Science.gov

Sample records for agency solar heating

  1. International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, A. J.

    This trip was undertaken to participate in and represent the United States Industry at the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) Task 14 Workshop. The meeting took place at the A1 Bani Hotel in Rome Italy.

  2. IEA solar: Working toward greater cost-effectiveness, report of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, S.

    1986-02-01

    This is the 1985 Annual Report of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Program. The format of the report has been changed substantially from that of previous years. In addition, the report has been given a special theme: Working Toward Greater Cost-Effectiveness. Section 2 of this report, the special theme chapter, discusses the contributions of the cooperative activities to achieving more cost-effective solar heating and cooling systems. A report on the progress and accomplishments during 1985 of the current tasks is found in Section 3. Section 4, Appendix, contains a description of each of the tasks as background information for those unfamiliar with all or parts of the program. Finally, the Appendix also contains information on IEA SHC reports, meetings, Executive Committee Members and task technical participants.

  3. Advanced glazing and associated materials for solar and building applications: International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, Michael G.

    1992-11-01

    Following a program definition phase of 2 years, Task 18 of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating & Cooling program commenced a 5 year research phase in April 1992. Task 18 investigates a wide range of advanced glazing materials and glazing systems which include monolithic and granular aerogels, transparent insulation materials, chromogenic materials, evacuated glazings, low-emittance coatings, solar collector covers, angular selective transmittance thin films, holographic and light guide materials, and frame and edge seal technology. In addition to materials-centered research, Task 18 concentrates on measurement of key glazing properties such as total energy transmittance, U-value, and spectral directional optical properties, and through the use of building energy analysis software tools the identification of appropriate applications, control strategies, and energy and environmental benefits to be derived from advanced glazing products. Fifteen OECD countries are participating in Task 18 which is led by the United Kingdom.

  4. Solar Heating Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Solar Unlimited, Inc.'s suncatcher line includes a variety of solar arrays, derived from NASA's satellite program: water heating only, partial home heating, or water and whole house central heating. Solar Unlimited developed a set of vigorous requirements to avoid problems common to solar heating technologies.

  5. International energy agency solar heating and cooling programme: Task 8, passive and hybrid solar low energy buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtz, M. J.

    1983-11-01

    The background of and results achieved by the International Energy Agency are discussed. Task objectives approach, and participants are presented as well as results from two international surveys on simulation models and design tools. Conventional reference buildings are described representative of typical design and construction practice in each country and will be used as a basis of comparison to passive/hybrid designs developed. Work in progress is briefly described along with Agency information dissemination activities.

  6. Solar heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanson, R.

    Brief discussions of the major components of a solar powered, chemical ground source heat pump are presented. The components discussed are the solar collectors and the chemical heat storage battery. Sodium sulfide is the medium used for heat storage. Catalog information which provides a description of all of the heat pump systems is included.

  7. Solar heating and you

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-08-01

    This fact sheet for use with primary school classes describes what solar collectors are and how they work, passive solar rooms, flat-plate collectors, and why one should use solar heating systems. Making a solar air heater is described step-by-step with illustrations. A resource list for both students and teachers is provided for further information.

  8. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  9. Solar heat receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  10. Solar heat receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Arlon J.; Hansen, Leif J.; Evans, David B.

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  11. Climate Fundamentals for Solar Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    The design of any solar heating system is influenced heavily by climate; in this bulletin, information on climate as related to solar heating is as related to solar heating is provided. Topics discussed include: (1) solar radiation; (2) degree days; (3) climate and calculations which make use of solar radiation and degree days; and (4)…

  12. Solar Energy: Home Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on home heating is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  13. Solar Energy: Heat Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat transfer is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The…

  14. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  15. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  16. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made on the development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems is reported. These subsystems are to be compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also to be compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. At least 100 gallons of each type of fluid recommended by the contractor will be delivered under the contract. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  17. Solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report describes solar modular domestic-hot-water and space-heating system intended for use in small single family dwelling where roof-mounted collectors are not feasible. Contents include design, performance, and hardware specifications for assembly, installation, operation, and maintenance of system.

