "official' health services by the local population. Consequently a desire was expressed to undertake health services development research, particularly centered upon the functioning of the various medical systems and sub-systems in Hararghe. In order to assess the overall pattern of illness behaviour special consideration was given to the question "when, and to what extent do people use the available medical systems?". After the completion of the subsequent subjective and objective health surveys the concept of "distance reduction' between provider and consumer of health care was introduced in order to increase the utilization of the formal health services, taking into account the problems related to geographical, economic and socio-cultural distance. In this paper, a description will be given of the existing alternative health care resources. In addition, the positive contribution which the concept of medical pluralism could provide to rural health planning will be examined within the context of the research project. This will include a discussion of the problems encountered in connection with the utilization of traditional healers and the possibilities for their incorporation into a future syncretic type of national health care delivery system.

  10. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions.

  11. "Remnants of feudalism"? Women's health and their utilization of health services in rural China.

    PubMed

    Anson, O; Haanappel, F W

    1999-01-01

    Almost five decades ago, the Chinese Communist Party wished to abolish all "remnants of feudalism," including the patriarchal social order. Just one year after the revolution, the Marriage Law endorsed women's rights within the family, but no operative measures were taken to enforce it. Some of the economic reforms since independence even strengthened patrilocality and, possibly, patriarchal values. The purpose of this study was to explore the degree to which patrilocality served to maintain the traditional patriarchal stratification among women in the household by exploring women's health patterns and utilization of health services. Data were collected from 3859 women residing in rural Hebei, and variation in health and help seeking of six categories of relation to household head--mothers, wives, daughters, daughters-in-law, family heads, and other relatives--were explored. Utilization of health services is not dependent on women's position in the household, but primarily on per-capita income. Health patterns seem to indicate that mothers of the head of the household still have a considerable power to define their roles and share of household work. Women head of family, most of whom are married, appear to be under strain, which could be a result of their culturally "deviant" position. We conclude that old patriarchal values are intertwined with values of equality in current rural China.

  12. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  13. Remoteness and maternal and child health service utilization in rural Liberia: A population–based survey

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Avi; Basu, Gaurab; Ballard, Madeleine; Griffiths, Thomas; Kentoffio, Katherine; Niyonzima, Jean Bosco; Sechler, G. Andrew; Selinsky, Stephen; Panjabi, Rajesh R.; Siedner, Mark J.; Kraemer, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study seeks to understand distance from health facilities as a barrier to maternal and child health service uptake within a rural Liberian population. Better understanding the relationship between distance from health facilities and rural health care utilization is important for post–Ebola health systems reconstruction and for general rural health system planning in sub–Saharan Africa. Methods Cluster–sample survey data collected in 2012 in a very rural southeastern Liberian population were analyzed to determine associations between quartiles of GPS–measured distance from the nearest health facility and the odds of maternal (ANC, facility–based delivery, and PNC) and child (deworming and care seeking for ARI, diarrhea, and fever) service use. We estimated associations by fitting simple and multiple logistic regression models, with standard errors adjusted for clustered data. Findings Living in the farthest quartile was associated with lower odds of attending 1–or–more ANC checkup (AOR = 0.04, P < 0.001), 4–or–more ANC checkups (AOR = 0.13, P < 0.001), delivering in a facility (AOR = 0.41, P = 0.006), and postnatal care from a health care worker (AOR = 0.44, P = 0.009). Children living in all other quartiles had lower odds of seeking facility–based fever care (AOR for fourth quartile = 0.06, P < 0.001) than those in the nearest quartile. Children in the fourth quartile were less likely to receive deworming treatment (AOR = 0.16, P < 0.001) and less likely (but with only marginal statistical significance) to seek ARI care from a formal HCW (AOR = 0.05, P = 0.05). Parents in distant quartiles more often sought ARI and diarrhea care from informal providers. Conclusions Within a rural Liberian population, distance is associated with reduced health care uptake. As Liberia rebuilds its health system after Ebola, overcoming geographic disparities, including through further

  14. Health-care utilization by disabled persons: a survey in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hosain, G M; Chatterjee, N

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the utilization of health services by disabled persons in rural Bangladesh and to identify associated factors to inform the development of appropriate health services. Household surveys were conducted in two villages of Bangladesh by a trained primary-care specialist who lived in the study area for 4 months. About 81% of the sample had utilized some form of health care with more than half consulting unqualified practitioners of modern medicine. Disabled persons whose families perceived they were disabled were 14 times more likely than others to seek treatment. Being male and in the economically productive age group, having an acquired disability and having some form of belief about disability causation were associated with utilization. The conclusions of the study are that social and cultural barriers prevent certain groups, notably women and demographically dependent age groups, from accessing health care. Those who are economically beneficial to the family usually utilize health services. A combination of educational and economic initiatives such as a disability benefits allowance would strongly promote the health of disabled persons and create a general awareness of disability in Bangladesh. A long-term programme which includes disability training for health-care workers and use of financial institutions and existing local government infrastructure for intensive rehabilitation will improve quality of life for disabled persons and is proposed for urgent implementation.

  15. Rural Youth Workers Suppress Yawning Gaps: Agencies Overcome Youth Isolation, Boredom and Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beadle, Andrew D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes four exemplary rural youth programs that succeed despite the common lack of transportation and leadership in rural areas. An Alabama church-based program, a Nevada program on an American Indian reservation, and a school-based network in Vermont all offer summer and after-school programs for elementary and secondary students. Texas…

  16. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

  17. Health Care Utilization and Attitudes Survey: Understanding Diarrheal Disease in Rural Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Debasish; Akinsola, Adebayo; Sharples, Katrina; Adeyemi, Mitchell O.; Antonio, Martin; Imran, Sayeed; Jasseh, Momodou; Hossain, Mohammad J.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.; Hill, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Diarrheal disease causes ∼1.34 million deaths per year among children under 5 years of age globally. We conducted a Health Care Utilization and Attitudes Survey of 1,012 primary caregivers of children aged 0–11, 12–23, and 24–59 months randomly selected from a Demographic Surveillance population in rural Gambia. Point prevalence of diarrhea was 7.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.1–9.8); 23.3% had diarrhea within the previous 2 weeks. Caregivers of 81.5% of children with diarrhea sought healthcare outside their home, but only 48.4% of them visited a health center. Only 17.0% (95% CI = 12.1–23.2) of children with diarrhea received oral rehydration solution (ORS) at home. Abbreviated surveys conducted on six occasions over the subsequent 2 years showed no change in prevalence or treatment-seeking behavior. Diarrhea remains a significant problem in rural young Gambian children. Encouraging care-seeking behavior at health centers and promoting ORS use can reduce mortality and morbidity in this population. PMID:23629926

  18. Health Care Utilization and Attitudes Survey: understanding diarrheal disease in rural Gambia.

    PubMed

    Saha, Debasish; Akinsola, Adebayo; Sharples, Katrina; Adeyemi, Mitchell O; Antonio, Martin; Imran, Sayeed; Jasseh, Momodou; Hossain, Mohammad J; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Myron M; Hill, Philip C

    2013-07-01

    Diarrheal disease causes ∼1.34 million deaths per year among children under 5 years of age globally. We conducted a Health Care Utilization and Attitudes Survey of 1,012 primary caregivers of children aged 0-11, 12-23, and 24-59 months randomly selected from a Demographic Surveillance population in rural Gambia. Point prevalence of diarrhea was 7.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.1-9.8); 23.3% had diarrhea within the previous 2 weeks. Caregivers of 81.5% of children with diarrhea sought healthcare outside their home, but only 48.4% of them visited a health center. Only 17.0% (95% CI = 12.1-23.2) of children with diarrhea received oral rehydration solution (ORS) at home. Abbreviated surveys conducted on six occasions over the subsequent 2 years showed no change in prevalence or treatment-seeking behavior. Diarrhea remains a significant problem in rural young Gambian children. Encouraging care-seeking behavior at health centers and promoting ORS use can reduce mortality and morbidity in this population.

  19. Practical and Policy Implications of Using Different Rural-Urban Classification Systems: A Case Study of Inpatient Service Utilization among Veterans Administration Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berke, Ethan M.; West, Alan N.; Wallace, Amy E.; Weeks, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Several classification systems exist for defining rural areas, which may lead to different interpretations of rural health services data. Purpose: To compare rural classification systems on their implications for estimating Veterans Administration (VA) utilization. Methods: Using 7 classification systems, we counted VA health care…

  20. 76 FR 13797 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Solicitation of Applications (NOSA). SUMMARY: This NOSA announces that the Rural Utilities Service (RUS) is accepting applications for fiscal year..., agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority, filing of petitions and applications...

  1. Utilizing a Low-Cost, Laser-Driven Interactive System (LaDIS) to Improve Learning in Developing Rural Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes an innovation Laser-Driven Interactive System (LaDIS), utilizing general IWBs (Interactive Whiteboard) didactics, to support student learning for rural and developing regions. LaDIS is a system made to support traditional classroom practices between an instructor and a group of students. This invention effectively transforms a…

  2. Veterans Health Administration and Medicare Outpatient Health Care Utilization by Older Rural and Urban New England Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, William B.; Bott, David M.; Lamkin, Rebecca P.; Wright, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Older veterans often use both the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and Medicare to obtain health care services. The authors sought to compare outpatient medical service utilization of Medicare-enrolled rural veterans with their urban counterparts in New England. The authors combined VHA and Medicare databases and identified veterans who were…

  3. Cognitive Appraisals of Specialty Mental Health Services and Their Relation to Mental Health Service Utilization in the Rural Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deen, Tisha L.; Bridges, Ana J.; McGahan, Tara C.; Andrews, Arthur R., III

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural individuals utilize specialty mental health services (eg, psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, and social workers) at lower rates than their urban counterparts. This study explores whether cognitive appraisals (ie, individual perceptions of need for services, outcome expectancies, and value of a positive therapeutic outcome) of…

  4. Perceptions of the Importance and Utilization of Clinical Supervision among Certified Rural School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Kelly; Brown-Rice, Kathleen; Bardhoshi, Gerta

    2014-01-01

    This study explored rural school counselors' perceptions of clinical supervision. School counselors working in rural communities commonly encounter issues that challenge their ability to provide competent counseling services to the students they serve. School counselors serving in these areas are often the only rural mental health provider in…

  5. A Survey of Obstetric Healthcare Utilization in the Rural Western Indian Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Erica C; Uniyal, V P; Lanham, Michael; Heisler, Michele; Quasin, Shazia; Bisht, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To determine the socio-economic factors affecting access to antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum healthcare in the rural Western Indian Himalayas over the past 20 years. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 197 women in Chamoli District, Uttarakhand from October 2011 to May 2012. Participants who gave birth within the past 20 years were included in the final analysis (n = 158). Stratified odds ratios and analysis of variance were calculated. Results Among women who delivered in the prior 7 years, there was a nine-fold increase (95 % CI 4-20.8) in institutionalized births compared to women who delivered 8-20 years before the study. Among women who delivered 7 years prior to the study, low income increased the risk of home delivery (OR 3.07, 95 % CI 1.15-8.54). Low caste (OR 2.79, 95 % CI 1.04-7.72) and low level of education (OR 3.93 95 % CI 1.41-11.81) decreased the use of antepartum medications (vitamins and vaccines). Remote location among all participants was a risk factor for not seeking care for obstetric morbidities (OR 0.44 95 % CI 0.2-0.95). Conclusions The incidence of institutionalized delivery has increased over the past decade in rural Uttarakhand. Income, caste, education, and remote location correlated with poor access to antepartum and intrapartum healthcare. These correlations have increased in statistical significance over the past 20 years, except for location. This indicates that the Western Himalayas face similar challenges to obstetric service utilization as the north Indian plains and that several of these inequalities in healthcare access have become more pronounced in recent years.

  6. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    LESKO KF; BERRIOCHOA MV

    2010-02-26

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, "Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective", University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted

  7. Utility of a thematic network in primary health care: a controlled interventional study in a rural area

    PubMed Central

    Coma del Corral, Maria Jesús; Abaigar Luquín, Pedro; Cordero Guevara, José; Olea Movilla, Angel; Torres Torres, Gerardo; Lozano Garcia, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Background UniNet is an Internet-based thematic network for a virtual community of users (VCU). It supports a virtual multidisciplinary community for physicians, focused on the improvement of clinical practice. This is a study of the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, specifically as a platform of communication between specialists at the hospital and doctors in the rural area. Methods In order to study the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, we designed an interventional study that included a control group. The measurements included the number of patient displacements due to disease, number of patient hospital stays and the number of prescriptions of drugs of low therapeutic utility and generic drug prescriptions by doctors. These data were analysed and compared with those of the control center. Results Our study showed positive changes in medical practice, reflected in the improvement of the evaluated parameters in the rural health area where the interventional study was carried out, compared with the control area. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of UniNet as a potential medium to improve the quality of medical care in rural areas. Conclusion The rural doctors had an effective, useful, user-friendly and cheap source of medical information that may have contributed to the improvement observed in the medical quality indices. PMID:16042778

  8. SUPPLEMENTING THE PROGRAMS AND SERVICES OF RURAL SCHOOL SYSTEMS BY NEW TYPE REGIONAL SERVICE AGENCIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOVELESS, JOHN E.

    THE INTERMEDIATE DISTRICT, ESTABLISHED BY LAW IN NEW YORK STATE IN 1948, IS A COOPERATIVE EDUCATIONAL VENTURE PROVIDING SMALL RURAL SCHOOLS WITH SERVICES WHICH ARE NOT USUALLY POSSIBLE, DUE TO THE SIZE AND ISOLATION OF THESE SCHOOL DISTRICTS. SEVERAL OF THESE INTERMEDIATE DISTRICTS, LABELED BOCES (BOARD OF COOPERATIVE EDUCATIONAL SERVICES), HAVE…

  9. 7 CFR 1901.505 - Certificates of beneficial ownership in FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans. 1901.505 Section 1901.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS...

  10. Some Factors Influencing Effective Utilization of Drinking Water Facilities: Women, Income, and Health in Rural North Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendie, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    In the examination of the implementation of rural drinking water facilities, not enough attention has been paid to analyzing the socioeconomic and political relationships that affect the effective utilization of the facilities, particularly as these relate to women in rural society. This paper suggests that much of the difficulty in instituting the utilization of safe water supply sources has to do with the rather low economic status of women—the main water collectors. Poverty consigns women to long periods of work in activities or jobs that bring little reward. This makes it difficult to effectively digest the messages delivered by program staff and limits the extent of usage of the safe water facilities.

  11. Determinants of Eye Care Utilization in Rural South-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arinze, O C; Eze, B I; Ude, N N; Onwubiko, S N; Ezisi, C N; Chuka-Okosa, C M

    2015-10-01

    To determine the barriers and incentives to eye care utilization (ECU) in Abagana, a rural south-eastern Nigerian community. The study was a population-based cross-sectional mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) survey of adult inhabitants of Abagana, in July-August, 2011. Data on respondents' socio-demographics, barriers and incentives to ECU were collected, and analysed using descriptive and comparative statistics. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Qualitative data were obtained from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews and analyzed using ATLAS.ti software. The 549 respondents (males 224) were aged 49.8 ± 15.9 SD years (range 18-93 years). Overall, orthodox eye care had ever been sought by 42.4%, and 46.4% of those who reported change in vision. Lack of awareness-31.8%, cost-18.0%, and fatalistic attitudes-15.9% were the main ECU barriers. Possession of health insurance (OR 11.49; 95% CI 4.21-31.34; p = 0.001), family history of eye disorder (OR 3.27, 95% CI 2.03-5.26; p = 0.001), noticed change in vision (OR 11.30; 95% CI 1.42-90.09; p = 0.022), current eye disease (OR 4.06; 95% CI 2.29-7.19; p = 0.001) and systemic co-morbidity (OR 4.33; 95% CI 2.67-7.02; p = 0.001) were the incentives to ECU. To enhance the low ECU in Abagana community, educational interventions on eye health maintenance and eye health seeking behaviours, and measures to reduce eye care cost are recommended.

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Service Utilization in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chu-Hong; Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Wang, Jia-Ji; Zhong, Jian-Hu; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The number of rural-to-urban migrant workers has been increasing rapidly in China over recent decades, but there is a scarcity of data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and health service utilization among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers in comparison to local urban residents. We aimed to address this question. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 2315 rural-to-urban migrant workers and 2347 local urban residents in the Shenzhen-Dongguan economic zone (China) in 2013. Outcomes included HRQOL (measured by Health Survey Short Form 36) and health service utilization (self-reported). Results: Compared to local urban residents, rural-to-urban migrant workers had lower scores in all domains of HRQOL, and were more likely to report chronic illnesses (9.2% vs. 6.0%, adjusted OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.28–2.04) and recent two-week morbidity (21.3% vs. 5.0%, adjusted OR = 5.41, 95% CI 4.26–6.88). Among individuals who reported sickness in the recent two weeks, migrant workers were much less likely to see a doctor (32.7% vs. 66.7%, adjusted OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.13–0.36). Conclusions: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers have lower HRQOL, much more frequent morbidity, but are also much less likely to see a doctor in times of sickness as compared to local urban residents, indicating the existence of significant unmet medical care needs in this population. PMID:25689996

  13. Personal Factors as Determinants of Utilization of Development Information in Rural Communities of South-South Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edet, Itari Paul; Bullem, Anthony Godwin; Okeme, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which personal factors relate to the utilization of development information in the rural communities of South-South Geo-political Zone, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. The population comprised all adult male and female rural dwellers from the three out of the six states in the Zone…

  14. Challenges for a Local Service Agency to Address Domestic Violence –A Case Study From Rural Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women’s access to legal support. PMID:25363105

  15. Effects of changes in health insurance reimbursement level on outpatient service utilization of rural diabetics: evidence from Jiangsu Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Outpatient reimbursement levels of the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme have changed in recent years in China, and those changes may have a greater impact on patients with chronic diseases due to their higher outpatient expenses. This study represents the first attempt to identify the effects of reimbursement level on outpatient service utilization for chronic patients in rural China and it also gives strong estimation results by conducting a tracer illness study in order to control for possible biases associated with studying several diseases together. Methods This study used difference-in-differences models to examine how changes in yearly maximum reimbursement amount and outpatient reimbursement rates affected rural residents with type 2 diabetes in three counties in Jiangsu Province, China. Other factors, such as sex, age and severity of illness, were also included in the model estimations. To make sure the treated group and control group are comparable, Propensity Score Match (PSM) was used to analysis the gender, age and severity of illness of the two groups. Results The results indicate that an increase in yearly maximum reimbursement amount for outpatient visits could cause an increase in yearly total outpatient expenses for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, changes in outpatient reimbursement rates between 2010 and 2011 did not significantly affect the utilization of different types of health institution. Conclusions The reimbursement rates of village clinics should be substantially increased from the existing basis and the gap of reimbursement rates among different institutions should be further widened. It is also important for village clinics to improve their services. Moreover, measures to improve the quality of care and scope of services at lower-level healthcare institutions, and promote the health service utilization of rural women should be considered. PMID:24758602

  16. Changes in utilization of health services among poor and rural residents in Uganda: are reforms benefitting the poor?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Uganda implemented health sector reforms to make services more accessible to the population. An assessment of the likely impact of these reforms is important for informing policy. This paper describes the changes in utilization of health services that occurred among the poor and those in rural areas between 2002/3 and 2005/6 and associated factors. Methods Secondary data analysis was done using the socio-economic component of the Uganda National Household Surveys 2002/03 and 2005/06. The poor were identified from wealth quintiles constructed using an asset based index derived from Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The probability of choice of health care provider was assessed using multinomial logistic regression and multi-level statistical models. Results The odds of not seeking care in 2005/6 were 1.79 times higher than in 2002/3 (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.65 - 1.94). The rural population experienced a 43% reduction in the risk of not seeking care because of poor geographical access (OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.48 - 0.67). The risk of not seeking care due to high costs did not change significantly. Private for profit providers (PFP) were the major providers of services in 2002/3 and 2005/6. Using PFP as base category, respondents were more likely to have used private not for profit (PNFP) in 2005/6 than in 2002/3 (OR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.58 - 2.92), and also more likely to use public facilities in 2005/6 than 2002/3 (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.15 - 1.48). The most poor, females, rural residents, and those from elderly headed households were more likely to use public facilities relative to PFP. Conclusion Although overall utilization of public and PNFP services by rural and poor populations had increased, PFP remained the major source of care. The odds of not seeking care due to distance decreased in rural areas but cost continued to be an important barrier to seeking health services for residents from poor, rural, and elderly headed households. Policy makers should consider

  17. Rural and Small Systems Guidebook to Sustainable Water and Wastewater Utility Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guidebook is designed to introduce rural and small water and wastewater systems to the key areas of effectively managed systems. It provides background information on ten key management areas, instruction, and assistance.

  18. "Your Mum and Dad Can't Teach You!": Constraints on Agency among Rural Learners of English in the Developing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Learning outcomes are always the product of the interaction between individual learner agency and social structures. Recently concern has been expressed about unequal access to English, recognised as an important resource for social advancement, for rural populations in developing countries. This paper explores this issue by focusing on one…

  19. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to the Utilization of HIV Testing Services Among Rural African American Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Patricia B.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study is about barriers to the utilization of HIV testing as perceived by African Americans who have recently used cocaine and who live in the rural Delta region of Arkansas. Affordability, physical accessibility, and geographic availability were not perceived as barriers to HIV testing in this sample, yet acceptability was still perceived as poor. Acceptability due to social mores and norms was a major barrier. Many said testing was unacceptable because of fear of social costs. Many were confident of being HIV-negative based on risky assumptions about testing and the notification process. Small-town social and sexual networks added to concerns about reputation and risk. System approaches may fail if they focus solely on improving access to HIV services but do not take into consideration deeply internalized experiences of rural African Americans as well as involvement of the community in developing programs and services. PMID:24039279

  20. Organizational behavior of regulatory agencies: a case study of the Bureau of Consumer Services in the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Regulatory agencies operate in a complex field of organizations and interest groups. The variety of behaviors that occur in the regulatory field are not satisfactorily explained by current interpretative frameworks. Regulatory agencies are at once criticized and praised. They flourish as organizational entities, yet they exhibit behavior that is often inexplicable. Notions like clientele capture, the politics of regulation, exchange theory, and institutionalized organizations do not singly explain the vagaries of regulatory behavior. A merger of these viewpoints, however, provides a foundation for a comprehensive interpretative framework. A bureau of consumer services within a state public utility commission is viewed as an institutionalized organization. From this perspective, a variety of ritual behaviors, based upon symbolic and tangible interorganizational exchanges are observed and characterized. The outcome of these exchanges is the establishment of the Bureau of Consumer Services as a legitimate regulatory agent with significant impact upon the formulation of regulatory policy in the formal proceedings of the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission.

