Science.gov

Sample records for agency rural utilities

  1. Uncommon Schools: An Innovative Approach to Rural Community Organization by County Agencies Utilizing Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Harvey C.

    To recapture the spirit of Thoreau's "uncommon schools," a South Carolina county Department of Social Services (DSS) sought to create a "university" of the community which would provide experiences in the field for students, feed-back to DSS workers from the community and to the local college, and would utilize the resources of the agency, the…

  2. 76 FR 30904 - Rural Utilities Service Telecommunications Loan and Loan Guarantee Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Rural Utilities Service Telecommunications Loan and Loan Guarantee Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of elimination of the List of Materials. SUMMARY: Rural Development's Rural Utilities Service (RUS) and its predecessor, the Rural...

  3. Effects of Communication and Transportation on Utilization of Agency Services by Rural Poor People in South Carolina. South Carolina State College Research Bulletin No. 5, January 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Marguerite Rogers; Hanna, Kathleen

    Use of five agencies offering adult education, vocational rehabilitation, food stamps, employment, and health services in Orangeburg County by rural poor people in Bowman, Elloree, and North was studied over a two-year period. The study examined whether communication, transportation, or both increased agency use. In Bowman, information about the…

  4. Echocardiogram Utilization Among Rural and Urban Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Okrah, Kingston; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kaboli, Peter; Cram, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare echocardiography use among urban and rural veterans and whether differences could be accounted for by distance. Methods We used Veterans Administration (VA) administrative data from 1999 to 2007 to identify regular users of the VA Healthcare System (VA users) who did and did not receive echocardiography. Each veteran was categorized as residing in urban, rural or highly rural areas using RUCA codes. Poisson regression was used to compare echocardiography utilization rates among veterans residing in each area after adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, clustering of patients within VA networks and distance to the nearest VA medical center offering echocardiography. Findings Our study included 22.7 million veterans of whom 1.3 million (5.7%) received at least one echocardiogram. Of echocardiography recipients, 69.2% lived in urban, 22.0% in rural and 8.8% in highly rural areas. In analyses adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities, and clustering, utilization of echocardiography was modestly lower for highly rural and rural veterans compared with urban veterans (42.0 vs 40.1 vs 43.1 echocardiograms per 1,000 VA users per year for highly rural, rural and urban, respectively; P < .001). After further adjusting for distance, echocardiography utilization was somewhat higher for veterans in highly rural and rural areas than it was for urban areas (44.9 vs 41.8 vs 40.8 for highly rural, rural and urban, respectively; P < .001). Conclusions Echocardiography utilization among rural and highly rural veterans was marginally lower than for urban veterans, but these differences can be accounted for by the greater distance of more rural veterans from facilities offering echocardiograms. PMID:22236338

  5. Child Marriage, Agency, and Schooling in Rural Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Graham, Erin; Leal, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationships between child marriage, agency, and schooling in rural Honduras. Through an in-depth qualitative case study, we address the following questions: (1) In what ways, if any, do girls exercise agency in their decision to marry? (2) How might education enhance girls' agency, expanding their choice sets and…

  6. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and the Department of... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  7. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and the Department of... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  8. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and the Department of... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  9. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and the Department of... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  10. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and the Department of... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  11. Rural drug users: factors associated with substance abuse treatment utilization.

    PubMed

    Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Tindall, Michele Staton; Garrity, Thomas F; Carlson, Robert G; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a modified version of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to identify the correlates of the number of substance abuse treatment episodes received by rural drug users. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with 711 drug users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Descriptive analyses examine rural drug users' substance use histories and retrospective substance abuse treatment service utilization patterns. A negative binomial regression model indicated that selected predisposing, historical health, and enabling factors were significantly associated with the utilization of substance abuse treatment among rural drug users. Despite high levels of recent and lifetime self-reported substance use among these rural drug users, treatment services were underutilized. Future studies are needed to examine the impact of the health care system and characteristics of the external environment associated with rural substance abuse treatment in order to increase utilization among drug users.

  12. Echocardiogram Utilization among Rural and Urban Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okrah, Kingston; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kaboli, Peter; Cram, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare echocardiography use among urban and rural veterans and whether differences could be accounted for by distance. Methods: We used Veterans Administration (VA) administrative data from 1999 to 2007 to identify regular users of the VA Healthcare System (VA users) who did and did not receive echocardiography. Each veteran was…

  13. Does rural residence impact total ankle arthroplasty utilization and outcomes?

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Ramachandaran, Rekha

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) utilization and outcomes by patient residence. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2003 to 2011 to compare utilization and outcomes (post-arthroplasty discharge disposition, length of hospitalization, and mortality) by rural vs. urban residence. Ten thousand eight hundred thirty-three patients in urban and 3,324 patients in rural area underwent TAA. Compared to rural residents, urban residents had: lower mean age, 62.4 vs. 61.8 years (p < 0.0001); higher percent of women, 49 vs. 56 % (p = 0.0008); and lower proportion of Whites, 93 vs. 86 % (p = 0.0005). There were rural-urban disparities in TAA utilization in 2003 (0.32 vs. 0.39/100,000; p = 0.021), but not in 2011 (1.19 vs. 1.17/100,00; p = 0.80). TAA outcomes did not differ by rural vs. urban residence: (1) 11.3 % rural vs. 14.2 % urban residents were discharged to an inpatient facility (p = 0.098); (2) length of hospital stay above the median stay, was 44.8 vs. 42.2 % (p = 0.30); and (3) mortality was 0.2 vs. 0.1 %, respectively (p = 0.81). Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models did not show any significant differences in discharge to home, length of stay, or mortality, by residence. Our study demonstrated an absence of any evidence of rural-urban differences in TAA outcomes. The rural-urban differences in TAA utilization noted in 2003 were no longer significant in 2011.

  14. Wind Power for America: Rural Electric Utilities Harvest New Crop (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-02-01

    Wind Power for America: Rural Electric Utilities Harvest a New Crop is a trifold brochure that strives to educate rural landowners and rural co-op utilities about the benefits of wind power development. It provides examples of rural utilities that have successful wind energy projects and supportive statements from industry members.

  15. 7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Reauthorization Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq.). (13) Administer the Distance Learning and Medical Link... Comptroller General (4 CFR chapter II), with respect to the claims of the Rural Utilities Service. (10... Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193, under the following provisions of...

  16. 7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Reauthorization Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq.). (13) Administer the Distance Learning and Medical Link... Comptroller General (4 CFR chapter II), with respect to the claims of the Rural Utilities Service. (10... Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193, under the following provisions of...

  17. 7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Reauthorization Act of 1986 (42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq.). (13) Administer the Distance Learning and Medical Link... Comptroller General (4 CFR chapter II), with respect to the claims of the Rural Utilities Service. (10... Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193, under the following provisions of...

  18. 7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, Rural Utilities Service. 2.47 Section 2.47 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE AND GENERAL OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT Delegations of Authority by the Under Secretary for...

  19. Expanding the Vision: New Roles for Educational Service Agencies in Rural School District Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert

    This book examines the role of the educational service agency (ESA) in the process of enabling and facilitating rural school improvement. The introductory chapter discusses the continuing significance of rural education, service to rural districts as an explicit reason for establishing ESAs, and the characteristics of several types of ESAs.…

  20. Even Better Next Time: Making Effective Slide Shows for Rural Social Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace-Whitaker, Virginia

    Practical, detailed steps for producing a slide/tape show are presented in this paper directed to rural social agencies wishing to communicate more effectively with the communities they serve. The paper begins with background information about advertising in relation to the needs and characteristics of rural social agencies and concludes that a…

  1. Rural vs. urban utilization of total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Devraj; Illingworth, Kenneth David; Novicoff, Wendy M; Scaife, Steven L; Jones, Braden K; Saleh, Khaled J

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between patient demographics and hospital demographics on utilization of total joint arthroplasty in rural and urban populations from the National Inpatient Sample database. Any patient that was discharged after a primary total hip or primary total knee arthroplasty was included in this study. Results showed that rural patients living in a Northeastern hospital region compared to West, less than 65 years of age, females, Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to undergo total joint arthroplasty compared to their urban counterparts. Rural patient were more likely to undergo total joint arthroplasty compared to their urban counterparts if they were in the Midwest and had Medicare as their primary payer provider.

  2. Medicare-Certified Home Health Care: Urban-Rural Differences in Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Lacey; Jarosek, Stephanie L.; Virnig, Beth A.; Durham, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Context: Availability of Medicare-certified home health care (HHC) to rural elders can prevent more expensive institutional care. To date, utilization of HHC by rural elders has not been studied in detail. Purpose: To examine urban-rural differences in Medicare HHC utilization. Methods: The 2002 100% Medicare HHC claims and denominator files were…

  3. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Housing and Urban Development. The percentage representing each criterion is multiplied by the...

  4. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Housing and Urban Development. The percentage representing each criterion is multiplied by the...

  5. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Housing and Urban Development. The percentage representing each criterion is multiplied by the...

  6. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Housing and Urban Development. The percentage representing each criterion is multiplied by the...

  7. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Housing and Urban Development. The percentage representing each criterion is multiplied by the...

  8. 41 CFR 102-82.15 - What utility services must Executive agencies provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What utility services...-UTILITY SERVICES Utility Services § 102-82.15 What utility services must Executive agencies provide? Executive agencies must negotiate with public utilities to procure utility services and, where...

  9. Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mahabub-Ul-Anwar, Md; Rob, Ubaidur; Talukder, Md Noorunnabi

    The article examines the inequalities in utilization of maternal health care in rural areas of Bangladesh. It also attempts to identify the expenditure pattern for these services. Findings suggest that large disparities in the maternal health care utilization exist between the poorest and the richest population in Bangladesh. Two in three women in the highest wealth group receive antenatal care from qualified doctors as opposed to one in five women in the lowest wealth group. Almost all the deliveries occur at home among the lowest wealth group, whereas 16% of deliveries occur at health facilities among the highest wealth group. Wealth is also associated with the seeking of care for delivery-related complications. The practice of seeking services during post-natal period is not common and it varies positively with economic condition. Family savings is found to be the dominant source of paying the maternal health care services among the women in the highest wealth group. Cost has been found to be the most commonly cited reason for not seeking care for delivery complications. Eighty-four percent of women in the lowest wealth group compared to 13% of women in the highest wealth group did not seek treatment for delivery complications due to cost. Lack of perceived need of antenatal care (ANC) and postnatal care is the most pressing reason for not seeking these services. The study findings contain a number of implications for policy purposes that could be useful in devising ways to increase the utilization of maternal health care services.

  10. Utilization of Psychoeducational Interventions in Rural Mental Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Harrison

    1985-01-01

    Explores and advocates use of psychoeducational approaches to help rural mental health practitioners address counterproductive issues that inhibit effective therapeutic networking for schizophrenic clients. Details adapting psychoeducational programs for clients, families, and allied service providers in a rural setting. (NEC)

  11. 41 CFR 102-82.10 - What basic utility services policy govern Executive agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What basic utility... PROPERTY 82-UTILITY SERVICES General Provisions § 102-82.10 What basic utility services policy govern Executive agencies? Executive agencies procuring, managing or supplying utility services under Title 40...

  12. Access to Transportation and Health Care Utilization in a Rural Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Preisser, John S.; Gesler, Wilbert M.; Powers, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Access to transportation to transverse the large distances between residences and health services in rural settings is a necessity. However, little research has examined directly access to transportation in analyses of rural health care utilization. This analysis addresses the association of transportation and health care utilization in a rural…

  13. A New Frontier: Utilizing Charter Schooling to Strengthen Rural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This report, the first in the series, points out that, while urban families increasingly have access to a variety of school options--including charter schools--many rural families have just a single school option. There are numerous examples of rural charter schools that have done great things for students while also benefiting the larger…

  14. Update: Health Insurance and Utilization of Care among Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Janice C.; Moore, Charity G.; Baxley, Elizabeth G.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is critical for the development of adult health habits. Disparities between rural and urban adolescents and between minority and white youth can have life-long consequences. Purpose: To compare health insurance coverage and ambulatory care contacts between rural minority adolescents and white and urban adolescents. Methods:…

  15. Provider choice and utility loss due to selective contracting in rural and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Fortney, J; Thill, J C; Zhang, M; Duan, N; Rost, K

    2001-03-01

    An econometric model estimated the disutility of traveling long distances for depression treatment, and simulations calculated the utility loss associated with selective contracting in rural and urban areas. A representative sample of depression patients (n = 106) and all practicing providers (n = 3,710) in Arkansas were identified and the distances between them were calculated. Using discrete choice analysis, patient preferences for provider type and travel distance were estimated. Simulations calculated the utility loss associated with alternative scenarios of selective contracting. Provider type and distance were significant predictors of provider choice. To equate the utility loss associated with selective contracting in rural and urban areas, a slightly higher proportion of rural physicians and a substantially higher proportion of rural mental health specialists must be contracted. To avoid further reductions in geographic access, managed care organizations should contract with a higher proportion of rural providers than urban providers. PMID:11236233

  16. The Influence of Rural Location on Utilization of Formal Home Care: The Role of Medicaid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, William J.; Spector, William D.; Van Nostrand, Joan; Shaffer, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This research examines the impact of rural-urban residence on formal home-care utilization among older people and determines whether and how Medicaid coverage influences the association between, rural-urban location and risk of formal home-care use. Design and Methods: We combined data from the 1998 consolidated file of the Medical…

  17. Frustrated Freedom: The Effects of Agency and Wealth on Wellbeing in Rural Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Bart; Fischer, Edward; Cooil, Bruce; Vergara, Alfredo; Mukolo, Abraham; Blevins, Meridith

    2014-01-01

    In Sen's capability view of poverty, wellbeing is threatened by both deficits of wealth and deficits of individual agency. Sen further predicts that “unfreedom,” or low levels of agency will suppress the wellbeing effects of higher levels of wealth. The current paper extends Sen's view to include a condition, labeled “frustrated freedom,” in which relatively higher levels of agency can heighten the poverty effects of relatively low levels of material wealth. Applying data from a large scale population study of female heads of household in rural Mozambique, the paper empirically tests Sen's view and the proposed extension. As predicted, agency is found to moderate the relationship between agency, wealth, and wellbeing, uncovering evidence of both unfreedom and frustrated freedom in the population. Further research into the complex dynamics of wellbeing and poverty are called for by the authors. PMID:25125791

  18. 41 CFR 102-74.600 - Should Federal agencies utilize telework centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Veterans Affairs. (o) Environmental Protection Agency. (p) General Services Administration. (q) Office of... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Should Federal agencies... MANAGEMENT Telework § 102-74.600 Should Federal agencies utilize telework centers? Yes. In accordance...

  19. Urban-rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Ningxiu; Liu, Chaojie; Ren, Xiaohui; Liu, Danping; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2016-09-01

    Preventive care service is considered pivotal on the background of demographic ageing and a rise in chronic diseases in China. The disparity in utilization of preventive care services between urban and rural in China is a serious issue. In this paper, we explored factors associated with urban-rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China, and determined how much of the urban-rural disparity was attributable to each determinant of utilization in preventive care services. Using representative sample data from China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2011 (N = 12,976), the present study performed multilevel logistic model to examine the factors that affected utilization of preventive care services in last 4 weeks. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was applied to divide the utilization of preventive care disparity between urban and rural residents into a part that can be explained by differences in observed covariates and unobserved part. The percentage of rural residents utilizing preventive care service in last 4 weeks was lower than that of urban residents (5.1% vs 9.3%). Female, the aged, residents with higher education level and household income, residents reporting self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks and physician-diagnosed chronic disease had higher likelihood of utilizing preventive care services. Household income was the most important factor accounting for 26.6% of urban-rural disparities in utilization of preventive care services, followed by education (21.5%), self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks (7.8%), hypertension (4.4%), diabetes (3.3%), other chronic diseases (0.8%), and health insurance (-1.0%). Efforts to reduce financial barriers for low-income individuals who cannot afford preventive services, increasing awareness of the importance of obtaining preventive health services and providing more preventive health services covered by health insurance, may help to reduce the gap of preventive care services utilization between

  20. Urban-rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Ningxiu; Liu, Chaojie; Ren, Xiaohui; Liu, Danping; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2016-09-01

    Preventive care service is considered pivotal on the background of demographic ageing and a rise in chronic diseases in China. The disparity in utilization of preventive care services between urban and rural in China is a serious issue. In this paper, we explored factors associated with urban-rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China, and determined how much of the urban-rural disparity was attributable to each determinant of utilization in preventive care services. Using representative sample data from China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2011 (N = 12,976), the present study performed multilevel logistic model to examine the factors that affected utilization of preventive care services in last 4 weeks. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was applied to divide the utilization of preventive care disparity between urban and rural residents into a part that can be explained by differences in observed covariates and unobserved part. The percentage of rural residents utilizing preventive care service in last 4 weeks was lower than that of urban residents (5.1% vs 9.3%). Female, the aged, residents with higher education level and household income, residents reporting self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks and physician-diagnosed chronic disease had higher likelihood of utilizing preventive care services. Household income was the most important factor accounting for 26.6% of urban-rural disparities in utilization of preventive care services, followed by education (21.5%), self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks (7.8%), hypertension (4.4%), diabetes (3.3%), other chronic diseases (0.8%), and health insurance (-1.0%). Efforts to reduce financial barriers for low-income individuals who cannot afford preventive services, increasing awareness of the importance of obtaining preventive health services and providing more preventive health services covered by health insurance, may help to reduce the gap of preventive care services utilization between

  1. User-owned utility models for rural electrification

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the history of rural electric cooperatives (REC) in the United States, and the broader question of whether such organizations can serve as a model for rural electrification in other countries. The author points out the features of such cooperatives which have given them stability and strength, and emphasizes that for success of such programs, many of these same features must be present. He definitely feels the cooperative models are not outdated, but they need strong local support, and a governmental structure which is supportive, and in particular not negative.

  2. Postacute Stroke Rehabilitation Utilization: Are There Differences between Rural-Urban Patients and Taxonomies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Huanguang; Cowper, Diane C.; Tang, Yuhong; Litt, Eric; Wilson, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between Veterans Affairs (VA) stroke patients' poststroke rehabilitation utilization and their residential settings by using 2 common rural-urban taxonomies. Methods: This retrospective study included all VA stroke inpatients in 2001 and 2002. Rehabilitation utilization referred to rehabilitation therapy received…

  3. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  4. 76 FR 62055 - Mississippi Delta Energy Agency, Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission, Public Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mississippi Delta Energy Agency, Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission... Practice and Procedures, and the applicable Tariff on file with the Commission, Mississippi Delta...

  5. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the

  6. Canadian Space Agency Space Station Freedom utilization plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, James; Wilkinson, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Under the terms of the NASA/CSA Memorandum of Understanding, Canada will contribute the Mobile Servicing System and be entitled to use 3 percent of all Space Station utilization resources and user accommodations over the 30 year life of the Station. Equally importantly Canada, like NASA, can begin to exploit these benefits as soon as the Man-Tended Capability (MTC) phase begins, in early 1997. Canada has been preparing its scientific community to fully utilize the Space Station for the past five years; most specifically by encouraging, and providing funding, in the area of Materials Science and Applications, and in the area of Space Life Sciences. The goal has been to develop potential applications and an experienced and proficient Canadian community able to effectively utilize microgravity environment facilities such as Space Station Freedom. In addition, CSA is currently supporting four facilities; a Laser Test System, a Large Motion Isolation Mount, a Canadian Float Zone Furnace, and a Canadian Protein Crystallization Apparatus. In late April of this year CSA sent out a Solicitation of Interest (SOI) to potential Canadian user from universities, industry, and government. The intent of the SOI was to determine who was interested, and the type of payloads which the community at large intended to propose. The SOI will be followed by the release of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) following governmental approval of the Long Term Space plan later this year, or early next year. Responses to the AO will be evaluated and prioritized in a fair and impartial payload selection process, within the guidelines set by our international partners and the Canadian Government. Payload selection is relatively simple compared to the development and qualification process. An end-to-end user support program is therefore also being defined. Much of this support will be provided at the new headquarters currently being built in St. Hubert, Quebec. It is recognized that utilizing the

  7. 7 CFR 2.47 - Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... U.S.C. 9601 et seq.). (13) Administer the Distance Learning and Medical Link Programs (7 U.S.C... her authority, exercise the functions delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987... Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, to enter into an inter-agency agreement with the...

  8. The effect of deregulation on internal control of agency conflict: Evidence from the electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennie, Craig G.

    I investigate how deregulation leads firms to modify their internal governance structures to help control owner-manager agency conflict. Specifically, I explore how electric utilities respond to wholesale-level deregulation during the ten years surrounding the 1992 Energy Policy Act. I apply factor analysis to observable governance variables that exhibit change among utilities relative to industrial firms, and show that a single common factor captures firms' reliance on internal governance structure to control owner-manager agency problems. I find that deregulating utilities reduce their reliance on internal governance relative to industrial firms. I also show that the negative relation between deregulation and electric utilities' relative reliance on internal governance structure is largely explained by increases in competition and takeover activity among utilities relative to industrial firms. I conclude that competition and takeover activity substitute for firms' relative reliance on internal control of agency conflict.

  9. 76 FR 13797 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Solicitation of Applications (NOSA). SUMMARY: This NOSA announces that the Rural Utilities Service (RUS) is accepting applications for fiscal...

  10. The Rural – Urban Divide: Health Services Utilization Among Older Mexicans in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos; Ray, Laura A.; Angel, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Context Mexico Purpose Using the health care service utilization model as a framework, this paper will analyze the differences in health care service use among older Mexicans living in urban and rural areas in Mexico. Methods The Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS) data were used to test the applicability of Andersen’s “model of health services” of predisposing (ie, age, sex, etc.), enabling (education, insurance coverage, etc.) and need factors (diabetes, hypertension, etc.) to predict ever being in the hospital and physician visits in the past year by place of residence (urban, rural, semi-rural). Findings Results showed that older Mexicans living in the most rural areas (populations of 2500 or fewer) were significantly less likely to have been hospitalized in the previous year and visited the physician less often (P < .0001) than their urban counterparts. The significant difference in hospitalization between rural and urban residing older Mexicans was largely accounted for by having health care coverage. Certain need factors such as diabetes, previous heart attack, hypertension, depression, and functional limitations predicted frequency of physician visits and hospitalization, but they did not explain variations between rural and urban older Mexicans. Conclusions Not having insurance coverage was associated with a lower likelihood of spending an overnight visit in the hospital and visiting a physician for older Mexicans. This lower utilization may be due to barriers to access rather than better health. PMID:21029168

  11. 41 CFR 101-26.102-2 - Utilization by military agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Utilization by military... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.1-General § 101-26.102-2 Utilization by military agencies. Military activities... the Secretary of a military department in connection with the requirements of that department,...

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.102-2 - Utilization by military agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Utilization by military... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.1-General § 101-26.102-2 Utilization by military agencies. Military activities... the Secretary of a military department in connection with the requirements of that department,...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.102-2 - Utilization by military agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Utilization by military... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.1-General § 101-26.102-2 Utilization by military agencies. Military activities... the Secretary of a military department in connection with the requirements of that department,...

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.102-2 - Utilization by military agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Utilization by military... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.1-General § 101-26.102-2 Utilization by military agencies. Military activities... the Secretary of a military department in connection with the requirements of that department,...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.102-2 - Utilization by military agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Utilization by military... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.1-General § 101-26.102-2 Utilization by military agencies. Military activities... the Secretary of a military department in connection with the requirements of that department,...

  16. 7 CFR 1940.325 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a cooperating Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a cooperating Agency. 1940.325 Section 1940.325 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  17. The Rural-Urban Divide: Health Services Utilization among Older Mexicans in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos; Ray, Laura A.; Angel, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Mexico. Purpose: Using the health care service utilization model as a framework, this paper will analyze the differences in health care service use among older Mexicans living in urban and rural areas in Mexico. Methods: The Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS) data were used to test the applicability of Andersen's "model of health…

  18. Utilization of Mammography Services among Elderly Rural and Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…

  19. Implementation and Utilization Characteristics of a Rural, School-Linked Mental Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Garret D.; Radunovich, Heidi Liss; Cornette, Michelle M.; Wiens, Brenda A.; Roy, Antara

    2008-01-01

    We examined variables associated with treatment engagement in a real-world therapeutic setting. The model of care examined involved school-linked mental health care for children and their families in a rural county. Service utilization characteristics, as well as child- and treatment-specific variables were examined in relation to their impact on…

  20. 41 CFR 102-82.25 - What are Executive agencies' responsibilities concerning the procurement of utility services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the procurement of utility services? 102-82.25 Section 102-82.25...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 82-UTILITY SERVICES Utility Services § 102-82.25 What are Executive agencies' responsibilities concerning the procurement of utility services? Executive...

  1. Determinants of Maternity Care Services Utilization among Married Adolescents in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Alagarajan, Manoj; Singh, Lucky

    2012-01-01

    Background Coupled with the largest number of maternal deaths, adolescent pregnancy in India has received paramount importance due to early age at marriage and low contraceptive use. The factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescents in rural India are poorly discussed. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the data from third wave of National Family Health Survey (2005–06), available in public domain for the use by researchers, this paper examines the factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescent women (aged 15–19 years) in rural India. Three components of maternal healthcare service utilization were measured: full antenatal care, safe delivery, and postnatal care within 42 days of delivery for the women who gave births in the last five years preceding the survey. Considering the framework on causes of maternal mortality proposed by Thaddeus and Maine (1994), selected socioeconomic, demographic, and cultural factors influencing outcome events were included as the predictor variables. Bi-variate analyses including chi-square test to determine the difference in proportion, and logistic regression to understand the net effect of predictor variables on selected outcomes were applied. Findings indicate the significant differences in the use of selected maternal healthcare utilization by educational attainment, economic status and region of residence. Muslim women, and women belonged to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes are less likely to avail safe delivery services. Additionally, adolescent women from the southern region utilizing the highest maternal healthcare services than the other regions. Conclusions The present study documents several socioeconomic and cultural factors affecting the utilization of maternal healthcare services among rural adolescent women in India. The ongoing healthcare programs should start targeting household

  2. Outness, Stigma, and Primary Health Care Utilization among Rural LGBT Populations

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, J.; Shaver, John; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have noted significant health disadvantages experienced by LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) populations in the US. While several studies have identified that fears or experiences of stigma and disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity to health care providers are significant barriers to health care utilization for LGBT people, these studies have concentrated almost exclusively on urban samples. Little is known about the impact of stigma specifically for rural LGBT populations, who may have less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive care than LGBT people in urban centers. Methodology LBGT individuals residing in rural areas of the United States were recruited online to participate in a survey examining the relationship between stigma, disclosure and “outness,” and utilization of primary care services. Data were collected and analyzed regarding LGBT individuals’ demographics, health care access, health risk factors, health status, outness to social contacts and primary care provider, and anticipated, internalized, and enacted stigmas. Results Higher scores on stigma scales were associated with lower utilization of health services for the transgender & non-binary group, while higher levels of disclosure of sexual orientation were associated with greater utilization of health services for cisgender men. Conclusions The results demonstrate the role of stigma in shaping access to primary health care among rural LGBT people and point to the need for interventions focused towards decreasing stigma in health care settings or increasing patients’ disclosure of orientation or gender identity to providers. Such interventions have the potential to increase utilization of primary and preventive health care services by LGBT people in rural areas. PMID:26731405

  3. Challenges for a local service agency to address domestic violence -a case study from rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-08-15

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women's access to legal support.

  4. 41 CFR 102-79.10 - What basic assignment and utilization of space policy governs an Executive agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and utilization of space policy governs an Executive agency? 102-79.10 Section 102-79.10 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 79-ASSIGNMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SPACE General Provisions § 102-79.10 What basic assignment and utilization of space policy governs an Executive agency? Executive...

  5. 41 CFR 102-72.100 - What are Executive agencies' responsibilities under a utility service delegation of authority...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities under a utility service delegation of authority from GSA? 102-72.100 Section 102... § 102-72.100 What are Executive agencies' responsibilities under a utility service delegation of... utility services contracts for periods over one year but not exceeding ten years for their use and...

  6. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural Business Opportunity Grants. 1940.593 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.593 Rural Business Opportunity Grants. (a) Amount available...

  7. 7 CFR 1940.589 - Rural Business Enterprise Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural Business Enterprise Grants. 1940.589 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.589 Rural Business Enterprise Grants. (a) Amount available...

  8. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural Business Opportunity Grants. 1940.593 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.593 Rural Business Opportunity Grants. (a) Amount available...

  9. 7 CFR 1940.589 - Rural Business Enterprise Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural Business Enterprise Grants. 1940.589 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.589 Rural Business Enterprise Grants. (a) Amount available...

