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Sample records for agency safe drinking

  1. The Environmental Protection Agency: What They do to Keep Your Drinking Water Safe

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA has been around for 35 years, but it was only in 1974 that they passed the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Act was amended several times in order to improve the minimum drinking water standards. These standards, which are in effect today, are constantly being evaluated and...

  2. Safe drinking water: critical components of effective inter-agency relationships.

    PubMed

    Jalba, Daniel I; Cromar, Nancy J; Pollard, Simon J T; Charrois, Jeffrey W; Bradshaw, Roland; Hrudey, Steve E

    2010-01-01

    The paper supports the development of evidence-based emergency management frameworks of cooperation between agencies in the area of drinking water and public health, as part of developing the overall risk management culture within water utilities. We employed a qualitative research design to understand critical gaps in inter-agency relations that aggravated past drinking water and health incidents and from these identified determinants of effective relationships. We identified six critical institutional relationship components that were deficient in past incidents, namely proactivity, communication, training, sharing expertise, trust and regulation. We then analysed how these components are addressed by reputable water utilities and public health departments to develop positive examples of inter-agency cooperation. Control of different risks (e.g. public health, business, and reputation) resulting from drinking water incidents should employ a preventive framework similar to the multiple barrier approach for management of drinking water quality.

  3. Safe drinking water act

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. Gives organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and candidates for the 1990s regulations.

  4. Developing a state wellhead protection program: a user's guide to assist state agencies under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S.

    1988-07-01

    The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act established a new Wellhead Protection (WHP) Program to protect ground water that supplies drinking water wells from sources of contamination. Under Section 1428 of the Act, each State must prepare a WHP program and submit it to EPA by June 19, 1989. Although the law requires that every State WHP program must contain specific elements, EPA recognizes that States should be allowed flexibility to tailor program details to best suit their individual needs. The document provides an overview of the major program requirements, presents major messages that a State should consider while developing a WHP program, and presents case-study examples to illustrate how a State might address each element of its WHP program.

  5. ENSURING SAFE DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This brochure is part of a series of information packages prepared by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Aimed at the international community, the packages focus on key environmental and public health issues being investigated by EPA. The products highlighte...

  6. New approaches to safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Barron, Gerald; Buchanan, Sharunda; Hase, Denise; Mainzer, Hugh; Ransom, Montrece McNeill; Sarisky, John

    2002-01-01

    Up to half the population of some states in the United States drink water from small systems not regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act. The quality of the drinking water from these systems is generally unknown and may be suspect. In many jurisdictions, private wells are the primary source of water. In some instances, construction of wells may have met regulatory requirements but may not have adequately prevented disease transmission. Anecdotal information, periodic water-borne outbreaks, and recent well surveys suggest that there are public health concerns associated with these and similar systems. This article provides an assessment of the need for governmental oversight (regulatory and non-regulatory) of drinking water supplies, describes how a "systems-based" approach might be used to evaluate water supply systems and to identify and prevent possible contamination, and presents case studies describing the systems-based approach as well as a comprehensive approach to environmental health that includes drinking water regulation. PMID:12508511

  7. Safe drinking water: the toxicologist's approach.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, F X

    2000-01-01

    The production of adequate and safe drinking water is a high priority issue for safeguarding the health and well-being of humans all over the world. Traditionally, microbiological quality of drinking water has been the main concern, but over the last decades the attention of the general public and health officials on the importance of chemical quality and the threat of chemical pollutants have increased with the increase of our knowledge on the hazards of chemical substances. There are many sources of contamination of drinking water. Broadly they can be divided into two categories: contaminants originating from surface and groundwater, and contaminants used or formed during the treatment and distribution of drinking water. Contaminants in surface and groundwater can range from natural substances such as arsenic and manganese leaching from soil, to contaminants introduced by human activities, such as run-off from agricultural activities, controlled discharge from sewage treatment works and industrial plants, and uncontrolled discharges or leakage from landfill sites and from chemical accidents. Disinfectants and disinfectant by-products are well known contaminants resulting from the processes used by the drinking water industry for the treatment and distribution of water. The basic question in the production of drinking water is how to rid drinking water of potentially dangerous microorganisms and chemicals without introducing new hazards that might pose new and different threats to human health. It is the responsibility of toxicologists to provide risk assessments for chemical pollutants and to derive guidelines or standards for drinking water quality below which no significant health risk is encountered, to assure consumers that drinking water is safe and can be consumed without any risk. This paper will focus on the toxicological procedures used by the World Health Organization to derive guideline values for chemical compounds in drinking water, and will touch

  8. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water.

  9. 76 FR 19128 - Notice of Lodging of Stipulation of Judgment Pursuant to Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... of Lodging of Stipulation of Judgment Pursuant to Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that... United States (on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency), for violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act and the implementing regulations, 42 U.S.C. 300h, et seq., and the implementing...

  10. 40 CFR 23.7 - Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. 23.7 Section 23.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.7 Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. Unless...

  11. 40 CFR 23.7 - Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. 23.7 Section 23.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.7 Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. Unless...

  12. 40 CFR 23.7 - Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. 23.7 Section 23.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.7 Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. Unless...

  13. 40 CFR 23.7 - Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. 23.7 Section 23.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Drinking Water Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise explicitly provides in a particular...

  14. 40 CFR 23.7 - Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. 23.7 Section 23.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Drinking Water Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise explicitly provides in a particular...

  15. Safe drinking water: a public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Wigle, D T

    1998-01-01

    Disinfection of drinking water through processes including filtration and chlorination was one of the major achievements of public health, beginning in the late 1800s and the early 1900s. Chloroform and other chlorination disinfection by-products (CBPs) in drinking water were first reported in 1974. Chloroform and several other CBPs are known to cause cancer in experimental animals, and there is growing epidemiologic evidence of a causal role for CBPs in human cancer, particularly for bladder cancer. It has been estimated that 14 16% of bladder cancers in Ontario may be attributable to drinking water containing relatively high levels of CBPs; the US Environmental Protection Agency has estimated the attributable risk to be 2 17%. These estimates are based on the assumption that the associations observed between bladder cancer and CBP exposure reflect a cause-effect relation. An expert working group (see Workshop Report in this issue) concluded that it was possible (60% of the group) to probable (40% of the group) that CBPs pose a significant cancer risk, particularly of bladder cancer. The group concluded that the risk of bladder and possibly other types of cancer is a moderately important public health problem. There is an urgent need to resolve this and to consider actions based on the body of evidence which, at a minimum, suggests that lowering of CBP levels would prevent a significant fraction of bladder cancers. In fact, given the widespread and prolonged exposure to CBPs and the epidemiologic evidence of associations with several cancer sites, future research may establish CBPs as the most important environmental carcinogens in terms of the number of attributable cancers per year.

  16. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... it down the drain or use it to water your plants or your garden. ... Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. Updated March 14, 2014. ...

  17. The Safe Drinking Water Act First 180 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Jay H.

    1975-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act protects our drinking and ground water resources. The Water Advisory Council interprets and implements the law. Implementation principles include high priorities for public health, cost considerations, state and local participation, environmental impact, decentralized decision making, and use of federal and state…

  18. Safe drinking water act: Amendments, regulations and standards

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E.; Pastides, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book approaches the topic of safe drinking water by communicating how the EPA has responded to the mandates of Congress. Chapter 1 summarizes what is and will be involved in achieving safe drinking water. Chapter 2 describes the historical development of drinking water regulations. Chapter 3 summarizes the directives of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986. Chapters 4 through 9 discuss each phase of the regulatory program in turn. Specific problems associated with volatile organic chemicals, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, and microbiological contaminants are assessed in Chapter 4 and 5. The unique characteristics of radionuclides and their regulation are treated in Chapter 6. The disinfection process and its resultant disinfection by-products are presented in Chapter 7. The contaminant selection process and the additional contaminants to be regulated by 1989 and 1991 and in future years are discussed in Chapters 8 and 9. EPA's Office of Drinking Water's Health Advisory Program is explained in Chapter 10. The record of public water system compliance with the primary drinking water regulations is detailed in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 offers a nongovernmental perspective on the general quality of drinking water and how this is affected by a wide range of drinking water treatment technologies. Separate abstracts are processed for 5 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  19. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  20. Drinking water regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The fact sheet describes the requirements covered under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Levels of various contaminants (including radio nuclides) are explained. Also discussed are the Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Total Coliforms Rule.

  1. SAFE DRINKING WATER FROM SMALL SYSTEMS: TREATMENT OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bringing small water systems into compliance with the ever-increasing number of regulations will require flexibility in terms of technology application and institional procedures. his article looks at the means by which small systems can provide safe drinking water, focusing on t...

  2. 40 CFR 2.304 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 2.304 Section 2.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.304 Special rules governing certain...

  3. 40 CFR 2.304 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 2.304 Section 2.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.304 Special rules governing certain...

  4. Safe Drinking Water for Alaska: Curriculum for Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South East Regional Resource Center, Juneau, AK.

    Presented is a set of 10 lessons on safe drinking water in Alaska for use by elementary school teachers. The aim is to provide students with an understanding of the sources of the water they drink, how drinking water can be made safe, and the health threat that unsafe water represents. Although this curriculum relates primarily to science, health,…

  5. 77 FR 40382 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 29... the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300f through 300j-26, including violations of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs''), at Lincoln Road RV Park, Inc.'s...

  6. Bee guide to complying with the Safe Drinking Water Act. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, J.G.; Acker, A.M.

    1991-08-01

    This report provides current information on the Safe Drinking Water Act and recent amendments. The report describes the evolution of the Safe Drinking Water Act and the responsibilities of base personnel involved in compliance with the Act. It also describes the monitoring requirements, analytical requirements, best available technology for controlling contaminants, and public notification requirements for regulated contaminants. The appendixes include proposed contaminants and state water quality agencies. Each Air Force public water distribution system (PWDS) must comply with the SDWA, and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs). In the United States and its territories, the provisions of the SDWA and the NPDWRs are enforced by the states except in the few instances in which the state has not been delegated primary enforcement responsibility (primacy) by the EPA. States that have primacy may establish drinking water regulations, monitoring schedules, and reporting requirements more stringent than, or in addition to, those in the NPDWRs. Air Force public water systems in these states are required to comply with these additional requirements as well as federal enforcement actions as carried out by the EPA Regional Office.

  7. 78 FR 28242 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Ramos and Carmen Aurea Fernandez Ramos for violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and the Surface Water Treatment Rule, promulgated under the SDWA. Under the terms of the consent decree, Victor... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On May 7, 2013,...

  8. 75 FR 12569 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7, notice is... Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300G-3(b), based upon Evenhouse's alleged violations of the SDWA and regulations thereunder at two separate community water systems serving the...

  9. MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE U.S. SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT: THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the United States. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 mill...

  10. Regulatory Considerations to Ensure Clean and Safe Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal drinking water regulations are based on risk assessment of human health effects and research conducted on source water, treatment technologies, residuals, and distribution systems. The book chapter summarizes the role that EPA research plays in ensuring pure drinking wat...

  11. 40 CFR 2.304 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 2.304 Section 2.304 Protection of Environment... Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f et seq....

  12. 40 CFR 2.304 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 2.304 Section 2.304 Protection of Environment... Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f et seq....

  13. 40 CFR 2.304 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 2.304 Section 2.304 Protection of Environment... Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f et seq....

  14. Safe Drinking Water for Alaska: Curriculum for Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South East Regional Resource Center, Juneau, AK.

    The 10 lessons in this manual for secondary school teachers address concerns ranging from water sources and pollutants to government programs and water treatment methods. The materials are intended to help students understand the sources of drinking water, how water can be made safe for drinking, and the health threat that contaminated water…

  15. Water, Water Everywhere, But is it Safe to Drink?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been associated with adverse human health effects, including bladder cancer, early term miscarriage, and birth defects. While it is vitally important to kill harmful pathogens in water, it is also important to minimize harmful ...

  16. Targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Litter, Marta I; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2010-08-01

    At present, 70 countries worldwide are affected by groundwater contamination by arsenic (As) released from predominantly geogenic sources. Consequently, the As problem is becoming a global issue. The option to target As-safe aquifers, which uses geological, geochemical, hydrogeological, morphological and climatic similarities to delimit As-safe aquifers, appears as a sustainable mitigation option. Two pilot areas, Meghna Flood Plain in Matlab Upazila, representative of Bengal Delta in Bangladesh, and Río Dulce Alluvial Cone, representing a typical aquifer setting in the Chaco-Pampean Plain in Argentina groundwater As occurrence, were compared. In rural Bangladesh, As removal techniques have been provided to the population, but with low social acceptance. In contrast, "targeting As-safe aquifers" was socially accepted in Bangladesh, where sediment color could be used to identify As-safe aquifer zones and to install safe wells. The investigation in Argentina is more complex because of very different conditions and sources of As. Targeting As-safe aquifers could be a sustainable option for many rural areas and isolated peri-urban areas.

  17. Household's willingness to pay for arsenic safe drinking water in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasreen Islam; Brouwer, Roy; Yang, Hong

    2014-10-01

    This study examines willingness to pay (WTP) in Bangladesh for arsenic (As) safe drinking water across different As-risk zones, applying a double bound discrete choice value elicitation approach. The study aims to provide a robust estimate of the benefits of As safe drinking water supply, which is compared to the results from a similar study published almost 10 years ago using a single bound estimation procedure. Tests show that the double bound valuation design does not suffer from anchoring or incentive incompatibility effects. Health risk awareness levels are high and households are willing to pay on average about 5 percent of their disposable average annual household income for As safe drinking water. Important factors influencing WTP include the bid amount to construct communal deep tubewell for As safe water supply, the risk zone where respondents live, household income, water consumption, awareness of water source contamination, whether household members are affected by As contamination, and whether they already take mitigation measures.

  18. Managing the ecosystem to improve human health: integrated approaches to safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Forget, G; Sanchez-Bain, W A

    1999-01-01

    The ecosystem approach to human health is a holistic concept of health for both humans and the environment in which they live. This approach requires a holistic management of all facets of the ecosystem, be they physical, biologic, or indeed human-such as culture, economy, and developmental needs. This paradigm may at first glance seem theoretical and difficult to put into practice in everyday field research. However, using basic human needs, such as water and sanitation, as entry points illustrates how ecosystem health can indeed prove a powerful tool for sustainable development, promoting both human well-being and sustainable ecosystems. The authors describe the efforts of international agencies, particularly the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), to promote household safe drinking water security in developing countries. Essential to the success of these endeavors are strong partnerships with communities, research institutions, and donor agencies. The roles of these players are delineated. An important feature of IDRC projects, which is critical to their success, is the establishment of a simple, community-based water-quality monitoring program that the people can maintain with the limited resources available to them. The process and outcomes of past IDRC projects are presented and ongoing efforts are described.

  19. Pregnancy and alcohol: occasional, light drinking may be safe.

    PubMed

    2012-02-01

    Many pregnant women drink varying quantities of alcohol, although several guidelines recommend total abstinence. What is known of the dangers of alcohol for the outcome of pregnancy and for the unborn child? To answer this question, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. Fetal alcohol syndrome, which combines facial dysmorphism, growth retardation and intellectual disability, occurs in about 5% of children who are regularly exposed to at least five standard units per day (about 50 g of alcohol per day). Four studies have explored the link between heavy maternal alcohol use over a short period and the risk of cognitive impairment in the child. The results were inconclusive, however, and the authors failed to take concomitant chronic alcohol consumption into account. A methodologically sound study showed an increase in neurological abnormalities (seizures and epilepsy) when the mother drank heavily during short periods between the 11th and 16th weeks of pregnancy. There is a risk of cognitive and behavioural problems in children whose mothers regularly drank more than 2 standard units per day. Studies involving a total of about 150 000 pregnancies sought a link between low-level alcohol consumption and abnormal pregnancy outcomes. Very few showed a statistically significant link, and the results are undermined by the failure to take other risk factors into account. Weekly consumption of 5 standard units or more during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of cryptorchidism. Studies in a total of 57 000 pregnancies showed no effect of minimal alcohol consumption on the risk of malformations. A study of 1000 pregnancies showed a statistically significant risk of major malformations, but there were several apparent biases. A link between infant mortality and alcohol consumption during pregnancy was examined in large cohort studies. Consumption of at least 4 standard units per week increased the risk of early neonatal

  20. What's Wrong with Bribery? An Example Utilizing Access to Safe Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhooge, Lucien J.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examines the role of bribery in the global marketplace through an example involving access to safe drinking water in the developing world. Parts II and III set out the objectives and methods of classroom delivery for the case study. Part IV is the background reading relating to bribery with particular emphasis on the Foreign…

  1. 77 FR 14425 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that on February 24, 2012 a proposed Consent Decree (``Decree'') in United States v. Roy Stricklin, Civil Action No. 11-CV-158-J, was lodged with the United...

  2. The urgent need for environmental sanitation and a safe drinking water supply in Mbandjock, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, P B; Lantum, D M; Monkiedje, A; Takougang, I; Barbazan, P

    1997-07-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the physical, chemical, and bacteriological qualities of drinking water in Mbandjock, Cameroon. Study results indicated that the vast majority of drinking water sources possessed acceptable physical and chemical qualities, according to the World Health Organization standards. However, microbiological analyses revealed that only the waters treated by the Cameroon National Water Company (SNEC) and the Sugar Processing Company (SOSUCAM) were acceptable for human consumption. All spring and well waters presented evidences of fecal contamination from human and/or animal origin. Water from these sources should, therefore, be treated before use for drinking. Since the majority of the population gets its water from wells and springs, there is an urgent need to develop a health education program, within the framework of primary health care, with respect to environmental sanitation and safe drinking water supply in this community. PMID:9216865

  3. 76 FR 72973 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... ``Fort Gay'') for permanent injunctive relief and civil penalties under the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251-387; the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f-300j-26; the West Virginia Water Pollution... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER SUPPLY TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT OF 1996: TRENDS AND PROSPECTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the U.S. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 million people ...

  5. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency health-effects research on drinking-water contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Hauchman, F.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Health Effects Research Laboratory (HERL) provides chemical-specific data and scientific methods that are used by the EPA Office of Water in the development of regulations required by the Safe Drinking Water Act. To determine the chemical and microbial contaminants in drinking water that are of greatest public health concern, HERL conducts hazard identification and dose-response research in humans, animals, and in vitro. HERL conducts studies on pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of action to facilitate the extrapolation of toxicity data from animals to humans. Characterization of the risks associated with human exposure to contaminants in drinking water involves a multi-laboratory/office effort to incorporate information on hazard, dose-response, and exposure into chemical and microbial risk models. The many uncertainties in the underlying health effects data base and in the models used for assessing chemical and microbial risks highlight the need for a strong drinking water health research program in the years to come.

  6. Use of non-carbonated soft drinks to provide safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M; Burke, V; Robinson, J

    1985-03-01

    Non-carbonated, low-calorie soft drink concentrates (cordials), when diluted according to manufacturers' instructions, had significant antibacterial effects in vitro. Bacteria affected include Vibrio cholerae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. With vibrios, bacterial counts were reduced from 10(6)/ml to undetectable numbers in less than 10 min. Escherichia coli in an initial concentration of 10(6)/ml became undetectable after incubation for 1 h with one brand of cordial. Naturally contaminated water can be rendered potable by incubation with cordials at room temperature for 1 h. This may be a way to reduce the risk of water-borne diarrhoea, particularly where the cleanliness of drinking waters cannot be otherwise assured, for example when making up oral rehydration fluids and for travellers in high-risk areas.

  7. Household's willingness to pay for arsenic safe drinking water in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasreen Islam; Brouwer, Roy; Yang, Hong

    2014-10-01

    This study examines willingness to pay (WTP) in Bangladesh for arsenic (As) safe drinking water across different As-risk zones, applying a double bound discrete choice value elicitation approach. The study aims to provide a robust estimate of the benefits of As safe drinking water supply, which is compared to the results from a similar study published almost 10 years ago using a single bound estimation procedure. Tests show that the double bound valuation design does not suffer from anchoring or incentive incompatibility effects. Health risk awareness levels are high and households are willing to pay on average about 5 percent of their disposable average annual household income for As safe drinking water. Important factors influencing WTP include the bid amount to construct communal deep tubewell for As safe water supply, the risk zone where respondents live, household income, water consumption, awareness of water source contamination, whether household members are affected by As contamination, and whether they already take mitigation measures. PMID:24905645

  8. Safe Drinking Water Act. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the United States Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 and later amendments. Articles discuss the impacts these rulings have on industries and municipalities. The criteria developed for these regulations are examined. The citations also address general discussions of the law itself and explore specific concerns such as lead pollution, radon gas in drinking water, microbial pollutants, arsenic contamination, and other contaminants and techniques for disinfection/decontamination. (Contains a minimum of 168 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. The South Australian Safe Drinking Water Act: summary of the first year of operation.

    PubMed

    Froscio, Suzanne M; Bolton, Natalie; Cooke, Renay; Wittholz, Michelle; Cunliffe, David

    2016-06-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act 2011 was introduced in South Australia to provide clear direction to drinking water providers on how to achieve water safety. The Act requires drinking water providers to register with SA Health and develop a risk management plan (RMP) for their water supply that includes operational and verification monitoring plans and an incident notification and communication protocol. During the first year of operation, 212 drinking water providers registered under the Act, including one major water utility and a range of small to medium sized providers in regional and remote areas of the State. Information was captured on water source(s) used and water treatment. Rainwater was the most frequently reported drinking water source (66%), followed by bore water (13%), on-supply or carting of mains water (13%), mixed source (rainwater with bore water backup) (6%) and surface water (3%). The majority of providers (91%) treated the water supply, 87% used disinfection. During the first year of operation, 16 water quality incidents were formally reported to SA Health. These included both microbial and chemical incidents. Case studies presented highlight how the RMPs are assisting drinking water providers to identify incidents of potential health concern and implement corrective actions.

  10. The South Australian Safe Drinking Water Act: summary of the first year of operation.

    PubMed

    Froscio, Suzanne M; Bolton, Natalie; Cooke, Renay; Wittholz, Michelle; Cunliffe, David

    2016-06-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act 2011 was introduced in South Australia to provide clear direction to drinking water providers on how to achieve water safety. The Act requires drinking water providers to register with SA Health and develop a risk management plan (RMP) for their water supply that includes operational and verification monitoring plans and an incident notification and communication protocol. During the first year of operation, 212 drinking water providers registered under the Act, including one major water utility and a range of small to medium sized providers in regional and remote areas of the State. Information was captured on water source(s) used and water treatment. Rainwater was the most frequently reported drinking water source (66%), followed by bore water (13%), on-supply or carting of mains water (13%), mixed source (rainwater with bore water backup) (6%) and surface water (3%). The majority of providers (91%) treated the water supply, 87% used disinfection. During the first year of operation, 16 water quality incidents were formally reported to SA Health. These included both microbial and chemical incidents. Case studies presented highlight how the RMPs are assisting drinking water providers to identify incidents of potential health concern and implement corrective actions. PMID:27280611

  11. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  12. Water legislation in the U. S. : an overview of the Safe Drinking Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.M.; Ehreth, D.J.; Convery, J.J. )

    1991-09-01

    Clearly there is a long history of legislative activity related to water quality in the U.S. Each of the recent legislative provisions in the Safe Drinking Water Act and Clean Water Act will put in motion the adoption of an extensive set of regulations. There is virtual assurance that costly regulations will be promulgated and that these regulations will have a disproportionate impact on small systems, and on the institutional mechanisms for managing and operating water and waste water systems.

  13. The need for a reassessment of the safe upper limit of selenium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vinceti, Marco; Crespi, Catherine M; Bonvicini, Francesca; Malagoli, Carlotta; Ferrante, Margherita; Marmiroli, Sandra; Stranges, Saverio

    2013-01-15

    Results of recent epidemiologic studies suggest the need to reassess the safe upper limit in drinking water of selenium, a metalloid with both toxicological and nutritional properties. Observational and experimental human studies on health effects of organic selenium compounds consumed through diet or supplements, and of inorganic selenium consumed through drinking water, have shown that human toxicity may occur at much lower levels than previously surmised. Evidence indicates that the chemical form of selenium strongly influences its toxicity, and that its biological activity may differ in different species, emphasizing the importance of the few human studies on health effects of the specific selenium compounds found in drinking water. Epidemiologic studies that investigated the effects of selenate, an inorganic selenium species commonly found in drinking water, together with evidence of toxicity of inorganic selenium at low levels in from in vitro and animal studies, indicate that health risks may occur at exposures below the current European Union and World Health Organization upper limit and guideline of 10 and 40 μg/l, respectively, and suggest reduction to 1 μg/l in order to adequately protect human health. Although few drinking waters are currently known to have selenium concentrations exceeding this level, the public health importance of this issue should not be overlooked, and further epidemiologic research is critically needed in this area.

  14. 75 FR 61751 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations AGENCY: Environmental Protection... National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council). This 15-member Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide practical and independent advice, consultation and recommendations...

  15. 75 FR 55324 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; 2011 Drinking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... at http://www.epa.gov/dockets . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Barles, Drinking Water Protection Division (Mail Code 4606M), Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, U.S. EPA, 1200 Pennsylvania... agencies, and state departments of health. Title: 2011 Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey...

  16. Developing a national framework for safe drinking water--case study from Iceland.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-03-01

    Safe drinking water is one of the fundaments of society and experience has shown that a holistic national framework is needed for its effective provision. A national framework should include legal requirements on water protection, surveillance on drinking water quality and performance of the water supply system, and systematic preventive management. Iceland has implemented these requirements into legislation. This case study analyzes the success and challenges encountered in implementing the legislation and provide recommendations on the main shortcomings identified through the Icelandic experience. The results of the analysis show that the national framework for safe drinking water is mostly in place in Iceland. The shortcomings include the need for both improved guidance and control by the central government; and for improved surveillance of the water supply system and implementation of the water safety plan by the Local Competent Authorities. Communication to the public and between stakeholders is also insufficient. There is also a deficiency in the national framework regarding small water supply systems that needs to be addressed. Other elements are largely in place or on track. Most of the lessons learned are transferable to other European countries where the legal system around water safety is built on a common foundation from EU directives. The lessons can also provide valuable insights into how to develop a national framework elsewhere.

  17. Public health and regulatory considerations of the Safe Drinking Water Act.

    PubMed

    Raucher, R S

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the public health and economic issues associated with drinking water quality regulations in the United States. A historic perspective is provided by the use of filtration and chlorine disinfection, and of public health laws from the early 20th century up to passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), in 1974. The contaminants regulated under the Act, and the 1986 Amendments to the SDWA, are evaluated according to health endpoint, related issues in risk assessment, and the cost of complying with associated regulations. Risk-cost and benefit-cost analyses are offered for carcinogens, systemics, and pathogens. The paper describes the evolution of public health issues from the initial focus on waterborne infectious diseases to concerns over chemical contaminants, and the recent reemergence of microbials as the high-priority public health concern. PMID:8724223

  18. Acceptance and Use of Eight Arsenic-Safe Drinking Water Options in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Inauen, Jennifer; Hossain, Mohammad Mojahidul; Johnston, Richard B.; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious public health threat. In Bangladesh, eight major safe water options provide an alternative to contaminated shallow tubewells: piped water supply, deep tubewells, pond sand filters, community arsenic-removal, household arsenic removal, dug wells, well-sharing, and rainwater harvesting. However, it is uncertain how well these options are accepted and used by the at-risk population. Based on the RANAS model (risk, attitudes, norms, ability, and self-regulation) this study aimed to identify the acceptance and use of available safe water options. Cross-sectional face-to-face interviews were used to survey 1,268 households in Bangladesh in November 2009 (n = 872), and December 2010 (n = 396). The questionnaire assessed water consumption, acceptance factors from the RANAS model, and socioeconomic factors. Although all respondents had access to at least one arsenic-safe drinking water option, only 62.1% of participants were currently using these alternatives. The most regularly used options were household arsenic removal filters (92.9%) and piped water supply (85.6%). However, the former result may be positively biased due to high refusal rates of household filter owners. The least used option was household rainwater harvesting (36.6%). Those who reported not using an arsenic-safe source differed in terms of numerous acceptance factors from those who reported using arsenic-safe sources: non-users were characterized by greater vulnerability; showed less preference for the taste and temperature of alternative sources; found collecting safe water quite time-consuming; had lower levels of social norms, self-efficacy, and coping planning; and demonstrated lower levels of commitment to collecting safe water. Acceptance was particularly high for piped water supplies and deep tubewells, whereas dug wells and well-sharing were the least accepted sources. Intervention strategies were derived from the results in order to

  19. Water legislation in the U.S.: an overview of the Safe Drinking Water Act.

    PubMed

    Clark, R M; Ehreth, D J; Convery, J J

    1991-01-01

    Clearly there is a long history of legislative activity related to water quality in the U.S. Each of the recent legislative provisions in the Safe Drinking Water Act and Clean Water Act will put in motion the adoption of an extensive set of regulations. There is virtual assurance that costly regulations will be promulgated and that these regulations will have a disproportionate impact on small systems, and on the institutional mechanisms for managing and operating water and waste water systems. PMID:1780886

  20. Installing arsenic-safe drinking water wells in Matlab, Bangladesh - A novel concept for sustainable mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Prosun; Hossain, Mohammed; Frape, Shaun K.; Jacks, Gunnar; Matin Uddin Ahmed, K.; Aziz Hasan, M.; von Brömssen, Mattias

    2016-04-01

    Since the discovery of Arsenic (As) in Bangladesh groundwater in 1993, there has been a limited success in mitigation and several millions of people are at health risk. Tubewell has been recognized as widely accepted option due to its easy operation, almost no cost for maintenance and the availability of year round water. Since a significant proportion of shallow wells (usually < 80m) are at risk with As-contamination, deep wells are drilled to depths of around 250 m as a mitigation option. Compared to safe water demand, the number of deep wells is still very low, as the installation cost is beyond affordability of the local community. Hydrogeochemical characterization of shallow, intermediate deep and deep aquifer systems were performed through monitoring of groundwater using depth-specific piezometers (n=82) installed in 15 locations in Matlab area of Bangladesh. Monitoring was done over a 3 year period (pre- and post-monsoon for 2009-2011 period). Results from additional 87 existing drinking water supply tubewells were also considered for the study. For the installation of shallow drinking water wells, one aim of this study was to develop a sediment color tool on the basis of local driller's color perception of sediments (Black, White, Off-white and Red), As concentration of tubewell waters and respective color of aquifer sediments. Average and median values of As, less than the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L observed from 39 wells installed in red sands gave strong evidence that red sediments provide As-safe water. Arsenic concentrations in more than 90% of the 66 shallow wells installed in black sands were high with an average value of 239 μg/L. Therefore, it is recommended to avoid installation of shallow wells in aquifers consisting of black sands. The use of Munsell Color Chart for the characterization of 2240 sediment samples collected from each of 1.5 m section up to a depth of 100 m from 15 locations spread over 410 km2 area led to identify 60 color

  1. [Safe drinking water supply to the Vologda Region's population using risk assessment methodology].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, I A; Figurina, T Ia; Shadrina, S Iu

    2011-01-01

    To supply the population with qualitative potable water is a priority problem in the provision of sanitary-and-epidemiologic well-being and in the prevention of disease in the Vologda Region. The monitoring of the results of laboratory control over the quality of drinking-water and the assessment of health risk enabled a package of measures to be proposed to optimize the conditions of drinking water supply in the Vologda Region. The risk assessment technology used by a state agency for sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance makes it possible to substantiate a system of actions to organize household water use and to include scientifically grounded proposals into the developed regional and local programs.

  2. Why Do Some First Nations Communities Have Safe Water and Others Not? Socioeconomic Determinants of Drinking Water Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brandon; Wachowiak-Smolíková, Renata; Spence, Nicholas D.; Wachowiak, Mark P.; Walters, Dan F.

    2016-01-01

    Securing safe and adequate drinking water is an ongoing issue for many Canadian First Nations communities despite nearly 15 years of reports, studies, policy changes, financial commitments, and regulations. The federal drinking water evaluation scheme is narrowly scoped, ignoring community level social factors, which may play a role in access to safe water in First Nations. This research used the 2006 Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada First Nations Drinking Water System Risk Survey data and the Community Well-Being Index, including labour force, education, housing, and income, from the 2006 Census. Bivariate analysis was conducted using the Spearman’s correlation, Kendall’s tau correlation, and Pearson’s correlation. Multivariable analysis was conducted using an ordinal (proportional or cumulative odds) regression model. Results showed that the regression model was significant. Community socioeconomic indicators had no relationship with drinking water risk characterization in both the bivariate and multivariable models, with the sole exception of labour force, which had a significantly positive effect on drinking water risk rankings. Socioeconomic factors were not important in explaining access to safe drinking water in First Nations communities. Improvements in the quality of safe water data as well as an examination of other community processes are required to address this pressing policy issue.

  3. Why Do Some First Nations Communities Have Safe Water and Others Not? Socioeconomic Determinants of Drinking Water Risk.

    PubMed

    Brown, Brandon; Wachowiak-Smolíková, Renata; Spence, Nicholas D; Wachowiak, Mark P; Walters, Dan F

    2016-01-01

    Securing safe and adequate drinking water is an ongoing issue for many Canadian First Nations communities despite nearly 15 years of reports, studies, policy changes, financial commitments, and regulations. The federal drinking water evaluation scheme is narrowly scoped, ignoring community level social factors, which may play a role in access to safe water in First Nations. This research used the 2006 Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada First Nations Drinking Water System Risk Survey data and the Community Well-Being Index, including labour force, education, housing, and income, from the 2006 Census. Bivariate analysis was conducted using the Spearman's correlation, Kendall's tau correlation, and Pearson's correlation. Multivariable analysis was conducted using an ordinal (proportional or cumulative odds) regression model. Results showed that the regression model was significant. Community socioeconomic indicators had no relationship with drinking water risk characterization in both the bivariate and multivariable models, with the sole exception of labour force, which had a significantly positive effect on drinking water risk rankings. Socioeconomic factors were not important in explaining access to safe drinking water in First Nations communities. Improvements in the quality of safe water data as well as an examination of other community processes are required to address this pressing policy issue. PMID:27157172

  4. Why Do Some First Nations Communities Have Safe Water and Others Not? Socioeconomic Determinants of Drinking Water Risk.

    PubMed

    Brown, Brandon; Wachowiak-Smolíková, Renata; Spence, Nicholas D; Wachowiak, Mark P; Walters, Dan F

    2016-01-04

    Securing safe and adequate drinking water is an ongoing issue for many Canadian First Nations communities despite nearly 15 years of reports, studies, policy changes, financial commitments, and regulations. The federal drinking water evaluation scheme is narrowly scoped, ignoring community level social factors, which may play a role in access to safe water in First Nations. This research used the 2006 Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada First Nations Drinking Water System Risk Survey data and the Community Well-Being Index, including labour force, education, housing, and income, from the 2006 Census. Bivariate analysis was conducted using the Spearman's correlation, Kendall's tau correlation, and Pearson's correlation. Multivariable analysis was conducted using an ordinal (proportional or cumulative odds) regression model. Results showed that the regression model was significant. Community socioeconomic indicators had no relationship with drinking water risk characterization in both the bivariate and multivariable models, with the sole exception of labour force, which had a significantly positive effect on drinking water risk rankings. Socioeconomic factors were not important in explaining access to safe drinking water in First Nations communities. Improvements in the quality of safe water data as well as an examination of other community processes are required to address this pressing policy issue.

  5. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  6. 77 FR 61027 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act On September 28, 2012, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree with the United States District Court for the Eastern District...