  1. Utilizing Chair Massage to Address One Woman’s Health in Rural Ghana West Africa: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Meryanos, Cathy J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives There is limited access to health care in rural Ghana and virtually no rehabilitative services available. This situation presents a unique opportunity to utilize chair massage in addressing women’s health in rural Ghana, particularly when it comes to muscle pain and fatigue from heavy labor. The objective of this case report is to determine the results of chair massage as a strategy to reduce neck, shoulder, and back pain, while increasing range of motion. Case Presentation The patient is a 63-year-old Ghanaian female, who was struck by a public transport van while carrying a 30–50 pound load on her head, two years prior. The accident resulted in a broken right humerus and soft tissue pain. A traditional medicine practitioner set the bone, however there was no post-accident rehabilitation available. At the time of referral, she presented complaints of shoulder, elbow, and wrist pain. In addition, she was unable to raise her right hand to her mouth for food intake. Results The results of this case report include an increase in range of motion, as well as elimination of pain in the right shoulder, elbow, and hand. Visual assessments showed an approximate increase of ROM within the ranges of 45–65 degrees in the right arm, as well as 10–15 degrees in 4th and 5th fingers. There was also a decrease in muscle hypertonicity in the thoracic and cervical areas, and a profound increase in quality of life for the patient. Discussion This case report illustrates how therapeutic chair massage was utilized to address a common health concern for one woman in rural Ghana. It also demonstrates that pre-existing musculoskeletal disorders and pain may be eliminated with massage intervention. Massage therapy may be important to ameliorating certain types of health problems in remote rural villages in low income countries. PMID:27974948

  2. 7 CFR 1955.144 - Disposal of NP or surplus property to, through, or acquisition from other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal of NP or surplus property to, through, or acquisition from other agencies. 1955.144 Section 1955.144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  3. 7 CFR 1955.144 - Disposal of NP or surplus property to, through, or acquisition from other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposal of NP or surplus property to, through, or acquisition from other agencies. 1955.144 Section 1955.144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  4. 7 CFR 1955.144 - Disposal of NP or surplus property to, through, or acquisition from other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal of NP or surplus property to, through, or acquisition from other agencies. 1955.144 Section 1955.144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  5. 7 CFR 1955.144 - Disposal of NP or surplus property to, through, or acquisition from other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of NP or surplus property to, through, or acquisition from other agencies. 1955.144 Section 1955.144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  6. 7 CFR 1955.144 - Disposal of NP or surplus property to, through, or acquisition from other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Disposal of NP or surplus property to, through, or acquisition from other agencies. 1955.144 Section 1955.144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  7. Rural versus Suburban Primary Care Needs, Utilization, and Satisfaction with Telepsychiatric Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilty, Donald M.; Nesbitt, Thomas S.; Kuenneth, Christina A.; Cruz, Grace M.; Hales, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural and suburban populations remain underserved in terms of psychiatric services but have not been compared directly in terms of using telepsychiatry. Methods: Patient demographics, reasons for consultation, diagnosis, and alternatives to telepsychiatric consultation were collected for 200 consecutive, first-time…

  8. Intensive Care Unit Utilization and Interhospital Transfers As Potential Indicators of Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Douglas S.; Ward, Marcia; Miller, Thomas; Ohsfeldt, Robert; Jaana, Mirou; Lei, Yang; Tracy, Roger; Schneider, John

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining meaningful information from statistically valid and reliable measures of the quality of care for disease-specific care provided in small rural hospitals is limited by small numbers of cases and different definitive care capacities. An alternative approach may be to aggregate and analyze patient services that reflect more generalized care…

  9. Social services utilization and need among a community sample of persons living with HIV in the rural south.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Katharine E; Phillips, Martha M; Walker, Jada F; Harvey, Sarah A; Porter, Austin

    2011-03-01

    HIV prevalence has increased faster in the southern USA than in other areas, and persons living with HIV (PLWHIV) in the south are often rural, impoverished, or otherwise under-resourced. Studies of urban PLWHIV and those receiving medical care suggest that use of social services can enhance quality of life and some medical outcomes, but little is known about patterns of social service utilization and need among rural southern PLWHIV. The AIDS Alabama needs assessment survey, conducted in 2007, sampled a diverse community cohort of 476 adult PLWHIV representative of the HIV-positive population in Alabama (66% male, 76% Black, and 26% less than high school education). We developed service utilization/need (SUN) scores for each of 14 social services, and used regression models to determine demographic predictors of those most likely to need each service. We then conducted an exploratory factor analysis to determine whether certain services clustered together for the sample. Case management, assistance obtaining medical care, and financial assistance were most commonly used or needed by respondents. Black respondents were more likely to have higher SUN scores for alcohol treatment and for assistance with employment, housing, food, financial, and pharmacy needs; respondents without spousal or partner relationships had higher SUN scores for substance use treatment. Female respondents were more likely to have higher SUN scores for childcare assistance. Black respondents and unemployed respondents were more likely to have SUN scores in the highest quartile of the overall score distribution. Factor analysis yielded three main factors: basic needs, substance use treatment, and legal/medical needs. These data provide important information about rural southern PLWHIV and their needs for ancillary services. They also suggest clusters of service needs that often occur among PLWHIV, which may help case managers and other service providers work proactively to identify important

  10. A Voice Crying in the Wilderness: Legislative Oversight Agencies' Efforts to Achieve Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLandingham, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    While legislative oversight offices, like many evaluation and policy analysis units, face substantial challenges in promoting use of their work by policymakers, they often have not taken steps to overcome these challenges by adopting the strategies suggested by the evaluation literature. Although the offices seek utilization, they have not fully…

  11. 76 FR 36961 - Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural Utilities Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... American Wood Protection Association Standards. Agency Response: Bulletin 1728F-700 was revised to meet the.... 1728.201. (d) (e) The following standards from the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA), Book of... specifications for wood poles, stubs and anchor logs, wood crossarms (solid and laminated), transmission...

  12. 7 CFR 1901.202 - Nondiscrimination in FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES... INSTRUCTIONS Civil Rights Compliance Requirements § 1901.202 Nondiscrimination in FmHA or its successor agency... other benefit. (iv) Restrict in any way any person's enjoyment of any right, privilege, or...

  13. 7 CFR 1951.137 - Procedures for Treasury offset and cross-servicing for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) farm loan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for Treasury offset and cross-servicing for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) farm loan programs. 1951.137 Section 1951.137 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM...

  14. 7 CFR 1951.137 - Procedures for Treasury offset and cross-servicing for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) farm loan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for Treasury offset and cross-servicing for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) farm loan programs. 1951.137 Section 1951.137 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM...

  15. 7 CFR 1951.137 - Procedures for Treasury offset and cross-servicing for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) farm loan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Procedures for Treasury offset and cross-servicing for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) farm loan programs. 1951.137 Section 1951.137 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM...

  16. 7 CFR 1951.137 - Procedures for Treasury offset and cross-servicing for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) farm loan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for Treasury offset and cross-servicing for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) farm loan programs. 1951.137 Section 1951.137 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM...

  17. Gift-Giving and Network Structure in Rural China: Utilizing Long-Term Spontaneous Gift Records

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi

    2014-01-01

    The tradition of keeping written records of gift received during household ceremonies in many countries offers researchers an underutilized means of data collection for social network analysis. This paper first summarizes unique features of the gift record data that circumvent five prevailing sampling and measurement issues in the literature, and we discuss their advantages over existing studies at both the individual level and the dyadic link level using previous data sources. We then document our research project in rural China that implements a multiple wave census-type household survey and a long-term gift record collection. The pattern of gift-giving in major household social events and its recent escalation is analyzed. There are significantly positive correlations between gift network centrality and various forms of informal insurance. Finally, economic inequality and competitive marriage market are among the main demographic and socioeconomic determinants of the observed gift network structure. PMID:25111696

  18. Rurality and Resilience in Education: Place-Based Partnerships and Agency to Moderate Time and Space Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersohn, Liesel; Ferreira, Ronel

    2012-01-01

    In an ongoing longitudinal intervention study (STAR) we found that, although similarities existed in the way teachers promoted resilience, rural schools (in comparison to other STAR case schools) took longer to implement strategies to buoy support and found it difficult to sustain such support. Using rurality we wanted to understand how forces,…

  19. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... finding. If RUS finds, based on an EA that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on...

  20. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... finding. If RUS finds, based on an EA that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on...

  1. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... finding. If RUS finds, based on an EA that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on...

  2. Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

  3. American Indian identity in mental health services utilization data from a rural midwestern sample.

    PubMed

    Hack, Samantha M; Larrison, Christopher R; Gone, Joseph P

    2014-01-01

    The governing bodies for psychiatry, psychology, and social work all publicly support culturally competent mental health care and have called for increased awareness of the importance of racial, ethnic, and cultural identity in mental health treatment and outcomes. However, since 1960 the population of people identifying as American Indian in the United States has grown faster than can be explained by birth rates, raising questions about the personal meaning of identity for newly self-designated American Indians. For this research, interviews were conducted with 14 self-identified American Indian clients receiving rural mental health care services in the Midwest. The goal was to assess clients' cultural connection to their racial identity and to understand what impact their American Indian identity had on their mental health care experiences. A modified Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) method was used to develop the interview protocol and code responses. Interview data revealed that clients primarily based their racial identity on family stories of an American Indian ancestor and the majority did not feel their identification as American Indian was relevant to their mental health care. Regardless of lack of cultural connection, participants often reported feeling personal pride associated with identifying as American Indian. Implications for both researchers collecting self-reported race data and for mental health practitioners who might serve self-identified American Indian clients are discussed.

  4. Does the Universal Health Insurance Program Affect Urban-Rural Differences in Health Service Utilization among the Elderly? Evidence from a Longitudinal Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Yang, Fang-An

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of the introduction of Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) on urban-rural inequality in health service utilization among the elderly. Methods: A longitudinal data set of 1,504 individuals aged 65 and older was constructed from the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly. A difference-in-differences…

  5. Influencing Self-Reported Health among Rural Low-Income Women through Health Care and Social Service Utilization: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bice-Wigington, Tiffany; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the mesosystemic processes among rural low-income women, and how these processes subsequently influenced self-reported health. Acknowledging the behavioral processes inherent in utilization of health care and formal social support services, this study moved beyond a behavioral focus by…

  6. Utilization of health services in a resource-limited rural area in Kenya: Prevalence and associated household-level factors

    PubMed Central

    Ngugi, Anthony K.; Agoi, Felix; Mahoney, Megan R.; Lakhani, Amyn; Mang’ong’o, David; Nderitu, Esther; Armstrong, Robert; Macfarlane, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background and methods Knowledge of utilization of health services and associated factors is important in planning and delivery of interventions to improve health services coverage. We determined the prevalence and factors associated with health services utilization in a rural area of Kenya. Our findings inform the local health management in development of appropriately targeted interventions. We used a cluster sample survey design and interviewed household key informants on history of illness for household members and health services utilization in the preceding month. We estimated prevalence and performed random effects logistic regression to determine the influence of individual and household level factors on decisions to utilize health services. Results and conclusions 1230/6,440 (19.1%, 95% CI: 18.3%-20.2%) household members reported an illness. Of these, 76.7% (95% CI: 74.2%-79.0%) sought healthcare in a health facility. The majority (94%) of the respondents visited dispensary-level facilities and only 60.1% attended facilities within the study sub-counties. Of those that did not seek health services, 43% self-medicated by buying non-prescription drugs, 20% thought health services were too costly, and 10% indicated that the sickness was not serious enough to necessitate visiting a health facility. In the multivariate analyses, relationship to head of household was associated with utilization of health services. Relatives other than the nuclear family of the head of household were five times less likely to seek medical help (Odds Ratio 0.21 (95% CI: 0.05–0.87)). Dispensary level health facilities are the most commonly used by members of this community, and relations at the level of the household influence utilization of health services during an illness. These data enrich the perspective of the local health management to better plan the allocation of healthcare resources according to need and demand. The findings will also contribute in the development of

  7. Utilizing the Scientist as Teacher Through the Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, D.; McNeal, K. S.; Radencic, S.

    2011-12-01

    The presence of a scientist or other STEM expert in secondary school science classroom can provide fresh new ideas for student learning. Through the Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) program sponsored by NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12), scientists and engineers at Mississippi State University work together with graduate students and area teachers to provide hands-on inquiry-based learning to middle school and high school students. Competitively selected graduate fellows from geosciences, physics, chemistry, and engineering spend ten hours per week in participating classrooms for an entire school year, working as a team with their assigned teacher to provide outstanding instruction in science and mathematics and to serve as positive role models for the students. We are currently in the second year of our five-year program, and we have already made significant achievements in science and mathematics instruction. We successfully hosted GIS Day on the Mississippi State University campus, allowing participating students to design an emergency response to a simulated flooding of the Mississippi Delta. We have also developed new laboratory exercises for high school physics classrooms, including a 3-D electric field mapping exercise, and the complete development of a robotics design course. Many of the activities developed by the fellows and teachers are written into formal lesson plans that are made publicly available as free downloads through our project website. All participants in this program channel aspects of their research interests and methods into classroom learning, thus providing students with the real-world applications of STEM principles. In return, participants enhance their own communication and scientific inquiry skills by employing lesson design techniques that are similar to defining their own research questions.

  8. Screening utility, local perceptions, and care-seeking for reported jaundeesh among respondents lacking signs of icterus in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Z; Sikder, Shegufta S; Zaman, K; Saha, Parimalendu; Yunus, Mohammad; Nelson, Kenrad E; Labrique, Alain B

    2013-09-01

    In rural Bangladesh, acute viral hepatitis presents a significant burden on the public-health system. As part of the formative work for a large epidemiologic study of hepatitis E in rural Bangladesh, we sought to identify local terms that could be used for population-based screening of acute viral hepatitis. Exploration of the local term jaundeesh for screening utility identified a high burden of reported jaundeesh among individuals without symptoms of icterus. Recognizing that local perceptions of illness may differ from biomedical definitions of disease, we also sought to characterize the perceived aetiology, care-seeking patterns, diagnostic symptoms, and treatments for reported jaundeesh in the absence of icteric symptoms to inform future population-based studies on reported morbidities. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1,441 randomly-selected subjects to identify the prevalence of reported jaundeesh and to test the validity of this local term to detect signs of icterus. To characterize the perceived aetiology and care-seeking patterns for jaundeesh among the majority of respondents, we conducted in-depth interviews with 100 respondents who self-reported jaundeesh but lacked clinical signs of icterus. To describe diagnostic symptoms and treatments, in-depth interviews were also performed with 25 kabirajs or traditional faith healers commonly visited for jaundeesh. Of the 1,441 randomly-selected participants, one-fourth (n=361) reported jaundeesh, with only a third (n=122) reporting yellow eyes or skin, representative of icterus; Jaundeesh had a positive predictive value of 34% for detection of yellow eyes or skin. Anicteric patients with reported jaundeesh perceived their illnesses to result from humoral imbalances, most commonly treated by amulets, ritual handwashing, and bathing with herbal medicines. Jaundeesh patients primarily sought folk and spiritual remedies from informal care providers, with only 19% visiting allopathic care providers

  9. Rural Health: The Story of Outreach. A Program of Cooperation in Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Rural Health Policy.

    Rural Health Outreach is a federal program of demonstration grants designed to encourage organizations to cooperate in delivering health care services to rural Americans. Thirteen programs utilizing innovative collaborations between state agencies, schools, nonprofit organizations, hospitals, volunteers, and the private sector are described a year…

  10. 7 CFR 1700.34 - Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities. 1700.34 Section 1700.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.34 Assistance to High Energy Cost...

  11. Determining the utility and durability of medical equipment donated to a rural clinic in a low-income country

    PubMed Central

    Bauserman, Melissa; Hailey, Claire; Gado, Justin; Lokangaka, Adrien; Williams, Jessica; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Background Health centers in low-income countries often depend on donations to provide appropriate diagnostic equipment. However, donations are sometimes made without an understanding of the recipient's needs, practical constraints or sustainability of supplies. Methods We donated a set of physical diagnostic equipment, non-invasive instrument tests and laboratory supplies to a rural health center in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We collected information on the usage and durability of equipment and supplies for each patient encounter over a 1-year period. Results We recorded 913 patient encounters. The most commonly used physical diagnostic equipment were the stethoscope (98.9%; 903/913), thermometer (81.7%; 746/913), adult scale (81.4%; 744/913), stop watch (62.6%; 572/913), adult sphygmomanometer (55.8%; 510/913), infant scale (24.9%; 228/913), measuring tape (24.3%; 222/913) and fetoscope (23.8%; 218/913). The most commonly used laboratory tests were the blood smear for malaria (53.7%; 491/913), hematocrit (23.5%; 215/913), urinalysis (20.1%; 184/913) and sputum stain for TB (13.3%; 122/913). With the exception of a penlight and solar lantern, all equipment remained functional. Conclusions This study adds valuable information about the utility and durability of equipment supplied to a health center in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Our results might aid in determining the appropriateness of donated medical equipment in similar settings. The selection of donated goods should be made with knowledge of the context in which it will be used, and utilization should be monitored. PMID:25525132

  12. Valleys' Girls: Re-Theorising Bodies and Agency in a Semi-Rural Post-Industrial Locale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivinson, Gabrielle; Renold, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on materialist feminist theories to rethink relationships between girls' bodies and agency. New feminist onto-epistemologies redefine agency as "becomings" that dynamically emerge through assemblages comprising moving bodies, material, mechanical, organic, virtual, affective and less-than-conscious elements. Vignettes…

  13. 41 CFR 102-79.10 - What basic assignment and utilization of space policy governs an Executive agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... real property assets, meets the needs of the occupant agencies, and provides child care and physical fitness facilities in the workplace when adequately justified. An Executive agency must promote...

  14. Empirically supported treatments in rural community mental health centers: a preliminary report on current utilization and attitudes toward adoption.

    PubMed

    Jameson, John Paul; Chambless, Dianne L; Blank, Michael B

    2009-12-01

    Rural community mental health centers (CMHCs) face numerous problems that might be alleviated by the dissemination of empirically supported treatments (ESTs). The current study lays the groundwork for EST dissemination by examining current treatment practices in rural clinics as well as the attitudes of decision makers toward ESTs and perceived barriers to their adoption. Twenty-five rural and 38 non-rural clinical directors responded to a mailed survey. Rural respondents were as likely as non-rural respondents to report EST use in their clinic for most anxiety disorders, and more likely to report use of an EST for major depressive disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, ESTs represent a relatively small proportion of the treatments reported for depression and anxiety disorders. Attitudes toward manualized ESTs did not differ between groups. Further, rural and nonrural clinics did not see the barriers to the adoption of ESTs as insurmountable. These preliminary results suggest that rural CMHCs are open to the use of ESTs and should be included in widespread dissemination initiatives.

  15. Validating an Agency-based Tool for Measuring Women’s Empowerment in a Complex Public Health Trial in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gram, Lu; Morrison, Joanna; Sharma, Neha; Shrestha, Bhim; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Saville, Naomi; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Despite the rising popularity of indicators of women’s empowerment in global development programmes, little work has been done on the validity of existing measures of such a complex concept. We present a mixed methods validation of the use of the Relative Autonomy Index for measuring Amartya Sen’s notion of agency freedom in rural Nepal. Analysis of think-aloud interviews (n = 7) indicated adequate respondent understanding of questionnaire items, but multiple problems of interpretation including difficulties with the four-point Likert scale, questionnaire item ambiguity and difficulties with translation. Exploratory Factor Analysis of a calibration sample (n = 511) suggested two positively correlated factors (r = 0.64) loading on internally and externally motivated behaviour. Both factors increased with decreasing education and decision-making power on large expenditures and food preparation. Confirmatory Factor Analysis on a validation sample (n = 509) revealed good fit (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation 0.05–0.08, Comparative Fit Index 0.91–0.99). In conclusion, we caution against uncritical use of agency-based quantification of women’s empowerment. While qualitative and quantitative analysis revealed overall satisfactory construct and content validity, the positive correlation between external and internal motivations suggests the existence of adaptive preferences. High scores on internally motivated behaviour may reflect internalized oppression rather than agency freedom. PMID:28303173

  16. Reproductive health knowledge and services utilization among rural adolescents in east Gojjam zone, Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to World Health Organization, adolescents are people between 10 and 19 years of age; one-fifth of Ethiopian population constitutes adolescents and four-fifth live in rural areas. Local evidence about adolescents’ reproductive health knowledge, services utilization and associated factors are relevant to design age-appropriate program interventions and strategies. Hence, this study assessed the level of reproductive health knowledge and services utilization among rural adolescents in Machakel district, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of reproductive health knowledge and services utilization of rural adolescents in Machakel district. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 415 adolescents from eligible households. Data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires and in-depth interview guides. The data were entered into Epi Info and analyzed by SPSS software for windows. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. Result More than two-third (67%) of the adolescents had knowledge about reproductive health. Age (AOR = 3.77, 95% CI: 3.1-8.98), living arrangement (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.81-6.04) and economic status (AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.65-6.87) were associated with reproductive health knowledge. However, only one-fifth (21.5%) of the adolescents had ever used reproductive health services including family planning, sexually transmitted infections treatment and information, education and communication. Reproductive health services utilization was significantly associated with age (AOR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.13-8.03) and knowledge for reproductive health (AOR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.23-4.21). Parent disapproval, lack of basic information and pressure from partners were found to deter adolescents from accessing and using reproductive health services. Conclusion

  17. Utility of a mHealth App for Self-Management and Education of Cardiac Diseases in Spanish Urban and Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    de Garibay, Valentín González; Fernández, Miguel A; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Analyze the utility of a mobile health app named HeartKeeper in several groups of population and obtain conclusions to be applied to other similar apps. A questionnaire has been designed to evaluate the usage and utility of the HeartKeeper app. The questionnaire information was collected by collaborating cardiologists from 32 patients before and after they used the app. Patients were randomly selected with established quotas within interest groups, so that men and women, patients older or younger than 60 years old and patients living in urban or rural areas were equally represented. Using the appropriate statistical techniques we see that the HeartKeeper app was useful for patients as they qualify with 70 points (out of 100) the overall opinion of the app, it helps them remember more easily taking their pills with a mean improvement of 20.94 points (p < 0.001) and they perceive a global improvement of their health (8.28 points, p < 0.001). We also observe that these improvements do not depend, in general, on the area (urban or rural) where the patient comes from or on their sex. Although older patients needed more help to use the app and used it slightly less frequently, the improvements on several measures considered, such as remembering taking pills, breathing problems or trouble developing activities, depend significantly (p < 0.05) on age with older patients reporting higher improvements than younger ones. The results obtained with the sample of patients considered in this research prove the utility of the HeartKeeper app. This utility is similar in urban and rural areas and for patients of both sexes and, to some extent, depends on the age of the patient with older patients reporting slightly lower frequency of use but higher health improvements than younger ones.