  10. The role of clean coal technologies in a deregulated rural utility market

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    The nation`s rural electric cooperatives own a high proportion of coal-fired generation, in excess of 80 percent of their generating capacity. As the electric utility industry moves toward a competitive electricity market, the generation mix for electric cooperatives is expected to change. Distributed generation will likely serve more customer loads than is now the case, and that will lead to an increase in gas-fired generation capacity. But, clean low-cost central station coal-fired capacity is expected to continue to be the primary source of power for growing rural electric cooperatives. Gasification combined cycle could be the lowest cost coal based generation option in this new competitive market if both capital cost and electricity production costs can be further reduced. This paper presents anticipated utility business scenarios for the deregulated future and identifies combined cycle power plant configurations that might prove most competitive.

  11. Home Health Care Agency Staffing Patterns before and after the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, by Rural and Urban Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, William J.; Spector, William; Van Nostrand, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Context: The Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 and other recent policies have led to reduced Medicare funding for home health agencies (HHAs) and visits per beneficiary. Purpose: We examine the staffing characteristics of stable Medicare-certified HHAs across rural and urban counties from 1996 to 2002, a period encompassing the changes associated…

  12. Can rural health insurance improve equity in health care utilization? a comparison between China and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Health care financing reforms in both China and Vietnam have resulted in greater financial difficulties in accessing health care, especially for the rural poor. Both countries have been developing rural health insurance for decades. This study aims to evaluate and compare equity in access to health care in rural health insurance system in the two countries. Methods Household survey and qualitative study were conducted in 6 counties in China and 4 districts in Vietnam. Health insurance policy and its impact on utilization of outpatient and inpatient service were analyzed and compared to measure equity in access to health care. Results In China, Health insurance membership had no significant impact on outpatient service utilization, while was associated with higher utilization of inpatient services, especially for the higher income group. Health insurance members in Vietnam had higher utilization rates of both outpatient and inpatient services than the non-members, with higher use among the lower than higher income groups. Qualitative results show that bureaucratic obstacles, low reimbursement rates, and poor service quality were the main barriers for members to use health insurance. Conclusions China has achieved high population coverage rate over a short time period, starting with a limited benefit package. However, poor people have less benefit from NCMS in terms of health service utilization. Compared to China, Vietnam health insurance system is doing better in equity in health service utilization within the health insurance members. However with low population coverage, a large proportion of population cannot enjoy the health insurance benefit. Mutual learning would help China and Vietnam address these challenges, and improve their policy design to promote equitable and sustainable health insurance. PMID:22376290

  13. Program Evaluation of Remote Heart Failure Monitoring: Healthcare Utilization Analysis in a Rural Regional Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Keberlein, Pamela; Sorenson, Gigi; Mohler, Sailor; Tye, Blake; Ramirez, A. Susana; Carroll, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Remote monitoring for heart failure (HF) has had mixed and heterogeneous effects across studies, necessitating further evaluation of remote monitoring systems within specific healthcare systems and their patient populations. “Care Beyond Walls and Wires,” a wireless remote monitoring program to facilitate patient and care team co-management of HF patients, served by a rural regional medical center, provided the opportunity to evaluate the effects of this program on healthcare utilization. Materials and Methods: Fifty HF patients admitted to Flagstaff Medical Center (Flagstaff, AZ) participated in the project. Many of these patients lived in underserved and rural communities, including Native American reservations. Enrolled patients received mobile, broadband-enabled remote monitoring devices. A matched cohort was identified for comparison. Results: HF patients enrolled in this program showed substantial and statistically significant reductions in healthcare utilization during the 6 months following enrollment, and these reductions were significantly greater compared with those who declined to participate but not when compared with a matched cohort. Conclusions: The findings from this project indicate that a remote HF monitoring program can be successfully implemented in a rural, underserved area. Reductions in healthcare utilization were observed among program participants, but reductions were also observed among a matched cohort, illustrating the need for rigorous assessment of the effects of HF remote monitoring programs in healthcare systems. PMID:25025239

  14. Husbands' involvement in delivery care utilization in rural Bangladesh: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A primary cause of high maternal mortality in Bangladesh is lack of access to professional delivery care. Examining the role of the family, particularly the husband, during pregnancy and childbirth is important to understanding women's access to and utilization of professional maternal health services that can prevent maternal mortality. This qualitative study examines husbands' involvement during childbirth and professional delivery care utilization in a rural sub-district of Netrokona district, Bangladesh. Methods Using purposive sampling, ten households utilizing a skilled attendant during the birth of the youngest child were selected and matched with ten households utilizing an untrained traditional birth attendant, or dhatri. Households were selected based on a set of inclusion criteria, such as approximate household income, ethnicity, and distance to the nearest hospital. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted in Bangla with husbands in these households in June 2010. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results By purposefully selecting households that differed on the type of provider utilized during delivery, common themes--high costs, poor transportation, and long distances to health facilities--were eliminated as sufficient barriers to the utilization of professional delivery care. Divergent themes, namely husbands' social support and perceived social norms, were identified as underlying factors associated with delivery care utilization. We found that husbands whose wives utilized professional delivery care provided emotional, instrumental and informational support to their wives during delivery and believed that medical intervention was necessary. By contrast, husbands whose wives utilized an untrained dhatri at home were uninvolved during delivery and believed childbirth should take place at home according to local traditions. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence about male

  15. Geographic influences on sexual and reproductive health service utilization in rural Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing; Murray, Alan T; Agadjanian, Victor; Hayford, Sarah R

    2012-03-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic remains a major public health issue across the globe, and it is of particular concern in sub-Saharan Africa. Utilization of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services can significantly impact HIV prevention, transmission, and treatment. SRH service utilization may be determined by individual characteristics, such as education and economic status, but also by the location and accessibility of health care facilities. Using population-based survey data, this study applies exploratory spatial analysis techniques to examine spatial patterns of SRH service utilization among rural married women in southern Mozambique. Clustering among those using services is found as are spatial associations, indicating significant spatial variability in the utilization of health services. The findings provide valuable insights for current and future health care program planning and configuration.

  16. Feasibility of utilizing pedometer diaries in a rural African American community-based walking intervention for health promotion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Limited research is available on the feasibility or effectiveness of utilizing pedometer diaries in community-based interventions targeting rural, low socioeconomic, African American populations. The objectives of this walking intervention study were to assess participant adherence to maint...

  17. Household decisions to utilize maternal healthcare in rural and urban India.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Sisira; Rempel, Henry

    2007-01-01

    With the onset of pregnancy, a household must add the health of the expectant mother and the unborn child to its overall objective. Data from the Government of India's National Sample Survey Organization is utilized to analyze the determinants of women's decisions to register for pre- and postnatal healthcare, utilize maternal healthcare and select a place for childbirth. The data show that the level of schooling mothers have attained has a significant, positive effect on decisions to register and utilize these healthcare services in both rural and urban areas. In contrast, distance to a maternal health facility centre inhibits decisions to register for and utilize these services in rural India. In addition, awareness of healthy behaviour and factors that affect such knowledge at the household and community level are key determinants of whether maternal-child healthcare services are used. The findings demonstrate that the health status of women and children in India can be improved significantly by strengthening IEC (Information, Education and Communication) efforts on the demand side and reducing access barriers on the supply side.

  18. Optimal Design of Biomass Utilization System for Rural Area Includes Technical and Economic Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Yasuki; Nakata, Toshihiko

    In order to design optimal biomass utilization system for rural area, OMNIBUS (The Optimization Model for Neo-Integrated Biomass Utilization System) has been developed. OMNIBUS can derive the optimal system configuration to meet different objective function, such as current account balance, amount of biomass energy supply, and CO2 emission. Most of biomass resources in a focused region e.g. wood biomass, livestock biomass, and crop residues are considered in the model. Conversion technologies considered are energy utilization technologies e.g. direct combustion and methane fermentation, and material utilization technologies e.g. composting and carbonization. Case study in Miyakojima, Okinawa prefecture, has been carried out for several objective functions and constraint conditions. Considering economics of the utilization system as a priority requirement, composting and combustion heat utilization are mainly chosen in the optimal system configuration. However gasification power plant and methane fermentation are included in optimal solutions, only when both biomass energy utilization and CO2 reduction have been set as higher priorities. External benefit of CO2 reduction has large impacts on the system configuration. Provided marginal external benefit of more than 50,000 JPY/t-C, external benefit becomes greater than the revenue from electricity and compost etc. Considering technological learning in the future, expensive technologies such as gasification power plant and methane fermentation will have economic feasibility as well as market competitiveness.

  19. Catholics using contraceptives: religion, family planning, and interpretive agency in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2008-06-01

    Research on how religion shapes contraceptive practices and fertility has paid insufficient attention to how people interpret religious teachings. This study draws on ethnographic fieldwork in Degollado, Mexico, to describe generational and social-contextual differences in how women interpret and use religious doctrine to achieve their fertility desires without jeopardizing their standing as devout Catholics. Contrasting the family planning beliefs and practices of young Mexican women with those of older women (many of whom are the younger women's parents and in-laws), in a rural town in which the religious regulation of everyday life is pervasive, reveals how a common set of religious teachings and principles can be used to guide two different generational strategies for fertility regulation. The ethnographic data presented here highlight the creativity with which people use religious frameworks to justify their behavior. Research exploring how religion--and culture more broadly--influences fertility and contraceptive use should give greater attention to the dynamic interplay between cultural beliefs and institutions, social context, and interpretive agency. (STUDIES

  20. Residual Barriers for Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Services: Community Perceptions From Rural Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Memon, Zahid; Zaidi, Shehla; Riaz, Atif

    2015-11-03

    Low utilization of maternal and child care services in rural areas has constrained Pakistan from meeting targets of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. This study explores community barriers in accessing Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services in ten remote rural districts of Pakistan. It further presents how the barriers differ across a range of MCH services, and also whether the presence of Community Health Workers (CHWs) reduces client barriers. Qualitative methods were used involving altogether sixty focus group discussions with mothers, their spouses and community health workers. Low awareness, formidable distances, expense, and poorly functional services were the main barriers reported, while cultural and religious restrictions were lesser reported. For preventive services including antenatal care (ANC), facility deliveries, postnatal care (PNC), childhood immunization and family planning, the main barrier was low awareness. Conversely, formidable distances and poorly functional services were the main reported constraints in the event of maternal complications and acute child illnesses. The study also found that clients residing in areas served by CHWs had better awareness only of ANC and family planning, while other MCH services were overlooked by the health worker program. The paper highlights that traditional policy emphasis on health facility infrastructure expansion is not likely to address poor utilization rates in remote rural areas. Preventive MCH services require concerted attention to building community awareness, task shifting from facility to community for services provision, and re-energization of CHW program. For maternal and child emergencies there is strong community demand to utilize health facilities, but this will require catalytic support for transport networks and functional health care centers.

  1. Residual Barriers for Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Services: Community Perceptions From Rural Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Zahid; Zaidi, Shehla; Riaz, Atif

    2016-01-01

    Low utilization of maternal and child care services in rural areas has constrained Pakistan from meeting targets of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. This study explores community barriers in accessing Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services in ten remote rural districts of Pakistan. It further presents how the barriers differ across a range of MCH services, and also whether the presence of Community Health Workers (CHWs) reduces client barriers. Qualitative methods were used involving altogether sixty focus group discussions with mothers, their spouses and community health workers. Low awareness, formidable distances, expense, and poorly functional services were the main barriers reported, while cultural and religious restrictions were lesser reported. For preventive services including antenatal care (ANC), facility deliveries, postnatal care (PNC), childhood immunization and family planning, the main barrier was low awareness. Conversely, formidable distances and poorly functional services were the main reported constraints in the event of maternal complications and acute child illnesses. The study also found that clients residing in areas served by CHWs had better awareness only of ANC and family planning, while other MCH services were overlooked by the health worker program. The paper highlights that traditional policy emphasis on health facility infrastructure expansion is not likely to address poor utilization rates in remote rural areas. Preventive MCH services require concerted attention to building community awareness, task shifting from facility to community for services provision, and re-energization of CHW program. For maternal and child emergencies there is strong community demand to utilize health facilities, but this will require catalytic support for transport networks and functional health care centers. PMID:26925902

  2. Determinants of Utilization of Eye Care Services in a Rural Adult Population of a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolutife A.; Ashaye, Adeyinka O.; Owoaje, Eme T.; Baiyeroju, Aderonke M.; Ajayi, Benedictus G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the factors that determine the utilization of eye care services in a rural community in South-Western Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey using a multistage sampling technique was conducted. The main outcome measure was self-reported previous consultation of an orthodox medical facility for eye care. Results: The study sample included 643 participants. Only 122 (19%) respondents had previously visited orthodox facilities in search of eye care and 24% of those with presenting visual acuity <6/18 had sought eye care. Characteristics associated with previous utilization of eye care services were age of =70 years (odds ratio [OR] ≥ 1.7, P = 0.02); male gender (OR = 1.5, P = 0.04); literacy (OR = 1.7, P = 0.007); and residing close to an eye care facility (OR = 2.8, P < 0.001). Blind respondents were three times more likely to seek eye care (P < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that factors associated with increased likelihood of utilization of eye care services included age ≥70 years; literacy; residence close to an eye facility; being diabetic or hypertensive; history of ocular symptoms, and blindness. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a significant proportion (75%) of adults in the study area are not utilizing eye care services and that blindness is an important determinant of utilization of eye care services. Health education and awareness campaigns about the importance and benefits of seeking eye care early, and the provision of community-based eye care programs are essential to boost the uptake of eye care services in this community as well as other rural areas of West Africa. PMID:26957847

  3. Self-reported morbidity and health service utilization in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Warren; King, Nia; Humphries, Sally; Little, Matthew; Dewey, Cate

    2016-07-01

    In Tamil Nadu, India, improvements have been made toward developing a high-quality, universally accessible healthcare system. However, some rural residents continue to confront significant barriers to obtaining healthcare. The primary objective of this study was to investigate self-reported morbidity, health literacy, and healthcare preferences, utilization, and experiences in order to identify priority areas for government health policies and programs. Drawing on 66 semi-structured interviews and 300 household surveys (including 1693 individuals), administered in 26 rural villages in Tamil Nadu's Krishnagiri district, we found that the prevalence of self-reported major health conditions was 22.3%. There was a large burden of non-communicable and chronic diseases, and the most common major morbidities were: connective tissue problems (7.6%), nervous system and sense organ diseases (5.0%), and circulatory and respiratory diseases (2.5%). Increased age and decreased education level were associated with higher odds of reporting most diseases. Low health literacy levels resulted in individuals seeking care only once pain interfered with daily activities. As such, individuals' health-seeking behaviour depended on which strategy was believed to result in the fastest return to work using the fewest resources. Although government facilities were the most common healthcare access point, they were mistrusted; 48.8% and 19.2% of respondents perceived inappropriate treatment protocols and corruption, respectively, at public facilities. Conversely, 93.3% of respondents reported high treatment cost as the main barrier to accessing private facilities. Our results highlight that addressing the chronic and non-communicable disease burdens amongst rural populations in this context will require health policies and village-level programs that address the low health literacy and the issues of rural healthcare accessibility and acceptability. PMID:27285663

  4. Self-reported morbidity and health service utilization in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Warren; King, Nia; Humphries, Sally; Little, Matthew; Dewey, Cate

    2016-07-01

    In Tamil Nadu, India, improvements have been made toward developing a high-quality, universally accessible healthcare system. However, some rural residents continue to confront significant barriers to obtaining healthcare. The primary objective of this study was to investigate self-reported morbidity, health literacy, and healthcare preferences, utilization, and experiences in order to identify priority areas for government health policies and programs. Drawing on 66 semi-structured interviews and 300 household surveys (including 1693 individuals), administered in 26 rural villages in Tamil Nadu's Krishnagiri district, we found that the prevalence of self-reported major health conditions was 22.3%. There was a large burden of non-communicable and chronic diseases, and the most common major morbidities were: connective tissue problems (7.6%), nervous system and sense organ diseases (5.0%), and circulatory and respiratory diseases (2.5%). Increased age and decreased education level were associated with higher odds of reporting most diseases. Low health literacy levels resulted in individuals seeking care only once pain interfered with daily activities. As such, individuals' health-seeking behaviour depended on which strategy was believed to result in the fastest return to work using the fewest resources. Although government facilities were the most common healthcare access point, they were mistrusted; 48.8% and 19.2% of respondents perceived inappropriate treatment protocols and corruption, respectively, at public facilities. Conversely, 93.3% of respondents reported high treatment cost as the main barrier to accessing private facilities. Our results highlight that addressing the chronic and non-communicable disease burdens amongst rural populations in this context will require health policies and village-level programs that address the low health literacy and the issues of rural healthcare accessibility and acceptability.

  5. THE UTILIZATION OF EYE CARE SERVICES BY PERSONS WITH GLAUCOMA IN RURAL SOUTH INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Alan L; Nirmalan, Praveen K; Krishnadas, Ramasamy; Ramakrishnan, Rengappa; Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James; Thulasiraj, Ravilla D; Friedman, David S

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To determine utilization of eye care services, in particular those relating to glaucoma, in a rural population of southern India aged 40 years or older. Methods A total of 5,150 subjects aged 40 years or older selected through a random cluster sampling technique from three districts in southern India underwent detailed ocular examinations for vision impairment, blindness, and ocular morbidity. Information regarding previous use of eye care services was collected from this population through a questionnaire administered by trained social workers prior to ocular examinations. Results One thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven persons (35.5%) gave a history of prior eye examinations, primarily from a general hospital (n = 1,073, 58.7%). Increasing age and education were associated with increased utilization of eye care services. Among the 3,323 persons who had never sought eye care, 912 (27.4%) had felt the need to have an eye examination but did not do so. Only one third of persons with vision impairment, cataracts, refractive errors, and glaucoma had previously utilized services. Of the 64 subjects diagnosed as having primary open-angle glaucoma, 32 (50%) had previously seen an ophthalmologist, but none had had an eye examination within 1 year before the study. Only six (19%) of the 32 had been diagnosed as having glaucoma (9% of all subjects found to have glaucoma in the survey). Thirteen (20.3%) of the 64 subjects were blind in either eye due to glaucoma, including one person who was bilaterally blind. Conclusions A large proportion of persons in a rural population of southern India who require eye care are currently not utilizing existing eye care services. Strategies to improve the uptake of services are required to reduce the burden of blindness due to glaucoma in southern India. PMID:15747744

  6. "Remnants of feudalism"? Women's health and their utilization of health services in rural China.

    PubMed

    Anson, O; Haanappel, F W

    1999-01-01

    Almost five decades ago, the Chinese Communist Party wished to abolish all "remnants of feudalism," including the patriarchal social order. Just one year after the revolution, the Marriage Law endorsed women's rights within the family, but no operative measures were taken to enforce it. Some of the economic reforms since independence even strengthened patrilocality and, possibly, patriarchal values. The purpose of this study was to explore the degree to which patrilocality served to maintain the traditional patriarchal stratification among women in the household by exploring women's health patterns and utilization of health services. Data were collected from 3859 women residing in rural Hebei, and variation in health and help seeking of six categories of relation to household head--mothers, wives, daughters, daughters-in-law, family heads, and other relatives--were explored. Utilization of health services is not dependent on women's position in the household, but primarily on per-capita income. Health patterns seem to indicate that mothers of the head of the household still have a considerable power to define their roles and share of household work. Women head of family, most of whom are married, appear to be under strain, which could be a result of their culturally "deviant" position. We conclude that old patriarchal values are intertwined with values of equality in current rural China.

  7. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions. PMID:23906132

  8. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions.

  9. 41 CFR 102-79.50 - What standard must Executive agencies promote in their utilization of space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What standard must Executive agencies promote in their utilization of space? 102-79.50 Section 102-79.50 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 79-ASSIGNMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SPACE Assignment and Utilization of...

  10. 41 CFR 102-79.50 - What standard must Executive agencies promote in their utilization of space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What standard must Executive agencies promote in their utilization of space? 102-79.50 Section 102-79.50 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 79-ASSIGNMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SPACE Assignment and Utilization of...

  11. 78 FR 64926 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request: Survey of Principals of Rural Schools...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... schools that received federal School Improvement Grants (SIGs) in cohort 1 and implemented the school... model. By examining the implementation of the SIG transformation model in challenging rural...

  12. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA. PMID:26392092

  13. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  14. Factors influencing the utilization of postpartum visits among rural women in China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yuan-xi; Xiong, Ju-yang; Tian, Miao-miao; Yuan, Fang; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-12-01

    Postpartum visits (PPVs) are still underutilized in rural China, and identification of factors that influence PPV use is important in ensuring the utilization of maternal health services and for wellbeing of women. A cross-section study was undertaken to collect related data from 347 rural women interviewed six weeks or more after delivery, and an ANOVA was performed to find whether there were significant differences in the number of PPVs among different rural areas in China. According to Andersen's socio-behavioral model of health service use, factors were divided into equitable and inequitable ones. Chi-squared test, univariate and multiple analyses were used to determine the equity of PPV use by identifying factors that were most strongly associated with the use of a PPV. The results showed that 20.2% of the respondents (n=70) did not receive any PPVs, and 62.5% (n=173) of those who had PPVs (n=277) did not receive standard PPVs (referring to at least 3 visits). There was no significant difference among different rural areas in terms of the number of PPVs (F=1.514, P=0.211). Multiple regression analyses revealed that enabling factors such as compensation for delivery expense [OR (95% CI)=2.825 (1.331, 5.995)], village type [OR (95% CI)=1.802 (1.021, 3.182)] and service quality [OR (95% CI)=1.847 (1.074, 3.176)] were strongly associated with PPV use. Both enabling factors such as home visits [OR (95% CI)=1.855 (1.085, 3.174)], service quality [OR (95% CI)=1.993 (1.155, 3.439)] and need factors such as low birth weight [OR (95% CI)=4.424 (1.482, 13.203)] were significantly associated with standard PPV use. Our results suggested that the equitable access to PPVs has been considerably improved in rural areas in China. The associations between inequitable factors and PPV use warrant further exploration, and policies aimed at improving quality and patterns of service supply are needed in order to ensure a full equitable access to maternal health services.

  15. Utilization of obstetric care services in a rural community in southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bawa, S B; Umar, U S; Onadeko, M

    2004-09-01

    Utilization of Obstetric Services in Nigeria is very low with only a third of the deliveries being conducted under supervision of trained health personnel. Consequently maternal and infant mortality rates are unacceptably high at 1000/100,000 and 100/1000 live births per year respectively. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 100 randomly sampled women in a rural community in Oyo State in Nigeria to study the pattern of utilization of antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services in the community. Results showed that utilization of antenatal care services to be relatively high but most of the respondents delivered at home without the supervision of trained health personnel. This poor utilization of delivery services was attributed to advanced labour and perceived poor quality of the health facilities in the community. Although postnatal care was given to the respondents, it did not include advice on family planning/child spacing. The variables found to have statistically significant association with seeking antenatal care were age and educational attainment (P < 0.0005). Educational attainment also significantly affects the respondents' choice of the place of delivery (P < 0.005). We recommend operations research to assess and improve the quality of existing health facilities and training/retraining of antenatal care providers on interpersonal communication skills, early recognition of labour and seeking delivery care. This training should also include providing advice on child spacing and use of obstetrics services provided.

  16. Rural Youth Workers Suppress Yawning Gaps: Agencies Overcome Youth Isolation, Boredom and Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beadle, Andrew D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes four exemplary rural youth programs that succeed despite the common lack of transportation and leadership in rural areas. An Alabama church-based program, a Nevada program on an American Indian reservation, and a school-based network in Vermont all offer summer and after-school programs for elementary and secondary students. Texas…

  17. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

  18. Practical and Policy Implications of Using Different Rural-Urban Classification Systems: A Case Study of Inpatient Service Utilization among Veterans Administration Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berke, Ethan M.; West, Alan N.; Wallace, Amy E.; Weeks, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Several classification systems exist for defining rural areas, which may lead to different interpretations of rural health services data. Purpose: To compare rural classification systems on their implications for estimating Veterans Administration (VA) utilization. Methods: Using 7 classification systems, we counted VA health care…

  19. 41 CFR 102-79.10 - What basic assignment and utilization of space policy governs an Executive agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What basic assignment and utilization of space policy governs an Executive agency? 102-79.10 Section 102-79.10 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 79-ASSIGNMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SPACE General Provisions §...

  20. 41 CFR 102-79.10 - What basic assignment and utilization of space policy governs an Executive agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What basic assignment and utilization of space policy governs an Executive agency? 102-79.10 Section 102-79.10 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 79-ASSIGNMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SPACE General Provisions §...

  1. Cognitive Appraisals of Specialty Mental Health Services and Their Relation to Mental Health Service Utilization in the Rural Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deen, Tisha L.; Bridges, Ana J.; McGahan, Tara C.; Andrews, Arthur R., III

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural individuals utilize specialty mental health services (eg, psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, and social workers) at lower rates than their urban counterparts. This study explores whether cognitive appraisals (ie, individual perceptions of need for services, outcome expectancies, and value of a positive therapeutic outcome) of…

  2. Veterans Health Administration and Medicare Outpatient Health Care Utilization by Older Rural and Urban New England Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, William B.; Bott, David M.; Lamkin, Rebecca P.; Wright, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Older veterans often use both the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and Medicare to obtain health care services. The authors sought to compare outpatient medical service utilization of Medicare-enrolled rural veterans with their urban counterparts in New England. The authors combined VHA and Medicare databases and identified veterans who were…

  3. Utilizing a Low-Cost, Laser-Driven Interactive System (LaDIS) to Improve Learning in Developing Rural Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Wei-Kai; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes an innovation Laser-Driven Interactive System (LaDIS), utilizing general IWBs (Interactive Whiteboard) didactics, to support student learning for rural and developing regions. LaDIS is a system made to support traditional classroom practices between an instructor and a group of students. This invention effectively transforms a…

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart G of... - Subordination by the Government for Use With Rural Housing Site Loans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subordination by the Government for Use With Rural Housing Site Loans C Exhibit C to Subpart G of Part 1822 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  5. Eliciting and utilizing rural students' funds of knowledge in the service of science learning: An action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Ellen M.

    Several researchers have pointed out the failures of current schooling to adequately prepare students in science and called for radical reform in science education to address the problem. One dominant critique of science education is that several groups of students are not well served by current school science practices and discourses. Rural students represent one of these underserved populations. Yet, there is little in the literature that speaks specifically to reforming the science education of rural students. Utilizing action research as a methodology, this study was designed to learn more about the unique knowledge and life experiences of rural students, and how these unique knowledge, skills and interests could suggest new ways to improve science education in rural schools. Informed by this ultimate goal, I created an after school science club where the participating high school students engaged in solving a local watershed problem, while explicitly bringing to bear their unique backgrounds, local knowledge and life experiences from living in a rural area of Upstate New York. Using Funds of Knowledge as the theoretical framework, this after-school club served as the context to investigate the following research questions: (1) What science-related funds of knowledge do rural high school students have? (2) How were these funds of knowledge capitalized on to support science learning in an after-school setting?

  6. Utility of a thematic network in primary health care: a controlled interventional study in a rural area

    PubMed Central

    Coma del Corral, Maria Jesús; Abaigar Luquín, Pedro; Cordero Guevara, José; Olea Movilla, Angel; Torres Torres, Gerardo; Lozano Garcia, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Background UniNet is an Internet-based thematic network for a virtual community of users (VCU). It supports a virtual multidisciplinary community for physicians, focused on the improvement of clinical practice. This is a study of the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, specifically as a platform of communication between specialists at the hospital and doctors in the rural area. Methods In order to study the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, we designed an interventional study that included a control group. The measurements included the number of patient displacements due to disease, number of patient hospital stays and the number of prescriptions of drugs of low therapeutic utility and generic drug prescriptions by doctors. These data were analysed and compared with those of the control center. Results Our study showed positive changes in medical practice, reflected in the improvement of the evaluated parameters in the rural health area where the interventional study was carried out, compared with the control area. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of UniNet as a potential medium to improve the quality of medical care in rural areas. Conclusion The rural doctors had an effective, useful, user-friendly and cheap source of medical information that may have contributed to the improvement observed in the medical quality indices. PMID:16042778

  7. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    LESKO KF; BERRIOCHOA MV

    2010-02-26

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, "Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective", University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted

  8. SUPPLEMENTING THE PROGRAMS AND SERVICES OF RURAL SCHOOL SYSTEMS BY NEW TYPE REGIONAL SERVICE AGENCIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOVELESS, JOHN E.