  7. Safe drinking water production in rural areas: a comparison between developed and less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Cotruvo, J A; Trevant, C

    2000-01-01

    At the fundamental level, there are remarkable parallels between developed and less developed countries in problems of providing safe drinking water in rural areas, but of course, they differ greatly in degree and in the opportunities for resolution. Small water supplies frequently encounter difficulty accessing sufficient quantities of drinking water for all domestic uses. If the water must be treated for safety reasons, then treatment facilities and trained operating personnel and finances are always in short supply. Ideally, each solution should be sustainable within its own cultural, political and economic context, and preferably with local personnel and financial resources. Otherwise, the water supply will be continuously dependent on outside resources and thus will not be able to control its destiny, and its future will be questionable. The history of success in this regard has been inconsistent, particularly in less developed but also in some developed countries. The traditional and ideal solution in developing countries has been central water treatment and a piped distribution network, however, results have had a mixed history primarily due to high initial costs and operation and maintenance, inadequate access to training, management and finance sufficient to support a fairly complex system for the long term. These complete systems are also slow to be implemented so waterborne disease continues in the interim. Thus, non-traditional, creative, cost-effective practical solutions that can be more rapidly implemented are needed. Some of these options could involve: small package central treatment coupled with non piped distribution, e.g. community supplied bottled water; decentralized treatment for the home using basic filtration and/or disinfection; higher levels of technology to deal with chemical contaminants e.g. natural fluoride or arsenic. These technological options coupled with training, technical support and other essential elements like community

  8. Safe drinking water production in rural areas: a comparison between developed and less developed countries.

    PubMed

    Cotruvo, J A; Trevant, C

    2000-01-01

    At the fundamental level, there are remarkable parallels between developed and less developed countries in problems of providing safe drinking water in rural areas, but of course, they differ greatly in degree and in the opportunities for resolution. Small water supplies frequently encounter difficulty accessing sufficient quantities of drinking water for all domestic uses. If the water must be treated for safety reasons, then treatment facilities and trained operating personnel and finances are always in short supply. Ideally, each solution should be sustainable within its own cultural, political and economic context, and preferably with local personnel and financial resources. Otherwise, the water supply will be continuously dependent on outside resources and thus will not be able to control its destiny, and its future will be questionable. The history of success in this regard has been inconsistent, particularly in less developed but also in some developed countries. The traditional and ideal solution in developing countries has been central water treatment and a piped distribution network, however, results have had a mixed history primarily due to high initial costs and operation and maintenance, inadequate access to training, management and finance sufficient to support a fairly complex system for the long term. These complete systems are also slow to be implemented so waterborne disease continues in the interim. Thus, non-traditional, creative, cost-effective practical solutions that can be more rapidly implemented are needed. Some of these options could involve: small package central treatment coupled with non piped distribution, e.g. community supplied bottled water; decentralized treatment for the home using basic filtration and/or disinfection; higher levels of technology to deal with chemical contaminants e.g. natural fluoride or arsenic. These technological options coupled with training, technical support and other essential elements like community

  9. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS: STATE OF THE INDUSTRY AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO MEET THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT REQUIREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report reviews current national data for small drinking water treatment systems, regulations pertaining to small systems, current treatment technologies, disposal of wastes, source water protection, security, and monitoring. The document serves as a roadmap for future small...

  10. Quality control for federal clean water act and safe drinking water act regulatory compliance.

    PubMed

    Askew, Ed

    2013-01-01

    QC sample results are required in order to have confidence in the results from analytical tests. Some of the AOAC water methods include specific QC procedures, frequencies, and acceptance criteria. These are considered to be the minimum controls needed to perform the method successfully. Some regulatory programs, such as those in 40 CFR Part 136.7, require additional QC or have alternative acceptance limits. Essential QC measures include method calibration, reagent standardization, assessment of each analyst's capabilities, analysis of blind check samples, determination of the method's sensitivity (method detection level or quantification limit), and daily evaluation of bias, precision, and the presence of laboratory contamination or other analytical interference. The details of these procedures, their performance frequency, and expected ranges of results are set out in this manuscript. The specific regulatory requirements of 40 CFR Part 136.7 for the Clean Water Act, the laboratory certification requirements of 40 CFR Part 141 for the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the ISO 17025 accreditation requirements under The NELAC Institute are listed. PMID:23513974

  11. Impact of Safe Drinking Water Act amendments of 1986 on selected utilities in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiano, F.A.; Sobsey, M.D.; Anderson, J.S.

    1991-04-01

    Organic and microbial contaminants that are currently or are planned to be regulated under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) were investigated in the following water supplies of the Urban Water Consortium established by The Water Resources Research Institute of The University of North Carolina: Burlington, Orange Water and Sewer Authority (OWASA), Durham, High Point, Raleigh and Winston-Salem. A review of the NPDES permits in each of these water supply sources confirmed that only the water supplies for Raleigh and Winston-Salem are vulnerable to industrial waste from direct discharges (six and seven sources, respectively). Those listed for Raleigh, however, are classified as minor industrial dischargers by an EPA rating system. At High Point, vulnerability is not so much from industrial discharges as from the potential for accidental contamination due to leakage from several oil storage depots. Very few contaminants that are or will be regulated by the SDWA were uncovered in these NPDES permits. It appears that the SDWA amendments' requirement for removal of disinfection by-products will have a much greater impact on the six cities studied than will the regulations regarding SOCs and VOCs.

  12. Ensuring safe drinking water in regional NSW: the role of regulation.

    PubMed

    Byleveld, Paul M; Cretikos, Michelle A; Leask, Sandy D; Durrheim, David N

    2008-01-01

    In regional and rural areas of NSW, drinking water is provided by 107 local water utilities serving a total population of some 1.7 million and operating 323 water supply systems. NSW Health exercises public health oversight of these regional water utilities through the NSW Health Drinking Water Monitoring Program, which provides guidance to water utilities on implementing elements of the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2004, including drinking water monitoring.

  13. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and bacterial contamination in drinking water sources: a case study of Malakand Agency, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Ali, Sharafat; Sher, Hassan; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Kifayatullah; Tang, Jianfeng; Ahmad, Aziz

    2016-05-01

    Human beings are frequently exposed to pathogens and heavy metals through ingestion of contaminated drinking water throughout the world particularly in developing countries. The present study aimed to assess the quality of water used for drinking purposes in Malakand Agency, Pakistan. Water samples were collected from different sources (dug wells, bore wells, tube wells, springs, and hand pumps) and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters and bacterial pathogens (fecal coliform bacteria) using standard methods, while heavy metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-PEA-700). In the study area, 70 % of water sources were contaminated with F. coliform representing high bacterial contamination. The heavy metals, such as Cd (29 and 8 %), Ni (16 and 78 %), and Cr (7 %), exceeded their respective safe limits of WHO (2006) and Pak-EPA (2008), respectively, in water sources, while Pb (9 %) only exceeded from WHO safe limit. The risk assessment tools such as daily intake of metals (DIMs) and health risk indexes (HRIs) were used for health risk estimation and were observed in the order of Ni > Cr > Mn > Pb > Cd and Cd > Ni > Pb > Mn > Cr, respectively. The HRI values of heavy metals for both children and adults were <1, showing lack of potential health risk to the local inhabitants of the study area. PMID:27075311

  14. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and bacterial contamination in drinking water sources: a case study of Malakand Agency, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Ali, Sharafat; Sher, Hassan; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Kifayatullah; Tang, Jianfeng; Ahmad, Aziz

    2016-05-01

    Human beings are frequently exposed to pathogens and heavy metals through ingestion of contaminated drinking water throughout the world particularly in developing countries. The present study aimed to assess the quality of water used for drinking purposes in Malakand Agency, Pakistan. Water samples were collected from different sources (dug wells, bore wells, tube wells, springs, and hand pumps) and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters and bacterial pathogens (fecal coliform bacteria) using standard methods, while heavy metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-PEA-700). In the study area, 70 % of water sources were contaminated with F. coliform representing high bacterial contamination. The heavy metals, such as Cd (29 and 8 %), Ni (16 and 78 %), and Cr (7 %), exceeded their respective safe limits of WHO (2006) and Pak-EPA (2008), respectively, in water sources, while Pb (9 %) only exceeded from WHO safe limit. The risk assessment tools such as daily intake of metals (DIMs) and health risk indexes (HRIs) were used for health risk estimation and were observed in the order of Ni > Cr > Mn > Pb > Cd and Cd > Ni > Pb > Mn > Cr, respectively. The HRI values of heavy metals for both children and adults were <1, showing lack of potential health risk to the local inhabitants of the study area.

  15. Perceived Agency in Retirement and Retiree Drinking Behavior: Job Satisfaction as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacharach, Samuel; Bamberger, Peter; Biron, Michal; Horowitz-Rozen, Mickey

    2008-01-01

    Based on recent findings that post-retirement adjustment may be influenced by the conditions leading up to the decision to retire, we examine the impact of individual agency in the retirement decision on problematic drinking behavior, as well as the extent to which such an effect may itself depend upon the valence of the pre-retirement work…

  16. 78 FR 48845 - Hydrofluorosilicic Acid in Drinking Water; TSCA Section 21 Petition; Reasons for Agency Response

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    .... Association of silicofluoride treated water with elevated blood lead. Neurotoxicology. Vol. 21, pp. 1091-1099... Copper; Final Rule. Federal Register (56 FR 26460, June 7, 1991). 12. American Water Works Association... AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I Hydrofluorosilicic Acid in Drinking Water; TSCA Section 21 Petition; Reasons...

  17. Impact of the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act on the State of Mississippi. Technical completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrard, J.H.; Gibson, P.W.

    1991-10-01

    As a result of the U.S. Congress passing the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act, the number of regulated contaminants that must be monitored in public water systems has increased from 24 to 85. The economic impact of the new legislation is greater on small systems than large systems because of economies of scale. In addition, more highly trained water treatment plant operators will be needed to deal with the complex legislation and to ensure the continuous supply of safe drinking water to their communities. Because of the complexity and increased scope of the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act, a detailed discussion of the requirements that must be met by each public water supply is presented as background information. The objectives of the research were to: (1) determine the economic impacts of the 1986 Amendments on water systems throughout the State of Mississippi, (2) determine the number of systems that will need new and/or upgraded treatments technology to comply with the regulations, and (3) provide an assessment of the needs of the State DWS.

  18. Government agencies and industry working together for a safe and economical U.I.C. program

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, N.K.; Sanborn, K.W.

    1995-12-01

    The Osage UIC Program was developed to address and regulate injection wells in Osage County, Oklahoma. It was initiated to protect the environment according to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) but was tailored it allow operators to continue using injection wells with a minimum amount of additional compliance with the new law. This meant that costly repairs or modifications to the wells were avoided in most cases. In addition, various methods have been developed to further fulfill the regulatory requirements with cost savings in mind. Newly permitted wells have also experienced positive changes to make pressure and volume modification requests possible, and to make other permit changes faster and more efficient. The allowance of modifications to permits has increased oil production without compromising the environment.

  19. Issues in access to safe drinking water and basic hygiene for persons with physical disabilities in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Marin; Pann, Mala; Cantwell, Ray; Moore, Spencer

    2014-12-01

    An estimated 1.6 million people die from diarrheal diseases each year due to lack of access to safe water and sanitation, and persons with physical disabilities face additional barriers. In Cambodia, approximately 5% of the population is disabled, presenting substantial obstacles in accessing these basic services. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to identify the challenges facing persons with physical disabilities in accessing safe household water and basic hygiene in rural Cambodia; and, second, to use these results to generate policy and practice recommendations for the water and sanitation hygiene sector implementing water treatment system interventions in rural settings. Fifteen field interviews were conducted with persons with physical disabilities. Thematic analysis was used to identify six main themes. The results indicated that environmental barriers to access were greater in the workplace than household settings and those persons with disabilities had greater awareness about safe drinking water compared to basic hygiene. Additionally, lack of physical strength, distance to water, and lack of financial means were noted as common access barriers. The findings support ongoing research and offer insight into the particular challenges facing persons with physical disabilities in rural areas in accessing safe drinking water and basic hygiene.

  20. 76 FR 72703 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY... meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Council will consider various issues associated with drinking water protection...

  1. An urgent need to reassess the safe levels of copper in the drinking water: lessons from studies on healthy animals harboring no genetic deficits.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amit; Jayamani, Jayagandan; Prasad, Rajendra

    2014-09-01

    Recent seminal studies have established neurodegeneration, cognitive waning and/or β-amyloid deposition due to chronic copper intoxication via drinking water in healthy animals; henceforth, fuelling the debate all again over the safe levels of copper in the drinking water. This review encompasses the contemporary imperative animal studies in which the effect of chronic copper toxicity (especially via drinking water) was evaluated on the central nervous system and memory of uncompromised animals along with discussing the future perspectives.

  2. 78 FR 63242 - Proposed Template Safe Harbor Agreement for the Solano County Water Agency in Yolo and Solano...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Template Safe Harbor Agreement for the Solano County Water Agency in... availability. SUMMARY: This notice advises the public that the Solano County Water Agency and the U.S. Fish and... threatened valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus). While not signatory to...

  3. A nose for trouble--the role of off-flavours in assuring safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hrudey, S E; Hrudey, E J

    2007-01-01

    A detailed review of drinking water disease outbreaks over the past 30 years in 15 affluent countries produced over 70 case studies, some involving fatalities, which revealed a number of common factors in these disasters. Some of these outbreaks involved off-flavours, either as a driver for reducing disinfection and making the system vulnerable to pathogenic contamination or as an early warning of contamination that was not responded to with sufficient urgency or efficiency to avoid a disease outbreak. The characteristics of these outbreaks are recounted and the important link they reveal between aesthetically pleasing drinking water and safety is documented. Our analysis of common features in drinking water outbreaks also supports an argument that the failure of a water utility to be concerned about aesthetic factors makes such water supplies an inherently greater health risk for their consumers.

  4. Dealing with waterborne disease in Canada: challenges in the delivery of safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Maal-Bared, R; Bartlett, K H; Bowie, W R

    2008-01-01

    Protecting the public from waterborne diseases is an environmental health responsibility that every government worldwide must deal with. Canada's recent experience with waterborne outbreaks has brought the effectiveness of its water-monitoring and treatment systems under scrutiny. This paper focuses on microbial waterborne diseases and the shortcomings of drinking-water systems, dividing them into source control, monitoring, treatment, and operation, epidemiologic, and risk communication issues. Whereas some of these issues are often addressed, others, such as risk communication issues, are less frequently included in drinking water-management plans. Lessons can be learned from the Canadian experience, as these issues are applicable worldwide and especially in the developed world.

  5. 78 FR 65981 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... announcing a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The meeting is scheduled for December 11 and 12, 2013. This meeting of...

  6. 77 FR 52023 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... announcing a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). This meeting was originally scheduled (and announced in a...

  7. 78 FR 48158 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... announcing a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). This meeting is scheduled for October 9 and 10, 2013, in Arlington, VA....

  8. Safe Lanes on Campus. A Guide for Preventing Impaired Driving and Underage Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, Newton, MA.

    This publication describes a variety of prevention strategies that campus and community prevention coalitions can consider as they develop a strategic plan for combating underage drinking and DUI, with a particular emphasis on creating environmental change. This analysis is grounded in a summary of the research literature published in 2002 by the…

  9. 78 FR 19261 - Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... the citizens of Bainbridge Island and that this aquifer system, if contaminated would create a... aquifer which is the sole or principal drinking water source for the area and which, if contaminated... which the Administrator determines may contaminate such aquifer through a recharge zone so as to...

  10. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  11. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  12. Binge Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking Binge Drinking A ... Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Binge Drinking ...

  13. Overview of the regulation of hazardous chemicals: SDWA (Safe Drinking Water Act), RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act), and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act)

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III

    1989-01-01

    The regulation of nonradioactive hazardous chemicals is carried out under a number of federal environmental laws that regulate either hazardous products, substances, or wastes. Because each law is intended to provide protection from different classes of substances (e.g., wastes vs products) or protect different media (e.g., air, water, land), the standards and levels of protection for different hazardous chemicals may be different. Nevertheless, one agency -- the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) -- has primary responsibility for both promulgating regulations mandated by Congress under the various statutes and enforcement of the regulations. One overriding principal underlies the maze of complex regulations that govern the transport, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous substances: protect human health and the environment. It is beyond the scope of this talk to comprehensively examine all of the regulations and standards that govern the management of hazardous chemicals. Instead this discussion will focus on three statutes, the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), that together provide a basis for a basic understanding of the approach that the EPA takes to regulating hazardous chemicals.

  14. The challenges of sustainable access to safe drinking water in rural areas of developing countries: case of Zawtar El-Charkieh, Southern Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Massoud, May A; Al-Abady, Abdolmonim; Jurdi, Mey; Nuwayhid, Iman

    2010-06-01

    Adequate and safe water is important for human health and well-being, economic production, and sustainable development. Failure to ensure the safety of drinking water may expose the community to the risk of outbreaks of waterborne and infectious diseases. Although drinking water is a basic human right, many people do not have access to safe and adequate drinking water or proper sanitation facilities. The authors conducted a study to assess the quantity, cost, continuity, coverage, and quality of drinking water in the village of Zawtar El-Charkieh, Lebanon. Their aim was to identify the challenges of sustainable access to safe drinking water in order to determine the short-term management actions and long-term strategies to improve water quality. Results revealed that contamination of the source, absence of any disinfection method or insufficient dose, poor maintenance operations, and aging of the networks are significant factors contributing to water contamination during the storage and distribution process. Establishing a comprehensive drinking water system that integrates water supply, quality, and management as well as associated educational programs in order to ensure the safety and sustainability of drinking water supplies is essential.

  15. Improvement of the quality of life through safe drinking water & poverty alleviation

    SciTech Connect

    Susheela, A.K.

    1997-12-31

    Fluorosis, a crippling disease caused by ingesting excess fluoride in drinking water, is a public health problem, affecting people in 20 nations in the world. One of the worst public health problems in the history of mankind known to have occurred and reported about 6 decades ago strangely enough the disease continue to be afflicting millions of people in India, Africa and China with all its severity even during the turn of the century. The present report describes the disease characteristics and the devastating manner in which the disease affects children and adults. The need to bring this to the attention of policy, makers, has been attempted.

  16. Drinking-Water Standards and Regulations. Volume 2. Manual for 1982-88

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1988-04-10

    The following 11 important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) U.S. Environmental Agency Water Programs, National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations; (2) New Jersey Safe Drinking Water Act; (3) Summary of New Jersey Drinking Water Standards; (4) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986 Amendments; (5) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Primary Drinking Water Standards; (6) Canadian National Health and Welfare Drinking Water Quality Guidelines--Maximum Acceptable Concentrations; (7) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, Filtration and Disinfection Turbidity, Giardia Lamblia, Viruses, Legionella, and Heterotrophic Bacteria; (8) Public Water Supply Manual--Guide to the Safe Drinking Water Program; (9) Public Water Supply Manual--Emergency Response; (10) U.S. EPA Approved Krofta Chemicals; (11) NY-DOH Approved Krofta Chemicals.

  17. Contingency plan to provide safe drinking water for the city of Milan, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, J.J.; Brew, P.

    1994-12-31

    The city of Milan, in western Tennessee, supplies drinking water to approximately 4,000 customers. Environmental investigations conducted by the US Army have detected low concentrations of RDX, a compound used in the manufacture of explosives, in two of the three city water supply wells. The RDX is traceable to the Milan Army Ammunition Plant nearby. The levels of RDX are being monitored and current trends indicate that levels in the wells will exceed the EPA Health Advisory Limits in the near term. In order to ensure an uninterrupted supply of acceptable quality drinking water for the city residents, the Army prepared and is implementing a Contingency Plan. The plan evaluated remedial alternatives to be implemented once a trigger level of RDX is reached, including institutional controls, installation of an RDX treatment system for the water supply system, and construction of a new well field. Institutional controls include: shutting down existing wells; continued monitoring; and promulgation of ground water ordinances. Treatment technologies evaluated include: ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide; or removal using granular activated carbon.

  18. Approaches for Sustainable Mitigation of Arsenic Calamity in Bangladesh: Search for Safe Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alauddin, M.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Zakaria, A. B.; Rahman, M. M.; Seraji, M. S.

    2008-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Gangetic plain of Bihar, West Bengal in India and Bengal delta plain Bangladesh is shaping up as the greatest environmental health disaster in the current century. About 450 million combined population in these regions are at risk of developing adverse health effects due to arsenic contamination in groundwater. For an effective and sustainable mitigation, it is essential that we improve our understanding of fundamental processes of arsenic mobilization in sediments, biogeochemistry of arsenic in aquifer sediments and weigh a wide range of options for arsenic safe water for the vast population. In this paper, aspects of arsenic removal technology from groundwater in affected areas, sustainable development of household water filtration systems, deep aquifer water as potential arsenic safe water will be presented. In addition, sustainable development of water purification systems such as pond sand filtration (PSF), river sand filtration (RSF), rain water harvesting (RWH), dug well and their acceptability by the community will be discussed. A recent development of indigenous technology by local masons involves searching safe water through bore hole sediment color. The viability of this option in certain areas of Bangladesh will be discussed. Also, one of the household filtration systems approved by the government and locally known as SONO filter was recognized recently by the National Academy of Engineering -Grainger Challenge Prize for sustainability. Over 30, 000 of this unit were deployed in arsenic affected areas of Bangladesh. The affordability, ease of maintenance, social acceptability and environmental friendliness of all options will be addressed in the presentation.

  19. Availability of safe drinking-water: the answer to cholera outbreak? Nabua, Camarines Sur, Philippines, 2012

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Background In May 2012, there were increasing diarrhoea cases and deaths reported from Nabua, Camarines Sur to the Philippines event-based surveillance system. An investigation was conducted to identify risk factors and determine transmission dynamics. Methods A suspected case was defined as a resident of Nabua with at least three episodes of watery diarrhoea per day from 16 March to 22 June 2012. A confirmed case was defined as a suspected case positive for Vibrio cholerae. An environmental investigation was conducted and rectal swabs and water samples sent to the national reference laboratory for bacterial isolation. A 1:2 case-control study matching for age and sex was conducted. Data were analysed using Epi Info. Results There were 309 suspected cases with two deaths, and the most affected age group was children under five years (45%). Eight cases were positive for Vibrio cholerae Ogawa El Tor and one for Non-01. Water samples were positive for faecal coliforms and Aeromonas caviae. The case-control study showed that cases had a higher odds than controls of using unchlorinated water sources (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.6–8.5) and having toilets located within 20 m of a septic tank (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4–5.3). In multivariate analysis, the only significant factor was drinking from piped water (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.09–0.49). Discussion In this cholera outbreak, drinking-water from unchlorinated wells was a significant risk factor. Future cholera control efforts should include not just improving water and sanitation systems but also intensified behaviour change campaigns. PMID:26668761

  20. Sediment color tool for targeting arsenic-safe aquifers for the installation of shallow drinking water tubewells.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammed; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Frape, Shaun K; Jacks, Gunnar; Islam, M Mainul; Rahman, M Moklesur; von Brömssen, Mattias; Hasan, M Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin

    2014-09-15

    In rural Bangladesh, drinking water supply mostly comes from shallow hand tubewells installed manually by the local drillers, the main driving force in tubewell installation. This study was aimed at developing a sediment color tool on the basis of local driller's perception of sediment color, arsenic (As) concentration of tubewell waters and respective color of aquifer sediments. Laboratory analysis of 521 groundwater samples collected from 144 wells during 2009 to 2011 indicate that As concentrations in groundwater were generally higher in the black colored sediments with an average of 239 μg/L. All 39 wells producing water from red sediments provide safe water following the Bangladesh drinking water standard for As (50 μg/L) where mean and median values were less than the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L. Observations for off-white sediments were also quite similar. White sediments were rare and seemed to be less important for well installations at shallow depths. A total of 2240 sediment samples were collected at intervals of 1.5m down to depths of 100 m at 15 locations spread over a 410 km(2) area in Matlab, Bangladesh and compared with the Munsell Color Chart with the purpose of direct comparison of sediment color in a consistent manner. All samples were assigned with Munsell Color and Munsell Code, which eventually led to identify 60 color shade varieties which were narrowed to four colors (black, white, off-white and red) as perceived and used by the local drillers. During the process of color grouping, participatory approach was considered taking the opinions of local drillers, technicians, and geologists into account. This simplified sediment color tool can be used conveniently during shallow tubewell installation and thus shows the potential for educating local drillers to target safe aquifers on the basis of the color characteristics of the sediments.

  1. Impact of the Provision of Safe Drinking Water on School Absence Rates in Cambodia: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Paul R.; Risebro, Helen; Yen, Marie; Lefebvre, Hélène; Lo, Chay; Hartemann, Philippe; Longuet, Christophe; Jaquenoud, François

    2014-01-01

    Background Education is one of the most important drivers behind helping people in developing countries lift themselves out of poverty. However, even when schooling is available absenteeism rates can be high. Recently interest has focussed on whether or not WASH interventions can help reduce absenteeism in developing countries. However, none has focused exclusively on the role of drinking water provision. We report a study of the association between absenteeism and provision of treated water in containers into schools. Methods and Findings We undertook a quasi-experimental longitudinal study of absenteeism rates in 8 schools, 4 of which received one 20 L container of treated drinking water per day. The water had been treated by filtration and ultraviolet disinfection. Weekly absenteeism rates were compared across all schools using negative binomial model in generalized estimating equations. There was a strong association with provision of free water and reduced absenteeism (Incidence rate ratio = 0.39 (95% Confidence Intervals 0.27–0.56)). However there was also a strong association with season (wet versus dry) and a significant interaction between receiving free water and season. In one of the intervention schools it was discovered that the water supplier was not fulfilling his contract and was not delivering sufficient water each week. In this school we showed a significant association between the number of water containers delivered each week and absenteeism (IRR = 0.98 95%CI 0.96–1.00). Conclusion There appears to be a strong association between providing free safe drinking water and reduced absenteeism, though only in the dry season. The mechanism for this association is not clear but may in part be due to improved hydration leading to improved school experience for the children. PMID:24632573

  2. Water, water everywhere...but how can you make sure it's safe to drink?

    PubMed

    Vazquez, E

    1996-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an opportunistic parasitic infection causing diarrhea, headache, abdominal cramping, vomiting, low-grade fever and sometimes death. It caused illness in 400,000 people in Milwaukee in 1993, and one hundred people died, the majority of them were living with AIDS. Since then, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued water-safety guidelines for immunocompromised people. Boiling water will kill the cryptosporidium cysts, but people need to be aware that brushing their teeth or using ice cubes from untreated water could expose them to the parasite. Bottled water is not all safe; only that which is filtered in accordance with ANSI/NSF (American National Standards Institute/National Sanitation Foundation) Standard 53 will ensure safety. Home water filters must meet the requirements of the same standard. Currently available water filters under $200 are listed, and people are cautioned to exercise caution and wear gloves when changing the filters to prevent cryptosporidium exposure. PMID:11363358

  3. 77 FR 64113 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations AGENCY: Environmental Protection... candidates to be considered for a three-year appointment to the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council). The 15 member Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide...

  4. 77 FR 34382 - Meetings of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... AGENCY Meetings of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of Public Meetings AGENCY.../conference call and one in-person meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The Council will consider various issues associated...

  5. 78 FR 68838 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Environmental Protection... candidates to be considered for a three-year appointment to the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council). The 15 member Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide...

  6. 76 FR 61355 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Environmental Protection... of qualified candidates to be considered for a three-year appointment to the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council). The 15 member Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)...

  7. Linking quantitative microbial risk assessment and epidemiological data: informing safe drinking water trials in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Enger, Kyle S; Nelson, Kara L; Clasen, Thomas; Rose, Joan B; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2012-05-01

    Intervention trials are used extensively to assess household water treatment (HWT) device efficacy against diarrheal disease in developing countries. Using these data for policy, however, requires addressing issues of generalizability (relevance of one trial in other contexts) and systematic bias associated with design and conduct of a study. To illustrate how quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) can address water safety and health issues, we analyzed a published randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the LifeStraw Family Filter in the Congo. The model accounted for bias due to (1) incomplete compliance with filtration, (2) unexpected antimicrobial activity by the placebo device, and (3) incomplete recall of diarrheal disease. Effectiveness was measured using the longitudinal prevalence ratio (LPR) of reported diarrhea. The Congo RCT observed an LPR of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.14). Our model predicted LPRs, assuming a perfect placebo, ranging from 0.50 (2.5-97.5 percentile: 0.33, 0.77) to 0.86 (2.5-97.5 percentile: 0.68, 1.09) for high (but not perfect) and low (but not zero) compliance, respectively. The calibration step provided estimates of the concentrations of three pathogen types (modeled as diarrheagenic E. coli, Giardia, and rotavirus) in drinking water, consistent with the longitudinal prevalence of reported diarrhea measured in the trial, and constrained by epidemiological data from the trial. Use of a QMRA model demonstrated the importance of compliance in HWT efficacy, the need for pathogen data from source waters, the effect of quantifying biases associated with epidemiological data, and the usefulness of generalizing the effectiveness of HWT trials to other contexts.

  8. Microbiological water methods: quality control measures for Federal Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act regulatory compliance.

    PubMed

    Root, Patsy; Hunt, Margo; Fjeld, Karla; Kundrat, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) data are required in order to have confidence in the results from analytical tests and the equipment used to produce those results. Some AOAC water methods include specific QA/QC procedures, frequencies, and acceptance criteria, but these are considered to be the minimum controls needed to perform a microbiological method successfully. Some regulatory programs, such as those at Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 136.7 for chemistry methods, require additional QA/QC measures beyond those listed in the method, which can also apply to microbiological methods. Essential QA/QC measures include sterility checks, reagent specificity and sensitivity checks, assessment of each analyst's capabilities, analysis of blind check samples, and evaluation of the presence of laboratory contamination and instrument calibration and checks. The details of these procedures, their performance frequency, and expected results are set out in this report as they apply to microbiological methods. The specific regulatory requirements of CFR Title 40 Part 136.7 for the Clean Water Act, the laboratory certification requirements of CFR Title 40 Part 141 for the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the International Organization for Standardization 17025 accreditation requirements under The NELAC Institute are also discussed. PMID:24830168

  9. Implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Superfund, Ocean, and Water Protection of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, May 17, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    A hearing on the protection of drinking water brought testimony from members of Congress, as well as from environmental and water works groups. The area of most concern was assessing the progress in implementing the Safe Drinking Water Act. Drinking water contamination is one of the most serious environmental health risks in the United States. A key element discussed is controlling the dangerous levels of lead still in drinking water.

  10. Beyond "Safe-Talk": Institutionalization and Agency in China's English Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Milans, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    This article will reflect on the risks of a careless application of "safe-talk", a fruitful analytical concept that has been widely used in classroom discourse studies to link chorus-like repetition sequences with certain institutional and social processes related to either post-colonialism or migration. The discussion will draw on a…

  11. Guidance for applicants for state wellhead protection program assistance funds under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Appendix C. Wellhead Protection Program-applicable regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    Appendix C is a companion document to the Guidance for Applicants for State Wellhead Protection Assistance Funds Under the Safe Drinking Water Act to explain EPA regulations applicable to the Wellhead Protection Program (WHP) and the assistance application form needed to request a program grant. These two documents are used to develop approvable assistance applications and to administer properly the funds awarded under the WHP program.

  12. Safe Drinking Water and Satisfaction with Environmental Quality of Life in Some Oil and Gas Industry Impacted Cities of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejechi, E. O.; Ejechi, B. O.

    2008-01-01

    The availability and safety of drinking water and the environmental quality of life was investigated in five cities located in an oil-producing area of Nigeria using questionnaire-based scales, discussion and laboratory tests. Polythene-packaged sachet water and commercial and non-commercial private boreholes largely met the drinking water…

  13. Safe Schools, Safe Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Julie E.; Pickett, Dean; Pulliam, Janet L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; St. Germaine, Anne-Marie; Underwood, Julie; Worona, Jay

    Schools must work together with agencies, groups, and individuals to eliminate the forces leading children to violence. Chapter 1, "School Safety: Working Together to Keep Schools Safe," stresses the importance of community collaboration in violence prevention. Effective prevention requires sharing information about students, consistent with…

  14. Reduction in fluoride-induced genotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells after substituting high fluoride-containing water with safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Podder, Santosh; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2011-10-01

    Treatment of mice with 15 mg l(-1) sodium fluoride (NaF) for 30 days increased the number of cell death, chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and 'cells with chromatid breaks' (aberrant cells) compared with control. The present study was intended to determine whether the fluoride (F)-induced genotoxicity could be reduced by substituting high F-containing water after 30 days with safe drinking water, containing 0.1 mg F ions l(-1). A significant fall in percentage of CAs and aberrant cells after withdrawal of F-treatment following 30 days of safe water treatment in mice was observed which was highest after 90 days, although their levels still remained significantly high compared with the control group. This observation suggests that F-induced genotoxicity could be reduced by substituting high F-containing water with safe drinking water. Further study is warranted with different doses and extended treatment of safe water to determine whether the induced damages could be completely reduced or not.

  15. Shallow hydrostratigraphy in an arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supply.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Nath, Bibhash; Alexanderson, Helena; Kundu, Amit K; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

    2014-07-01

    To delineate arsenic (As) safe aquifer(s) within shallow depth, the present study has investigated the shallow hydrostratigraphic framework over an area of 100 km(2) at Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal. Drilling of 29 boreholes and subsequent hydrostratigraphic modeling has identified three types of aquifer within 50 m below ground level (bgl). Aquifer-1 represents a thick paleochannel sequence, deposited parallel to the River Hooghly and Ichamati. Aquifer-2 is formed locally within the overbank deposits in the central floodplain area and its vertical extension is strictly limited to 25 m bgl. Aquifer-3 is distributed underneath the overbank deposits and represents an interfluvial aquifer of the area. Aquifer-3 is of Pleistocene age (~70 ka), while aquifer-1 and 2 represent the Holocene deposits (age <9.51 ka), indicating that there was a major hiatus in the sediment deposition after depositing the aquifer-3. Over the area, aquifer-3 is markedly separated from the overlying Holocene deposits by successive upward sequences of brown and olive to pale blue impervious clay layers. The groundwater quality is very much similar in aquifer-1 and 2, where the concentration of As and Fe very commonly exceeds 10 μg/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. Based on similar sediment color, these two aquifers have jointly been designated as the gray sand aquifer (GSA), which constitutes 40% (1.84×10(9) m(3)) of the total drilled volume (4.65×10(9) m(3)). In aquifer-3, the concentration of As and Fe is very low, mostly <2 μg/L and 1mg/L, respectively. This aquifer has been designated as the brown sand aquifer (BSA) according to color of the aquifer materials and represents 10% (4.8×10(8) m(3)) of the total drilled volume. This study further documents that though the concentration of As is very low at BSA, the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines. PMID:24704952

  16. Shallow hydrostratigraphy in an arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supply.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Nath, Bibhash; Alexanderson, Helena; Kundu, Amit K; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

    2014-07-01

    To delineate arsenic (As) safe aquifer(s) within shallow depth, the present study has investigated the shallow hydrostratigraphic framework over an area of 100 km(2) at Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal. Drilling of 29 boreholes and subsequent hydrostratigraphic modeling has identified three types of aquifer within 50 m below ground level (bgl). Aquifer-1 represents a thick paleochannel sequence, deposited parallel to the River Hooghly and Ichamati. Aquifer-2 is formed locally within the overbank deposits in the central floodplain area and its vertical extension is strictly limited to 25 m bgl. Aquifer-3 is distributed underneath the overbank deposits and represents an interfluvial aquifer of the area. Aquifer-3 is of Pleistocene age (~70 ka), while aquifer-1 and 2 represent the Holocene deposits (age <9.51 ka), indicating that there was a major hiatus in the sediment deposition after depositing the aquifer-3. Over the area, aquifer-3 is markedly separated from the overlying Holocene deposits by successive upward sequences of brown and olive to pale blue impervious clay layers. The groundwater quality is very much similar in aquifer-1 and 2, where the concentration of As and Fe very commonly exceeds 10 μg/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. Based on similar sediment color, these two aquifers have jointly been designated as the gray sand aquifer (GSA), which constitutes 40% (1.84×10(9) m(3)) of the total drilled volume (4.65×10(9) m(3)). In aquifer-3, the concentration of As and Fe is very low, mostly <2 μg/L and 1mg/L, respectively. This aquifer has been designated as the brown sand aquifer (BSA) according to color of the aquifer materials and represents 10% (4.8×10(8) m(3)) of the total drilled volume. This study further documents that though the concentration of As is very low at BSA, the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines.