  18. America's Rural Information Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Caille John, Patricia

    The Rural Information Center (RIC), a project of two agencies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has served rural information needs since 1988. The targeted audience for the RIC is local officials and citizens, rather than scientists and federal officials, and the thrust of its information is rural development rather than production…

  19. Evaluating the accessibility and utility of HIV-related point-of-care diagnostics for maternal health in rural South Africa: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mashamba-Thompson, T P; Drain, P K; Sartorius, B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor healthcare access is a major barrier to receiving antenatal care and a cause of high maternal mortality in South Africa (SA). ‘Point-of-care’ (POC) diagnostics is a powerful emerging healthcare approach to improve healthcare access. This study focuses on evaluating the accessibility and utility of POC diagnostics for maternal health in rural SA primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in order to generate a model framework of implementation of POC diagnostics in rural South African clinics. Method and analyses We will use several research methods, including a systematic review, quasi-experiments, survey, key informant interviews and audits. We will conduct a systematic review and experimental study to determine the impact of POC diagnostics on maternal health. We will perform a cross-sectional case study of 100 randomly selected rural primary healthcare clinics in KwaZulu-Natal to measure the context and patterns of POC diagnostics access and usage by maternal health providers and patients. We will conduct interviews with relevant key stakeholders to determine the reasons for POC deficiencies regarding accessibility and utility of HIV-related POC diagnostics for maternal health. We will also conduct a vertical audit to investigate all the quality aspects of POC diagnostic services including diagnostic accuracy in a select number of clinics. On the basis of information gathered, we will propose a model framework for improved implementation of POC diagnostics in rural South African public healthcare clinics. Statistical (Stata-13) and thematic (NVIVO) data analysis will be used in this study. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of KwaZulu-Natal (BE 484/14) and the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health based on the Helsinki Declaration (HRKM 40/15). Findings of this study will be disseminated electronically and in print. They will be presented to conferences related to HIV/AIDS, diagnostics

  20. The Physician's Assistant in a Rural Satellite Clinic: Report on an Evaluative Case Study of Utilization, Acceptance and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert; And Others

    In an effort to mitigate the maldistribution of U.S. physicians, a rural satellite clinic was established in 1973 to serve the 1,239 citizens of Yale, Oklahoma. The clinic was manned by a graduate of the two year Physician's Associate program at the University of Oklahoma who was under the supervision and employ of a pediatrician located 20 miles…

  1. Non-Formal Environmental Education: The Utilization of Solar Energy for Cooking in a Rural Area in Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Zubeir, Z.

    1997-01-01

    In El Sururab in rural Sudan, solar energy is used for cooking instead of wood. This study explored the efficiency of a hot-box type of solar cooker for storing heat and its effectiveness for different methods of cooking various foods used daily in El Sururab. Forty local women served as a respondent group. (PVD)

  2. 78 FR 33757 - Rural Determination and Financing Percentage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... finance where the project supplies electricity to an electric utility serving an area that is less than... electricity are such that once a project is interconnected to a grid that serves both rural and urban areas... territory is to be supplied with electricity by a RUS-financed project, the Agency proposes that...

  3. Development and testing of a rural credit supervision system at the level of counties and rural properties utilizing remote sensing techniqes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, G. T. (Principal Investigator); Delima, A. M.; Tardin, A. T.; Rudorff, B. F. T.; Mendonca, F. J.; Dosanjosferreirapinto, S.; Chen, S. C.; Duarte, V.

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques for supporting the rural credit supervision system were developed and tested. The test area comprised the counties of Aracatuba and Guararapes, located in the State of Sao Paulo. Aerial photography, LANDSAT images and topographic charts were used. Aerial photographs were extremely useful for the out lining of properties boundaries with financing of sugarcane plantations by the Banco do Brasil S.A.. The percentage of correctly interpreted sugarcane on LANDSAT images, considering the 85 analyzed properties, was of 63.12%. The occurrence of atypical conditions such as excessive raining, sugarcane in bloom, and wind damaged sugarcane and sugarcane not harvested due to planning failures verified during the period the images were obtained, were some of the contributing factors associated with a low interpretation performance. An alternative approach was developed using several LANDSAT overpasses and auxiliary field data, which resulted in 91.77 percent correct.

  4. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Health and Human Services (HHS) for transitional housing for the homeless. 1955.72 Section 1955.72... homeless. (a) FEMA. By a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and FEMA, inventory housing... lease to public bodies and nonprofit organizations to provide transitional housing for the homeless....

  5. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Health and Human Services (HHS) for transitional housing for the homeless. 1955.72 Section 1955.72... homeless. (a) FEMA. By a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and FEMA, inventory housing... lease to public bodies and nonprofit organizations to provide transitional housing for the homeless....

  6. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Health and Human Services (HHS) for transitional housing for the homeless. 1955.72 Section 1955.72... homeless. (a) FEMA. By a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and FEMA, inventory housing... lease to public bodies and nonprofit organizations to provide transitional housing for the homeless....

  7. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Health and Human Services (HHS) for transitional housing for the homeless. 1955.72 Section 1955.72... homeless. (a) FEMA. By a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and FEMA, inventory housing... lease to public bodies and nonprofit organizations to provide transitional housing for the homeless....

  8. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Health and Human Services (HHS) for transitional housing for the homeless. 1955.72 Section 1955.72... homeless. (a) FEMA. By a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and FEMA, inventory housing... lease to public bodies and nonprofit organizations to provide transitional housing for the homeless....

  9. The utilization of antenatal care among rural-to-urban migrant women in Shanghai:a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improving utilization of antenatal care is a critical strategy for achieving China’s Millennium Development Goal of decreasing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). While overall utilization has increased recently in China, an urban vs. rural disparity in access remains. Here we aim to assess utilization of antenatal care in rural-to-urban migrant women and identify its risk and protective factors. Methods Migrant women who had been living in Shanghai for more than six months, delivered in one of the two study hospitals between August 2009 and February 2010, and provided written consent were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results Of 767 women, 90.1% (691) made at least one antenatal care visit, while 49.7% (381) had adequately utilized antenatal care (i.e., made five or more antenatal care visits). Only 19.7% of women visited an antenatal care center during the first trimester (12 weeks). Women between the ages of 25 and 30 and women older than 30 were more likely than younger women to have adequately utilized antenatal care (AOR=2.2 and 1.9, 95%CI=1.4-3.5 and 1.1-3.2, respectively). Women whose husbands held Shanghai residency status (AOR=4.9, 95%CI=2.2-10.9) or who had more than 10 years of education (AOR=1.8, 95%CI=1.2-2.9), previously experienced a miscarriage or abortion (AOR=2.2, 95%CI=1.3-3.8), had higher household income (AOR=1.6, 95%CI=1.0-2.5) were more likely to have adequately utilized antenatal care. Women from high-income households were also more likely to receive antenatal care during the first 12 weeks (AOR=3.5, 95%CI=1.7-5.5). Conclusions Many migrant women in Shanghai did not receive adequate antenatal care and initiated antenatal care later than the optimal first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Poor antenatal care utilization was associated with low socioeconomic status, education, and certain demographic factors. Tailored health education for both migrant women and their husbands should be strengthened to improve maternal

  10. Country Life and the Country School: A Study of the Agencies of Rural Progress and of the Social Relationship of the School to the Country Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Mabel

    Written in 1912, this book addresses the role of teachers in improving rural farm life. Rural-to-urban migration had resulted in the loss of leadership from rural localities and the decline of agriculture, and country life had lost its prestige both socially and economically. This book suggests that the country school is the key to achieving…

  11. Design, development and installation of 100kW utility and grid connected solar PV power plants for rural applications -- An Indian experience

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, M.R.; Gupta, D.V.; Gupta, R.C.; Gupta, R.S.

    1994-12-31

    Two 100 kW Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants have been installed in the State of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, by Central Electronics Limited (CEL) for the Non-Conventional Energy Development Agency (NEDA) of UP. In the absence of prior experience on such large capacity Solar PV Power Plants, an experimental pilot PV power plant of 25 KW capacity was installed in CEL to gain hands-on experience and the lessons learnt were made use of while installing the two power plants. This paper briefly describes the features of the two power plants, the developmental approach adopted based on Building Block Philosophy with 25 kW System as the basic unit with the attendant advantages. It includes the indigenous design and development effort made for grid connected operation and most importantly the special design features incorporated to ensure a very high degree of safety and protection so necessary in the rural areas with predominantly non-literate users. The paper concludes with some important lessons learnt from both the technical and logistics point of view for guiding installation of similar such plants in the remote rural areas in India and other developing countries in the future.

  12. Staff Retention and Recruitment. Implications of Staff Organization and Utilization in Rural and Urban Mental Health Facilities in the South. Final Report: Distribution of Mental Health Professionals Supplemental Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhart, Margaret A.; Ruff, Teresa C.

    This project explored influences of the service delivery system on the distribution, especially the rural-urban distribution, of mental health practitioners in public settings. Research was planned as a two-phase pilot study--an ethnographic phase (open-ended interviews and day-long observations at 14 mental health agencies) and a survey phase…

  13. Rural Energy Conference Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer; Shannon Watson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska remains, even at the beginning of the 21st century, a place with many widely scattered, small, remote communities, well beyond the end of both the road system and the power grid. These communities have the highest energy costs of any place in the United States, despite the best efforts of the utilities that service them. This is due to the widespread dependence on diesel electric generators, which require small capital investments, but recent increases in crude oil prices have resulted in dramatic increases in the cost of power. In the enabling legislation for the Arctic Energy Office in 2001, specific inclusion was made for the study of ways of reducing the cost of electrical power in these remote communities. As part of this mandate, the University of Alaska has, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, the Denali Commission and the Alaska Energy Authority, organized a series of rural energy conferences, held approximately every 18 months. The goal of these meeting was to bring together rural utility operators, rural community leaders, government agency representatives, equipment suppliers, and researchers from universities and national laboratories to discuss the current state of the art in rural power generation, to discuss current projects, including successes as well as near successes. Many of the conference presenters were from industry and not accustomed to writing technical papers, so the typical method of organizing a conference by requesting abstracts and publishing proceedings was not considered viable. Instead, the organizing committee solicited presentations from appropriate individuals, and requested that (if they were comfortable with computers) prepare Power point presentations that were collected and posted on the web. This has become a repository of many presentations, and may be the best single source of information about current projects in the state of Alaska.

  14. 7 CFR 1780.62 - Utility purchase contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... accordance with the decisions of the appropriate State agency which may have regulatory authority. (d) Cover... condition to making the service available to the owner. However, the payment of such charges from loan...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Blue Signal Protection for Utility Employees

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... crew by adding or reducing railroad cars to or from the train. The utility employee may perform any... handbrakes, coupling air hoses and other connections, prepare rail cars for coupling, and perform air brake... and assembling railroad cars. The yard crew onboard their locomotive arrives at the location in...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Blue Signal Protection for Utility Employees

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... crew by adding or reducing railroad cars to or from the train. The utility employee may perform any... handbrakes, coupling air hoses and other connections, prepare rail cars for coupling, and perform air brake... and assembling railroad cars. The yard crew onboard their locomotive arrives at the location in...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Blue Signal Protection for Utility Employees

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... crew by adding or reducing railroad cars to or from the train. The utility employee may perform any... handbrakes, coupling air hoses and other connections, prepare rail cars for coupling, and perform air brake... and assembling railroad cars. The yard crew onboard their locomotive arrives at the location in...

  18. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  19. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time. PMID:27239377

  20. Rural areas electrification (Latin America), Guatemala City, Guatemala, June 4--7, 1989: Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    ORNL serves the function of monitoring the Central American Rural Electrification Support Program (CARES) of US Agency for International Development (USAID), which is administered by NRECA. The results of the Demand Assessment Model, presented at the conference, were reviewed, and a paper on the use of marginal cost analysis for rural electrification was delivered for presentation by NRECA staff. Discussions on the acceptability of the model were discussed with utility representatives.

  1. Determinants of Utilization and Community Experiences with Community Health Volunteers for Treatment of Childhood Illnesses in Rural Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Yansaneh, Aisha I; George, Asha S; Sharkey, Alyssa; Brieger, William R; Moulton, Lawrence H; Yumkella, Fatu; Bangura, Peter; Kabano, Augustin; Diaz, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, at the same time as the national roll out of the Free Health Care Initiative (FHCI), which removed user fees for facility based health care, trained community health volunteers (CHVs) were deployed to provide integrated community case management of diarrhea, malaria and pneumonia to children under 5 years of age (U5) in Kambia and Pujehun districts, Sierra Leone. After 2 years of implementation and in the context of FHCI, CHV utilization rate was 14.0 %. In this study, we examine the factors associated with this level of CHV utilization. A cross-sectional household-cluster survey of 1590 caregivers of 2279 children U5 was conducted in 2012; with CHV utilization assessed using a multiple logistic regression model. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were also conducted to understand communities' experiences with CHVs. Children with diarrhea (OR = 3.17, 95 % CI: 1.17-8.60), from female-headed households (OR = 4.55, 95 % CI: 1.88-11.00), and whose caregivers reported poor quality of care as a barrier to facility care-seeking (OR = 8.53, 95 % CI: 3.13-23.16) were more likely to receive treatment from a CHV. Despite low utilization, caregivers were highly familiar and appreciative of CHVs, but were concerned about the lack of financial remuneration for CHVs. CHVs remained an important source of care for children from female-headed households and whose caregivers reported poor quality of care at health facilities. CHVs are an important strategy for certain populations even when facility utilization is high or when facility services are compromised, as has happened with the recent Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone.

  2. The effects of utility evaluations, biomedical knowledge and modernization on intention to exclusively use biomedical health facilities among rural households in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Mukolo, Abraham; Cooil, Bruce; Victor, Bart

    2015-08-01

    In resource-limited settings, the choice between utilizing biomedical health services and/or traditional healers is critical to the success of the public health mission. In the literature, this choice has been predicted to be influenced by three major factors: knowledge about biomedical etiologies; cultural modernization; and rational choice. The current study investigated all three of these predicted determinants, applying data from a general household survey conducted in 2010 in Zambézia Province of Mozambique involving 1045 randomly sampled rural households. Overall, more respondents (N = 802) intended to continue to supplement their biomedical healthcare with traditional healer services in comparison with those intending to utilize biomedical care exclusively (N = 243). The findings strongly supported the predicted association between rational utility (measured as satisfaction with the quality of service and results from past care) with the future intention to continue to supplement or utilize biomedical care exclusively. Odds of moving away from supplementation increase by a factor of 2.5 if the respondent reported seeing their condition improve under government/private biomedical care. Odds of staying with supplementation increase by a factor 3.1 if the respondent was satisfied with traditional care and a factor of 16 if the condition had improved under traditional care. Modernization variables (education, income, religion, and Portuguese language skills) were relevant and provided a significant component of the best scientific model. Amount of biomedical knowledge was not a significant predictor of choice. There was a small effect on choice from knowing the limitations of biomedical care. The findings have implications for public healthcare promotion activities in areas where biomedical care is introduced as an alternative to traditional healing.

  3. Measuring Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

  4. Utilization of Clean and Safe Delivery Service Package of Health Services Extension Program and Associated Factors in Rural Kebeles of Kafa Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bayou, Negalign Berhanu; Gacho, Yohannes Haile Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, 94% of births take place at home unattended by trained persons. The government introduced an innovative strategy, Health Services Extension Program in 2003. Clean and safe delivery service is a component of maternal and child healthcare package of the program. However, little is known about the status of uptake of the service. This study thus aimed to assess utilization of clean and safe delivery service and associated factors in rural kebeles of Kafa Zone, Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in rural kebeles of Kefa Zone from January 21st to February 25th, 2009 using a sample of 229 mothers. Kafa Zone is located 465 kilometres away from Addis Ababa to southwest of Ethiopia. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16. OR and 95% CI were calculated. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Utilization of clean and safe delivery service was 43(19%). Women with formal schooling and those who knew at least two danger signs of pregnancy and labor were more likely to use the service than their counterparts; (AOR=5.8, 95% CI=2.1, 16) and (AOR=3.0, 95% CI=2.2, 10.6), respectively. Of 108(47.8%) mothers who had at least one antenatal care visit, 36(33.3%), were not advised about danger signs. Women who had at least one ANC visit and those who were advised about the danger signs of pregnancy and labor appeared to be more likely to use the service than their counterparts; (AOR=6.1, 95% CI=1.9, 21.3), and (AOR=5.4, 95%CI= 1.4, 21.7), respectively. Conclusion Utilization of the service is low and was determined by women's educational status, history of abortion, knowledge of danger signs and antenatal care attendance. Educating women and improving their knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy and labor is recommended. Health extension workers should consider antenatal care visits as opportunities for this purpose. PMID:23950624

  5. Utilization of eye care services among those with unilateral visual impairment in rural South India: Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS)

    PubMed Central

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Giridhar, Pyda; Khanna, Rohit C

    2017-01-01

    AIM To report on the utilization of eye care services and its associated factors among those with unilateral visual impairment (VI) in a rural South Indian population. METHODS A population based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts (Adilabad, Mahbubnagar and West Godavari) in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. A detailed interview and a comprehensive eye examination were conducted. Those with unilateral VI were asked questions about noticing any change in vision and on utilization of eye care services. The most important reason reported by the participant for not utilizing the services was used for the analysis. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association between noticing a change in vision and socio-demographic variables such as age, gender, education and area of residence, severity and causes of VI. RESULTS Among the 4456 participants aged ≥16y who were administered the questionnaire, 53.2% were women, and 54.7% had no education. Of the 489 (11%; 95% CI: 10.1-11.9) people with unilateral VI, 399 (81.6%) participants reported noticing a change in their vision over the last five years but only 136 (34.1%) participants had sought eye care consultation. Those who had any education (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.2), had blindness (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4-5.2), and cataract (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.3) as a cause of unilateral VI were more like to seek eye care consultations. The most commonly reported reasons for not seeking eye care services were “do not have money for eye checkup” in 30.7% of the participants followed by “do not have a serious problem” (30.0%). CONCLUSION A large proportion of rural population though noticed a change in their vision did not seek eye care due to financial and person-related reasons. Eye care service providers need to address these barriers to enhance the uptake of eye care services among those with unilateral VI. PMID:28393042

  6. Distance, transportation cost, and mode of transport in the utilization of facility-based maternity services: evidence from rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Keya, Kaji Tamanna; Rob, Ubaidur; Rahman, Moshiur; Bajracharya, Ashish; Bellows, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Although the maternal mortality ratio in Bangladesh has decreased, significant underutilization of facilities continues to be a persistent challenge to policy makers. Women face long distances and significant transportation cost to deliver at health facilities. This study identifies the distance traveled to utilize facilities, associated transportation cost, and transport mode used for maternal healthcare services. A total of 3,300 mothers aged 18-49 years, who had given birth in the year before the survey, were interviewed from 22 sub-districts in 2010. Findings suggest that facility-based maternal healthcare service utilization was very poor. Only 53% of women received antenatal care, 20% used delivery care. and 10% used postnatal care from health centers. Median distance traveled for antenatal and postnatal check-ups was 2 kilometers but 4 kilometers for complication management care and delivery. Most women used non-motorized rickshaw or van to reach a health facility. On average, women spent Taka 100 (US$1.40) as transportation cost for antenatal care, Taka 432 (US$6.17) for delivery, and Taka 132 (US$1.89) for postnatal check-up. For each additional kilometer, the cost increased by Taka 9 (US$0.13) for antenatal, Taka 31 (US$0.44) for delivery, and Taka 8 (US$0.11) for postnatal care.

  7. The Financial Burden of Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases in Rural Nigeria: Wealth and Gender Heterogeneity in Health Care Utilization and Health Expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Wendy; de Bree, Godelieve J.; Aderibigbe, Sunday A.; Akande, Tanimola M.; Mesnard, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Better insights into health care utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD) are needed to develop accessible health care and limit the increasing financial burden of NCCDs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A household survey was conducted in rural Kwara State, Nigeria, among 5,761 individuals. Data were obtained using biomedical and socio-economic questionnaires. Health care utilization, NCCD-related health expenditures and distances to health care providers were compared by sex and by wealth quintile, and a Heckman regression model was used to estimate health expenditures taking selection bias in health care utilization into account. Results The prevalence of NCCDs in our sample was 6.2%. NCCD-affected individuals from the wealthiest quintile utilized formal health care nearly twice as often as those from the lowest quintile (87.8% vs 46.2%, p = 0.002). Women reported foregone formal care more often than men (43.5% vs. 27.0%, p = 0.058). Health expenditures relative to annual consumption of the poorest quintile exceeded those of the highest quintile 2.2-fold, and the poorest quintile exhibited a higher rate of catastrophic health spending (10.8% among NCCD-affected households) than the three upper quintiles (4.2% to 6.7%). Long travel distances to the nearest provider, highest for the poorest quintile, were a significant deterrent to seeking care. Using distance to the nearest facility as instrument to account for selection into health care utilization, we estimated out-of-pocket health care expenditures for NCCDs to be significantly higher in the lowest wealth quintile compared to the three upper quintiles. Conclusions Facing potentially high health care costs and poor accessibility of health care facilities, many individuals suffering from NCCDs—particularly women and the poor—forego formal care, thereby increasing the risk of more severe illness in the future. When seeking care, the poor spend less on

  8. 75 FR 33573 - Rural Housing Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service Notice of Acceptance of Proposals for the Section 538 Multi-Family Housing Guaranteed Rural Rental Housing Program (GRRHP) Demonstration Program for Fiscal Year 2010; Correction AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Rural...

  9. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TO SAFELY AND EFFECTIVELY COMPLETE NUCLEAR CONSTRUCTION WORK

    SciTech Connect

    LESO KF; HAMILTON HM; FARNER M; HEATH T

    2010-01-14

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small

  10. 76 FR 38604 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA). SUMMARY: Pursuant to 7 CFR part 4284, subpart G, the Rural Business- Cooperative Service (RBS), an Agency within...

  11. US agency for international development

    SciTech Connect

    Pumfrey, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

  12. The utility of rural and underserved designations in geospatial assessments of distance traveled to healthcare services: implications for public health research and practice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B; Wendel, Monica L; Ahn, Sangnam; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Drake, Kelly N; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities research in rural populations is based on several common taxonomies identified by geography and population density. However, little is known about the implications of different rurality definitions on public health outcomes. To help illuminate the meaning of different rural designations often used in research, service delivery, or policy reports, this study will (1) review the different definitions of rurality and their purposes; (2) identify the overlap of various rural designations in an eight-county Brazos Valley region in Central Texas; (3) describe participant characteristic profiles based on distances traveled to obtain healthcare services; and (4) examine common profile characteristics associated with each designation. Data were analyzed from a random sample from 1,958 Texas adults participating in a community assessment. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify natural groupings of individuals based on distance traveled to obtain three healthcare services: medical care, dental care, and prescription medication pick-up. Significant variation in cluster representation and resident characteristics was observed by rural designation. Given widely used taxonomies for designating areas as rural (or provider shortage) in health-related research, this study highlights differences that could influence research results and subsequent program and policy development based on rural designation.

  13. 76 FR 3605 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications (NOSA) for Inviting Rural Business Enterprise Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of Solicitation of Applications (NOSA) for Inviting Rural... Transportation Systems AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBS), an Agency within the USDA Rural Development mission area,...

  14. Volunteers for People in Need. Report of "Knowledge Utilization Conference on the Use of Volunteers in Vocational Rehabilitation and Public Welfare Agencies" (Washington, D.C. June 4-6, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of Rehabilitation Facilities, Washington, DC.