    THE INTERMEDIATE DISTRICT, ESTABLISHED BY LAW IN NEW YORK STATE IN 1948, IS A COOPERATIVE EDUCATIONAL VENTURE PROVIDING SMALL RURAL SCHOOLS WITH SERVICES WHICH ARE NOT USUALLY POSSIBLE, DUE TO THE SIZE AND ISOLATION OF THESE SCHOOL DISTRICTS. SEVERAL OF THESE INTERMEDIATE DISTRICTS, LABELED BOCES (BOARD OF COOPERATIVE EDUCATIONAL SERVICES), HAVE…

  9. Socio-economic status and health care utilization in rural Zimbabwe: findings from Project Accept (HPTN 043)

    PubMed Central

    Kevany, Sebastian; Murima, Oliver; Singh, Basant; Hlubinka, Daniel; Kulich, Michal; Morin, Stephen F.; Sweat, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Zimbabwe’s HIV epidemic is amongst the worst in the world, and disproportionately effects poorer rural areas. Access to almost all health services in Zimbabwe includes some form of cost to the client. In recent years, the socio-economic and employment status of many Zimbabweans has suffered a serious decline, creating additional barriers to HIV treatment and care. We aimed to assess the impact of i) socio-economic status (SES) and ii) employment status on the utilization of health services in rural Zimbabwe. Data were collected from a random probability sample household survey conducted in the Mutoko district of north-western Zimbabwe in 2005. We selected variables that described the economic status of the respondent, including: being paid to work, employment status, and SES by assets. Respondents were also asked about where they most often utilized healthcare when they or their family was sick or hurt. Of 2,874 respondents, all forms of healthcare tended to be utilized by those of high or medium-high SES (65%), including private (65%), church-based (61%), traditional (67%), and other providers (66%) (P=0.009). Most respondents of low SES utilized government providers (74%) (P=0.009). Seventy-one percent of respondents utilizing health services were employed. Government (71%), private (72%), church (71%), community-based (78%) and other (64%) health services tended to be utilized by employed respondents (P=0.000). Only traditional health services were equally utilized by unemployed respondents (50%) (P=0.000). A wide range of health providers are utilized in rural Zimbabwe. Utilization is strongly associated with SES and employment status, particularly for services with user fees, which may act as a barrier to HIV treatment and care access. Efforts to improve access in low-SES, high HIV-prevalence settings may benefit from the subsidization of the health care payment system, efforts to improve SES levels, political reform, and the involvement of traditional

  10. Urban - rural disparities in antenatal care utilization: a study of two cohorts of pregnant women in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of antenatal care (ANC) varies between countries and in different settings within each country. Most previous studies of ANC in Vietnam have been cross-sectional, and conducted in rural areas before the year 2000. This study aims to compare the pattern and the adequacy of ANC used in rural and urban Vietnam following two cohorts of pregnant women. Methods A comparative study with two cohorts comprising totally 2132 pregnant women were followed in two health and demographic surveillance sites, one rural and one urban in Hanoi province, Vietnam. The women were quarterly interviewed using a structured questionnaire until delivery. The primary information obtained was the number and the content of ANC visits. Results Almost all women reported some use of ANC. The average number of visits was much lower in the rural setting (4.4) than in the urban (7.7). In the rural area, 77.2% of women had at least three visits and 69.1% attended ANC during the first trimester. The corresponding percentages for the urban women were 97.2% and 97.2%. Only 20.3% of the rural women compared to 81.1% of the urban women received all core ANC services. As a result, the adequate use of ANC was 5.2 times in the urban than in the rural setting (78.3% compared to 15.2%). Nearly all women received ultrasound examination during pregnancy with a mean value of 6.0 scans per woman in the urban area and 3.5 in the rural. Most rural women used ANC at commune health centres and private clinics while urban women mainly visited public hospitals. Expenditure related to ANC utilization for the urban women was 7.1 times that for the urban women. Conclusion The women in the rural area attended ANC later, had fewer visits and received much fewer services than urban women. The large disparity in ANC adequacy between the two settings suggests special attention for the ANC programme in rural areas focusing on its content. Revision and enforcement of the national guidelines to improve the

  11. 7 CFR 1945.25 - Relationship between FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 and FEMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Relationship between FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 and FEMA. 1945.25 Section 1945.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  12. Some Factors Influencing Effective Utilization of Drinking Water Facilities: Women, Income, and Health in Rural North Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendie, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    In the examination of the implementation of rural drinking water facilities, not enough attention has been paid to analyzing the socioeconomic and political relationships that affect the effective utilization of the facilities, particularly as these relate to women in rural society. This paper suggests that much of the difficulty in instituting the utilization of safe water supply sources has to do with the rather low economic status of women—the main water collectors. Poverty consigns women to long periods of work in activities or jobs that bring little reward. This makes it difficult to effectively digest the messages delivered by program staff and limits the extent of usage of the safe water facilities.

  13. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., DE Florida Gainesville, FL Georgia Athens, GA Hawaii Hilo, HI Idaho Boise, ID Illinois Champaign,...

  14. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., DE Florida Gainesville, FL Georgia Athens, GA Hawaii Hilo, HI Idaho Boise, ID Illinois Champaign,...

  15. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., DE Florida Gainesville, FL Georgia Athens, GA Hawaii Hilo, HI Idaho Boise, ID Illinois Champaign,...

  16. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE..., DE Florida Gainesville, FL Georgia Athens, GA Hawaii Hilo, HI Idaho Boise, ID Illinois Champaign,...

  17. Challenges for a Local Service Agency to Address Domestic Violence –A Case Study From Rural Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of a Zero Tolerance Policy in Indonesia, several policies to address domestic violence have been enacted. The obligation of local governments to establish service units for women survivors of domestic violence is one of them. Since domestic violence is a sensitive and complex issue in Indonesia it is important to understand how governmentally regulated services function in practice. This case study aimed to explore challenges faced by a local service agency in managing service provision for women survivors of domestic violence in rural Indonesia. Data from one focus group discussion (12 participants), four individual interviews, six short narratives, two days of participant observation, as well as archive reviews were collected. All data were analyzed using Grounded Theory Situational Analysis. The major challenge faced by the local agency was the low priority that was given them by the local authorities, mirrored also in low involvement by the assigned volunteers in the daily service. The study also identified a gap between the socio-cultural arena and the law & policy arena that needs to be bridged to avoid that the two arenas address domestic violence in a contradictory way. Budget allocation to support the sustainability of the daily routines of service agencies has to be given priority. There is also a need for careful considerations regarding the composition of personnel involved within daily management of service agencies addressing domestic violence. To bridge the gap between the legal systems and traditional cultural values, culturally adjusted alternative justice systems could be developed to increase women’s access to legal support. PMID:25363105

  18. 41 CFR 102-79.15 - What objectives must an Executive agency strive to meet in providing assignment and utilization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What objectives must an Executive agency strive to meet in providing assignment and utilization of space services? 102-79.15 Section 102-79.15 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  19. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  20. "Your Mum and Dad Can't Teach You!": Constraints on Agency among Rural Learners of English in the Developing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Learning outcomes are always the product of the interaction between individual learner agency and social structures. Recently concern has been expressed about unequal access to English, recognised as an important resource for social advancement, for rural populations in developing countries. This paper explores this issue by focusing on one…

  1. Personal Factors as Determinants of Utilization of Development Information in Rural Communities of South-South Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edet, Itari Paul; Bullem, Anthony Godwin; Okeme, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which personal factors relate to the utilization of development information in the rural communities of South-South Geo-political Zone, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. The population comprised all adult male and female rural dwellers from the three out of the six states in the Zone…

  2. Exploring the utility of institutional theory in analysing international health agency stasis and change.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2013-10-01

    Of recent interest is the capacity of international health agencies to adapt to changes in the global health environment and country needs. Yet, little is known about the potential benefits of using social science institutional theory, such as path dependency and institutional change theory, to explain why some international agencies, such as the WHO and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, fail to adapt, whereas others, such as the World Bank and UNAIDS, have. This article suggests that these institutional theories can help to better understand these differences in international agency adaptive capacity, while highlighting new areas of policy research and analysis. PMID:23161586

  3. Exploring the utility of institutional theory in analysing international health agency stasis and change.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2013-10-01

    Of recent interest is the capacity of international health agencies to adapt to changes in the global health environment and country needs. Yet, little is known about the potential benefits of using social science institutional theory, such as path dependency and institutional change theory, to explain why some international agencies, such as the WHO and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, fail to adapt, whereas others, such as the World Bank and UNAIDS, have. This article suggests that these institutional theories can help to better understand these differences in international agency adaptive capacity, while highlighting new areas of policy research and analysis.

  4. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to the Utilization of HIV Testing Services Among Rural African American Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Patricia B.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study is about barriers to the utilization of HIV testing as perceived by African Americans who have recently used cocaine and who live in the rural Delta region of Arkansas. Affordability, physical accessibility, and geographic availability were not perceived as barriers to HIV testing in this sample, yet acceptability was still perceived as poor. Acceptability due to social mores and norms was a major barrier. Many said testing was unacceptable because of fear of social costs. Many were confident of being HIV-negative based on risky assumptions about testing and the notification process. Small-town social and sexual networks added to concerns about reputation and risk. System approaches may fail if they focus solely on improving access to HIV services but do not take into consideration deeply internalized experiences of rural African Americans as well as involvement of the community in developing programs and services. PMID:24039279

  5. Utilization of antenatal ultrasound scan and implications for caesarean section: a cross-sectional study in rural Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Antenatal ultrasound scan is a widely accepted component of antenatal care. Studies have looked at the relationship between ultrasound scanning and caesarean section (CS) in certain groups of women in China. However, there are limited data on the utilization of antenatal ultrasound scanning in the general population, including its association with CS. The purpose of this study is to describe the utilization of antenatal ultrasound screening in rural Eastern China and to explore the association between antenatal ultrasound scan and uptake of CS. Methods Based on a cluster randomized sample, a total of 2326 women with childbirth participated in the study. A household survey was conducted to collect socio-economic information, obstetric history and utilization of maternal health services. Results Coverage of antenatal care was 96.8% (2251/2326). During antenatal care, 96.1% (2164/2251) women received ultrasound screening and the reported average number was 2.55. 46.8% women received at least 3 ultrasound scans and the maximum number reached 11. The CS rate was found to be 54.8% (1275/2326). After adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical variables, it showed a statistically significant association between antenatal ultrasound scans and uptake of CS by multivariate logistic regression model. High husband education level, high maternal age, having previous adverse pregnant outcome and pregnancy complications during the index pregnancy were also found to be risk factors of choosing a CS. Conclusions A high use of antenatal ultrasound scan in rural Eastern China is found and is influenced by socio-demographic and clinical factors. Evidence-based guidelines for antenatal ultrasound scans need to be developed and disseminated to clinicians including physicians, nurses and sonographers. Guidance about the appropriate use of ultrasound scans should also be shared with women in order to discourage unreasonable expectations and demands. It is important to monitor

  6. Utilization of Medicines Available at Home by General Population of Rural and Urban Set Up of Western India

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Barna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, medicines are procured with prescription or without prescription by patients, which are kept at home and often are utilized in inappropriate manner. It may remain unused, get expired or may be repeated in the way of self medication. So there remains an increase chance of self-medication compared to prescribed drugs. Aim This study was aimed to explore the utilization pattern of medicines available at home with special attention to the types of medicine (with or without prescription) and their appropriate utilization (dosage compliance) and intended self-medication. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anand district of Gujarat, India during the year 2012- 2014 after Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approval. Data were collected from 800 houses, 400 each from urban and rural areas and then analysed for the details of medicines available in the house as: (i) number of homes having medicines; (ii) number of formulations with and without prescriptions; (iii) number of formulations with package inserts & expired formulations; (iv) Dosage forms of medicines; (v) pharmacological class wise distribution of medicines; (vi) status of the medicine use whether for current use, future use or leftover; and (vii) Appropriateness of medicines with and without prescription in relation to dose and duration of treatment. Results Medicines were available in 93.75% houses. More medicine formulations (16.76%) were found without prescription in urban area than in rural (11.82%). Highest number of dosage forms found, were that of tablets (62%). Among the prescribed medicines, majority of medicines were from cardiovascular disease (19.88%) and from without prescription medicines, Non-Steroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) were the major group available at houses (35.13%). The leftover medicines with prescription were 20.39% and without prescription medicines were 13.37%. Appropriate dose and duration of medicines were followed more

  7. Hospital Utilization for Injection Drug Use-Related Soft Tissue Infections in Urban versus Rural Counties in California

    PubMed Central

    Etzioni, David A.; Hurley, Brian; Holtom, Paul; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Asch, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    Drug related-soft tissue infections (DR-STIs) are a significant source of hospital utilization in inner-city urban areas where injection drug use is common but the magnitude of hospital utilization for DR-STIs outside of inner-city urban areas is not known. We described the magnitude and characteristics of hospital utilization for DR-STIs in urban versus rural counties in California. All discharges from all nonfederal hospitals in California in 2000 with ICD-9 codes for a soft tissue infection and for drug dependence/abuse were abstracted from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development discharge database. There were 4,152 DR-STI discharges in 2000 from hospitals in 49 of California's 58 counties. Residents of 12 large metropolitan counties accounted for 3,598 discharges (87% of total). The majority of DR-STI discharges were from urban safety net hospitals with county indigent programs and Medicaid as the expected payment source and opiate related discharge diagnoses. Hospital utilization for DR-STIs in California is highest in large urban metropolitan counties, although DR-STI discharges are widespread. Increased access to harm reduction services and drug treatment may reduce government health care expenditures by preventing unnecessary hospital utilization for DR-STIs. PMID:16736367

  8. Decentralizing Maternity Services to Increase Skilled Attendance at Birth and Antenatal Care Utilization in Rural Rwanda: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Lisa M; Shi, Quihu; Plewniak, Kari; Zhang, Charles; Nsabimana, Damien; Sklar, Marc; Mutimura, Eugene; Merkatz, Irwin R; Einstein, Mark H; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of decentralizing ambulatory reproductive and intrapartum services to increase rates of antenatal care (ANC) utilization and skilled attendance at birth (SAB) in Rwanda. A prospective cohort study was implemented with one control and two intervention sites: decentralized ambulatory reproductive healthcare and decentralized intrapartum care. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with primary outcome of lack of SAB and secondary outcome of ≥3 ANC visits. 536 women were entered in the study. Distance lived from delivery site significantly predicted SAB (p = 0.007), however distance lived to ANC site did not predict ≥3 ANC visits (p = 0.81). Neither decentralization of ambulatory reproductive healthcare (p = 0.10) nor intrapartum care (p = 0.40) was significantly associated with SAB. The control site had the greatest percentage of women receive ≥3 ANC visits (p < 0.001). Receiving <3 ANC visits was associated with a 3.98 times greater odds of not having SAB (p = 0.001). No increase in adverse outcomes was found with decentralization of ambulatory reproductive health care or intrapartum care. The factors that predict utilization of physically accessible services in rural Africa are complex. Decentralization of services may be one strategy to increase rates of SAB and ANC utilization, but selection biases may have precluded accurate analysis. Efforts to increase ANC utilization may be a worthwhile investment to increase SAB. PMID:25652061

  9. Decentralizing Maternity Services to Increase Skilled Attendance at Birth and Antenatal Care Utilization in Rural Rwanda: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Lisa M; Shi, Quihu; Plewniak, Kari; Zhang, Charles; Nsabimana, Damien; Sklar, Marc; Mutimura, Eugene; Merkatz, Irwin R; Einstein, Mark H; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of decentralizing ambulatory reproductive and intrapartum services to increase rates of antenatal care (ANC) utilization and skilled attendance at birth (SAB) in Rwanda. A prospective cohort study was implemented with one control and two intervention sites: decentralized ambulatory reproductive healthcare and decentralized intrapartum care. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with primary outcome of lack of SAB and secondary outcome of ≥3 ANC visits. 536 women were entered in the study. Distance lived from delivery site significantly predicted SAB (p = 0.007), however distance lived to ANC site did not predict ≥3 ANC visits (p = 0.81). Neither decentralization of ambulatory reproductive healthcare (p = 0.10) nor intrapartum care (p = 0.40) was significantly associated with SAB. The control site had the greatest percentage of women receive ≥3 ANC visits (p < 0.001). Receiving <3 ANC visits was associated with a 3.98 times greater odds of not having SAB (p = 0.001). No increase in adverse outcomes was found with decentralization of ambulatory reproductive health care or intrapartum care. The factors that predict utilization of physically accessible services in rural Africa are complex. Decentralization of services may be one strategy to increase rates of SAB and ANC utilization, but selection biases may have precluded accurate analysis. Efforts to increase ANC utilization may be a worthwhile investment to increase SAB.

  10. Decentralizing Maternity Services to Increase Skilled Attendance at Birth and Antenatal Care Utilization in Rural Rwanda: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Lisa M.; Shi, Quihu; Plewniak, Kari; Zhang, Charles; Nsabimana, Damien; Sklar, Marc; Mutimura, Eugene; Merkatz, Irwin R.; Einstein, Mark H.; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of decentralizing ambulatory reproductive and intrapartum services to increase rates of antenatal care (ANC) utilization and skilled attendance at birth (SAB) in Rwanda. A prospective cohort study was implemented with one control and two intervention sites: decentralized ambulatory reproductive healthcare and decentralized intrapartum care. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with primary outcome of lack of SAB and secondary outcome of ≥3 ANC visits. 536 women were entered in the study. Distance lived from delivery site significantly predicted SAB (p = 0.007), however distance lived to ANC site did not predict ≥3 ANC visits (p = 0.81). Neither decentralization of ambulatory reproductive healthcare (p = 0.10) nor intrapartum care (p = 0.40) was significantly associated with SAB. The control site had the greatest percentage of women receive ≥3 ANC visits (p < 0.001). Receiving <3 ANC visits was associated with a 3.98 times greater odds of not having SAB (p = 0.001). No increase in adverse outcomes was found with decentralization of ambulatory reproductive health care or intrapartum care. The factors that predict utilization of physically accessible services in rural Africa are complex. Decentralization of services may be one strategy to increase rates of SAB and ANC utilization, but selection biases may have precluded accurate analysis. Efforts to increase ANC utilization may be a worthwhile investment to increase SAB. PMID:25652061

  11. Comparing Maternal Services Utilization and Expense Reimbursement before and after the Adjustment of the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme Policy in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    You, Hua; Gu, Hai; Ning, Weiqing; Zhou, Hua; Dong, Hengjin

    2016-01-01

    Background The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) includes a maternal care benefits package that is associated with increasing maternal health services. The local compensation policies have been frequently adjusted in recent years. This study examined the association between the NCMS maternal-services policy adjustment and expense reimbursement in Yuyao, China. Methods Two household surveys were conducted in Yuyao in 2008 and 2011 (before and after the NCMS policy adjustment, respectively). Local women (N = 154) who had delivery history in the past three years were recruited. A questionnaire was used to collect information about delivery history, maternal health services utilization (prenatal care, postnatal care, and the grade of delivery institutions), NCMS participation, and reimbursement status. Logistic regression analyses were used to predict the association between policy adjustment and maternal health utilization and the association between policy adjustment and out-of-pocket proportion. Next, t-tests and covariance analyses adjusting for household income were used to compare the out-of-pocket proportion between 2008 and 2011. Results Results revealed that compensation policy adjustment was associated with an increase in postnatal visits (adjusted OR = 3.32, p = 0.009) and the use of second level or above institutions for delivery (adjusted OR = 2.32, p = 0.03) among participants. In 2008, only 9.1% of pregnant women received reimbursement from the NCMS; however, this rate increased to 36.8% in 2011. After policy adjustment, there were no significant changes in the proportion of out-of-pocket expenses shared in delivery fee (F = 0.24, p = 0.63) and in household income (F = 0.46, p = 0.50). Conclusions Financial compensation increase improved maternal health services utilization; however, this effect was limited. Although the reimbursement rate was raised, the out-of-pocket proportion was not significant changed; therefore, the compensation design

  12. A Voice Crying in the Wilderness: Legislative Oversight Agencies' Efforts to Achieve Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLandingham, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    While legislative oversight offices, like many evaluation and policy analysis units, face substantial challenges in promoting use of their work by policymakers, they often have not taken steps to overcome these challenges by adopting the strategies suggested by the evaluation literature. Although the offices seek utilization, they have not fully…

  13. Rurality and Resilience in Education: Place-Based Partnerships and Agency to Moderate Time and Space Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersohn, Liesel; Ferreira, Ronel

    2012-01-01

    In an ongoing longitudinal intervention study (STAR) we found that, although similarities existed in the way teachers promoted resilience, rural schools (in comparison to other STAR case schools) took longer to implement strategies to buoy support and found it difficult to sustain such support. Using rurality we wanted to understand how forces,…

  14. 7 CFR 1980.452 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 evaluation of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and.... Community impact of the proposal which includes: 1. Number of businesses and industries in the town or...

  15. Gift-Giving and Network Structure in Rural China: Utilizing Long-Term Spontaneous Gift Records

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi

    2014-01-01

    The tradition of keeping written records of gift received during household ceremonies in many countries offers researchers an underutilized means of data collection for social network analysis. This paper first summarizes unique features of the gift record data that circumvent five prevailing sampling and measurement issues in the literature, and we discuss their advantages over existing studies at both the individual level and the dyadic link level using previous data sources. We then document our research project in rural China that implements a multiple wave census-type household survey and a long-term gift record collection. The pattern of gift-giving in major household social events and its recent escalation is analyzed. There are significantly positive correlations between gift network centrality and various forms of informal insurance. Finally, economic inequality and competitive marriage market are among the main demographic and socioeconomic determinants of the observed gift network structure. PMID:25111696

  16. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... quality of the human environment, RUS will prepare a FONSI. Upon authorization of RUS, the applicant...

  17. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... quality of the human environment, RUS will prepare a FONSI. Upon authorization of RUS, the applicant...

  18. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... quality of the human environment, RUS will prepare a FONSI. Upon authorization of RUS, the applicant...

  19. 7 CFR 1794.54 - Agency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency determination. 1794.54 Section 1794.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Assessments...

  20. 7 CFR 1794.54 - Agency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency determination. 1794.54 Section 1794.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Assessments...

  1. 7 CFR 1794.54 - Agency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Agency determination. 1794.54 Section 1794.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Assessments...

  2. Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

  3. Completeness and utility of interview data from proxy respondents in prenatal care research in rural China.

    PubMed

    Nwaru, Bright I; Klemetti, Reija; Yuan, Shen; Kun, Huang; Wang, Yang; Hemminki, Elina

    2012-05-01

    In household surveys, the use of data provided by relatives can increase response rates and generalisability of research findings. This study assessed the quality of data from relatives and the impact of the data source on the association between the use of prenatal care and pregnancy outcomes. Data for 3,673 new mothers and 293 proxy respondents were available from a house-hold survey in 2008-2009 in rural China. Analyses were performed using chi-square test, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, and logistic regression models. Differences in the studied variables were small, but proxy respondents were slightly more likely to have missing data than the new mothers. Differences and missing data were more common for the use of prenatal care and outcome variables (mode of delivery, place of delivery, birth weight, use of postnatal care, and gestational age at birth) than for the background characteristics of the participants. Husbands' reports were closer to the index reports than that of the other proxies. The associations between the exposures and outcomes were mostly similar between the proxy and index respondents. Relatives can be interviewed instead of women to study prenatal care without a substantial negative impact on study results. Studies using proxy respondents should stratify the analysis by type of respondents.

  4. American Indian identity in mental health services utilization data from a rural midwestern sample.

    PubMed

    Hack, Samantha M; Larrison, Christopher R; Gone, Joseph P

    2014-01-01

    The governing bodies for psychiatry, psychology, and social work all publicly support culturally competent mental health care and have called for increased awareness of the importance of racial, ethnic, and cultural identity in mental health treatment and outcomes. However, since 1960 the population of people identifying as American Indian in the United States has grown faster than can be explained by birth rates, raising questions about the personal meaning of identity for newly self-designated American Indians. For this research, interviews were conducted with 14 self-identified American Indian clients receiving rural mental health care services in the Midwest. The goal was to assess clients' cultural connection to their racial identity and to understand what impact their American Indian identity had on their mental health care experiences. A modified Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) method was used to develop the interview protocol and code responses. Interview data revealed that clients primarily based their racial identity on family stories of an American Indian ancestor and the majority did not feel their identification as American Indian was relevant to their mental health care. Regardless of lack of cultural connection, participants often reported feeling personal pride associated with identifying as American Indian. Implications for both researchers collecting self-reported race data and for mental health practitioners who might serve self-identified American Indian clients are discussed.

  5. Influencing Self-Reported Health among Rural Low-Income Women through Health Care and Social Service Utilization: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bice-Wigington, Tiffany; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the mesosystemic processes among rural low-income women, and how these processes subsequently influenced self-reported health. Acknowledging the behavioral processes inherent in utilization of health care and formal social support services, this study moved beyond a behavioral focus by…

  6. Does the Universal Health Insurance Program Affect Urban-Rural Differences in Health Service Utilization among the Elderly? Evidence from a Longitudinal Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Yang, Fang-An

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of the introduction of Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) on urban-rural inequality in health service utilization among the elderly. Methods: A longitudinal data set of 1,504 individuals aged 65 and older was constructed from the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly. A difference-in-differences…

  7. Under utilization of MCH services--the major factor for very high IMR in rural Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, B; Mandowara, S L; Kumar, A; Agarwal, D

    1989-03-01

    Infant mortality rate (IMR) and its relation to the utilization of health services was studied in twelve villages of ICDS block Rajsamand, Rajasthan from 1st April, 1985 to 31st March, 1986. The total number of births and infant deaths were 386 and 74, respectively during one year, computing 37.44 as birth rate and 191.70 as IMR. Neonatal deaths contributed 51.4%, the most common causes of which were septicemia (28.9%), birth asphyxia (23.6%), extreme prematurity (18.4%) and tetanus neonatorum (13.1%). The common causes of deaths in post-neonatal period were pneumonia (36.1%), diarrhea (25.0%), complications of measles (16.7%) and that of pertussis (8.3%). Extreme under utilization of preventive, promotive and curative MCH services was found to be one of the major factors for very high IMR prevailing in the region. PMID:2753549

  8. RH knowledge and service utilization among unmarried rural-to-urban migrants in three major cities, China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Large numbers of unmarried migrants are on the continuous move from rural-to-urban areas within China mainland, meanwhile their Reproductive Health (RH) is underserved when it is compared with the present urban RH policies. The purpose of this study is to investigate the RH knowledge and the utilization of RH services among unmarried migrants. Methods A cross-section survey was performed in three cities in China-Shenzhen, Guangzhou and Wuhan. A total of 3,450 rural-to-urban unmarried migrants were chosen according to a purposive sampling method. Around 3,412 (male: 1,680, female: 1,732) were qualified for this study. A face-to-face structured questionnaire survey was used, which focused on the knowledge concerning "fertility, contraception and STD/AIDS," as well as RH service utilization. Results Among unmarried migrants the RH knowledge about pregnancy-fertilization (29.4%) and contraception (9.1%) was at its lowest level. Around 21% of unmarried migrants had pre-marital sexual experience and almost half (47.4%) never used condoms during sexual intercourse. The most obtained RH services was about STD/AIDS health education (female: 49.6%, male: 50.2%) and free prophylactic use of contraceptives and/or condoms (female: 42.5%, male: 48.3%). As for accessing RH checkup services it was at its lowest level among females (16.1%). Those who migrated to Shenzhen (OR = 0.64) and Guangzhou (OR = 0.53) obtained few RH consultations compared to those in Wuhan. The white collar workers received more RH consultations and checkup services than the blue collar workers (all group P < 0.01). Conclusion RH knowledge and the utilization of RH services amongst unmarried migrants remain insufficient in the three studied major cities. This study reveals the important gaps in the RH services' delivery, and highlights the requirements for tailored interventions, including further research, to address more effectively the demands and the needs of the unmarried migrant populations

  9. 75 FR 33501 - Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... the development and ongoing success of rural microenterprises. This document corrects the Office of... Rural Business-Cooperative Service 7 CFR Part 4280 Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule; correction. SUMMARY: The...

  10. Utilizing the Scientist as Teacher Through the Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, D.; McNeal, K. S.; Radencic, S.

    2011-12-01

    The presence of a scientist or other STEM expert in secondary school science classroom can provide fresh new ideas for student learning. Through the Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) program sponsored by NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12), scientists and engineers at Mississippi State University work together with graduate students and area teachers to provide hands-on inquiry-based learning to middle school and high school students. Competitively selected graduate fellows from geosciences, physics, chemistry, and engineering spend ten hours per week in participating classrooms for an entire school year, working as a team with their assigned teacher to provide outstanding instruction in science and mathematics and to serve as positive role models for the students. We are currently in the second year of our five-year program, and we have already made significant achievements in science and mathematics instruction. We successfully hosted GIS Day on the Mississippi State University campus, allowing participating students to design an emergency response to a simulated flooding of the Mississippi Delta. We have also developed new laboratory exercises for high school physics classrooms, including a 3-D electric field mapping exercise, and the complete development of a robotics design course. Many of the activities developed by the fellows and teachers are written into formal lesson plans that are made publicly available as free downloads through our project website. All participants in this program channel aspects of their research interests and methods into classroom learning, thus providing students with the real-world applications of STEM principles. In return, participants enhance their own communication and scientific inquiry skills by employing lesson design techniques that are similar to defining their own research questions.