  17. Impact of safe water for drinking and cooking on five arsenic-affected families for 2 years in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, B K; Chowdhury, T R; Samanta, G; Mukherjee, D P; Chanda, C R; Saha, K C; Chakraborti, D

    1998-07-30

    The groundwater in seven districts of West Bengal, India, covering an area of 37,000 km2 with a population of 34 million, has been contaminated with arsenic. In 830 villages/wards more than 1.5 million people, out of the total population, drink the arsenic-contaminated water. Safe water from a source having < 0.002 mg 1(-1) arsenic has been supplied for 2 years to five affected families comprising 17 members (eight of them with arsenical skin-lesions) of different age groups for impact assessment study in terms of loss of arsenic through urine, hair and nail. The study indicates random observable fluctuations of arsenic concentration in urine among members on different scheduled sampling days with a declining trend, particularly during the first 6 months. Furthermore, the investigation showed that despite having safe water for drinking and cooking, the study group could not avoid an intake of arsenic, time and again, through edible herbs grown in contaminated water, food materials contaminated through washing, and the occasional drinking of contaminated water. After minimizing the level of contamination, a noteworthy declining trend after 8 months was observed in urine, hair and nails in all the cases, but not to that level observed in a normal population, due to prevailing elevated background level of arsenic in the area. The eight members, who had already developed skin lesions, are far from recovering completely, indicating a long-lasting damage. Statistical interpretation of the data are considered.

  18. 77 FR 27057 - Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... AGENCY Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List... contaminants for possible inclusion in the fourth drinking water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL 4). EPA is... information contact the EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791 or email: hotline-sdwa@epa.gov ....

  19. Effectiveness of the Preservation Protocol within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 200.8 for Soluble and Particulate Lead Recovery in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic trace metal that is regulated in drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) issued the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), which defines the action level for lead at the tap as 0.015 mg/L. Researchers and drinking water utilities typically emplo...

  20. Restructuring manual: A training manual for state drinking water personnel as they meet the challenges of the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The manual shows how to accomplish small system restructuring. Part 2 of the report defines restructuring options and describes the benefits of various types of restructuring. Part 3 explains how to implement restructuring. Part 4 describes the role of the drinking water regulator in restructuring, and Part 5 is a trouble-shooting guide to overcoming barriers to restructuring. Appendix A provides additional case studies of restructuring.

  1. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part I: spatial and temporal patterns of contaminants, and design of screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), a common list of over 90 contaminants is analyzed nationwide using EPA-authorized laboratory procedures. National and state-level summaries of SDWA data have shown that not all contaminants occur in all places at all times. This hypothesis is confirmed and extended by showing that only a few (less than seven) contaminants are of concern in any one of 19 Iowa surface water systems studied. These systems collectively serve about 350,000 people and their sizes vary between 1,200 and 120,000. The distributions of contaminants found in these systems are positively skewed, with many non-detect measurements. A screening strategy to identify such contaminants in individual systems is presented. These findings have significant implications not only for the design of alternative monitoring programs, but also in multi-billion-dollar decisions that influence the course of future drinking water infrastructure, repair, and maintenance investments.

  2. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part I: spatial and temporal patterns of contaminants, and design of screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), a common list of over 90 contaminants is analyzed nationwide using EPA-authorized laboratory procedures. National and state-level summaries of SDWA data have shown that not all contaminants occur in all places at all times. This hypothesis is confirmed and extended by showing that only a few (less than seven) contaminants are of concern in any one of 19 Iowa surface water systems studied. These systems collectively serve about 350,000 people and their sizes vary between 1,200 and 120,000. The distributions of contaminants found in these systems are positively skewed, with many non-detect measurements. A screening strategy to identify such contaminants in individual systems is presented. These findings have significant implications not only for the design of alternative monitoring programs, but also in multi-billion-dollar decisions that influence the course of future drinking water infrastructure, repair, and maintenance investments. PMID:17882518

  3. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CCL CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS BY GAC, AIR STRIPPING, AND MEMBRANE PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as t...

  4. EPA Method 544: A Case Study in USEPA Drinking Water Method Develpment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) of chemicals and microbes that the Agency will consider for future regulation. One of the key pieces of info...

  5. United States environmental protection agency perchlorate method 332.0. Statistically sound recovery studies in simulated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vanatta, L E; Slingsby, R W

    2011-09-01

    This research is a continuation of an earlier work, which evaluated the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Perchlorate Method 332.0, in which standards were prepared in deionized water over an extended concentration range (i.e., to a maximum of 200 μg/L). This current paper investigates the performance of the same method in which standards were made in simulated drinking water. A microbore format with a 15-μL injection volume was employed to conduct a recovery study and generate recovery curves (which hold the key to a statistically sound assessment of method performance in more complex matrices). The maximum analyte concentration range was 1 to 200 μg/L. For various subset concentration ranges, recovery evaluations were made using both raw peak-area data and analyte responses scaled by the internal standard (ISTD). The results indicate that in complicated matrices such as drinking water, ISTDs may not provide simultaneously high precision and recovery.

  6. ARSENIC IN WATER USED FOR DRINKING - AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In October 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a new federal standard for concentrations of arsenic found in drinking water. The new standard was to be 10 parts-per-million (ppm). This new standard will be required by the Safe Drinking Water Act in...

  7. Wasted Potential: The Role of Higher Education Institutions in Supporting Safe, Sensible and Social Drinking among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orme, Judy; Coghill, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Setting: The United Kingdom (UK) government has acknowledged that there is a problem with excess alcohol consumption, in particular amongst young people. Higher education is an important health promotion setting in which to explore not only how sensible drinking patterns can be facilitated and embedded in students' current lifestyles but also…

  8. A stepped wedge, cluster-randomized trial of a household UV-disinfection and safe storage drinking water intervention in rural Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Joshua S; Reygadas, Fermin; Arnold, Benjamin F; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M

    2013-08-01

    In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The intervention increased the percentage of households with access to treated and safely stored drinking water (23-62%), and reduced the percentage of households with Escherichia coli contaminated drinking water (risk difference (RD): -19% [95% CI: -27%, -14%]). No significant reduction in diarrhea was observed (RD: -0.1% [95% CI: -1.1%, 0.9%]). We conclude that household water quality improvements measured in this study justify future promotion of the Mesita Azul, and that future studies to measure its health impact would be valuable if conducted in populations with higher diarrhea prevalence. PMID:23732255

  9. A Stepped Wedge, Cluster-Randomized Trial of a Household UV-Disinfection and Safe Storage Drinking Water Intervention in Rural Baja California Sur, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Joshua S.; Reygadas, Fermin; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M.

    2013-01-01

    In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The intervention increased the percentage of households with access to treated and safely stored drinking water (23–62%), and reduced the percentage of households with Escherichia coli contaminated drinking water (risk difference (RD): −19% [95% CI: −27%, −14%]). No significant reduction in diarrhea was observed (RD: −0.1% [95% CI: −1.1%, 0.9%]). We conclude that household water quality improvements measured in this study justify future promotion of the Mesita Azul, and that future studies to measure its health impact would be valuable if conducted in populations with higher diarrhea prevalence. PMID:23732255

  10. A stepped wedge, cluster-randomized trial of a household UV-disinfection and safe storage drinking water intervention in rural Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Joshua S; Reygadas, Fermin; Arnold, Benjamin F; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M

    2013-08-01

    In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The intervention increased the percentage of households with access to treated and safely stored drinking water (23-62%), and reduced the percentage of households with Escherichia coli contaminated drinking water (risk difference (RD): -19% [95% CI: -27%, -14%]). No significant reduction in diarrhea was observed (RD: -0.1% [95% CI: -1.1%, 0.9%]). We conclude that household water quality improvements measured in this study justify future promotion of the Mesita Azul, and that future studies to measure its health impact would be valuable if conducted in populations with higher diarrhea prevalence.

  11. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis as pathogenic contaminants of water in Galicia, Spain: the need for safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) in Galicia (NW Spain) and to identify which species and genotype of these pathogenic protozoans are present in the water. Samples of untreated water (surface or ground water sources) and of treated drinking water (in total, 254 samples) were collected from 127 DWTPs and analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR. Considering the untreated water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (54.3%) by IFAT, and DNA of this parasite was detected in 57 samples (44.8%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 76 samples (59.8%) by IFAT and in 56 samples (44.0%) by PCR. Considering the treated drinking water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 52 samples (40.9%) by IFAT, and the parasite DNA was detected in 51 samples (40.1%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 58 samples (45.6%) by IFAT and in 43 samples (33.8%) by PCR. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0% in all samples analysed. Cryptosporidium andersoni, C. hominis, C. parvum and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were identified. The results indicate that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are widespread in the environment and that DWTPs are largely ineffective in reducing/inactivating these pathogens in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in Galicia. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination.

  12. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis as pathogenic contaminants of water in Galicia, Spain: the need for safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) in Galicia (NW Spain) and to identify which species and genotype of these pathogenic protozoans are present in the water. Samples of untreated water (surface or ground water sources) and of treated drinking water (in total, 254 samples) were collected from 127 DWTPs and analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR. Considering the untreated water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (54.3%) by IFAT, and DNA of this parasite was detected in 57 samples (44.8%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 76 samples (59.8%) by IFAT and in 56 samples (44.0%) by PCR. Considering the treated drinking water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 52 samples (40.9%) by IFAT, and the parasite DNA was detected in 51 samples (40.1%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 58 samples (45.6%) by IFAT and in 43 samples (33.8%) by PCR. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0% in all samples analysed. Cryptosporidium andersoni, C. hominis, C. parvum and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were identified. The results indicate that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are widespread in the environment and that DWTPs are largely ineffective in reducing/inactivating these pathogens in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in Galicia. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. PMID:25270421

  13. 75 FR 52325 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Title IV of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002: Drinking Water Security and Safety (Act) Renewal AGENCY... Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002: Drinking Water Security and Safety (Act). ICR numbers: EPA... Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended by the Bioterrorism Act, requires each community water...

  14. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CCL CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS BY ENHANCED COAGULATION, POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON, CHEMICAL SOFTENING, AND OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as t...

  15. Estimates of the total benefits and total costs associated with implementation of the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Interim report, 1985-1989 (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, E.L.; Schnare, D.W.; McFarland, J.P.; Cromwell, J.E.

    1990-03-15

    The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) require EPA to develop regulations for 83 specific contaminants as well as regulations specifying filtration and disinfection treatment requirements. All of the regulations will be promulgated by the early 1990's. Under Executive order 12291, EPA is required to perform a Regulatory Impact Analysis of all proposed regulations. The results of the individual analyses of each major rule package have been summed to provide a perspective on the cumulative cost impacts of the entire SDWA program. In addition, projections of where actual cost impacts will be incurred have been developed for each rule package, permitting an aggregate projection of SDWA compliance expenditures through the year 2010. The EPA intends to update the analysis on an annual basis to incorporate revised impact results for regulations that had not been promulgated at the time the interim final report was completed.

  16. Potential of using arsenic-safe aquifers as sustainable drinking water sources in arsenic-affected areas of Bengal basin, India and Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Biswas, Ashis; Hossain, Mohammed; von Brömssen, Mattias

    2016-04-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic (As) in Holocene aquifers in Bengal basin (India and Bangladesh) have undermined a long success of supplying the population with safe drinking water. Several studies have shown that many of the tested mitigation options have not been well accepted by the people. Instead, local drillers target presumed safe groundwater on the basis of the colour of the sediments. The overall objective of the study has thus been focused on assessing the potential for local drillers to target As safe groundwater. The specific objectives have been to validate the correlation between aquifer sediment colours and groundwater chemical composition, characterize aqueous and solid phase geochemistry and dynamics of As mobility and to assess the risk for cross-contamination of As between aquifers in areas of southeastern Bangladesh and West Bengal. Drillings to a depth of 60 m revealed two distinct hydrostratigraphic units, a strongly reducing aquifer unit with black to grey sediments overlying a patchy sequence of weathered and oxidised white, yellowish-grey to reddish-brown sediment. The aquifers are separated by an impervious clay unit. The reducing aquifer is characterized by high concentrations of dissolved As, DOC, Fe and PO43--tot. On the other hand, the off-white and red sediments contain relatively higher concentrations of Mn and SO42- and low As. Groundwater chemistry correlates well with the colours of the aquifer sediments. Geochemical investigations indicate that secondary mineral phases control dissolved concentrations of Mn, Fe and PO43--tot. Dissolved As is influenced by the amount of Hfo, pH and PO43--tot as a competing ion. Laboratory studies suggest that oxidised sediments have a higher capacity to absorb As. Monitoring of hydraulic heads and groundwater modelling illustrate a complex aquifer system with three aquifers to a depth of 250 m. Groundwater modelling studies illustrate two groundwater flowsystems: i) a deeper regional predominantly

  17. Potential of using arsenic-safe aquifers as sustainable drinking water sources in arsenic-affected areas of Bengal basin, India and Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Prosun; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Biswas, Ashis; Hossain, Mohammed; von Brömssen, Mattias

    2016-04-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic (As) in Holocene aquifers in Bengal basin (India and Bangladesh) have undermined a long success of supplying the population with safe drinking water. Several studies have shown that many of the tested mitigation options have not been well accepted by the people. Instead, local drillers target presumed safe groundwater on the basis of the colour of the sediments. The overall objective of the study has thus been focused on assessing the potential for local drillers to target As safe groundwater. The specific objectives have been to validate the correlation between aquifer sediment colours and groundwater chemical composition, characterize aqueous and solid phase geochemistry and dynamics of As mobility and to assess the risk for cross-contamination of As between aquifers in areas of southeastern Bangladesh and West Bengal. Drillings to a depth of 60 m revealed two distinct hydrostratigraphic units, a strongly reducing aquifer unit with black to grey sediments overlying a patchy sequence of weathered and oxidised white, yellowish-grey to reddish-brown sediment. The aquifers are separated by an impervious clay unit. The reducing aquifer is characterized by high concentrations of dissolved As, DOC, Fe and PO43‑-tot. On the other hand, the off-white and red sediments contain relatively higher concentrations of Mn and SO42‑ and low As. Groundwater chemistry correlates well with the colours of the aquifer sediments. Geochemical investigations indicate that secondary mineral phases control dissolved concentrations of Mn, Fe and PO43‑-tot. Dissolved As is influenced by the amount of Hfo, pH and PO43‑-tot as a competing ion. Laboratory studies suggest that oxidised sediments have a higher capacity to absorb As. Monitoring of hydraulic heads and groundwater modelling illustrate a complex aquifer system with three aquifers to a depth of 250 m. Groundwater modelling studies illustrate two groundwater flowsystems: i) a deeper regional

  18. ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER SUPPLY WELLS: A MULTI-AGENCY COMMUNITY-BASED, RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (ųg/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Central ...

  19. ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER SUPPLY WELLS: A MULTI-AGENCY, COMMUNITY-BASED, RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Central ...

  20. "Improved" But Not Necessarily Safe: An Assessment of Fecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in Rural Peru.

    PubMed

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Rocha, Claudio A; Quick, Robert E; Montano, Silvia M; Tilley, Drake H; Mock, Charles N; Carrasco, A Jannet; Cabrera, Ricardo M; Hawes, Stephen E

    2015-09-01

    The indicator used to measure progress toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for water is access to an improved water supply. However, improved supplies are frequently fecally contaminated in developing countries. We examined factors associated with Escherichia coli contamination of improved water supplies in rural Pisco province, Peru. A random sample of 207 households with at least one child less than 5 years old was surveyed, and water samples from the source and storage container were tested for E. coli contamination. Although over 90% of households used an improved water source, 47% of source and 43% of stored water samples were contaminated with E. coli. Pouring or using a spigot to obtain water from the storage container instead of dipping a hand or object was associated with decreased risk of contamination of stored water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42, 0.80). Container cleanliness (aPR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45, 1.00) and correct handwashing technique (aPR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.42, 0.90) were also associated with decreased contamination risk. These findings highlighted the limitations of improved water supplies as an indicator of safe water access. To ensure water safety in the home, household water treatment and improved hygiene, water handling, and storage practices should be promoted.

  1. “Improved” but Not Necessarily Safe: An Assessment of Fecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in Rural Peru

    PubMed Central

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Rocha, Claudio A.; Quick, Robert E.; Montano, Silvia M.; Tilley, Drake H.; Mock, Charles N.; Carrasco, A. Jannet; Cabrera, Ricardo M.; Hawes, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    The indicator used to measure progress toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for water is access to an improved water supply. However, improved supplies are frequently fecally contaminated in developing countries. We examined factors associated with Escherichia coli contamination of improved water supplies in rural Pisco province, Peru. A random sample of 207 households with at least one child less than 5 years old was surveyed, and water samples from the source and storage container were tested for E. coli contamination. Although over 90% of households used an improved water source, 47% of source and 43% of stored water samples were contaminated with E. coli. Pouring or using a spigot to obtain water from the storage container instead of dipping a hand or object was associated with decreased risk of contamination of stored water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42, 0.80). Container cleanliness (aPR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45, 1.00) and correct handwashing technique (aPR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.42, 0.90) were also associated with decreased contamination risk. These findings highlighted the limitations of improved water supplies as an indicator of safe water access. To ensure water safety in the home, household water treatment and improved hygiene, water handling, and storage practices should be promoted. PMID:26195455

  2. USEPA Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Feige, M.A.; Madding, C.; Glick, E.M. )

    1993-09-01

    The Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program has been in existence since 1943 and was adopted by the Drinking Water Program in 1978 under the authority given the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Both USEPA and the states are looking for ways to make the program efficient in the face of dwindling resources. Recent discussions concerning the certification program have included major new approaches. With impending reauthorization of the SDWA and the changing needs of the certification community, the program could be significantly modified.

  3. Health Impact of Supplying Safe Drinking Water on Patients Having Various Clinical Manifestations of Fluorosis in an Endemic Village of West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Kunal K.; Sundarraj, Shunmuga N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is 1.5 mg/L. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride, often leads to reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or ten days) and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above permissible limit and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after consumption of safe drinking water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted from October 2010 to December 2011 in a village selected randomly in Purulia District of West Bengal which is endemic for fluorosis. Thirty-six families with 104 family members in the above village having history of taking unsafe water containing high level of fluoride were selected for the study. The occurrence of various dental, skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis along with food habits, addictions and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste among the study population was assessed; the impact of taking safe water with fluoride concentration below permissible limit from a supplied community filter on these clinical manifestations was studied by follow-up examination of the above participants for six months. The data obtained is compared with the collected data from the baseline survey. Results: The prevalence of signs and symptoms of dental, skeletal

  4. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part II: design and development of place-based monitoring strategies.

    PubMed

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the United States. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Part II: Several factors affect the performance of monitoring strategies, including: measurable objectives, required precision in estimates, acceptable confidence levels of such estimates, available budget for sampling. In this paper, we develop place-based monitoring strategies based on extensive analysis of available historical water quality data (1960-1994) of 19 Iowa community water systems. These systems supply potable water to over 350,000 people. In the context of drinking water, the objective is to protect public health by utilizing monitoring resources to characterize contaminants that are detectable, and are close to exceeding health standards. A place-based monitoring strategy was developed in which contaminants were selected based on their historical occurrence, rather than their appearance on the SDWA contaminant list. In a subset of the water systems, the temporal frequency of monitoring for one ubiquitous contaminant, nitrate, was tailored to patterns in its historical occurrence and concentration. Three sampling allocation models (linear, quadratic, and cubic) based on historic patterns in peak occurrence were developed and

  5. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part II: design and development of place-based monitoring strategies.

    PubMed

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the United States. In this three part series, spatial and temporal patterns in water quality data are utilized to develop, compare, and evaluate the economic performance of alternative place-based monitoring approaches to current monitoring practice. Part II: Several factors affect the performance of monitoring strategies, including: measurable objectives, required precision in estimates, acceptable confidence levels of such estimates, available budget for sampling. In this paper, we develop place-based monitoring strategies based on extensive analysis of available historical water quality data (1960-1994) of 19 Iowa community water systems. These systems supply potable water to over 350,000 people. In the context of drinking water, the objective is to protect public health by utilizing monitoring resources to characterize contaminants that are detectable, and are close to exceeding health standards. A place-based monitoring strategy was developed in which contaminants were selected based on their historical occurrence, rather than their appearance on the SDWA contaminant list. In a subset of the water systems, the temporal frequency of monitoring for one ubiquitous contaminant, nitrate, was tailored to patterns in its historical occurrence and concentration. Three sampling allocation models (linear, quadratic, and cubic) based on historic patterns in peak occurrence were developed and

  6. Design and development of low cost, simple, rapid and safe, modified field kits for the visual detection and determination of arsenic in drinking water samples.

    PubMed

    Cherukurii, Jyotsna; Anjaneyulu, Y

    2005-08-01

    Arsenic is naturally found in surface and ground waters and the inorganic forms of arsenic are the most toxic forms. The adverse health effects of arsenic may involve the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous, and haematopoietic systems. Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a global problem widely seen in Bangladesh and West Bengal of the Indian sub continent. As there is a great demand for field test kits due to the anticipated reduction of the US EPA arsenic standard from 50ppb to 10ppb a field kit which offers rapid, simple and safe method for precise estimation of arsenic at 10ppb in drinking water samples is developed. Field methods, based on the mercuric-bromide-stain, consist of three different major parts, which are carried out stepwise. The first part of the procedure is to remove serious interference caused by hydrogen sulphide. In commercially available kits either the sulphide is oxidized to sulphate and the excess oxidizing reagent removed prior to the hydride generation step or, the hydrogen sulphide is filtered out by passing the gas stream through a filter impregnated with lead acetate during the hydride generation step. The present method employs cupric chloride in combination with ferric chloride or Fentonis reagent for the removal of hydrogen sulphide, which is rapid, simple and more efficient. Other interferences at this step of the analyses are normally not expected for drinking water analysis. In the second step, the generation of the arsine gas involves the classical way of using zinc metal and hydrochloric acid, which produce the enascenti hydrogen, which is the actual reducing agent. Hydrochloric acid can be replaced by sulfamic acid, which is solid and avoids a major disadvantage of having to handle a corrosive liquid in the field. The arsine gas produces a yellowish spot on the reagent paper. Depending on the arsenic content, either, Yellow n H (HgBr)2 As (10-50ppb), Brown n (HgBr)3 As (50-100ppb) or Black n Hg3 As2

  7. 75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate AGENCY: Food and Drug... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to provide for the safe use of ammonium formate as an acidifying agent in swine feed. This action is in response to a food...

  8. AN OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S SMALL SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER AT THE EPA TEST AND EVALUATION FACILITY IN CINCINNATI, OHIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) landmark Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 promised to bring and provide safe drinking water to all Americans. Since that time many have not understood or appreciated EPA involvement in the research and development (...

  9. Development of the revised drinking water standard for chromium.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber, S; Vogt, C

    1989-10-01

    Comprehensive regulations are being developed to limit human exposure to contamination in drinking water by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the authority of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). These regulations are being developed in several phases and include synthetic organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants and radionuclides. This paper addresses the fundamental concepts and approaches used by EPA in setting drinking water regulations and how EPA is using these concepts to revise the drinking water standard for chromium. PMID:2602936

  10. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism Falls, drownings, and other accidents Head, neck, stomach, ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and your health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  11. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part III: performance evaluation of place-based monitoring strategies.

    PubMed

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, we present over 30 years of evidence to demonstrate unique patterns in water quality contaminants over space and time, develop alternative place-based monitoring approaches that exploit such patterns, and evaluate the economic performance of such approaches to current monitoring practice. Part III: Place-based (PBA) and current SDWA monitoring approaches were implemented on test datasets (1995-2001) from 19 water systems and evaluated based on the following criteria: percent of total detections, percent detections above threshold values (e.g. 20, 50, 90% of MCL), and cost. The PBA outperformed the current SDWA monitoring requirements in terms of total detections, missed only a small proportion of detections below the MCL, and captured all detections above 50% of the MCL. Essentially the same information obtained from current compliance monitoring requirements can be gained at approximately one-eighth the cost by implementing the PBA. Temporal sampling strategies were implemented on test datasets (1995-2001) from four water systems and evaluated by the following criteria: parameter estimation, percent deviation from "true" 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles, and number of samples versus accuracy of the estimate. Non event-based (NEB) strategies were superior in estimating percentiles 1-50, but underestimated the higher percentiles. Event-based strategies were

  12. Household water treatment systems: A solution to the production of safe drinking water by the low-income communities of Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwabi, J. K.; Adeyemo, F. E.; Mahlangu, T. O.; Mamba, B. B.; Brouckaert, B. M.; Swartz, C. D.; Offringa, G.; Mpenyana-Monyatsi, L.; Momba, M. N. B.

    One of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals is to reduce to half by 2015 the number of people, worldwide, who lack access to safe water. Due to the numerous deaths and illnesses caused by waterborne pathogens, various household water treatment devices and safe storage technologies have been developed to treat and manage water at the household level. The new approaches that are continually being examined need to be durable, lower in overall cost and more effective in the removal of the contaminants. In this study, an extensive literature survey was conducted to regroup various household treatment devices that are suitable for the inexpensive treatment of water on a household basis. The survey has resulted in the selection of four household treatment devices: the biosand filter (BSF), bucket filter (BF), ceramic candle filter (CCF) and the silver-impregnated porous pot filter (SIPP). The first three filters were manufactured in a Tshwane University of Technology workshop, using modified designs reported in literature. The SIPP filter is a product of the Tshwane University of Technology. The performance of the four filters was evaluated in terms of flow rate, physicochemical contaminant (turbidity, fluorides, phosphates, chlorophyll a, magnesium, calcium and nitrates) and microbial contaminant ( Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae) removals. The flow rates obtained during the study period were within the recommended limits (171 l/h, 167 l/h, 6.4 l/h and 3.5 l/h for the BSF, BF, CCF and SIPP, respectively). Using standard methods, the results of the preliminary laboratory and field studies with spiked and environmental water samples indicated that all filters decreased the concentrations of contaminants in test water sources. The most efficiently removed chemical contaminant in spiked water was fluoride (99.9%) and the poorest removal efficiency was noted for magnesium (26-56%). A higher performance in chemical

  13. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part III: performance evaluation of place-based monitoring strategies.

    PubMed

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, we present over 30 years of evidence to demonstrate unique patterns in water quality contaminants over space and time, develop alternative place-based monitoring approaches that exploit such patterns, and evaluate the economic performance of such approaches to current monitoring practice. Part III: Place-based (PBA) and current SDWA monitoring approaches were implemented on test datasets (1995-2001) from 19 water systems and evaluated based on the following criteria: percent of total detections, percent detections above threshold values (e.g. 20, 50, 90% of MCL), and cost. The PBA outperformed the current SDWA monitoring requirements in terms of total detections, missed only a small proportion of detections below the MCL, and captured all detections above 50% of the MCL. Essentially the same information obtained from current compliance monitoring requirements can be gained at approximately one-eighth the cost by implementing the PBA. Temporal sampling strategies were implemented on test datasets (1995-2001) from four water systems and evaluated by the following criteria: parameter estimation, percent deviation from "true" 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles, and number of samples versus accuracy of the estimate. Non event-based (NEB) strategies were superior in estimating percentiles 1-50, but underestimated the higher percentiles. Event-based strategies were

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER SUPPLY TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE U.S. SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT: TRENDS AND PROSPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    the passage of the US SDWA in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the US. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 million people in the US. Under the SDWA pub...

  15. REGULATED CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water is critical to protecting human health. More than 260 million Americans rely on the safety of tap water provided by water systems that comply with national drinking water standards. EPA's strategy for ensuring safe drinking water includes four key elements, ...

  16. Evaluation of Current Water Treatment and Distribution System Optimization to Provide Safe Drinking Water from Various Source Water Types and Conditions (Deliverable 5.2.C.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) are being challenged by changes in the quality of their source waters and by their aging treatment and distribution system infrastructure. Individually or in combination, factors such as shrinking water and financial resources...

  17. Urinary fluoride as a monitoring tool for assessing successful intervention in the provision of safe drinking water supply in five fluoride-affected villages in Dhar district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, R; Gautam, Anil; Jaiswal, Suresh Chandra; Singh, Pavitra

    2013-03-01

    Endemic fluorosis was detected in 31 villages in the Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. Out of the 109 drinking water sources that were analyzed, about 67 % were found to contain high concentration of fluoride above the permissible level of 1.0 mg/l. Dental fluorosis among the primary school children in the age between 8 and 15 served as primary indicator for fluoride intoxication among the children. Urinary fluoride levels among the adults were found to be correlated with drinking water fluoride in 10 villages affected by fluoride. Intervention in the form of alternate safe water supply in five villages showed significant reduction in the urinary fluoride concentration when compared to the control village. Urinary fluoride serves as an excellent marker for assessing the effectiveness of intervention program in the fluoride-affected villages.

  18. Determination of Selected Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids in Drinking Water by Solid Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) required EPA to establish a Contaminant Candidate List (CCL), that contains a list of drinking water contaminants that the Agency will consider for future regulation. EPA must make a regulatory determination on a minimum ...

  19. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using tea waste loaded with Al/Fe oxides: A novel, safe and efficient biosorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hui-mei; Chen, Gui-jie; Peng, Chuan-yi; Zhang, Zheng-zhu; Dong, Yang-yang; Shang, Guang-zhi; Zhu, Xiao-hui; Gao, Hong-jian; Wan, Xiao-chun

    2015-02-01

    A low-cost and highly efficient biosorbent was prepared by loading Al/Fe oxides onto tea waste and was tested for the ability to remove fluoride from drinking water. Key factors, including adsorbent dosage, initial fluoride concentration, contact time and initial pH of the biosorbent, were investigated. It was found that the solution pH played an important role in the removal of fluoride. The biosorbent combinations Tea-Al or Tea-Al-Fe could reduce the fluoride concentration to below 1.5 mg/L in the drinking water, a level which meets the drinking water standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the residual concentrations of Al and Fe in the drinking water after Tea-Al-Fe treatment were below the standards set by WHO when treatment was conducted at pH values ranging from 5.0 to 10.0. The experimental data were analyzed using two-parameter theoretical models. The maximum fluoride adsorption capacities for the original tea, Tea-Fe, Tea-Al and Tea-Al-Fe biosorbents were 3.83, 10.47, 13.79 and 18.52 mg/g, respectively. These findings demonstrate the suitability of a prepared biosorbent based on tea waste for the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

  20. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... If you drink alcohol, health care providers advise limiting how much ... drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible ...

  1. AN OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an overview of drinking water research being conducted by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) of the U.S. EPA. The Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally known water research organization establi...

  2. 77 FR 55896 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Loop 1 in Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ..., Section 401, Section 319) ; Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) ; Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) [42 U... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Loop 1 in Texas AGENCY: Federal..., Texas. Those actions grant licenses, permits, and approvals for the project. DATES: By this notice,...

  3. What's next after 40 years of drinking water regulations?

    PubMed

    Roberson, J Alan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of drinking water in the United States has continued to improve over the past 40 years. The formation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1971, the passage of the initial Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA, PL 93-523) in 1974, and the passage of the 1996 SDWA Amendments (PL 104-208) represent significant progress in drinking water quality. While the widespread adoption of filtration and disinfection in the early 1900s virtually eliminated waterborne typhoid fever, some residual risks still remained 40 years ago. These national regulatory developments compelled USEPA and the drinking water community to address these remaining risks in drinking water and optimize risk reduction for the public.

  4. What's next after 40 years of drinking water regulations?

    PubMed

    Roberson, J Alan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of drinking water in the United States has continued to improve over the past 40 years. The formation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1971, the passage of the initial Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA, PL 93-523) in 1974, and the passage of the 1996 SDWA Amendments (PL 104-208) represent significant progress in drinking water quality. While the widespread adoption of filtration and disinfection in the early 1900s virtually eliminated waterborne typhoid fever, some residual risks still remained 40 years ago. These national regulatory developments compelled USEPA and the drinking water community to address these remaining risks in drinking water and optimize risk reduction for the public. PMID:21141882

  5. New sorbent in the dispersive solid phase extraction step of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe for the extraction of organic contaminants in drinking water treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Maristela B R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have shown a decrease in the concentration of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs) in water after treatment. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that these compounds may adhere to the sludge; however, investigation of these compounds in drinking water treatment sludge has been scarce. The sludge generated by drinking water treatment plants during flocculation and decantation steps should get some special attention not only because it has been classified as non-inert waste but also because it is a very complex matrix, consisting essentially of inorganic (sand, argil and silt) and organic (humic substances) compounds. In the first step of this study, three QuEChERS methods were used, and then compared, for the extraction of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, clomazone and tebuconazole), pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, caffeine, diclofenac and ibuprofen) and PCPs (methylparaben, propylparaben, triclocarban and bisphenol A) from drinking water treatment sludge. Afterwards, the study of different sorbents in the dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) step was evaluated. Finally, a new QuEChERS method employing chitin, obtained from shrimp shell waste, was performed in the d-SPE step. After having been optimized, the method showed limits of quantification (LOQ) between 1 and 50 μg kg(-1) and the analytical curves showed r values higher than 0.98, when liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed. Recoveries ranged between 50 and 120% with RSD≤15%. The matrix effect was evaluated and compensated with matrix-matched calibration. The method was applied to drinking water treatment sludge samples and methylparaben and tebuconazole were found in concentration

  6. New sorbent in the dispersive solid phase extraction step of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe for the extraction of organic contaminants in drinking water treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Maristela B R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have shown a decrease in the concentration of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs) in water after treatment. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that these compounds may adhere to the sludge; however, investigation of these compounds in drinking water treatment sludge has been scarce. The sludge generated by drinking water treatment plants during flocculation and decantation steps should get some special attention not only because it has been classified as non-inert waste but also because it is a very complex matrix, consisting essentially of inorganic (sand, argil and silt) and organic (humic substances) compounds. In the first step of this study, three QuEChERS methods were used, and then compared, for the extraction of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, clomazone and tebuconazole), pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, caffeine, diclofenac and ibuprofen) and PCPs (methylparaben, propylparaben, triclocarban and bisphenol A) from drinking water treatment sludge. Afterwards, the study of different sorbents in the dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) step was evaluated. Finally, a new QuEChERS method employing chitin, obtained from shrimp shell waste, was performed in the d-SPE step. After having been optimized, the method showed limits of quantification (LOQ) between 1 and 50 μg kg(-1) and the analytical curves showed r values higher than 0.98, when liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed. Recoveries ranged between 50 and 120% with RSD≤15%. The matrix effect was evaluated and compensated with matrix-matched calibration. The method was applied to drinking water treatment sludge samples and methylparaben and tebuconazole were found in concentration

  7. State costs of implementing the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. Results and implications of the 1988 Association of State Drinking Water Administrators' survey of state primacy program resource needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-20

    To assist the Office of Drinking Water in estimating the state costs of regulatory options and in providing guidance and assistance to state programs, the Survey of State Primacy Program Resource Needs was conducted in the summer and fall of 1988. The survey was a joint effort between EPA and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators (ASDWA). A detailed 18 page questionnaire and a 38 page supplement were prepared to obtain from each state and territory an estimate of the staff and funding resources needed both to implement existing programs and to meet the new requirements. ASDWA distributed the survey to all states and territories and compiled the responses in a data base as they were received. EPA supported ASDWA in delineating the expected requirements, providing implementation schedules of the forthcoming rules, and analyzing the results of the survey. The report discusses the methodology used in developing and conducting the survey and presents the results of the analyses.