    This publication contains the formal papers and the summaries of informal discussions from a "Knowledge Utilization Conference on the Use of Volunteers in Vocational Rehabilitation and Public Welfare Agencies." The conference took place June 4-6, 1972, in the Washington, D.C. area. It was sponsored by the International Association of…

  15. Learning about Social Work in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Emilia

    1978-01-01

    A cooperative experiment among Pennsylvania rural communities and the University of Delaware and La Salle College, this course ("Re-Emerging Issues in Social Welfare: The Rural and Small Community") was developed to expose urban students to a rural environment and to utilize rural educational resources. (JC)

  16. Client outcomes from rural substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Matthew L; Leukefeld, Carl G; Garrity, Thomas F; Godlaski, Theodore; Schoeneberger, Marlies; Townsend, Michael; Hascal, Karyn

    2007-03-01

    Several national evaluations have been conducted since the late 1960s that have assessed the effectiveness of publicly-funded substance abuse treatment in the United States. These studies, however, have focused principally on urban-based treatment programs, and it is unclear whether findings from urban programs can be replicated in outcome studies of programs in rural areas. The current study, therefore, examined the treatment outcomes of clients admitted to one of several short-term inpatient or outpatient drug-free treatment agencies in rural Kentucky. Findings showed that treatment was associated with reductions in drug use and criminality during a six-month follow-up interval. Employment status also improved significantly, and health services utilization was reduced. The similarity between the current findings and findings from national outcome studies of urban-based treatment programs is discussed.

  17. Rural Communities and Rural Social Issues: Priorities for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Alan; Duff, John; Saggers, Sherry; Baines, Patricia

    This report recommends priorities for research into rural communities and rural social issues in Australia, based on an extensive literature review, surveys of policymaking agencies and researchers, and discussion at a national workshop in May 1999. Chapters 1-2 outline the study's background, purpose, and methodology; discuss issues in the…

  18. 77 FR 41185 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and...

  19. Need for Improvement of Rural School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, V. Pauline

    The Government Accounting Agency estimates that one third of the nation's schools are in need of extensive repairs or replacement of one or more buildings. The condition of America's rural schools are at a crisis stage and need to be improved to continue to educate rural youth. This paper profiles the state of rural schools' infrastructure, rural…

  20. Energy requirements for rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    1988-06-01

    This study on the role of energy in the development of rural areas was originally conducted in the spring and summer of 1985. It was intended to serve as a background paper for the preparation of a program plan for the Office of Energy of the United States Agency for International Development. As such it begins with a brief overview of how rural development fits into national development, then offers a comprehensive framework for thinking about rural development in particular and the energy implications of the various components of rural development. Agriculture naturally comes to mind when rural areas are mentioned, but industry is an important component of rural activity as well. Consequently, both agricultural and nonagricultural energy use is discussed. Modernization of rural areas will change household, as well as production, energy use. However, household energy use is a veritable subject in its own right, with a large literature. Consequently, that topic is discussed in less detail than the production energy topics.

  1. An Inquiry into Rural Dwellers' Opinions about Living Conditions in Urban and Rural Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azarkh, Emilia Davidovna; Korel, Liudmila Vasilyevna

    Utilizing data derived from a questionnaire survey of the rural population of Novosibirsk province in the USSR, the following hypothesis was tested: the attitude of rural inhabitants toward urban and rural conditions is characterized by a considerable preponderance of positive evaluations of dominant rural conditions and transient urban conditions…

  2. Rural Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of food programs are available for rural seniors? Rural older adults may benefit from a range ... guide, What are some food assistance programs for seniors, such as home meal deliveries, in rural communities? ...

  3. Utilization of Mobile Facilities for Development of Entry Work Skills for Arkansas' Rural Unemployed and Low Income Earners, a Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Reno. School Planning Lab.

    Data were gathered through personal interviews to ascertain the feasibility of using mobile training facilities for adults who were unemployed and underemployed in rural Arkansas. Mobile facilities which had been developed for various purposes were reviewed. Recommendations included that (1) a 1-year pilot field test of selected facilities be…

  4. The U.S. Department of Education's Rural Education Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Describes 1982 creation of United States Department of Education's Intra-Agency Committee on Rural Education. Summarizes 10 rural policy initiatives proposed in "Rural Education and Rural Family Education Policy for the 80s." Lists major accomplishments/strategies including conferences, annual reports, and information network. Outlines…

  5. 75 FR 41695 - Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service 7 CFR Part 4280 RIN 0570-AA71 Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program; Correction AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Correcting amendments..., 2010. Judith A. Canales, Administrator, Rural Business-Cooperative Service. BILLING CODE 3410-XY-P...

  6. 77 FR 8854 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC) will be renewed for an additional...

  7. One Department Serving Rural America: HHS Rural Task Force Report to the Secretary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    In 2001, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) created a rural task force to develop strategies to improve HHS services in rural communities. Fifteen HHS agencies have programs serving rural communities; child- and education-related programs provide child welfare services, Head Start, health promotion and prevention services, training…

  8. 77 FR 42185 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... support on a limited, interim, fiscally responsible basis for specific Rural Health Care Pilot Program... will preserve transitioning Pilot Program participants' connectivity and the resulting health...

  9. EPA Form 5700‑52A: United States Environmental Protection Agency Minority Business Enterprise/Woman Business Enterprise Utilization under Federal Grants and Cooperative Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    MBE/WBE utilization is based on 40 CFR Part 33. EPA Form 5700-52A must be completed by recipients of Federal grants, cooperative agreements, or other Federal financial assistance which involve procurement of supplies, equipment, construction, etc.

  10. 75 FR 55578 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of a meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy... on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and...

  11. National Imagery and Mapping Agency Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Utility Software Environment (NIMAMUSE) Fusion V2.1 Test Plan and Test Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data...Washington, DC 20503. 1 . AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE June 25, 1998 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND...Ramsey, Planning Systems Incorporated 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 OVERVIEW 1 3 TEST PREPARATIONS 1 4 TEST DESCRIPTIONS 2 4.1 GENERAL GUIDELINES 2 4.2 SPECIAL

  12. Using the community-based health planning and services program to promote skilled delivery in rural Ghana: socio-demographic factors that influence women utilization of skilled attendants at birth in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The burden of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is enormous. In Ghana the maternal mortality ratio was 350 per 100,000 live births in 2010. Skilled birth attendance has been shown to reduce maternal deaths and disabilities, yet in 2010 only 68% of mothers in Ghana gave birth with skilled birth attendants. In 2005, the Ghana Health Service piloted an enhancement of its Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) program, training Community Health Officers (CHOs) as midwives, to address the gap in skilled attendance in rural Upper East Region (UER). The study determined the extent to which CHO-midwives skilled delivery program achieved its desired outcomes in UER among birthing women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional household survey with women who had ever given birth in the three years prior to the survey. We employed a two stage sampling techniques: In the first stage we proportionally selected enumeration areas, and the second stage involved random selection of households. In each household, where there is more than one woman with a child within the age limit, we interviewed the woman with the youngest child. We collected data on awareness of the program, use of the services and factors that are associated with skilled attendants at birth. Results A total of 407 households/women were interviewed. Eighty three percent of respondents knew that CHO-midwives provided delivery services in CHPS zones. Seventy nine percent of the deliveries were with skilled attendants; and over half of these skilled births (42% of total) were by CHO-midwives. Multivariate analyses showed that women of the Nankana ethnic group and those with uneducated husbands were less likely to access skilled attendants at birth in rural settings. Conclusions The implementation of the CHO-midwife program in UER appeared to have contributed to expanded skilled delivery care access and utilization for rural women. However, women of the Nankana ethnic group and uneducated

  13. Rural Oregon Community Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Young-Lorion, Julia; Davis, Melinda M.; Kirks, Nancy; Hsu, Anna; Slater, Jana Kay; Rollins, Nancy; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Community Health Improvement Partnership (CHIP) model has supported community health development in more than 100 communities nationally. In 2011, four rural Oregon CHIPs collaborated with investigators from the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN), a component of the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), to obtain training on research methods, develop and implement pilot research studies on childhood obesity, and explore matches with academic partners. This article summarizes the experiences of the Lincoln County CHIP, established in 2003, as it transitioned from CHIP to Community Health Improvement and Research Partnership (CHIRP). Our story and lessons learned may inform rural community-based health coalitions and academicians who are engaged in or considering Community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Utilizing existing infrastructure and relationships in community and academic settings provides an ideal starting point for rural, bidirectional research partnerships. PMID:24056513

  14. The two faces of enhancing utilization of health-care services: determinants of patient initiation and retention in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Mugisha, Frederick; Bocar, Kouyate; Dong, Hengjin; Chepng'eno, Gloria; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors that determine whether a patient will initiate treatment within a system of health-care services, and the factors that determine whether the patient will be retained in the chosen system, in Nouna, rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: The data used were pooled from four rounds of a household survey conducted in Nouna, rural Burkina Faso. The ongoing demographic surveillance system provided a sampling framework for this survey in which 800 households were sampled using a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. More than one treatment episode was observed for a single episode of illness per patient. The multinomial logit model was used to explore the determinants of patient initiation to systems of modern, traditional and home treatment, and a binary logit model was used to explore the determinants of patient retention within the chosen health-care provider system. FINDINGS: The results suggest that the determinants of patient initiation and their subsequent retention are different. Household income, education, urban residence and expected competency of the provider are positive predictors of initiation, but not of retention, for modern health-care services. Only perceived quality of care positively predicted retention in modern health-care services. CONCLUSION: Interventions focusing on patient initiation and patient retention are likely to be different. Policies directed at enhancing initiation for modern health-care services would primarily focus on reducing financial barriers, while those directed at increasing retention would primarily focus on attributes that improve the perceived quality of care. PMID:15375446

  15. The impact of system level factors on treatment timeliness: utilizing the Toyota Production System to implement direct intake scheduling in a semi-rural community mental health clinic.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G; Goughler, Donald H; Yarzebinski, Kathleen; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and 100 randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160) = 4.9; p = .03) from an average of 11 to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160) = 4.2; p = .04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children's treatment timeliness.

  16. 7 CFR 1944.69 - Agency point of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency point of contact. 1944.69 Section 1944.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... contact. Grantees must submit packages to the appropriate Agency office serving the designated county...

  17. 7 CFR 1944.69 - Agency point of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency point of contact. 1944.69 Section 1944.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... contact. Grantees must submit packages to the appropriate Agency office serving the designated county...

  18. 7 CFR 1944.69 - Agency point of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Agency point of contact. 1944.69 Section 1944.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... contact. Grantees must submit packages to the appropriate Agency office serving the designated county...

  19. 7 CFR 1944.69 - Agency point of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Agency point of contact. 1944.69 Section 1944.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... contact. Grantees must submit packages to the appropriate Agency office serving the designated county...

  20. 7 CFR 1944.69 - Agency point of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Agency point of contact. 1944.69 Section 1944.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... contact. Grantees must submit packages to the appropriate Agency office serving the designated county...

  1. The role of health extension workers in improving utilization of maternal health services in rural areas in Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community health workers are widely used to provide care for a broad range of health issues. Since 2003 the government of Ethiopia has been deploying specially trained new cadres of community based health workers named health extension workers (HEWs). This initiative has been called the health extension program. Very few studies have investigated the role of these community health workers in improving utilization of maternal health services. Methods A cross sectional survey of 725 randomly selected women with under-five children from three districts in Northern Ethiopia. We investigated women’s utilization of family planning, antenatal care, birth assistance, postnatal care, HIV testing and use of iodized salt and compared our results to findings of a previous national survey from 2005. In addition, we investigated the association between several variables and utilization of maternal health services using logistic regression analysis. Results HEWs have contributed substantially to the improvement in women’s utilization of family planning, antenatal care and HIV testing. However, their contribution to the improvement in health facility delivery, postnatal check up and use of iodized salt seems insignificant. Women who were literate (OR, 1.85), listened to the radio (OR, 1.45), had income generating activities (OR, 1.43) and had been working towards graduation or graduated as model family (OR, 2.13) were more likely to demonstrate good utilization of maternal health services. A model family is by definition a family which has fulfilled all the packages of the HEP. Conclusions The HEWs seem to have substantial contribution in several aspects of utilization of maternal health services but their insignificant contribution in improving health facility delivery and skilled birth attendance remains an important problem. More effort is needed to improve the effectiveness of HEWs in these regards. For example, strengthening HEWs’ support for pregnant women

  2. Rural Rehabilitation. A State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Michael; Schneider, Mary Jo

    To provide a complete picture of vocational rehabilitation needs of the rural disabled and to assist agencies in the development of improved services for the rural disabled, researchers reviewed pertinent literature since 1960 and held informal discussions with knowledgeable professionals. The literature review revealed a lack of knowledge of…

  3. [Rural Manpower Development Program, Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Office of Economic Opportunity, Trenton.

    The Rural Manpower Development Program (RMDP) is an agency of the New Jersey Office of Economic Opportunity established for the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of a comprehensive manpower service for unemployed or underemployed disadvantaged people from the rural areas of New Jersey. Included in this achievement report is historical and…

  4. Rural Youth and Multimedia: An Interagency Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumby, Susan; Eversole, Robyn; Scholfield, Kaye; Watt, Leanne

    2007-01-01

    The 10MMM multimedia project began in late 2002 in a rural region of western Victoria and has now entered its second stage. It is an inter-agency initiative intended to decrease the social isolation of rural young people and stimulate the expression of youth "voice" and leadership using multimedia tools. As the process of working with…

  5. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in rural areas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…

  6. 77 FR 33704 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants AGENCY... announces the availability of grants through the Rural Business Opportunity Grant Program (RBOG) for Fiscal... instructions for the RBOG funding announcement on www.grants.gov . If you want to submit a paper...

  7. 76 FR 37307 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... services under the rural health care program. Grandfathered providers do not currently qualify as ``rural,'' but play a key role in delivering health care services to surrounding regions that do qualify...

  8. 78 FR 54967 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... information collection associated with the Commission's Universal Service--Rural Health Care Program, Report... August 23, 2013). OMB Expiration Date: August 31, 2016. Title: Universal Service--Rural Health...

  9. 78 FR 38606 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Form. This announcement is consistent with the Universal Service--Rural Health Care Program, Report and... of the Instructions; Page 8, line 122, the Rural Health Care Program offset indicator was...

  10. 76 FR 37280 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...) adopts an interim rule permitting health care providers that are located in a ``rural area'' under the... rural health care program prior to July 1, 2005, to continue to be treated as if they are located...

  11. Rural Development: Part 5, (1) Balanced National Growth Policy; (2) National Rural Development Program; (3) S. 1612, The Rural Community Development Revenue Sharing Act of 1971; (4) Reorganization of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 1st Session, September 9, 1971, Stillwater, Okla....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of the 1971 Senate hearings on rural development held in Stillwater, Oklahoma and Lincoln, Nebraska are presented in this document. Derived from many sources representing the varied interests of each host state, representative testimony includes that of: university professors and administrators; State and Federal legislators; chamber…

  12. Rural Development: Part 3, (1) Balanced National Growth Policy; (2) National Rural Development Program; (3) S. 1612, The Rural Community Development Revenue Sharing Act of 1971; (4) Reorganization of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, 92d Congress, 1st Session, May 3, 1971, Sioux City, Iowa; May 4, 1971 Vermillion, ....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of the 1971 Senate hearings on rural development (held in Sioux City, Iowa; Montgomery, Alabama; Vermillion, South Dakota; and Tifton, Georgia) are presented in this document. Derived from many sources representing the varied interests of each host State, representative testimony includes that of: city and state officials; university…

  13. 77 FR 54877 - Guaranteed Rural Rental Housing Low Loan-to-Cost Ratio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Rural Housing Service Guaranteed Rural Rental Housing Low Loan-to-Cost Ratio AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Rural Housing Service announces the low loan-to-cost ratio... Housing Program (GRRHP). The GRRHP is authorized by section 538 of the Housing Act of 1949, as amended...

  14. 76 FR 22608 - Notice of a Public Meeting on the Rural Energy for America Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service 7 CFR Part 4280 Notice of a Public Meeting on the Rural Energy for America Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBS) will hold two informational Webinars for the...

  15. 75 FR 17121 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Rural Business--Cooperative Service Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants; Correction AGENCY: Rural Business--Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Rural Business--Cooperative Service published a document in the Federal Register of March 29, 2010,...

  16. Rural Agrobusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treillon, Roland; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

  17. Casas Maternas in the Rural Highlands of Guatemala: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of the Introduction and Utilization of Birthing Facilities by an Indigenous Population

    PubMed Central

    Stollak, Ira; Valdez, Mario; Rivas, Karin; Perry, Henry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: An international NGO, with financial and managerial support from “partner” communities, established Casas Maternas (birthing facilities) in 3 municipalities in the isolated northwestern highlands of the department of Huehuetenango in Guatemala—an area with high maternal mortality ratio (338 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births). Traditional birth attendants are encouraged to bring patients for delivery at the Casas Maternas, where trained staff are present and access to referral care is facilitated. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods study in San Sebastian Coatán municipality to assess the contribution of 2 Casas Maternas to health facility deliveries among partner and non-partner communities, with particular emphasis on equity in access. We surveyed all women who delivered in the study area between April 2013 and March 2014, the first full year in which both Casas Maternas in the study area were operating. In addition, using purposive sampling, we conducted in-depth interviews with 22 women who delivered and 6 focus group discussions with 42 community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and Casas Maternas staff members. We analyzed the quantitative data using descriptive statstics and the qualitative data with descriptive content analysis. Results: Of the 321 women eligible for inclusion in the study, we surveyed 275 women (14.3% could not be located or refused to participate). Between April 2013 and March 2014, 70% of women living in partner communities delivered in a health facility (54% in a Casa Materna) compared with 30% of women living in non-partner communities (17% in a Casa Materna). There was no statistically significant difference in uptake of the Casa Materna by maternal education and only a weak effect by household wealth. In contrast, distance from the Casa Materna had a pronounced effect. Traditional birth attendants were strong advocates for utilization of the Casa Materna and played an important role in the

  18. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  19. Integrating the Arts in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galles, Karen

    1986-01-01

    Describes integrated approach to teaching the arts which can be utilized in single or multi-grade classrooms in rural settings by teachers who may not have a background in any art form. Addresses problems of time, preparation, and resources that hinder curriculum development by rural educators. (NEC)

  20. Women's Status in a Rural Chinese Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jianghong

    2005-01-01

    This study extends the literature by identifying two new dimensions of rural women?s status (husband?s housework sharing and women?s exposure to the larger world, in addition to power and autonomy) based on rich information from a representative sample of 1.062 childbearing women in rural Yunnan, China. It utilizes linear structural relations…

  1. 7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consistent with Applicant's business plan, especially as the plan relates to the Applicant's ability to... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ)...

  2. 7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consistent with Applicant's business plan, especially as the plan relates to the Applicant's ability to... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ)...

  3. Rural Improvement Project (RIP). [Summary and Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yvon, Bernard R., Comp.

    The aim of the Rural Improvement Project of Maine from Spring, 1969-Fall, 1970 was to improve the quality of rural education through an innovative attempt to utilize specialized, trained personnel (Cooperating Rural Resource Teachers; associate teachers; teacher aides; 3 undergraduate teachers; and an elementary guidance counselor) and to…

  4. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  5. Government Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    manufacturers. The Navy has a major in- house design capability for ships; the government does not possess such a capability for aircraft or other weapon systems...the Coast Guard, government agencies acquire a wide variety of ships, ranging from sophisticated submarines and nuclear aircraft carriers to much...the initial phase a review was made of written material relating to government procedures in U.S. Government agencies for acquiring vessels, aircraft

  6. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart E of... - FmHA or Its Successor Agency Under Public Law 103-354 Financed Contract

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... Civil Rights Compliance Requirements Pt. 1901, Subpt. E, Exh. C Exhibit C to Subpart E of Part...

  7. Market research for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Shippee, G.

    1999-12-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to.

  8. (Mid-term evaluation of the Central America Rural Electrification Support program)

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.

    1990-03-30

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was requested by Regional Office for Central America and Panama (ROCAP) to conduct a mid-term evaluation of the CARES project. Numerous meetings were held with National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) staff, ROCAP staff, and local officials in Guatemala, Honduras, and Belize. In general, the CARES project has been quite successful in a number of key areas as well as in soliciting support from utilities and US Agency for International Development (USAID) Missions. Changes were recommended in the area of report writing and some management activities. It was also recommended that any new activities be considered in the light of the availability of local personnel.

  9. Cost Effective Delivery Strategies in Rural Areas: Programs for Young Handicapped Children. Vol. I. Making It Work in Rural Communities. A Rural Network Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Talbot, Ed.; Hutinger, Patricia, Ed.

    Using a common format outlining program settings, agencies, children/families served, staff, services, delivery strategies, and program costs, descriptions of four cost-effective rural service delivery programs for young handicapped children provide evidence that good rural programs are affordable. The Early Lifestyle Program at King's Daughters'…

  10. Rural Women's Transitions to Motherhood: Understanding Social Support in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports to…

  11. Research on Employment in the Rural Nonfarm Sector in Africa. African Rural Employment Paper No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedholm, Carl

    Within the context of the role of rural employment in overall economic development, the objectives were to summarize existing knowledge of the rural African nonfarm sector and to develop an analytical framework for examing utilization of labor in this sector, using a descriptive profile, a theoretical model, and a research approach to rural…

  12. Rural Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon, Ed.; And Others

    Presented are 10 papers resulting from a workshop, involving representatives from 33 state developmental disabilities councils, designed to examine common problems and issues confronting developmentally disabled citizens in rural areas. Entries include the following titles and authors: "Who, What, and Where--Studying Prevalence of Developmental…

  13. Computerized Coordinated Service Center: A Comparison of Service Methodologies and Costs in the Urban and Rural Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Risa J.; And Others

    Ten parallel human service agencies (five urban and five rural) were compared to identify variations in the service delivery system and to compare the costs of service provision. The agencies responded to approximately 36 questions covering eight major areas and were compared and contrasted, urban versus rural, according to the type of agency. All…

  14. Rural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of

  15. Signs of Progress: A Report on Rural America's Revitalization Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This report outlines the major rural development programs and initiatives of the Department of Agriculture and other federal agencies. Diverse economic realities make necessary differential rural development policies and programs. The federal budget deficit makes it necessary that the government use creative and efficient management techniques to…

  16. 75 FR 21265 - Small, Rural School Achievement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Small, Rural School Achievement Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department... (CFDA) Number: 84.358A. SUMMARY: Under the Small, Rural School Achievement (SRSA) Program, the...

  17. 76 FR 19758 - Small, Rural School Achievement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Small, Rural School Achievement Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department... (CFDA) Number: 84.358A. SUMMARY: Under the Small, Rural School Achievement (SRSA) program, the...

  18. Annual Progress Report of the Southern Rural Development Center, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State, MS.

    This annual report of the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) describes the agency's extension and research activities from October, 1996, to September 30, 1997. SRDC is one of four regional centers coordinating rural development research and extension education programs cooperatively with the land-grant institutions. SRDC cooperates with 29…

  19. 75 FR 48235 - Rural Health Care Universal Service Support Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Communications Commission 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Universal Service Support Mechanism; Proposed Rule #0... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Universal Service Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal... of health care, and addresses each of the major recommendations in the National Broadband...