  11. Environmental and socioeconomic impacts of utilizing waste for biochar in rural areas in Indonesia--a systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Lindhjem, Henrik; Andria, Verania; Fet, Annik Magerholm; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is the product of incomplete combustion (pyrolysis) of organic material. In rural areas, it can be used as a soil amendment to increase soil fertility. Fuel-constrained villagers may however prefer to use biochar briquettes as a higher-value fuel for cooking over applying it to soils. A systems-oriented analysis using life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost benefit analysis (CBA) was conducted to analyze these two alternative uses of biochar, applying the study to a rural village system in Indonesia. The results showed soil amendment for enhanced agricultural production to be the preferential choice with a positive benefit to the baseline scenario of -26 ecopoints (LCA) and -173 USD (CBA) annually pr. household. In this case, the positive effects of carbon sequestration to the soil and the economic value of the increased agricultural production outweighed the negative environmental impacts from biochar production and the related production costs. Use of biochar in briquettes for cooking fuel yielded negative net effects in both the LCA and CBA (85 ecopoints and 176 USD), even when positive health effects from reduced indoor air pollution were included. The main reasons for this are that emissions during biochar production are not compensated by carbon sequestration and that briquette making is labor-intensive. The results emphasize the importance of investigating and documenting the carbon storage effect and the agricultural benefit in biochar production-utilization systems for a sustainable use. Further research focus on efficient production is necessary due to the large environmental impact of biochar production. In addition, biochar should continue to be used in those soils where the agricultural effect is most beneficial.

  12. Environmental and socioeconomic impacts of utilizing waste for biochar in rural areas in Indonesia--a systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Lindhjem, Henrik; Andria, Verania; Fet, Annik Magerholm; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is the product of incomplete combustion (pyrolysis) of organic material. In rural areas, it can be used as a soil amendment to increase soil fertility. Fuel-constrained villagers may however prefer to use biochar briquettes as a higher-value fuel for cooking over applying it to soils. A systems-oriented analysis using life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost benefit analysis (CBA) was conducted to analyze these two alternative uses of biochar, applying the study to a rural village system in Indonesia. The results showed soil amendment for enhanced agricultural production to be the preferential choice with a positive benefit to the baseline scenario of -26 ecopoints (LCA) and -173 USD (CBA) annually pr. household. In this case, the positive effects of carbon sequestration to the soil and the economic value of the increased agricultural production outweighed the negative environmental impacts from biochar production and the related production costs. Use of biochar in briquettes for cooking fuel yielded negative net effects in both the LCA and CBA (85 ecopoints and 176 USD), even when positive health effects from reduced indoor air pollution were included. The main reasons for this are that emissions during biochar production are not compensated by carbon sequestration and that briquette making is labor-intensive. The results emphasize the importance of investigating and documenting the carbon storage effect and the agricultural benefit in biochar production-utilization systems for a sustainable use. Further research focus on efficient production is necessary due to the large environmental impact of biochar production. In addition, biochar should continue to be used in those soils where the agricultural effect is most beneficial. PMID:24678863

  13. Screening Utility, Local Perceptions, and Care-seeking for Reported Jaundeesh among Respondents Lacking Signs of Icterus in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Z.; Sikder, Shegufta S.; Zaman, K.; Saha, Parimalendu; Yunus, Mohammad; Nelson, Kenrad E.

    2013-01-01

    In rural Bangladesh, acute viral hepatitis presents a significant burden on the public-health system. As part of the formative work for a large epidemiologic study of hepatitis E in rural Bangladesh, we sought to identify local terms that could be used for population-based screening of acute viral hepatitis. Exploration of the local term jaundeesh for screening utility identified a high burden of reported jaundeesh among individuals without symptoms of icterus. Recognizing that local perceptions of illness may differ from biomedical definitions of disease, we also sought to characterize the perceived aetiology, care-seeking patterns, diagnostic symptoms, and treatments for reported jaundeesh in the absence of icteric symptoms to inform future population-based studies on reported morbidities. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1,441 randomly-selected subjects to identify the prevalence of reported jaundeesh and to test the validity of this local term to detect signs of icterus. To characterize the perceived aetiology and care-seeking patterns for jaundeesh among the majority of respondents, we conducted in-depth interviews with 100 respondents who self-reported jaundeesh but lacked clinical signs of icterus. To describe diagnostic symptoms and treatments, in-depth interviews were also performed with 25 kabirajs or traditional faith healers commonly visited for jaundeesh. Of the 1,441 randomly-selected participants, one-fourth (n=361) reported jaundeesh, with only a third (n=122) reporting yellow eyes or skin, representative of icterus; Jaundeesh had a positive predictive value of 34% for detection of yellow eyes or skin. Anicteric patients with reported jaundeesh perceived their illnesses to result from humoral imbalances, most commonly treated by amulets, ritual handwashing, and bathing with herbal medicines. Jaundeesh patients primarily sought folk and spiritual remedies from informal care providers, with only 19% visiting allopathic care providers

  14. Screening utility, local perceptions, and care-seeking for reported jaundeesh among respondents lacking signs of icterus in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Z; Sikder, Shegufta S; Zaman, K; Saha, Parimalendu; Yunus, Mohammad; Nelson, Kenrad E; Labrique, Alain B

    2013-09-01

    In rural Bangladesh, acute viral hepatitis presents a significant burden on the public-health system. As part of the formative work for a large epidemiologic study of hepatitis E in rural Bangladesh, we sought to identify local terms that could be used for population-based screening of acute viral hepatitis. Exploration of the local term jaundeesh for screening utility identified a high burden of reported jaundeesh among individuals without symptoms of icterus. Recognizing that local perceptions of illness may differ from biomedical definitions of disease, we also sought to characterize the perceived aetiology, care-seeking patterns, diagnostic symptoms, and treatments for reported jaundeesh in the absence of icteric symptoms to inform future population-based studies on reported morbidities. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1,441 randomly-selected subjects to identify the prevalence of reported jaundeesh and to test the validity of this local term to detect signs of icterus. To characterize the perceived aetiology and care-seeking patterns for jaundeesh among the majority of respondents, we conducted in-depth interviews with 100 respondents who self-reported jaundeesh but lacked clinical signs of icterus. To describe diagnostic symptoms and treatments, in-depth interviews were also performed with 25 kabirajs or traditional faith healers commonly visited for jaundeesh. Of the 1,441 randomly-selected participants, one-fourth (n=361) reported jaundeesh, with only a third (n=122) reporting yellow eyes or skin, representative of icterus; Jaundeesh had a positive predictive value of 34% for detection of yellow eyes or skin. Anicteric patients with reported jaundeesh perceived their illnesses to result from humoral imbalances, most commonly treated by amulets, ritual handwashing, and bathing with herbal medicines. Jaundeesh patients primarily sought folk and spiritual remedies from informal care providers, with only 19% visiting allopathic care providers

  15. Rural Health: The Story of Outreach. A Program of Cooperation in Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Rural Health Policy.

    Rural Health Outreach is a federal program of demonstration grants designed to encourage organizations to cooperate in delivering health care services to rural Americans. Thirteen programs utilizing innovative collaborations between state agencies, schools, nonprofit organizations, hospitals, volunteers, and the private sector are described a year…

  16. Valleys' Girls: Re-Theorising Bodies and Agency in a Semi-Rural Post-Industrial Locale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivinson, Gabrielle; Renold, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on materialist feminist theories to rethink relationships between girls' bodies and agency. New feminist onto-epistemologies redefine agency as "becomings" that dynamically emerge through assemblages comprising moving bodies, material, mechanical, organic, virtual, affective and less-than-conscious elements.…

  17. Utilization of traditional birth attendants in MCH care in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yadav, H

    1987-12-01

    Training of the traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Malaysia was preceded by a KAP study, and the results have been a tremendous improvement in maternal-child health care. Although Malaysia has an extensive health care system composed of government sponsored midwife clinics, health centers and sub-centers, regional hospitals, private general practitioners and estate clinics, which are utilized by 94% for prenatal care, 40% of women still called in TBAs for delivery. TBAs are popular because they provide a full range of traditional customs, are available locally, and well known to local women. 100 active TBAs in the Krian District, an area of 157,649 people in northwestern Malaysia, were surveyed. 89% had primary education; 76% were over 55 years of age; 82% had over 10 years of experience; 60% had received family planning training. They had favorable attitudes toward modern medicine, advised women to attend prenatal care, advised them on traditional diet, and performed such procedures as abdominal massage and heat fomentation. They tended to take all cases regardless of risk. The training consisted of practical demonstrations and flip charts for 6 consecutive saturdays conducted by public health nurses. TBAs were taken to meet staff and see hospital facilities and received a UN midwifery kit as an incentive. After training, hospital deliveries rose from 29.5% in 1976 to 35.9% in 1983; government midwives attended 40.2% compared to 23.3% of deliveries; deliveries conducted by TBAs fell from 47.2% to 19.4%; and more high risk cases were referred to hospitals. During the period maternal mortality declined from 1.46-1.98 in the 1970s to 0.84-1.09 in the 1980s. PMID:3441793

  18. Utilization of traditional birth attendants in MCH care in rural Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yadav, H

    1987-12-01

    Training of the traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Malaysia was preceded by a KAP study, and the results have been a tremendous improvement in maternal-child health care. Although Malaysia has an extensive health care system composed of government sponsored midwife clinics, health centers and sub-centers, regional hospitals, private general practitioners and estate clinics, which are utilized by 94% for prenatal care, 40% of women still called in TBAs for delivery. TBAs are popular because they provide a full range of traditional customs, are available locally, and well known to local women. 100 active TBAs in the Krian District, an area of 157,649 people in northwestern Malaysia, were surveyed. 89% had primary education; 76% were over 55 years of age; 82% had over 10 years of experience; 60% had received family planning training. They had favorable attitudes toward modern medicine, advised women to attend prenatal care, advised them on traditional diet, and performed such procedures as abdominal massage and heat fomentation. They tended to take all cases regardless of risk. The training consisted of practical demonstrations and flip charts for 6 consecutive saturdays conducted by public health nurses. TBAs were taken to meet staff and see hospital facilities and received a UN midwifery kit as an incentive. After training, hospital deliveries rose from 29.5% in 1976 to 35.9% in 1983; government midwives attended 40.2% compared to 23.3% of deliveries; deliveries conducted by TBAs fell from 47.2% to 19.4%; and more high risk cases were referred to hospitals. During the period maternal mortality declined from 1.46-1.98 in the 1970s to 0.84-1.09 in the 1980s.

  19. 41 CFR 102-83.15 - Is there a general hierarchy of consideration that agencies must follow in their utilization of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Is there a general hierarchy of consideration that agencies must follow in their utilization of space? 102-83.15 Section 102-83.15 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  20. 41 CFR 102-83.15 - Is there a general hierarchy of consideration that agencies must follow in their utilization of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is there a general hierarchy of consideration that agencies must follow in their utilization of space? 102-83.15 Section 102-83.15 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  1. 41 CFR 102-79.55 - Is there a general hierarchy of consideration that agencies must follow in their utilization of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Is there a general hierarchy of consideration that agencies must follow in their utilization of space? 102-79.55 Section 102-79.55 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  2. 41 CFR 102-79.55 - Is there a general hierarchy of consideration that agencies must follow in their utilization of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is there a general hierarchy of consideration that agencies must follow in their utilization of space? 102-79.55 Section 102-79.55 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  3. Multi-Agency Service Teams: A New Approach in Maine To Deliver Technical Assistance to Rural Manufacturers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Shanna

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, a multiagency service team, consisting of state and federal agencies, colleges, private consultants, and nonprofit organizations, was formed to coordinate delivery of technical assistance services to small manufacturers in Maine's wood products industry. Results were generally positive but showed the need to carefully match assistance…

  4. 7 CFR 1780.87 - Permanent instruments for Agency loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Permanent instruments for Agency loans. 1780.87 Section 1780.87 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Information Pertaining to Preparation of Notes or Bonds and Bond...

  5. Utility of a mHealth App for Self-Management and Education of Cardiac Diseases in Spanish Urban and Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    de Garibay, Valentín González; Fernández, Miguel A; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Analyze the utility of a mobile health app named HeartKeeper in several groups of population and obtain conclusions to be applied to other similar apps. A questionnaire has been designed to evaluate the usage and utility of the HeartKeeper app. The questionnaire information was collected by collaborating cardiologists from 32 patients before and after they used the app. Patients were randomly selected with established quotas within interest groups, so that men and women, patients older or younger than 60 years old and patients living in urban or rural areas were equally represented. Using the appropriate statistical techniques we see that the HeartKeeper app was useful for patients as they qualify with 70 points (out of 100) the overall opinion of the app, it helps them remember more easily taking their pills with a mean improvement of 20.94 points (p < 0.001) and they perceive a global improvement of their health (8.28 points, p < 0.001). We also observe that these improvements do not depend, in general, on the area (urban or rural) where the patient comes from or on their sex. Although older patients needed more help to use the app and used it slightly less frequently, the improvements on several measures considered, such as remembering taking pills, breathing problems or trouble developing activities, depend significantly (p < 0.05) on age with older patients reporting higher improvements than younger ones. The results obtained with the sample of patients considered in this research prove the utility of the HeartKeeper app. This utility is similar in urban and rural areas and for patients of both sexes and, to some extent, depends on the age of the patient with older patients reporting slightly lower frequency of use but higher health improvements than younger ones. PMID:27329050

  6. Utility of a mHealth App for Self-Management and Education of Cardiac Diseases in Spanish Urban and Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    de Garibay, Valentín González; Fernández, Miguel A; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Analyze the utility of a mobile health app named HeartKeeper in several groups of population and obtain conclusions to be applied to other similar apps. A questionnaire has been designed to evaluate the usage and utility of the HeartKeeper app. The questionnaire information was collected by collaborating cardiologists from 32 patients before and after they used the app. Patients were randomly selected with established quotas within interest groups, so that men and women, patients older or younger than 60 years old and patients living in urban or rural areas were equally represented. Using the appropriate statistical techniques we see that the HeartKeeper app was useful for patients as they qualify with 70 points (out of 100) the overall opinion of the app, it helps them remember more easily taking their pills with a mean improvement of 20.94 points (p < 0.001) and they perceive a global improvement of their health (8.28 points, p < 0.001). We also observe that these improvements do not depend, in general, on the area (urban or rural) where the patient comes from or on their sex. Although older patients needed more help to use the app and used it slightly less frequently, the improvements on several measures considered, such as remembering taking pills, breathing problems or trouble developing activities, depend significantly (p < 0.05) on age with older patients reporting higher improvements than younger ones. The results obtained with the sample of patients considered in this research prove the utility of the HeartKeeper app. This utility is similar in urban and rural areas and for patients of both sexes and, to some extent, depends on the age of the patient with older patients reporting slightly lower frequency of use but higher health improvements than younger ones.

  7. Evaluating the accessibility and utility of HIV-related point-of-care diagnostics for maternal health in rural South Africa: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mashamba-Thompson, T P; Drain, P K; Sartorius, B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor healthcare access is a major barrier to receiving antenatal care and a cause of high maternal mortality in South Africa (SA). ‘Point-of-care’ (POC) diagnostics is a powerful emerging healthcare approach to improve healthcare access. This study focuses on evaluating the accessibility and utility of POC diagnostics for maternal health in rural SA primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in order to generate a model framework of implementation of POC diagnostics in rural South African clinics. Method and analyses We will use several research methods, including a systematic review, quasi-experiments, survey, key informant interviews and audits. We will conduct a systematic review and experimental study to determine the impact of POC diagnostics on maternal health. We will perform a cross-sectional case study of 100 randomly selected rural primary healthcare clinics in KwaZulu-Natal to measure the context and patterns of POC diagnostics access and usage by maternal health providers and patients. We will conduct interviews with relevant key stakeholders to determine the reasons for POC deficiencies regarding accessibility and utility of HIV-related POC diagnostics for maternal health. We will also conduct a vertical audit to investigate all the quality aspects of POC diagnostic services including diagnostic accuracy in a select number of clinics. On the basis of information gathered, we will propose a model framework for improved implementation of POC diagnostics in rural South African public healthcare clinics. Statistical (Stata-13) and thematic (NVIVO) data analysis will be used in this study. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of KwaZulu-Natal (BE 484/14) and the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health based on the Helsinki Declaration (HRKM 40/15). Findings of this study will be disseminated electronically and in print. They will be presented to conferences related to HIV/AIDS, diagnostics

  8. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... oversight and leadership on major program functions. Major program functions include: Single Family and Multi-Family Housing loans and grants, Community Facility, Water and Waste Disposal, Business...

  9. Development and testing of a rural credit supervision system at the level of counties and rural properties utilizing remote sensing techniqes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, G. T. (Principal Investigator); Delima, A. M.; Tardin, A. T.; Rudorff, B. F. T.; Mendonca, F. J.; Dosanjosferreirapinto, S.; Chen, S. C.; Duarte, V.

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques for supporting the rural credit supervision system were developed and tested. The test area comprised the counties of Aracatuba and Guararapes, located in the State of Sao Paulo. Aerial photography, LANDSAT images and topographic charts were used. Aerial photographs were extremely useful for the out lining of properties boundaries with financing of sugarcane plantations by the Banco do Brasil S.A.. The percentage of correctly interpreted sugarcane on LANDSAT images, considering the 85 analyzed properties, was of 63.12%. The occurrence of atypical conditions such as excessive raining, sugarcane in bloom, and wind damaged sugarcane and sugarcane not harvested due to planning failures verified during the period the images were obtained, were some of the contributing factors associated with a low interpretation performance. An alternative approach was developed using several LANDSAT overpasses and auxiliary field data, which resulted in 91.77 percent correct.

  10. Non-Formal Environmental Education: The Utilization of Solar Energy for Cooking in a Rural Area in Sudan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Zubeir, Z.

    1997-01-01

    In El Sururab in rural Sudan, solar energy is used for cooking instead of wood. This study explored the efficiency of a hot-box type of solar cooker for storing heat and its effectiveness for different methods of cooking various foods used daily in El Sururab. Forty local women served as a respondent group. (PVD)

  11. Country Life and the Country School: A Study of the Agencies of Rural Progress and of the Social Relationship of the School to the Country Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Mabel

    Written in 1912, this book addresses the role of teachers in improving rural farm life. Rural-to-urban migration had resulted in the loss of leadership from rural localities and the decline of agriculture, and country life had lost its prestige both socially and economically. This book suggests that the country school is the key to achieving…

  12. 17 CFR 250.47 - Exemption of public utility subsidiaries as to certain securities issued to the Rural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of public utility... REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Regulation and Exemption of Various Financial Transactions 2 § 250.47 Exemption of public utility subsidiaries as to certain securities issued to the...

  13. Rural Education: Learning to Be Rural Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper draws on research which began in 2006 with students in a graduate course on rural education. Its purpose was to find out what graduate students saw as current issues of rural education, how that compared to the literature, and what they thought supporting agencies such as government and universities needed to be doing to…

  14. The utilization of antenatal care among rural-to-urban migrant women in Shanghai:a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improving utilization of antenatal care is a critical strategy for achieving China’s Millennium Development Goal of decreasing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). While overall utilization has increased recently in China, an urban vs. rural disparity in access remains. Here we aim to assess utilization of antenatal care in rural-to-urban migrant women and identify its risk and protective factors. Methods Migrant women who had been living in Shanghai for more than six months, delivered in one of the two study hospitals between August 2009 and February 2010, and provided written consent were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results Of 767 women, 90.1% (691) made at least one antenatal care visit, while 49.7% (381) had adequately utilized antenatal care (i.e., made five or more antenatal care visits). Only 19.7% of women visited an antenatal care center during the first trimester (12 weeks). Women between the ages of 25 and 30 and women older than 30 were more likely than younger women to have adequately utilized antenatal care (AOR=2.2 and 1.9, 95%CI=1.4-3.5 and 1.1-3.2, respectively). Women whose husbands held Shanghai residency status (AOR=4.9, 95%CI=2.2-10.9) or who had more than 10 years of education (AOR=1.8, 95%CI=1.2-2.9), previously experienced a miscarriage or abortion (AOR=2.2, 95%CI=1.3-3.8), had higher household income (AOR=1.6, 95%CI=1.0-2.5) were more likely to have adequately utilized antenatal care. Women from high-income households were also more likely to receive antenatal care during the first 12 weeks (AOR=3.5, 95%CI=1.7-5.5). Conclusions Many migrant women in Shanghai did not receive adequate antenatal care and initiated antenatal care later than the optimal first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Poor antenatal care utilization was associated with low socioeconomic status, education, and certain demographic factors. Tailored health education for both migrant women and their husbands should be strengthened to improve maternal

  15. Rural Energy Conference Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Witmer; Shannon Watson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska remains, even at the beginning of the 21st century, a place with many widely scattered, small, remote communities, well beyond the end of both the road system and the power grid. These communities have the highest energy costs of any place in the United States, despite the best efforts of the utilities that service them. This is due to the widespread dependence on diesel electric generators, which require small capital investments, but recent increases in crude oil prices have resulted in dramatic increases in the cost of power. In the enabling legislation for the Arctic Energy Office in 2001, specific inclusion was made for the study of ways of reducing the cost of electrical power in these remote communities. As part of this mandate, the University of Alaska has, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, the Denali Commission and the Alaska Energy Authority, organized a series of rural energy conferences, held approximately every 18 months. The goal of these meeting was to bring together rural utility operators, rural community leaders, government agency representatives, equipment suppliers, and researchers from universities and national laboratories to discuss the current state of the art in rural power generation, to discuss current projects, including successes as well as near successes. Many of the conference presenters were from industry and not accustomed to writing technical papers, so the typical method of organizing a conference by requesting abstracts and publishing proceedings was not considered viable. Instead, the organizing committee solicited presentations from appropriate individuals, and requested that (if they were comfortable with computers) prepare Power point presentations that were collected and posted on the web. This has become a repository of many presentations, and may be the best single source of information about current projects in the state of Alaska.

  16. 41 CFR 102-82.25 - What are Executive agencies' responsibilities concerning the procurement of utility services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... determines it to be in the best interests of national security, must provide for the procurement of utility... supply that are the most advantageous to the Federal Government in terms of economy,...

  17. Staff Retention and Recruitment. Implications of Staff Organization and Utilization in Rural and Urban Mental Health Facilities in the South. Final Report: Distribution of Mental Health Professionals Supplemental Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhart, Margaret A.; Ruff, Teresa C.

    This project explored influences of the service delivery system on the distribution, especially the rural-urban distribution, of mental health practitioners in public settings. Research was planned as a two-phase pilot study--an ethnographic phase (open-ended interviews and day-long observations at 14 mental health agencies) and a survey phase…

  18. Postnatal care utilization and local understandings of contagion among HIV-infected and uninfected women in rural, southern Zambia.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Emma; Moss, William J; Winch, Peter J; Thuma, Philip; van Dijk, Janneke H; Mullany, Luke C

    2016-08-01

    Postnatal care is essential for ensuring the optimal health of newborns and necessary for the prevention of maternal-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission as well as the early diagnosis and treatment of HIV-infected infants. However, coverage of postnatal care is low in many rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. We examined women's experiences of accessing formal postnatal care for their HIV-exposed newborns, comparing reports of HIV-infected and uninfected women in an HIV-endemic area of rural southern Zambia. We conducted 24 qualitative in-depth interviews with recently delivered women in a rural region of southern Zambia, including 8 with women who were willing to disclose their HIV infection status and answer additional questions. Data were transcribed, coded and analyzed using thematic analysis techniques. HIV-infected women identified more disincentives and reported more negative experiences accessing postnatal care than HIV-uninfected women. A local notion of contagion holds that healthy infants may become sick with chibele, a fatal, febrile illness, if exposed to another infant who is taking "strong medicine", such as antiretroviral drugs. Thus, HIV-uninfected women expressed objections to sharing clinics with women and infants who were presumed to be under treatment. Additionally, women reported receiving better treatment from staff at HIV clinics compared to general pediatric clinics. Due to these tensions, HIV-infected women were less likely to visit a clinic for newborn care if the clinic or waiting area was a common space used by HIV-uninfected women and their children. When integrating programs for HIV with maternal and child health care, these nuanced tensions between groups of patients must be recognized and resolved.

  19. “Can community level interventions have an impact on equity and utilization of maternal health care” – Evidence from rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from low and middle income countries (LMICs) suggests that maternal mortality is more prevalent among the poor whereas access to maternal health services is concentrated among the rich. In Bangladesh substantial inequities exist both in the use of facility-based basic obstetric care and for home births attended by skilled birth attendant. BRAC initiated an intervention on Improving Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Survival (IMNCS) in the rural areas of Bangladesh in 2008. One of the objectives of the intervention is to improve the utilization of maternal and child health care services among the poor. This study aimed to look at the impact of the intervention on utilization and also on equity of access to maternal health services. Methods A quasi-experimental pre-post comparison study was conducted in rural areas of five districts comprising three intervention (Gaibandha, Rangpur and Mymensingh) and two comparison districts (Netrokona and Naogaon). Data on health seeking behaviour for maternal health were collected from a repeated cross sectional household survey conducted in 2008 and 2010. Results Results show that the intervention appears to cause an increase in the utilization of antenatal care. The concentration index (CI) shows that this has become pro-poor over time (from CI: 0.30 to CI: 0.04) in the intervention areas. In contrast the use of ANC from medically trained providers has become pro-rich (from, CI: 0.18 to CI: 0.22). There was a significant increase in the utilisation of trained attendants for home delivery in the intervention areas compared to the comparison areas and the change was found to be pro-poor. Use of postnatal care cervices was also found to be pro-poor (from CI: 0.37 to CI: 0.14). Utilization of ANC services provided by medically trained provider did not improve in the intervention area. However, where the intervention had a positive effect on utilization it also seemed to have had a positive effect on equity

  20. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Blue Signal Protection for Utility Employees

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... connections between the locomotives. Example 7: A railroad employee is attached to a train crew after the... device on a through freight train. The utility employee attaches himself to the train crew after the... locomotive and train. The regular crew, including the engineer, has left the train to eat lunch. The...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 218 - Statement of Agency Enforcement Policy on Blue Signal Protection for Utility Employees

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tests. Example 2: A utility employee is assigned to assist a yard crew for the purpose of classifying... to inspect, test, remove and replace if necessary, a combination rear end marking device/end of train... locomotive and train. The regular crew, including the engineer, has left the train to eat lunch. The...

  2. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time. PMID:27239377

  3. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  4. Rural Versus Urban Health Service Utilization and Outcomes for Renal Patients in New South Wales: Protocol for a Data Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Angela; Cass, Alan; Gallagher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Kidney disease is a significant burden on health systems globally, with the rising prevalence of end stage kidney disease in Australia mirrored in many other countries. Approximately 25% of the Australian population lives in regional and rural areas and accessing complex tertiary services is challenging. Objective We aim to compare the burden and outcomes of chronic kidney disease and end stage kidney disease in rural and urban regions of New South Wales (Australia’s most populous state) using linked health data. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study and we have defined two cohorts: one with end stage kidney disease and one with chronic kidney disease. The end stage kidney disease cohort was defined using the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, identifying all patients living in NSW receiving renal replacement therapy at any time between 01/07/2000 and 31/07/2010. The chronic kidney disease cohort used the NSW Admitted Patient Data Collection (APDC) to identify patients with a diagnostic code relating to chronic renal failure during any admission between 01/07/2000 and 31/07/2010. Both cohorts were linked to the NSW APDC, the Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, and the Central Cancer Registry allowing derivation of outcomes by categories of geographical remoteness. Results To date, we have identified 10,505 patients with 2,384,218 records in the end stage kidney disease cohort and 159,033 patients with 1,599,770 records in the chronic kidney disease cohort. Conclusions This study will define the geographical distribution of end stage and chronic kidney disease and compare the health service utilization between rural and urban renal populations. PMID:26082088

  5. 75 FR 29447 - Public Health Service Act, Rural Physician Training Grant Program, Definition of “Underserved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Program, Definition of ``Underserved Rural Community'' AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... statutory directive to issue a regulation defining ``underserved rural community'' for purposes of the Rural... ``Underserved Rural Community'' A. Definition of Rural B. Definition of Underserved IV. Collection...