  8. Understanding standard drinks and drinking guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, William C.; Stockwell, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Aims For consumers to follow drinking guidelines and limit their risk of negative consequences they need to track their ethanol consumption. This paper reviews published research on the ability of consumers to utilise information about the alcohol content of beverages when expressed in different forms e.g. in standard drinks or units versus percentage alcohol content.. Design and Methods A review of the literature on standard drink definitions and consumer understanding of these, actual drink pouring, use of standard drinks in guidelines and consumer understanding and use of these. Results Standard drink definitions vary across countries and typically contain less alcohol than actual drinks. Drinkers have difficulty defining and pouring standard drinks with over-pouring being the norm such that intake volume is typically underestimated. Drinkers have difficulty using percentage alcohol by volume and pour size information in calculating intake but can effectively utilise standard drink labeling to track intake. Discussion and Conclusions Standard drink labeling is an effective but little used strategy for enabling drinkers to track their alcohol intake and potentially conform to safe or low risk drinking guidelines. PMID:22050262

  9. Water, Water Everywhere but is it Safe to Drink? Some Detrimental Health Effects Associated with Consumption of Groundwater Enriched in Naturally-Occurring Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuge, R.

    2007-05-01

    Drinking water represents a major pathway of trace elements into the human body. As such, groundwaters, the chemistry of which reflect water/rock interaction, can be a source of trace elements which will have a marked health effect on humans consuming them. Health problems associated with the consumption of groundwater enriched in various elements and compounds have been recorded for many years. For example, high-arsenic groundwaters used for public water supply were first associated with harmful health effects as early as 1917 in Córdoba Province in Argentina, where the local population suffered from skin disorders. Subsequently, in the 1960s consumption of high-arsenic groundwaters was identified as a factor in the aetiology of "black foot disease", an endemic vascular disease, in Taiwan. However, it is problems associated with the very high-arsenic groundwaters of the highly populous Ganges delta area of Bangladesh and West Bengal that has more recently highlighted the health problem of consuming high-arsenic waters. The most obvious problems of excess arsenic consumption through drinking water are arsenical skin lesions, the severity of which being generally correlated with arsenic content of the water. A high incidence of cancers of the skin, bladder and other organs has been recorded in the high-arsenic drinking water areas of the world. A high incidence of vascular disease, found in the arsenic-rich area of Taiwan, has also been shown to occur in Bangladesh. In addition, it has been suggested that high arsenic in drinking water results in increased incidence of diabetes mellitus. Fluorine is another element long recognised as having a major effect on the well-being of humans. Consumption of high-fluorine waters were first identified as having a detrimental effect on teeth in the 1920s and 30s. It was subsequently shown that where fluorine is present in drinking waters at concentrations of around 0.5 to 1 mg/L it can have beneficial effects on humans

  10. Hydrogeological investigation for assessment of the sustainability of low-arsenic aquifers as a safe drinking water source in regions with high-arsenic groundwater in Matlab, southeastern Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Brömssen, Mattias; Markussen, Lars; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Hossain, Mohammed; Jacks, Gunnar; Sracek, Ondra; Thunvik, Roger; Hasan, M. Aziz; Islam, M. Mainul; Rahman, M. Mokhlesur

    2014-10-01

    Exploitation of groundwater from shallow, high prolific Holocene sedimentary aquifers has been a main element for achieving safe drinking water and food security in Bangladesh. However, the presence of elevated levels of geogenic arsenic (As) in these aquifers has undermined this success. Except for targeting safe aquifers through installations of tubewells to greater depth, no mitigation option has been successfully implemented on a larger scale. The objective of this study has been to characterise the hydrostratigraphy, groundwater flow patterns, the hydraulic properties to assess the vulnerability of low-arsenic aquifers at Matlab, in south-eastern Bangladesh, one of the worst arsenic-affected areas of the country. Groundwater modelling, conventional pumping test using multilevel piezometers, hydraulic head monitoring in piezometer nests, 14C dating of groundwater and assessment of groundwater abstraction were used. A model comprising of three aquifers covering the top 250 m of the model domain showed the best fit for the calibration evaluation criteria. Irrigation wells in the Matlab area are mostly installed in clusters and account for most of the groundwater abstraction. Even though the hydraulic heads are affected locally by seasonal pumping, the aquifer system is fully recharged from the monsoonal replenishment. Groundwater simulations demonstrated the presence of deep regional flow systems with recharge areas in the eastern, hilly part of Bangladesh and shallow small local flow systems driven by local topography. Based on modelling results and 14C groundwater data, it can be concluded that the natural local flow systems reach a depth of 30 m b.g.l. in the study area. A downward vertical gradient of roughly 0.01 down to 200 m b.g.l. was observed and reproduced by calibrated models. The vertical gradient is mainly the result of the aquifer system and properties rather than abstraction rate, which is too limited at depth to make an imprint. Although

  11. Drinking-water standards

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, N.B.; Travis, C.C.

    1986-08-01

    This paper discussed the revising of the primary and secondary drinking-water regulations by EPA in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. Since consideration of risk is playing an increasing role in setting environmental standards, questions were raised regarding the adequacy of human health protection afforded by some of the existing and proposed standards. 1 table.

  12. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  13. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TO SAFELY AND EFFECTIVELY COMPLETE NUCLEAR CONSTRUCTION WORK

    SciTech Connect

    LESO KF; HAMILTON HM; FARNER M; HEATH T

    2010-01-14

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small

  14. USEPA'S APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act require USEPA to perform Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) for chemicals of interest to the Agency for possible future regulation. Many of these chemicals fall into the category of "emerging contaminants". An important e...

  15. Perchlorate in water via US Environmental Protection Agency Method 331 Determination of method uncertainties, lowest concentration minimum reporting levels, and Hubaux-Vos detection limits in reagent water and simulated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wendelken, S C; Vanatta, L E; Coleman, D E; Munch, D J

    2006-06-16

    US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 331 determines perchlorate in drinking water using non-suppressed ion chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. This study reports the results of calibration and recovery studies in reagent water, as well as of a recovery study in simulated drinking water (i.e., total dissolved solids are 500 mg/mL each of chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). The perchlorate concentrations in the study ranged from 0.05 to 64 ng/mL. At 95% confidence, the Hubaux-Vos detection limit (H-V DL) was 0.04 ng/mL for the calibration study and the simulated-drinking-water recovery study, and 0.03 ng/mL for the reagent-water recovery study. The lowest concentration minimum reporting level was 0.03 ng/mL for reagent water and 0.0 7 ng/mL for simulated drinking water, again at 95% confidence.

  16. Harms from other people's drinking: an international survey of their occurrence, impacts on feeling safe and legislation relating to their control

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Ashton, Kathryn; Ferris, Jason; Winstock, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine factors associated with suffering harm from another person's alcohol consumption and explore how suffering such harms relate to feelings of safety in nightlife. Design Cross-sectional opportunistic survey (Global Drug Survey) using an online anonymous questionnaire in 11 languages promoted through newspapers, magazines and social media. Subjects Individuals (participating November 2014–January 2015) aged 18–34 years, reporting alcohol consumption in the past 12 months and resident in a country providing ≥250 respondents (n=21 countries; 63 725 respondents). Main outcome measures Harms suffered due to others’ drinking in the past 12 months, feelings of safety on nights out (on the way out, in bars/pubs, in nightclubs and when travelling home) and knowledge of over-serving laws and their implementation. Results In the past 12 months, >40% of respondents suffered at least one aggressive (physical, verbal or sexual assault) harm and 59.5% any harm caused by someone drunk. Suffering each category of harm was higher in younger respondents and those with more harmful alcohol consumption patterns. Men were more likely than women to have suffered physical assault (9.2% vs 4.7; p<0.001), with women much more likely to suffer sexual assault or harassment (15.3% vs 2.5%; p<0.001). Women were more likely to feel unsafe in all nightlife settings, with 40.8% typically feeling unsafe on the way home. In all settings, feeling unsafe increased with experiencing more categories of aggressive harm by a drunk person. Only 25.7% of respondents resident in countries with restrictions on selling alcohol to drunks knew about such laws and 75.8% believed that drunks usually get served alcohol. Conclusions Harms from others’ drinking are a threat to people's health and well-being. Public health bodies must ensure that such harms are reflected in measures of the societal costs of alcohol, and must advocate for the enforcement of legislation designed to

  17. Emergency response planning to reduce the impact of contaminated drinking water during natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Craig L.; Adams, Jeffrey Q.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water systems. Prior to an event, utilities and municipalities can use "What if"? scenarios to develop emergency operation, response, and recovery plans designed to reduce the severity of damage and destruction. Government agencies including the EPA are planning ahead to provide temporary supplies of potable water and small drinking water treatment technologies to communities as an integral part of emergency response activities that will ensure clean and safe drinking water.

  18. Report to the United States Congress on radionuclides in drinking water: Multimedia risk and cost assessment of radon in drinking water. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-15

    EPA prepared the report in response to the Congressional mandate in Public Law 102-389 (the Chafee-Lautenberg Amendment to EPA's Appropriation Bill, enacted October 6, 1992) which directs the Administrator of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to report to Congress on EPA's findings regarding the risks of human exposure to radon, the costs for controlling or mitigating that exposure, and the risks posed by treating water to remove radon. The Chafee-Lautenberg Amendment called for an explicit multimedia comparison of the risks from radon in indoor air and drinking water. Congress placed the requirement on the Agency because of the concern voiced in the United States over the costs to be incurred by public water systems in the control of radon in drinking water while a larger threat from indoor air was not being addressed except through voluntary measures. Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act in 1986 called for the regulation of radon in drinking water.

  19. The U.S. Geological Survey Drinking Water Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Safe drinking-water supplies are critical to maintaining and preserving public health. Although the Nation's drinking water is generally safe, natural and introduced contaminants in water supplies throughout the country have adversely affected human health. This new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiative will provide information on the vulnerability of water supplies to be used by water-supply and regulatory agencies who must balance water-supply protection with the wise use of public funds. Using the results of the initiative, they will be better able to focus on the supplies most at risk and the variability of contaminants of most concern, and so address the mandates of the Safe Drinking Water Act. With its store of geologic, hydrologic, and land use and land cover data and its network of information in every State, the USGS can help to identify potential sources of contamination, delineate source areas, determine the vulnerability of waters to potential contamination, and evaluate strategies being used to protect source waters in light of the scientific information available. Many recent and ongoing studies by the USGS concern drinking-water issues. This fact sheet highlights four particular studies begun under the Drinking Water Initiative.

  20. DEVELOPING ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR GATHERING NATIONWIDE OCCURRENCE DATA FOR CHEMICALS ON THE DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT CANDIDATE LIST (CCL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) require the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to publish a list of contaminants that are known or anticipated to occur in public water systems, and which may require regulation under the SDWA. In response to th...

  1. Drinking water standards and regulations. Manual for 1977-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1987-01-15

    The following eight important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards; (2) EPA Guidelines establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act; (3) Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Quality Engineering, Interpretation of Results of Water Supply Analysis; (4) Thompson, J.C., Updating the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Drinking Water Regulations; (5) Lists of Acceptable Drinking Water Additives; (6) Title XIV of the Public Health Service Act (The Safe Drinking Water Act); (7) Standards for Quality of Public Drinking Water--Connecticut; (8) New York State Sanitary Code of Drinking Water Supplies (Including Drinking Water Standards).

  2. Ensuring the Public's Drinking-Water Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Some questions are answered concerning the justification, intent, and purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations. Some points, previously misinterpreted, are placed in clear perspective. (BB)

  3. 76 FR 56493 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Loop 375 From Interstate Highway 10 to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Conservation Fund (LWCF), 16 U.S.C. 4601-4604; Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300(f)-300(j)(6... Interstate Highway 10 to the Franklin Mountains State Park in Texas AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration..., upgrades to Texas State Loop 375 from Interstate Highway 10 to 0.479 Mile East of the Tom Mays Unit of...

  4. Research needs in drinking water: a basis in regulations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jacangelo, Joseph G; Askenaizer, Daniel J; Schwab, Kellogg

    2006-01-01

    Regulations are one of the primary drivers for research on contaminants in drinking water in the United States. Since the original Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), enacted in 1974, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a series of drinking water regulations. These regulations are focused on protecting public health. When evaluating available information on whether or not to regulate a constituent in drinking water, USEPA considers available information on health effects and occurrence of the constituent. The authors provide their view of the research needed for these contaminants. For inorganics, more data are needed on perchlorate. For organics, greater treatment and health effects information is warranted for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Finally, more research is needed on analytical methods for noroviruses and other emerging pathogens. PMID:16493893

  5. Safe Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  6. Drinking water standards for radionuclides: the dilemma and a possible resolution.

    PubMed

    Kocher, D C

    2001-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is undertaking a revision of existing standards for radionuclides in drinking water. The Safe Drinking Water Act specifies that any revision "shall maintain or provide for greater protection of the health of persons." This provision appears to require that existing standards (maximum contaminant levels, MCLs) cannot be relaxed. Such a requirement presents a dilemma for two reasons. First, EPA has shown that the MCL for radium was not cost-effective. Second, MCLs for beta/gamma-emitting radionuclides incorporate outdated approaches to estimating dose from ingestion of radionuclides and, thus, appear to violate provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act concerning the use of sound science in setting standards. We suggest that this dilemma can be resolved based on an argument that the standard for protection of public health mandated by the Safe Drinking Water Act is one of applying best-available technology for removal of contaminants from drinking water at a reasonable cost, not one of meeting previously established MCLs. PMID:11316079

  7. Safe sex.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K

    1994-01-01

    The main objectives of health care for people with AIDS are to help them adjust to changing sexual status and to provide them with information on safe sex. Sections consider the risks of various types of sexual activity and safe sex education. With regard to the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV, sexual activities may be high risk, medium risk, low risk, or no risk. High-risk activities include unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, oral-anal sexual contact, sharing sex toys, and traumatic sexual activity. Medium-risk activities include anal and vaginal intercourse using a latex condom with or without spermicide, and sex using a vaginal diaphragm or contraceptive vaginal sponge. Oral sex on a woman or oral sex on a man without ejaculation into the mouth are low-risk activities. Mutual masturbation, erotic touching, caressing and massage, kissing and non-genital licking pose no risk of infection. All general practitioners and family physicians should teach about safe sex. Prevention messages may be conveyed through individual and social counseling as well as with printed media and other forms of mass media. Messages should definitely reach prostitutes and brothel owners, as well as pre-pubertal children and older youths. PMID:8207282

  8. Safe sex.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K

    1994-01-01

    The main objectives of health care for people with AIDS are to help them adjust to changing sexual status and to provide them with information on safe sex. Sections consider the risks of various types of sexual activity and safe sex education. With regard to the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV, sexual activities may be high risk, medium risk, low risk, or no risk. High-risk activities include unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, oral-anal sexual contact, sharing sex toys, and traumatic sexual activity. Medium-risk activities include anal and vaginal intercourse using a latex condom with or without spermicide, and sex using a vaginal diaphragm or contraceptive vaginal sponge. Oral sex on a woman or oral sex on a man without ejaculation into the mouth are low-risk activities. Mutual masturbation, erotic touching, caressing and massage, kissing and non-genital licking pose no risk of infection. All general practitioners and family physicians should teach about safe sex. Prevention messages may be conveyed through individual and social counseling as well as with printed media and other forms of mass media. Messages should definitely reach prostitutes and brothel owners, as well as pre-pubertal children and older youths.

  9. Congressional committee scrutinizes Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a favored target of criticism by those claiming the agency's regulatory actions hurt the economy, faced further scrutiny during a 17 November House of Representatives hearing to review the agency's research and development activities and discuss the Environmental Research, Development and Demonstration Act (ERDDA), which authorizes research and development activities at EPA. Although the act has not been reauthorized since 1980, EPA also derives authority from a number of other specific environmental laws such as the Clean Air Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, and Clean Water Act. The House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology's Subcommittee on Energy and Environment, which held the hearing, is undertaking the process for reauthorizing ERDDA, according to Rep. Andrew Harris (R-Md.), subcommittee chair.

  10. A Practical Guide to Preventing and Dispersing Underage Drinking Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This guide describes the role of enforcement and community organizations or groups in preventing underage drinking parties and how to safely disperse them. It describes the problem of underage drinking, in general, and youth-drinking parties in particular. It provides step-by-step information on how to address underage drinking parties and how to…

  11. Safe Lock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Model 1150 electronic spring latch, which provides controlled and timed access to a safe, was developed by Burnett Electronics Lab, Inc., San Diego, CA, and is marketed by KeyOne, Inc. also of San Diego. The Model 1150 is a spinoff from a spinoff. The original spinoff, the acoustic pinger, is an underwater transmitting device developed by Langley Research Center and the Navy for location and recovery of sounding rocket research payloads from the ocean. Long functioning life is a vital requirement for both the acoustic pinger and the Model 1150. The electronic spring latch employs the pinger power management technology to get long life out of the battery power source.

  12. 75 FR 54872 - Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)-Notice of Public Stakeholder Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... AGENCY Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)--Notice of Public Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY... Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced the Drinking Water Strategy, a new vision to expand public health protection for drinking water by going beyond the traditional framework. The Drinking...

  13. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  14. Binge Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... soccer team. When Chet saw Dave pound five beers in 30 minutes at two different parties, he ... in 2 weeks. Why Do People Binge Drink? Liquor stores, bars, and alcoholic beverage companies make drinking ...

  15. Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Boorman, G A

    1999-01-01

    There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and

  16. Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Boorman, G A

    1999-02-01

    There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and

  17. Learning guide for state/local drinking water agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act mandated sweeping changes in the scope and costs of state drinking water programs. Some states are maximizing available resources by relying on local governments to carry out some of their drinking water responsibilities. The guidebook was developed to provide states and local governments using this approach with practical advice and suggestions about formal agreements related to Safe Drinking Water Act responsibilities.

  18. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... boys binge more than girls. Alcohol use among boys Alcohol use among girls SOURCE: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. ... for children to reach these BAC levels. For boys: Ages 9–13: About 3 drinks ... 16–17: About 5 drinks For girls: Ages 9–17: About 3 drinks As children ...

  19. Approaching Suspicious Substances Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A mineral identification tool that was developed for NASA's Mars Rover Technology Development program is now serving as a powerful tool for U.S. law enforcement agencies and military personnel to identify suspicious liquid and solid substances. The tool can measure unknown substances through glass and plastic packaging materials with the RamanProbe(TradeMark) focused fiber-optic probe. The probe length can be extended up to 200 meters to enable users to analyze potentially dangerous substances at a safe distance. In many cases, the spectrometer and personnel are kept in a safe zone while the probe is positioned next to the sample being analyzed. Being able to identify chemicals in remote locations also saves users time and labor, since otherwise the samples would need to be collected, transported, and prepared prior to measurement in the laboratory.

  20. AIDS Action campaigns for drinking water safety.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    AIDS Action Council is sponsoring the Municipal Water Education Project, a program which functions to inform people about water safety and contaminants such as cryptosporidium. People with compromised immune systems are vulnerable to infection from the parasite cryptosporidium in the water supply. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the condition. On June 15, 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines to inform people how to avoid infection with cryptosporidium. The Council publicly supports these guidelines about home filtration, boiling water, and bottled water. In addition, the Council is pushing for a stronger Safe Drinking Water Act, which will be up for reauthorization this year.

  1. AIDS Action campaigns for drinking water safety.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    AIDS Action Council is sponsoring the Municipal Water Education Project, a program which functions to inform people about water safety and contaminants such as cryptosporidium. People with compromised immune systems are vulnerable to infection from the parasite cryptosporidium in the water supply. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the condition. On June 15, 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines to inform people how to avoid infection with cryptosporidium. The Council publicly supports these guidelines about home filtration, boiling water, and bottled water. In addition, the Council is pushing for a stronger Safe Drinking Water Act, which will be up for reauthorization this year. PMID:11367402

  2. Information collection request for proposed National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for synthetic organic chemicals (draft), April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), under the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act (Section 1401 and 1412, P.L. 99-339, as amended in 1986), has proposed National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR) pertaining to the contamination of public water systems by synthetic organic chemical (SOCs) contaminants. The proposed regulations require the collection of information by public water systems, states, and the EPA. Information collection requirements include monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping activities that are discussed in this Information Collection Requests (ICR) document.

  3. Burden of Cancer from Chemicals in North Carolina Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFelice, N.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring programs required by the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) currently do not consider potential differences in chemical exposure patterns and human health risks. Rather, U.S. agencies establish monitoring requirements based on the type of water system and the number of people the system serves; within categories of systems, all potentially carcinogenic chemicals must be monitored with equal frequency, regardless of the potential level of risk these chemicals pose. To inform future policies concerning contaminant monitoring under the SDWA, we examined the potential health threats in North Carolina from the 34 carcinogenic chemicals covered under the SDWA. We analyzed reported contaminant concentration data for all community water systems (CWSs) for the years 1998-2011. We employed an attributable fraction approach that uses probabilistic inputs to evaluate the percent of cancer cases that may be attributable to chemical exposure in drinking water. We found that cancer risks are dominated by 3 of the 34 chemicals and chemical classes (total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), arsenic and gross alpha particles); all other chemicals contribute to less than one cancer case per year in the state. We showed that around 840 cases of cancer annually (2% of annual cancer cases) are attributable to contaminated drinking water. The majority cases are due to TTHMs, arsenic and gross alpha particles, which contributed 810 (95% CI 560-1,280), 14 (95% CI 3 -32), and 13 (95% CI 2-48) cases, respectively. Sixty-seven counties had annual cancer rates higher than 1 in 10,000 attributable to community water systems. Annual cancer rate attributable to chemicals found in drinking water that are regulated under the safe drinking water act.

  4. ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: USING SOUND SCIENCE FOR RISK MANAGEMENT AND ASSISTING COMMUNITY DECISION-MAKERS - A MULTI-AGENCY, COMMUNITY-BASED RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (ug/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Cen...

  5. Energy Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Methods: Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. Results: The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Conclusions: Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill. PMID:22347688

  6. Effective drinking water collaborations are not accidental: interagency relationships in the international water utility sector.

    PubMed

    Jalba, D I; Cromar, N J; Pollard, S J T; Charrois, J W; Bradshaw, R; Hrudey, S E

    2014-02-01

    The role that deficient institutional relationships have played in aggravating drinking water incidents over the last 30 years has been identified in several inquiries of high profile drinking water safety events, peer-reviewed articles and media reports. These indicate that collaboration between water utilities and public health agencies (PHAs) during normal operations, and in emergencies, needs improvement. Here, critical elements of these interagency collaborations, that can be integrated within the corporate risk management structures of water utilities and PHAs alike, were identified using a grounded theory approach and 51 semi-structured interviews with utility and PHA staff. Core determinants of effective interagency relationships are discussed. Intentionally maintained functional relationships represent a key ingredient in assuring the delivery of safe, high quality drinking water.

  7. Role of detection limits in drinking water regulation.

    PubMed

    Calder, Ryan S D; Schmitt, Ketra A

    2010-11-01

    Some commentators on environmental science and policy have claimed that advances in analytical chemistry, reflected by an ability to detect contaminants at ever-decreasing concentrations, lead to regulations stricter than justified by available toxicological data. We evaluate this claim in the context of drinking water regulation, with respect to contaminants regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). We examine the relationships between historical and present maximum contaminant levels and goals in the greater context of detection capability and evaluate the extent to which different aspects of the regulatory apparatus (i.e., analytical capability, cost-benefit analysis, analysis of competing risks, and available toxicological data) influence the regulatory process. Our findings do not support the claim that decreases in detection limit lead to more stringent regulation in the context of drinking water regulation in the United States. Further, based on our analysis of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulation and existing United States Environmental Protection Agency approaches to establishing the practical quantifiable level, we conclude that in the absence of changes to the underlying toxicological model, regulatory revision is unlikely.

  8. Role of detection limits in drinking water regulation.

    PubMed

    Calder, Ryan S D; Schmitt, Ketra A

    2010-11-01

    Some commentators on environmental science and policy have claimed that advances in analytical chemistry, reflected by an ability to detect contaminants at ever-decreasing concentrations, lead to regulations stricter than justified by available toxicological data. We evaluate this claim in the context of drinking water regulation, with respect to contaminants regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). We examine the relationships between historical and present maximum contaminant levels and goals in the greater context of detection capability and evaluate the extent to which different aspects of the regulatory apparatus (i.e., analytical capability, cost-benefit analysis, analysis of competing risks, and available toxicological data) influence the regulatory process. Our findings do not support the claim that decreases in detection limit lead to more stringent regulation in the context of drinking water regulation in the United States. Further, based on our analysis of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulation and existing United States Environmental Protection Agency approaches to establishing the practical quantifiable level, we conclude that in the absence of changes to the underlying toxicological model, regulatory revision is unlikely. PMID:20925425

  9. Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

  10. Monitoring of Microbes in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Internationally there is a move towards managing the provision of safe drinking water by direct assessment of the performance of key pathogen barriers (critical control points), rather than end point testing (i.e. in drinking water). For fecal pathogens that breakthrough the vari...

  11. Improved water does not mean safe water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Guo, Y.; Schwab, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a model for estimating global access to drinking water that meets World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. The currently accepted international estimate of global access to safe water, the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) report, estimates the population with access to water service infrastructure that is classified as improved and unimproved. The JMP report uses access to improved water sources as a proxy for access to safe water, but improved water sources do not always meet drinking water quality guidelines. Therefore, this report likely overestimates the number of people with access to safe water. Based on the JMP estimate, the United Nations has recently announced that the world has reached the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to safe water. Our new framework employs a statistical model that incorporates source water quality, water supply interruptions, water storage practices, and point of use water treatment to estimate access to safe water, resulting in a figure that is lower than the JMP estimate of global access to safe water. We estimate that at least 28% of the world does not have access to safe water today, as compared to the JMP estimate of 12%. These findings indicate that much more work is needed on the international scale to meet the MDG target for access to safe water.

  12. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  13. WATER, DRINKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary object of the microbiology of drinking water is to prevent waterborne disease. A drinking-water system can minimize waterborne disease by employing proper treatment and cntrol practices, and by monitoring the effectiveness of these practices. Here, these issues are ad...

  14. College Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... by another student who has been drinking. 4 Sexual Assault About 97,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 report experiencing alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape. 4 What is “binge drinking?” ...

  15. 75 FR 48329 - Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... AGENCY Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Water Operator Certification Program, effective October 1, 2010. The program enables qualified drinking water operators at public water systems in Indian country to be recognized as certified operators by...

  16. BOOK REVIEW OF "DRINKING WATER REGULATION AND HEALTH"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974, several amendments and other new regulations have been developed for drinking water. The book, "Drinking Water Regulation and Health", explains these regulations and provides background on why they were developed ...

  17. 78 FR 36183 - State Allotment Percentages for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... AGENCY State Allotment Percentages for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Program AGENCY... Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing the revised Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) allotments that... enacted. These allotments reflect the results from EPA's most recent Drinking Water Infrastructure...

  18. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, relia...

  19. Different Choices of Drinking Water Source and Different Health Risks in a Rural Population Living Near a Lead/Zinc Mine in Chenzhou City, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao; He, Liping; Li, Jun; Yang, Fei; Tan, Hongzhuan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the households’ choices of drinking water sources, and evaluate the risk of human exposure to heavy metals via different drinking water sources in Chenzhou City of Hunan Province, Southern China. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey of 192 householders in MaTian and ZhuDui village was conducted. The concentrations of heavy metals in their drinking water sources were analyzed. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment was performed according to the method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In total, 52.60% of the households used hand-pressed well water, and 34.89% used barreled water for drinking. In total, 6.67% of the water samples exceeded the Chinese drinking water standards. The total health risk of five metals is 5.20 × 10−9~3.62 × 10−5. The total health risk of five metals was at acceptable levels for drinking water sources. However, the total risk of using hand-pressed well water’s highest value is 6961 times higher than the risk of using tap water. Household income level was significantly associated with drinking water choices. Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are priority controlled pollutants in this region. Using safe drinking water (tap water, barreled water and so on) can remarkably reduce the risk of ingesting heavy metals. PMID:26569281

  20. Different Choices of Drinking Water Source and Different Health Risks in a Rural Population Living Near a Lead/Zinc Mine in Chenzhou City, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; He, Liping; Li, Jun; Yang, Fei; Tan, Hongzhuan

    2015-11-12

    This study aimed to describe the households' choices of drinking water sources, and evaluate the risk of human exposure to heavy metals via different drinking water sources in Chenzhou City of Hunan Province, Southern China. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey of 192 householders in MaTian and ZhuDui village was conducted. The concentrations of heavy metals in their drinking water sources were analyzed. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment was performed according to the method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In total, 52.60% of the households used hand-pressed well water, and 34.89% used barreled water for drinking. In total, 6.67% of the water samples exceeded the Chinese drinking water standards. The total health risk of five metals is 5.20 × 10(-9)~3.62 × 10(-5). The total health risk of five metals was at acceptable levels for drinking water sources. However, the total risk of using hand-pressed well water's highest value is 6961 times higher than the risk of using tap water. Household income level was significantly associated with drinking water choices. Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are priority controlled pollutants in this region. Using safe drinking water (tap water, barreled water and so on) can remarkably reduce the risk of ingesting heavy metals.

  1. Different Choices of Drinking Water Source and Different Health Risks in a Rural Population Living Near a Lead/Zinc Mine in Chenzhou City, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; He, Liping; Li, Jun; Yang, Fei; Tan, Hongzhuan

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the households' choices of drinking water sources, and evaluate the risk of human exposure to heavy metals via different drinking water sources in Chenzhou City of Hunan Province, Southern China. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey of 192 householders in MaTian and ZhuDui village was conducted. The concentrations of heavy metals in their drinking water sources were analyzed. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment was performed according to the method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In total, 52.60% of the households used hand-pressed well water, and 34.89% used barreled water for drinking. In total, 6.67% of the water samples exceeded the Chinese drinking water standards. The total health risk of five metals is 5.20 × 10(-9)~3.62 × 10(-5). The total health risk of five metals was at acceptable levels for drinking water sources. However, the total risk of using hand-pressed well water's highest value is 6961 times higher than the risk of using tap water. Household income level was significantly associated with drinking water choices. Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are priority controlled pollutants in this region. Using safe drinking water (tap water, barreled water and so on) can remarkably reduce the risk of ingesting heavy metals. PMID:26569281

  2. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kostyla, Caroline; Bain, Rob; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Accounting for fecal contamination of drinking water sources is an important step in improving monitoring of global access to safe drinking water. Fecal contamination varies with time while its monitoring is often infrequent. We sought to understand seasonal trends in fecal contamination to guide best practices to capture seasonal variation and ascertain the extent to which the results of a single sample may overestimate compliance with health guidelines. The findings from 22 studies from developing countries written in English and identified through a systematic review were analyzed. Fecal contamination in improved drinking water sources was shown to follow a statistically significant seasonal trend of greater contamination during the wet season (p<0.001). This trend was consistent across fecal indicator bacteria, five source types, twelve Köppen-Geiger climate zones, and across both rural and urban areas. Guidance on seasonally representative water quality monitoring by the World Health Organization and national water quality agencies could lead to improved assessments of access to safe drinking water. PMID:25676921

  3. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kostyla, Caroline; Bain, Rob; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Accounting for fecal contamination of drinking water sources is an important step in improving monitoring of global access to safe drinking water. Fecal contamination varies with time while its monitoring is often infrequent. We sought to understand seasonal trends in fecal contamination to guide best practices to capture seasonal variation and ascertain the extent to which the results of a single sample may overestimate compliance with health guidelines. The findings from 22 studies from developing countries written in English and identified through a systematic review were analyzed. Fecal contamination in improved drinking water sources was shown to follow a statistically significant seasonal trend of greater contamination during the wet season (p<0.001). This trend was consistent across fecal indicator bacteria, five source types, twelve Köppen-Geiger climate zones, and across both rural and urban areas. Guidance on seasonally representative water quality monitoring by the World Health Organization and national water quality agencies could lead to improved assessments of access to safe drinking water.

  4. US Environmental Protection Agency Method 314.1, an automated sample preconcentration/matrix elimination suppressed conductivity method for the analysis of trace levels (0.50 microg/L) of perchlorate in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Herbert P; Pepich, B V; Pohl, C; Later, D; Joyce, R; Srinivasan, K; Thomas, D; Woodruff, A; Deborba, B; Munch, D J

    2006-06-16

    Since 1997 there has been increasing interest in the development of analytical methods for the analysis of perchlorate. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 314.0, which was used during the first Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR) cycle, supports a method reporting limit (MRL) of 4.0 microg/L. The non-selective nature of conductivity detection, combined with very high ionic strength matrices, can create conditions that make the determination of perchlorate difficult. The objective of this work was to develop an automated, suppressed conductivity method with improved sensitivity for use in the second UCMR cycle. The new method, EPA Method 314.1, uses a 35 mm x 4 mm cryptand concentrator column in the sample loop position to concentrate perchlorate from a 2 mL sample volume, which is subsequently rinsed with 10 mM NaOH to remove interfering anions. The cryptand concentrator column is combined with a primary AS16 analytical column and a confirmation AS20 analytical column. Unique characteristics of the cryptand column allow perchlorate to be desorbed from the cryptand trap and refocused on the head of the guard column for subsequent separation and analysis. EPA Method 314.1 has a perchlorate lowest concentration minimum reporting level (LCMRL) of 0.13 microg/L in both drinking water and laboratory synthetic sample matrices (LSSM) containing up to 1,000 microg/L each of chloride, bicarbonate and sulfate.

  5. Binge Drinking.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Lorena; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol is the substance most frequently abused by children and adolescents in the United States, and its use is associated with the leading causes of death and serious injury at this age (ie, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, and suicides). Among youth who drink, the proportion who drink heavily is higher than among adult drinkers, increasing from approximately 50% in those 12 to 14 years of age to 72% among those 18 to 20 years of age. In this clinical report, the definition, epidemiology, and risk factors for binge drinking; the neurobiology of intoxication, blackouts, and hangovers; genetic considerations;and adverse outcomes are discussed. The report offers guidance for the pediatrician. As with any high-risk behavior, prevention plays a more important role than later intervention and has been shown to be more effective. In the pediatric office setting, it is important to ask every adolescent about alcohol use. PMID:26324872

  6. Binge Drinking.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Lorena; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol is the substance most frequently abused by children and adolescents in the United States, and its use is associated with the leading causes of death and serious injury at this age (ie, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, and suicides). Among youth who drink, the proportion who drink heavily is higher than among adult drinkers, increasing from approximately 50% in those 12 to 14 years of age to 72% among those 18 to 20 years of age. In this clinical report, the definition, epidemiology, and risk factors for binge drinking; the neurobiology of intoxication, blackouts, and hangovers; genetic considerations;and adverse outcomes are discussed. The report offers guidance for the pediatrician. As with any high-risk behavior, prevention plays a more important role than later intervention and has been shown to be more effective. In the pediatric office setting, it is important to ask every adolescent about alcohol use.