  18. Solar heating system

    DOEpatents

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  19. Improved solar heating systems

    DOEpatents

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  20. Solar heating device

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, P.T.

    1984-07-10

    A stationary solar heating device is disclosed herein for heating water usable for domestic or industrial purposes which provides a solar ray collector assembly having a conical shell retained on a supporting base having a conical arrangement of tubular coils carried on the exterior surface thereof. The coils are characterized as having a generally circular cross section with a flat mounting side adjacent to the conical shell for maximum thermal transference to a circulating fluid carried by the coils. A transparent or light permeable protective shield encloses the entire collector assembly and opposite ends of the tubular coil at the base and the apex respectively serve as fluid input and output conduits. An air relief valve is operably coupled into the topmost coil of the assembly and the interior of the shell is substantially insulated to preserve heat in the shell and in the fluid carried by the tubular coils. An anchoring system is provided for coupling the protective shield and the collector assembly together into a unitary construction and which includes a cable tie-down arrangement for securing the complete solar heating device in a stationary, non-movable manner to a roof or ground foundation.

  1. Solar heated rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, Pamela K.

    1984-01-01

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  2. Solar heated rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, P.K.

    1984-04-17

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  3. IRIS Sees Solar Heat Bombs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Bright lights in this movie from NASA’s IRIS, represents spots of intense heat — at 200,000 F — that may hold clues to what heats the solar atmosphere to mysteriously high temperatures. Credit: NA...

  4. Solar Heating and Cooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffie, John A.; Beckman, William A.

    1976-01-01

    Describes recent research that has made solar energy economically competitive with other energy sources. Includes solar energy building architecture, storage systems, and economic production data. (MLH)

  5. Utility solar water heating workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.

  6. Residential solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  7. Modular passive solar heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, B.D.

    1985-03-19

    A modular passive solar energy storage system comprises a plurality of heat tubes which are arranged to form a flat plate solar collector and are releasably connected to a water reservoir by, and are part of, double-walled heat exchangers which penetrate to the water reservoir and enhance the heat transfer characteristics between the collector and the reservoir. The flat plate collector-heat exchanger disassembly, the collector housing, and the reservoir are integrated into a relatively light weight, unitary structural system in which the reservoir is a primary structural element. In addition to light weight, the system features high efficiency and ease of assembly and maintenance.

  8. Fundamentals of Solar Heating. Correspondence Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Vienna, VA.

    This course is designed for the use of employees of the air conditioning industry, and offers supervised correspondence instruction about solar technology. The following aspects of applied solar technology are covered: solar heating and cooling, solar radiation, solar collectors, heat storage control devices and specialty items, sizing solar…

  9. Solar heated beehives

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, B.

    1985-02-01

    A new translucent plastic cover for bee hives is described which will serve as a passive solar collector and insulator. Scientists at the USDA-ARS designed the cover to maintain bees in cold weather. It should be of interest to beekeepers in northern states who have had to destroy colonies to avoid overwintering costs.

  10. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are being developed. The effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  11. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are considered. This effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  12. Solar heat pump simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catan, M. A.

    A simulator was utilized to provide controlled-temperature sources and sinks to an experimental water-to-water laboratory heat pump test bed. This combination was used to demonstrate and explore the potential of the vapor-compression cycle to deliver high COP's at SAHP source temperatures. Results from the simulator were used in computer simulations of complete systems performed by BNL, by the SAHP contractors, and by others. A two-speed compressor was first tested at high source temperatures on the BNL simulator. In view of the decision by both contractors to construct water-to-air (rather than water-to-water) heat pumps, the BNL simulator was fitted with an air-side test loop. The prototype heat pump was tested under steady-state conditions on the BNL simulator.

  13. The Energy Impacts of Solar Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Chris

    1980-01-01

    The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy saved under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of solar technology implementation. (Author/RE)

  14. Passive solar-heated courthouse

    SciTech Connect

    Coupland, J.