  6. Epidemiology of animal bites and other potential rabies exposures and anti-rabies vaccine utilization in a rural area in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ramos, José M; Melendez, Napoleón; Reyes, Francisco; Gudiso, Ganamo; Biru, Dejene; Fano, Gamadi; Aberra, Gulelat; Tessema, Dalu; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Balcha, Seble; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2015-01-01

    The presented report describes the epidemiology of potential rabies exposures and examines the utilization of anti-rabies vaccine in a rural area of Ethiopia during a period of 43 months. A total of 683 persons (51.1% females, 73% children) with animal- related bites were included in the retrospective, registry-based study. The most common site of exposure was the leg (66.8%). In children under 8 years of age the face was more often involved than in adults (9.5% vs. 4.8%; p=0.03). The main type of exposure was a bite with bleeding (66.3%) followed by contamination of mucous membranes with saliva (19.7%). The primary sources were dogs (93.4%) followed by cats (2.6%). Children under 15 years were more likely to be exposed to dogs (94.9%) than adults (88.7%) (p=0.01). The most common way of coming in contact with animals was 'walking by' (83.9%). Children came in contact with animals while 'playing with' (10.7%) more often than adults (1.1%) (p<0.001). All the patients received an anti-rabies nervous-tissue vaccine, 99% of whom completed the vaccination course. Animal bites continue to be a problem in rural Ethiopia, mainly among children. Efforts to protect children against animal bites must be of paramount importance in preventing rabies in this population. PMID:25780832

  7. Rural areas electrification (Latin America), Guatemala City, Guatemala, June 4--7, 1989: Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    ORNL serves the function of monitoring the Central American Rural Electrification Support Program (CARES) of US Agency for International Development (USAID), which is administered by NRECA. The results of the Demand Assessment Model, presented at the conference, were reviewed, and a paper on the use of marginal cost analysis for rural electrification was delivered for presentation by NRECA staff. Discussions on the acceptability of the model were discussed with utility representatives.

  8. Measuring Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

  9. Under-utilization of health care services for infectious diseases syndromes in rural Azerbaijan: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases present a potentially substantial yet undefined burden on the health of the adult Azerbaijani population. Efforts to quantify this burden in Azerbaijan are currently based almost exclusively on passive disease surveillance, and therefore hinge on the health utilization practices of the population. Understanding the prevalence of infectious syndromes and health utilization practices is paramount to disease surveillance, public health planning, and health care system reform. Methods A two-stage, probability proportional to size sampling design was used to select a representative sample of three regions of northern Azerbaijan with village populations less than 500 people. Demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic parameters were assessed using prevalence odds ratios, chi-squared, and the Fisher exact test. Associations with p < 0.10 were included in the regression analysis and removed by backward elimination. Respondents included 796 adults from 39 villages. Results Self-medication with antibiotics was the predominant utilization practice reported (19.4%). Only 1.3% of respondents reported seeing a health care provider for an infection, and 3.4% missed work or stayed in bed during the day in the last 5 years. In contrast, 338 illness episodes were reported in a 5 year period. Antibiotic use was significantly associated with gender, region, history of febrile illness, sleep disturbances, and arthritis controlling for age, ethnicity, and education. Influenza-like illness was the most prevalent infectious syndrome reported (33.3%). Conclusions We observed a remarkably low utilization of health services, despite reported symptoms that would merit use. Widespread availability of antibiotics may deter health care use, and may contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance in this population. Information on utilization of health services during an infection is essential for development of effective intervention strategies, and data on

  10. Rural Outreach: Connecting Distant Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenkel, Mary Beth

    Rural outreach in community mental health centers involves staff commuting from a central agency to surrounding rural towns to provide clinical and/or community service. The problem for outreach staff is how to best provide services to a rural network that is distant and different from the urban network. In general the greater the distance, the…

  11. Utilizing Shared Decision Making in Developing a Computer Technology Comprehensive Plan for a Small, Rural, K-12 Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumley, William H.

    This practicum was designed to utilize a shared decision making (SDM) committee model as a mechanism through which a long-range, comprehensive computer technology plan would be developed for a Jackman (Maine) school system. On-site research coupled with an extensive review of current literature produced a finding that long-range technology…

  12. The effects of utility evaluations, biomedical knowledge and modernization on intention to exclusively use biomedical health facilities among rural households in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Mukolo, Abraham; Cooil, Bruce; Victor, Bart

    2015-08-01

    In resource-limited settings, the choice between utilizing biomedical health services and/or traditional healers is critical to the success of the public health mission. In the literature, this choice has been predicted to be influenced by three major factors: knowledge about biomedical etiologies; cultural modernization; and rational choice. The current study investigated all three of these predicted determinants, applying data from a general household survey conducted in 2010 in Zambézia Province of Mozambique involving 1045 randomly sampled rural households. Overall, more respondents (N = 802) intended to continue to supplement their biomedical healthcare with traditional healer services in comparison with those intending to utilize biomedical care exclusively (N = 243). The findings strongly supported the predicted association between rational utility (measured as satisfaction with the quality of service and results from past care) with the future intention to continue to supplement or utilize biomedical care exclusively. Odds of moving away from supplementation increase by a factor of 2.5 if the respondent reported seeing their condition improve under government/private biomedical care. Odds of staying with supplementation increase by a factor 3.1 if the respondent was satisfied with traditional care and a factor of 16 if the condition had improved under traditional care. Modernization variables (education, income, religion, and Portuguese language skills) were relevant and provided a significant component of the best scientific model. Amount of biomedical knowledge was not a significant predictor of choice. There was a small effect on choice from knowing the limitations of biomedical care. The findings have implications for public healthcare promotion activities in areas where biomedical care is introduced as an alternative to traditional healing. PMID:26123881

  13. The effects of utility evaluations, biomedical knowledge and modernization on intention to exclusively use biomedical health facilities among rural households in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Mukolo, Abraham; Cooil, Bruce; Victor, Bart

    2015-08-01

    In resource-limited settings, the choice between utilizing biomedical health services and/or traditional healers is critical to the success of the public health mission. In the literature, this choice has been predicted to be influenced by three major factors: knowledge about biomedical etiologies; cultural modernization; and rational choice. The current study investigated all three of these predicted determinants, applying data from a general household survey conducted in 2010 in Zambézia Province of Mozambique involving 1045 randomly sampled rural households. Overall, more respondents (N = 802) intended to continue to supplement their biomedical healthcare with traditional healer services in comparison with those intending to utilize biomedical care exclusively (N = 243). The findings strongly supported the predicted association between rational utility (measured as satisfaction with the quality of service and results from past care) with the future intention to continue to supplement or utilize biomedical care exclusively. Odds of moving away from supplementation increase by a factor of 2.5 if the respondent reported seeing their condition improve under government/private biomedical care. Odds of staying with supplementation increase by a factor 3.1 if the respondent was satisfied with traditional care and a factor of 16 if the condition had improved under traditional care. Modernization variables (education, income, religion, and Portuguese language skills) were relevant and provided a significant component of the best scientific model. Amount of biomedical knowledge was not a significant predictor of choice. There was a small effect on choice from knowing the limitations of biomedical care. The findings have implications for public healthcare promotion activities in areas where biomedical care is introduced as an alternative to traditional healing.

  14. Spatial and social inequities in HIV testing utilization in the context of rapid scale-up of HIV/AIDS services in rural Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing; Agadjanian, Victor; Murray, Alan T

    2014-07-01

    The massive scale-up of HIV counseling, testing, and treatment services in resource-limited sub-Saharan settings with high HIV prevalence has significant implications for the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It also offers important broader policy lessons for improving access to critical health services. Applying GIS-based methods and multilevel regression analysis to unique longitudinal three-wave survey data from rural Mozambique, this study investigates the impact of a rapid expansion of HIV-related services on access to and utilization of HIV testing. The results illustrate the declining importance of spatial barriers to utilization of HIV testing services as these services expanded. In addition, the expansion of HIV-related services decreased the spatial variability of HIV testing among the survey respondents. At the same time, some important non-spatial variation, such as that in educational level, persisted despite the expansion of services. These results illustrate the process and consequences of health service diffusion.

  15. UTILIZATION OF MOBILE FACILITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ENTRY WORK SKILLS FOR ARKANSAS' RURAL UNEMPLOYED AND LOW INCOME EARNERS, A FEASIBILITY STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Reno. School Planning Lab.

    THE FEASIBILITY AND METHODS OF USING MOBILE FACILITIES IN UPGRADING THE WORK SKILLS OF RURAL LOW INCOME WAGE EARNERS ARE EXPLORED. SUCH MOBILE FACILITIES WOULD BE DIRECTED TOWARD 3 SPECIFIC GROUPS OF PEOPLE--SMALL ACREAGE FARMERS WHO PRODUCED ONLY A MINIMAL INCOME, THE RURAL LOW-INCOME NEGRO POPULATION, AND YOUNG RURAL SCHOOL DROPOUTS WITH LITTLE…

  16. Distance, transportation cost, and mode of transport in the utilization of facility-based maternity services: evidence from rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Keya, Kaji Tamanna; Rob, Ubaidur; Rahman, Moshiur; Bajracharya, Ashish; Bellows, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Although the maternal mortality ratio in Bangladesh has decreased, significant underutilization of facilities continues to be a persistent challenge to policy makers. Women face long distances and significant transportation cost to deliver at health facilities. This study identifies the distance traveled to utilize facilities, associated transportation cost, and transport mode used for maternal healthcare services. A total of 3,300 mothers aged 18-49 years, who had given birth in the year before the survey, were interviewed from 22 sub-districts in 2010. Findings suggest that facility-based maternal healthcare service utilization was very poor. Only 53% of women received antenatal care, 20% used delivery care. and 10% used postnatal care from health centers. Median distance traveled for antenatal and postnatal check-ups was 2 kilometers but 4 kilometers for complication management care and delivery. Most women used non-motorized rickshaw or van to reach a health facility. On average, women spent Taka 100 (US$1.40) as transportation cost for antenatal care, Taka 432 (US$6.17) for delivery, and Taka 132 (US$1.89) for postnatal check-up. For each additional kilometer, the cost increased by Taka 9 (US$0.13) for antenatal, Taka 31 (US$0.44) for delivery, and Taka 8 (US$0.11) for postnatal care.

  17. The Effect of Antiretroviral Treatment on Health Care Utilization in Rural South Africa: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanser, Frank C.; Naidu, Kevindra K.; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of the rapid scale-up of vertical antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa on the overall health system is under intense debate. Some have argued that these programs have reduced access for people suffering from diseases unrelated to HIV because ART programs have drained human and physical resources from other parts of the health system; others have claimed that the investments through ART programs have strengthened the general health system and the population health impacts of ART have freed up health care capacity for the treatment of diseases that are not related to HIV. To establish the population-level impact of ART programs on health care utilization in the public-sector health system, we compared trends in health care utilization among HIV-infected people receiving and not receiving ART with HIV-uninfected people during a period of rapid ART scale-up. Methods and Findings We used data from the Wellcome Trust Africa Centre for Population Health, which annually elicited information on health care utilization from all surveillance participants over the period 2009–2012 (N = 32,319). We determined trends in hospitalization, and public-sector and private-sector primary health care (PHC) clinic visits for HIV-infected and -uninfected people over a time period of rapid ART scale-up (2009–2012) in this community. We regressed health care utilization on HIV status and ART status in different calendar years, controlling for sex, age, and area of residence. The proportion of people who reported to have visited a public-sector primary health care (PHC) clinic in the last 6 months increased significantly over the period 2009–2012, for both HIV-infected people (from 59% to 67%; p<0.001), and HIV-uninfected people (from 41% to 47%; p<0.001). In contrast, the proportion of HIV-infected people visiting a private-sector PHC clinic declined from 22% to 12% (p<0.001) and hospitalization rates declined from 128 to 82 per

  18. Partners in Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert

    2000-01-01

    Thanks to the economies of scale inherent in networks of education services agencies (ESAs), these agencies can provide small rural schools with access to programs, services, and technical assistance that otherwise might be unavailable. Typical core services of ESAs, historic roots, evaluation of ESAs in Iowa and Texas, and trends in ESA funding…

  19. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TO SAFELY AND EFFECTIVELY COMPLETE NUCLEAR CONSTRUCTION WORK

    SciTech Connect

    LESO KF; HAMILTON HM; FARNER M; HEATH T

    2010-01-14

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small

  20. US agency for international development

    SciTech Connect

    Pumfrey, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author addresses the following questions in his presentation: what is USAID; where does the money go and who makes the decisions; where does USAID fund energy programs, and especially renewable energy; who are their `partners`; what is the approach to renewable energy; what in summary, has USAID funded that is relevant to village power. USAID is the foreign aid agency of the US Government. Approximately 75 countries receive regular assistance. The fiscal year 97 budget for the agency is approximately $5.8 billion. About half of the total budget goes to Israel, Egypt, and the countries of the former Soviet Union. These budgeting decisions are geopolitical. Congress earmarks total budgets for a few sectors or subjects, such as family planning. The goal of USAID`s renewable energy programs is simple: They are interested in accelerating the market penetration of commercial technologies. They do not engage in technology R&D. Developing countries have energy needs now, and commercial technologies are available now. USAID has taken note of the interest taken by subsidiaries of US utilities in the past couple of years in bringing their expertise and resources to bear on meeting the challenge of rural energy needs in developing countries. They believe that the entry into the market of these players could be one of the most important catalysts for making the rural energy revolution happen.

  1. Utilization of delivery services in the context of prevention of HIV from mother-to-child (PMTCT) in a rural community, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, K; Mosala, T; Shisana, O; Nqeteko, A

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utilization of delivery services in the context of PMTCT in a rural community in South Africa. Based on a cross-sectional survey, the sample included 870 pregnant women who had delivered before recruited from five PMTCT clinics and surrounding communities. Results indicated that 55.9% had delivered their last child in a health care facility and 44.1% at home (mostly without assistance from a traditional birth attendant). The odds of access to the health facility were (1) women who stayed close to the hospital (OR = 2.87), (2) those who had higher formal education (OR = 1.55), (3) higher traveling costs (affordability) to get to nearest clinic (OR = 1.77), and (4) those who were single (OR = 1.58). Childbirth experiences of the mother or mother-in-law greatly influenced the delivery choices in terms of home delivery. The majority of the pregnant women were aware of mother-to-child HIV transmission but only 9% of the pregnant women had ever been tested for HIV. HIV knowledge, HIV testing behaviour and attitudes were found to be not associated with the delivery option. PMID:16817493

  2. HOSPITALS FOR RURAL PEOPLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANNY, ELSIE S.; ROGERS, CHARLES E.

    MODERN ADVANCEMENTS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE HAVE PRECIPITATED THE NEED FOR ADEQUATE UP-TO-DATE HOSPITAL FACILITIES REASONABLY CLOSE TO ALL PEOPLE. RURAL COMMUNITIES HAVE UTILIZED FEDERAL AID, STATE AID, ASSISTANCE FROM FOUNDATIONS, CIVIC BONDS, AND VOLUNTEER CONTRIBUTIONS AND DRIVES TO ERECT AND EQUIP HOSPITALS. HOSPITAL CARE FOR RURAL PEOPLE USUALLY…

  3. 77 FR 7576 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Request for Nominations to the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC... qualified candidates to be considered for appointment to the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities...

  4. 77 FR 60430 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... gives notice of a teleconference meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC... agriculture and rural communities. The purpose of this teleconference is to discuss specific topics...

  5. 77 FR 41185 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... teleconference meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy... programs that affect and engage agriculture and rural communities. DATES: The Farm, Ranch, and...

  6. 76 FR 11243 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of a meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy... environmental policies and programs that affect and engage agriculture and rural communities. A copy of...

  7. 76 FR 59396 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of a meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy... environmental policies and programs that affect and engage agriculture and rural communities. A copy of...

  8. 77 FR 65547 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION..., 2012 [FRL- 9737-3] a Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC) Teleconference to be held on... cancellation of that public meeting for the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The...

  9. 76 FR 73631 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of a meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy..., and Rural Communities Committee will hold an open meeting on Monday, December 12, 2011 from 10...

  10. 77 FR 75152 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of a teleconference meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is... programs that affect and engage agriculture and rural communities. DATES: The Farm, Ranch, and...

  11. 76 FR 33280 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of a meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy... environmental policies and programs that affect and engage agriculture and rural communities. A copy of...

  12. 75 FR 55578 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of a meeting of the Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy... and rural communities. A copy of the meeting agenda will be posted at...

  13. Interagency Cooperation--An Investigation of Human Service Agencies Collaboration in the Delivery of Services and Amenities to Rural Citizens in Clinton County New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Jane S.; Nelson, Helen Y.

    Assuming that one way to meet the needs and to improve the delivery of services and amenities to isolated rural citizens is through increased interagency collaboration, an obective of this research was to explore stimuli and deterrents to such cooperative efforts. Thirty organizations (23 public groups, 4 private non-profit, and 3 private) serving…

  14. 75 FR 3642 - Special Evaluation Assistance for Rural Communities and Households Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... for Rural Communities and Households Program ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service (RUS) is issuing a regulation to establish the Special Evaluation Assistance for Rural Communities..., design assistance, and technical assistance to financially distressed communities in rural areas...

  15. Rural Communities and Rural Social Issues: Priorities for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Alan; Duff, John; Saggers, Sherry; Baines, Patricia

    This report recommends priorities for research into rural communities and rural social issues in Australia, based on an extensive literature review, surveys of policymaking agencies and researchers, and discussion at a national workshop in May 1999. Chapters 1-2 outline the study's background, purpose, and methodology; discuss issues in the…

  16. Need for Improvement of Rural School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, V. Pauline

    The Government Accounting Agency estimates that one third of the nation's schools are in need of extensive repairs or replacement of one or more buildings. The condition of America's rural schools are at a crisis stage and need to be improved to continue to educate rural youth. This paper profiles the state of rural schools' infrastructure, rural…

  17. 75 FR 33573 - Rural Housing Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service Notice of Acceptance of Proposals for the Section 538 Multi...; Correction AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Rural Housing Service (RHS) published a document in the Federal Register of May 10, 2010, announcing the...

  18. The Role of HIV-Related Stigma in Utilization of Skilled Childbirth Services in Rural Kenya: A Prospective Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Janet M.; Hatcher, Abigail H.; Medema-Wijnveen, José; Onono, Maricianah; Miller, Suellen; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Turan, Bulent; Cohen, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Childbirth with a skilled attendant is crucial for preventing maternal mortality and is an important opportunity for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The Maternity in Migori and AIDS Stigma Study (MAMAS Study) is a prospective mixed-methods investigation conducted in a high HIV prevalence area in rural Kenya, in which we examined the role of women's perceptions of HIV-related stigma during pregnancy in their subsequent utilization of maternity services. Methods and Findings From 2007–2009, 1,777 pregnant women with unknown HIV status completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire assessing their perceptions of HIV-related stigma before being offered HIV testing during their first antenatal care visit. After the visit, a sub-sample of women was selected for follow-up (all women who tested HIV-positive or were not tested for HIV, and a random sample of HIV-negative women, n = 598); 411 (69%) were located and completed another questionnaire postpartum. Additional qualitative in-depth interviews with community health workers, childbearing women, and family members (n = 48) aided our interpretation of the quantitative findings and highlighted ways in which HIV-related stigma may influence birth decisions. Qualitative data revealed that health facility birth is commonly viewed as most appropriate for women with pregnancy complications, such as HIV. Thus, women delivering at health facilities face the risk of being labeled as HIV-positive in the community. Our quantitative data revealed that women with higher perceptions of HIV-related stigma (specifically those who held negative attitudes about persons living with HIV) at baseline were subsequently less likely to deliver in a health facility with a skilled attendant, even after adjusting for other known predictors of health facility delivery (adjusted odds ratio = 0.44, 95% CI 0.22–0.88). Conclusions Our findings point to the urgent need for interventions to reduce HIV

  19. Time and money: the true costs of health care utilization for patients receiving ‘free’ HIV/TB care and treatment in rural KwaZulu-Natal

    PubMed Central

    Chimbindi, Natsayi; Bor, Jacob; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Baltusen, Rob; Hontelez, Jan; de Vlas, Sake; Lurie, Mark; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV and TB services are provided free-of-charge in many sub-Saharan African countries, but patients still incur costs. Methods Patient-exit interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 200 HIV-infected patients not yet on ART (pre-ART), 300 ART patients, and 300 TB patients receiving public sector care in rural South Africa. For each group, we calculated health expenditures across different spending categories, time spent traveling to and utilizing services, and how patients financed their spending. Associations between patient group and costs were assessed in multivariate regression models. Results Total monthly health expenditures (1 USD = 7.3 South African Rand, ZAR) were: ZAR 171 (95% CI 134, 207) for pre-ART, ZAR 164 (95% CI 141, 187) for ART, and ZAR 122 (95% CI 105, 140) for TB patients (p=0.01). Total monthly time costs (in hours) were: 3.4 (95% CI 3.3, 3.5) for pre-ART, 5.0 (95% CI 4.7, 5.3) for ART and 3.2 (95% CI 2.9, 3.4) for TB patients (p<0.01). Though overall patient costs were similar across groups, pre-ART patients spent on average ZAR 29.2 more on traditional healers and ZAR 25.9 more on chemists and private doctors than ART patients, while ART patients spent ZAR 34.0 more than pre-ART patients on transport to clinics (p<0.05 for all results). 31% of pre-ART, 39% of ART and 41% of TB patients borrowed money or sold assets to finance health costs. Conclusions Patients receiving nominally free care for HIV/TB face large private costs, commonly leading to financial distress. Subsidized transport, fewer clinic visits, and drug pickup points closer to home could reduce costs for ART patients, potentially improving retention and adherence. Large expenditure on alternative care among pre-ART patients suggests that transitioning patients to ART earlier, as under HIV treatment-as-prevention policies, may not substantially increase patients’ financial burden. PMID:26371611

  20. Energy requirements for rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    1988-06-01

    This study on the role of energy in the development of rural areas was originally conducted in the spring and summer of 1985. It was intended to serve as a background paper for the preparation of a program plan for the Office of Energy of the United States Agency for International Development. As such it begins with a brief overview of how rural development fits into national development, then offers a comprehensive framework for thinking about rural development in particular and the energy implications of the various components of rural development. Agriculture naturally comes to mind when rural areas are mentioned, but industry is an important component of rural activity as well. Consequently, both agricultural and nonagricultural energy use is discussed. Modernization of rural areas will change household, as well as production, energy use. However, household energy use is a veritable subject in its own right, with a large literature. Consequently, that topic is discussed in less detail than the production energy topics.

  1. Rural Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Websites & Tools Maps Funding & Opportunities Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  2. An Inquiry into Rural Dwellers' Opinions about Living Conditions in Urban and Rural Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azarkh, Emilia Davidovna; Korel, Liudmila Vasilyevna

    Utilizing data derived from a questionnaire survey of the rural population of Novosibirsk province in the USSR, the following hypothesis was tested: the attitude of rural inhabitants toward urban and rural conditions is characterized by a considerable preponderance of positive evaluations of dominant rural conditions and transient urban conditions…

  3. 77 FR 4885 - Rural Business Investment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ..., the Agency published an Interim Rule for the Rural Business Investment Program (RBIP) (69 FR 32200... to meet the capital requirements. On December 23, 2011 (76 FR 80217), the Agency published an amended... / Wednesday, February 1, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural...

  4. 78 FR 41795 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee Teleconference AGENCY: Environmental Protection..., and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC). The FRRCC is a policy-oriented committee that provides policy... policies that are of importance to agriculture and rural communities. Purpose of Meeting: The purpose...

  5. [Rural Teacher Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT.

    Brigham Young University is engaged in a program to recruit and train teachers to function successfully in rural school settings. An education consortium composed of educators representative of county school districts, the university, the regional service center, and the Utah State Educational Agency was formed to initiate and operate a teacher…

  6. 75 FR 17121 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business--Cooperative Service Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants; Correction AGENCY: Rural Business--Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The...

  7. The U.S. Department of Education's Rural Education Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Describes 1982 creation of United States Department of Education's Intra-Agency Committee on Rural Education. Summarizes 10 rural policy initiatives proposed in "Rural Education and Rural Family Education Policy for the 80s." Lists major accomplishments/strategies including conferences, annual reports, and information network. Outlines Fiscal Year…

  8. One Department Serving Rural America: HHS Rural Task Force Report to the Secretary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    In 2001, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) created a rural task force to develop strategies to improve HHS services in rural communities. Fifteen HHS agencies have programs serving rural communities; child- and education-related programs provide child welfare services, Head Start, health promotion and prevention services, training…

  9. The Extent and Utilization of Management Information Systems and Planning Programming Budgeting Systems in State Educational Agencies. Report of a Special Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Sam W.

    This study provides information about the development and implementation of MIS and PPB systems in State education agencies. Data from two questionnaires covered (1) systems planning and development, and (2) administration and organization. Most States have begun to implement information and PPB systems, but they are hindered by lack of both funds…

  10. 78 FR 53423 - Section 538 Guaranteed Rural Rental Housing Program for Fiscal Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... properties to include Rural Development financed Farm Labor Housing properties. This amendment is to ensure... Rural Housing Service Section 538 Guaranteed Rural Rental Housing Program for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; amendment. SUMMARY: The Rural Housing Service (RHS)...

  11. 75 FR 19353 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Rural Housing Service Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural... funding is now available for the Rural Development Voucher Program. The notice also sets forth the general..., the Rural Development Voucher will become void, any funding will be cancelled, and the tenant will...

  12. Rural Oregon Community Perspectives:

    PubMed Central

    Young-Lorion, Julia; Davis, Melinda M.; Kirks, Nancy; Hsu, Anna; Slater, Jana Kay; Rollins, Nancy; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Community Health Improvement Partnership (CHIP) model has supported community health development in more than 100 communities nationally. In 2011, four rural Oregon CHIPs collaborated with investigators from the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN), a component of the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), to obtain training on research methods, develop and implement pilot research studies on childhood obesity, and explore matches with academic partners. This article summarizes the experiences of the Lincoln County CHIP, established in 2003, as it transitioned from CHIP to Community Health Improvement and Research Partnership (CHIRP). Our story and lessons learned may inform rural community-based health coalitions and academicians who are engaged in or considering Community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Utilizing existing infrastructure and relationships in community and academic settings provides an ideal starting point for rural, bidirectional research partnerships. PMID:24056513

  13. The two faces of enhancing utilization of health-care services: determinants of patient initiation and retention in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Mugisha, Frederick; Bocar, Kouyate; Dong, Hengjin; Chepng'eno, Gloria; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors that determine whether a patient will initiate treatment within a system of health-care services, and the factors that determine whether the patient will be retained in the chosen system, in Nouna, rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: The data used were pooled from four rounds of a household survey conducted in Nouna, rural Burkina Faso. The ongoing demographic surveillance system provided a sampling framework for this survey in which 800 households were sampled using a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. More than one treatment episode was observed for a single episode of illness per patient. The multinomial logit model was used to explore the determinants of patient initiation to systems of modern, traditional and home treatment, and a binary logit model was used to explore the determinants of patient retention within the chosen health-care provider system. FINDINGS: The results suggest that the determinants of patient initiation and their subsequent retention are different. Household income, education, urban residence and expected competency of the provider are positive predictors of initiation, but not of retention, for modern health-care services. Only perceived quality of care positively predicted retention in modern health-care services. CONCLUSION: Interventions focusing on patient initiation and patient retention are likely to be different. Policies directed at enhancing initiation for modern health-care services would primarily focus on reducing financial barriers, while those directed at increasing retention would primarily focus on attributes that improve the perceived quality of care. PMID:15375446

  14. [Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on rural education focuses on the unique characteristics and problems of rural schools, and discusses how the "top down" and "one size fits all" nature of the last decade of reforms has not taken these into account. To better address the situation of rural and small schools, various strategies are offered that involve distance…

  15. Rural Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jess

    To be scientific, rural sociology must have a distinctive conceptual basis; therefore, defining "rural" has long been a major concern of rural sociologists. Recently faced with similar problems, political economists have revitalized the field of urban sociology by looking beyond the city to the social production of spatial forms under capitalism.…

  16. The impact of system level factors on treatment timeliness: utilizing the Toyota Production System to implement direct intake scheduling in a semi-rural community mental health clinic.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G; Goughler, Donald H; Yarzebinski, Kathleen; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effect of using the Toyota Production System (TPS) to change intake procedures on treatment timeliness within a semi-rural community mental health clinic. One hundred randomly selected cases opened the year before the change and 100 randomly selected cases opened the year after the change were reviewed. An analysis of covariance demonstrated that changing intake procedures significantly decreased the number of days consumers waited for appointments (F(1,160) = 4.9; p = .03) from an average of 11 to 8 days. The pattern of difference on treatment timeliness was significantly different between adult and child programs (F(1,160) = 4.2; p = .04), with children waiting an average of 4 days longer than adults for appointments. Findings suggest that small system level changes may elicit important changes and that TPS offers a valuable model to improve processes within community mental health settings. Results also indicate that different factors drive adult and children's treatment timeliness.

  17. Report of Rural Education Advisory Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jack E., Comp.

    Out of concern that agencies with the power and ability to provide much-needed research and development resources to help solve rural education problems will likely put their efforts into solving more visible urban problems, the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory's Rural Education Advisory committee met in 1983 to justify the need for…

  18. Using Cooperatives to Transport Rural Passengers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.; Byrne, Robert J.