  7. Social anxiety symptoms and drinking behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of drinking motives.

    PubMed

    Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S

    2014-09-01

    The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  8. The risks of drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Tony

    1984-04-01

    Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

  9. National drinking water program redirection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-07

    During 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) conducted an extensive reassessment of its drinking water protection program in response to a number of issues which were being raised within the Agency, by a wide range of interested parties, and by Congress. The purpose of the reassessment was to assist the Agency in; formulation comprehensive redirection objectives that can serve to guide Agency activities related to drinking water; identifying and implementing high-priority activities that will maximize risk reduction; realigning resources within the Office of Water`s Drinking Water Program at EPA headquarters to support as many of the activities as possible; and utilizing improved coordination with other Agency offices and the Regions to support the redirection effort. This document is intended for public comment.

  10. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... is dangerous because it Causes many deaths and injuries Can lead to poor decisions about engaging in risky behavior, such as drinking and driving or unprotected sex Increases the risk of physical and sexual assault Can lead to other problems, such as trouble ...

  11. Proposed modifications of Environmental Protection Agency Method 1601 for detection of coliphages in drinking water, with same-day fluorescence-based detection and evaluation by the performance-based measurement system and alternative test protocol validation approaches.

    PubMed

    Salter, Robert S; Durbin, Gregory W; Conklin, Ernestine; Rosen, Jeff; Clancy, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    Coliphages are microbial indicators specified in the Ground Water Rule that can be used to monitor for potential fecal contamination of drinking water. The Total Coliform Rule specifies coliform and Escherichia coli indicators for municipal water quality testing; thus, coliphage indicator use is less common and advances in detection methodology are less frequent. Coliphages are viral structures and, compared to bacterial indicators, are more resistant to disinfection and diffuse further distances from pollution sources. Therefore, coliphage presence may serve as a better predictor of groundwater quality. This study describes Fast Phage, a 16- to 24-h presence/absence modification of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1601 for detection of coliphages in 100 ml water. The objective of the study is to demonstrate that the somatic and male-specific coliphage modifications provide results equivalent to those of Method 1601. Five laboratories compared the modifications, featuring same-day fluorescence-based prediction, to Method 1601 by using the performance-based measurement system (PBMS) criterion. This requires a minimum 50% positive response in 10 replicates of 100-ml water samples at coliphage contamination levels of 1.3 to 1.5 PFU/100 ml. The laboratories showed that Fast Phage meets PBMS criteria with 83.5 to 92.1% correlation of the same-day rapid fluorescence-based prediction with the next-day result. Somatic coliphage PBMS data are compared to manufacturer development data that followed the EPA alternative test protocol (ATP) validation approach. Statistical analysis of the data sets indicates that PBMS utilizes fewer samples than does the ATP approach but with similar conclusions. Results support testing the coliphage modifications by using an EPA-approved national PBMS approach with collaboratively shared samples.

  12. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR 5120... Parts 177 and 392 RIN 2137-AE69 & 2126-AB04 Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance AGENCY: Pipeline... that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe...

  13. Stay Safe at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... from drinks with caffeine (like coffee, soda, and energy drinks) several hours before you go to sleep. Get regular physical activity, but don’t exercise right before you go to bed. Make sure your bedroom is dark and quiet. Stay healthy. A healthy body helps ...

  14. A look at the federal drinking water revolving loan fund proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W.

    1994-05-01

    The lack of funding is a primary reason behind the difficulty many water systems have with installing needed treatment, upgrading existing systems, or making other improvements necessary to meet new regulations set under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Providing a mechanism for federal funding for drinking water systems is a key objective of pending legislation. Current legislative proposals are patterned after the state revolving loan fund (SRF) concept used for funding wastewater treatment facilities under the Clean Water Act (CWA). The federal government would provide capitalization grants to states that meet the minimum requirements set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The states would provide loans and other financial assistance to eligible water systems who would repay the loans, thereby perpetuating the fund. This article compares the SRF proposals currently pending in Congress.

  15. Use Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ...

  16. Safe driving for teens

    MedlinePlus

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... Make a Commitment to Safety Teens also need to commit to being safe and responsible drivers in order to improve the odds in their favor. Reckless driving ...

  17. Energy drinks: a review of use and safety for athletes.

    PubMed

    Duchan, Erin; Patel, Neil D; Feucht, Cynthia

    2010-06-01

    Energy drinks have increased in popularity in adolescents and young adults; however, concerns have been raised regarding the ingredients in energy drinks and their potential negative effects on health. Caffeine, the most physiologically active ingredient in energy drinks, is generally considered safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), although adverse effects can occur at varying amounts. Guarana, which contains caffeine in addition to small amounts of theobromine, theophylline, and tannins, is also recognized as safe by the FDA, although it may lead to caffeine toxicity when combined with caffeine. The amount of ginseng in energy drinks is typically far below the amount used as a dietary supplement, and is generally considered safe. Taurine, an intracellular amino acid, has been reported to have positive inotropic effects; however, this claim is not supported by research. Most energy drinks also contain sugar in an amount that exceeds the maximum recommended daily amount. Young athletes are increasingly using energy drinks because of the ergogenic effects of caffeine and the other ingredients found in these beverages. Energy drinks combined with alcohol are also gaining popularity in young adults, which poses significant concerns about health risks. Other health concerns related to consumption of energy drinks include case reports of seizures and cardiac arrest following energy drink consumption and dental enamel erosion resulting from the acidity of energy drinks. PMID:20631477

  18. [Microbiology of ground water and drinking water].

    PubMed

    Dott, W; Frank, C; Kämpfer, P; Tuschewitzki, G J; Wernicke, F

    1986-10-01

    Groundwater has been considered a safe source for drinking water protected against surface contamination. However, a number of reports about chemical and microbiological contamination have disproved this assumption. Besides hygienical monitoring, little is known about the microbiology of ground- and drinking water. The purpose of this paper is to give a review about the main fields of investigation concerning microbial activity in ground- and drinking-water-action. The hygienical relevant topics are: survival and transport of microorganisms, microbiological degradation of organic pollutants, turn-over of nitrogen compounds, oxidation and reduction of iron and manganese and development of methods for microbiological water examination.

  19. Assessing the microbial quality of improved drinking water sources: results from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Baum, Rachel; Kayser, Georgia; Stauber, Christine; Sobsey, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Millennium Development Goal Target 7c (to halve between 1990 and 2015 the proportion of the global population without sustainable access to safe drinking water), was celebrated as achieved in 2012. However, new studies show that we may be prematurely celebrating. Access to safe drinking water may be overestimated if microbial water quality is considered. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between microbial drinking water quality and drinking water source in the Puerto Plata region of the Dominican Republic. This study analyzed microbial drinking water quality data from 409 households in 33 communities. Results showed that 47% of improved drinking water sources were of high to very-high risk water quality, and therefore unsafe for drinking. This study provides evidence that the current estimate of safe water access may be overly optimistic, and microbial water quality data are needed to reliably assess the safety of drinking water.

  20. Scientific and Regulatory Challenges of Controlling Lead in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe Drinking Water Act 1986 Amendments Corrections when necessary, mandatory review every 6 years Lead and Copper Rule section of SDWA Proposed 1988 Proposal revised and promulgated 1991 Many minor revisions, primarily administrative clarifications Major admin. revisions and te...

  1. 76 FR 51970 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Drinking Water/Drinking Water Protection Division/Underground Injection Control Program, Mailcode: 4606M... Safe Drinking Water Act established a Federal and State regulatory system to protect underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) from contamination by injected fluids. Injected fluids include...

  2. The control of organics in drinking water in Canada and the United States (standards, legislation and practice).

    PubMed

    Toft, P

    1985-12-01

    Both the United States and Canada have a federal form of government, but approaches used in the two countries to ensure the safety of drinking water supplies differ. The Environmental Protection Agency currently enforces regulations for 10 organic chemicals (including 6 pesticides) under the Safe Drinking Water Act and provides advice on others through its health advisory program. Canada, however, does not have similar legislation, but rather provides health-related guidelines for 21 organic chemicals (including 16 pesticides) which are used by the provincial agencies responsible for drinking water supplies. Both countries are in the process of revising their standards and will include a variety of additional synthetic organic chemicals. Where possible, standards are set using a calculated acceptable daily intake usually derived from animal feeding experiments. Procedures for setting standards for carcinogens involve a blend of risk estimation coupled with consideration of the feasibility of reducing the risk in light of socio-economic factors. Most drinking water treatment plans in North America utilize 'conventional' treatment. Some now employ modifications in order to minimize trihalomethane formation. A few use aeration or granular activated carbon to remove synthetic organic chemicals. PMID:3911419

  3. Development of EPA Method 525.3 for the Analysis of Semivolatiles in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) collects nationwide occurrence data on contaminants in drinking water using the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulations (UCMRs). The unregulated contaminants, which ar...

  4. Drinking water public right-to-know requirements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Blette, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency implements a national drinking-water program under the authority of the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act. Amendments to the Act in 1996 added new provisions to enhance consumer understanding of drinking-water issues. Notification requirements associated with annual consumer confidence reports, source water assessments and state compliance reports are intended to enhance the public's knowledge of the quality of their drinking water. Water utilities are also subject to public notification requirements to provide more timely information to consumers in response to violations of health standards. These right-to-know requirements are intended to build the public's confidence, but communicating with consumers can be challenging for both utility managers and government leaders. This paper discusses the need for timely communication, the challenge of providing information when there is uncertainty in the science and the importance of preparing to respond to critical incidents. Because surveys have shown that other members of the community may have better access to consumers or are more trusted, it is important for water utilities to establish relationships with the media and the local public health community.

  5. Drinking water public right-to-know requirements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Blette, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency implements a national drinking-water program under the authority of the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act. Amendments to the Act in 1996 added new provisions to enhance consumer understanding of drinking-water issues. Notification requirements associated with annual consumer confidence reports, source water assessments and state compliance reports are intended to enhance the public's knowledge of the quality of their drinking water. Water utilities are also subject to public notification requirements to provide more timely information to consumers in response to violations of health standards. These right-to-know requirements are intended to build the public's confidence, but communicating with consumers can be challenging for both utility managers and government leaders. This paper discusses the need for timely communication, the challenge of providing information when there is uncertainty in the science and the importance of preparing to respond to critical incidents. Because surveys have shown that other members of the community may have better access to consumers or are more trusted, it is important for water utilities to establish relationships with the media and the local public health community. PMID:18401128

  6. Safety on Tap: A Citizen's Drinking Water Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, David Gray; Reichheld, Beth

    This citizen's guide to ensuring a safe supply of drinking water for all provides the information and analysis that individuals need to understand the issues and to participate in local decision making. The sources of drinking water, the types of human activities that results in contamination, and the contaminants that are of most concern are…

  7. Visions of the Future in Drinking Water Microbiology.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water microbiology will have a tremendous impact on defining a safe drinking water in the future. There will be breakthroughs in realtime testing of process waters for pathogen surrogates with results made available within 1 hour for application to treatment adjustments ...

  8. NEUROXOTOXICITY PRODUCED BY DIBROMOACETIC ACID IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act requires that EPA consider noncancer endpoints for the assessment of adverse human health effects of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is one of many DBPs produced by the chlorination of drinking water. Its chlorinated analog, ...

  9. U.S. DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS: TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AND COST.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments have imposed a large number of new regulations on the U.S. drinking water industry. A major set of regulations currently under consideration will control disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Included in the development of th...

  10. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  11. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water & Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

  12. 75 FR 35801 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Under Section 10(a)(2) of Public Law 92-423, ``The Federal Advisory Committee Act,'' notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Drinking...

  13. 76 FR 38158 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Under Section 10(a)(2) of Public Law 92-423, ``The Federal Advisory Committee Act,'' notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Drinking...

  14. 75 FR 70918 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Under Section 10(a)(2) of Public Law 92-423, ``The Federal Advisory Committee Act,'' notice is ] hereby given of a meeting of the National Drinking...

  15. Safe Kids Worldwide

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your inbox Sign up today Text Help Us Protect Kids on the Move Let's make every kid a safe kid Donate today BAFFLED ABOUT CAR SEATS? The Ultimate Car Seat Guide can help. Check it out Safe Sleep 5 tips to create safer sleeping environment Learn ...

  16. Compliance Monitoring of Drinking Water Supplies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haukebo, Thomas; Bernius, Jean

    1977-01-01

    The most frequent testing required under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 is for turbidity and coliform. Free chlorine residual testing can be substituted for part of the coliform requirement. Described are chemical procedures for performing this test. References are given. (Author/MA)

  17. CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

  18. Household Devices for Safe Drinking Water in Small Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    In collaboration with the US EPA, the Inter American University of Puerto Rico Center for Environmental Education, Conservation and Research (CECIA-IAUPR) will sponsor the 9th CECIA-IAUPR Biennial Symposium on Potable Water Issues in Bayamon, Puerto Rico on March 10 and 11, 2011....

  19. Ensuring safer drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, J. . Fluid Delivery and Electrical Markets); Higgins, P. )

    1994-09-01

    Today's regulatory environment has led to the proliferation of voluntary consensus standards and certification programs that are important to ensuring safety and health in a number of areas. One such area -- the treatment and delivery of potable water -- is addressed by the Drinking Water Additives Program.'' At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this program was developed in the mid-1980s by an independent, voluntary consensus standards organization called NSF International (formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation). This paper explains the need for and the structure of the Drinking Water Additives Program; the rationale for transferring responsibility for its execution from the EPA to the private sector; and the impact of its standards on users, manufacturers, and state and local regulatory bodies. Understanding the additives program is critically important to industry suppliers because, as it continues to gain greater awareness and acceptance, there are a growing number of manufacturers sourcing materials and products primarily from suppliers whose products meet the program's certification requirements.

  20. Analysis of physical and chemical parameters of bottled drinking water.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Walia, T P S; Lark, B S; Sumanjit

    2006-04-01

    Seventeen different brands of bottled drinking water, collected from different retail shops in Amritsar, were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters to ascertain their compliability with the prescribed/recommended limits of the World Heath Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It was found that the majority of the brands tested were over-treated. Lower values of hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS) and conductance than the prescribed limits of WHO showed that water was deficient in essential minerals. Minerals like magnesium, potassium, calcium and fluoride were present in some cases in such a low concentration that water seemed to be as good as distilled water. Samples showing fluoride lesser than 0.5 mg/l warranted additional sources of fluoride for the people consuming only bottled water for drinking purposes. Zero values for chlorine demand as shown by all the bottled water samples showed that water samples were safe from micro-organisms. In case of heavy metals, only lead had been found to be greater than the limit of 0.015 mg/l as prescribed by WHO and USEPA, in seven out of 17 samples. Lead even at such a low concentration can pose a great health hazard.

  1. Information-collection request for: National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for inorganic chemicals. Phase 2, March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), under the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act Section 1401 and 1412, P.L. 99-339, as amended in 1986, has proposed a National Primary Drinking Water Regulation (NPDWR) pertaining to the contamination of public-water systems by inorganic chemical contaminants. The proposed IOCs Rule includes information collection requirements for eight inorganic chemicals -- asbestos, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nitrate, nitrite, and selenium. The information collection request analyzes the information burden imposed on public-water systems and States as a result of the regulation. EPA is proposing only to regulate source-related inorganics under this rule, as opposed to inorganics which predominately occur as corrosion by-products and naturally occurring copper and lead are analyzed in the RIA and ICR for lead and corrosion by-products. Note also that EPA has already promulgated a NPDWR for fluoride.

  2. Binge Drinking Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Marissa B.; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Binge drinking (≥4 drinks for women; ≥5 drinks for men, per occasion) is responsible for more than half of the estimated 80,000 U.S. deaths annually and three-quarters of the $223.5 billion in costs in 2006. Binge drinking prevalence is assessed more commonly than binge drinking intensity (i.e., number of drinks consumed per binge episode). Risk of binge drinking–related harm increases with intensity, and thus it is important to monitor. The largest number of drinks consumed is assessed in health surveys, but its usefulness for assessing binge intensity is unknown. Purpose To assess the agreement between two potential measures of binge drinking intensity: the largest number of drinks consumed by binge drinkers (maximum-drinks) and the total number of drinks consumed during their most recent binge episode (drinks-per-binge). Methods Data were analyzed from 7909 adult binge drinkers from 14 states responding to the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) binge drinking module. Mean and median drinks-per-binge from that module were compared to mean and median maximum-drinks. Analyses were conducted in 2010–2011. Results Mean (8.2) and median (5.9) maximum-drinks were strongly correlated with mean (7.4) and median (5.4) drinks-per-binge (r=0.57). These measures were also strongly correlated across most sociodemographic and drinking categories overall and within states. Conclusions The maximum-drinks consumed by binge drinkers is a practical method for assessing binge drinking intensity and thus can be used to plan and evaluate Community Guide–recommended strategies for preventing binge drinking (e.g., increasing the price of alcoholic beverages and regulating alcohol outlet density). PMID:22608381

  3. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  4. Training to Increase Safe Tray Carrying among Cocktail Servers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherrer, Megan D.; Wilder, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of training on proper carrying techniques among 3 cocktail servers to increase safe tray carrying on the job and reduce participants' risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. As participants delivered drinks to their tables, their finger, arm, and neck positions were observed and recorded. Each participant received…

  5. Safe Hazmat Storage Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Angela

    1996-01-01

    Provides a list of recommendations for safely managing hazardous waste containers. Encourages training of employees on the hazards of the wastes they handle and the correct procedures for managing containers. (DDR)

  6. Creating a Safe Haven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    Examines security issues that planners must address at the programming and schematic design phase in key areas of the school building. They include the front door, safe halls and stairs, positive classrooms, and secure assembly. (EV)

  7. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  8. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  9. Fail safe logic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shield, I.

    1983-03-01

    Ideally, a circuit is said to be fail safe, if for every possible failure configuration, the circuit results in a safe side output. In order to guarantee safe side failures, it is imperative that the circuit detects any faults within it. A suitable procedure for doing this can be based on an error detecting code, such as the K out of N code. A number of circuit types are considered, taking into account a fault tolerant circuit, a fault secure circuit, a self testing circuit, a self checking circuit, a self checking checker, and a fail safe circuit. Attention is given to the realization of combinational circuits, aspects of safety and reliability, sequential circuits, the realization of sequential circuits, the occurrence of clock failure, and the design procedure.

  10. Using Medications Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... health systems play an important role in preventing medication errors. To make sure you use medicines safely and effectively, ASHP recommends that you: Keep a list of all medications that you take (prescribed drugs, nonprescription medicines, herbal ...

  11. Asymptotically safe inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Steven

    2010-04-15

    Inflation is studied in the context of asymptotically safe theories of gravitation. Conditions are explored under which it is possible to have a long period of nearly exponential expansion that eventually comes to an end.

  12. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  13. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Sue I.; Fergenson, David P.; Srivastava, Abneesh; Bogan, Michael J.; Riot, Vincent J.; Frank, Matthias

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  14. Keeping sports participants safe in hot weather.

    PubMed

    Sparling, P B; Millard-Stafford, M

    1999-07-01

    Keeping in mind the key concepts of heat dissipation and using sound strategies for heat acclimatization and fluid replacement can help keep participants and spectators safe during hot-weather sports activities. Acclimatization to heat requires 10 to 14 days of training. Prudent hydration involves drinking plenty of fluid 2 hours before exercise, 5 to 10 oz of fluid every 15 minutes during exercise, and fluids with increased sodium content after exercise. A sidebar on environmental conditions and heat-related medical encounters during the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta illustrates the importance of prevention strategies at the individual and event level.

  15. Microbial contamination of drinking water in Pakistan--a review.

    PubMed

    Nabeela, Farhat; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Uzma, Syeda; Murad, Waheed; Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Ullah, Waheed; Qasim, Muhammad; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2014-12-01

    Water pollution with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the serious threats to human health, particularly in developing countries. The main objective of this article is to highlight microbial contamination of drinking water, the major factors responsible for microbial contamination, and the resulting health problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for researchers and administrative agencies to initiate relevant studies and develop new policies to protect further deterioration of water supply with pathogenic microbes and ensure clean and safe drinking water to the public in Pakistan. In Pakistan, water at the source, in the distribution network, and at the consumer tap is heavily polluted with coliforms and fecal coliforms all over the country. An overview of more than 7,000 water samples reviewed here reveals that an average of over 71 and 58 % samples in the country was contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively. Drinking water contamination accounts for 20 to 40 % of all diseases in the country, which causes national income losses of Rs 25-58 billion annually (US$0.25-0.58 billion, approximately 0.6-1.44 % of the country's GDP). Improper disposal of industrial and municipal wastes is the most important factor responsible for water pollution in the country followed by cross-contamination due to old and leaking pipes and lack of water filtration and disinfection facilities. There is an urgent need for emergency steps to stop further deterioration of water quality and improve the existing water quality so as to protect the public from widespread waterborne diseases.

  16. 40 CFR 170.234 - Safe operation of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe operation of equipment. 170.234 Section 170.234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.234 Safe operation of equipment. (a)...

  17. Removal of dibromochloropropane from drinking water: laboratory and field experiences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dibromochloropropane (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane or DBCP) is regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations to a maximum of 0.2 µg/L (0.2 ppb) in drinking water. DBCP was primarily used as an unclassified nematicide for vegetables and per...

  18. APPLICATION OF USEPA'S DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS TOWARDS RAINWATER CATCHMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainwater harvesting is receiving increased attention worldwide as an alternative source of drinking water. Although federal agencies such as the USEPA acknowledge the existence of rainwater collection systems, the monitoring of this water source is still typically carried out b...

  19. Working safely in confined spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, C.; Versweyveld, J. )

    1992-08-13

    Working in confined spaces is a delicate balance of the correct equipment, hazard knowledge, proper training, and common sense. Anything less has potentially deadly consequences. The dangerous atmospheric and physical hazards often encountered in confined spaces must be recognized and accounted for. In addition, procedures and practices must conform to Occupational Safety and health Administration (OSHA) confined space regulations. Last year, three men were asphyxiated while surveying beneath a manhole in Boulder, CO. An area newspaper called the deaths the result of a freak accident. Whatever the cause, entering a manhole without first monitoring the air and posting an outside attendant is both extremely dangerous and a violation of safe entry procedures. The National Institute for Health and Occupational Safety (NIOSH) estimates that millions of workers from a wide range of occupations and industries are exposed to confined space hazards every year. Although confined space deaths are not a new phenomenon, only recently has the problem received serious study. Government regulatory agencies are becoming more involved OSHA recently proposed ruling 1910.146, Permit Required Confined Spaces, to mandate safe entry practices and procedures. The ruling requires all employers to develop a specific action plan for confined space entry, including entry procedures, worker training, safety equipment, and emergency action. This first article defines a confined space and examines some common hazards, including toxic, combustible, and oxygen-deficient atmospheres and combustible dusts. A subsequent article will review the use of test instruments, personal protective equipment, worker training, and emergency response.

  20. Defining Risk Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Many efforts to prevent alcohol-related harm are aimed at reducing risk drinking. This article outlines the many conceptual and methodological challenges to defining risk drinking. It summarizes recent evidence regarding associations of various aspects of alcohol consumption with chronic and acute alcohol-related harms, including mortality, morbidity, injury, and alcohol use disorders, and summarizes the study designs most appropriate to defining risk thresholds for these types of harm. In addition, it presents an international overview of low-risk drinking guidelines from more than 20 countries, illustrating the wide range of interpretations of the scientific evidence related to risk drinking. This article also explores the impact of drink size on defining risk drinking and describes variation in what is considered to be a standard drink across populations. Actual and standard drink sizes differ in the United States, and this discrepancy affects definitions of risk drinking and prevention efforts. PMID:22330212

  1. 75 FR 7149 - SAFE Mortgage Licensing Act: HUD Responsibilities Under the SAFE Act; Extension of Public Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-17

    ... Act: HUD Responsibilities Under the SAFE Act; Extension of Public Comment Deadline AGENCY: Department... responsibilities under the Secure and Fair Enforcement Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008 (SAFE Act), which was... Act proposed rule, published on December 15, 2009 (74 FR 66548) to March 5, 2010. The public...

  2. A human health risk assessment of boron (boric acid and borax) in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Murray, F J

    1995-12-01

    A human health risk assessment was conducted to derive an appropriate safe exposure level in drinking water of inorganic boron-containing compounds (boric acid and borax). Several regulatory agencies have set or plan to set drinking water guidelines or standards for boron (B). Recent publication of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies by the National Toxicology Program prompted this risk assessment, along with the understanding that boron may be nutritionally essential. A rat developmental toxicity study with a NOAEL of 9.6 mg B/kg/day was selected as the pivotal study on which to base this risk assessment, since it represents the most sensitive endpoint of toxicity. A detailed evaluation of these and other studies allowed modifications of the default values for uncertainty factors to account for the pharmacokinetic similarities among species, the lack of metabolism of inorganic boron-containing compounds, the similarity of the toxicity profile across species, the quality of the toxicological database, and other factors according to the approach described by Renwick previously. Benchmark dose calculations were performed, and the results were in close agreement with the NOAEL selected for this risk assessment. The Reference Dose was calculated to be 0.3 mg B/kg/day, resulting in an acceptable daily intake of 18 mg B/day. Considering that the U.S. average dietary intake of boron is 1.5 mg B/day, 16.5 mg B/day could be available for drinking water or other exposures, if any. A preliminary review of boron data in the National Inorganic Radionuclide Survey by the EPA indicates the median boron level in U.S. drinking water supplies to be 0.031 mg B/liter, and most exposures are less than 2.44 mg B/liter (99th percentile). It is concluded that boron in U.S. drinking water would not be expected to pose any health risk to the public.

  3. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents. PMID:26715927

  4. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents. PMID:26715927

  5. Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion Through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liping; Wang, Yeyao; Guo, Yongli; Zhou, Youya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng; Xie, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Drinking groundwater is a significant pathway for human exposure to heavy metals. To evaluate the health effect of some heavy metals ingestion through the groundwater drinking pathway, the authors collected 35 groundwater samples from the drinking water wells of local residents and the exploitation wells of waterworks in Baotou, China. The monitoring results indicate that the groundwater had been polluted by heavy metals in some regions of the study area. A health risk assessment model derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was used to determine the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects to residents who drink groundwater. All the respondents in the study area were at potential risk of carcinogenic health effects from arsenic when using the lowest safe standard for carcinogenic risk (1E-06). The hazard quotient values for noncarcinogenic health risk of arsenic exceeded 1 in 14.3% of the sampling wells in the study area. The research results could provide baseline data for groundwater utilization and supervision in the Baotou plain area. PMID:26867296

  6. Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion Through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liping; Wang, Yeyao; Guo, Yongli; Zhou, Youya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng; Xie, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Drinking groundwater is a significant pathway for human exposure to heavy metals. To evaluate the health effect of some heavy metals ingestion through the groundwater drinking pathway, the authors collected 35 groundwater samples from the drinking water wells of local residents and the exploitation wells of waterworks in Baotou, China. The monitoring results indicate that the groundwater had been polluted by heavy metals in some regions of the study area. A health risk assessment model derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was used to determine the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects to residents who drink groundwater. All the respondents in the study area were at potential risk of carcinogenic health effects from arsenic when using the lowest safe standard for carcinogenic risk (1E-06). The hazard quotient values for noncarcinogenic health risk of arsenic exceeded 1 in 14.3% of the sampling wells in the study area. The research results could provide baseline data for groundwater utilization and supervision in the Baotou plain area.

  7. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  8. Safe Handling Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 Compugraphic Corporation was experiencing an unacceptable failure rate on microelectronic chips. Company engineers suspected that static electricity was causing the trouble because some electronic components are highly susceptible to damage by electrostatic charge. From a NASA Tech Brief, they learned that Rockwell International had prepared a report on safe handling practices for electronic components. NASA provided a Technical Support Package detailing 50 safe handling procedures affecting workers, work areas, equipment and packaging materials. Where poor practices were discovered, re-education of employees and other corrective measures were undertaken.

  9. Concentrations and potential health risks of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in air and drinking water from Nanning, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li'e; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Zhiyong; Li, Qin; Huang, Jiongli; Peng, Xiaowu; Qing, Li; Liang, Guiqiang; Liang, Linhan; Huang, Yuman; Yang, Xiaobo; Zou, Yunfeng

    2016-01-15

    Levels of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) in occupational air, ambient air, and drinking water in Nanning, South China, were investigated, and then their potential health risks to occupational workers and the general public were evaluated. Results show that the MTBE concentration in occupational air from 13 service stations was significantly higher than that in ambient air from residential areas (p<0.0001); both are far lower than the threshold limit value-time weighted average of MTBE regulated in the United States (US). The drinking water samples from household taps yielded detectable MTBE in the range of 0.04-0.33 μg/L, which is below the US drinking water standard of 20-40 μg/L. The non-carcinogenic risk of MTBE from air inhalation may be negligible because the calculated hazard quotient was less than 1. The mean MTBE lifetime cancer risk was within the acceptable limit of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4), but the lifetime cancer risk of refueling workers in the urban service station at the 95th percentile slightly exceeded the maximum acceptable carcinogen risk (1 × 10(-4)), indicating the potential carcinogenic health effects on the population highly exposed to MTBE in this region. The hazard index and carcinogenic risk of MTBE in drinking water were significantly lower than the safe limit of US Environmental Protection Agency, suggesting that drinking water unlikely poses significant health risks to the residents in Nanning.

  10. 78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... research on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources from April 30, 2013... the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources: PROGRESS REPORT can be... AGENCY Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...

  11. 76 FR 8674 - Notice of a Public Meeting: Environmental Justice Considerations for Drinking Water Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 1 Notice of a Public Meeting: Environmental Justice Considerations for Drinking Water... the drinking water Contaminant Candidate List 3. EPA recently announced its intentions to develop drinking water regulatory actions for perchlorate and carcinogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs)....

  12. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  13. 40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... protect underground sources of drinking water? If you own or operate any type of Class V well, the... USDWs, if the presence of that contaminant may cause a violation of the primary drinking water...

  14. 40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... protect underground sources of drinking water? If you own or operate any type of Class V well, the... USDWs, if the presence of that contaminant may cause a violation of the primary drinking water...

  15. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  16. 40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... protect underground sources of drinking water? If you own or operate any type of Class V well, the... USDWs, if the presence of that contaminant may cause a violation of the primary drinking water...

  17. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment that are expected to...

  18. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  19. 40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... protect underground sources of drinking water? If you own or operate any type of Class V well, the... USDWs, if the presence of that contaminant may cause a violation of the primary drinking water...

  20. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  1. Drinking water for the future.

    PubMed

    Okun, D A

    1976-07-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 represents an important step in improving the quality of public water supply in the United States. However, it fails to address two important problems: (1) The 1970 Public Health Service Community Water Supply Survey revealed that small public water supply systems often deliver poor quality water. The Act does not assure that these supplies will now receive appropriate attention; furthermore, the Act does not address the needs of the 50 million people not now served by public water systems; (2) About one-third of our population draws its drinking waters from polluted sources. The decisions to use these low cost sources were made generations ago when consumers could be protected from water-borne infectious disease. A new problem has now arisen--the presence of numerous synthetic organic chemicals of uncertain health consequence, not removed by conventional water treatment. The Act does not address this problem. Regionalization and the integration of water resource and water pollution control authorities are proposed as a reasonable solution to these problems. The development of dual water supply systems in order to conserve scarce pure water sources for human consumption appears to be a feasible way to avoid using polluted waters for drinking. The development of dual supplies would be enhanced by regionalization and integration of water authorities. PMID:937609

  2. Safe Manual Jettison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Jay

    2008-01-01

    In space, the controlled release of certain cargoes is no less useful than the maritime jettisons from which they take their name but is also much more dangerous. Experience has shown that jettisons can be performed safely, but the process is complicated with the path to performing a jettison taking months or even years. In the background, time is also required to write procedures, train the crew, configure the vehicle, and many other activities. This paper outlines the current process used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for manual jettisons, detailing the methods used to assure that the jettisons and the jettisoned objects are as safe as achievable and that the crew is adequately trained to be able to affect the safe jettison. The goal of this paper is not only to capture what it takes to perform safe jettisons in the near Earth environment but to extrapolate this knowledge to future space exploration scenarios that will likely have Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and International Partner (IP) interfaces.

  3. Safe Entry, Easy Exit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    After violent episodes too numerous to list and too terrible to forget, schools and universities have been focused for several years on enhancing security in their facilities. Doors are among the most critical points of concern for school personnel responsible for keeping buildings safe. Education institutions want doors that let the right people…

  4. Safe and Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Lanny I.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a comprehensive security program that includes access control, surveillance methods, and personnel awareness, designed to keep public schools safe for students and faculty. Alternatives to traditional lock and key systems are discussed, as are patrolling tips for high crime sites and the need to educate staff and students. (GR)

  5. Keeping Campuses Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Describes how colleges and universities are using technology, as well as traditional methods, to keep campuses safe and reduce crime. Topics include using free pizza in a successful contest to teach students about campus safety, installing security cameras, using access-control cards, providing adequate lighting, and creating a bicycle patrol…

  6. Safe Halloween Thrills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuersten, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Two PTAs sponsored events that capitalized on Halloween themes, engaged their communities in fall celebrations, and were safe, wholesome, and fun. With help from local volunteers, one school turned its gymnasium into a 19th-century British town with a fall/Halloween theme. Another PTA hosted a carnival, Spooktacular, that involved community…

  7. Increases in Problem Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Increases in Problem Drinking Alcohol use disorder is becoming more common, a ... the need to better educate people about problem drinking and its treatment. Alcohol use disorder, or AUD, ...

  8. 77 FR 44562 - Public Meeting: Potential Regulatory Implications of the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Public Meeting: Potential Regulatory Implications of the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act of 2011 AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... discuss and solicit input from States, manufacturers, drinking water systems, other interested groups...

  9. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink consumption and…

  10. Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Radiation: Air Pollution Control Manpower Training Grants X Air Pollution Control—Technical Training X Office of Water: Water Pollution Control—Professional Training Grants X X Safe Drinking Water Professional Training Grants X Safe Drinking Water—Occupational Training X Office of Solid Waste and...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Radiation: Air Pollution Control Manpower Training Grants X Air Pollution Control—Technical Training X Office of Water: Water Pollution Control—Professional Training Grants X X Safe Drinking Water Professional Training Grants X Safe Drinking Water—Occupational Training X Office of Solid Waste and...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Environmental Protection Agency Training Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Radiation: Air Pollution Control Manpower Training Grants X Air Pollution Control—Technical Training X Office of Water: Water Pollution Control—Professional Training Grants X X Safe Drinking Water Professional Training Grants X Safe Drinking Water—Occupational Training X Office of Solid Waste and...

  14. 75 FR 8055 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Drinking Water... electronic docket, go to http://www.regulations.gov . Title: Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Program... regulations is consolidated in 40 CFR part 9. Abstract: The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of...

  15. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  16. Preparing injectable medicines safely.