  20. Establishing a National Rural Education Research Agenda and Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Bonnie Jean

    In a national effort to derive an empirical data base for establishing rural education research priorities, 273 general educators and 188 special educators representing public schools (180), colleges/universities (137), and other agencies (137) ranked 46 specific research questions clustered around the issues of rural school effectiveness,…

  1. Homelessness in Rural Places: Perspectives from Upstate New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the economic and demographic factors fueling rural homelessness, based on field research in scattered rural communities. Data were collected by interviewing low-income families and local service providers and from community agency and school records. Suggests strategies for preventing and responding to homelessness that would be…

  2. Rural Prairie Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kari

    "Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is…

  3. Rural Development: Patchwork of Federal Programs Needs To Be Reappraised. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    This report identifies factors that influence a rural area's economic success or failure, and evaluates whether federal programs efficiently address rural economic problems. Data collection included a review of federal programs that provide funding to rural areas, and interviews with federal and state agency officials involved with rural…

  4. Plan of Work for Rural Development in North Carolina, July 1, 1975 - June 30, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, George, Jr.; And Others

    Serving primarily as a policy group for local Rural Development Panels, the North Carolina Rural Development Committee's major objective for 1976 is to work with local leaders, private businesses and governmental agencies at all levels in planning and implementing comprehensive rural development programs. Specifically, the Committee's objectives…

  5. 77 FR 36001 - Draft Report Assessing Rural Water Activities and Related Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Report Assessing Rural Water Activities and Related Programs AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The draft Rural Water Assessment Report reviews the status of the Bureau of Reclamation's rural potable water projects and its plan...

  6. Workshop in a Box: Sustainable Management of Rural and Small Water and Wastewater Systems Workshops

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A resource to help rural and small systems and communities to conduct workshops, either for an individual system or for a group of systems, based on the Rural and Small Systems Guidebook to Sustainable Utility Management.

  7. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Roster NRHA Past Presidents NRHA Leadership Constituency Groups History of Rural Health History of Rural Health Globalization Urban Bias Dependency Theory Political Economy History of Rural Health IV: '60s ...

  8. Medicaid and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Rural? Economic Impact Analysis Tool Planning for Sustainability Rural Health IT Curriculum Resources Testing New Approaches ... and challenges with evaluating results in low-volume environments limit rural providers' ability to participate in pilot ...

  9. 78 FR 17188 - Application Deadline for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013; Small, Rural School Achievement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... School Achievement (SRSA) program, the U.S. Department of Education (Department) awards grants on a formula basis to eligible local educational agencies (LEAs) to address the unique needs of rural school... Application Deadline for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013; Small, Rural School Achievement Program AGENCY: Office...

  10. 75 FR 57887 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the Rural Community Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ...This Notice announces the availability of $6,256,000 of competitive grant funds for the RCDI program through the Rural Housing Service (RHS), an agency within the USDA Rural Development mission area herein referred to as the Agency. Applicants must provide matching funds in an amount at least equal to the Federal grant. These grants will be made to qualified intermediary organizations that......

  11. Telecommunications technology and rural education in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrine, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The rural sector of the US is examined from the point of view of whether telecommunications technology can augment the development of rural education. Migratory farm workers and American Indians were the target groups which were examined as examples of groups with special needs in rural areas. The general rural population and the target groups were examined to identify problems and to ascertain specific educational needs. Educational projects utilizing telecommunications technology in target group settings were discussed. Large scale regional ATS-6 satellite-based experimental educational telecommunications projects were described. Costs and organizational factors were also examined for large scale rural telecommunications projects.

  12. Service Utilization and Alaskan Natives: Some Theoretical Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennen, E. Clifford; Berman, Gerald S.

    1988-01-01

    Applies assumed similarity and reward-cost theories to problem of low rates of utilization of mental health and social service programs by rural Alaska Native populations. Recommends strategies of service delivery to increase utilization of needed services. Recommendations may be applicable to other rural areas. (Author/TES)

  13. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  14. Federal Utility Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-07-01

    Fact sheet overview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) Federal Utility Program, including common contracts and services available to Federal agencies through local serving utilities.

  15. Sustainable Energy Solutions for Rural Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Riley; Brutkoski, Donna; Farnsworth, David; Larsen, Peter

    2016-04-22

    The state of Alaska recognizes the challenges these rural communities face and provides financial support via the Power Cost Equalization (PCE) program. The PCE subsidizes the electricity prices paid by customers of these high-cost utilities. The PCE program is designed to spread the benefits of Alaska’s natural resources more evenly throughout the state. Yet even with this subsidy, electricity is still much more expensive for these rural customers. And beyond the PCE, other forms of assistance to rural utilities are becoming scarce given the state’s current fiscal environment. Nearly 90 percent of Alaska’s unrestricted budget funds in recent years have been tied to oil royalties—a sector experiencing significant declines in production and oil prices. Consequently, as Alaska looks to tighten budgets, the challenge of lowering rural utility costs, while encouraging self-sufficiency, has become more urgent.This study examines reliability, capital and strategic planning, management, workforce development, governance, financial performance and system efficiency in the various communities visited by the research team. Using those attributes, a tier system was developed to categorize rural Alaska utilities into Leading and Innovating Systems (Tier I), Advanced Diesel Systems (Tier II), Basic Systems (Tier III), and Underperforming Systems (Tier IV). The tier approach is not meant to label specific utilities, but rather to provide a general set of benchmarks and guideposts for improvement.

  16. Reaching Rural Women: Case Studies and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Royal D.; Fernandez de Colle, Susana

    Although not often considered in the past by planners because their economic contributions are not performed for money, rural women are contributors to the development of their countries. The urgency of reaching women with important information to break the cycle of poverty is now being recognized by the major development agencies. While there are…

  17. Regional, Rural Home ABE Program Spells Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, Claude

    Maine's State Division of Adult Education began setting up a regionalized Adult Basic Education (ABE) program in rural Franklin county in 1974 to serve the area's functional illiterates. Located in the building housing the Franklin County Community Action Program (CAP), linkages were developed with a large number of agencies; initially the 10 CAP…

  18. Hamilton County: A Rural School District Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harned, Catherine

    Using state education agency, census, industry employment and occupational information data, this paper provides a detailed picture of a rural school district in Southern Illinois. Mining and agriculture are the major industries in Hamilton County. The major mining employer closed in February 1988, and the drought of 1988 is likely to adversely…

  19. Leadership for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert; Turner, Walter G.

    The rural school superintendency is, in many ways, as demanding and difficult as the urban superintendency. Chapter 1 of this book provides a working definition of a rural small school district, an estimation of the number of rural systems in the nation that fit the criteria, and a profile of rural small school superintendents. Chapter 2 discusses…

  20. The Rural Development Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Louis E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress toward rural development has been hampered by flawed views of rural America; serious limitations to existing social and economic data on sparsely populated areas; treatment of rural America as a geographical entity unconnected to the larger U.S. economy and society; perceived lack of feasible political solution to rural problems; and…

  1. Rural Development Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC. Economic Development Div.

    Elements essential to an adequate framework for rural development in the U.S. are a national growth and development policy which includes a rural development strategy and definition of common problems and programmatic actions required to deal with them. Many past federal rural development programs (lacking a federal rural policy focus) have failed…

  2. What Is Rural? Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  3. Rural-Urban Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

  4. The Rural Bellwether.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of "State Education Leader" contains eight articles on rural education. "The Rural Bellwether" (Kathy Christie) discusses declining enrollment in rural schools, rural problems with teacher shortages and special education funding, issues related to school size and school district size, and distance learning…

  5. Negotiating Collective and Individual Agency

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Mandira; Essén, Birgitta; Sariola, Salla; Iyengar, Sharad; Soni, Sunita; Klingberg Allvin, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The societal changes in India and the available variety of reproductive health services call for evidence to inform health systems how to satisfy young women’s reproductive health needs. Inspired by Foucault’s power idiom and Bandura’s agency framework, we explore young women’s opportunities to practice reproductive agency in the context of collective social expectations. We carried out in-depth interviews with 19 young women in rural Rajasthan. Our findings highlight how changes in notions of agency across generations enable young women’s reproductive intentions and desires, and call for effective means of reproductive control. However, the taboo around sex without the intention to reproduce made contraceptive use unfeasible. Instead, abortions were the preferred method for reproductive control. In conclusion, safe abortion is key, along with the need to address the taboo around sex to enable use of “modern” contraception. This approach could prevent unintended pregnancies and expand young women’s agency. PMID:26531879

  6. Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Matthew James

    Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi

  7. Validation of a Screening Measure in a Rural Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illback, Robert; And Others

    Early identification of children at risk for various forms of school maladaptation is critical in rural schools, where services and resources are typically limited. The present study assesses the psychometric characteristics and utility of the AML, a teacher rating scale employed in a rural region. The 11-item teacher scale yields 4 scores:…

  8. Alcohol and Other Drug Resistance Strategies Employed by Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to identify how rural adolescents make health decisions and utilize communication strategies to resist influence attempts in offers of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 113 adolescents from rural school districts to solicit information on ATOD norms, past ATOD experiences, and…

  9. The Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project: A Canadian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, E. Weldon; And Others

    The University of Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project (RDOP) as it was conceived, organized and utilized in rural communities in Ontario is the major focus of this document; the concluding sections describe some of the problems of Outreach implementation and suggest some possible courses for continuing and expanding the project. There is…

  10. Labview utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun

    2011-09-30

    The software package provides several utilities written in LabView. These utilities don't form independent programs, but rather can be used as a library or controls in other labview programs. The utilities include several new controls (xcontrols), VIs for input and output routines, as well as other 'helper'-functions not provided in the standard LabView environment.

  11. Receipt of Cancer Screening Services: Surprising Results for Some Rural Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kevin J.; Probst, Janice C.; Bellinger, Jessica D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that rural minority populations experience disparities in cancer screening, treatment, and outcomes. It is unknown how race/ethnicity and rurality intersect in these disparities. The purpose of this analysis is to examine the cancer screening rates among minorities in rural areas. Methods: We utilized the 2008…

  12. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE... and support staff; (3) Reasonable fees and charges for professional services necessary for establishing or organizing the panel. Services must be provided by individuals licensed in accordance...

  13. Mortality and Revascularization following Admission for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Implication for Rural Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Thad E.; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kaboli, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Annually, over 3,000 rural veterans are admitted to Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet no studies of AMI have utilized the VA rural definition. Methods: This retrospective cohort study identified 15,870 patients admitted for AMI to all VA hospitals. Rural residence was identified…

  14. Location and Lifestyle: The Comparative Explanatory Ability of Urbanism and Rurality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, George D.; Peek, Charles W.

    1974-01-01

    The article focuses on 2 questions pivotal to the issue of rural-urban differences: 1) "Do attitudinal differences remain among the rural and urban residents independent of differences generated by other potent variables?"; and 2) "Will any increase in the predictive utility of rurality be generated by use of a composite definition (residence plus…

  15. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing…

  16. Office of Rural Health Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Hub Rural Health Research Gateway Rural Community Health Gateway White House Rural Council  Eligibility Analyzer Contact Us Subscribe to FORHP weekly announcement for rural health grantees and stakeholders by e-mail Subscribe to ...

  17. Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.

    Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

  18. Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities summarizes the findings of a work group of EPA, HUD, DOT, and USDA and creates a framework for the Partnership for Sustainable Communities’ future work with rural communities.

  19. Rural Wellness and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Rural? Economic Impact Analysis Tool Planning for Sustainability Rural Health IT Curriculum Resources Testing New Approaches ... health of all groups Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all Promote quality ...

  20. Development of a Rural Health Framework: Implications for Program Service Planning and Delivery

    PubMed Central

    White, Deanna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development and application of an evidence-based Rural Health Framework to guide rural health program, policy and service planning. Methods: A literature review of rural health programs, focusing on health promotion, chronic disease prevention and population health, was conducted using several bibliographic databases. Findings: Thirty papers met the criteria for review, describing chronic disease interventions and public health policies in rural settings. Twenty-one papers demonstrated effective intervention programs and highlighted potential good practices for rural health programs, which were used to define key elements of a Rural Health Framework. Conclusions: The Rural Health Framework was applied to an influenza immunization program to demonstrate its utility in assisting public health providers to increase uptake of the vaccine. This Rural Health Framework provides an opportunity for program planners to reflect on the key issues facing rural communities to ensure the development of policies and strategies that will prudently and effectively meet population health needs. PMID:23968625

  1. Thermal Standard for Small Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg (J.S.) Consulting Engineering, Fairbanks, AK.

    The Standard's purpose is to provide design requirements that will improve energy utilization in new State of Alaska owned rural educational facilities ranging in size from 7,000 to 12,000 square feet. The Standard covers exterior envelopes and selection of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, service water systems, energy…

  2. Rural Youths' Images of the Rural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Following the cultural turn within the social sciences, recent debates on how to conceptualise "the rural" have focused on "rurality" as a phenomenon produced by processes of social construction. This paper presents an empirical account of the outcome of these social construction processes through an analysis of how teenagers…

  3. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  4. Rural Students at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judi

    Identifying and describing students in rural schools who are at potential educational risk is the purpose of this study which involved extensive taped interviews with administrators, teachers and students in selected rural schools in Iowa. Various indicators of educational risk in selected rural environments suggest that students are decidedly…

  5. Think Rural Means Isolated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    The benefits of distance education have made converts out of many rural school administrators. Through communication satellites, schools can gain access to the most advanced courses for students and staff while maintaining their rural characteristics and personal touch. Sidebars present a glossary and one rural New York school's experience with…

  6. Rural Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lewis W.

    The following rural sociological research needs were identified: (1) acceptance of general sociological theory and methodology for use in "Rural" research; (2) recognition of bench marks and probable base lines in rural sociological research; (3) collection of widely scattered reports for examination and perhaps respecification; (4) establishment…

  7. Reaching Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on programming undertaken to address the health and educational needs of rural families in developing and developed nations. After examining the nature of rural families and rural poverty, the newsletter discusses: (1) the Mon Women's Organization in Thailand; (2) The "Contact With Kids" parent education…

  8. Rural Poverty and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Housing Alliance, Washington, DC.

    Today poverty in rural America remains pervasive and persistent. A decade ago, 14 million rural Americans were classified as "officially" poor. In 1973, nearly 9.2 million were classified poor. The decline in rural poverty over the years has been minimal. This paper briefly documents the poverty statistics according to the living standards used by…

  9. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of…

  10. 78 FR 24755 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... coordination; and ensuring adequate training and support within rural Emergency Medical Services systems... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities... and Services Administration (HRSA) will submit an Information Collection Request (ICR) to the...

  11. 45 CFR 630.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military department... (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  12. 41 CFR 105-74.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department... the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent...

  13. 7 CFR 25.101 - Data utilized for eligibility determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Data utilized for eligibility determinations. 25.101 Section 25.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE... statistics on boundaries. The boundary of a rural area nominated for designation as an Empowerment Zone...

  14. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  15. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  16. 41 CFR 101-39.301 - Utilization guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Utilization guidelines... § 101-39.301 Utilization guidelines. An agency must be able to justify a full-time vehicle assignment... System (IFMS) services. Other utilization factors, such as days used, agency mission, and the...

  17. 41 CFR 101-39.301 - Utilization guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Utilization guidelines... § 101-39.301 Utilization guidelines. An agency must be able to justify a full-time vehicle assignment... System (IFMS) services. Other utilization factors, such as days used, agency mission, and the...

  18. 41 CFR 101-39.301 - Utilization guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Utilization guidelines... § 101-39.301 Utilization guidelines. An agency must be able to justify a full-time vehicle assignment... System (IFMS) services. Other utilization factors, such as days used, agency mission, and the...

  19. 41 CFR 101-39.301 - Utilization guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Utilization guidelines... § 101-39.301 Utilization guidelines. An agency must be able to justify a full-time vehicle assignment... System (IFMS) services. Other utilization factors, such as days used, agency mission, and the...

  20. 41 CFR 101-39.301 - Utilization guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Utilization guidelines... § 101-39.301 Utilization guidelines. An agency must be able to justify a full-time vehicle assignment... System (IFMS) services. Other utilization factors, such as days used, agency mission, and the...

  1. Exploring the effect of organizational culture on consumer perceptions of agency support for mental health recovery.

    PubMed

    Clossey, Laurene; Rheinheimer, David

    2014-05-01

    This research explores the impact of mental health agency culture on consumers' perceptions of agency support for their recovery. This study hypothesized that a constructive organizational culture must be present for consumers to perceive agency support for recovery. A sample of 12 mental health agencies in rural Pennsylvania participated in the research. Agency administrators completed an instrument called the recovery oriented service environment, which measured the number of recovery model program components offered by the agency. Consumers completed the recovery oriented services indicators, which taps into their perception of agency support for recovery. Direct service staff completed the organizational social context, which measured their agency's culture. Results showed that in this sample stronger consumer perceptions of agency support for recovery were correlated with higher ratings of agency constructive culture. The results suggest that agency culture is an important variable to target when implementing recovery model programming.

  2. 7 CFR 1901.202 - Nondiscrimination in FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nondiscrimination in FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 programs. 1901.202 Section 1901.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL...

  3. Joining Rural Development Theory and Rural Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…

  4. 77 FR 9905 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with...

  5. A telecommunications journey rural health network.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing a multi-gigabit statewide fiber healthcare network, Radiology Consultants of Iowa (RCI) set out to provide instantaneous service to their rural, critical access, hospital partners. RCIs idea was to assemble a collection of technologies and services that would even out workflow, reduce time on the road, and provide superior service. These technologies included PACS, voice recognition enabled dictation, HL7 interface technology, an imaging system for digitizing paper and prior films, and modern communication networks. The Iowa Rural Health Telecommunication Project was undertaken to form a system that all critical access hospitals would participate in, allowing RCI radiologists the efficiency of "any image, anywhere, anytime".

  6. 40 CFR 36.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military... executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  7. 42 CFR 440.20 - Outpatient hospital services and rural health clinic services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Definitions § 440.20 Outpatient hospital services and rural health clinic services. (a) Outpatient hospital... agency may exclude from the definition of “outpatient hospital services” those types of items and... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outpatient hospital services and rural...

  8. Becoming a Migrant: Aspirations of Youths during Their Transition to Adulthood in Rural Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This article explores young people's transitions to adulthood in a rural community in Mexico. The focus is on participants' migration experiences and the premise is that migration can be understood as an alternative way of inclusion found by the rural youth which is strongly determined by individuals' agency. The article explores the role played…

  9. Community Partnerships, Food Pantries, and an Evidence-Based Intervention to Increase Mammography among Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencivenga, Marcyann; DeRubis, Susan; Leach, Patricia; Lotito, Lisa; Shoemaker, Charles; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Multiple national agencies and organizations recommend that women age 40 years and older have an annual screening mammogram. Women who are poor, less educated, lack a usual source of care, and reside in rural Appalachia are less likely to have had a recent mammogram. Purpose: To increase use of mammography among a rural Appalachian…

  10. Rural Stress: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas D.; McIntire, Walter G.

    A comparison between the common myths of "rural existence" and the documented realities of rural living explodes the myth that rural living is generally stress free, shows that life stress in rural settings can have deleterious effects on the function of individual and family, and provides a basis for exploring some implications of rural stress…

  11. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP)

    Cancer.gov

    The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is a family of health care databases and related software tools and products developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  12. Notification: Evaluation of Laboratory Equipment Utilization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY14-0024, April 08, 2014. The Office of Inspector General plans to begin preliminary research on equipment utilization within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development.

  13. 75 FR 52001 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Request; Minority Business Enterprise/ Woman Business Enterprise (MBE/WBE) Utilization Under Federal... Protection Agency, MBE/WBE ] Utilization Under Federal Grants, Cooperative Agreements, and Interagency... Enterprise/Woman Business Enterprise (MBE/ WBE) Utilization Under Federal Grants, Cooperative Agreements,...

  14. Assessing the Impact of Differential Operationalization of Rurality on Studies of Educational Performance and Attainment: A Cautionary Example. Professional File Number 106, Winter 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caison, Amy L.; Baker, Becca A.

    2007-01-01

    The lack of consensus among researchers in defining the focal construct of rurality has led to contradictory conclusions of whether or not a rural-urban performance gap exists in higher education. Compounding this problem are the changing definitions of rural and urban, even among governmental agencies. Thus, this study used two different…

  15. The Rural Challenge: Rural Schools and Communities Working as Partners for the Future of Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annenberg Rural Challenge, Granby, CO.

    The Annenberg Rural Challenge locates and funds exemplary rural public school programs to serve as models for rural education reform. The guiding theory of the Rural Challenge is that when rural schools base their teaching on the economy, ecology, history, and culture of their communities while fully engaging the community in the school's work,…

  16. Stakeholder benefit from depression disease management: differences by rurality?

    PubMed

    Xu, Stanley; Rost, Kathryn; Dong, Fran; Dickinson, L Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Despite increasing consensus about the value of depression disease management programs, the field has not identified which stakeholders should absorb the relatively small additional costs associated with these programs. This paper investigates whether two proposed stakeholders (health plans and employer purchasers) economically benefit from depression care management (reduced outpatient utilization and work costs, respectively) in two delivery systems (rural and urban). This study examined the main and differential effects of depression care management on outpatient utilization and work costs over 24 months in a preplanned secondary analysis of 479 depressed patients from rural and urban primary care practices in a randomized controlled trial. Over 24 months, the intervention did not significantly reduce outpatient utilization costs in the entire cohort (-$191, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-$2,083 to $1,647), but it did decrease work costs (-$1,970, 95% CI=-$3,934 to -$92). While not statistically significant, rural-urban differences in work costs were in the same direction, while rural-urban differences in utilization costs differed in direction. These findings provide preliminary evidence that employers who elect to cover depression care management costs should receive comparable economic benefits in the rural and urban employees they insure. Given the limited sample size, further research may be needed to determine whether health plans who elect to cover depression care management costs will receive comparable economic benefits in the rural and urban enrollees they insure.

  17. Rural development and urban migration: can we keep them down on the farm?

    PubMed

    Rhoda, R

    1983-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that rural development projects and programs reduce rural-urban migration. The author presents various factors in the social theories of migration, including those relating to origin and destination, intervening obstacles such as distance, and personal factors. 3 economic models of migration are the human capital or cost-benefit approach, the expected income model, and the intersectoral linkage model. Empirical studies of migration indicate that: 1) rural areas with high rates of out-migration tend to have high population densities or high ratios of labor to arable land, 2) distance inhibits migration, 3) rural-urban migration is positively correlated with family income level, and 4) selectivity differences in socioeconomic status between migrants and nonmigrants often are grouped into development packages which might include irrigation, new varieties of seed, subsidized credit, increased extension, and improved marketing arrangements. The migration impacts of some of these efforts are described: 1) land reform usually is expected to slow rural out-migration because it normally increases labor utilization in rural areas, but this is a limited effect, 2) migration effects of the Green Revolution technology are mainly in rural-rural migration, and 3) agricultural mechanization may stimulate rural-urban migration in the long run. Development of rural social services migh have various effects on rural-urban migration. Better rural education, which improves the chances of urban employment, will stimulate rural-urban migration, while successful rural family planning programs will have a negative effect in the long run as there will be reduced population pressure on arable land. Better rural health services might reduce the incentive for rural-urban migration as well. It is suggested that governments reconsider policies which rely on rural development to curb rural-urban migration and alleviate problems of urban poverty and underemployment.

  18. The Role of the Rural Community College in Rural Community Development. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Jonathan D.