    1997-12-01

    The Santa Fe Municipal Court Building is the first passive solar-heated courthouse in the United States. Taking advantage of the mild climate and using the sun to heat buildings are ancient traditions in northern New Mexico. One of the design team`s initial goals was to develop a project that was both environmentally responsive and responsible. The project was planned to be energy efficient and to demonstrate the use of integrated natural energy systems. The building is unique because occupants are responsible for manually operating equipment to maintain comfort levels in their individual work areas. Solar gain and light levels are modulated by adjusting mini-blinds, and temperature and ventilation are controlled by windows. This approach has proven successful, and the court employees are enthusiastic about their ability to control their environment. The paper describes the operation of the heating systems, ventilation cooling systems, and lighting. The paper also discusses energy consumption and modeling.

  15. Solar-heat-pump simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catan, M. A.

    A solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) hardware simulator was constructed to demonstrate the potential of the vapor compression heat pump to obtain high COP's at high source temperatures, to explore the means to obtain such high efficiencies, and to test prototype hardware resulting from the SAHF development program. The original water coolant system which simulated heating loads was upgraded to accommodate liquid to air heat pumps. A further refinement to the simulator was the addition of a on-line data acquisition and reduction facility. Testing of an experimental mockup heat pump designed to operate efficiently under SAHP system conditions demonstrated that very high COP's can be achieved with conventional components. One prototype marketable SAHP constructed by Northrop has been tested under steady state conditions using the simulator.

  16. Solar-heated rotary kiln

    DOEpatents

    Shell, P.K.

    1982-04-14

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate is disclosed. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  17. Solar heated fluidized bed gasification system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar-powered fluidized bed gasification system for gasifying carbonaceous material is presented. The system includes a solar gasifier which is heated by fluidizing gas and steam. Energy to heat the gas and steam is supplied by a high heat capacity refractory honeycomb which surrounds the fluid bed reactor zone. The high heat capacity refractory honeycomb is heated by solar energy focused on the honeycomb by solar concentrator through solar window. The fluid bed reaction zone is also heated directly and uniformly by thermal contact of the high heat capacity ceramic honeycomb with the walls of the fluidized bed reactor. Provisions are also made for recovering and recycling catalysts used in the gasification process. Back-up furnace is provided for start-up procedures and for supplying heat to the fluid bed reaction zone when adequate supplies of solar energy are not available.

  18. Passive integral solar heat collector system

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman Jr., K. T.

    1985-04-30

    The present invention relates to an improved apparatus for collecting, absorbing, transferring, and storing solar heat energy, economically and passively, without pumps or electric power. The apparatus comprises a solar collector with a flat finned heat pipe absorber and an attached integral insulated storage tank with a double wall heat exchanger. The absorber, made of one or more slightly tilted gravity assisted heat pipes with flat absorber fins, absorbs and transfers solar heat by evaporation, vapor transport, and condensation to the slightly elevated heat storage tank. The one or more heat pipes turn on when the sun is shining and turn off automatically when the sun is not shining.

  19. Solar dynamic heat receiver technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedgwick, Leigh M.

    1991-01-01

    A full-size, solar dynamic heat receiver was designed to meet the requirements specified for electrical power modules on the U.S. Space Station, Freedom. The heat receiver supplies thermal energy to power a heat engine in a closed Brayton cycle using a mixture of helium-xenon gas as the working fluid. The electrical power output of the engine, 25 kW, requires a 100 kW thermal input throughout a 90 minute orbit, including when the spacecraft is eclipsed for up to 36 minutes from the sun. The heat receiver employs an integral thermal energy storage system utilizing the latent heat available through the phase change of a high-temperature salt mixture. A near eutectic mixture of lithium fluoride and calcium difluoride is used as the phase change material. The salt is contained within a felt metal matrix which enhances heat transfer and controls the salt void distribution during solidification. Fabrication of the receiver is complete and it was delivered to NASA for verification testing in a simulated low-Earth-orbit environment. This document reviews the receiver design and describes its fabrication history. The major elements required to operate the receiver during testing are also described.

  20. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  1. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  2. Solar-heated bank-Marks Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes air solar-energy collectors which supply 60 percent of space heating load for full-service bank. Contemporary structure supports 468 square feet of flat-plate arrays, and features onsite temperature and power measurement readouts. Air-flow collectors minimize problems experienced with conventional liquid solar equipment and eliminate need for heat exchanger for space heating.