    PubMed

    Beaney, Alison M; Black, Anne

    Risks to patients are greater when injectable medicines are prepared in clinical areas (wards, theatres, clinics or even patients' homes), rather than provided in ready-to-use form. This article describes the risks involved in preparing injectable medicines in such areas and outlines key principles to ensure they are prepared safely. It also suggests that high-risk injectable medicines be provided in ready-to-use form, either in house, by pharmacy or by pharmaceutical companies. PMID:22359855

  17. Iodised salt is safe.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, S

    1995-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are prevalent in all the States and Union Territories in India. Under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders control programme, the Government of India has adopted a strategy to iodisation of all edible salt in the country which is a long term and sustainable preventive solution to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders. The benefits to be derived from universal salt iodisation are more to the population. Iodised salt is safe and does not cause any side effect. PMID:8690505

  18. Microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Xi, Chuanwu; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2006-06-01

    The supply of clean drinking water is a major, and relatively recent, public health milestone. Control of microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems, often achieved through the addition of disinfectants, is essential to limiting waterborne illness, particularly in immunocompromised subpopulations. Recent inquiries into the microbial ecology of distribution systems have found that pathogen resistance to chlorination is affected by microbial community diversity and interspecies relationships. Research indicates that multispecies biofilms are generally more resistant to disinfection than single-species biofilms. Other recent findings are the increased survival of the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila when present inside its protozoan host Hartmannella vermiformis and the depletion of chloramine disinfectant residuals by nitrifying bacteria, leading to increased overall microbial growth. Interactions such as these are unaccounted for in current disinfection models. An understanding of the microbial ecology of distribution systems is necessary to design innovative and effective control strategies that will ensure safe and high-quality drinking water. PMID:16701992

  19. An approach for developing a national estimate of waterborne disease due to drinking water and a national estimate model application.

    PubMed

    Messner, Michael; Shaw, Susan; Regli, Stig; Rotert, Ken; Blank, Valerie; Soller, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) presents an approach and a national estimate of drinking water related endemic acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) that uses information from epidemiologic studies. There have been a limited number of epidemiologic studies that have measured waterborne disease occurrence in the United States. For this analysis, we assume that certain unknown incidence of AGI in each public drinking water system is due to drinking water and that a statistical distribution of the different incidence rates for the population served by each system can be estimated to inform a mean national estimate of AGI illness due to drinking water. Data from public water systems suggest that the incidence rate of AGI due to drinking water may vary by several orders of magnitude. In addition, data from epidemiologic studies show AGI incidence due to drinking water ranging from essentially none (or less than the study detection level) to a rate of 0.26 cases per person-year. Considering these two perspectives collectively, and associated uncertainties, EPA has developed an analytical approach and model for generating a national estimate of annual AGI illness due to drinking water. EPA developed a national estimate of waterborne disease to address, in part, the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. The national estimate uses best available science, but also recognizes gaps in the data to support some of the model assumptions and uncertainties in the estimate. Based on the model presented, EPA estimates a mean incidence of AGI attributable to drinking water of 0.06 cases per year (with a 95% credible interval of 0.02-0.12). The mean estimate represents approximately 8.5% of cases of AGI illness due to all causes among the population served by community water systems. The estimated incidence translates to 16.4 million cases/year among the same population. The estimate illustrates the potential usefulness and challenges of the approach, and

  20. An approach for developing a national estimate of waterborne disease due to drinking water and a national estimate model application.

    PubMed

    Messner, Michael; Shaw, Susan; Regli, Stig; Rotert, Ken; Blank, Valerie; Soller, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) presents an approach and a national estimate of drinking water related endemic acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) that uses information from epidemiologic studies. There have been a limited number of epidemiologic studies that have measured waterborne disease occurrence in the United States. For this analysis, we assume that certain unknown incidence of AGI in each public drinking water system is due to drinking water and that a statistical distribution of the different incidence rates for the population served by each system can be estimated to inform a mean national estimate of AGI illness due to drinking water. Data from public water systems suggest that the incidence rate of AGI due to drinking water may vary by several orders of magnitude. In addition, data from epidemiologic studies show AGI incidence due to drinking water ranging from essentially none (or less than the study detection level) to a rate of 0.26 cases per person-year. Considering these two perspectives collectively, and associated uncertainties, EPA has developed an analytical approach and model for generating a national estimate of annual AGI illness due to drinking water. EPA developed a national estimate of waterborne disease to address, in part, the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. The national estimate uses best available science, but also recognizes gaps in the data to support some of the model assumptions and uncertainties in the estimate. Based on the model presented, EPA estimates a mean incidence of AGI attributable to drinking water of 0.06 cases per year (with a 95% credible interval of 0.02-0.12). The mean estimate represents approximately 8.5% of cases of AGI illness due to all causes among the population served by community water systems. The estimated incidence translates to 16.4 million cases/year among the same population. The estimate illustrates the potential usefulness and challenges of the approach, and

  1. Binge drinking in Europe.

    PubMed

    Farke, Walter; Anderson, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Binge drinking is a pattern of heavy drinking which is observed all over Europe. The term Binge drinking implies a lot of different meanings to different people. The most popular definition used for this term is five or more 'standard drinks' in a single occasion. Binge drinking is different from intoxication, although this kind of heavy alcohol consumption can be lead to intoxication. This condition is manifested by different signs, for example slurred speech. Binge drinking is very common among the European population. In 2006 some 80 million Europeans aged 15 plus reported this kind of alcohol consumption patterns. European surveys showed that there is an increase of binge drinking across Europe amongst young people (15-16 years) old since 1995. The consequences of binge drinking contain acute and chronic effects, which are caused by long term alcohol use. The individual risks are brain damage, suicide, sexually transmitted diseases, etc. It has also an impact on harm to others than the drinkers. This includes violence and crime, accidents, etc. Each year in the European Union 2000 homicides are related to heavy drinking. There a lot of effective measures to reduce binge drinking. Strong evidence is shown by drink-driving laws, tax, reduced access to and availability of alcohol, brief interventions such as physician advice and advertising controls. PMID:18173097

  2. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2016-01-01

    Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non–college-attending peers. These drinking patterns are affected by environmental and temporal characteristics specific to the college environment, including residential campus living, the academic week, and the academic year. Additional psychosocial factors are of particular relevance to the drinking behavior of college-age people, and include exaggerated peer norms, the development and use of protective behavioral strategies, and mental health considerations. Understanding the unique interaction of person and environment is key to designing prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:27159817

  3. How Safe Are Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benke, Mary Schaefer

    1988-01-01

    Debates whether children are more susceptible to asbestos-related disease than adults. Addresses the issue of low-level exposure and disease. Discusses the regulatory measures taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Congress to protect children from the potential threat of asbestos exposure. (CW)

  4. 75 FR 54871 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the fifth and final in-person meeting of the Climate Ready... presentations on related inter-agency climate efforts. To obtain a copy of the draft report or other...

  5. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  6. Lead in school drinking water: Canada can and should address this important ongoing exposure source.

    PubMed

    Barn, Prabjit; Kosatsky, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Reducing all preventable lead exposures in children should be a public health priority given that blood lead levels in children that were once considered "safe" have since been associated with important neuro-developmental deficits. Limited Canadian data indicate that school drinking water can be an important component of children's overall exposure to lead. Outside of Ontario, however, Canadian schools are not required to test for lead in water; in most of Canada, school testing is case by case, typically initiated by parental concerns. Provinces and territories are encouraged to follow Ontario's example by instituting a routine school water lead testing program in order to identify facilities where action can result in a decrease in students' exposure to lead. Testing and remediation frameworks developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Health Canada, and the province of Ontario provide direction to school boards and local and provincial/territorial health authorities.

  7. Regional assessment of groundwater quality for drinking purpose.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2012-05-01

    Owing to limited surface water during a long-term drought, this work attempted to locate clean and safe groundwater in the Choushui River alluvial fan of Taiwan based on drinking-water quality standards. Because aquifers contained several pollutants, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) was adopted to integrate the multiple pollutants in groundwater based on drinking- and raw-water quality standards and to explore spatial uncertainty. According to probabilities estimated by MVIK, safe zones were determined under four treatment conditions--no treatment; ammonium-N and iron removal; manganese and arsenic removal; and ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and arsenic removal. The analyzed results reveal that groundwater in the study area is not appropriate for drinking use without any treatments because of high ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and/or arsenic concentrations. After ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and arsenic removed, about 81.9-94.9% of total areas can extract safe groundwater for drinking. The proximal-fan, central mid-fan, southern mid-fan, and northern regions are the excellent locations to pump safe groundwater for drinking after treatment. Deep aquifers of exceeding 200 m depth have wider regions to obtain excellent groundwater than shallow aquifers do. PMID:21728036

  8. Regional assessment of groundwater quality for drinking purpose.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2012-05-01

    Owing to limited surface water during a long-term drought, this work attempted to locate clean and safe groundwater in the Choushui River alluvial fan of Taiwan based on drinking-water quality standards. Because aquifers contained several pollutants, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) was adopted to integrate the multiple pollutants in groundwater based on drinking- and raw-water quality standards and to explore spatial uncertainty. According to probabilities estimated by MVIK, safe zones were determined under four treatment conditions--no treatment; ammonium-N and iron removal; manganese and arsenic removal; and ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and arsenic removal. The analyzed results reveal that groundwater in the study area is not appropriate for drinking use without any treatments because of high ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and/or arsenic concentrations. After ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and arsenic removed, about 81.9-94.9% of total areas can extract safe groundwater for drinking. The proximal-fan, central mid-fan, southern mid-fan, and northern regions are the excellent locations to pump safe groundwater for drinking after treatment. Deep aquifers of exceeding 200 m depth have wider regions to obtain excellent groundwater than shallow aquifers do.

  9. Safe venting of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.F.; Dewart, J.M.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal of hydrogen is often required in the operation of an experimental facility that contains hydrogen. Whether the vented hydrogen can be discharged to the atmosphere safely depends upon a number of factors such as the flow rate and atmospheric conditions. Calculations have been made that predict the distance a combustible mixture can extend from the point of release under some specified atmospheric conditions. Also the quantity of hydrogen in the combustible cloud is estimated. These results can be helpful in deciding of the hydrogen can be released directly to the atmosphere, or if it must be intentionally ignited. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Asymptotically safe Higgs inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-10-01

    We construct a new inflation model in which the standard model Higgs boson couples minimally to gravity and acts as the inflaton. Our construction of Higgs inflation incorporates the standard model with Einstein gravity which exhibits asymptotic safety in the ultraviolet region. The slow roll condition is satisfied at large field value due to the asymptotically safe behavior of Higgs self-coupling at high energies. We find that this minimal construction is highly predictive, and is consistent with both cosmological observations and collider experiments.

  11. Safe N’ Sound

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Janice; Nansel, Tonja R.; Weaver, Nancy L.; Tse, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Safe N’ Sound is a computer-based tool that prioritizes key injury risks for toddlers and infants and provides tailored feedback. The program was implemented in 5 pediatric sites. Caregiver risk behaviors were analyzed and compared with corresponding national and state morbidity and mortality data. The priority risks identified were generally consistent with the incidence of injury. Frequencies of several risk behaviors varied across sites and differences were observed across ages. Use of a prioritization scheme may facilitate risk behavior counseling and reasonably result in a decrease in injury mortality or morbidity. PMID:22617412

  12. [The EU drinking water recommendations: objectives and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Blöch, H

    2011-12-01

    Protection of our drinking water resources and provision of safe drinking water are key requirements of modern water management and health policy. Microbiological and chemical quality standards have been established in the EU water policy since 1980, and are now complemented by a comprehensive protection of water as a resource. This contribution reflects a presentation at the scientific conference of the Federal Associations of Physicians and Dentists within the Public Health Service in May 2011 and provides an overview on objectives and challenges for drinking water protection at the European level.

  13. Energy drinks and adolescents: what's the harm?

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R

    2015-04-01

    Concerns about potential dangers from energy drink consumption by youth have been raised by health experts, whereas energy drink manufacturers claim these products are safe and suitable for marketing to teens. This review summarizes the evidence used to support both sides of the debate. Unlike most beverage categories, sales of energy drinks and other highly caffeinated products continue to grow, and marketing is often targeted to youth under the age of 18 years. These products pose a risk of caffeine toxicity when consumed by some young people, and there is evidence of other troubling physiological and behavioral effects associated with their consumption by youth. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated it will reexamine the safety of caffeine in the food supply; however, more research is needed to better understand youth consumption of energy drinks and caffeine in general, as well as the long-term effects on health. Meanwhile, policymakers and physician groups have called on energy drink manufacturers to take voluntary action to reduce the potential harm of their products, including placing restrictions on marketing to youth under the age of 18 years. Additional regulatory and legislative options are also being discussed.

  14. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  15. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  16. Social Disparities in Drinking Water Quality in California's San Joaquin Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, I.; Balazs, C.; Hubbard, A.; Morello-Frosch, R.

    2011-12-01

    Social Disparities in Drinking Water Quality in California's San Joaquin Valley Carolina Balazs, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Alan Hubbard and Isha Ray Little attention has been given to research on social disparities and environmental justice in access to safe drinking water in the USA. We examine the relationship between nitrate and arsenic concentrations in community water systems (CWS) and the ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of their customers. We hypothesized that systems in the San Joaquin Valley that serve a higher proportion of minority (especially Latino) residents, and/or lower socioeconomic status (proxied by rates of home ownership) residents, have higher nitrate levels and higher arsenic levels. We used water quality monitoring datasets (1999-2001) to estimate nitrate as well as arsenic levels in CWS, and source location and Census block group data to estimate customer demographics. We found that percent Latino was associated with a .04 mg NO3/L increase in a CWS' estimated nitrate ion concentration (95% CI, -.08, .16) and rate of home ownership was associated with a .16 mg NO3/L decrease (95% CI, -.32, .002). We also found that each percent increase in home ownership rate was associated with a .30 ug As/L decrease in arsenic concentrations (p<.05), but our data showed no significant correlation between arsenic concentration and percent Latino. These results show that exposure disparities and compliance burdens in accordance with EPA standards fell most heavily on socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Selected References Cory DC, Rahman T. 2009. Environmental justice and enforcement of the safe drinking water act: The arizona arsenic experience. Ecological Economics 68: 1825-1837. Krieger N, Williams DR, Moss NE. 1997. Measuring social class in us public health research: Concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annual Review of Public Health 18(341-378). Moore E, Matalon E, Balazs C, Clary J, Firestone L, De Anda S, Guzman, M. 2011. The

  17. Safe Child Penarth: experience with a Safe Community strategy for preventing injuries to children

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, A.; Gibbs, N.; Vafidis, G.; Sibert, J.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives—To evaluate the process of establishing a Safe Community project for children. Design—A descriptive study. Setting—Penarth, a town (population 20 430) Vale of Glamorgan, South Wales. Subjects—3943 children and their families in Penarth. Main outcome measures—Whether the 12 criteria for a Safe Community project (World Health Organisation) were met. Implementation of the safety agenda set by the community. Results—Safe Child Penarth met 10 of the 12 criteria for the Safe Community network. All the items on the agenda were introduced in the initial two years of the project. There were difficulties, however, achieving sustained community ownership of the project. Conclusions—The Safe Community concept stimulated work to improve child safety in Penarth. Community safety initiatives should involve all local agencies to identify the problems and work with the community to set and meet the safety agenda. Partnership with the local authority is valuable to improve the safety of the environment. The experience generated from Safe Child Penarth has been used to develop a county wide, all age community safety project. PMID:9595337

  18. Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Mäkeläinen, Ilona; Väisänen, Sari B; Penttilä, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

    2002-04-01

    Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L.

  19. Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Mäkeläinen, Ilona; Väisänen, Sari B; Penttilä, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L. PMID:11940450

  20. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and ... from other foods. Cook —Cook to the right temperature. Chill —Refrigerate food promptly. Cook all food to ...

  1. 76 FR 37014 - Expedited Approval of Alternative Test Procedures for the Analysis of Contaminants Under the Safe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... expedited methods approval action for determining dalapon in drinking water (75 FR 32295, June 8, 2010... the Safe Drinking Water Act; Analysis and Sampling Procedures. 75 FR 32295. June 8, 2010. List of... Alkalinity of Water. Method B--Electrometric or Color-Change Titration. ASTM International, 100 Barr...

  2. Training Support Staff to Modify Fluids to Appropriate Safe Consistencies for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Dysphagia: An Efficacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, D. D.; Stubbs, J.; Fovargue, S.; Anderson, D.; Stacey, G.; Tye, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Modifying the consistency of food and drink is a strategy commonly used in the management of dysphagia for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). People with ID often depend on others for the preparation of food and drink and therefore depend on those caregivers achieving the correct consistency to keep them safe and avoid…

  3. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? KidsHealth > For ... a daily multivitamin formulated for kids. previous continue Energy Drinks These are becoming increasingly popular with middle- ...

  4. Asymptotically safe cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Litim, Daniel; Rahmede, Christoph E-mail: d.litim@sussex.ac.uk

    2011-07-01

    We study quantum modifications to cosmology in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with and without scalar fields by taking the renormalisation group running of gravitational and matter couplings into account. We exploit the Bianchi identity to relate the renormalisation group scale with scale factor and derive the improved cosmological evolution equations. We find two types of cosmological fixed points where the renormalisation group scale either freezes in, or continues to evolve with scale factor. We discuss the implications of each of these, and classify the different cosmological fixed points with and without gravity displaying an asymptotically safe renormalisation group fixed point. We state conditions of existence for an inflating ultraviolet cosmological fixed point for Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. We also discuss other fixed point solutions such as 'scaling' solutions, or fixed points with equipartition between kinetic and potential energies.

  5. Safe pill-dispensing.

    PubMed

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  6. Technologies for safe births.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The basic elements of a safe birth are proper prenatal care, adequate preparation of the mother, health worker, and site, awareness of the progress of labor and safe delivery, recognition of danger signs, and appropriate follow-up care. Technologies are differentiated by determining 1) the needs of rural birth attendants, 2) the nature of delivery kits, 3) proper cleanliness of the hands and equipment, and appropriate use of 5) disinfecting equipment, 6) drugs and medications, 7) the vertical position, 8) specialized instruments, and 9) records and support materials. Alternatives for measuring time are indicated. Customized kits available from UNICEF are described; some of the problems with these kits are reported. The logistics, referral procedures, and training and supervision needed for appropriate program managements are discussed. Adapting technologies to the local environment requires assessing the practices of traditional birth attendants (TBAs), the provision of kits (cost, ease of use and maintenance, replacement, durability, availability), the training required for proper use of equipment, the logistics of kit use, side effects of technologies, community attitudes, and evaluation. The advantages and disadvantages of including or not including particular supplies in the kit are discussed, i.e., the container for boiling water would either be a local pot or the aluminum carrying case. In lieu of a fingernail brush, a twig may be used for nail cleaning. Hand washing where water shortages exist might entail using a tin with a hole plugged with a stick to let water trickle as needed. Antiseptic solutions such a Dettol or Savlon can be used where a severe shortage exists. Basic equipment includes: soap and water, a container for boiling, other sterile containers, a protective cover of delivery area, towels, swabs, an optional apron, cord ties, a cutting instrument, gauze, a receiving blanket, records, and a carrying case.

  7. Impact of Harmful Algal Blooms on Several Lake Erie Drinking Water Treatment Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent events in Ohio have demonstrated the challenge treatment facilities face in providing safe drinking water when encountering extreme harmful algal bloom (HAB) events. Over the last two years the impact of HAB-related microcystins on several drinking water treatment facilit...

  8. Boiling over: A Descriptive Analysis of Drinking Water Advisories in First Nations Communities in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Galway, Lindsay P.

    2016-01-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is commonplace for most Canadians. However, the right to safe and reliable drinking water is denied to many First Nations peoples across the country, highlighting a priority public health and environmental justice issue in Canada. This paper describes trends and characteristics of drinking water advisories, used as a proxy for reliable access to safe drinking water, among First Nations communities in the province of Ontario. Visual and statistical tools were used to summarize the advisory data in general, temporal trends, and characteristics of the drinking water systems in which advisories were issued. Overall, 402 advisories were issued during the study period. The number of advisories increased from 25 in 2004 to 75 in 2013. The average advisory duration was 294 days. Most advisories were reported in summer months and equipment malfunction was the most commonly reported reason for issuing an advisory. Nearly half of all advisories occurred in drinking water systems where additional operator training was needed. These findings underscore that the prevalence of drinking water advisories in First Nations communities is a problem that must be addressed. Concerted and multi-faceted efforts are called for to improve the provision of safe and reliable drinking water First Nations communities. PMID:27196919

  9. How to Identify Lead Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act went into effect on January 4, 2014. The Act has reduced the lead content allowed in water system and plumbing products by changing the definition of lead free in Section 1417 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) from not more than 8% ...

  10. SCREENING MODELS TO PREDICT PROBABILITY OF CONTAMINATION BY PATHOGENIC VIRUSES IN DRINKING WATER AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act's 1996 Amendments broadened the definition of public water systems (PWS) to include systems which serve drinking water to as few as 25 individuals. Implementation of the proposed Ground Water Rule for Pathogens will place an increased burden on utiliti...

  11. AN INVESTIGATION OF ARSENIC MOBILITY FROM IRON OXIDE SOLIDS PRODUCED DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arsenic Rule under the Safe Drinking Water Act will require certain drinking water suppliers to add to or modify their existing treatment in order to comply with the regulations. One of the treatment options is iron co-precipitation. This treatment is attractive because ars...

  12. Safe motherhood partners -- the International Children's Centre.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The International Children's Centre (ICC) works worldwide to improve child health in the least developed countries. In its training and research projects the agency contributes to the Safe Motherhood Initiative to improve the health of mothers and infants. ICC is based in Paris, it was established in 1949, and the agency has cooperated with governments, nongovernmental organizations and international bodies like the World Health Organization (WHO) in child care. ICC's activities reflect concern for the health of women before and during pregnancy and the rest of their lives. The center's work comprises training, research, local projects, and information and documentation. Following the 1987 Nairobi conference on safe motherhood, ICC organized a seminar in Paris on maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan francophone Africa, which led to participation in the Safe Motherhood Initiative with a variety of training and research programs. ICC training is integrated, community-based, and multidisciplinary. Anthropology, psychology, economics and management have played a role in ICC training courses. The center runs an international course on maternal and child health from January to April each year and also organizes distance training courses on problem solving in health care. ICC training programs have taken place in Laos, Senegal, and Vietnam to strengthen the work of maternal and child health training centers there. A 4-week course on economic evaluation of health programs is held in Paris each July. In 1989 and 1990, ICC organized in collaboration with WHO safe motherhood workshops on research methodology in Benin and in Burkina Faso with participants from 6 francophone African countries. One research project in Benin is on risk factors for maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity, and the other in Cameroon on improving surveillance of pregnancy, delivery, and the postnatal period. ICC focuses on long-term planning and action for the benefit of mothers and children.

  13. 76 FR 33756 - Notice of Approval of the Primacy Application for National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... AGENCY Notice of Approval of the Primacy Application for National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for... following offices: (1) Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Public Drinking Water Branch, 1101... Pesticides Division, Drinking Water Management Branch, 901 North 5th Street, Kansas City, Kansas 66101....

  14. Teenage Drinking and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Lis-Marie

    1975-01-01

    This study focuses on drinking and the socially associated behavior of young people in discotheques and restaurants serving alcoholic beverages in Helsinki, Finland. Patterns of entering, seating, drinking, contact-making, and social control are discussed with respect to their inter-relationships and sexual differences are noted. (EH)

  15. The Drinking Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  16. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  17. Drinking water microbial myths.

    PubMed

    Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C; Clancy, Jennifer L; Hrudey, Steve E

    2015-01-01

    Accounts of drinking water-borne disease outbreaks have always captured the interest of the public, elected and health officials, and the media. During the twentieth century, the drinking water community and public health organizations have endeavored to craft regulations and guidelines on treatment and management practices that reduce risks from drinking water, specifically human pathogens. During this period there also evolved misunderstandings as to potential health risk associated with microorganisms that may be present in drinking waters. These misunderstanding or "myths" have led to confusion among the many stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to provide a scientific- and clinically-based discussion of these "myths" and recommendations for better ensuring the microbial safety of drinking water and valid public health decisions.

  18. Soft drinks in schools.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    This statement is intended to inform pediatricians and other health care professionals, parents, superintendents, and school board members about nutritional concerns regarding soft drink consumption in schools. Potential health problems associated with high intake of sweetened drinks are 1) overweight or obesity attributable to additional calories in the diet; 2) displacement of milk consumption, resulting in calcium deficiency with an attendant risk of osteoporosis and fractures; and 3) dental caries and potential enamel erosion. Contracts with school districts for exclusive soft drink rights encourage consumption directly and indirectly. School officials and parents need to become well informed about the health implications of vended drinks in school before making a decision about student access to them. A clearly defined, district-wide policy that restricts the sale of soft drinks will safeguard against health problems as a result of overconsumption.

  19. Reducing sugary drink consumption: New York City's approach.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Susan M; Kennelly, Maura O; Nonas, Cathy A; Curtis, Christine J; Van Wye, Gretchen; Goodman, Andrew; Farley, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    Studies have linked the consumption of sugary drinks to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Since 2006, New York City has taken several actions to reduce consumption. Nutrition standards limited sugary drinks served by city agencies. Mass media campaigns educated New Yorkers on the added sugars in sugary drinks and their health impact. Policy proposals included an excise tax, a restriction on use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, and a cap on sugary drink portion sizes in food service establishments. These initiatives were accompanied by a 35% decrease in the number of New York City adults consuming one or more sugary drinks a day and a 27% decrease in public high school students doing so from 2007 to 2013.

  20. Reducing sugary drink consumption: New York City's approach.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Susan M; Kennelly, Maura O; Nonas, Cathy A; Curtis, Christine J; Van Wye, Gretchen; Goodman, Andrew; Farley, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    Studies have linked the consumption of sugary drinks to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Since 2006, New York City has taken several actions to reduce consumption. Nutrition standards limited sugary drinks served by city agencies. Mass media campaigns educated New Yorkers on the added sugars in sugary drinks and their health impact. Policy proposals included an excise tax, a restriction on use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, and a cap on sugary drink portion sizes in food service establishments. These initiatives were accompanied by a 35% decrease in the number of New York City adults consuming one or more sugary drinks a day and a 27% decrease in public high school students doing so from 2007 to 2013. PMID:25713971

  1. Access to Safe Water and Personal Hygiene Practices in the Kulandia Refugee Camp (Jerusalem).

    PubMed

    Issa, Mohamad; McHenry, Michael; Issa, Abdul Aziz; Blackwood, R Alexander

    2015-12-22

    Diarrheal illness, frequently associated with fecal-oral transmission, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is commonly preventable through the implementation of safe water practices. This experiment concerns how to best implement safe water practices in a quasi-permanent refugee camp setting with limited ability for structural changes. Specifically, we explore how health promotion activities that help identify target groups for hygiene interventions can play a role in disease prevention. An anonymous survey was conducted at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency Health Clinic in the Kulandia refugee camp to assess the safe water and personal hygiene practices. Demographic and social characteristics, accessible water and personal hygiene characteristics, and gastrointestinal (GI) burden for individuals and their households were assessed. A total of 96 individuals were enrolled; 62 females and 34 males. Approximately 58% of the sample had soap available and washed hands before and after eating and when preparing food. Piped water was the main source of drinking water (62%), while 31% of our sample utilized tanker-trucks. 93% of participants had access to toilet facilities, with 86% of these facilities being private households. 55% practice extra water hygiene measures on their household drinking water source. 51.3% considered vendor cleanliness when they were buying food. 51% had received formal health education. 68.8% had been taught by their parents, but only 55.2% were teaching their children and 15.6% had consistent access to a health professional for hygiene inquiries. Individual variables and hygiene practices associated with lower rates of diarrheal illnesses included having water piped into the home, proper hand washing, adequate soap availability, proper consideration of vendor cleanliness, higher income, levels of education, health hygiene education, and having access to healthcare professions to discuss hygiene related matters. This is

  2. Access to Safe Water and Personal Hygiene Practices in the Kulandia Refugee Camp (Jerusalem)

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Mohamad; McHenry, Michael; Issa, Abdul Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal illness, frequently associated with fecal-oral transmission, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is commonly preventable through the implementation of safe water practices. This experiment concerns how to best implement safe water practices in a quasi-permanent refugee camp setting with limited ability for structural changes. Specifically, we explore how health promotion activities that help identify target groups for hygiene interventions can play a role in disease prevention. An anonymous survey was conducted at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency Health Clinic in the Kulandia refugee camp to assess the safe water and personal hygiene practices. Demographic and social characteristics, accessible water and personal hygiene characteristics, and gastrointestinal (GI) burden for individuals and their households were assessed. A total of 96 individuals were enrolled; 62 females and 34 males. Approximately 58% of the sample had soap available and washed hands before and after eating and when preparing food. Piped water was the main source of drinking water (62%), while 31% of our sample utilized tanker-trucks. 93% of participants had access to toilet facilities, with 86% of these facilities being private households. 55% practice extra water hygiene measures on their household drinking water source. 51.3% considered vendor cleanliness when they were buying food. 51% had received formal health education. 68.8% had been taught by their parents, but only 55.2% were teaching their children and 15.6% had consistent access to a health professional for hygiene inquiries. Individual variables and hygiene practices associated with lower rates of diarrheal illnesses included having water piped into the home, proper hand washing, adequate soap availability, proper consideration of vendor cleanliness, higher income, levels of education, health hygiene education, and having access to healthcare professions to discuss hygiene related matters. This is

  3. Access to Safe Water and Personal Hygiene Practices in the Kulandia Refugee Camp (Jerusalem).

    PubMed

    Issa, Mohamad; McHenry, Michael; Issa, Abdul Aziz; Blackwood, R Alexander

    2015-12-22

    Diarrheal illness, frequently associated with fecal-oral transmission, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is commonly preventable through the implementation of safe water practices. This experiment concerns how to best implement safe water practices in a quasi-permanent refugee camp setting with limited ability for structural changes. Specifically, we explore how health promotion activities that help identify target groups for hygiene interventions can play a role in disease prevention. An anonymous survey was conducted at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency Health Clinic in the Kulandia refugee camp to assess the safe water and personal hygiene practices. Demographic and social characteristics, accessible water and personal hygiene characteristics, and gastrointestinal (GI) burden for individuals and their households were assessed. A total of 96 individuals were enrolled; 62 females and 34 males. Approximately 58% of the sample had soap available and washed hands before and after eating and when preparing food. Piped water was the main source of drinking water (62%), while 31% of our sample utilized tanker-trucks. 93% of participants had access to toilet facilities, with 86% of these facilities being private households. 55% practice extra water hygiene measures on their household drinking water source. 51.3% considered vendor cleanliness when they were buying food. 51% had received formal health education. 68.8% had been taught by their parents, but only 55.2% were teaching their children and 15.6% had consistent access to a health professional for hygiene inquiries. Individual variables and hygiene practices associated with lower rates of diarrheal illnesses included having water piped into the home, proper hand washing, adequate soap availability, proper consideration of vendor cleanliness, higher income, levels of education, health hygiene education, and having access to healthcare professions to discuss hygiene related matters. This is

  4. Aflatoxins and safe storage

    PubMed Central

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  5. On safe motherhood.

    PubMed

    Mahler, H

    1988-05-01

    After a general discussion of the factors contributing to maternal mortality and morbidity, a solution to both of these problems is suggested for India: an initiative at the district level to improve support, supervision, training, essential midwifery and obstetric care. The general causes of the 200 or more times higher maternal morality risks in developing countries act throughout the woman's lifetime: powerlessness, illiteracy, malnutrition, deficiency of calcium, vitamin D and iron, heavy physical labor, unchecked fertility, lack of prenatal and obstetric care and illegal abortion. The most common causes of maternal morality and morbidity, eclampsia, obstructed labor, hemorrhage and sepsis, have been prevented in developed countries and in China. We know how to prevent them, by technical support and management at the district level. 4 elements are required: 1) adequate primary health care, food and universal family planning; 2) prenatal care and nutrition with referral if needed; 3) assistance of a trained person at every childbirth; 4) access to obstetric care for those at high risk. Rather than spend money or urban specialized hospital centers, half to 2/3 of all fatal complications of childbirth can be eliminated by local hospitals with the ability to do basic obstetrics such as caesareans and blood transfusions. There is a need for further health systems research in the given locale, but what we need now is an initiative on making pregnancy and childbirth safe for all women. PMID:3420000

  6. Injections--how safe.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh

    2005-04-01

    Injection, is a skin-piercing event performed by a syringe and needle with the purpose of introducing a curative substance or vaccine in a patient. According to WHO, safe injection is one which does not harm to the recepient, does not expose the health worker to any risk and does not result in waste that is dangerous for the community. To achieve this injection should be prepared on a clean workspace, provider should clean his hands appropriately, sterility of the syringe and needle to be maintained, skin of the recipient should be cleaned and above all sharps waste should be managed appropriately. Common danger of unsafe injection is infection. Most medication used in primary care can be administered orally. So firstly the behaviour of healthcare providers and patients must be changed so as to decrease overuse of injections, secondly provision of sufficient quantities of appropriate injection equipment and infection control supplies should be made available and thirdly a sharp waste management system should be set up. PMID:16173426

  7. Underage Drinking and the Drinking Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Carla T.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of underage drinking on college campuses has been brewing for many years to the continued vexation of higher education administrators. In 2008, John McCardell, president emeritus of Middlebury College, began to circulate for signature a public statement among colleagues titled "The Amethyst Initiative," which calls for elected…

  8. Chlorine and Solute Transport and Reactions in Drinking Water Distribution: The Role of Flow Hydrodynamics on Water Quality Changes and Multi-Criteria Compliance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water supply is one of the most notable modern engineering achievements in the 20th century. It is a centerpiece of the U.S. environmental protection effort under the federal Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and its amendments. In this chapter, water quality changes a...

  9. NEUROTOXICITY PRODUCED BY DIBROMOACETIC ACID IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript examines the neurotoxic potential of a commonly found disinfection by-product (DBP), dibromoacetic acid (DBA). While the Safe Drinking Water Act requires evaluation of DBPs for noncancer health effects, surprisingly few have been tested for neurotoxicity. Rats e...

  10. Phosphate Removal and Recovery using Drinking Water Plant Waste Residuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment plants are used to provide safe drinking water. In parallel, however, they also produce a wide variety of waste products which, in principle, could be possible candidates as resources for different applications. Calcium carbonate is one of such residual waste in ...

  11. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  12. URBAN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A U.S. PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will examine several case studies that illustrate the critical role drinking water treatment and distribution systems play in protecting public health. It will also present a case study that documents the dramatic impact that the regulations promulgated under the Safe...

  13. Drinking water from private wells and risks to children.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Walter J; Brady, Michael T

    2009-06-01

    Drinking water for approximately one sixth of US households is obtained from private wells. These wells can become contaminated by pollutant chemicals or pathogenic organisms and cause illness. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency and all states offer guidance for construction, maintenance, and testing of private wells, there is little regulation. With few exceptions, well owners are responsible for their own wells. Children may also drink well water at child care or when traveling. Illness resulting from children's ingestion of contaminated water can be severe. This policy statement provides recommendations for inspection, testing, and remediation for wells providing drinking water for children.

  14. [The drinking water ordinance--successful or requiring revision?].