    Rural community colleges have an important role to play in the economic development of their communities and in preparing community members for technological, economic, and societal changes. Community-based programming (CBP) is one tool utilized by colleges to become aware of local problems by collaborating with citizens, leaders, and…

  19. Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jucht, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing data are vital to understanding the physical world and to answering many of its needs and problems. The United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Remote Sensing Technologies (RST) Project, working with its partners, is proud to sponsor the annual Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) Workshop to help understand the quality and usefulness of remote sensing data. The JACIE program was formed in 2001 to leverage U.S. Federal agency resources for the characterization of commercial remote sensing data. These agencies sponsor and co-chair JACIE: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) JACIE is an effort to coordinate data assessments between the participating agencies and partners and communicate the knowledge and results of the quality and utility of the remotely sensed data available for government and private use.

  20. Supporting Sustainable Rural Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentation about creating sustainable rural communities discussing principles, energy efficiency, water quality, waste, business, building improvements and restoration, transportation, and green building.transportation, and green building.

  1. Guaranty Agency Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifman, Steven

    The extent to which guaranty agencies, lenders, and state secondary markets impose restrictions on Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) borrowing that go beyond federal regulations was assessed through a survey of 53 guaranty agencies. Seventeen of the agencies imposed restrictions on GSLs that go beyond federal regulations, including not loaning to…

  2. Public Health Service Act, Rural Physician Training Grant Program, definition of "underserved rural community." Interim final rule with request for comment.

    PubMed

    2010-05-26

    This interim final rule (IFR) with request for comment is meant to comply with the statutory directive to issue a regulation defining "underserved rural community" for purposes of the Rural Physician Training Grant Program in section 749B of the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. This IFR is technical in nature. It will not change grant or funding eligibility for any other grant program currently available through the Office of Rural Health Policy (ORHP) or HRSA. For purposes of the Rural Physician Training Grant Program only, HRSA has combined existing definitions of "underserved" and "rural" by using the definition of rural utilized by the ORHP Rural Health Grant programs and the definition of "underserved" established by HRSA's Office of Shortage Designation (OSD) in the Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr).

  3. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  4. The medical auxiliary in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, P C

    1973-05-05

    One of the steps taken by the government to break the cycle of poverty and ill-health in rural Malaysia is the establishment of a rural health service. Initially, the health unit served 50,000 people; it consisted of 1 main health center; 4 health subcenters, and 20 midwife stations. By the end of 1970, 44 main health centers, 180 health subcenters, and 943 midwife stations were in operation, creating a great demand for all types of health personnel: professional, paramedical, and auxiliary. Doctors are unevenly distributed in West Malaysia: in urban areas, the ratio of doctors to population is 1 to 1500; in rural areas, the ratio is 1 to 25,000. Paramedicals are unevenly distributed too. The scarcity of professionals in rural areas is attributed to professionals' demand for high salaries and the corresponding requirement of professional and social settings which rural areas cannot provide. The rural health unit utilized the tiered pyramidal system for staffing, with heavy reliance on auxiliary personnel. This system enabled the rapid expansion of rural health services, helping reach over a third of the population in just 15 years. As a consequence, infant, toddler and maternal mortality rates declined substantially. Traditional birth attendants, or kampong bidans, are currently being trained, on an experimental basis, simple principles of hygiene and family planning. With the enforcement of the Midwives Act in 1971, indigenous midwives have not been permitted to register as legitimate midwives and are now subject to supervision by health authorities. Future plans include retraining single-purpose midwives in child health and nursing, and giving all assistant nurses midwifery training. The aim is to make these 2 auxiliaries multipurpose community nurse-midwives. Experiences of developed countries show that demand for auxiliaries will continue to increase with the growth of professional personnel.

  5. 77 FR 72814 - Information Collection; Secure Rural Schools Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Secure Rural Schools Act AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... announces the intention of the Forest Service to seek approval to renew and revise a currently approved... Forest Service is seeking comments from all interested individuals and organizations on renewal...

  6. 12 CFR 613.3030 - Rural home financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... include a town or village that has a population of not more than 2,500 persons. (4) Moderately priced means the price of any rural home that either: (i) Satisfies the criteria in section 8.0 of the Act... national or regional source, such as a Federal, State, or local government agency, or an industry...

  7. Status of Thai Women in Two Rural Areas. Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Women of Thailand.

    Chachoengsao Province and Lampang Province were selected in 1976 as sites for an "action survey" to identify appropriate program areas for rural women so that governmental and voluntary agencies could be assisted in planning. During December 994 families and 1,272 women (ranging from 15-70 years old) were surveyed. Interviews were…

  8. The Yellow Pages for Rural Development in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Ricardo, Comp.

    Designed to inform the public of rural development programs and services in the State of New Mexico, this directory presents over 100 program summaries, providing mailing addresses and telephone numbers and naming the agency, the specific program thrust, the Officer in Charge, and other contacts. Both an alphabetical and functional index are…

  9. 77 FR 62243 - Rural Health Network Development Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-25195] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Rural Health Network Development Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Non-competitive Replacement Award to Siloam Springs Regional...

  10. Supported Employment for Students At Risk within Rural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Randy; And Others

    This paper describes transitional programs developed by Black Hills Special Services Cooperative (BHSSC) to meet the needs of disabled students in rural areas. In cooperation with other public and private agencies, BHSSC provides comprehensive vocational rehabilitation services and community living programs to help individuals with severe…

  11. Barriers to receiving food assistance in rural North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food insecurity is associated with having lower dietary quality and an increased BMI. The barriers individuals face in rural North Dakota to receiving food assistance are largely unknown. A partnership of community agencies and researcher conducted focus groups with food assistance providers (those ...

  12. Barriers to receiving food assistance in rural North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food insecurity is associated with having lower dietary quality and increased BMI. The barriers individuals face in rural North Dakota to receiving food assistance are largely unknown. A partnership of community agencies and researchers conducted focus groups with food assistance providers (those wh...

  13. Continuing Education--A Reality for the Rural Nurse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Mary E.; Eirite, Rosemarie

    1976-01-01

    A successful series of workshops was planned and implemented in a rural area of Michigan where travel distances and lack of financial support from health care agencies were barriers to continuing education. Data obtained from a survey of 150 nurses identified priority subject areas and resource persons. (MS)

  14. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  15. AIDS in Rural California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Donald B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the increase in AIDS patients in rural California, which is greater than that in urban areas, including AIDS population projections through 1991. Describes differences between AIDS populations in rural and urban areas and relates these to state expenditure patterns and differential needs. (DHP)

  16. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications Join Donate NRHA Connect Partners search-opener Search for: Experience the best health care climate Learn from rural health leaders by the beach in sunny San Diego NRHA's Annual Rural Health Conference is May 9-12 NRHA Partners Program Support ...

  17. Rural Development Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, David W., Ed.; Reid, J. Norman, Ed.

    This book seeks to provide a basis for reexamining rural development policy by presenting comprehensive and current information on the effectiveness of various rural policy approaches. An introduction that defines development terminology and discusses changing policy needs is followed by 13 chapters that represent the best recent research…

  18. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  19. Pacereport: Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gores, Richard W., Ed.

    Seven Projects to Advance Creativity in Education (PACE) concerned with small schools and rural areas present reports of progress and plans in this July-August 1968 issue of PACEreport. The document also contains a listing of publications dealing with rural education and a listing of films, filmstrips, and publications, developed under Title III…

  20. The New Rural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldmark, Peter C.

    The New Rural Society project concerns itself with the deterioration of America through urban overcrowding and rural depletion. Coupled with experimentation and pilot testing, the study is designed to demonstrate that imaginative application of telecommunication will enable business and government departments to function effectively though their…

  1. Unique Rural District Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2009-01-01

    The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…

  2. Rural Administrative Leadership Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tift, Carolyn

    This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in…

  3. Patterns of Child Mental Health Service Delivery in a Public System: Rural Children and the Role of Rural Residence.

    PubMed

    Heflinger, Craig Anne; Shaw, Virginia; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Lunn, Laurel; Brannan, Ana Maria

    2015-07-01

    This study uses existing data from Hawaii's public mental health system for children and youth as an example of a state-level examination of service use patterns and health care disparities. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in mental health service utilization between rural and non-rural children, especially use of residential services. This study used a performance measure approach to conduct multi-level modeling on existing administrative data to examine the impact of community factors on service utilization. Rural children were found to have the most serious levels of mental health problems at intake, more likely to be placed in out-of-home care, more likely to receive only out-of-home care, more likely to in stay out-of-home longer, and less likely to receive follow-up care than their non-rural counterparts. Practice, policy, and research implications are discussed.

  4. Alcohol and Other Drug Resistance Strategies Employed by Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to identify how rural adolescents make health decisions and utilize communication strategies to resist influence attempts in offers of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 113 adolescents from rural school districts to solicit information on ATOD norms, past ATOD experiences, and substance offer-response episodes. Rural youths’ resistance strategies were similar to previous findings with urban adolescents – refuse, explain, avoid, and leave (the REAL typology) – while unique features of these strategies were identified including the importance of personal narratives, the articulation of a non-user identity, and being “accountable” to self and others. PMID:21552345

  5. Rural America at a Glance. Rural Development Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report highlights the most recent indicators of social and economic conditions in rural areas for use in developing rural policies and programs. The economic expansion of the 1990s greatly benefited rural economies. Rural areas attracted both urban residents and immigrants. Hispanics accounted for over 25 percent of nonmetropolitan population…

  6. 76 FR 18445 - Financial Market Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... CFR Part 234 RIN 7100-AD71 Financial Market Utilities AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... market utilities (``FMUs'') that are designated as systemically important by the Financial Stability...) only, contact (202) 263- 4869. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] I. Background A. Financial Market...

  7. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  8. 29 CFR 94.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 94.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive... establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any...

  9. 29 CFR 94.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  10. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  11. 36 CFR 1212.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 1212.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive... establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any...

  12. 29 CFR 94.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  13. Information Consumption by Low Income Families to Reduce the Impact of Rural Poverty in Florida. Volume III, Knowledge Level, Need, and Use of Selective Anti-Poverty Programs by the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhillon, Jogindar S.

    Presented as part of a 4-volume comprehensive report of a Florida project designed to understand rural poor and their information-seeking and information-utilization behavior patterns, Volume III reported data collected in a pre-test, used to determine the awareness and utilization of seven anti-poverty programs. Low income rural residents (N=840)…

  14. Identification of differences between rural and urban safety cultures.

    PubMed

    Rakauskas, Michael E; Ward, Nicholas J; Gerberich, Susan G

    2009-09-01

    The prevailing risk of traffic fatalities is much larger in rural areas compared to urban areas. A number of explanations have been offered to explain this including road design, emergency medical service proximity, and human factors. This research explored the potential contribution of rural driver attitudes that may underlie the increased fatal crash risk in rural environments. This analysis examined differences between rural and urban drivers in terms of self-reported risk taking for driving behaviors associated with fatal crashes and attitudes toward safety interventions using a large-scale survey. The results suggested that rural drivers engage in riskier behavior, such as not wearing seatbelts, because they have lower perceptions of the risks associated with such behaviors. Results also suggested that vehicle type (e.g., pickup trucks versus passenger vehicles) may be related to seatbelt compliance and frequency of driving under the influence of alcohol. Rural drivers perceived the utility of government-sponsored traffic safety interventions to be lower than their urban counterparts. This study provides insights into the role of the human factor in rural fatal crashes and provides policy suggestions for developing safety interventions that are designed with respect to the psychosocial factors that define the rural culture.

  15. Consequences of differential residence designations for rural health policy research: the case of infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Farmer, F L; Clarke, L L; Miller, M K

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, members of the rural caucus proposed numerous bills designed to attenuate the rural-urban differences in health care delivery and health status. Implicit in the legislative process is the assumption that "rural America" differs systematically from "urban America." However, research has consistently demonstrated that there is not a single rural America but rather, those areas outside of the major metropolitan areas represent a complex mosaic of varying social and environmental settings. Rural communities differ in meaningful ways along a number of socioenvironmental parameters, and accordingly, health status indicators also differ across rural communities. Thus, health outcome statistics averaged across rural communities will often mask important disparities experienced by certain population groups. Policies based on these aggregate indicators may overlook the needs of the most disadvantaged. While a number of measures of rurality have emerged in the last decade, much of the information presented to policy-makers is either too aggregated (i.e., metropolitan-nonmetropolitan) to identify important differences across the range of communities, or it is gathered in agency-specific categories that are not comparable. The central question under examination in the current context is the possibility of distorting the picture of infant health status by aggregating the diverse rural locales of the United States. Empirical results indicate that when considering infant mortality, any rural disadvantage is contingent upon how 'rural' and 'urban' have been defined. Further, the results indicate that conclusions must be conditioned on other important sociodemographic parameters such as region of the country and race.

  16. 75 FR 32737 - Farm Service Agency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... a currently approved information collection. The CCC and FSA are using the collected information to... used; (3) Enhance the quality, utility and clarity of the information to be collected; (4) Minimize the... Commodity Credit Corporation Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Application for Payment of...

  17. 77 FR 24188 - Application Deadline for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012; Small, Rural School Achievement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Application Deadline for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012; Small, Rural School Achievement Program AGENCY: Office of... School Achievement (SRSA) program, CFDA: Number: 84.358A, the U.S. Department of Education (Department) awards grants on a formula basis to eligible local educational agencies (LEAs) to address the...

  18. 34 CFR 84.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 84.645 Section 84.645... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency.... 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec. 2455, Pub. L. 103-355, 108 Stat. 3243 at 3327.)...

  19. 22 CFR 210.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 210.645 Section 210.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  20. 22 CFR 210.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 210.645 Section 210.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  1. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...

  2. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...

  3. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...

  4. Changes & Challenges for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Leslie Asher, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the newsletter SEDLetter contains articles about the challenges facing rural youth, communities, and schools, and the ways that rural schools are meeting those challenges. "When Rural Traditions Really Count" (Ullik Rouk) outlines the rural situation with regard to adolescent substance abuse, youth gangs, teen pregnancy,…

  5. Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

    2008-01-01

    Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

  6. The Rural School Leadership Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surface, Jeanne L.; Theobald, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The idea that rural schools and communities, indeed, even rural people, are somehow substandard or second-class has deep historical roots. The goal of this essay is to reveal that history so as to render stereotypical conceptions all things rural less powerful and more easily dismissed by rural school professionals. Consequently the focus is on…

  7. Rural Libraries, Volume XIV, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The 2 issues in this volume contain 10 articles on rural libraries and information access in rural America. Topics include telecommunications and distance education in Nebraska, the future of small rural public libraries, federal programs to improve rural access to information, outreach issues for public libraries, and the role of information in…

  8. International Perspectives in Rural Sociology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Howard, Ed.

    Essays which focus on similarities between developed and underdeveloped nations, concentrating on the issues of power and rural social stratification, are contained in this textbook on rural sociology. It is intended for students of rural sociology, including teachers and researchers. In two main parts, the book first deals with rural social…

  9. Rural Health Issues. Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Gary

    Medical students that come from rural areas are more likely to return to rural areas to practice, but rural students apply for medical school at half the rate of urban students. Factors that contribute to this problem are the lack of rural representation on medical school selection committees; centralization of medical education facilities in…

  10. Social Studies in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John E.; Garcia, Jesus

    1982-01-01

    Seventy six teachers and 737 social studies students from rural high schools in six states were surveyed to determine whether rural secondary social studies programs discuss topics and themes that provide an insight into rural America. Findings suggest that rural life-styles are inadequately portrayed in social studies curricula. (AM)

  11. Agency and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Roskies, Adina L.

    2015-01-01

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  12. OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOWLER, LLOYD

    AGRIBUSINESS IS DEFINED AS THE SUM TOTAL OF ALL OPERATIONS INVOLVED IN THE MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARM SUPPLIES, PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ON THE FARM, AND THE STORAGE, PROCESSING, AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARM COMMODITIES AND ITEMS MADE FROM THEM. WITHIN THESE THREE AREAS ARE SEEN MANY JOB OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL AND URBAN YOUTH HAVING COLLEGE…

  13. The Rural Outreach Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Clarence D.

    2000-01-01

    The Rural Outreach Project was designed to increase the diversity of NASA's workforce by: 1) Conducting educational research designed to investigate the most effective strategies for expanding innovative, NASA-sponsored pre-college programs into rural areas; 2) Field-testing identified rural intervention strategies; 3) Implementing expanded NASA educational programs to include 300 rural students who are disabled, female and/or minority; and 4) Disseminating project strategies. The Project was a partnership that included NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, Norfolk State University, Cooperative Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) and Paul D. Camp Community College. There were four goals and activities identified for this project; 1) Ascertain effective strategies for expanding successful NASA-sponsored urban-based, pre-college programs into rural settings; 2) Field test identified rural intervention strategies; 3) Publish or disseminate two reports, concerning project research and activities at a national conference; 4) Provide educational outreach to 300, previously underserved, rural students who are disabled, female and /or minority.

  14. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  15. 75 FR 77866 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Electric Utility Steam Generating (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice....regulations.gov . Title: NSPS for Electric Utility Steam Generating Units (Renewal). ICR Numbers: EPA ICR... disclose the information. Respondents/Affected Entities: Owners or operators of electric utility...

  16. Utility company views of geothermal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichs, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    The views of geothermal development from a utility company standpoint are presented. The impediments associated with such developments as required reliability and identification of risks are discussed. The utility industry historically is not a risk-taking industry. Support of rapid geothermal development by the utility industry requires identification and elimination of risks or absorption of the risks by other agencies. Suggestions as to the identification and minimization of risks are made.

  17. Rural intern training.

    PubMed

    Mugford, B V; Braund, W; Worley, P S; Martin, A

    2001-01-01

    In recent times, legislative initiatives in Australia have changed the method by which doctors enter general practice. One result of this tightening has been to restrict the access of junior doctors to medical experiences outside the hospital environment, and force a closer examination of the 'generalist training' provided to junior doctors. The Australian Medical Training Review Panel, created as part of these legislative changes, developed a series of recommendations about general training in 1996, one of which was to provide for rural and community experiences for junior doctors. This article describes the experience of a 'rural intern' rotation from Flinders Medical Centre to the rural community of Jamestown, in South Australia.

  18. Utility, Economic Rationalism and the Circumscription of Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirita, P. A.; Parmenter, T. R.; Stancliffe, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Great strides have been achieved over the past few decades in service provision for people with intellectual disability (ID). However, there has also been a growth in the use of economic rationalism and a related rise in managerialism in forming service provision outcomes. Method: An account of the focus on process and means of…

  19. Responses to prospective payment by rural New Mexico hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H L; Piland, N F; Phillipp, A M

    1991-01-01

    A cross-sectional study is used to determine how rural New Mexico hospitals altered service diversification, inpatient service emphasis, and service promotion during Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) transition and posttransition phases. Results suggest that the hospitals implemented distinct strategies in response to PPS. The posttransition strategies were examined for their association with improved revenue and utilization indicators. Few of the service diversification and promotional strategies were consistent predictors of performance. Emphasis on fine-tuning inpatient services was the most promising predictor of higher utilization and revenue measures. The implications for other rural hospitals are discussed. PMID:1743969

  20. Rural Broadband Initiative Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Owens, William L. [D-NY-23

    2011-03-15

    03/22/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  2. Rural Health Information Hub

    MedlinePlus

    ... more deliveries of needed supplies. Strategies for Superbugs: Antibiotic Stewardship for Rural Hospitals Resistant bacteria, or “superbugs,” ... as well as infectious disease experts, believe hospital antibiotic stewardship programs are the answer to blunting the ...

  3. Negotiating with Subscription Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Judy; Basch, N. Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This first in a two-part series on how librarians can negotiate services and prices with subscription agencies focuses on how vendors operate. Factors that influence agency costs, revenues, and service charges are described, including economies of scale, discounts from publishers, and prepayment and cash flow. (seven references) (LRW)

  4. 75 FR 35366 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulation to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ...: Applying Safety Regulation to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines AGENCY: Pipeline and... Israni by phone at 202-366-4571 or by e-mail at Mike.Israni@dot.gov . For all other information contact... regulate all smaller-diameter (less than 8\\5/8\\-inches diameter) rural low-stress pipelines located in...

  5. 76 FR 25576 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines AGENCY: Pipeline and... . For all other information contact Tewabe Asebe by phone at 202-366-4595 or by e-mail at tewabe.asebe... regulate all remaining rural low-stress pipelines (i.e., smaller-diameter--less than 8 \\5/8\\...

  6. Effective Schooling in Rural Africa Project Report 1: Review of Phase I of the Program, March-August 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

    The program Effective Schooling in Rural Africa was developed by the Basic Education Cluster of the World Bank in response to concerns about poor quality schooling in rural Africa. This report draws on a multi-agency working group meeting held in June 2000 and on subsequent work to outline some key elements of the information base for quality…

  7. The South Carolina rural-urban HIV continuum of care.

    PubMed

    Edun, Babatunde; Iyer, Medha; Albrecht, Helmut; Weissman, Sharon

    2016-12-16

    The HIV continuum of care model is widely used by various agencies to describe the HIV epidemic in stages from diagnosis through to virologic suppression. It identifies the various points at which persons living with HIV (PLWHIV) within a population fail to reach their next step in HIV care. The rural population in the Southern United States is disproportionally affected by the HIV epidemic. The purpose of this study was to examine these rural-urban disparities using the HIV care continuum model and determine at what stages these differences become apparent. PLWHIV aged 13 years and older in South Carolina (SC) were identified using data from the enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System. The percentages of PLWHIV linked to care, retained in care, and virologically suppressed were determined. Rural versus urban residence was determined using the Office of Management and Budget classification. There were 14,523 PLWHIV in SC at the end of 2012; 11,193 (77%) of whom were categorized as urban and 3305 (22%) as rural. There was no difference between urban and rural for those who had received any care: 64% versus 64% (p = .61); retention in care 53% versus 53% (p = .71); and virologic suppression 49% versus 48% (p = .35), respectively. The SC rural-urban HIV cascade represents the first published cascade of care model using rural versus urban residence. Although significant health care disparities exist between rural and urban residents, there were no major differences between rural and urban residents at the various stages of engagement in HIV care using the HIV continuum of care model.

  8. CCSDS - A forum to facilitate international cooperation among space agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Edward P.; Delmas, Georges

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) in its role as a promoter the development and utilization of compatible data-systems standards among the principal space agencies of the world. Attention is also given to the CCSDS affiliation categories comprising member agencies, observer agencies, and associates. Consideration is given to the CCSDS organization, the technical panels, and current CCSDS recommendations.

  9. Wind-fuel cell hybrid project in rural Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    David Lockard

    2000-02-18

    This is a summary of the work performed on the Wind-Fuel Cell Hybrid Project: (1) On October 5th, Tim Howell of the Golden Field Office and Tom Anderson of Battelle Labs arrived in Anchorage. They met with David Lockard, Project Manager, and Percy Frisby, Director of the Alaska Rural Energy Programs Group. (2) On October 6th, Tim, Tom and David flew to Nome to inspect the proposed wind turbine site and meet with John Handeland, Director of the Nome Joint Utility System. They visited the proposed site as well as several private, residential-sized wind turbines operating in the Nome area. (3)Tim and Tom flew to Unalaska on October 7th to meet with Mike Golat, City of Unalaska Public Utility Director, and to inspect the proposed wind turbine sites at Pyramid Creek and Pyramid Valley. (4)Tim sent a scoping letter on December 17th to a variety of local, state and federal agencies requesting comments on the proposed wind turbine project. (5) David discussed this project with Marc Schwartz and Gerry Nix at NREL. Marc provided David with a list of wind prospectors and meteorologists. (6) Tom raised the question of FAA permits for structures over 200 feet tall. Gerry provided information on NREL's experience with FAA permitting on other projects. David summarized the potential turbine choices and heights in a spreadsheet and initiated contact with the Alaska region FAA office regarding the permitting process. (7) David responded to a list of design questions from Tom regarding the project foundations, power output, and size for use in developing the environmental assessment. (8) David tried to get wind data for the Nome Anvil Mountain White Alice site from the Corps of Engineers and the Air Force, but was not able to find any. (9) David solicited quotes from vendors of wind monitoring equipment and provided cost information to Doug Hooker, federal grant manager in preparation for ordering the equipment.