  3. Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dan S.

    1976-01-01

    Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

  4. Prototype solar heating and combined heating cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The design and development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems is discussed. The program management and systems engineering are reported, and operational test sites are identified.

  5. The energy impacts of solar heating.

    PubMed

    Whipple, C

    1980-04-18

    The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy it saves under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of implementation projected by the Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy. For the rapid growth case, the cumulative energy invested to the year 2000 is calculated to be (1/2) to 1(1/2) times the amount saved. An impact of rapid solar heating implementation is to shift energy demand from premium heating fuels (natural gas and oil) to coal and nuclear power use in the industries that provide materials for solar equipment.

  6. Implementing slab solar water heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raveendran, S. K.; Shen, C. Q.

    2015-08-01

    Water heating contributes a significant part of energy consumption in typical household. One of the most employed technologies today that helps in reducing the energy consumption of water heating would be conventional solar water heating system. However, this system is expensive and less affordable by most family. The main objective of this project is to design and implement an alternative type of solar water heating system that utilize only passive solar energy which is known as slab solar water heating system. Slab solar water heating system is a system that heat up cold water using the solar radiance from the sun. The unique part of this system is that it does not require any form of electricity in order to operate. Solar radiance is converted into heat energy through convection method and cold water will be heated up by using conduction method [1]. The design of this system is governed by the criteria of low implementation cost and energy saving. Selection of material in the construction of a slab solar water heating system is important as it will directly affect the efficiency and performance of the system. A prototype has been built to realize the idea and it had been proven that this system was able to provide sufficient hot water supply for typical household usage at any given time.

  7. Passive thermosyphon solar heating and cooling module with supplementary heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A collection of three quarterly reports from Sigma Research, Inc., covering progress and status from January through September 1977 are presented. Three heat exchangers are developed for use in a solar heating and cooling system for installation into single-family dwellings. Each exchanger consists of one heating and cooling module and one submerged electric water heating element.

  8. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Schedules and technical progress in the development of eight prototype solar heating and combined solar heating and cooling systems are reported. Particular emphasis is given to the analysis and preliminary design for the cooling subsystem, and the setup and testing of a horizontal thermal energy storage tank configuration and collector shroud evaluation.

  9. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  10. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOEpatents

    McConnell, Robert D.; Vansant, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  11. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; Vansant, J.H.

    1984-10-02

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  12. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  13. Prototype solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

  14. Guidebook for solar process-heat applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzolare, R.; Mignon, G.; Campoy, L.; Luttmann, F.

    1981-01-01

    The potential for solar process heat in Arizona and some of the general technical aspects of solar, such as insolation, siting, and process analysis are explored. Major aspects of a solar plant design are presented. Collectors, storage, and heat exchange are discussed. Reducing hardware costs to annual dollar benefits is also discussed. Rate of return, cash flow, and payback are discussed as they relate to solar systems. Design analysis procedures are presented. The design cost optimization techniques using a yearly computer simulation of a solar process operation is demonstrated.

  15. Solar preheater for residential heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The Solar Preheater for Residential Heat PUmps was designed to offset the weakest points in a heat pump system using solar energy. These weak points affect both energy efficiency and comfort, and are: (1) the heat pumps need to defrost its outside coils, and (2) its use of resistance coils when outside air is very cold. While a heat pump can claim close to 100% efficiency in its conversion of electricity to heat, these efficiencies drop way off under the above circumstances. Less dramatic energy savings should also occur during the heat pump's normal operation, since a heat pump takes available heat and condenses it to heat the house. It seems reasonable to say that if there is more heat in the outside air it will take less time to raise the temperature inside. The net effect should be similar to having the heat pump located several hundred miles south of the home it is heating. There are several ways to achieve solar augmentation of heat pump operation, but most are either too expensive, too difficult for do-it-yourselfers, or are not easily adaptable to existing units. The solar preheater for residential heat pumps gets around all the above restrictions.