    PubMed

    Bartel, Hartmut; Krüger, W; Mendel, B; Suhr, R

    2007-03-01

    The current regulatory approach in Germany combines regulations defined in the Drinking Water Ordinance with a comprehensive catalogue of technical rules as well as with guidelines and recommendations by the Federal Environment Agency and the Drinking Water Commission. This approach has proven successful in practice. Some parts would benefit from revision. The regulator is currently contemplating some revision in order to take experience of federal, state and local authorities as well as of water suppliers with implementation of the current Ordinance into account. The intention is improvement particularly towards reducing bureaucracy without compromising the current high level of public health protection through drinking water hygiene in Germany.

  15. 76 FR 23613 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Hazard Mitigation Safe Room Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... Mitigation Safe Room Construction AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for comments. SUMMARY: Under the Pre-Disaster Mitigation (PDM) Program and the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) may provide funding...

  16. GRIK1 Genotype Moderates Topiramate's Effects on Daily Drinking Level, Expectations of Alcohol's Positive Effects, and Desire to Drink

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Armeli, Stephen; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We (Kranzler et al. 2014) reported that topiramate 200 mg/day reduced heavy drinking days and increased abstinent days in 138 heavy drinkers whose treatment goal was to reduce drinking to safe levels. In that 12-week, placebo-controlled study, we measured drinking using the Timeline Follow-back method at each treatment visit. In addition to the intent-to-treat effects of topiramate, we found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, encoding the GluK1 subunit of the kainate receptor, moderated the treatment effect in European Americans (EAs; n=122). Topiramate reduced heavy drinking only in rs2832407*C allele homozygotes. Here, we augment those analyses by using patients’ daily reports obtained using interactive voice response technology (a) to validate the interactive effects of GRIK1 and topiramate as predictors of drinking level and (b) to examine changes in expected positive effects of drinking (i.e., positive outcome expectancies) and desire to drink. We found that rs2832407*C allele homozygotes treated with topiramate drank less overall during treatment than those receiving placebo, validating our earlier findings for heavy drinking days (Kranzler et al. 2014). There was also a study day × medication group × genotype group interaction that predicted both positive alcohol expectancies and desire to drink, with rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showing the largest decreases in these outcomes during the study period. Changes in positive alcohol expectancies or desire to drink did not mediate the effects on drinking. These findings validate and extend our previous pharmacogenetic findings with topiramate. PMID:24786948

  17. 78 FR 22540 - Notice of Public Meeting/Webinar: EPA Method Development Update on Drinking Water Testing Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... AGENCY Notice of Public Meeting/Webinar: EPA Method Development Update on Drinking Water Testing Methods...: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Standards and Risk Management Division's Technical Support Center (TSC)...

  18. Improved but unsustainable: accounting for sachet water in post-2015 goals for global safe water.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Justin

    2012-12-01

    The advent and rapid spread of sachet drinking water in West Africa presents a new challenge for providing sustainable access to global safe water. Sachet water has expanded drinking water access and is often of sufficient quality to serve as an improved water source for Millennium Development Goals (MDG) monitoring purposes, yet sachets are an unsustainable water delivery vehicle due to their overwhelming plastic waste burden. Monitoring of primary drinking water sources in West Africa generally ignores sachet water, despite its growing ubiquity. Sub-Saharan Africa as a region is unlikely to meet the MDG Target for drinking water provision, and post-2015 monitoring activities may depend upon rapid adaptability to local drinking water trends. PMID:23051893

  19. Improved but unsustainable: accounting for sachet water in post-2015 goals for global safe water.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Justin

    2012-12-01

    The advent and rapid spread of sachet drinking water in West Africa presents a new challenge for providing sustainable access to global safe water. Sachet water has expanded drinking water access and is often of sufficient quality to serve as an improved water source for Millennium Development Goals (MDG) monitoring purposes, yet sachets are an unsustainable water delivery vehicle due to their overwhelming plastic waste burden. Monitoring of primary drinking water sources in West Africa generally ignores sachet water, despite its growing ubiquity. Sub-Saharan Africa as a region is unlikely to meet the MDG Target for drinking water provision, and post-2015 monitoring activities may depend upon rapid adaptability to local drinking water trends.

  20. Assessing clarity of message communication for mandated USEPA drinking water quality reports.

    PubMed

    Phetxumphou, Katherine; Roy, Siddhartha; Davy, Brenda M; Estabrooks, Paul A; You, Wen; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-04-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency mandates that community water systems (CWSs), or drinking water utilities, provide annual consumer confidence reports (CCRs) reporting on water quality, compliance with regulations, source water, and consumer education. While certain report formats are prescribed, there are no criteria ensuring that consumers understand messages in these reports. To assess clarity of message, trained raters evaluated a national sample of 30 CCRs using the Centers for Disease Control Clear Communication Index (Index) indices: (1) Main Message/Call to Action; (2) Language; (3) Information Design; (4) State of the Science; (5) Behavioral Recommendations; (6) Numbers; and (7) Risk. Communication materials are considered qualifying if they achieve a 90% Index score. Overall mean score across CCRs was 50 ± 14% and none scored 90% or higher. CCRs did not differ significantly by water system size. State of the Science (3 ± 15%) and Behavioral Recommendations (77 ± 36%) indices were the lowest and highest, respectively. Only 63% of CCRs explicitly stated if the water was safe to drink according to federal and state standards and regulations. None of the CCRs had passing Index scores, signaling that CWSs are not effectively communicating with their consumers; thus, the Index can serve as an evaluation tool for CCR effectiveness and a guide to improve water quality communications.

  1. Assessing clarity of message communication for mandated USEPA drinking water quality reports.

    PubMed

    Phetxumphou, Katherine; Roy, Siddhartha; Davy, Brenda M; Estabrooks, Paul A; You, Wen; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-04-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency mandates that community water systems (CWSs), or drinking water utilities, provide annual consumer confidence reports (CCRs) reporting on water quality, compliance with regulations, source water, and consumer education. While certain report formats are prescribed, there are no criteria ensuring that consumers understand messages in these reports. To assess clarity of message, trained raters evaluated a national sample of 30 CCRs using the Centers for Disease Control Clear Communication Index (Index) indices: (1) Main Message/Call to Action; (2) Language; (3) Information Design; (4) State of the Science; (5) Behavioral Recommendations; (6) Numbers; and (7) Risk. Communication materials are considered qualifying if they achieve a 90% Index score. Overall mean score across CCRs was 50 ± 14% and none scored 90% or higher. CCRs did not differ significantly by water system size. State of the Science (3 ± 15%) and Behavioral Recommendations (77 ± 36%) indices were the lowest and highest, respectively. Only 63% of CCRs explicitly stated if the water was safe to drink according to federal and state standards and regulations. None of the CCRs had passing Index scores, signaling that CWSs are not effectively communicating with their consumers; thus, the Index can serve as an evaluation tool for CCR effectiveness and a guide to improve water quality communications. PMID:27105408

  2. 40 CFR 141.210 - Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the public water system. 141.210 Section 141.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking Water Violations § 141.210 Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public...

  3. 40 CFR 141.210 - Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the public water system. 141.210 Section 141.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking Water Violations § 141.210 Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public...

  4. 40 CFR 141.210 - Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the public water system. 141.210 Section 141.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking Water Violations § 141.210 Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public...

  5. 40 CFR 141.210 - Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the public water system. 141.210 Section 141.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking Water Violations § 141.210 Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public...

  6. 40 CFR 141.210 - Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the public water system. 141.210 Section 141.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking Water Violations § 141.210 Notice by primacy agency on behalf of the public...

  7. Drinking reasons, drinking locations, and automobile accident involvement among collegians.

    PubMed

    Pang, M G; Wells-Parker, E; McMillen, D L

    1989-03-01

    Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship of five drinking reason factors to drinking locations and consumption variables within a random sample of drinking college students surveyed by telephone. Hypotheses relating self-reported accident involvement after drinking and two specific reason factors - Opposite Sex/Drunkenness and Pleasure - were tested. Both Pleasure and Opposite Sex/Drunkenness were directly related to quantity consumed and to drinking in several away-from-home locations. Opposite Sex/Drunkenness reasons and frequency of drinking in cars significantly contributed to identifying males who reported accident involvement following drinking.

  8. Safe Zones: Creating LGBT Safe Space Ally Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, Kerry John; Tubbs, Nancy Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses model LGBT Safe Space Ally programs. These programs, often called "Safe Zones," include self selected students, faculty, and employees who publicly show support by displaying stickers, signs, and other identifiable items. Issues covered in the article include history, development, training, membership, assessment, and…

  9. 75 FR 35458 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the fourth in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water... meeting is for the Working Group to discuss climate-related tools and resources needed to address...

  10. 75 FR 1380 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the second in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities... meeting is for the Working Group to discuss the attributes and enabling environment of climate ready...

  11. 75 FR 20352 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the third in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water... to be climate ready, enabling environment recommendations, and climate-related tools to...

  12. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  13. Environmentally safe aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberio, Patricia D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the Air Force directive to remove Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) from military specifications and Defense Logistics Agency's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, we are faced with how to ensure a quality aviation fuel without using such chemicals. Many of these chemicals are found throughout the fuel and fuel related military specifications and are part of test methods that help qualify the properties and quality of the fuels before they are procured. Many years ago there was a directive for military specifications to use commercially standard test methods in order to provide standard testing in private industry and government. As a result the test methods used in military specifications are governed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). The Air Force has been very proactive in the removal or replacement of the ODC's and hazardous materials in these test methods. For example, ASTM D3703 (Standard Test Method for Peroxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels), requires the use of Freon 113, a known ODC. A new rapid, portable hydroperoxide test for jet fuels similar to ASTM D3703 that does not require the use of ODC's has been developed. This test has proved, in limited testing, to be a viable substitute method for ASTM D3703. The Air Force is currently conducting a round robin to allow the method to be accepted by ASTM and therefore replace the current method. This paper will describe the Air Force's initiatives to remove ODC's and hazardous materials from the fuel and fuel related military specifications that the Air Force Wright Laboratory.

  14. Contaminated drinking water and rural health perspectives in Rajasthan, India: an overview of recent case studies.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra

    2011-02-01

    Access to safe drinking water is an important issue of health and development at national, regional, and local levels. The concept of safe drinking water assumes greater significance in countries like India where the majority of the population lives in villages with bare infrastructures and poor sanitation facilities. This review presents an overview of drinking water quality in rural habitations of northern Rajasthan, India. Although fluoride is an endemic problem to the groundwater of this region, recently, other anthropogenic chemicals has also been reported in the local groundwater. Recent case studies indicate that about 95% of sites of this region contain a higher fluoride level in groundwater than the maximum permissible limit as decided by the Bureau of Indian Standards. Nitrate (as NO3-) contamination has appeared as another anthropogenic threat to some intensively cultivable rural habitations of this region. Biological contamination has appeared as another issue of unsafe drinking water resources in rural areas of the state. Recent studies have claimed a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria including members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in local drinking water resources. Overall, the quality of drinking water in this area is not up to the safe level, and much work is still required to establish a safe drinking water supply program in this area.

  15. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  16. Risks of underage drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking can lead to making decisions that cause harm. Alcohol use means any of the following are more likely to occur: Car crashes Falls, drowning, and other accidents Suicide Violence and homicide Being a victim of violent crime

  17. Bold Steps Build Safe Havens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiner, Michael E.

    1996-01-01

    Following the National Alliance of Safe Schools' recommendations, a suburban New Jersey school district developed a successful school/police liaison program, issued photo ID cards, and initiated a "safe haven," zero-tolerance substance abuse policy. The district metes out immediate, serious penalties for violations, but also teaches students…

  18. An update of the federal drinking water regs

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W. )

    1995-02-01

    Previous reviews have summarized the regulations promulgated for volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), fluoride, surface water treatment, total coliform bacteria, lead and copper, and Phase 2 and Phase 5 synthetic organic contaminants (SOCs) and inorganic contaminants (IOCs). Current developments related to these rules and anticipated new rules are reviewed in this article. Current numerical drinking water standards and best available technology (BAT) are summarized. The status of all current, proposed, and anticipated regulations is also summarized. Dates for anticipated agency actions are based on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) published regulatory agenda and on information released by the agency through December 1994; these dates can change as the agency reconsiders its regulatory policies.

  19. Health safety of soft drinks: contents, containers, and microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kregiel, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage. PMID:25695045

  20. Health safety of soft drinks: contents, containers, and microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kregiel, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage.

  1. Health Safety of Soft Drinks: Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage. PMID:25695045

  2. Emergency do not consume/do not use concentrations for ferric chloride in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Willhite, C C; Ball, G L; Bhat, V S

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Congress [PL 107-188] amended the Safe Drinking Water Act and required each community water system serving more than 3,000 people to conduct vulnerability assessments. These assessments address potential circumstances that could compromise the safety and reliability of municipal water. Ferric chloride is used in coagulation and flocculation, and it is used to treat raw water with high viral loads, elevated dissolved solids or high bromide. Iron is an essential nutrient, but elevated concentrations of FeCl3 are corrosive as a result of hydrolysis to HCl. Based on a no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 0.5% FeCl3 • 6H2O administered in drinking water to male and female F344 rats for up to 2 years, a do not consume concentration of 200 mg FeCl3 /L can be derived. Since instillation of 0.3 M (48.7 g/L) FeCl3 in saline to rodent vagina failed to elicit damage, a topical do not use concentration of 2000 mg FeCl3/L (600 mg Fe/L) can be assigned. The only FeCl3 data available to quantify ocular toxicity involved a pH 1 solution in rabbit eyes, but HCl instillation (pH 2.5) to rabbit eyes found permanent corneal ulceration after 10 min. The pH of FeCl3 in water at the do not use limit (2.4-2.6) is near the pH (2.0) considered corrosive by regulatory agencies. As direct eye contact with water at pH 4.5 or below increases complaints of ocular discomfort, emergency response plans that address FeCl3 in drinking water must account for Fe levels and the pH of the affected water. PMID:23111879

  3. Emergency do not consume/do not use concentrations for ferric chloride in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Willhite, C C; Ball, G L; Bhat, V S

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Congress [PL 107-188] amended the Safe Drinking Water Act and required each community water system serving more than 3,000 people to conduct vulnerability assessments. These assessments address potential circumstances that could compromise the safety and reliability of municipal water. Ferric chloride is used in coagulation and flocculation, and it is used to treat raw water with high viral loads, elevated dissolved solids or high bromide. Iron is an essential nutrient, but elevated concentrations of FeCl3 are corrosive as a result of hydrolysis to HCl. Based on a no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 0.5% FeCl3 • 6H2O administered in drinking water to male and female F344 rats for up to 2 years, a do not consume concentration of 200 mg FeCl3 /L can be derived. Since instillation of 0.3 M (48.7 g/L) FeCl3 in saline to rodent vagina failed to elicit damage, a topical do not use concentration of 2000 mg FeCl3/L (600 mg Fe/L) can be assigned. The only FeCl3 data available to quantify ocular toxicity involved a pH 1 solution in rabbit eyes, but HCl instillation (pH 2.5) to rabbit eyes found permanent corneal ulceration after 10 min. The pH of FeCl3 in water at the do not use limit (2.4-2.6) is near the pH (2.0) considered corrosive by regulatory agencies. As direct eye contact with water at pH 4.5 or below increases complaints of ocular discomfort, emergency response plans that address FeCl3 in drinking water must account for Fe levels and the pH of the affected water.

  4. UIC permitting process for class IID and Class III wells: Protection of drinking water in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Hillenbrand, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region II, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program regulates injection wells in the State of New York to protect drinking water; UIC regulations can be found under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Parts 124, 144, 146 and 147. Operators of solution mining injection wells (UIC Class IIIG) and produced fluid disposal wells (UIC Class IID) are required to obtain an UIC permit for authorization to inject. The permitting process requires submittal of drinking water, geologic and proposed operational data in order to assure that pressure build-up within the injection zone will not compromise confining layers and allow vertical migration of fluid into Underground Sources of Drinking Water (USDW). Additional data is required within an Area of Review (AOR), defined as an area determined by the intersection of the adjusted potentiometric surface produced by injection and a depth 50 feet below the base of the lowermost USDW, or a radius of 1/4 mile around the injection well, whichever is greater. Locations of all wells in the AOR must be identified, and completion reports and plugging reports must be submitted. Requirements are set for maximum injection pressure and flow rates, monitoring of brine properties of the injection well and monitoring of water supply wells in the AOR for possible contamination. Any noncompliance with permit requirements constitutes a violation of the Safe Drinking Water Act and is grounds for enforcement action, including possible revocation of permit. Presently four Class IID wells are authorized under permit in New York State. The Queenston sandstone, Medina sandstone, Salina B, Akron dolomite and Oriskany sandstone have been used for brine disposal; the lower Ordovician-Cambrian section is currently being considered as an injection zone. Over one hundred Class IIIG wells are authorized under permit in New York State and all have been utilized for solution mining of the Syracuse salt.

  5. Perceived consequences of drinking caffeinated beverages.

    PubMed

    Page, R M

    1987-12-01

    A survey of 238 college students indicated that those who prefer to drink caffeine containing drinks maintain different perceptions about the negative and positive consequences of drinking caffeinated drinks from those who do not prefer to drink caffeinated drinks. 154 of the students reported that the last soft drink they consumed was caffeinated.

  6. 7TH JAPAN - U.S. CONFERENCE ON DRINKING WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND WASTEWATER CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Update on U.S. Drinking Water and Water Quality Research

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) Office of Research and development continues to conduct drinking water and water quality related research to address high priority environmental problems. Curr...

  7. ETV COLLABORATIVE EVALUATIONS OF MARKET-READY TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    How well do some commercially marketed package treatment systems perform to reduce arsenic from drinking water supplies? The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Drinking Water Systems (DWS) Center is a partnership between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA...

  8. Removal of Strontium from Drinking Water by Conventional Treatment and Lime Softening

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency Contaminant Candidate List 3 lists strontium as a contaminant for potential regulatory consideration in drinking water. There is very little data available on strontium removal from drinking water. As a result, there is an immedia...

  9. 76 FR 10899 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... of Dental Caries; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Health... fluoride in drinking water to 0.7 mg/L to provide the best of balance of protection from dental caries... recommendations for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental caries has been...

  10. 77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... AGENCY Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water... inviting the public to submit data and scientific literature to inform EPA's research on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. DATES: EPA will accept data and literature...

  11. Drinking-Water Criteria Document for Cadmium (final draft), December 1986. Final draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The Office of Drinking Water, Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Cadmium. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of Cadmium; Toxicokinetics and human exposure to cadmium; health effects of cadmium in humans and animals; mechanisms of toxicological effects of cadmium; and quantification of toxicological effects of cadmium.

  12. 40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminant may cause a violation of the primary drinking water standards under 40 CFR part 141, other health... sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements for Owners...

  13. USEPA'S SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS IN ECUADOR AND MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to support and help in the struggle to improve the quality of drinking water in the United States and abroad, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) conducts research studies for the demonstration and evaluation of alternative and innovative drinking w...

  14. Drinking-Water Criteria Document for Asbestos (final draft), March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Sonich-Mullin, C.; Patel, Y.; Bayard, S.; Mossman, B.T.

    1985-03-01

    The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Asbestos. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of Asbestos; Toxicokinetics and human exposure to Asbestos; Health Effects of Asbestos in humans and animals; Mechanisms of toxicity of Asbestos; Quantification of toxicological effects of Asbestos.

  15. STATISTICAL PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINATION AND VERIFICATION OF MINIMUM REPORTING LEVELS FOR DRINKING WATER METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) has developed a single-laboratory quantitation procedure: the lowest concentration minimum reporting level (LCMRL). The LCMRL is the lowest true concentration for which fu...

  16. [Job strain and drinking behavior].

    PubMed

    Yang, M J; Ho, C K; Fan, L R; Yang, M S

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this survey study was to explore the influence of work on individual's drinking behavior. From October 1994 to March 1995, the present researchers implemented a self-administered questionnaire survey on workers in the manufacturing sector in Metropolitan Kaohsiung area, southern Taiwan. Of the 1,117 subjects selected, 668 (61.8%) stated that they had had one or more drinks during the preceding month. The average daily consumption of alcohol was 0.2 +/- 0.9 drinks (with a range of 0 to 12 drinks and a median of 0.02 drinks). In addition, 188 (28.8%) of the subjects reported having experienced drinking-related problems during the preceding month, and 35 respondents (5.2%) gave escape from job stress as the reason for their drinking in the preceding month. The result of multivariate analyses showed that workers who reported less autonomy in their job were more likely to experience drinking-related problems (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3) and to drinking for psychological relief (OR = 1.2); that workers who reported more demanding job conditions were more likely to drink for escape (OR = 2.5) but had lower levels of drinking (t = -2.5, p = 0.01); and that workers who reported high levels of job strain were more likely to experience drinking-related problems and to drink for relief but had lower levels of drinking. The details and implications of this result will be discussed.

  17. [Parasitic zoonoses transmitted by drinking water. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis].

    PubMed

    Exner, M; Gornik, V

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, the parasitic zoonose organisms Giardia lamblia und Cryptosporidium spp. are among the most relevant pathogens of drinking water-associated disease outbreaks. These pathogens are transmitted via a fecal-oral route; in both cases the dose of infection is low. Apart from person-to-person or animal-to-person transmissions, the consumption of contaminated food and water are further modes of transmission. The disease is mainly characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. In industrialized countries, the prevalence rate of giardiasis is 2-5 % and of cryptosporidiosis 1-3%. Throughout the world, a large number of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis outbreaks associated with drinking water were published; in 2001 the first case in Germany was identified. Giardia and Cryptosporidium are detected in surface water and sporadically in unprotected groundwater. Use of these waters for drinking water abstraction makes high demands on the technology of the treatment process: because of the disinfectant resistance of the parasites, safe elimination methods are needed, which even at high contamination levels of source water guarantee safe drinking water. Further measures for prevention and control are implementation of the HACCP concept, which includes the whole chain of procedures of drinking water supply from catchment via treatment to tap and a quality management system.

  18. Health and environmental policy issues in Canada: the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources.

    PubMed

    Davies, John-Mark; Mazumder, Asit

    2003-07-01

    Sustaining clean and safe drinking water sources is increasingly becoming a priority because of global pollution. The means of attaining and maintaining clean drinking water sources requires effective policies that identify, document, and reduce watershed risks. These risks are defined by their potential impact to human health. Health and risk are, therefore, indelibly linked because they are in part defined by each other. Understanding pathogen ecology and identifying watershed sources remains a priority because of the associated acute risks. Surface water quality changes resulting from inputs of human waste, nutrients and chemicals are associated with higher drinking water risks. Nutrient input can increase primary production and the resulting increase of organic matter results in greater disinfection by-product formation or requires greater treatment intensity. Many drinking water disease outbreaks have resulted from breaches in treatment facilities, therefore, even with greater treatment intensity poor source water quality intrinsically has greater associated health risks. Government and international agencies play a critical role in developing policy. The goal of maintaining water supplies whose availability is maximized and risks are minimized (i.e. sustainable) should be a vital part of such policy. Health risks are discussed in the context of a multi-barrier perspective and it is concluded that both passive (protection) and active (prescriptive management) management is necessary for sustainability. Canadian aboriginal water systems, British Columbian water policy and US EPA policies are given as examples. The basis for developing effective policies includes a strong reliance on sound science and effective instrumentation with careful consideration of stakeholders' interests. Only with such directed policies can the future availability of clean drinking water sources be ensured.

  19. 76 FR 42161 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Pollution Control Act of 1972 (see Clean Water Act of 1977 & 1987) 8. Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (Paleontological Resources) 9. Noise Control Act of 1972 10. Safe Drinking Water Act of...

  20. 78 FR 20604 - Enhanced Document Requirements To Support Use of the Dolphin Safe Label on Tuna Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Requirements To Support Use of the Dolphin Safe Label on Tuna Products AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Information Act (DPCIA) to enhance the requirements for documentation to support labels on tuna products that... to dolphin-safe and non-dolphin-safe tuna ] on board fishing vessels; create new requirements...

  1. Is Rinsing Your Sinuses Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... water that is used with nasal rinsing devices. Tap water that is not filtered, treated, or processed in ... safe for use as a nasal rinse. Some tap water contains low levels of organisms, such as bacteria ...

  2. Drinking water health advisory for boron

    SciTech Connect

    Cantilli, R.

    1991-04-01

    The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

  3. Energy drinks consumption in male construction workers, Chonburi province.

    PubMed

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Khobjit, Pattama; Veerachai, Viroj; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2004-12-01

    This unmatched case-control study aimed to determine the relationship among caffeine drinks consumption known as "energy drinks consumption", drug dependence and related factors in male construction workers in Chonburi Province. It was conducted during December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. Data were collected using interview questionnaires. The logistic regression was used to control possible confounding factors. The subjects consisted of 186 cases who had consumed energy drinks for more than 3 months and 186 controls who had given up for more than 3 months. They were frequency/group matched by age group. There was statistically significant association among energy drinks consumption and overtime work, motivation from advertisements, positive attitude of energy drinks consumption, alcohol drinks, smoking and ex-taking Kratom behavior. Multivariate analyses revealed that only 5 factors were related to energy drinks consumption: marital status (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.14, 3.11), overtime work (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.73, 4.64), motivation from advertisements (OR = 2.72, 95%CI: 1.67, 4.42), positive attitude of energy drinks consumption (OR = 4.06, 95%CI: 1.65, 10.01) and ex-taking Kratom behavior (OR = 2.77, 95%CI: 1.19, 6.44). As a result, construction workers should be provided with the knowledge of energy drinks consumption, the effect of drug dependence behavior, and the advantages of safe and healthy food that is cheap, readily available, and rich in nutrients. PMID:15822540

  4. [Drinking water in infants].

    PubMed

    Vitoria Miñana, I

    2004-02-01

    We review types of public drinking water and bottled water and provide recommendations on the composition of water for infants. Water used with any of the commercial infant formulas in Spain should contain less than 25 mg/l of sodium. Drinking water must be boiled for a maximum of one minute (at sea level) to avoid excessive salt concentration. Bottled water need not be boiled. Fluoride content in drinking water should be less than 0.3 mg/l in first year of life to prevent dental fluorosis. Nitrate content in water should be less than 25 mg/l to prevent methemoglobinemia. Water with a calcium concentration of between 50 and 100 mg/l is a dietary source of calcium since it provides 24-56 % of the required daily intake in infancy.

  5. Regulatory development of the interim and revised regulations for radioactivity in drinking water--past and present issues and problems.

    PubMed

    Lappenbusch, W L; Cothern, C R

    1985-05-01

    Developing the Revised Regulations for Radioactivity in Drinking Water under the Safe Drinking Water Act requires information from all related areas and disciplines. As one step in the regulatory process, the background and history of that process as it applies to radioactivity in drinking water is described. The issues involved in developing the revised regulations are as follows: monitoring and sources of exposure, dose evaluation, health effects, engineering, economics and general policy development. PMID:3988521

  6. Safe access to safe water in low income countries: water fetching in current times.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Susan B; Morssink, Christiaan; Campos, Paola Abril

    2011-05-01

    A substantial portion of the world's population does not have ready access to safe water. Moreover, obtaining water may involve great expense of time and energy for those who have no water sources in or near home. From an historical perspective, with the invention of piped water, fetching water has only recently become largely irrelevant in many locales. In addition, in most instances, wells and clean surface water were so close by that fetching was not considered a problem. However, population growth, weather fluctuations and social upheavals have made the daily chore of carrying water highly problematic and a public health problem of great magnitude for many, especially women, in the poor regions and classes of the world. In this paper, we consider gender differences in water carrying and summarize data about water access and carrying from 44 countries that participated in the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) program. Women and children are the most common water carriers, and they spend considerable time (many trips take more than an hour) supplying water to their households. Time is but one measure of the cost of fetching water; caloric expenditures, particularly during droughts, and other measures that affect health and quality of life must be considered. The full costs of fetching water must be considered when measuring progress toward two Millennium Development Goals--increasing access to safe drinking water and seeking an end to poverty.

  7. CHARACTERIZING THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE AND CHLORAMINES ON THE FORMATION OF BIOFILM IN A SIMULATED DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking wate treatment in the US has played a major role in protecting public health through the reduction of wateborne disease. However, carcinogenic and toxic contaminants continue to threaten the quality of surface and ground water in the US. The passage of the Safe Drinking ...

  8. AN OVERVIEW OF U.S. EPA RESEARCH ON REMOTE MONITORING AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are approximately 160,000 small community and non-community drinking water treatment systems in the United States. According to recent estimates, small systems contribute to 94% of the Safe Drinking Water Act violations annually. A majority of these are for microbiological...

  9. AN OVERVIEW OF U.S. EPA RESEARCH ON REMOTE MONITORING AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are approximately 160,000 small community and non-community drinking water treatment systems in the United States. According to recent estimates, small systems contribute to 94% of the Safe Drinking Water Act violations annually. A majority of these are for microbiological ...

  10. LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has established maximum contaminant levels ( MCLs ), for many inorganic contaminants found in drinking water, to protect the health of consumers. Some of these chemicals occur naturally in source waters while some are the result o...

  11. Teen Drinking Prevention Program. Law Enforcement Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Law enforcement officials know the devastation that drinking can cause among the immature and the inexperienced. This guide is intended to be used by law enforcement agencies in cooperation with other segments of the community. It provides an overview of the problem of youth access to alcohol, a discussion of the legal and policy issues relating…

  12. Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conferees urge the Agency to carry out a study on the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using a credible approach that relies on the best available science, as well as independent sources of information. The conferees expect the study to be conduct...

  13. DBP CONTROL IN DRINKING WATER: COST AND PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is currently attempting to balance the complex trade-offs in chemical and microbial risks associated with controlling disinfection and disinfection byproducts (D/DBP) in drinking water. In attempting to achieve this balance, the...

  14. Minding My Own Business: Community Attitudes towards Underage Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Delores C. S.; Wirth, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Underage drinking is a widespread national problem that requires continuous attention from different agencies and groups in the community. This project was funded by a 50-member local coalition that included groups such as researchers, faith-based organizations, law enforcement, parents, schools, community college, university, local businesses,…

  15. [Herbicides in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Funari, E; Sampaolo, A

    1989-01-01

    Toxicological implications due to the use of herbicide-contaminated drinking water, as well as other organic chemicals, are related to their nature and levels. These implications can be defined for each substance on the basis of an adequate evaluation of epidemiological information and experimental data on animals. In this paper, World Health Organization's procedures for establishing guidelines for 11 herbicides widely used in Italy are described. Furthermore, data and information about the use of these herbicides and their levels in Italian drinking-water supplies are also reported and discussed. Finally, factors and conditions responsible for the groundwater contamination by some herbicides in determined areas are presented and discussed.

  16. [Drinking water and parasites].

    PubMed

    Karanis, P; Schoenen, D; Maier, W A; Seitz, H M

    1993-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, and Microsporidia spp. are cosmopolitan parasites. They often cause diarrheal diseases. The waterborn transmission of all these parasites is possible (41). Surface water supplies used for drinking water are potential sources of contamination. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. have received great attention in industrialized countries during the last years because they are the etiological agents of waterborne diseases. The life cycles of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium are described with a special reference to drinking water technologies aimed at removing these parasites. PMID:8253478

  17. 75 FR 67634 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Antilock Brake Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...: Antilock Brake Systems'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 57393). This direct final rule amends 49 CFR Part... for Safe Operation: Antilock Brake Systems AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT... Necessary for Safe Operation: Antilock Brake Systems,'' published on September 21, 2010, in the...

  18. 76 FR 56784 - Safe and Healthy Homes Investment Partnerships: Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Safe and Healthy Homes Investment Partnerships: Request for Comments AGENCY: Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice solicits public comment... community as a Safe and Healthy Homes Investment Partnership (SHHIP). While designating a community as...

  19. Dying To Drink: Confronting Binge Drinking on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Wuethrich, Bernice

    This book outlines the toll binge drinking is taking on college campuses and suggests steps that can be taken to take action against the binge drinking that has become part of college culture. The chapters of part 1, "The College Drinking Environment," are: (1) "A Culture of Alcohol"; (2) "Where's the Party?"; (3) "College Sports and Alcohol"; and…

  20. Sustaining safe practice: twenty years on.

    PubMed

    Kippax, Susan; Race, Kane

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines the ways in which populations at risk of HIV in the developed world have enculturated the knowledges and technologies of both the medical and the social sciences. By revisiting a number of review papers and by reviewing findings from a range of studies, we argue that gay men have appropriated information that has enabled them to sustain safe practices while they have eschewed information that has made maintenance difficult. The paper describes a range of risk reduction strategies and compares the responses of populations at risk of HIV in the years before the advent of highly active antiviral therapy (HAART) with their responses after the introduction of HAART in 1996. We concentrate our argument on the changing responses to HIV risk of gay men, although occasionally illustrate our argument with reference to the responses of injecting drug users. The responses of gay men to risk post-HAART--particularly those who reside in Australia--speak to the adoption of a range of considered strategies, not altogether safe, to reduce harm. We argue that such strategies need to be understood and addressed within a 'new' social public health, that is, a public health that takes what social analysis has to say seriously. The paper examines the differences between the traditional, the 'modern' epidemiological/clinical and the 'new' social or socio-cultural public healths and describes the tensions between the medical and the social science disciplines in their efforts to inform public health. Key concepts provided by social science such as agency (including individual and collective agency), alongside its methodological reflexivity are key to effective public health. The risk avoidance strategies adopted by gay men suggest a way forward by turning our attention to the ways in which medicine is taken in(to) their practice.

  1. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  2. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  3. Gender and development: a SAFE recipe.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, S

    1996-05-01

    It is argued that an alternative strategy to women's involvement in development is the development of a whole "new dish, prepared, baked, and distributed equally" rather than acquisition of a "bigger piece of the pie." The issues of gender and development (GAD) involve women gaining power and control of the decision making processes. Past development has been too much of a "fixed menu" approach. Feminist development involves the satisfaction of the strategic needs of women, an agenda-setting direction, flexibility, and empowerment (SAFE). Strategic gender needs were conceptualized first by Maxine Malyneaux. Within women's defined roles, there are needs for access to adequate and clean water supplies, nutrition, health care, and income. Women in development (WID) approaches are strong in serving practical needs. The SAFE approach combines both the strategic and practical needs of women. Some argue that a focus on strategic and/or practical needs should be conceptualized in terms of changing women's position within a structurally unequal set of social relations. Some emphasize autonomy. The basic concepts of strategic needs is viewed as including the change in women's status and movement toward autonomy. Aid agencies and development groups have been mainstreaming WID and GAD over the past decade by integrating women and women's needs into administration, decision making, and the project cycle. Gender issues could be built into existing development paradigms or could change the existing development agenda with a gender perspective. It is argued that an agenda-setting approach is needed in order to assure that the strategic needs of women are incorporated. Flexibility and adaptation of approaches means that WID and GAD can be adjusted to all cultures. It is cited by Buvinic and Moser that welfare, equity, anti-poverty, efficiency, and empowerment are five ethical policy approaches. The policy approach of SAFE is that of empowerment or the knowledge and exercise of

  4. How Giraffes Drink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Taylor, Dale L.

    2015-12-01

    Giraffes face unique challenges for drinking due to their long necks. In this article we use evidence from videos, size estimates, and elementary fluid mechanics to make a strong case for a plunger pump mechanism moving water up from their lips to their shoulders.

  5. Drinking among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabow, Jerome; Duncan-Schill, Marilyn

    1995-01-01

    Reports the results of a study on the ways in which alcohol is built into the social role and social life of college students. Provides direct support for the idea that the patterns of drinking alcoholic beverages are integral to social and structural aspects of college. (LKS)

  6. How Giraffes Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, P.-M.; Taylor, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Giraffes face unique challenges for drinking due to their long necks. In this article we use evidence from videos, size estimates, and elementary fluid mechanics to make a strong case for a plunger pump mechanism moving water up from their lips to their shoulders.