  10. Creating Highly Qualified Teachers: Maximizing University Resources to Provide Professional Development in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollenkopf, Dawn L.

    2009-01-01

    The "highly qualified teacher" requirement of No Child Left Behind has put pressure on rural school districts to recruit and retain highly qualified regular and special education teachers. If necessary, they may utilize uncertified, rural teachers with provisional certification; however, these teachers may find completing the necessary…

  11. Association of Educational Level and Child Sex Ratio in Rural and Urban India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inchani, Lisa R.; Lai, Dejian

    2008-01-01

    Utilizing data from the Census of India, this study compared child sex ratio in rural and urban regions of India and analyzed whether the child sex ratio was associated with mother's education level. The child sex ratios in the rural and urban regions throughout India were analyzed using the two-sample and paired Student's t-test. Further, the…

  12. 7 CFR 1744.208 - Rural development investments before November 28, 1990.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural development investments before November 28, 1990. 1744.208 Section 1744.208 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON...

  13. Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

  14. An Instrument for Assessing Public Health System Performance: Validity in Rural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, David; Rojas-Smith, Lucia; Sotnikov, Sergey; Gadsden-Knowles, Kim; Perry, Natalie Brevard; Lenaway, Dennis D.; Halverson, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the validity and utility of the Local Public Health System Assessment Instrument (Local Instrument) of the National Public Health Performance Standards Program in rural settings. Methods: The study compared the Local Instrument scores of 6 rural local public health systems to external assessments of those public…

  15. 7 CFR 1700.58 - Assistance to high energy cost rural communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistance to high energy cost rural communities. 1700.58 Section 1700.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.58 Assistance to high energy cost...

  16. 77 FR 37092 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... provide 60-days notice to the public for comment on information collection activities before seeking... FRA to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information being collected; and (iv) ways for... 2012-0006-N-7] Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request AGENCY:...

  17. Incubating Innovation for Rural Electrification. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-01

    In June, the team held a workshop on ''Low Carbon Sustainable Rural Electrification'' in Salima, Malawi. Co-organized with the Government of Malawi's Department of Energy, this event gathered participants from the energy, telecom, non-profit, banking sectors as well as from governmental and international agencies to discuss the potential development of private led off-grid electrification in Malawi where only 9% of the population has currently access to electricity. A very active participation provided us with insightful feedback and valuable recommendations.

  18. Recruitment and retention in rural and urban EMS: results from a national survey of local EMS directors.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Victoria A; Slifkin, Rebecca T; Patterson, P Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an adequate staff is a challenge for rural emergency medical services (EMS) providers. This national survey of local EMS directors finds that rural EMS are more likely to be freestanding, that is, not affiliated with other public services, to employ only emergency medical technician-basics (EMT-Bs), and to be all volunteer. Rural EMS directors are more likely than urban ones to report that they are not currently fully staffed. The most common barriers to recruitment of EMTs in both urban and rural areas include unwillingness of community members to volunteer and lack of certified EMTs in the area. In rural areas, barriers to EMT training were noted more often than in urban areas as was the lack of employer support for employee volunteers. Similar rural training barriers affected retention of staff. Rural respondents reported that they lose staff to burnout and to difficulty in meeting continuing education requirements. Among rural respondents, those who direct all-volunteer EMS were the most likely to report recruitment and retention problems. The results suggest areas for further study including how volunteer EMS agencies can transition to paid agencies, how to bring EMS education to rural areas, and how EMS can work with other agencies to ensure EMS viability.

  19. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  20. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  1. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  2. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  3. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  4. 28 CFR 83.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 83.645 Section 83.645 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  5. Defining Urban and Rural Regions by Multifractal Spectrums of Urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-03-01

    The spatial pattern of the urban-rural regional system is associated with the dynamic process of urbanization. How to characterize the urban-rural terrain using quantitative measurement is a difficult problem remaining to be solved. This paper is devoted to defining urban and rural regions using ideas from fractals. A basic postulate is that human geographical systems are of self-similar patterns correlated with recursive processes. Then multifractal geometry can be employed to describe or define the urban and rural terrain with the level of urbanization. A space-filling index of urban-rural region based on a generalized correlation dimension is presented to reflect the degree of geo-spatial utilization in terms of urbanism. The census data of America and China are used to show how to make empirical analyses of urban-rural multifractals. This work is a normative study rather than a positive study, and it proposes a new way of investigating urban and rural regional systems using fractal theory.

  6. Family Medicine in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, Michael; Wootton, J.S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Recruitment of physicians for rural communities is a continuing problem in Canada. Medical schools can be involved through preferential admission policies. Departments of family medicine across the country are including on-site training in rural communities and are seeking to improve their rural program curriculum. The McGill rural program is described from its origins to its present state. A rural coordinator oversees 12 sites at which both residents and students are trained. One site at Shawville, Que, is described from a rural physician's point of view. Imagesp2011-ap2012-ap2014-a PMID:21233945

  7. 75 FR 20352 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the third in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  8. 75 FR 1380 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the second in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  9. 75 FR 35458 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the fourth in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  10. 7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with respect to repayment of obligations under section 4, of the Watershed Protection and Flood... of exposure to significant risk to human health; (iv) Section 104(j) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 9604(j... to petitions for preliminary assessment of a release or threatened release; (vi) Section 105(f)...

  11. 7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with respect to repayment of obligations under section 4, of the Watershed Protection and Flood... of exposure to significant risk to human health; (iv) Section 104(j) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 9604(j... to petitions for preliminary assessment of a release or threatened release; (vi) Section 105(f)...

  12. 7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with respect to repayment of obligations under section 4, of the Watershed Protection and Flood... of exposure to significant risk to human health; (iv) Section 104(j) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 9604(j... to petitions for preliminary assessment of a release or threatened release; (vi) Section 105(f)...

  13. 7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with respect to repayment of obligations under section 4, of the Watershed Protection and Flood... (42 U.S.C. 9604(i)(11)), with respect to the reduction of exposure to significant risk to human health... section 105(d) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 9605(d)), with respect to petitions for preliminary assessment of...

  14. Comparison and Research on New Rural Community Management Patterns of Shan Dong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lei; Zhang, Xiaomei

    Rural community is an important institutional innovation,which has important effect and edification to future new rural management.There are three new rural community management patterns in shandong province:divisions of the village community,many villages community and village merge community. This article not only introduce three models,but also compare them in four aspects: community scale, community management,infrastructure,resource utilization.Pointing out the strength and weakness of three models.Drawing a conclusion that village merge community is the active reaction for rural urbanization. And could be the important recommended breed.

  15. Federal Emergency Management Agency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updates Emergency Management Agencies Emergency Management Institute El Niño Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Program Exercise Fact ... Local, State, Tribal and Non-Profit Recovery Resources Region I Region II Region III Region IV Region ...

  16. School Service Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachen, Sylvia; Lipschitz, Beverly

    1970-01-01

    Describes school employment" agency to secure school jobs for interested students. They filled out applications, had interviews and secured recommendations. Program attempted to relieve hall congestion and improve tone of school. (Author/CJ)

  17. Rural Science Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Intress, C.

    1994-12-31

    The Rural Science Education Project is an outreach program of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science with the goal of helping rural elementary schools improve science teaching and learning by using local natural environmental resources. This program is based on the assumption that rural schools, so often described as disadvantaged in terms of curricular resources, actually provide a science teaching advantage because of their locale. The natural environment of mountains, forests, ponds, desert, or fields offers a context for the study of scientific concepts and skills that appeals to many youngsters. To tap these resources, teachers need access to knowledge about the rural school locality`s natural history. Through a process of active participation in school-based workshops and field site studies, teachers observe and learn about the native flora, fauna, geology, and paleontology of their community. In addition, they are exposed to instructional strategies, activities, and provided with materials which foster experimential learning. This school-museum partnership, now in its fifth year, has aided more than 800 rural teachers` on-going professional development. These educators have, in turn, enhanced science education throughout New Mexico for more than 25,000 students.

  18. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  19. Rurality: "From the Inside Looking Out."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redman, Karin

    1991-01-01

    Explores quantitative and qualitative dimensions of rurality in pursuit of a definition. Distinguishes between rural education and education in rural areas. Discusses rural-urban differences in values and lifestyle. Advocates defining rurality from the rural resident's perspective, emphasizing diversity of social, cultural, and occupational…

  20. Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the 10 quarterly issues of "Rural Matters: The Rural Challenge News," published from Fall 1997 to Winter 2000 (the final issue). This newsletter focused on projects funded by the Annenberg Rural Challenge, as well as research summaries and opinion pieces on the benefits of small schools, place-based education, and…

  1. Researching Rural Places: On Social Justice and Rural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Philip; Green, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some of the political and methodological challenges involved in researching rural education. It begins by outlining the situation in Australia regarding the relationship between social justice and rural education. It first describes the disadvantages experienced by many rural communities and presents an analysis of rural…

  2. The Rural Arena: The Diversity of Protest in Rural England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Matt

    2008-01-01

    In the past 15-20 years, the rural areas of England have been used by a wide diversity of groups as the stage for their protest activities. Some have argued that this is due the rise of a rural social movement; this paper contends that rural areas have become both available and advantageous as the locale of protest through a range of interlocking…

  3. Education in a Rural Environment. Education and Rural Development -- 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    Assuming that education and rural development must be correlated, this booklet defines the general thrust for rural education programs in developing countries. The 1st of 4 sections briefly describes the various aspects of rural development (emphasis on integration of agriculture, industry, transport, trade, credit, health, education, culture,…

  4. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. )

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  5. Bringing Rural Sociology Back In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, William W.; Gilbert, Jess

    1985-01-01

    Raises questions about current rural sociology from a critical theory perspective. Provides a brief historical analysis of its theoretical and applied roots. Suggests interweaving of research, practice, and advocacy as way to bring rural sociologists back into policy making. (LFL)

  6. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    MedlinePlus

    ... to urban (Urban, 38.4%, High Poverty Rural 51.3%, Other Rural, 45%). Counties with high rates ... for information about oral health programs in my area? The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors ( ...

  7. Critical incident history questionnaire replication: frequency and severity of trauma exposure among officers from small and midsize police agencies.

    PubMed

    Chopko, Brian A; Palmieri, Patrick A; Adams, Richard E

    2015-04-01

    Frequency and severity of trauma exposure are thought to influence posttraumatic reactions. Weiss et al.'s Critical Incident History Questionnaire (CIHQ; 2010) measures these variables among law enforcement officers; they reported findings using a sample of officers from large urban departments. We noted the need for replication studies utilizing samples from smaller and rural police agencies. The purpose of this study was to replicate the CIHQ findings from Weiss et al. using a sample (N = 193) of officers from small and midsize police departments and officers whose duties include policing rural and isolated jurisdictions. Frequency and severity findings were similar to those reported by Weiss et al. (). Regarding frequency, the present study found the critical incident exposure mean score was 188.5, compared to 168.5 from Weiss et al. (). Making a mistake that kills or injures a colleague had the highest mean nomothetic severity rating in both studies. Among the various variables examined in this study, PTSD symptoms demonstrated the strongest association with the exposure indices, based on Spearman rank correlations (r = .26-.46).

  8. Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics (Energia Removable para Centros de Salud Rurales)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A. C.; Olson, K.

    1998-09-01

    This guide provides a broad understanding of the technical, social, and organizational aspects of health clinic electrification, especially through the use of renewable energy sources. It is intended to be used primarily by decision makers within governments or private agencies to accurately assess their health clinic's needs, select appropriate and cost-effective technologies to meet those needs, and to put into place effective infrastructure to install and maintain the hardware. This is the first in a series of rural applications guidebooks that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Village Power Program is commissioning to couple commercial renewable systems with rural applications. The guidebooks are complemented by NREL's Village Power Program's development activities, international pilot projects, and visiting professionals program. For more information on the NREL Village Power Program, visit the Renewables for Sustainable Village Power web site at http://www.rsvp.nrel .gov/rsvp/.

  9. 78 FR 59411 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... comments on the accuracy of the agency's burden estimate; the need for the information; its practical utility; ways to enhance its quality, utility, and clarity; and ways to minimize burden on respondents... collection. Average burden Estimated total Modality of completion Number of Frequency of per response...

  10. Flate-plate photovoltaic power systems handbook for Federal agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.; Savage, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    The primary purpose is to provide a tool for personnel in Federal agencies to evaluate the viability of potential photovoltaic applications. A second objective is to provide descriptions of various photovoltaic systems installed by different Federal agencies under the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program so that other agencies may consider similar applications. A third objective is to share lessons learned to enable more effective procurement, design, installation, and operation of future photovoltaic systems. The intent is not to provide a complete handbook, but rather to provide a guide for Federal agency personnel with additional information incorporated by references. The steps to be followed in selecting, procuring, and installing a photovoltaic application are given.

  11. Exemplary Dissemination Programs for Intermediate Units Serving Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett; Hays, Leonard

    Utilizing information derived from documents, site visits, correspondence, and personal interviews re: 6 intermediate education units serving rural schools which were initially identified via a mail survey, this report describes intermediate education units with exemplary information dissemination programs. Varying considerably, each program is…

  12. Geographic Access to Health Care for Rural Medicare Beneficiaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Leighton; Hart, L. Gary; Goodman, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Patients in rural areas may use less medical care than those living in urban areas. This could be due to differences in travel distance and time and a utilization of a different mix of generalists and specialists for their care. Purpose: To compare the travel times, distances, and physician specialty mix of all Medicare patients living in…

  13. 78 FR 8353 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... ongoing parental involvement in children's education. Telemedicine and telehealth have been hailed as... Federal Regulations, which is published #0;under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510. #0; #0;The Code of... United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Rural Development Utilities Programs,...

  14. PROGRAMS FOR THOSE RURAL SCHOOLS WHICH ARE NECESSARILY EXISTENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOHRSON, RALPH G.; GANN, ELBIE L.

    NECESSARILY EXISTENT RURAL SCHOOLS ARE DEFINED AS THOSE WHOSE STUDENT BODY IS LIMITED DUE TO EXTREMES OF DISTANCE, TERRAIN, CLIMATE, OR SPARSE POPULATION. DOCUMENTED REPORTS OF PROJECTS COMPLETED AND IN PROGRESS POINT OUT THE FOLLOWING PROMISING PRACTICES--NONGRADED INSTRUCTION, TEAM TEACHING, UTILIZATION OF TEACHER AIDES, MULTIPLE CLASS TEACHING,…

  15. Rural Teacher's Perceptions of Safety on Texas High School Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ronald J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the perceptions of safety of rural Texas high school teachers as it related to a campus intruder or active shooter. The investigator utilized Creswell's (2012) six steps in analyzing and interpreting the qualitative data. The results of the study showed that…

  16. Vocational Agriculture and the Challenge of Rural Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Henry E.

    1970-01-01

    Guidelines suggested include: (1) adopting the education of the rural poor as a major goal, (2) basing classroom and occupational experiences on realistic career objectives, (3) utilizing the expertise of other school specialists, (4) involving parents in the education of their children, and (5) preparing teachers for work with deprived people.…

  17. Rural School Communities in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Jack

    Visits to nine of the smallest rural elementary schools in Colorado were conducted to gain insights into types of communities served by the schools. No one definition of "rural" covered all nine communities, so they were classified into six types: predominantly agricultural, rural industrial, stable recreational, ranching/railraod, rural…

  18. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  19. Social Welfare in Rural Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shucksmith, Mark; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Literature review on social exclusion and disadvantage in rural Europe suggests that rural poverty arises from unemployment, low wages, and, most significantly, inadequate income in old age. Discusses difficulties in identifying rural incidence of exclusion and disadvantage, as well as the need for such research in light of major ongoing social…

  20. Political Action in Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskerville, Roger

    People United for Rural Education (PURE), organized in Iowa in 1977, now has about 3,000 members in 23 states and 3 foreign countries. PURE's purpose is to ensure the survival of rural schools and to promote rural life as a viable and credible way of life. One of the organization's most difficult tasks is to counteract urban attitudes towards…

  1. Rural Education: A Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Carson, Ed.; Stern, Joyce D., Ed.

    This collection features 11 papers from a national symposium on rural education. The papers are consistent in noting that while there are common elements among all schools regardless of location, rural schools operate within a unique context. Several papers address the diversity of rural locales and the challenges educators face in such locales.…

  2. Rural Education: The Federal Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Norman E.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews federal efforts to develop a rural education federal agenda, five basic problems of rural areas which lend themselves to federal solutions, Department of Education proposals for fiscal year 1982, significant federal responses/already in progress, and strengths and advantages of rural schools. (AN)

  3. Rural Familism: An Interregional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Peter L.; Quesada, Gustavo M.

    1977-01-01

    Testing the hypothesis that at least two types of rural familism exist within different geographic regions of the United States, this study indicates that extended kin-oriented familism predominates in the rural Southeast and primary kin-oriented familism predominates in the rural Far West. (JC)

  4. Teacher Preparation for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Bruce A.

    Small, sometimes multi-cultural, rural schools need specialized preservice teacher education programs to prepare teachers. After outlining the classroom, school, and sociocultural characteristics affecting a teacher's success and survival in a rural community, this paper discusses the apparent lack of rural content in teacher preparation programs…

  5. Planning Schools for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart; Howley, Craig; Smith, Charles; Dickens, Ben

    School improvement in rural places cannot succeed without attention to the rural context of learning. Most especially, smaller schools need to be preserved and sustained in rural areas, particularly impoverished communities, for the sake of student achievement and personal development. This school improvement tool suggests the character of a "good…

  6. Rurality and Rural Education: Discourses Underpinning Rurality and Rural Education Research in South African Postgraduate Education Research 1994-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkambule, T.; Balfour, R. J.; Pillay, G.; Moletsane, R.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, rurality and rural education have been marginalised bodies of knowledge in South Africa. The post-1994 era has seen an emerging government concern to address the continuing interplay between poverty, HIV/AIDS, underdevelopment, and underachievement in schools categorised as rural. To address these concerns, scholars in South African…

  7. Improving Opportunities in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Henry L.

    Problems in rural communities stem from the steady downtrend of employment in agriculture, forestry, and mining, while gains in non-farm industries have not been sufficient to offset this decline and provide jobs for a growing rural labor force. There is an increasing deficit of talent in rural areas due to urban migration. The overall strategy to…

  8. Gifted Voices from Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colangelo, Nicholas; Assouline, Susan G.; New, Jennifer K.

    This report focuses on gifted and talented education in six rural schools. An introduction summarizes a 1999 national assessment of rural gifted education and points out that the standards movement may hinder development of both effective rural schools and gifted programming. Of the six schools profiled, two were founded especially for gifted and…

  9. Recruiting Teachers for Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Betty Jo

    2005-01-01

    Unquestionably, rural schools face many obstacles in their attempts to attract teachers. However, a survey of preservice teachers working in rural districts found that many of these obstacles stem from misconceptions or a lack of knowledge about what it means to live and work in a rural area. Perception, however, is reality and therefore deserves…

  10. Implementing an MSN nursing program at a distance through an urban-rural partnership.

    PubMed

    Zukowsky, Ksenia; Swan, Beth Ann; Powell, Mary; Frisby, Tony; Lauver, Lori; West, Margaret Mary; Marsella, Alexis

    2011-04-01

    Recruiting, retaining, and educating advanced practice nurses is essential to meet the growing need for advanced practice nurses in rural and urban communities. Through the support of Health Resources and Services Administration funding, the urban school of nursing expanded its MSN program and implemented the graduate curriculum on its rural campus by utilizing emerging online and distance education technologies. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview of expanding an existing MSN program offered in an urban, traditional classroom setting to rural graduate nursing students via an online synchronous format. In addition, the article will describe the rural growth of the existing neonatal nurse practitioner program as an exemplar and the different methodologies that are being used in each program to engage the rural nurse practitioner students in clinical courses. In addition, strategies to address barriers related to rural nurse practitioner student recruitment and retention will be discussed.

  11. Rural energy and development

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the worldwide problem and need for rural electrification to support development. He points out that rural areas will pay high rates to receive such services, but cannot afford the capital cost for conventional services. The author looks at this problem from the point of energy choices, subsides, initial costs, financing, investors, local involvement, and governmental actions. In particular he is concerned with ways to make better use of biofuels, to promote sustainable harvesting, and to encourage development of more modern fuels.

  12. The concept of rural community practice (RCP).

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N Ole; Evans, Brian; King, Lonnie J

    2006-01-01

    The need to devote more human resources to veterinary public practice to cope with escalating threats to biological security, public health, and economic prosperity, while also addressing societal value changes, has been widely recognized and supported. Most envisage increasing the numbers of veterinarians in government employment. Why not at least combine this initiative, wherever possible, with far greater involvement of rural practitioners to deliver contractual public-practice services and provide an enhanced community interface? This could make the difference between having a local practice in a community or none at all, as well as promising to be more cost effective. The concept of rural community practice (RCP) envisages combining traditional services provided in a "mixed-animal" veterinary practice with an expanded portfolio of public-practice and communication services that meet the emerging animal, public, and ecosystem health needs of the collective community, not just those of animal owners. These services could include those involving active sentinel surveillance programs for both domestic animal and wildlife diseases; on-farm food safety; bio-security; traceability and export certification and audit programs; disease investigation, including foreign animal diseases; surge capacity emergency response; managing for ecosystem health; and client and community education. An expanded practice team of animal-health professionals and technologists, led by veterinarians, would deliver these services. This RCP approach should have the potential to make rural practice more attractive from economic, lifestyle, and job-satisfaction perspectives; to enhance the visibility and recognition of the profession; and to respond to changing and new societal needs. It also promises to maintain a stable network of veterinary practices in rural communities. In addition, the recognition of veterinary medicine as a public good should provide for consideration of increased

  13. The planning of rural health research: rurality and rural population issues.

    PubMed

    McGrail, M R; Jones, R; Robinson, A; Rickard, C M; Burley, M; Drysdale, M

    2005-01-01

    Rurality and rural population issues require special consideration when planning both qualitative and quantitative health research in rural areas. The objective of this article was to explore the issues that require attention when planning the research. This is the first of two articles and focus on issues that require consideration when undertaking rural health research. The diversity of study populations, the feasibility of a research topic, the selection of a research team, and the cultural traditions of Indigenous communities, are all aspects of rural health research planning that require attention. Procedures such as identifying the characteristics of the population, the selection of measures of rurality appropriate for the research topic, the use of local liaison persons, decisions on the use of 'insider' or 'outsider' researchers, and the identification of skills resources available, increase the quality of the research outcomes. These issues are relevant to both qualitative and quantitative research. Procedures are available to address issues of particular concern in developing appropriate methods for rural health research. While we have concentrated on Australian issues and solutions, rural localities in other countries may face similar issues. Attention to rurality and rural situations when planning rural health research, results in studies that support the continued improvement of health in rural communities.