  16. Optimal control studies of solar heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, C B

    1980-01-01

    In the past few years fuel prices have seen steady increases. Also, the supply of fuel has been on the decline. Because of these two problems there has been an increase in the number of solar heated buildings. Since conventional fuel prices are increasing and as a solar heating system represents a high capital cost it is desirable to obtain the maximum performance from a solar heating system. The control scheme that is used in a solar heated building has an effect on the performance of the solar system. The best control scheme possible would, of course, be desired. This report deals with the control problems of a solar heated building. The first of these problems is to control the inside temperature of the building and to minimize the fuel consumption. This problem applies to both solar and conventionally heated buildings. The second problem considered is to control the collector fluid flow to maximize the difference between the useful energy collected and the energy required to pump the fluid. The third problem is to control the enclosure temperature of a building which has two sources of heat, one solar and the other conventional.

  17. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  18. Solar heating system installed at Stamford, Connecticut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut is described. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size with 25,000 sq ft of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The system components are described. Appended data includes: the system design acceptance test, the operation and maintenance manual, and as-built drawings and photographs.

  19. Solar atrium: A hybrid solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueland, M.

    1980-06-01

    The atrium is designed to be constructed of materials and equipment that are economical and readily available. Cost effectiveness of installation and operation is a primary design objective. The solar atrium is a further development of efforts begun in the 1930's and 1940's to design houses that would obtain a major portion of their heating from the Sun. The early solar house experiments proved the benefits of large glazed areas for trapping solar energy. However, they were not equipped to collect and store surplus solar energy, nor were they equipped to control heat losses through glass areas at night or during cloudy days. The solar atrium incorporates the large glass areas of the earlier houses and adds facilities for heat storage and control of heat losses through glass. Progress and plans are outlined.

  20. Annual DOE Active Solar Heating and Cooling Contractors Review meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Ninety three project summaries dicussing the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling are presented: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology.

  1. German central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, D.; Marx, R.; Nussbicker-Lux, J.; Ochs, F.; Heidemann, W.; Mueller-Steinhagen, H.

    2010-04-15

    Central solar heating plants contribute to the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and global warming. The combination of central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage enables high solar fractions of 50% and more. Several pilot central solar heating plants with seasonal heat storage (CSHPSS) built in Germany since 1996 have proven the appropriate operation of these systems and confirmed the high solar fractions. Four different types of seasonal thermal energy stores have been developed, tested and monitored under realistic operation conditions: Hot-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Friedrichshafen), gravel-water thermal energy store (e.g. in Steinfurt-Borghorst), borehole thermal energy store (in Neckarsulm) and aquifer thermal energy store (in Rostock). In this paper, measured heat balances of several German CSHPSS are presented. The different types of thermal energy stores and the affiliated central solar heating plants and district heating systems are described. Their operational characteristics are compared using measured data gained from an extensive monitoring program. Thus long-term operational experiences such as the influence of net return temperatures are shown. (author)

  2. Solar dynamic space power system heat rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Gustafson, E.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    A radiator system concept is described that meets the heat rejection requirements of the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. The heat pipe radiator is a high-reliability, high-performance approach that is capable of erection in space and is maintainable on orbit. Results are present of trade studies that compare the radiator system area and weight estimates for candidate advanced high performance heat pipes. The results indicate the advantages of the dual-slot heat pipe radiator for high temperature applications as well as its weight-reduction potential over the range of temperatures to be encountered in the solar dynamic heat rejection systems.

  3. Solar steam generation by heat localization.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Hadi; Ni, George; Marconnet, Amy Marie; Loomis, James; Yerci, Selcuk; Miljkovic, Nenad; Chen, Gang

    2014-07-21

    Currently, steam generation using solar energy is based on heating bulk liquid to high temperatures. This approach requires either costly high optical concentrations leading to heat loss by the hot bulk liquid and heated surfaces or vacuum. New solar receiver concepts such as porous volumetric receivers or nanofluids have been proposed to decrease these losses. Here we report development of an approach and corresponding material structure for solar steam generation while maintaining low optical concentration and keeping the bulk liquid at low temperature with no vacuum. We achieve solar thermal efficiency up to 85% at only 10 kW m(-2). This high performance results from four structure characteristics: absorbing in the solar spectrum, thermally insulating, hydrophilic and interconnected pores. The structure concentrates thermal energy and fluid flow where needed for phase change and minimizes dissipated energy. This new structure provides a novel approach to harvesting solar energy for a broad range of phase-change applications.