  7. Governing Adolescent Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen, Margaretha; Ostergaard, Jeanette

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the drinking habits of Danish adolescents and the upbringing ideals and alcohol rules of their parents. It is based on three different data sets: a survey of 2,000 Danish young people born in 1989, a survey with the parents of these young people, and two waves of focus group interviews (in all 28)…

  8. DRINKING WATER ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...

  9. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  10. Drinking games adolescents play.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, W

    1990-11-01

    In a study of 1230 Norwegian adolescents aged 14-19, the prevalence of participation in 'drinking games' and the consequences thereof were investigated. The findings indicate that drinking games are very common among Norwegian youth. Further, there is a substantially higher alcohol consumption among those who participate in these games than among other youth, even when we 'control' for other indicators of network 'wetness'. In particular, a high consumption of beer among the boys seems to be connected with these games. It seems reasonable to assume that the drinking games are of importance for many young people, in particular as a means of being accepted by social groups of the same age. The games provide an organized, yet exciting frame around the interaction. It seems reasonable to assume that the participants usually take part in the games as a result of an intention to drink. Even so, it might be argued that the games are probably often more than 'neutral tools' to fulfil this intention: first of all, the games involve intense contact precisely in connection with alcohol consumption. Secondly, we know from previous studies that match rates and role modelling in connection with consumption increase with an increase in the intensity of group member contact. Finally, the individual member loses control and steering of his/her own consumption to a large extent: consumption becomes to a large degree a function of other people's actions and the rules of the game in question. PMID:2285845

  11. Reducing Harms from Youth Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peele, Stanton

    2006-01-01

    American alcohol education and prevention efforts for youth emphasize abstinence. In support of this approach, epidemiologists conclude that early drinking by adolescents increases the lifetime likelihood of alcohol dependence and that overall drinking levels in a society are directly linked to drinking problems. At the same time, cultural,…

  12. Safe Finger Tourniquet--Ideas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin-Gwei; Chen, Chieh-Feng; Hwang, Chun-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Chiu, Wen-Kuan; Li, Chun-Chang; Wang, Hsian-Jenn

    2016-03-01

    Tourniquets are often needed for optimized phalangeal surgeries. However, few surgeons forget to remove them and caused ischemic injuries. We have a modified method to create a safe finger tourniquet for short duration finger surgeries, which can avoid such tragedy. It is done by donning a glove, cutting the tip of the glove over the finger of interest, and rolling the glove finger to the base. From 2010 to 2013, approximately 54 patients underwent digital surgical procedures with our safe finger tourniquet. Because the glove cannot be forgotten to be removed, the tourniquet must be released and removed. This is a simple and efficient way to apply a safe finger tourniquet by using hand rubber glove for a short-term bloodless finger surgery and can achieve an excellent surgical result.

  13. Addressing barriers to safe abortion.

    PubMed

    Culwell, Kelly R; Hurwitz, Manuelle

    2013-05-01

    The latest World Health Organization data estimate that the total number of unsafe abortions globally has increased to 21.6 million in 2008. There is increasing recognition by the international community of the importance of the contribution of unsafe abortion to maternal mortality. However, the barriers to delivery of safe abortion services are many. In 68 countries, home to 26% of the world's population, abortion is prohibited altogether or only permitted to save a woman's life. Even in countries with more liberal abortion legal frameworks, additional social, economic, and health systems barriers and the stigma surrounding abortion prevent adequate access to safe abortion services and postabortion care. While much has been achieved to reduce the barriers to comprehensive abortion care, much remains to be done. Only through the concerted action of public, private, and civil society partners can we ensure that women have access to services that are safe, affordable, confidential, and stigma free. PMID:23477700

  14. Decision support system for drinking water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janža, M.

    2012-04-01

    The problems in drinking water management are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency water management and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in water management. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the

  15. Drinking Plans and Drinking Outcomes: Examining Young Adults' Weekend Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trim, Ryan S.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey; Thombs, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships among drinking intentions, environments, and outcomes in a random sample of 566 undergraduate college students. Telephone interviews were conducted with respondents before and after a single weekend assessing drinking intentions for the coming weekend related to subsequent drinking behaviors. Latent class analyses…

  16. Energy drinks: potions of illusion.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Nidhi; Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-07-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided.

  17. Energy drinks: potions of illusion.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Nidhi; Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-07-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided. PMID:25031128

  18. Unintended consequences of regulating drinking water in rural Canadian communities: examples from Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Kot, Megan; Castleden, Heather; Gagnon, Graham A

    2011-09-01

    Studies that explore social capital and political will [corrected] in the context of safe drinking water provision in [corrected] Canada are limited. This paper presents findings from a study that examines the capacity of rural Canadian communities to attain regulatory compliance for drinking water. Interviews were conducted with water operators and managers in ten rural communities across Atlantic Canada to identify the burden of compliance arising from the implementation of, and adherence to, drinking water regulations. This research identifies the operator as being particularly burdened by regulatory compliance, often resulting in negative consequences including job stress and a strained relationship with the community they serve. Findings indicate that while regulations are vital to ensuring safe drinking water, not all communities have the resources in place to rise to the challenge of compliance. As a result, some communities are being negatively impacted by these regulations, rather than benefit from their intended positive effect.

  19. Drinking-water standards and regulations. Volume 4. Manual for 1979-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1988-10-10

    This report covers eight important documents: (1) The U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act Title XIV, as amended by the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986, by U.S. EPA; (2) Summary of the Safe Drinking Water Act Regulations, by CDM, June 1988; (3) Sampling Procedure for Analysis of Bacteria and Chemicals in Tap Water, by LIR, June 1988; (4) Discontinuing Certification of Seven Analytes, by NY-DOH, August 1986; (5) Disinfection of Individual Water Supply Systems, by MA-DEQE, June 1988; (6) U.S. EPA Letter to Dr. L. K. Wang Regarding the Use of Liquid Household Bleach for Sanitizing Domestic Water Systems, by U.S. EPA, August 1988; (7) Guidelines for Public Water Systems by MA-DEQE, May 1979; and (8) Supplement to Guidelines for Public Water Systems--1979 Edition, by MA-DEQE, September 1984, approved in October 1986.

  20. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products made from plants, animal parts, algae, seafood, or yeasts. The information here can ...

  1. Developing a Safe Cycling Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Amy Backus

    1983-01-01

    A cycling course can take advantage of students' interests, teach safe cycling, and give students a fuller appreciation of a lifetime sport. Suggestions for planning and scheduling a cycling course, covering safety procedures, and considering other elements necessary for a successful course are given. (PP)

  2. Making Cyberspace Safe for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Joyce; McLaughlin, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Despite the 1998 Children's Online Privacy Act's supposed protections, most web sites still collect personal information and post no privacy statements. Internet-filtering software packages are described and suggestions given for creating a safe environment, dismantling "cookies," informing parents and teachers, and checking "history" submenus on…

  3. Finding a Safe Way Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Steven M.; Derby, Joel

    1996-01-01

    Building designers, owners, and managers are morally responsible for providing persons with disabilities with a safe way out of multistory buildings. Although codes, standards, and elevator features may make the job more complicated, all of the difficulties can be overcome. Four figures illustrate elevator egress. (MLF)

  4. How Safe Are Our Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younghusband, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a study she conducted in Newfoundland to determine the level of abuse and/or violence experienced by teachers, the nature of that abuse/violence, its personal impact, and whether Newfoundland teachers feel safe in their workplaces. The experiences presented are those of a focus group of eight teachers,…

  5. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  6. Nasogastric tube feeding: a safe option for patients?

    PubMed

    Williams, Trish

    2016-01-01

    This article will show that fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding can be facilitated for patients when long term percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) options are not suitable. How the safe replacement of these tubes is facilitated, and what instructions the patient and the nursing home are given to support patient care and safety are also discussed. The decision to support this type of feeding must be completely individualised, considering home and external support agencies available to each patient. The risk assessment completed to facilitate this has been based on the patients' individual circumstances, and a nasogastric tube home passport developed to help in the assessment and decision-making process. For fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding to be safe, it does have to be supported once the patient is discharged from the hospital. A good knowledge of the home support and carer support agencies, and what is available, should be discussed. Multidisciplinary team support is essential in ensuring a safe discharge can be planned and managed. Good patient risk assessment and nursing considerations are discussed to show how the challenges that may prevent a patient discharge with this type of feed are managed. This article will show how two very different patients discharges were facilitated by safe fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding in the community. Patient assessment and nursing considerations are discussed, as well as the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to show how this was successfully achieved in a local district hospital.

  7. Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

    In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and

  8. 75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Environmental Technology Verification FR Federal Register GW Ground Water GWR Ground Water Rule GWS Ground Water... Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection... submitting comments. Mail: Water Docket, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: 4101T, 1200......

  9. 75 FR 39935 - Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)-Notice of Web Dialogue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... AGENCY RIN 2040-AD94 Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)--Notice of Web Dialogue AGENCY... Web dialogue. The discussion topics for this Web dialogue are focused on the first of the four... group(s). DATES: The Web dialogue is a two-day event. It will open at 9 a.m., Eastern Daylight Time (6...

  10. 76 FR 67187 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of a Public Teleconference Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of a Public Teleconference Meeting AGENCY... Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council) on November 18, 2011. The Council will consult with EPA regarding potential modifications to the lead service line replacement requirements of the National...

  11. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Historical trends in alcohol use among U.S. adolescents, as well as data regarding alcohol-related traffic fatalities among youth, indicate decreases in alcohol use. Nevertheless, alcohol use patterns still indicate high rates of binge drinking and drunkenness and the co-occurrence of alcohol use among youth with risky sexual activity, illicit substance use, and poor school performance. This article discusses unique elements of alcohol use among adolescents relative to adults that pose risks for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems. These differences range from patterns of drinking to differential sensitivity to alcohol. Developmental differences between adolescents and adults also are discussed with regard to age-normative developmental tasks and distinctions in brain development that may affect differences in drinking patterns. Epidemiologic findings on sexual-minority youth are provided, as are global trends in alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. It is proposed that using information about differences between youth and adults will be helpful in directing future etiologic and intervention research by capitalizing on unique biological, psychological, and social factors that may affect the success of efforts to reduce alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. PMID:27159816

  12. The challenge of improving boiling: lessons learned from a randomized controlled trial of water pasteurization and safe storage in Peru.

    PubMed

    Heitzinger, K; Rocha, C A; Quick, R E; Montano, S M; Tilley, D H; Mock, C N; Carrasco, A J; Cabrera, R M; Hawes, S E

    2016-07-01

    Boiling is the most common method of household water treatment in developing countries; however, it is not always effectively practised. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 210 households to assess the effectiveness of water pasteurization and safe-storage interventions in reducing Escherichia coli contamination of household drinking water in a water-boiling population in rural Peru. Households were randomized to receive either a safe-storage container or a safe-storage container plus water pasteurization indicator or to a control group. During a 13-week follow-up period, households that received a safe-storage container and water pasteurization indicator did not have a significantly different prevalence of stored drinking-water contamination relative to the control group [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·92-1·52]. Similarly, receipt of a safe-storage container alone had no effect on prevalence of contamination (PR 1·02, 95% CI 0·79-1·31). Although use of water pasteurization indicators and locally available storage containers did not increase the safety of household drinking water in this study, future research could illuminate factors that facilitate the effective use of these interventions to improve water quality and reduce the risk of waterborne disease in populations that boil drinking water.

  13. [Sugary drinks and glycemia].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Susana; Alçada, Manuel; Azevedo, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing all over the world. Most affected are people changing from a traditional lifestyle to an environment with both availability of high energy diet and less physical activity. Glycemic index (GI) is a measure of dietary glycemic carbohydrates, representing their ability to raise blood glucose concentrations. It refers to the postprandial blood glucose response expressed as a percentage of the response to a reference food (glucose or white bread) containing the same carbohydrate content. Given the present high consumption of sugary drinks, the putative contribution of these products to obesity deserves investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the GI of some drinks from the Portuguese market. Postprandial glycemia after ingestion of apple Frutis, peach Frutis, Green tea Frutea, green tea, black tea, lupin infusion, rooibos infusion, raftilose solution or bran solution has been determined for two hours in a caucasian population of young adults of any sex, 17 to 24 years of age. Apple Frutis GI was found to be 54.3, i.e., a low GI; Frutea Green tea had a GI of 64.7, considered as a moderate GI; peach Frutis showed a high GI, 86.6. Green and Black teas as well as rooibos and lupin infusions, all with added glucose (25 g), did not change glycemic response in comparison with the reference solution (water with 25 g glucose). No differences were seen after raftilose and bran solutions by comparison with the reference solution. GI information may help the choice of carbohydrates to include in a healthy diet. Formerly considered as a parameter of interest to diabetic patients, it may actually interest anybody concerned with a healthy diet. This study has been performed by medical and nutritional science students, who observed glycemic excursions in themselves, after drink ingestion. This experiment allowed them to see the impressive rise of glycemia after ingestion of a sugary drink, by comparison with basal levels which would not

  14. Development of a simulated drinking game procedure to study risky alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Correia, Christopher J; Cameron, Jennifer M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to initiate and describe the development of a Simulated Drinking Game Procedure (SDGP), a safe, efficient, and alcohol-free laboratory protocol for studying drinking game behavior. Fifty-two undergraduates completed the SDGP in a laboratory session, where participants played singles and/or doubles games of Beer Pong. Water was substituted for alcohol in all of the games. The number of drinks consumed during matches and 20-min play periods were coded during each session, and software was used to estimate the peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) a participant would achieve if he or she had consumed actual alcohol while participating in the SDGP. Results indicated that participation in Beer Pong can lead to rapid consumption of alcohol and an associated rise in BAC. Results also highlight additional risks for female participants associated with participation in drinking games. The SDGP is a research tool capable of increasing our understanding of drinking games. PMID:20695688

  15. Safe-haven locking device

    DOEpatents

    Williams, J.V.

    1984-04-26

    Disclosed is a locking device for eliminating external control of a secured space formed by fixed and movable barriers. The locking device uses externally and internally controlled locksets and a movable strike, operable from the secured side of the movable barrier, to selectively engage either lockset. A disengagement device, for preventing forces from being applied to the lock bolts is also disclosed. In this manner, a secured space can be controlled from the secured side as a safe-haven. 4 figures.

  16. [Assessment of so called organic trace compounds in drinking water from the regulatory, health and aesthetic-quality points of view, with special consideration given to pharmaceuticals].

    PubMed

    Dieter, H H; Mückter, H

    2007-03-01

    More than 2500 chemically defined substances are approved as drugs in Germany. Unlike agricultural pesticides, these biologically active structures are not used in open environmental compartments and therefore their environmental toxicological data base is not nearly as complete. Nevertheless, some of them become environmental contaminants after their intended use. Therefore, from the viewpoint of environmental health protection, there are gaps in their health-related environmental risk assessment. Organic trace compounds that lack an adequate toxicological database, and their mixtures, in drinking water can be safely regulated and provisionally assessed by combining the "similar joint action" addition rule with the recommendation of the Federal Environment Agency of March 2003 "Assessing the presence of substances in drinking water without (adequate) toxicological database from the health point of view". The general precautionary value (Gesundheitlicher Orientierungswert GOW1=0.10 microg/l), which is a recommendation for weakly to not genotoxic compounds, re presents a workable compromise between preventive health protection, water management considerations and aesthetic quality claims (purity). Compliance with this value in the long term will only be possible if the chemical and biological degradation of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in waste water and waste water treatment plants is effectively improved. Alternatively, there is the risk of drinking water degenerating into a sink for highly mobile, polar and persistent compounds. Their elimination at a stage as late as technical drinking water treatment would be neither close to the initial cause nor justifiable in terms of technical effectiveness. The risk assessment of their byproducts would give rise to further uncertainties. Possible conflicts with the therapeutic quality must be solved by developing substitute products which are environmentally sound.

  17. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K. Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.

    2000-03-15

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for {sup 222}Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient {sup 222}Rn concentration and the increment of {sup 222}Rn to the indoor-air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air-producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such multimedia mitigation programs were explored.

  18. An assessment of drinking-water quality post-Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    Anarna, Maria Sonabel; Fernando, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Access to safe drinking-water is one of the most important public health concerns in an emergency setting. This descriptive study reports on an assessment of water quality in drinking-water supply systems in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan immediately following and 10 months after the typhoon. Methods Water quality testing and risk assessments of the drinking-water systems were conducted three weeks and 10 months post-Haiyan. Portable test kits were used to determine the presence of Escherichia coli and the level of residual chlorine in water samples. The level of risk was fed back to the water operators for their action. Results Of the 121 water samples collected three weeks post-Haiyan, 44% were contaminated, while 65% (244/373) of samples were found positive for E. coli 10 months post-Haiyan. For the three components of drinking-water systems – source, storage and distribution – the proportions of contaminated systems were 70%, 67% and 57%, respectively, 10 months after Haiyan. Discussion Vulnerability to faecal contamination was attributed to weak water safety programmes in the drinking-water supply systems. Poor water quality can be prevented or reduced by developing and implementing a water safety plan for the systems. This, in turn, will help prevent waterborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated water post-disaster. PMID:26767136

  19. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

  20. Safe abortion: a woman's right.

    PubMed

    Sangala, Vanessa

    2005-07-01

    Complications of induced abortion sadly remain significant causes of maternal mortality and morbidity around the world, but only in countries that do not provide access to safe abortion services. This article presents a brief account of how high maternal mortality from induced abortion became history in the UK and the dire consequences to women's health that unsafe abortion still has in many countries of the world. It gives a brief overview of the methods available to evacuate the uterus, with particular reference to manual vacuum aspiration. The status of the law in different countries is discussed, together with the need for health professionals to interpret repressive laws in ways that enables them to care for women who seek their help. Safe abortion services are cost effective, essential services for women. Men are part and parcel of the reason women resort to terminating a pregnancy, and, together with the countless children whose lives are dependent on a healthy caring mother, are also beneficiaries of safe abortion services. There can be no excuse for continuing to deny these services to so many women around the world.

  1. An examination of the potential added value of water safety plans to the United States national drinking water legislation.

    PubMed

    Baum, Rachel; Amjad, Urooj; Luh, Jeanne; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-11-01

    National and sub-national governments develop and enforce regulations to ensure the delivery of safe drinking water in the United States (US) and countries worldwide. However, periodic contamination events, waterborne endemic illness and outbreaks of waterborne disease still occur, illustrating that delivery of safe drinking water is not guaranteed. In this study, we examined the potential added value of a preventive risk management approach, specifically, water safety plans (WSPs), in the US in order to improve drinking water quality. We undertook a comparative analysis between US drinking water regulations and WSP steps to analyze the similarities and differences between them, and identify how WSPs might complement drinking water regulations in the US. Findings show that US drinking water regulations and WSP steps were aligned in the areas of describing the water supply system and defining monitoring and controls. However, gaps exist between US drinking water regulations and WSPs in the areas of team procedures and training, internal risk assessment and prioritization, and management procedures and plans. The study contributes to understanding both required and voluntary drinking water management practices in the US and how implementing water safety plans could benefit water systems to improve drinking water quality and human health.

  2. An examination of the potential added value of water safety plans to the United States national drinking water legislation.

    PubMed

    Baum, Rachel; Amjad, Urooj; Luh, Jeanne; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-11-01

    National and sub-national governments develop and enforce regulations to ensure the delivery of safe drinking water in the United States (US) and countries worldwide. However, periodic contamination events, waterborne endemic illness and outbreaks of waterborne disease still occur, illustrating that delivery of safe drinking water is not guaranteed. In this study, we examined the potential added value of a preventive risk management approach, specifically, water safety plans (WSPs), in the US in order to improve drinking water quality. We undertook a comparative analysis between US drinking water regulations and WSP steps to analyze the similarities and differences between them, and identify how WSPs might complement drinking water regulations in the US. Findings show that US drinking water regulations and WSP steps were aligned in the areas of describing the water supply system and defining monitoring and controls. However, gaps exist between US drinking water regulations and WSPs in the areas of team procedures and training, internal risk assessment and prioritization, and management procedures and plans. The study contributes to understanding both required and voluntary drinking water management practices in the US and how implementing water safety plans could benefit water systems to improve drinking water quality and human health. PMID:25618192

  3. Emergency do not consume/do not use concentrations for blended phosphates in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Willhite, C C; Ball, G L; Bhat, V S

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Congress [PL 107-188] amended the Safe Drinking Water Act and required each community water system serving more than 3,000 people to conduct vulnerability assessments. These assessments address potential circumstances that could compromise the safety and reliability of municipal water. The present evaluation concerns the concentrations of the blended phosphates (also known as polyphosphates, condensed complex phosphates, polyphosphate glassy balls, and pyrophosphates) intended to aid regulatory agencies in decisions to avoid contact with affected water. Polyphosphates are direct food additives and they are used to treat municipal drinking water, but depending upon the concentration and duration of exposure these substances can induce chemical burns. Ingested polyphosphates are degraded by phosphatase enzymes to monophosphates, substances that are over-the-counter bowel purgatives. High oral doses of the monophosphates can induce transient hyperphosphatemia in older and susceptible young people, which can lead to acute phosphate nephropathy. In some patients, the condition is fatal. Based on the acute diarrhea after the ingestion of a single oral dose of monobasic (NaH2PO(4)) and dibasic (Na2HPO(4)) monophosphates in adults, a do not consume concentration of 600 mg PO(4)/L can be derived. Based on mild local irritation after topical application of 1.0% sodium metaphosphate [(NaPO(3))6 • H2O] to intact skin of sensitive volunteers, a do not use concentration of 8,000 mg PO4/L can be assigned. Given the lack of eye irritation in rabbits after direct instillation of 0.2% (NaPO(3))6 • H2O, an acute ocular contact limit of 50 mg PO4/L serves as the overall do not use level.

  4. Emergency do not consume/do not use concentrations for blended phosphates in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Willhite, C C; Ball, G L; Bhat, V S

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Congress [PL 107-188] amended the Safe Drinking Water Act and required each community water system serving more than 3,000 people to conduct vulnerability assessments. These assessments address potential circumstances that could compromise the safety and reliability of municipal water. The present evaluation concerns the concentrations of the blended phosphates (also known as polyphosphates, condensed complex phosphates, polyphosphate glassy balls, and pyrophosphates) intended to aid regulatory agencies in decisions to avoid contact with affected water. Polyphosphates are direct food additives and they are used to treat municipal drinking water, but depending upon the concentration and duration of exposure these substances can induce chemical burns. Ingested polyphosphates are degraded by phosphatase enzymes to monophosphates, substances that are over-the-counter bowel purgatives. High oral doses of the monophosphates can induce transient hyperphosphatemia in older and susceptible young people, which can lead to acute phosphate nephropathy. In some patients, the condition is fatal. Based on the acute diarrhea after the ingestion of a single oral dose of monobasic (NaH2PO(4)) and dibasic (Na2HPO(4)) monophosphates in adults, a do not consume concentration of 600 mg PO(4)/L can be derived. Based on mild local irritation after topical application of 1.0% sodium metaphosphate [(NaPO(3))6 • H2O] to intact skin of sensitive volunteers, a do not use concentration of 8,000 mg PO4/L can be assigned. Given the lack of eye irritation in rabbits after direct instillation of 0.2% (NaPO(3))6 • H2O, an acute ocular contact limit of 50 mg PO4/L serves as the overall do not use level. PMID:23060411

  5. Investigation of the Preservation Method within Environmental Protection Agency Method 200.8

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead (Pb) is a trace metal that is closely regulated in drinking water systems because of its harmful toxicity. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) issued the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), which defines the action level for Lead as 0.015 mg/L. Researchers and drinking ...

  6. Adolescent drinking risks associated with specific drinking contexts

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Bersamin, Melina; Grube, Joel W.

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to identify drinking contexts towards which prevention efforts should be directed, associations of context-specific alcohol use (past-year frequency of drinking and heavier drinking in the context) with a range of alcohol-related problems were examined in a population sample of adolescents. Methods A sample of youths (ages 15–18) residing in 50 medium-to-large California cities (n=473 drinkers) was obtained. Respondents provided information about seven past-year alcohol-related problems in three domains (physiological consequences, alcohol-related violence, and conflict/trouble) and the number of times in the past year they used six distinct drinking contexts (parties, restaurants/bars, parking lots/street corners, beaches/parks, respondent’s home without parents, someone else’s home without parents). Context-specific dose-response was estimated for each context using censored Tobit models with heteroskedasticity corrections Results Physiological problems were associated with more frequent drinking in five of six contexts. Heavier drinking in restaurants/bars/nightclubs (b=0.22, s.e.=0.10) and someone else’s home without parents (b=0.14, s.e.=0.06) was associated with greater risk of violence. Conflict/trouble was associated with more frequent drinking in parking lots/street corners, declining at higher levels of drinking. Conclusions Certain drinking contexts are related to problems amongst youths, some because they are associated with frequent alcohol consumption and others because they are associated with heavier drinking. Identifying which drinking contexts are related to specific alcohol-related problems and why is an essential component of developing effective preventive interventions. PMID:26208252

  7. Drinking water and women's health.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2006-01-01

    Primary health providers in the community must be able to field questions and guide vulnerable populations to informed decisions about drinking water quality and health. This article offers an overview of selected contaminants in drinking water and their possible effects on the health of women over the life span. Historical concerns for drinking water safety, which led to the development of current drinking water regulations, are briefly explored. Several chemical, microbial, and radionuclide contaminants of particular concern to women and children are discussed. Short- and long-term tap water alternatives are suggested for when tap water is deemed unsuitable for use.

  8. STUDIES ON WATER DRINKING

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, C. C.; Hawk, P. B.

    1910-01-01

    The daily drinking of three liters of water with meals, for a period of five days, by a man twenty-two years of age who was in a condition of nitrogen equilibrium through the ingestion of a uniform diet, was productive of the following findings : 1. An increase in body weight, aggregating two pounds in five days. 2. An increased excretion of urinary nitrogen, the excess nitrogen being mainly in the form of urea, ammonia, and creatine. 3. A decreased excretion of creatinine and the coincident appearance of creatine in the urine. The decreased creatinine output is believed to indicate that the copious water drinking has stimulated protein catabolism. The appearance of creatine is considered evidence that the water has caused a partial muscular disintegration resulting in the release of creatine, but not profound enough to yield the total nitrogen content of the muscle. The output of creatine is, therefore, out of all proportion to the increase in the excretion of total nitrogen. 4. An increased output of ammonia which is interpreted as indicating an increased output of gastric juice. 5. A decreased excretion of feces and of fecal nitrogen, the decrease in the excretion of fecal nitrogen being of sufficient magnitude to secure a lowered excretion of both the bacterial and the non-bacterial nitrogen. 6. A decrease in the quantity of bacteria excreted daily. 7. An increase in the percentage of total nitrogen appearing as bacterial nitrogen. 8. A lower creatinine coefficient. 9. A more economical utilization of the protein constituents of the diet. 10. The general conclusion to be reached as the result of this experiment is to the effect that the drinking of a large amount of water with meals was attended by many desirable and by no undesirable features. PMID:19867334

  9. Drinking water from private wells and risks to children.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Walter J; Brady, Michael T

    2009-06-01

    Drinking water for approximately one sixth of US households is obtained from private wells. These wells can become contaminated by pollutant chemicals or pathogenic organisms, leading to significant illness. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency and all states offer guidance for construction, maintenance, and testing of private wells, there is little regulation, and with few exceptions, well owners are responsible for their own wells. Children may also drink well water at child care or when traveling. Illness resulting from children's ingestion of contaminated water can be severe. This report reviews relevant aspects of groundwater and wells; describes the common chemical and microbiologic contaminants; gives an algorithm with recommendations for inspection, testing, and remediation for wells providing drinking water for children; reviews the definitions and uses of various bottled waters; provides current estimates of costs for well testing; and provides federal, national, state, and, where appropriate, tribal contacts for more information.

  10. Research plan for arsenic in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The document stresses the implications of recent research findings and emphasizes identification of key strengths and sources of uncertainty and variability in the arsenic risk assessment. This document also explains how information gained through research can: impact the method used in new investigations to assess the risks of arsenic, and support or suggest changes in the assumptiosn and methods used in arsenic risk assessments. This Arsenic Research Plan addresses the protection of human health, especially the research needed to implement the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments (SDWAA). It is intended to serve as a blueprint that will be discussed with parties interested in addressing key strengths and uncertainties in the arsenic risk assessment.

  11. Drinking Patterns, Drinking Expectancies, and Coping after Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Drinking patterns, alcohol expectancies, and coping strategies were assessed for 121 persons with recent spinal cord injuries during hospitalization, 3 months after surgery, and 12 months after surgery. Although the rate of heavy drinking decreased, preinjury problem drinkers still had the lowest rate of positive reappraisal, problem solving, and…

  12. Differences in College Student Typical Drinking and Celebration Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodyard, Catherine Dane; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students consume alcohol in greater quantities when drinking in celebration of an event or holiday versus typical drinking use. Celebratory occasions include tailgating during football games, holidays, and the beginning and ending of academic semesters. Participants: Traditional…

  13. Milk: the new sports drink? A Review.

    PubMed

    Roy, Brian D

    2008-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the potential use of bovine milk as an exercise beverage, especially during recovery from resistance training and endurance sports. Based on the limited research, milk appears to be an effective post-resistance exercise beverage that results in favourable acute alterations in protein metabolism. Milk consumption acutely increases muscle protein synthesis, leading to an improved net muscle protein balance. Furthermore, when post-exercise milk consumption is combined with resistance training (12 weeks minimum), greater increases in muscle hypertrophy and lean mass have been observed. Although research with milk is limited, there is some evidence to suggest that milk may be an effective post-exercise beverage for endurance activities. Low-fat milk has been shown to be as effective, if not more effective, than commercially available sports drinks as a rehydration beverage. Milk represents a more nutrient dense beverage choice for individuals who partake in strength and endurance activities, compared to traditional sports drinks. Bovine low-fat fluid milk is a safe and effective post exercise beverage for most individuals, except for those who are lactose intolerant. Further research is warranted to better delineate the possible applications and efficacy of bovine milk in the field of sports nutrition.

  14. Environmental Predictors of Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Short, Brian; Wagenaar, Alexander; Toomey, Tracie; Murray, David; Wolfson, Mark; Forster, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Examined relationships among drinking norms, peer alcohol use, alcohol availability, drinking location, alcohol consumption, and drinking-related problems among young adult drinkers (N=3,095). Results show that drinking norms and peer alcohol use influenced alcohol consumption and drinking consequences. Drinking in public contributed to alcohol…

  15. The ethics of safe sex.

    PubMed

    Broom, N D; Rickett, C E

    1988-12-14

    Western society has undergone a vast sociological change during the 20th century in terms of the value of sexuality. Sexual choice has gained a new legitimacy never before experienced. There is less guilt surrounding issues of sexuality and it is now common place to hear and see explicit discussions about sex in the mass media. This acceptance has undoubtedly encouraged many people to be more daring and promiscuous in their sexual activities. Proof of this can be seen in the increase is the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Presently there are more than 20 epidemiologically significant diseases that are sexually transmitted. Beyond the 5 old standards of gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, lyphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinala STDs now include: chlamydia trachomatis, genital herpes, human papillomavirus, human immunodeficiency virus, genital mycoplasms, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis, vaginitis, enteric infections, and ectoparasitic diseases. Keeping all this in mind, the question of the ethics of safe sex must be addressed. In many countries, the governments have undertaken large public education programs to encourage safe sex practices. All these programs a founded upon two ideas: that safe sex should be promoted free of any ethical discussions or considerations, and that technology alone, the condom, will protect the public from the problem of STDs. However these campaigns will fail to protect the public unless they try to intervene at some level other than the mechanical aspect of the sex act itself. Condoms have failure rates too high to be relied upon as the sole means of protecting the public. Sex education for children and an inclusion of the ethical aspects of sex, now that the consequences can mean death, must be included in these government programs if they are to be successful.

  16. Heavy metals in drinking water. January 1986-November 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data-Base). Rept. for Jan 86-Nov 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the presence of heavy metals in drinking water. The effects of plumbing systems on water quality is discussed. Standards for safe drinking water are included. Treatment techniques to remove heavy metals are described. Methods for analyzing heavy metal contaminants in water are presented. The effects of heavy metals in drinking water on human health are briefly considered. (Contains 159 citations with title list and subject index.)

  17. Work experience and drinking behavior: alienation, occupational status, workplace drinking subculture and problem drinking.

    PubMed

    Yang, M J; Yang, M S; Kawachi, I

    2001-07-01

    This study explored the association between alienating job conditions and problem drinking within the context of occupational status and workplace drinking subculture. From December 1994 to March 1995, a questionnaire survey was implemented in the manufactory sector in southern Taiwan. Within the questionnaire, any perceived self-estrangement, powerlessness and social isolation that the individual experienced in his work were measured as the alienating job conditions, and any negative physical, psychological and social consequences the individual experienced during the previous month were considered as affecting problem drinking. Of the 1117 subjects, 668 (61.8%) reported imbibing one or more drinks during the preceding month; the average daily alcohol consumption being 0.2+/-0.9 drinks. In addition, 188 (16.8%) subjects reported having experienced drinking-related problems in the preceding month. Workers with low occupational status were more likely to become problem drinkers when they felt comparatively self-estranged in their work. Further, those with a family history including any habitual drinker or those under more encouraging workplace drinking subculture were more likely to have drinking-related problems. For the prevention of problem-related drinking behavior, the workplace should be considered as the focus of our future intervention and management program.

  18. INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG EPIGENETIC MECHANISMS FOR RISK ASSESSMENT OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID, A DRINKING WATER BY-PRODUCT OF THE CHLORINE DISINFECTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reauthorization of The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 requires the EPA to develop a priority list of chemicals that are present in drinking water and to conduct research into the modes and mechanisms of action by which they produce adverse effects. The disinfection by-produc...

  19. Contaminants in drinking water and its mitigation using suitable adsorbents: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Krishna; Srivastava, Sachin Behari; Shukla, Satish; Bersillon, J L

    2004-10-01

    Various options are applicable for the removal of water pollutants included reverse osmosis, ion exchange, coagulation, co-precipitation, catalytic reduction, herbal filtration, electrodialysis and adsorption. This paper deals with the sorption phenomena for the removal of pollutants from drinking water. Attempts have been made to use low cost sorbents developed by pretreatment/activation/impregnation with alkalis, acids, iron oxide, manganese dioxide, ferric chloride, alum, lime, aluminum salts with natural products/indigenous minerals viz. activated alumina, activated carbon, groundnut husk, saw dust, chemically coated sand, fly ash, zeolites, clay minerals and other plant products. Application of Freundich and Langmuir isotherms were used to assess the adsorption capacity. Equilibrium isotherms were determined at optimum temperature and pH to characterize the sorption process. Statistical parameters such as mass transfer coefficients, multiple regression analysis were applied to establish the mechanism. It is suggested that the characterization of suitable, and exhausted sorbent through the application of fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is essential to establish its surface bonding. Scope for safety evaluation and risk assessment to human and biosphere may provide the guideline and predication to the regulatory agencies for its sustainable use and safe disposal The ecotoxicological assessment of the leachates and low cost removal technology are discussed in this paper.

  20. Plea is made for meeting national objectives for safe maritime transport of hazardous chemicals through a productive partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    A plea is made for meeting national objectives for safe maritime transport of hazardous chemicals through a productive partnership between the chemical industry and the US Government and its agencies, particularly the US Coast Guard.