    A study of two rural New York counties--Cortland and Otsego--was undertaken to identify innovative ways to provide public passenger transportation services in rural areas by using transportation cooperatives. Information about current transportation services was obtained from staff members of the human service agencies and county government…

  19. Opportunities for ESAs Serving Rural School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart L.

    2003-01-01

    Opportunities abound for educational service agencies (ESAs) to assist rural schools districts with implementing the No Child Left Behind Act. Strategies that ESAs could pursue are presented for critical issues in the areas of school-community relationships, school roles in rural development, funding, standard setting, school size, facility…

  20. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Eighteen papers about education, training, and extension in rural areas of the developing world are presented in this 1975 journal published jointly by three United Nations agencies closely concerned with education and rural development: Food and Agriculture Organization; Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; International Labor…

  1. 76 FR 19758 - Small, Rural School Achievement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Small, Rural School Achievement Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department... (CFDA) Number: 84.358A. SUMMARY: Under the Small, Rural School Achievement (SRSA) program, the U.S... (LEAs) to address the unique needs of rural school districts. In this notice, we establish the...

  2. 75 FR 21265 - Small, Rural School Achievement Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Small, Rural School Achievement Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department... (CFDA) Number: 84.358A. SUMMARY: Under the Small, Rural School Achievement (SRSA) Program, the U.S... (LEAs) to address the unique needs of rural school districts. In this notice, we establish the...

  3. Strategies for Funders: Community Colleges and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

    This paper urges foundations and state and federal agencies to consider funding rural community colleges, in light of the successful experiences of the Rural Community College Initiative. Much of rural America is in trouble because educational attainment and job opportunities are low; innovation is stifled by poor schools, isolation, and…

  4. 77 FR 52758 - Agency Information Collection Activities under OMB Review; Renewal of a Currently Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Approved Collection; Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION... approval: Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program, OMB Control Number: 1006-0029. Title 43 CFR part 404 requires entities interested in participating in the Rural Water Supply Program (Rural Water Program)...

  5. Rural Development: Part 2, (1) Balanced National Growth Policy; (2) National Rural Development Program; (3) S. 1612, The Rural Community Development Revenue Sharing Act of 1971; (4) Reorganization of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, 92d Congress, 1st Session, April 29; June 16 and 17, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Included in these Senate hearings on rural development are statements from representatives of the following: (1) National League of Cities and the U.S. Conference of Mayors; (2) National Association of Community Development; (3) American Institute of Planners; (4) National Farmers Union; (5) Business International; (6) National Service to Regional…

  6. Rural Development: Part 3, (1) Balanced National Growth Policy; (2) National Rural Development Program; (3) S. 1612, The Rural Community Development Revenue Sharing Act of 1971; (4) Reorganization of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, 92d Congress, 1st Session, May 3, 1971, Sioux City, Iowa; May 4, 1971 Vermillion, ....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of the 1971 Senate hearings on rural development (held in Sioux City, Iowa; Montgomery, Alabama; Vermillion, South Dakota; and Tifton, Georgia) are presented in this document. Derived from many sources representing the varied interests of each host State, representative testimony includes that of: city and state officials; university…

  7. Rural Development: Part 5, (1) Balanced National Growth Policy; (2) National Rural Development Program; (3) S. 1612, The Rural Community Development Revenue Sharing Act of 1971; (4) Reorganization of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 1st Session, September 9, 1971, Stillwater, Okla....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of the 1971 Senate hearings on rural development held in Stillwater, Oklahoma and Lincoln, Nebraska are presented in this document. Derived from many sources representing the varied interests of each host state, representative testimony includes that of: university professors and administrators; State and Federal legislators; chamber…

  8. 77 FR 8854 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC) will be renewed for an additional two... to agriculture and rural communities. It is determined that the FRRCC is in the public interest...

  9. 75 FR 9894 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC) AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC) will be renewed for an additional two... agriculture and rural communities. It is determined that the FRRCC is in the public interest in...

  10. 77 FR 2719 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... AGENCY Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental..., and Rural Communities Advisory Committee (FRRCC) will be renewed for an additional two-year period, as... and rural communities. It is determined that the FRRCC is in the public interest in connection...

  11. Rural power quality

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, D.O. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Chang, J.C. ); Leonard, J. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-07-01

    Very little published literature is available on the quality of power being delivered to rural industries. This paper will present the results of a detailed power quantity monitoring survey of 17 out of the 23 small rural industries surveyed (i.e., poultry broiler, poultry layer, beef feedlot, and pig (farrow to finish) rural industrial sites) and sponsored by the Canadian Electrical Association; the survey will provide a knowledge base on rural power quality and the possible origins of power supply anomalies. This paper will summarize the major power quality problems experienced at the various industrial sites and present some of the significant results of an across Canada questionnaire survey on On-farm Electrical Power Disturbances. The results of these surveys will provide a basis for mitigating actions by the utilities and their rural industrial customers by enhancing their ability to identify the possible origins of power supply disturbances affecting the performance of electronic and electrical equipment at the various farm industrial sites.

  12. Rural Agrobusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treillon, Roland; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

  13. Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special focus" journal issue consists of 13 individual articles on the theme of rural family programs relating to school, health services, church, and other institutions. It includes: (1) "Towards a Rural Family Policy" (Judith K. Chynoweth and Michael D. Campbell); (2) "Montana: Council for Families Collaborates for Prevention (Jean…

  14. 77 FR 54877 - Guaranteed Rural Rental Housing Low Loan-to-Cost Ratio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Rural Housing Service Guaranteed Rural Rental Housing Low Loan-to-Cost Ratio AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Rural Housing Service announces the low loan-to-cost ratio... U.S.C. 1490p-2) and operates under 7 CFR part 3565. The low loan-to- cost ratio is defined at...

  15. Casas Maternas in the Rural Highlands of Guatemala: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of the Introduction and Utilization of Birthing Facilities by an Indigenous Population

    PubMed Central

    Stollak, Ira; Valdez, Mario; Rivas, Karin; Perry, Henry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: An international NGO, with financial and managerial support from “partner” communities, established Casas Maternas (birthing facilities) in 3 municipalities in the isolated northwestern highlands of the department of Huehuetenango in Guatemala—an area with high maternal mortality ratio (338 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births). Traditional birth attendants are encouraged to bring patients for delivery at the Casas Maternas, where trained staff are present and access to referral care is facilitated. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods study in San Sebastian Coatán municipality to assess the contribution of 2 Casas Maternas to health facility deliveries among partner and non-partner communities, with particular emphasis on equity in access. We surveyed all women who delivered in the study area between April 2013 and March 2014, the first full year in which both Casas Maternas in the study area were operating. In addition, using purposive sampling, we conducted in-depth interviews with 22 women who delivered and 6 focus group discussions with 42 community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and Casas Maternas staff members. We analyzed the quantitative data using descriptive statstics and the qualitative data with descriptive content analysis. Results: Of the 321 women eligible for inclusion in the study, we surveyed 275 women (14.3% could not be located or refused to participate). Between April 2013 and March 2014, 70% of women living in partner communities delivered in a health facility (54% in a Casa Materna) compared with 30% of women living in non-partner communities (17% in a Casa Materna). There was no statistically significant difference in uptake of the Casa Materna by maternal education and only a weak effect by household wealth. In contrast, distance from the Casa Materna had a pronounced effect. Traditional birth attendants were strong advocates for utilization of the Casa Materna and played an important role in the

  16. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  17. 7 CFR 1901.260 - Coordination with other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordination with other agencies. 1901.260 Section 1901.260 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Archeological Properties § 1901.260 Coordination with other agencies. (a) When other Agencies are...

  18. Integrating the Arts in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galles, Karen

    1986-01-01

    Describes integrated approach to teaching the arts which can be utilized in single or multi-grade classrooms in rural settings by teachers who may not have a background in any art form. Addresses problems of time, preparation, and resources that hinder curriculum development by rural educators. (NEC)

  19. Distance Education Use in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannum, Wallace H.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Banks, Jonathan B.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    A national survey of rural school systems in the United States was conducted to determine the extent to which distance education is being utilized by rural schools, the technologies used, the curriculum areas impacted, the perceived needs for distance education, their satisfaction with distance education, and the barriers to distance education…

  20. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... providing grants to remedy the dire sanitation conditions in rural Alaskan villages using funds specifically... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section 1780.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES...

  1. 7 CFR 1780.49 - Rural or Native Alaskan villages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... providing grants to remedy the dire sanitation conditions in rural Alaskan villages using funds specifically... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural or Native Alaskan villages. 1780.49 Section 1780.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES...

  2. Rural Improvement Project (RIP). [Summary and Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yvon, Bernard R., Comp.

    The aim of the Rural Improvement Project of Maine from Spring, 1969-Fall, 1970 was to improve the quality of rural education through an innovative attempt to utilize specialized, trained personnel (Cooperating Rural Resource Teachers; associate teachers; teacher aides; 3 undergraduate teachers; and an elementary guidance counselor) and to…

  3. Rural Health Information Hub

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am I Rural? Economic ... toolkits like the Services Integration Toolkit in the Rural Community Health Gateway . Finding Statistics & Data Learn how to ...

  4. SEASONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRAWFORD, PHILIP H.

    RURAL YOUTH ARE BEING UTILIZED IN ONE CALIFORNIA COMMUNITY TO ALLEVIATE A SHORTAGE OF WORKERS FOR SEASONAL FARM JOBS. NINETY FIVE BOYS BETWEEN THE AGES OF SIXTEEN AND TWENTY WERE ENROLLED IN A TWO DAY FAMILIARIZATION AND SAFETY COURSE ON ORCHARD EQUIPMENT. THE SPECIFIC PURPOSE WAS FOR ORIENTATION AND NOT TO PRODUCE EXPERIENCED EQUIPMENT OPERATORS.…

  5. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  6. Rural Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon, Ed.; And Others

    Presented are 10 papers resulting from a workshop, involving representatives from 33 state developmental disabilities councils, designed to examine common problems and issues confronting developmentally disabled citizens in rural areas. Entries include the following titles and authors: "Who, What, and Where--Studying Prevalence of Developmental…

  7. Rural Women's Transitions to Motherhood: Understanding Social Support in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports to…

  8. Research on Employment in the Rural Nonfarm Sector in Africa. African Rural Employment Paper No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedholm, Carl

    Within the context of the role of rural employment in overall economic development, the objectives were to summarize existing knowledge of the rural African nonfarm sector and to develop an analytical framework for examing utilization of labor in this sector, using a descriptive profile, a theoretical model, and a research approach to rural…

  9. The Integration of Education and Social Services in Rural, Small Schools. Rural, Small Schools Network Information Exchange: Number 17, Fall 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast & Islands, Andover, MA.

    This packet includes reprints of journal articles, reports from social service agencies, government agencies, and consulting and educational organizations currently implementing or evaluating interagency collaboration in small, rural schools. The five sections of the packet explain integrated services and the impact on rural schools; issues…

  10. 7 CFR 3560.202 - Establishing rents and utility allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing rents and utility allowances. 3560.202... Establishing rents and utility allowances. (a) General. Rents and utility allowances for rental units in Agency... Agency. (b) Agency approval. All rents and utility allowances set by borrowers are subject to...

  11. Empowered women from rural areas of Bolivia promote community development.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Roxana; Olmedo, Catón; Fernández, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The United States Agency for Development in Bolivia (USAID/Bolivia) created in 2002 PROSALUD- Partners for Development Project (PfD) with the aim of improving the population's well-being. The project used three components: small grant scheme, technical assistance and database system management. Through the small grants scheme, the PfD supported a Community Participation Strategy (CPS) project over a three year period. The project involved the rural areas of six Bolivian departments and suburban areas of three Bolivian cities. The main objective was to increase health service utilization with a particular emphasis on empowerment of women, strengthening of local organizations and increasing the demand for health services. Women from both the urban and rural areas, and from different indigenous groups, were trained in project management, health promotion, reproductive health and family planning, advocacy and community participation. Participatory methodologies have allowed empowering women in decision making and capacity building throughout the entire project process. The experience shows that it is important to work with formally established grass-root community organizations and strengthen leadership within them. Additionally, the sub-projects demonstrated that interventions are more successful when promoters speak and write native languages, women are more motivated and empowered, projects are designed to be responsive to daily necessities identified by the communities and health services are culturally suitable. A preliminary evaluation, in both quantitative and qualitative terms, shows an overall improvement in health knowledge and practice, and utilization of health services.

  12. Rural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of

  13. Computerized Coordinated Service Center: A Comparison of Service Methodologies and Costs in the Urban and Rural Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Risa J.; And Others

    Ten parallel human service agencies (five urban and five rural) were compared to identify variations in the service delivery system and to compare the costs of service provision. The agencies responded to approximately 36 questions covering eight major areas and were compared and contrasted, urban versus rural, according to the type of agency. All…

  14. Rural Prairie Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kari

    "Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is explored, as is…

  15. Rural as Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.; Howley, Aimee A.

    This essay explains two ways in which "the rural" serves as context. The common way interprets the rural lifeworld as an impediment to certain projects and goals, thus framing "the rural" as a subjugated and diminished reality. The other way is called "the rural circumstance" in order to situate the rural lifeworld as a center of attention, not as…

  16. Teaching in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woofter, Thomas Jackson

    Published in 1917, this book overviews rural schooling during the early 1900s and was written to address the problems of rural teaching and to serve as an introductory guide for rural teachers. Specifically, the book aimed to bring attention to the needs of rural life and the possible contributions of the rural school, to describe effective…

  17. Rural Library Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, Bernard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Five articles present an overview of trends and issues affecting rural libraries. The areas discussed include the status of rural library services; outreach programs; the role of library cooperation in the support of rural library service; the development of rural information centers; and political marketing of the rural library. (CLB)

  18. 76 FR 6762 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Rural Utilities Service Publication of Depreciation Rates AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service (RUS), an agency of the United States Department of..., Deputy Assistant Administrator, Telecommunications Program, Rural Utilities Service, STOP 1590--Room...

  19. 76 FR 37280 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... the Second Report and Order, 70 FR 6365, February 7, 2005. The Commission sought written public... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...) adopts an interim rule permitting health care providers that are located in a ``rural area'' under...

  20. 77 FR 42185 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... responding to the Bridge Public Notice, 77 FR 14364, March 9, 2012, supports the provision of ``bridge... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... support on a limited, interim, fiscally responsible basis for specific Rural Health Care Pilot...

  1. Signs of Progress: A Report on Rural America's Revitalization Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This report outlines the major rural development programs and initiatives of the Department of Agriculture and other federal agencies. Diverse economic realities make necessary differential rural development policies and programs. The federal budget deficit makes it necessary that the government use creative and efficient management techniques to…

  2. A Competency-Based University/School Rural Teacher Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muse, Ivan D.

    This paper describes the Competency-Based University/School Rural Teacher Education program designed to produce teachers trained for rural situations and to provide experience in the process of university/school district/educational agency cooperative training activities. Data collected during 1972-73 regarding rural living and educational…

  3. 77 FR 36001 - Draft Report Assessing Rural Water Activities and Related Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Report Assessing Rural Water Activities and Related Programs AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The draft Rural Water Assessment Report reviews the status of the Bureau of Reclamation's rural potable water projects and its plan...

  4. Rural Development: Patchwork of Federal Programs Needs To Be Reappraised. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    This report identifies factors that influence a rural area's economic success or failure, and evaluates whether federal programs efficiently address rural economic problems. Data collection included a review of federal programs that provide funding to rural areas, and interviews with federal and state agency officials involved with rural…

  5. Defining "Rural" Areas: Impact on Health Care Policy and Research. Staff Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Maria

    The 'rural' definitions applied by the Federal Government, especially by two data-gathering agencies, the Bureau of the Census and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), emphasize different dimensions of the concept, and delineate the rural-urban continuum in different ways. This report discusses the inconsistency of curent "rural" definitions…

  6. Plan of Work for Rural Development in North Carolina, July 1, 1975 - June 30, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, George, Jr.; And Others

    Serving primarily as a policy group for local Rural Development Panels, the North Carolina Rural Development Committee's major objective for 1976 is to work with local leaders, private businesses and governmental agencies at all levels in planning and implementing comprehensive rural development programs. Specifically, the Committee's objectives…

  7. 75 FR 4098 - Utility Allowance Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Utility Allowance Adjustments AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... are required to advise the Secretary of the need for and request of a new utility allowance for... whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate...

  8. Rural Wellness and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Websites & Tools Funding & Opportunities News Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  9. Medicaid and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Websites & Tools Funding & Opportunities News Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  10. Medicare and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... in rural areas. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) – CMMI, also known as the CMS Innovation ...

  11. Rural Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Tools Maps Funding & Opportunities News Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  12. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Equity Conference recap SRHA Leadership Conference Rural Hospital Innovation Summit NRHA HIT webinars & resources Webinars Publications & News ... San Diego, CA May 9-12 Rural Hospital Innovation Summit San Diego, CA May 9 Rural Medical ...

  13. Telecommunications technology and rural education in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrine, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The rural sector of the US is examined from the point of view of whether telecommunications technology can augment the development of rural education. Migratory farm workers and American Indians were the target groups which were examined as examples of groups with special needs in rural areas. The general rural population and the target groups were examined to identify problems and to ascertain specific educational needs. Educational projects utilizing telecommunications technology in target group settings were discussed. Large scale regional ATS-6 satellite-based experimental educational telecommunications projects were described. Costs and organizational factors were also examined for large scale rural telecommunications projects.

  14. Reaching Rural Women: Case Studies and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colle, Royal D.; Fernandez de Colle, Susana

    Although not often considered in the past by planners because their economic contributions are not performed for money, rural women are contributors to the development of their countries. The urgency of reaching women with important information to break the cycle of poverty is now being recognized by the major development agencies. While there are…

  15. Regional, Rural Home ABE Program Spells Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, Claude

    Maine's State Division of Adult Education began setting up a regionalized Adult Basic Education (ABE) program in rural Franklin county in 1974 to serve the area's functional illiterates. Located in the building housing the Franklin County Community Action Program (CAP), linkages were developed with a large number of agencies; initially the 10 CAP…

  16. 75 FR 30113 - Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... located in a rural area. In addition, the phrase ``business financing'' was replaced with ``business... section, including the date when the Agency will calculate and amortize the microlender's debt after the... proposed rule was published in the Federal Register on October 7, 2009 (74 FR 51713), with a 45-day...

  17. Washington State Annual Rural Manpower Report, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Dept. of Employment Security, Olympia.

    The report contains information on significant developments in the 1971 Washington State Farm Labor and Rural Manpower Program. Part I, the Annual Summary, recommends that state agencies should devote more effort to the Annual Worker Plan and that farm placement personnel should try to advise persons who have job commitments of any delays in the…

  18. Rural and Rural Farm Population: 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1989

    1989-01-01

    An estimated 64,798,000 persons, or 25% of the population of the United States, lived in rural areas in 1988. Rural areas include open countryside and places with fewer than 2,500 inhabitants not in the suburbs of large cities. This report presents demographic data on the rural population, pointing out that comparison with 1987 data suggests a…

  19. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: residential photovoltaics- the New England experience builds confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station- evaluating the breakeven costs; residential photovoltaics- the lessons learned; photovoltaics for electric utility use; least-cost planning- the environmental link; photovoltaics in the distribution system; photovoltaic systems for the rural consumer; the issues of utility-intertied photovoltaics; and photovoltaics for large-scale use- costs ready to drop again.

  20. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  1. 7 CFR 1780.90 - Multiple advances of Agency funds using temporary debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Information Pertaining to Preparation of Notes or Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public...

  2. 7 CFR 1780.90 - Multiple advances of Agency funds using temporary debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Information Pertaining to Preparation of Notes or Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public...

  3. 7 CFR 1780.90 - Multiple advances of Agency funds using temporary debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Information Pertaining to Preparation of Notes or Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public...

  4. 7 CFR 1780.89 - Multiple advances of Agency funds using permanent instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Information Pertaining to Preparation of Notes or Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public...

  5. 7 CFR 1780.90 - Multiple advances of Agency funds using temporary debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Information Pertaining to Preparation of Notes or Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public...

  6. 7 CFR 1780.89 - Multiple advances of Agency funds using permanent instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Information Pertaining to Preparation of Notes or Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public...

  7. 7 CFR 1780.89 - Multiple advances of Agency funds using permanent instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Information Pertaining to Preparation of Notes or Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public...

  8. 7 CFR 1780.89 - Multiple advances of Agency funds using permanent instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Information Pertaining to Preparation of Notes or Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public...

  9. 7 CFR 1780.89 - Multiple advances of Agency funds using permanent instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Information Pertaining to Preparation of Notes or Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public...

  10. Rural-Urban Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

  11. What Is Rural? Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  12. Rural Economies and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Dennis

    Both the rural economy and the disability community in rural areas can benefit from a recognition that they are mutually dependent. With the decline of rural America, the economic base underpinning all aspects of disability support systems is weakening. In addition, rural disability services often are compartmentalized along functional lines with…

  13. Adjustments in Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Howard A., Ed.

    This 1937 compilation of articles covers a wide range of problems within the scope of rural public education. The rural education issues discussed fall under the following general headings: (1) professional leadership; (2) rural school supervision; (3) staff training; (4) rural school district organization; (5) physical plants and equipment; and…

  14. Rural Cherokee Children with Disabilities: Parental Stories of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jandura, Collette

    2013-01-01

    Parents of Cherokee children with disabilities encounter educational agencies from their child's birth to adulthood. Living rurally within the Cherokee Nation's jurisdictional boundaries, these indigenous families engage with a myriad of special education agencies and subsequent policies. This qualitative study explores parental…

  15. 41 CFR 102-79.60 - Are agencies required to use historic properties available to the agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use historic properties available to the agency? 102-79.60 Section 102-79.60 Public Contracts and... Utilization of Space § 102-79.60 Are agencies required to use historic properties available to the agency? Yes, Federal agencies must assume responsibility for the preservation of the historic properties they own...

  16. Rural experiences.

    PubMed

    Mazibuko, R; Mckenzie, A; Schneider, H

    1989-01-01

    Primary health care nurses (PHCNs) in South Africa must complete a 1 year training program. After this training, they provide health care in clinics or a hospital outpatient department. Working conditions in the clinics, particularly rural clinics, are less than optimal. There are either not enough buildings and/or existing structures are deteriorating. Further the clinics often lack drugs and supplies. Moreover poorly trained staff work long hours because there are not enough well trained staff. In addition, the PHCNs and their places of employment are often in remote areas where communication and referral systems are poor. This results in gradual deterioration of the PHCNs' skills. To be perceived as clinically competent, PHCNs need to provide quality curative care which, once perceived as competent, will allow them to provide primary health care. Clinic managers must support pHCNs by allowing them time to take part in continued learning activities such as an apprenticeship system or inservice training aided by local physicians. Clients or colleagues tend to see PHCNs either as miniphysicians or as a threat to physicians. Yet, since they operate clinics as well as provide comprehensive care, their skills are not as narrow as those of miniphysicians. Further few physicians wish to provide care in clinics or rural areas. Besides regulations do not allow the territory of physicians to be invaded. On the other hand, some physicians even consult PHCNs which sometimes distances them from other nurses. Thus it is important for PHCNs not to develop an attitude that they are better than nurses. At the same time, health workers need to recognize the skills of PHCNs and promote them. In fact, their value is indeed being recognized as evidenced by the increase in PHCN training schools. Eventually, as their numbers grow, PHCNs will be able to control their future.

  17. New light on rural electrification: the evidence from Bolivia

    SciTech Connect

    Tendler, J.

    1980-09-01

    In 1973-74, A.I.D. financed a project to expand existing municipal electrical systems in Bolivia to seven outlying rural areas with the aim of servicing an additional 81,000 rural customers within 10 years. This report evaluates the project's impact on the rural poor in terms of three project objectives: improving the quality of life; stimulating economic production; and creating viable electric utilities.

  18. Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Matthew James

    Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi

  19. 41 CFR 102-33.440 - Who must report CAS cost and utilization data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (cas) Cost and Utilization Data § 102-33.440 Who must report CAS cost and utilization data? Executive agencies, except the Armed Forces and U.S. intelligence agencies, must report CAS cost and utilization...

  20. Recouple: Natural Resource Strategies for Rural Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret G.

    This source book provides guidance and technical assistance material on utilizing forest, agricultural, and scenic and wildlife resources for rural economic development. The document focuses on the uniqueness of existing rural resources for new enterprise opportunities. Natural resource-based economic development strategies are a means to…

  1. The Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project: A Canadian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, E. Weldon; And Others

    The University of Guelph Rural Development Outreach Project (RDOP) as it was conceived, organized and utilized in rural communities in Ontario is the major focus of this document; the concluding sections describe some of the problems of Outreach implementation and suggest some possible courses for continuing and expanding the project. There is…

  2. Telecommunications Technology and Rural Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrine, Jay R.

    The potential of telecommunications technology as an aid to rural education in the U.S. was examined. Information derived from relevant literature, telecommunications project reports, census and demographic data, educational statistics, and field data were utilized to examine the general situation in rural America and the 2 target groups of…

  3. Validation of a Screening Measure in a Rural Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illback, Robert; And Others

    Early identification of children at risk for various forms of school maladaptation is critical in rural schools, where services and resources are typically limited. The present study assesses the psychometric characteristics and utility of the AML, a teacher rating scale employed in a rural region. The 11-item teacher scale yields 4 scores:…

  4. 78 FR 38006 - Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA... State Office no later than 4:30 p.m. (local time) on the last business day of each month will...

  5. Headed for rural practice.

    PubMed

    Homan, C

    1994-07-01

    Too often, training programs can overlook the needs and ignore the perspectives of their trainees. In this paper, Dr Chris Homan provides a personal view on the issues facing young graduates considering a career in rural practice. Chris is a senior rural trainee based at the Rural Training Unit in Toowoomba, Queensland. He is the trainee representative to the Board of the Faculty of Rural Medicine, as well as the founding Co-Chairperson of the Australian Rural Doctor Trainees Association. This grass roots, sociopolitical association aims to optimise training for rural practice. PMID:8060286

  6. Art Education and Rural Schools: Reflections from the Field. Country Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Frances E.

    1997-01-01

    An art education teacher-educator discusses the strengths and potential of rural education, arising from the sense of community found in small rural schools. Gives six suggestions to art teacher-educators concerning integrating art with other curricula, utilizing technology in art education, ensuring that rural students are afforded equal…

  7. Mortality and Revascularization following Admission for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Implication for Rural Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Thad E.; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kaboli, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Annually, over 3,000 rural veterans are admitted to Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet no studies of AMI have utilized the VA rural definition. Methods: This retrospective cohort study identified 15,870 patients admitted for AMI to all VA hospitals. Rural residence was identified…

  8. Receipt of Cancer Screening Services: Surprising Results for Some Rural Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kevin J.; Probst, Janice C.; Bellinger, Jessica D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that rural minority populations experience disparities in cancer screening, treatment, and outcomes. It is unknown how race/ethnicity and rurality intersect in these disparities. The purpose of this analysis is to examine the cancer screening rates among minorities in rural areas. Methods: We utilized the 2008…

  9. Federal Funding Sources for Rural Areas. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 49. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

    This document lists 248 federal funding programs available to rural areas. The programs were selected from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, 1995, which is available online from the Federal Assistance Programs Retrieval System (FAPRS). Entries are listed under the following federal departments or agencies: Department of Agriculture,…

  10. Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.

    Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

  11. Simon: Simulating Problems of Rural Community Development in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. David

    1980-01-01

    Describes a problem-solving instructional unit which utilizes a simulation gaming method to help students in an introductory college-level geography course understand rural community development in a developing nation. (DB)

  12. A Rural Taxonomy of Population and Health-Resource Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xi; Mueller, Keith J; Vaughn, Thomas; Ullrich, Fred

    2015-03-01

    This policy brief reports the newly developed taxonomy of rural places based on relevant population and health-resource characteristics; and discusses how this classification tool can be utilized by policy makers and rural communities. Key Findings. (1) We classified 10 distinct types of rural places based on characteristics related to both demand (population) and supply (health resources) sides of the health services market. (2) In descending order, the most significant dimensions in our classification were facility resources, provider resources, economic resources, and age distribution. (3) Each type of rural place was distinct from other types of places based on one or two defining dimensions.

  13. Labview utilities

    2011-09-30

    The software package provides several utilities written in LabView. These utilities don't form independent programs, but rather can be used as a library or controls in other labview programs. The utilities include several new controls (xcontrols), VIs for input and output routines, as well as other 'helper'-functions not provided in the standard LabView environment.