  14. 38 CFR 48.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 48.645 Section 48.645 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military department, government corporation, government controlled corporation, any other establishment in...

  15. Federal Law on Consumer Deception: An Agency by Agency Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweibel, George J.

    A comprehensive analysis of statutes and regulations on consumer deception administered by thirty government agencies is provided in this report. Each agency's chapter includes a brief description of the agency, and a detailed listing of all deceptive trade practices prohibited by that agency's enabling legislation, regulations, or other sources…

  16. 10 CFR 607.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agency or agency. 607.645 Section 607.645 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the...

  17. Reluctant Rural Regionalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter V.; Stern, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Recently, scholars have begun to explore questions of regionalism and regionalization in rural contexts. Regionalism is often understood and presented as a pragmatic solution to intractable problems of fragmentation, inefficiency, accountability, spillover and neglect in the face of economic restructuring and other external threats. These…

  18. Teachers as Rural Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiansen, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In the article, education is seen as a hierarchical cultural encounter between urban and rural values and ways of life. Good teachers do not only deliver curriculum, they also consider the needs and values of their students, as well as those of the local community. The article discusses how teachers' competence, knowledge and attitudes can affect…

  19. The Rural Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coble, Charles R.; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Science teachers in rural areas have the opportunity to present their students with concrete examples of science concepts they're studying simply by going outdoors. Examples presented focus on earth science, food webs, succession, and comparative ecology. Tips for developing topics using outdoor experiences are included. (JM)

  20. A Rural Community Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Rubye Wilkerson

    1991-01-01

    Describes one researcher's experiences as she interviewed rural families during a comprehensive survey of Johnson County, Tennessee. Discusses health care problems and needs, family support systems for the sick and elderly, fears about cancer risks, and the real picture of underemployment versus the official unemployment rate. (SV)

  1. Special Issue: Rural Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

  2. Whither Rural Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Darrell S.

    1981-01-01

    Rural education may be entering a renaissance after 60 years of neglect. Improvements include: multidistrict shared services with special attention given to exceptional persons; new delivery systems; more relevant training for school personnel; and effective dissemination of successfully established school practices. (CJ)

  3. CAUSES OF RURAL POVERTY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STOCKBURGER, CASSANDRA

    THERE IS ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGEMENT IN MANY SECTIONS OF OUR COUNTRY, BUT RURAL ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGEMENT IS CONCENTRATED LARGELY IN THE SOUTH AND SOUTHWEST. THE SOUTH HAS REMAINED IN ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGEMENT SINCE THE CIVIL WAR, DUE TO THE SHARECROPPER SYSTEM OF FARMING. IN APPALACHIA, OPPORTUNISTIC MINING AND FORESTRY OPERATIONS, COUPLED WITH THE…

  4. Rural Incubator Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.

    This profile summarizes the responses of 20 managers of rural business incubators, reporting on their operations, entry and exit policies, facility promotion, service arrangements and economic development outcomes. Incubators assist small businesses in the early stages of growth by providing them with rental space, shared services, management and…

  5. Rural Growth Slows Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Mark; And Others

    1987-01-01

    After decade of growth, rural income, population, and overall economic activity have stalled and again lag behind urban trends. Causes include banking and transportation deregulation, international competition, agricultural finance problems. Only nonmetropolitan counties dependent on retirement, government, and trade show continuing income growth…

  6. RURAL TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napa County Schools, CA.

    TEACHERS AND LOCAL BOARDS OF NAPA COUNTY'S RURAL SCHOOLS ARE PLACED IN THE POSITION OF PROVIDING EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP TO THE COMMUNITIES WHICH LACK GUIDANCE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS. RESOURCES AVAILABLE FROM THE COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT AND MATERIALS AVAILABLE FROM LOCAL SCHOOLS ARE LISTED. THE SUPERINTENDENT PROVIDES A COUNTY CONSULTANT TO AID IN…

  7. VET in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Mike

    Despite the enduring problems of equity and access in the delivery of education in rural Australian schools, vocational education and training (VET) programs appear to have had a significant impact on many such schools and their communities. Vocational educational programs in Australia are based on structured workplace learning. There are three…

  8. Women in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    In rural America 34 million culturally and economically diverse women share the common problem of unfair treatment based on sex. Although in recent years women have begun to question the social attitudes limiting their aspirations, a formidable gap exists between their expectations and the archaic legal, social, and economic policies that continue…

  9. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  10. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities. PMID:27626037

  11. Sino/American cooperation for rural electrification in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.L.; Tsuo, Y.S.

    1997-02-01

    Rapid growth in economic development, coupled with the absence of an electric grid in large areas of the rural countryside, have created a need for new energy sources both in urban centers and rural areas in China. There is a very large need for new sources of energy for rural electrification in China as represented by 120 million people in remote regions who do not have access to an electric grid and by over 300 coastal islands in China that are unelectrified. In heavily populated regions in China where there is an electric grid, there are still severe shortages of electric power and limited access to the grid by village populations. In order to meet energy demands in rural China, renewable energy in the form of solar, wind, and biomass resources are being utilized as a cost effective alternative to grid extension and use of diesel and gasoline generators. An Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Protocol Agreement was signed by the U.S. Department of Energy with the Chinese State Science and Technology Commission in Beijing in February, 1995. Under this agreement, projects using photovoltaics for rural electrification are being conducted in Gansu Province in western China and Inner Mongolia in northern China, providing the basis for much wider deployment and use of photovoltaics for meeting the growing rural energy demands of China. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Metacognition of Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Janet; Greene, Matthew Jason

    2007-01-01

    The feeling that we are agents, intentionally making things happen by our own actions, is foundational to our understanding of ourselves as humans. People's metacognitions of agency were investigated in 4 experiments. Participants played a game in which they tried to touch downward scrolling Xs and avoid touching Os. Variables that affected…

  13. Youth Media and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauge, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…

  14. Cooperation Among State Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenbarger, James L.; Hansen, Dean M.

    1975-01-01

    Most states have separate agencies to deal with vocational education, adult education, and community colleges. Because current procedures for interagency cooperation are inadequate and often nonproductive, there is a need for a national or extra-state catalyst to encourage cooperation in a positive way. Five strategies for cooperation are…

  15. An Ethnographic Meta-Synthesis of Three Southwestern Rural Studies

    PubMed Central

    Averill, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives were to synthesize cumulative findings across three critical ethnographic, community-partnered studies in the southwestern United States and to describe the process of meta-ethnography for that analysis. Design The meta-ethnography followed the design of Noblit and Hare for constructing an analysis of composite data, informed by community-based participatory research and Stringer’s ethnographic strategies of Look-Think-Act. Sample The three studies occurred in rural settings of Colorado and New Mexico, engaging 129 total participants, along with community organizations and agencies as partners. Methods Methods consisted of detailed review of each original study, mapping of major concepts and themes, and general analysis, interpretation, and synthesis across the studies. Results Overall themes were: health is the capacity to care for oneself and do work, meaningful relationships are key in health care interactions, patterns of discrimination persist in rural settings, poor literacy and health literacy are barriers, and food insecurity is a growing concern for older rural adults. Conclusions Resolutions involve practice, policy and research and must incorporate all stakeholder groups in rural settings; a participatory approach is critical to prioritize and impact existing inequities; and work is needed to extend education and understanding of multiple cultures, groups, customs, and rural contexts. PMID:26416201

  16. Strategies for gender-equitable HIV services in rural India

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Gita; Peters, David H; Bollinger, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of HIV in rural India has the potential to heighten gender inequity in a context where women already suffer significant health disparities. Recent Indian health policies provide new opportunities to identify and implement gender-equitable rural HIV services. In this review, we adapt Mosley and Chen's conceptual framework of health to outline determinants for HIV health services utilization and outcomes. Examining the framework through a gender lens, we conduct a comprehensive literature review for gender-related gaps in HIV clinical services in rural India, focusing on patient access and outcomes, provider practices, and institutional partnerships. Contextualizing findings from rural India in the broader international literature, we describe potential strategies for gender-equitable HIV services in rural India, as responses to the following three questions: (1) What gender-specific patient needs should be addressed for gender-equitable HIV testing and care? (2) What do health care providers need to deliver HIV services with gender equity? (3) How should institutions enforce and sustain gender-equitable HIV services? Data at this early stage indicate substantial gender-related differences in HIV services in rural India, reflecting prevailing gender norms. Strategies including gender-specific HIV testing and care services would directly address current gender-specific patient needs. Rural care providers urgently need training in gender sensitivity and HIV-related communication and clinical skills. To enforce and sustain gender equity, multi-sectoral institutions must establish gender-equitable medical workplaces, interdisciplinary HIV services partnerships, and oversight methods, including analysis of gender-disaggregated data. A gender-equitable approach to rural India's rapidly evolving HIV services programmes could serve as a foundation for gender equity in the overall health care system. PMID:19244284

  17. Normativity, agency, and life.

    PubMed

    Barham, James

    2012-03-01

    There is an immense philosophical literature dealing with the notions of normativity and agency, as well as a sizeable and rapidly growing scientific literature on the topic of autonomous agents. However, there has been very little cross-fertilization between these two literatures. As a result, the philosophical literature tends to assume a somewhat outdated mechanistic image of living things, resulting in a quasi-dualistic picture in which only human beings, or the higher animals, can be normative agents properly speaking. From this perspective, the project of 'naturalizing normativity' becomes almost a contradiction in terms. At the same time, the scientific literature tends to misuse 'normativity,' 'agency,' and related terms, assuming that it is meaningful to ascribe these concepts to 'autonomous agents' conceived of as physical systems whose behavior is to be explained in terms of ordinary physical law. From this perspective, the true depth of the difficulty involved in understanding what makes living systems distinctive qua physical systems becomes occluded. In this essay, I begin the attempt to remedy this situation. After some preliminary discussion of terminology and situating of my project within the contemporary philosophical landscape, I make a distinction between two different aspects of the project of naturalizing normativity: (1) the 'Scope Problem,' which consists in saying how widely in nature our concept of normative agency may properly be applied; and (2) the 'Ground Problem,' which consists in rationalizing the phenomenon of normative agency in terms of the rest of our knowledge of nature. Then, in the remainder of this paper, I argue that the Scope Problem ought to be resolved in favor of attributing normative agency, in the proper sense of those words, to living things as such. The Ground Problem will be discussed in a companion paper at a later time.

  18. Vulnerability to Climate Change in Rural Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, T. R.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    While there is a growing recognition of the impact that climate change may have on human development, there has been a shift in focus from an impacts-led assessment approach towards a vulnerability-led assessment approach. This research operationalizes the IPCC's definition of vulnerability in a sub-national assessment to understand how different factors that shape vulnerability to climate change vary spatially across rural Nicaragua. The research utilizes the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' (FAO UN) CropWat model to evaluate how the annual yield of two of Nicaragua's staple crops may change under projected changes in temperature and precipitation. This analysis of agricultural sensitivity under exposure to climate change is then overlain with an indicator-based assessment of adaptive capacity in rural Nicaraguan farming households. Adaptive capacity was evaluated using household survey data from the 2001 National Household Survey on Living Standards Measurement, which was provided to us by the FAO UN. The result is a map representing current vulnerability to future climate change, and can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions in rural Nicaragua.

  19. Rural brewing, exclusion, and development policy-making.

    PubMed

    Mccall, M

    1996-10-01

    This article highlights the economic role of women in the brewing industry in rural and periurban areas of sub-Saharan African countries. Local beer drinking is a form of social exchange and a reward for time-intensive work. Modern beer brewing in rural areas is a family operation. Beer is produced for subsistence and for sale. Locally brewed beer has a lower alcohol content than commercial brews. The author refers to Pradervand's (1990) study of local brewing in five east and west African countries. Pradervand found that men spent an estimated CFAF 18 billion per year on local brews compared to the value of total national exports of CFAF 21 billion per year in 1996. The male Kitui in rural Kenya were found to spend 60% of their weekly income on beer. Women dominate brewing in eastern and southern Africa. Rural beers are grain based (maize, millet, or sorghum), but may also be made from bananas, bamboo, sugar cane, or coconut. An estimated 25% of women in a village survey in Tanzania reported that beer was brewed one to four times a month. Another survey in the 1980s found that 73% of women brewed beer at some time. Beer brewing is a very significant economic activity for rural women. It provides higher levels of income and employment. Urban brewing by women has a negative image that rural women's beer brewing does not have. Grain for brewing comes from family farms or markets. Women's clubs are used as income generation groups for loans and as support groups. Women's beer brewing is not supported by development interventions or recognized by UN agencies. There are resource implications due to an estimated 5%-30% of annual wood consumption used for beer brewing. If women's role in beer brewing is ignored, male-dominated commercial interests will further marginalize rural women.

  20. 78 FR 14024 - Financial Market Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... CFR Part 234 RIN No. 7100-AD 94 Financial Market Utilities AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... maintain an account for, and through the account provide certain financial services to, financial market... financial markets and the broader economy rely to function effectively. FMUs operate multilateral systems...

  1. Theoretical implications addressing rural college students' organ donation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Britt, Rebecca K; Britt, Brian C; Anderson, Jennifer

    2015-11-19

    The current study used the theory of planned behavior to examine rural college students' attitudes, normative beliefs, and perceived behavioral control regarding intent to register as organ donors. This effort is done in light of a need to increase intervention efforts among college students, particularly those in rural areas where these undertakings may need to be tailored in grassroots approaches. The study made use of perceived behavioral control as a moderator and found partial support for the model. Findings offer results that scholars, practitioners, and educators can utilize for interventions.

  2. Renewable Energy Applications for Rural Development in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, J.; Baring-Gould, E. I.; Stroup, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a description of current work to promote and support the developing market for renewable (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) technologies in China. Since the signing of the US/China Protocol for Cooperation in the Fields of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technology Development and Utilization in 1995, NREL has helped to promote RE and EE technologies, specifically rural energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and renewable energy business development, in addition to more general policy and planning support. This paper focuses on NREL's work in support of the $240 million Township Electrification Program, which is providing power to over 1000 rural communities using renewable based energy sources.

  3. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents, May 2009 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-05-01

    Enabling Documents, delivered by the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to provide materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs).

  4. [Environment and rural development].

    PubMed

    Dufumier, M

    1992-01-01

    Management of natural resources and preservation of ecological balance are perceived today as essential elements of rural development. The recently multiplying environmental ministries in developing countries are intended not only to correct the damages resulting from uncontrolled urbanization and industrialization, but to address ecosystemic degradation in the countryside. The aptitude demonstrated by numerous peasant societies for exploiting their environments over the long term while preserving their potential should be recognized and their specific, detailed knowledge incorporated into environmental protection projects. It is a mistake to conclude that peasants do not care about environmental problems; they often lack the resources to take needed action. Active participation of impoverished rural dwellers requires that measures taken do not reduce their incomes or resources in the short term. Rural development projects must assure protection of the environment while taking into account the interests of diverse categories of rural dwellers, such as farmers, herders, or wood cutters. There has been considerable progress in the past 2 decades in understanding the functioning of cultivated and pasture ecosystems and in developing techniques to limit damage to them. A vast effort is now needed to understand the economic, social, and cultural functions of customs and practices of different social groups involved in agricultural development and territorial management in order to prioritize problems and arrive at a consensus of all those affected concerning environmental protection. Social science research is needed into marketing of agricultural products, circulation of cooking fuels, village-town relations, and migration in order to determine the effects of these phenomena on management and conservation of natural resources in rural areas. Experimental research should be directed toward finding practical solutions to problems encountered by rural cultivators

  5. Rural tourism spatial distribution based on multi-criteria decision analysis and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongxian; Yang, Qingsheng

    2008-10-01

    To study spatial distribution of rural tourism can provide scientific decision basis for developing rural economics. Traditional ways of tourism spatial distribution have some limitations in quantifying priority locations of tourism development on small units. They can only produce the overall tourism distribution locations and whether locations are suitable to tourism development simply while the tourism develop ranking with different decision objectives should be considered. This paper presents a way to find ranking of location of rural tourism development in spatial by integrating multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and geography information system (GIS). In order to develop country economics with inconvenient transportation, undeveloped economy and better tourism resource, these locations should be firstly develop rural tourism. Based on this objective, the tourism develop priority utility of each town is calculated with MCDA and GIS. Towns which should be first develop rural tourism can be selected with higher tourism develop priority utility. The method is used to find ranking of location of rural tourism in Ningbo City successfully. The result shows that MCDA is an effective way for distribution rural tourism in spatial based on special decision objectives and rural tourism can promote economic development.

  6. Rural-urban differences in access to Iowa child health services.

    PubMed

    Levey, L M; Curry, J P; Levey, S

    1988-07-01

    Indicators of access, utilization, and quality of available child health services as well as health status were obtained through a telephone survey of Iowa households with children under age six. These indicators were compared for rural-urban subsamples within an AFDC sample drawn from Iowa Department of Human Service files (N = 637), and within poverty (N = 129) and nonpoverty groups (N = 631) drawn from the population of all households in the state with children under age six. About 55 percent of all households studied were rural. Rural households were generally larger than urban households, more likely to be intact maritally, white, and earning a living from farming. The findings support the hypothesis that place of residence has an impact on access, utilization, and quality of child health services over and above family income, although not always to the disadvantage of rural children. Typical problems for rural children, irrespective of income, were access to pediatric care, greater travel time to providers, and discontinuity of well care and sick care. Rural children in all income groups had lower seat belt use than urban children; they were also less likely to have well visits and their providers showed less attentiveness to behavioral and developmental issues at these visits. Rural residency exacerbated problems in access to care for low income children, who were less likely to be eligible for AFDC/Medicaid than their urban counterparts. Medicaid coverage, however, did not eliminate rural-urban differences in receiving desired medical care.

  7. Retaining rural doctors: doctors' preferences for rural medical workforce incentives.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhu; Scott, Anthony; McGrail, Matthew; Humphreys, John; Witt, Julia

    2014-11-01

    Many governments have implemented incentive programs to improve the retention of doctors in rural areas despite a lack of evidence of their effectiveness. This study examines rural general practitioners' (GPs') preferences for different types of retention incentive policies using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). In 2009, the DCE was administered to a group of 1720 rural GPs as part of the "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL)" study. We estimate both a mixed logit model and a generalized multinomial logit model to account for different types of unobserved differences in GPs' preferences. Our results indicate that increased level of locum relief incentive, retention payments and rural skills loading leads to an increase in the probability of attracting GPs to stay in rural practice. The locum relief incentive is ranked as the most effective, followed by the retention payments and rural skills loading payments. These findings are important in helping to tailor retention policies to those that are most effective.

  8. Rural Development: Information and Technical Assistance Delivered by the Department of Agriculture in Fiscal Year 1975. Sixth Annual Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    A consolidated summary of information submitted by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agencies and State Rural Development (RD) Committees, this sixth annual report on USDA information and technical assistance includes USDA organizational arrangements for rural assistance, some assessments, research supporting RD information and technical…

  9. Utilization of a State Run Public Private Emergency Transportation Service Exclusively for Childbirth: The Janani (Maternal) Express Program in Madhya Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Sidney, Kristi; Ryan, Kayleigh; Diwan, Vishal; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2009 the state government of Madhya Pradesh, India launched an emergency obstetric transportation service, Janani Express Yojana (JEY), to support the cash transfer program that promotes institutional delivery. JEY, a large scale public private partnership, lowers geographical access barriers to facility based care. The state contracts and pays private agencies to provide emergency transportation at no cost to the user. The objective was to study (a) the utilization of JEY among women delivering in health facilities, (b) factors associated with usage, (c) the timeliness of the service. Methods A cross sectional facility based study was conducted in facilities that carried out > ten deliveries a month. Researchers who spent five days in each facility administered a questionnaire to all women who gave birth there to elicit socio-demographic characteristics and transport related details. Results 35% of women utilised JEY to reach a facility, however utilization varied between study districts. Uptake was highest among women from rural areas (44%), scheduled tribes (55%), and poorly educated women (40%). Living in rural areas and belonging to scheduled tribes were significant predictors for JEY usage. Almost 1/3 of JEY users (n = 104) experienced a transport related delay. Discussion The JEY service model complements the cash transfer program by providing transport to a facility to give birth. A study of the distribution of utilization in population subgroups suggests the intervention was successful in reaching the most vulnerable population, promoting equity in access. While 1/3 of women utilized the service and it saved them money; 30% experienced significant transport related delays in reaching a facility, which is comparable to women using public transportation. Further research is needed to understand why utilization is low, to explore if there is a need for service expansion at the community level and to improve the overall time efficiency of JEY

  10. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenink, Don

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents' delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13-18 (48.7% females). The analyses show that rural adolescents are only…

  11. Recognizing the Variety of Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenough, Richard; Nelson, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to help education practitioners and researchers understand that research about rural education is complicated not only by issues of defining "rural," but also by the often dramatic ways that rural schools differ from each other. We briefly address issues in defining rural and describe rural classification…

  12. Who Decided College Access in Chinese Secondary Education? Rural-Urban Inequality of Basic Education in Contemporary China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the rural-urban inequalities in basic education of contemporary China. The China Education Panel Survey (2013-2014) (CEPS) was utilized to analyze the gaps between rural and urban inequality in junior high schools in terms of three domains, which include the equalities of access, inputs, and outcomes. From the sociocultural…

  13. Perspectives and Practices of Successful Teachers in Diverse Rural South Texas High-Performing High-Needs Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Roberta Simnacher

    2012-01-01

    Texas rural schools, educating more than half a million students annually, and rural schools across the nation have been under scrutiny for the inability to provide quality education through course offerings, facilities, and qualified teachers. To address this issue, the investigator utilized Spradley's (1980) seminal work, "Participant…

  14. Primary and Specialty Medical Care Among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  15. Primary and Specialty Medical Care among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  16. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. )

    1992-03-01

    This is Volume 2 part 2, of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. This volume particularly contains basic design and performance data.

  17. Rural health clinics infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, K.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses programs which were directed at the installation of photovoltaic power systems in rural health clinics. The objectives included: vaccine refrigeration; ice pack freezing; lighting; communications; medical appliances; sterilization; water purification; and income generation. The paper discusses two case histories, one in the Dominican Republic and one in Colombia. The author summarizes the results of the programs, both successes and failures, and offers an array of conclusions with regard to the implementation of future programs of this general nature.

  18. Agency, time, and causality

    PubMed Central

    Widlok, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-Western Educational Industrial Rich Democratic people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition. PMID:25414683

  19. Agency, time, and causality.

    PubMed

    Widlok, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-Western Educational Industrial Rich Democratic people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition.

  20. Netizenship Politics: Youth, Anti-Americanism, and Rhetorical Agency in South Korea's 2002 Candlelight Vigils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Jiyeon

    2009-01-01

    This study offers a rhetorical analysis of the 2002 South Korean Candlelight Vigils ["ch'otpul siwi"] with a focus on the role of the Internet in public opinion building, the rise in anti-American sentiment in South Korea, and rhetorical agency residing in the collective. In 2002, two South Korean schoolgirls walking along a rural road…