  14. Rural Youths' Images of the Rural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Following the cultural turn within the social sciences, recent debates on how to conceptualise "the rural" have focused on "rurality" as a phenomenon produced by processes of social construction. This paper presents an empirical account of the outcome of these social construction processes through an analysis of how teenagers in a remote rural…

  15. ANIMATION RURALE: Education for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Jeanne Marie

    Information gathered via literature review, interview, and personal observation was used to examine the effectiveness of animation rurale programs in Senegal and Niger, French West Africa. Identifiable animation rurale assumptions tested as applicable to Senegal and Niger were: nationwide development programs at the grass roots level can be…

  16. Uninsured Rural Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, Erika C.; Coburn, Andrew F.; Anderson, Nathaniel J.; Loux, Stephenie L.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Although research shows higher uninsured rates among rural versus urban individuals, prior studies are limited because they do not examine coverage across entire rural families. Purpose: This study uses the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to compare rural and urban insurance coverage within families, to inform the design of…

  17. Think Rural Means Isolated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    The benefits of distance education have made converts out of many rural school administrators. Through communication satellites, schools can gain access to the most advanced courses for students and staff while maintaining their rural characteristics and personal touch. Sidebars present a glossary and one rural New York school's experience with…

  18. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  19. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  20. Reaching Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on programming undertaken to address the health and educational needs of rural families in developing and developed nations. After examining the nature of rural families and rural poverty, the newsletter discusses: (1) the Mon Women's Organization in Thailand; (2) The "Contact With Kids" parent education project in…

  1. Rural volunteer ombudsman programs.

    PubMed

    Netting, E F; Hinds, H N

    1989-12-01

    We examine benefits and difficulties surrounding the effective implementation of a long-term care volunteer ombudsman program in a rural setting. Discussion focuses on the uniqueness of each rural community and potential strategies that can be mixed and matched to meet individual community needs. We consider implications for the development and implementation of ombudsman programs in rural areas.

  2. Thermal Standard for Small Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg (J.S.) Consulting Engineering, Fairbanks, AK.

    The Standard's purpose is to provide design requirements that will improve energy utilization in new State of Alaska owned rural educational facilities ranging in size from 7,000 to 12,000 square feet. The Standard covers exterior envelopes and selection of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, service water systems, energy…

  3. 78 FR 25252 - Information Collection Activity; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Rural Utilities Service Information Collection Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service... of 1995, the Rural Utilities Service (RUS) invites comments on this information collection for which... Development and Regulatory Analysis, Rural Utilities Service, 1400 Independence Avenue SW., STOP 1522,...

  4. 75 FR 16067 - Information Collection Activity; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Rural Utilities Service Information Collection Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service (RUS), in.... Department of Agriculture, Rural Utilities Service, 1400 Independence Ave., SW., STOP 1522, Room 5162,...

  5. 75 FR 30061 - Office of Community Oriented Policing Services; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... collection; comments requested ACTION: 30 Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: COPS' Rural Law... Policing Services (COPS) has submitted the following information collection request to the Office of... the Form/Collection: COPS' Rural Law Enforcement National Training Assessment. (3) Agency form...

  6. Competition between small business and rural electic and telephone cooperatives in nonutility business. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The study concludes that while the diversification into nonutility activities by the Rural Electric Cooperatives and the Rural Telephone Cooperatives has been expanding, the regulatory activities by the Rural Electrification Administration and the state public utility commissions have been inadequate to guard against cross-subsidization. In fact, there generally exist no data to identify and investigate illegal cross-subsidization activities of cooperatives. Increasing the regulatory functions of state public utility commissions and the REA was recommended.

  7. Financing rural health and medical services.

    PubMed

    Straub, L A

    1990-10-01

    The provision and utilization of health care services in rural areas are tied directly to the structure of financing. The model of rural health care shaped by federal policies over three decades was significantly altered by changes during the 1980s. With reactions of third-party payers to health care costs rising faster than inflation, the difficulty of accommodating access to care and cost efficiency in provision became evident. This review begins with the literature on patient services and capital financing of rural hospitals, then continues with the financing of clinics, community centers, and other supply forms. Research during the 1980s provides insight into the effects of various financing policies on the supply of services. The demand for health care in rural areas is characterized by less generous third-party coverage, leaving residents paying a larger share of their incomes for care than do urban residents. As a consequence, access to care is especially difficult for low-income and elderly people, heavily dependent upon government financing. Third-party payers have severely reduced cost shifting as a mechanism for taking care of the health care needs of a sizable share of the population, thereby placing providers in an uncomfortable position. Several potential and more formalized financing options for replacing cost shifting are discussed. Several important changes will take place with rural-focused legislation enacted in the late 1980s. These are used to present a rural financing research agenda for the 1990s.

  8. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  9. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  10. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  11. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  12. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  13. Quality-of-care challenges for rural health.

    PubMed

    Moscovice, I; Rosenblatt, R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the issue of quality of care in rural America and to help others examine this issue in a way that is consistent with the very real challenges faced by rural communities in ensuring the availability of adequate health services. Rural citizens have a right to expect that their local health care meets certain basic standards. Unless rural providers can document that the quality of local health care meets objective external standards, third-party payers might refuse to contract with rural providers, and increasingly sophisticated consumers might leave their communities for basic medical care services. To improve the measurement of health care quality in a rural setting, a number of issues specific to the rural environment must be addressed, including small sample sizes (volume and outcome issues), limited data availability, the ability to define rural health service areas, rural population preferences and the lower priority of formal quality-of-care assessment in shortage areas. Several current health policy initiatives have substantial implications for monitoring and measuring the quality of rural health services. For example, to receive community acceptance and achieve fiscal stability, critical access hospitals (CAHs) must be able to document that the care they provide is at least comparable to that of their predecessor institutions. The expectations for quality assurance activities in CAHs should consider their limited institutional resources and community preferences. As managed care extends from urban areas, there will be an inevitable collision between the ability to provide care and the ability to measure quality. As desirable as it might be to have a national standard for health care quality, this is not an attainable goal. The spectrum and content of rural health care are different from the spectrum and content of care provided in large cities. Accrediting agencies, third-party carriers and health insurance purchasers

  14. Joining Rural Development Theory and Rural Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…

  15. 7 CFR 25.101 - Data utilized for eligibility determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Data utilized for eligibility determinations. 25.101 Section 25.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE... statistics on boundaries. The boundary of a rural area nominated for designation as an Empowerment Zone...

  16. 7 CFR 25.101 - Data utilized for eligibility determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Data utilized for eligibility determinations. 25.101 Section 25.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE... statistics on boundaries. The boundary of a rural area nominated for designation as an Empowerment Zone...

  17. 7 CFR 25.101 - Data utilized for eligibility determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data utilized for eligibility determinations. 25.101 Section 25.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE... statistics on boundaries. The boundary of a rural area nominated for designation as an Empowerment Zone...

  18. 7 CFR 25.101 - Data utilized for eligibility determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Data utilized for eligibility determinations. 25.101 Section 25.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE... statistics on boundaries. The boundary of a rural area nominated for designation as an Empowerment Zone...

  19. 7 CFR 25.101 - Data utilized for eligibility determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Data utilized for eligibility determinations. 25.101 Section 25.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE... statistics on boundaries. The boundary of a rural area nominated for designation as an Empowerment Zone...

  20. 41 CFR 102-79.60 - Are agencies required to use historic properties available to the agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are agencies required to use historic properties available to the agency? 102-79.60 Section 102-79.60 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 79-ASSIGNMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SPACE Assignment and Utilization of...

  1. 41 CFR 102-79.60 - Are agencies required to use historic properties available to the agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are agencies required to use historic properties available to the agency? 102-79.60 Section 102-79.60 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 79-ASSIGNMENT AND UTILIZATION OF SPACE Assignment and Utilization of...

  2. A telecommunications journey rural health network.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing a multi-gigabit statewide fiber healthcare network, Radiology Consultants of Iowa (RCI) set out to provide instantaneous service to their rural, critical access, hospital partners. RCIs idea was to assemble a collection of technologies and services that would even out workflow, reduce time on the road, and provide superior service. These technologies included PACS, voice recognition enabled dictation, HL7 interface technology, an imaging system for digitizing paper and prior films, and modern communication networks. The Iowa Rural Health Telecommunication Project was undertaken to form a system that all critical access hospitals would participate in, allowing RCI radiologists the efficiency of "any image, anywhere, anytime".

  3. 77 FR 29320 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC). ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: On February 21, 2012,...

  4. 77 FR 9905 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with...

  5. 76 FR 32989 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  6. 76 FR 51435 - Request for Certification of Compliance; Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance; Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  7. 78 FR 37583 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  8. 75 FR 70950 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  9. 75 FR 453 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  10. 77 FR 1955 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  11. 77 FR 31647 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  12. 75 FR 54655 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  13. 75 FR 50006 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  14. 75 FR 43207 - Request for Certification of Compliance -Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance --Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  15. 75 FR 50007 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  16. 77 FR 39517 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  17. 77 FR 27798 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  18. 77 FR 22612 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  19. 77 FR 27797 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Request for Certification of Compliance--Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  20. Rural Stress: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas D.; McIntire, Walter G.

    A comparison between the common myths of "rural existence" and the documented realities of rural living explodes the myth that rural living is generally stress free, shows that life stress in rural settings can have deleterious effects on the function of individual and family, and provides a basis for exploring some implications of rural stress…

  1. Office of Rural Health Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... focusing on the impact regulations may have on rural communities.   Rural Hospital Programs More information on FORHP Rural ... Grant and Small Rural Hospital Transitions Project (SRHT).   Rural Community Programs More information on FORHP programs focused on ...

  2. 7 CFR 1780.62 - Utility purchase contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utility purchase contracts. 1780.62 Section 1780.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Constructing and Inspections § 1780.62 Utility purchase contracts. Applicants proposing to purchase water...

  3. Community Partnerships, Food Pantries, and an Evidence-Based Intervention to Increase Mammography among Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencivenga, Marcyann; DeRubis, Susan; Leach, Patricia; Lotito, Lisa; Shoemaker, Charles; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Multiple national agencies and organizations recommend that women age 40 years and older have an annual screening mammogram. Women who are poor, less educated, lack a usual source of care, and reside in rural Appalachia are less likely to have had a recent mammogram. Purpose: To increase use of mammography among a rural Appalachian…

  4. Becoming a Migrant: Aspirations of Youths during Their Transition to Adulthood in Rural Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This article explores young people's transitions to adulthood in a rural community in Mexico. The focus is on participants' migration experiences and the premise is that migration can be understood as an alternative way of inclusion found by the rural youth which is strongly determined by individuals' agency. The article explores the role played…

  5. The Sourcebook: A Directory of Resources for Small and Rural School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Gail

    A 1983 directory of resources for small and rural school districts lists resources for improving schools, national resources, foundations as funding sources, and state educational agency staff who can assist rural schools with information and technical assistance requests. The first section describes school improvement resources/projects by…

  6. 76 FR 17106 - Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Forest Service Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, U.S... the Secure Rural Schools Act and Community Self-Determination Act, Public Law 110-343. SUMMARY: On... Schools Resource Advisory Committee (RAC). The public is invited to attend the meeting and provide...

  7. National Rural Manpower Conference: Summary of Proceedings (Atlanta, Georgia, January 18-20, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    An annual event since 1951, this conference was held to: (1) review the previous year's activities of the Rural Manpower Service and its cooperating agencies; (2) discuss plans for the new year; and (3) study the problems of rural areas. Most of the 250 persons attending the 3-day conference were officials of the Manpower Administration and its…

  8. Utilization of hospital resources.

    PubMed

    Black, C D; Roos, N P; Burchill, C A

    1995-12-01

    A population-based approach was used to analyze the utilization patterns of hospital care by Manitoba residents during the fiscal year 1991/1992. Patterns were analyzed for eight administrative regions, with use assigned to the patient's region of residence, regardless of the location of the hospitalization. Regional boundaries consistent with those used for presentation of data on health status and socioeconomic risk permitted integration of findings across the Population Health Information System. Marked differences in acute hospital use were found. Residents of the urban Winnipeg ("good health") region had the lowest rates of use of acute care overall, and northern rural ("poor health") regions had significantly higher rates of use. However, almost one half of hospital days by Winnipeg residents were used in long-stay care (60+ days), while rural residents were more likely to use short-stay hospital care. Despite a concentration of surgical specialists in Winnipeg, there were only small regional differences in overall rates of surgery. PMID:7500670

  9. 76 FR 5755 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Patient Notification of Right To Access State Survey Agencies and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Hospitals (CAHs). Clinics and Rehabilitation Agencies. Portable X-Ray Services. Rural Health Clinics (RHCs...) Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs); (8) Clinics and Rehabilitation Agencies; (9) Portable X-ray Services; and... and suppliers: Hospices, Hospitals, CORFs, CAHs, Clinics and Rehabilitation Agencies, Portable...

  10. What Is Rural?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Nutrition Marketing and Trade Natural Resources and Environment Plants and Crops Research and Technology Rural Development Visual Arts and Agricultural History Publications Alternative Farming ...

  11. Implications of U.S. health care reform for the rural elderly.

    PubMed

    Vrabec, N J

    1995-01-01

    Health care services for elders living in rural areas have been limited by inadequate financing, lack of awareness of existing services, insufficient numbers of providers, and geographic dispersion of rural residents. Not all proposals for health care reform would help reduce these barriers, however. Nurses working in rural areas can facilitate the evolution of the health care system in several ways. A primary mechanism is the development and implementation of nurse-managed centers, networking with existing agencies and services to provide outreach programs to the underserved rural elders. Another mechanism is participation in professional organizations that lobby for rural health concerns. A third strategy is participation in program evaluation and intervention studies with policy-relevant implications. It is an exciting era for nurses involved in rural health and an opportune time to promote effective health care for older adults who live in rural areas.

  12. Educadores Polivalentes: Alternativa Educativa para Comunidades Rurales (Effective Educators: Alternative Education for Rural Communities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godoy, Rodrigo Vera

    The document provides educators with data and information regarding the utilization of alternative educational processes in Latin American rural communities. Many communities exist at social and economic poverty levels and are isolated from urban centers. Documents compiled for use at alternative education conferences, held in Paipa, Colombia in…

  13. Availability and accessibility of rural health care.

    PubMed

    Hicks, L L

    1990-10-01

    The 1980s saw a retrenchment of the ideology that government intervention could solve the problems of inadequate access to health services in rural areas. Increased emphasis was placed on an ideology that promoted deregulation and competitive market solutions. During the 1980s, the gap in the availability of physicians in metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan areas widened. Also during that time period, the gap between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan populations' utilization of physician services widened. In addition, many indicators of the health status of nonmetropolitan residents versus metropolitan residents worsened during the 1980s. As we enter the 1990s, concern about equitable access to needed health care services and for the vulnerability and fragility of rural health systems has resurfaced. A number of national policies and a research agenda to improve accessibility and availability of health services in rural areas are being considered.

  14. Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jucht, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing data are vital to understanding the physical world and to answering many of its needs and problems. The United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Remote Sensing Technologies (RST) Project, working with its partners, is proud to sponsor the annual Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) Workshop to help understand the quality and usefulness of remote sensing data. The JACIE program was formed in 2001 to leverage U.S. Federal agency resources for the characterization of commercial remote sensing data. These agencies sponsor and co-chair JACIE: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) JACIE is an effort to coordinate data assessments between the participating agencies and partners and communicate the knowledge and results of the quality and utility of the remotely sensed data available for government and private use.

  15. Accounting for Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    Children are increasingly described as agents and agency is important to arguments for children's rights and participation. Yet agency is rarely defined or theorised in childhood studies. This article reviews common uses and meanings of agency and argues that critical, social conceptualisations have yet to be extensively taken up in childhood…

  16. Challenges of Recruitment and Retention in Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Collins, Chris

    2016-01-01

    There have long been rural health care workforce shortages; however, the urgency to find real solutions has increased with the changing health care landscape. The evidence makes a compelling case to be intentional in the candidates we support and to align educational resources across multiple systems. Programs need to continually evolve, utilizing workforce data, best practices, and new technological advances. This leads the Office of Rural Health (ORH) to secure funding for therapists practicing in integrated settings and to expand loan repayment to general surgeons and providers creating access through telehealth. While access is ORH's core mission, North Carolina's rural health plan reframed the discussion around creating healthy rural communities. This will require further refinement of the critical workforce definition, and it brings to the forefront the fact that a variety of new partnerships will be key to achieving the objective of healthy rural communities. PMID:26961829

  17. 40 CFR 36.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 36.645 Section 36.645 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department,...

  18. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP)

    Cancer.gov

    The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is a family of health care databases and related software tools and products developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  19. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  20. Rural Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This special issue of the journal Exceptional Children has the theme "Rural Special Education." Nine articles deal with this theme as follows: (1) "The State of the Art of Rural Special Education" (by D. Helge), looks at recent improvements, remaining challenges, and current functioning; policy recommendations are offered for national and state…

  1. Rural Libraries in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Brent, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue includes 13 articles that discuss rural library concerns in Illinois. Topics addressed include strengthening library services; rural trends and their impact on libraries; partnerships; Cooperative Extension Service revitalization; financing; economic development; resource sharing in school libraries; and public libraries and user…

  2. Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the two issues of "Rural Mathematics Educator" published in 2002. This newsletter of the Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment, and Instruction in Mathematics (ACCLAIM) includes articles on rural mathematics education, as well as information and descriptions of professional development opportunities for…

  3. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  4. Rural Road Warriors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    Presents a profile of bookmobiles in rural areas, based on data from four national surveys conducted by the Center for the Study of Rural Librarianship between 1985 and 1987. Topics covered include equipment and related problems, collections, services, stop locations, and staff. The need for more research on the bookmobile's function is indicated.…

  5. Rural Revitalization through Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Charles

    In recent years, service programs targeted for Georgia's rural communities have decreased proportionately in relation to those intended for the state's rapidly expanding population centers. At the same time, erosion of traditional manufacturing industries and an adverse agricultural economy have decreased the ability of rural communities to…

  6. Unique Rural District Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2009-01-01

    The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…

  7. Rural Development Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, David W., Ed.; Reid, J. Norman, Ed.

    This book seeks to provide a basis for reexamining rural development policy by presenting comprehensive and current information on the effectiveness of various rural policy approaches. An introduction that defines development terminology and discusses changing policy needs is followed by 13 chapters that represent the best recent research…

  8. Supporting Rural Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Doris Terry

    2012-01-01

    While city educators and "country" educators might argue whose hardships are greater, rural school leaders unquestionably recognize that their greatest challenge today is building, sustaining, and supporting a teacher corps so that schools can operate at high levels. Inattention to rural teachers' concerns in education reform arenas exacerbates…

  9. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  10. 24 CFR 1710.211 - Utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Utilities. (a) Water. (1) State the estimated cost to the developer of the central water system. (2) If... regulated by a governmental agency but which is not affiliated with or under the control of the developer... governmental agency, by the developer or by an entity which is affiliated with or controlled by the...

  11. 24 CFR 1710.211 - Utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Utilities. (a) Water. (1) State the estimated cost to the developer of the central water system. (2) If... regulated by a governmental agency but which is not affiliated with or under the control of the developer... governmental agency, by the developer or by an entity which is affiliated with or controlled by the...

  12. 24 CFR 1710.211 - Utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Utilities. (a) Water. (1) State the estimated cost to the developer of the central water system. (2) If... regulated by a governmental agency but which is not affiliated with or under the control of the developer... governmental agency, by the developer or by an entity which is affiliated with or controlled by the...

  13. 24 CFR 1710.211 - Utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Utilities. (a) Water. (1) State the estimated cost to the developer of the central water system. (2) If... regulated by a governmental agency but which is not affiliated with or under the control of the developer... governmental agency, by the developer or by an entity which is affiliated with or controlled by the...

  14. 7 CFR 2.49 - Administrator, Rural Housing Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... General and the Comptroller General (4 CFR chapter II), with respect to claims of the Rural Housing..., exercise the functions delegated to the Secretary by Executive Order 12580, 3 CFR, 1987 Comp., p. 193... Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, to enter into an inter-agency agreement with the...

  15. 76 FR 37307 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998. Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the... providers. In the Second Report and Order, 70 FR 6365, February 7, 2005, the Commission grandfathered these... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal Communications...

  16. 78 FR 38606 - Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... published at 78 FR 13936, March 1, 2013, are effective June 27, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mark... Contact Form, 77 FR 42728, July 20, 2012. The OMB Control Number is 3060-0824. The Commission publishes... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Rural Health Care Support Mechanism AGENCY: Federal Communications...

  17. 78 FR 8353 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... referred to as the Agency, is adopting as final, with change, an interim rule (published at 76 FR 13770 on... jobs, from call centers to software development, but does not guarantee that rural communities will get... related notice entitled, ``Department Programs and Activities Excluded from Executive Order 12372'' (50...

  18. Decentralizing Education in Rural Alaska Highlights Needed Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Kathryn A.

    In July, 1976, Alaska's 21 Regional Educational Attendance Areas (REAAs) came into being; these REAAs provide elementary and secondary education in a huge geographical area for approximately 11,000 pupils, 70% of whom are Native. Prior to 1976 education for these rural areas was controlled centrally by a distant state agency. Beginning in 1975,…

  19. The Yellow Pages for Rural Development in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Ricardo, Comp.

    Designed to inform the public of rural development programs and services in the State of New Mexico, this directory presents over 100 program summaries, providing mailing addresses and telephone numbers and naming the agency, the specific program thrust, the Officer in Charge, and other contacts. Both an alphabetical and functional index are…

  20. Inequity of Human Services: The Rural Tennessee Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Univ., Nashville.

    Davidson, Williamson, Rutherford, and Cheatham counties of Tennessee were the setting for a study that sought to determine the types of health and social services provided to residents of rural areas and to assess the present status of the service delivery system. Interviews with both agency representatives and randomly selected household…

  1. Alcohol and Other Drug Resistance Strategies Employed by Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to identify how rural adolescents make health decisions and utilize communication strategies to resist influence attempts in offers of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 113 adolescents from rural school districts to solicit information on ATOD norms, past ATOD experiences, and substance offer-response episodes. Rural youths’ resistance strategies were similar to previous findings with urban adolescents – refuse, explain, avoid, and leave (the REAL typology) – while unique features of these strategies were identified including the importance of personal narratives, the articulation of a non-user identity, and being “accountable” to self and others. PMID:21552345

  2. Rurality Research and Rural Education: Exploratory and Explanatory Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfour, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents analysed data from the first year of the Rural Teacher Education Project (RTEP 2007-2009) with a view to illustrating how a generative theory of rurality as education research was developed, and for which ends it might be utilised. The article suggests that data from projects in rural communities, which take the rural as…

  3. Reconnecting Rural America. Report on Rural Intercity Passenger Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.

    This report summarizes the results of three regional symposia held during 1987-88 to gather grassroots information about rural passenger transportation needs across the country. The first section describes the structural transformation of rural America in the 1980s: (1) the rural economy; (2) rural population trends; (3) impact of information…

  4. 75 FR 6339 - California Public Utilities Commission Petition for Rulemaking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 4 California Public Utilities Commission Petition for Rulemaking AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Petition for rulemaking. SUMMARY: The California Public Utilities...

  5. Summer programming in rural communities: unique challenges.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ruthellen; Harper, Stacey; Gamble, Susan

    2007-01-01

    During the past several decades, child poverty rates have been higher in rural than in urban areas, and now 2.5 million children live in deep poverty in rural America. Studies indicate that poor children are most affected by the typical "summer slide." Summer programming has the ability to address the issues of academic loss, nutritional loss, and the lack of safe and constructive enrichment activities. However, poor rural communities face three major challenges in implementing summer programming: community resources, human capital, and accessibility. The success of Energy Express, a statewide award-winning six-week summer reading and nutrition program in West Virginia, documents strategies for overcoming the challenges faced by poor, rural communities in providing summer programs. Energy Express (1) uses community collaboration to augment resources and develop community ownership, (2) builds human capital and reverses the acknowledged brain drain by engaging college students and community volunteers in meaningful service, and (3) increases accessibility through creative transportation strategies. West Virginia University Extension Service, the outreach arm of the land-grant institution, partners with AmeriCorps, a national service program, and various state and local agencies and organizations to implement a program that produces robust results. PMID:17623413

  6. Summer programming in rural communities: unique challenges.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ruthellen; Harper, Stacey; Gamble, Susan

    2007-01-01

    During the past several decades, child poverty rates have been higher in rural than in urban areas, and now 2.5 million children live in deep poverty in rural America. Studies indicate that poor children are most affected by the typical "summer slide." Summer programming has the ability to address the issues of academic loss, nutritional loss, and the lack of safe and constructive enrichment activities. However, poor rural communities face three major challenges in implementing summer programming: community resources, human capital, and accessibility. The success of Energy Express, a statewide award-winning six-week summer reading and nutrition program in West Virginia, documents strategies for overcoming the challenges faced by poor, rural communities in providing summer programs. Energy Express (1) uses community collaboration to augment resources and develop community ownership, (2) builds human capital and reverses the acknowledged brain drain by engaging college students and community volunteers in meaningful service, and (3) increases accessibility through creative transportation strategies. West Virginia University Extension Service, the outreach arm of the land-grant institution, partners with AmeriCorps, a national service program, and various state and local agencies and organizations to implement a program that produces robust results.

  7. Federal Funding Sources Available to Local Governments for Rural Areas. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

    This publication contains information on 101 federal programs that provide funding to rural projects initiated by local governments, public agencies, tribal governments, nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, citizen groups, and individuals. Eligible local project categories include conservation, farm ownership and operation, housing,…

  8. Federal Funding Sources for Rural Areas: Fiscal Year 1998. Rural Information Center Publications Series, No. 59. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

    This publication lists 265 federal funding programs available to rural areas. The programs were selected from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, 1997, which is available online from FAPRS (the Federal Assistance Programs Retrieval System). Entries are listed under the following federal departments or agencies: Department of Agriculture,…

  9. Lighting Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with lighting utilization. Its objective is for the student to be able to outline the development of lighting use and conservation and identify major types and operating characteristics of lamps used in electric lighting. Some topics…

  10. Implications of HMOs for rural providers and consumers.

    PubMed

    Wellever, A

    1998-01-01

    The impact of the six HMOs studied on rural providers has, to this point, been relatively small. To expand their provider networks in rural areas, the HMOs have been responsive to provider concerns, implementing payment arrangements and utilization management approaches that are acceptable to most rural providers. However, at some sites, changes in HMO and provider relations appear to be on the horizon. These changes include the acceptance of greater financial risk by rural providers and the more aggressive management of costs by the HMOs. With respect to employers, the impact of HMOs have been largely positive. The presence of HMOs in the rural study areas has provided rural employers with new options for structuring health benefits programs. According to some rural employers, health insurance costs have been reduced, or at least constrained, as a result. Rural employers have dealt with employee concerns about access limitations by demanding that HMOs offer broad provider networks and products that permit the use of non-network providers subject to co-payments and deductibles. The impact on rural employees, as evidenced by their responses as well as the views of their employers, has been mixed. Rural employees generally appreciate the broader benefit coverage offered by HMOs as well as reduced paperwork and, sometimes, lower required out-of-pocket contributions toward premiums. However, as with their urban counterparts, rural employees are concerned about restrictions on access to providers of their choice and financial incentives in physician payment arrangements that may discourage the provision of services or the arrangement of referrals.

  11. Identification of differences between rural and urban safety cultures.

    PubMed

    Rakauskas, Michael E; Ward, Nicholas J; Gerberich, Susan G

    2009-09-01

    The prevailing risk of traffic fatalities is much larger in rural areas compared to urban areas. A number of explanations have been offered to explain this including road design, emergency medical service proximity, and human factors. This research explored the potential contribution of rural driver attitudes that may underlie the increased fatal crash risk in rural environments. This analysis examined differences between rural and urban drivers in terms of self-reported risk taking for driving behaviors associated with fatal crashes and attitudes toward safety interventions using a large-scale survey. The results suggested that rural drivers engage in riskier behavior, such as not wearing seatbelts, because they have lower perceptions of the risks associated with such behaviors. Results also suggested that vehicle type (e.g., pickup trucks versus passenger vehicles) may be related to seatbelt compliance and frequency of driving under the influence of alcohol. Rural drivers perceived the utility of government-sponsored traffic safety interventions to be lower than their urban counterparts. This study provides insights into the role of the human factor in rural fatal crashes and provides policy suggestions for developing safety interventions that are designed with respect to the psychosocial factors that define the rural culture.

  12. Consequences of differential residence designations for rural health policy research: the case of infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Farmer, F L; Clarke, L L; Miller, M K

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, members of the rural caucus proposed numerous bills designed to attenuate the rural-urban differences in health care delivery and health status. Implicit in the legislative process is the assumption that "rural America" differs systematically from "urban America." However, research has consistently demonstrated that there is not a single rural America but rather, those areas outside of the major metropolitan areas represent a complex mosaic of varying social and environmental settings. Rural communities differ in meaningful ways along a number of socioenvironmental parameters, and accordingly, health status indicators also differ across rural communities. Thus, health outcome statistics averaged across rural communities will often mask important disparities experienced by certain population groups. Policies based on these aggregate indicators may overlook the needs of the most disadvantaged. While a number of measures of rurality have emerged in the last decade, much of the information presented to policy-makers is either too aggregated (i.e., metropolitan-nonmetropolitan) to identify important differences across the range of communities, or it is gathered in agency-specific categories that are not comparable. The central question under examination in the current context is the possibility of distorting the picture of infant health status by aggregating the diverse rural locales of the United States. Empirical results indicate that when considering infant mortality, any rural disadvantage is contingent upon how 'rural' and 'urban' have been defined. Further, the results indicate that conclusions must be conditioned on other important sociodemographic parameters such as region of the country and race.

  13. International Perspectives in Rural Sociology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Howard, Ed.

    Essays which focus on similarities between developed and underdeveloped nations, concentrating on the issues of power and rural social stratification, are contained in this textbook on rural sociology. It is intended for students of rural sociology, including teachers and researchers. In two main parts, the book first deals with rural social…

  14. Rural School Communities in Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Jack

    Visits to nine of the smallest rural elementary schools in Colorado were conducted to gain insights into types of communities served by the schools. No one definition of "rural" covered all nine communities, so they were classified into six types: predominantly agricultural, rural industrial, stable recreational, ranching/railraod, rural commuter,…

  15. Workplace Learning in Rural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert F.; Brooks, Ann K.

    2008-01-01

    Many people perceive rural America as being an almost completely agricultural, farming, or ranching economy. In fact, less than 7 percent of rural employment is in agriculture; service industries account for over half, and service and manufacturing together account for more than 66 percent of employment in rural areas. Rural regions take 50…

  16. The Rural School Leadership Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surface, Jeanne L.; Theobald, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The idea that rural schools and communities, indeed, even rural people, are somehow substandard or second-class has deep historical roots. The goal of this essay is to reveal that history so as to render stereotypical conceptions all things rural less powerful and more easily dismissed by rural school professionals. Consequently the focus is on…

  17. Rural Libraries, Volume XIV, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The 2 issues in this volume contain 10 articles on rural libraries and information access in rural America. Topics include telecommunications and distance education in Nebraska, the future of small rural public libraries, federal programs to improve rural access to information, outreach issues for public libraries, and the role of information in…

  18. Changes & Challenges for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Leslie Asher, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue of the newsletter SEDLetter contains articles about the challenges facing rural youth, communities, and schools, and the ways that rural schools are meeting those challenges. "When Rural Traditions Really Count" (Ullik Rouk) outlines the rural situation with regard to adolescent substance abuse, youth gangs, teen pregnancy,…

  19. A Perspective on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Perspective on Rural Education" (Miller); "You Want Them to Learn What?" (Jones); "Rural Education" (Baker, Burns); "Metnet" (Frick); "Rural Education and Training in Egypt" (Swan, Aly); "Mentors, Youth at Risk, and Rural Education Programs" (Wingenbach); "Designing Effective Adult Education Programs: Needs and Objectives" and "Design,…

  20. OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOWLER, LLOYD

    AGRIBUSINESS IS DEFINED AS THE SUM TOTAL OF ALL OPERATIONS INVOLVED IN THE MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARM SUPPLIES, PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ON THE FARM, AND THE STORAGE, PROCESSING, AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARM COMMODITIES AND ITEMS MADE FROM THEM. WITHIN THESE THREE AREAS ARE SEEN MANY JOB OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL AND URBAN YOUTH HAVING COLLEGE…

  1. The Rural Outreach Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Clarence D.

    2000-01-01

    The Rural Outreach Project was designed to increase the diversity of NASA's workforce by: 1) Conducting educational research designed to investigate the most effective strategies for expanding innovative, NASA-sponsored pre-college programs into rural areas; 2) Field-testing identified rural intervention strategies; 3) Implementing expanded NASA educational programs to include 300 rural students who are disabled, female and/or minority; and 4) Disseminating project strategies. The Project was a partnership that included NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, Norfolk State University, Cooperative Hampton Roads Organizations for Minorities in Engineering (CHROME) and Paul D. Camp Community College. There were four goals and activities identified for this project; 1) Ascertain effective strategies for expanding successful NASA-sponsored urban-based, pre-college programs into rural settings; 2) Field test identified rural intervention strategies; 3) Publish or disseminate two reports, concerning project research and activities at a national conference; 4) Provide educational outreach to 300, previously underserved, rural students who are disabled, female and /or minority.

  2. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  3. Agency and intervention.

    PubMed

    Roskies, Adina L

    2015-09-19

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  4. Agency and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Roskies, Adina L.

    2015-01-01

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  5. 76 FR 38352 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010, Public Law 111-80 (October 16, 2009) and the Department of Defense and full-year continuing... Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010 (Pub. L....

  6. Training to Facilitate Agency Self-Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkhart, Karen E.

    Amid the growing concern with accountability of mental health service agencies, increased emphasis is being focused on program self-evaluation. Evaluation criteria involve systems management, client utilization, and outcome of intervention. In designing training for self-evaluation, one must deal with issues raised by the new audience of potential…

  7. 78 FR 10128 - Information Collection Activity; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Rural Utilities Service Information Collection Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service... Development administers rural utilities programs through the Rural Utilities Service (RUS). The USDA Rural... information will have practical utility; (b) the accuracy of the agency's estimate of the burden of...

  8. Rural Broadband Initiative Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Owens, William L. [D-NY-23

    2011-03-15

    03/22/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Research, Biotechnology, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Rural People with Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Disabilities in Rural Areas . What are the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act for small ... U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. What are the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act for local ...

  10. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  11. Responses to prospective payment by rural New Mexico hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H L; Piland, N F; Phillipp, A M

    1991-01-01

    A cross-sectional study is used to determine how rural New Mexico hospitals altered service diversification, inpatient service emphasis, and service promotion during Medicare's prospective payment system (PPS) transition and posttransition phases. Results suggest that the hospitals implemented distinct strategies in response to PPS. The posttransition strategies were examined for their association with improved revenue and utilization indicators. Few of the service diversification and promotional strategies were consistent predictors of performance. Emphasis on fine-tuning inpatient services was the most promising predictor of higher utilization and revenue measures. The implications for other rural hospitals are discussed. PMID:1743969

  12. Utility, Economic Rationalism and the Circumscription of Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirita, P. A.; Parmenter, T. R.; Stancliffe, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Great strides have been achieved over the past few decades in service provision for people with intellectual disability (ID). However, there has also been a growth in the use of economic rationalism and a related rise in managerialism in forming service provision outcomes. Method: An account of the focus on process and means of…

  13. Negotiating with Subscription Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Judy; Basch, N. Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This first in a two-part series on how librarians can negotiate services and prices with subscription agencies focuses on how vendors operate. Factors that influence agency costs, revenues, and service charges are described, including economies of scale, discounts from publishers, and prepayment and cash flow. (seven references) (LRW)

  14. Incubating Innovation for Rural Electrification. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-01

    In June, the team held a workshop on ''Low Carbon Sustainable Rural Electrification'' in Salima, Malawi. Co-organized with the Government of Malawi's Department of Energy, this event gathered participants from the energy, telecom, non-profit, banking sectors as well as from governmental and international agencies to discuss the potential development of private led off-grid electrification in Malawi where only 9% of the population has currently access to electricity. A very active participation provided us with insightful feedback and valuable recommendations.

  15. Agency, communion and entitlement.

    PubMed

    Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Magdalena A; Piotrowski, Jarosław P; Clinton, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the relationship between agency, communion, and the active, passive, and revenge forms of entitlement is examined. Results indicate that active entitlement was positively related to agency, negatively to communion (Study 1), and unrelated to unmitigated agency and communion (Study 2). Passive entitlement was positively related to communion (in regular and unmitigated forms) and negatively related to agency (in both forms). Revenge entitlement was positively related to agency (unmitigated and regular), and negatively related to both regular and unmitigated communal orientations. Detected relationships were independent from self-esteem (Study 1). The findings are discussed in relation to distinctions between narcissistic and healthy entitlement, and within the context of the three-dimensional model of entitlement. PMID:25594535

  16. Wind-fuel cell hybrid project in rural Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    David Lockard

    2000-02-18

    This is a summary of the work performed on the Wind-Fuel Cell Hybrid Project: (1) On October 5th, Tim Howell of the Golden Field Office and Tom Anderson of Battelle Labs arrived in Anchorage. They met with David Lockard, Project Manager, and Percy Frisby, Director of the Alaska Rural Energy Programs Group. (2) On October 6th, Tim, Tom and David flew to Nome to inspect the proposed wind turbine site and meet with John Handeland, Director of the Nome Joint Utility System. They visited the proposed site as well as several private, residential-sized wind turbines operating in the Nome area. (3)Tim and Tom flew to Unalaska on October 7th to meet with Mike Golat, City of Unalaska Public Utility Director, and to inspect the proposed wind turbine sites at Pyramid Creek and Pyramid Valley. (4)Tim sent a scoping letter on December 17th to a variety of local, state and federal agencies requesting comments on the proposed wind turbine project. (5) David discussed this project with Marc Schwartz and Gerry Nix at NREL. Marc provided David with a list of wind prospectors and meteorologists. (6) Tom raised the question of FAA permits for structures over 200 feet tall. Gerry provided information on NREL's experience with FAA permitting on other projects. David summarized the potential turbine choices and heights in a spreadsheet and initiated contact with the Alaska region FAA office regarding the permitting process. (7) David responded to a list of design questions from Tom regarding the project foundations, power output, and size for use in developing the environmental assessment. (8) David tried to get wind data for the Nome Anvil Mountain White Alice site from the Corps of Engineers and the Air Force, but was not able to find any. (9) David solicited quotes from vendors of wind monitoring equipment and provided cost information to Doug Hooker, federal grant manager in preparation for ordering the equipment.

  17. Pragmatic prevention, permanent solution: Women's experiences with hysterectomy in rural India.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sapna

    2016-02-01

    Hysterectomy appears to be on the rise amongst low-income, rural women in India as routine treatment for gynaecological ailments. This paper explores the individual, household, socio-economic and health system factors that influenced women's decisions to undergo hysterectomy in rural Gujarat, with a focus on women's perspectives. Interviews were conducted with 35 rural, low-income women who had undergone hysterectomy, local gynaecologists and other key informants, alongside observation of daily life and health-related activities. Inductive, open coding was conducted within a framework analysis to identify thematic influences on the decision to undergo hysterectomy. Women underwent hysterectomy at an average age of 36, as treatment for typically severe gynaecological ailments. I argue that women, faced with embedded social inequality in the form of gender biases, lack of labour security and a maternal-centric health system, demonstrated pragmatic agency in their decision to remove the uterus. When they experienced gynaecological ailments, most sought two to three opinions and negotiated financial and logistical concerns. The health system offered few non-invasive services for non-maternal health issues. Moreover, women and health care providers believed there is limited utility of the uterus beyond childbearing. Women's responsibilities as caretakers, workers and producers drove them to seek permanent solutions that would secure their long-term work and health security. Thus, hysterectomy emerged as a normalised treatment for gynaecological ailments, particularly for low-income women with limited resources or awareness of potential side effects. In this setting, hysterectomy reflects the power structures and social inequalities in which women negotiated medical treatment--and the need to reverse a culture of permanent solutions for low-income women.

  18. Pragmatic prevention, permanent solution: Women's experiences with hysterectomy in rural India.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sapna

    2016-02-01

    Hysterectomy appears to be on the rise amongst low-income, rural women in India as routine treatment for gynaecological ailments. This paper explores the individual, household, socio-economic and health system factors that influenced women's decisions to undergo hysterectomy in rural Gujarat, with a focus on women's perspectives. Interviews were conducted with 35 rural, low-income women who had undergone hysterectomy, local gynaecologists and other key informants, alongside observation of daily life and health-related activities. Inductive, open coding was conducted within a framework analysis to identify thematic influences on the decision to undergo hysterectomy. Women underwent hysterectomy at an average age of 36, as treatment for typically severe gynaecological ailments. I argue that women, faced with embedded social inequality in the form of gender biases, lack of labour security and a maternal-centric health system, demonstrated pragmatic agency in their decision to remove the uterus. When they experienced gynaecological ailments, most sought two to three opinions and negotiated financial and logistical concerns. The health system offered few non-invasive services for non-maternal health issues. Moreover, women and health care providers believed there is limited utility of the uterus beyond childbearing. Women's responsibilities as caretakers, workers and producers drove them to seek permanent solutions that would secure their long-term work and health security. Thus, hysterectomy emerged as a normalised treatment for gynaecological ailments, particularly for low-income women with limited resources or awareness of potential side effects. In this setting, hysterectomy reflects the power structures and social inequalities in which women negotiated medical treatment--and the need to reverse a culture of permanent solutions for low-income women. PMID:26773294

  19. 7 CFR 1744.203 - Establishing amount of rural development investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing amount of rural development investment. 1744.203 Section 1744.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED...

  20. Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

  1. The Consolidation of Rural Schools: Reasons, Results, and Implications--A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Ronald D.; Gomez, J. J.

    Utilizing statistical documentation from a variety of sources, this report traces the history of rural schools and the consolidation movement via a review of the literature. Attention is devoted to: (1) the early rural school (beginning in 1647 with Massachusetts); (2) schools in the South (emphasis on private instruction); (3) the effect of…

  2. Association of Educational Level and Child Sex Ratio in Rural and Urban India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inchani, Lisa R.; Lai, Dejian

    2008-01-01

    Utilizing data from the Census of India, this study compared child sex ratio in rural and urban regions of India and analyzed whether the child sex ratio was associated with mother's education level. The child sex ratios in the rural and urban regions throughout India were analyzed using the two-sample and paired Student's t-test. Further, the…

  3. CCSDS - A forum to facilitate international cooperation among space agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Edward P.; Delmas, Georges

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) in its role as a promoter the development and utilization of compatible data-systems standards among the principal space agencies of the world. Attention is also given to the CCSDS affiliation categories comprising member agencies, observer agencies, and associates. Consideration is given to the CCSDS organization, the technical panels, and current CCSDS recommendations.

  4. Utility company views of geothermal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichs, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    The views of geothermal development from a utility company standpoint are presented. The impediments associated with such developments as required reliability and identification of risks are discussed. The utility industry historically is not a risk-taking industry. Support of rapid geothermal development by the utility industry requires identification and elimination of risks or absorption of the risks by other agencies. Suggestions as to the identification and minimization of risks are made.

  5. State Vocational Agency Practices in the Purchase of Psychological Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendland, Leonard V.; Wendland, Carroll Jean

    This article reports the results of a national survey on the practices of state vocational rehabilitation agencies with regard to purchase and utilization of psychological consultation services from private psychologists. A letter was sent to each of the 50 state vocational rehabilitation agencies requesting information on nine points. Forty-four…

  6. 7 CFR 252.5 - Recipient agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... participate in the NCP Program. Upon request, FNS will provide recipient agencies with registration forms... products under the NCP Program from a processor utilizing a refund system shall submit a refund application... processors under the NCP Program. The recipient agency may be requested to verify actual purchases of...

  7. Rural system addresses social, economic needs. Cooperation, education, and advocacy revitalize a region's healthcare delivery.

    PubMed

    Rheinecker, P

    1992-01-01

    In recent years leaders at Presentation Health System (PHS), Sioux Falls, SD, have expanded their mission to help strengthen local communities economically and socially. PHS now offers support to rural leaders in business, politics, and healthcare through its Center for Rural Health and Economic Development. In addition, educational outreach coordinators have created programs that address the needs of the entire rural community. To establish an effective network of services in the region, two of the system's tertiary care hospitals are collaborating to provide emergency helicopter service. These larger facilities also extend outreach services to rural hospitals and clinics. PHS assists rural hospitals in grant writing and in adapting to changing government reimbursement rules. In addition, the healthcare system coordinates a group purchasing program and a debt collection agency. An important voice for its region's healthcare needs, PHS has worked with the state of South Dakota to address problems and concerns about emergency medical services. The system also publishes Report, a quarterly newsletter that keeps rural residents abreast of healthcare issues affecting them. Two years ago, PHS's Center for Rural Health and Economic Development sponsored its first Invitational Rural Health Leadership Conference. These annual conferences bring together leaders to examine ways to improve rural healthcare delivery by strengthening the social and economic fabric of rural communities. PMID:10119539

  8. Family Medicine in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, Michael; Wootton, J.S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Recruitment of physicians for rural communities is a continuing problem in Canada. Medical schools can be involved through preferential admission policies. Departments of family medicine across the country are including on-site training in rural communities and are seeking to improve their rural program curriculum. The McGill rural program is described from its origins to its present state. A rural coordinator oversees 12 sites at which both residents and students are trained. One site at Shawville, Que, is described from a rural physician's point of view. Imagesp2011-ap2012-ap2014-a PMID:21233945

  9. Defining Urban and Rural Regions by Multifractal Spectrums of Urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-03-01

    The spatial pattern of the urban-rural regional system is associated with the dynamic process of urbanization. How to characterize the urban-rural terrain using quantitative measurement is a difficult problem remaining to be solved. This paper is devoted to defining urban and rural regions using ideas from fractals. A basic postulate is that human geographical systems are of self-similar patterns correlated with recursive processes. Then multifractal geometry can be employed to describe or define the urban and rural terrain with the level of urbanization. A space-filling index of urban-rural region based on a generalized correlation dimension is presented to reflect the degree of geo-spatial utilization in terms of urbanism. The census data of America and China are used to show how to make empirical analyses of urban-rural multifractals. This work is a normative study rather than a positive study, and it proposes a new way of investigating urban and rural regional systems using fractal theory.

  10. Variance in disease risk: rural populations and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, W D; Lipka, A E; Fogleman, A J; Delfino, K R; Malhi, R S; Hendricks, B

    2016-07-01

    Over 19% of the US population resides in rural areas, where studies of disease risk and disease outcomes are difficult to assess due to smaller populations and lower incidence. While some studies suggest rural disparities for different chronic diseases, the data are inconsistent across geography and definitions of rurality. We reviewed the literature to examine if local variations in population genomic diversity may plausibly explain inconsistencies in estimating disease risk. Many rural communities were founded over 150 years ago by small groups of ethnically and ancestrally similar families. These have since endured relative geographical isolation, similar to groups in other industrialized nations, perhaps resulting in founder effects impacting local disease susceptibility. Studies in Europe and Asia have found that observably different phenotypes may appear in isolated communities within 100 years, and that genomic variation can significantly vary over small geographical scales. Epidemiological studies utilizing common "rural" definitions may miss significant disease differences due to assumptions of risk homogeneity and misinterpretation of administrative definitions of rurality. Local genomic heterogeneity should be an important aspect of chronic disease epidemiology in rural areas, and it is important to consider for designing studies and interpreting results, enabling a better understanding of the heritable components of complex diseases. PMID:27334395

  11. 34 CFR 84.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 84.645 Section 84.645 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  12. 28 CFR 83.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 83.645 Section 83.645 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  13. Access of Rural AFDC Medicaid Beneficiaries to Mental Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, David; Agger, Marc S.

    1995-01-01

    This article examines geographic differences in the use of mental health services among Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)-eligible Medicaid beneficiaries in Maine. Findings indicate that rural AFDC beneficiaries have significantly lower utilization of mental health services than urban beneficiaries. Specialty mental health providers account for the majority of ambulatory visits for both rural and urban beneficiaries. However, rural beneficiaries rely more on primary-care providers than do urban beneficiaries. Differences in use are largely explained by variations in the supply of specialty mental health providers. This finding supports the long-held assumption that lower supply is a barrier to access to mental health services in rural areas. PMID:10153467

  14. Rural connections. Iowa hospitals are establishing communications link to better serve rural areas.

    PubMed

    Busack, G

    1994-04-01

    The Sisters of Mercy Health Corporation, with 14 hospitals in Iowa, and the Mercy Health Centers of Central Iowa, with 13 hospitals in the state, believe fiber-optic technology may provide solutions to the inadequacies inherent in the rural healthcare delivery system. Since 1989, Iowa has committed more than $100 million toward the development and installation of a statewide fiber-optic communication network. The Iowa Communication Network (ICN) was originally envisioned as a means of providing voice, data, and interactive video capabilities to state government agencies, libraries, schools, and colleges. Currently, only hospitals with medical education programs are authorized to use the network, but others are expected to be allowed to soon. Realizing the potential benefits telemedicine and the ICN posed, in June 1993 the Sisters of Mercy Health Corporation and the Mercy Health Centers of Central Iowa jointly established the Midwest Rural Telemedicine Consortium (MRTC) to enhance rural residents' access to primary healthcare through integrated communications systems. The MRTC is trying to secure federal funding to conduct a demonstration project in eight hospitals. The project's goal is to determine how the use of telemedicine applications, specifically fiber-optic applications, affects access, quality, and costs in providing specialty healthcare services to rural patients.

  15. Rural Science Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Intress, C.

    1994-12-31

    The Rural Science Education Project is an outreach program of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science with the goal of helping rural elementary schools improve science teaching and learning by using local natural environmental resources. This program is based on the assumption that rural schools, so often described as disadvantaged in terms of curricular resources, actually provide a science teaching advantage because of their locale. The natural environment of mountains, forests, ponds, desert, or fields offers a context for the study of scientific concepts and skills that appeals to many youngsters. To tap these resources, teachers need access to knowledge about the rural school locality`s natural history. Through a process of active participation in school-based workshops and field site studies, teachers observe and learn about the native flora, fauna, geology, and paleontology of their community. In addition, they are exposed to instructional strategies, activities, and provided with materials which foster experimential learning. This school-museum partnership, now in its fifth year, has aided more than 800 rural teachers` on-going professional development. These educators have, in turn, enhanced science education throughout New Mexico for more than 25,000 students.

  16. The Rural Arena: The Diversity of Protest in Rural England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Matt

    2008-01-01

    In the past 15-20 years, the rural areas of England have been used by a wide diversity of groups as the stage for their protest activities. Some have argued that this is due the rise of a rural social movement; this paper contends that rural areas have become both available and advantageous as the locale of protest through a range of interlocking…

  17. Education in a Rural Environment. Education and Rural Development -- 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    Assuming that education and rural development must be correlated, this booklet defines the general thrust for rural education programs in developing countries. The 1st of 4 sections briefly describes the various aspects of rural development (emphasis on integration of agriculture, industry, transport, trade, credit, health, education, culture,…

  18. Researching Rural Places: On Social Justice and Rural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Philip; Green, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some of the political and methodological challenges involved in researching rural education. It begins by outlining the situation in Australia regarding the relationship between social justice and rural education. It first describes the disadvantages experienced by many rural communities and presents an analysis of rural…

  19. Science achievement in secondary school students across rural and urban South Dakota locales.

    PubMed

    Maas, Teresa; Amolins, Michael; Vitiello, Peter

    2015-05-01

    While many efforts have been made at the graduate level to train physicians for rural South Dakota, there has been little work to identify how geographic locale affects the science achievement of high school students. This study utilized the urban-central locale code system to analyze South Dakota high school student ACT science scores. Rural student achievement was significantly lower than students from city and town locales. By analyzing such correlations, unique strategies can be developed to improve secondary rural science education and increase the number of students pursuing careers in rural medicine. PMID:26058258

  20. Comparison and Research on New Rural Community Management Patterns of Shan Dong Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Lei; Zhang, Xiaomei

    Rural community is an important institutional innovation,which has important effect and edification to future new rural management.There are three new rural community management patterns in shandong province:divisions of the village community,many villages community and village merge community. This article not only introduce three models,but also compare them in four aspects: community scale, community management,infrastructure,resource utilization.Pointing out the strength and weakness of three models.Drawing a conclusion that village merge community is the active reaction for rural urbanization. And could be the important recommended breed.

  1. Country Roads: Counseling Psychology's Rural Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birk, Janice M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes number of rural inhabitants to present microcosm of rural America. Describes rising rates of alcoholism, child and spouse abuse, and depression among rural residents. Examines poverty in rural American. Focuses on rural practice, discussing the setting, concerns and dilemmas, and training issues. Looks at the rural context of counseling…

  2. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, William H.

    2002-01-01

    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  3. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of dental care access? The Rural Health Information Hub provides two useful tools that may be useful when looking for additional strategies to address dental care access. RHIhub’s Rural Health ...

  4. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... of death from overdose and suicide. Rural and Urban Substance Abuse Rates (ages 12 and older, unless ... among rural youth aged 12-13 than among urban youth the same age. This study suggests that ...

  5. Bringing Rural Sociology Back In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, William W.; Gilbert, Jess

    1985-01-01

    Raises questions about current rural sociology from a critical theory perspective. Provides a brief historical analysis of its theoretical and applied roots. Suggests interweaving of research, practice, and advocacy as way to bring rural sociologists back into policy making. (LFL)

  6. Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics (Energia Removable para Centros de Salud Rurales)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A. C.; Olson, K.

    1998-09-01

    This guide provides a broad understanding of the technical, social, and organizational aspects of health clinic electrification, especially through the use of renewable energy sources. It is intended to be used primarily by decision makers within governments or private agencies to accurately assess their health clinic's needs, select appropriate and cost-effective technologies to meet those needs, and to put into place effective infrastructure to install and maintain the hardware. This is the first in a series of rural applications guidebooks that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Village Power Program is commissioning to couple commercial renewable systems with rural applications. The guidebooks are complemented by NREL's Village Power Program's development activities, international pilot projects, and visiting professionals program. For more information on the NREL Village Power Program, visit the Renewables for Sustainable Village Power web site at http://www.rsvp.nrel .gov/rsvp/.

  7. 78 FR 70391 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Request and Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Request and Comment Request The Social Security... practical utility; ways to enhance its quality, utility, and clarity; and ways to minimize burden...

  8. Rural energy and development

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the worldwide problem and need for rural electrification to support development. He points out that rural areas will pay high rates to receive such services, but cannot afford the capital cost for conventional services. The author looks at this problem from the point of energy choices, subsides, initial costs, financing, investors, local involvement, and governmental actions. In particular he is concerned with ways to make better use of biofuels, to promote sustainable harvesting, and to encourage development of more modern fuels.

  9. Gifted Voices from Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colangelo, Nicholas; Assouline, Susan G.; New, Jennifer K.

    This report focuses on gifted and talented education in six rural schools. An introduction summarizes a 1999 national assessment of rural gifted education and points out that the standards movement may hinder development of both effective rural schools and gifted programming. Of the six schools profiled, two were founded especially for gifted and…

  10. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  11. Planning Schools for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Hobart; Howley, Craig; Smith, Charles; Dickens, Ben

    School improvement in rural places cannot succeed without attention to the rural context of learning. Most especially, smaller schools need to be preserved and sustained in rural areas, particularly impoverished communities, for the sake of student achievement and personal development. This school improvement tool suggests the character of a "good…

  12. Public Services in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Kenneth D.

    The paper examines issues in the delivery of public services in rural areas. The importance of access to urban areas in identifying differences in rural delivery problems is emphasized. It is no longer accurate to equate "rural" with agriculture and farming, drawing a distinction between those who have easy access to an urban area and those who…

  13. OCLC and Rural Library Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Clarence R.

    This discussion of ways in which OCLC can be used by rural libraries to enhance the library services offered to rural Americans suggests that OCLC is a type of technology that can be used to overcome the insufficiency of funds to finance library services. OCLC products and services that are particularly relevant to small, rural public libraries…

  14. Rural Education: The Federal Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Norman E.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews federal efforts to develop a rural education federal agenda, five basic problems of rural areas which lend themselves to federal solutions, Department of Education proposals for fiscal year 1982, significant federal responses/already in progress, and strengths and advantages of rural schools. (AN)

  15. Rural Education for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Vivian W.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the learning needs of older adults in rural areas is a critical and growing concern for adult and continuing education. This chapter addresses learning in a rural context for older adults by examining several constructs. These include the definitions of "rural," the issues of the learners' ages, and the various structures and purposes…

  16. Rurality and Rural Education: Discourses Underpinning Rurality and Rural Education Research in South African Postgraduate Education Research 1994-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkambule, T.; Balfour, R. J.; Pillay, G.; Moletsane, R.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, rurality and rural education have been marginalised bodies of knowledge in South Africa. The post-1994 era has seen an emerging government concern to address the continuing interplay between poverty, HIV/AIDS, underdevelopment, and underachievement in schools categorised as rural. To address these concerns, scholars in South African…

  17. 1997 Australian Rural Education Award.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Rural Australia, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Nominees for the 1997 Australia Rural Education Award included a program that allowed rural students to follow a young man sailing around the world; a music, dance, and drama competition for rural students; a music camp; a bandicoot conservation project; an agricultural education program; and student documentation of the history of a local rural…

  18. Health Care in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Mary C.

    Nonmetropolitan and totally rural areas have greater unmet health needs and fewer health resources than urban areas. Blacks, American Indians, migrants, and Appalachians have specialized rural health care needs as a result of cultural isolation, poverty, and discrimination. The reversal of the rural to urban population migration has increased the…

  19. Rural Libraries and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of rural public libraries in the information age. Characteristics of rural communities that library planners should consider are conservatism, the lack of professionally trained librarians, library trustee involvement, the need for marketing, and gender balance. Suggestions for recreating rural libraries and providing…

  20. Rural Schools for Tomorrow. Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, Julian E., Ed.

    This 1945 National Education Association yearbook focuses attention on the post-World War II problems of rural schools and encourages national, state, and local leaders to lay plans for strengthening rural education programs. The articles examine social and economic problems faced by rural Americans, the implications of these problems for rural…