  4. Solar steam generation by heat localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Hadi; Ni, George; Marconnet, Amy Marie; Loomis, James; Yerci, Selcuk; Miljkovic, Nenad; Chen, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Currently, steam generation using solar energy is based on heating bulk liquid to high temperatures. This approach requires either costly high optical concentrations leading to heat loss by the hot bulk liquid and heated surfaces or vacuum. New solar receiver concepts such as porous volumetric receivers or nanofluids have been proposed to decrease these losses. Here we report development of an approach and corresponding material structure for solar steam generation while maintaining low optical concentration and keeping the bulk liquid at low temperature with no vacuum. We achieve solar thermal efficiency up to 85% at only 10 kW m-2. This high performance results from four structure characteristics: absorbing in the solar spectrum, thermally insulating, hydrophilic and interconnected pores. The structure concentrates thermal energy and fluid flow where needed for phase change and minimizes dissipated energy. This new structure provides a novel approach to harvesting solar energy for a broad range of phase-change applications.

  5. Solar Heated Homes: They're Here

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carlton W., II; Wohlhagen, Linda

    1975-01-01

    Presents a discussion and examples of the two categories into which solar homes have been classified. Classifications are based upon the method by which the sunlight is put to use: energy conversion, utilizing photoelectric cells; and direct heating, where sunlight heats water which then heats the home. Diagrams are presented. (Author/EB)

  6. Direct expansion solar collector and heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-05-01

    A hybrid heat pump/solar collector combination in which solar collectors replace the outside air heat exchanger found in conventional air-to-air heat pump systems is discussed. The solar panels ordinarily operate at or below ambient temperature, eliminating the need to install the collector panels in a glazed and insulated enclosure. The collectors simply consist of a flat plate with a centrally located tube running longitudinally. Solar energy absorbed by exposed panels directly vaporizes the refrigerant fluid. The resulting vapor is compressed to higher temperature and pressure; then, it is condensed to release the heat absorbed during the vaporization process. Control and monitoring of the demonstration system are addressed, and the tests conducted with the demonstration system are described. The entire heat pump system is modelled, including predicted performance and costs, and economic comparisons are made with conventional flat-plate collector systems.

  7. Design and installation of solar heating and hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A no-nonsense explanation of information on the use of solar energy for heating, cooling, and producing hot water. The work is both scholarly and practical. Background of high school algebra is the only mathematics expected. Worked examples but no exercises. Contents: Solar radiation. Heating loads. Design and analysis of flat-place liquid-heating collectors. Flat-plate air-heating collectors. Evacuated solar collectors. Solar hot water systems. Solar ponds. Active solar heating and cooling systems.

  8. Prototype solar heating and hot water systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress made in the development of a solar hot water and space heating system is described in four quarterly reports. The program schedules, technical status and other program activities from 6 October 1976 through 30 September 1977 are provided.

  9. Report on Solar Water Heating Quantitative Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-05-06

    This report details the results of a quantitative research study undertaken to better understand the marketplace for solar water-heating systems from the perspective of home builders, architects, and home buyers.

  10. Installation package for a solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Installation information is given for a solar heating system installed in Concho Indian School at El Reno, Oklahoma. This package includes a system Operation and Maintenance Manual, hardware brochures, schematics, system operating modes and drawings.

  11. Solar residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, D. E.; Humphries, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    System has been placed in operation to verify technical feasibility of using solar energy to provide residential heating and cooling. Complete system analysis was performed to provide design information.

  12. Coupled Gas Giant Atmospheres: Solar Heating vs. Interior Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Morgan E.; Kaspi, Yohai; Galanti, Eli

    2015-11-01

    The weather layers of Jupiter and Saturn receive both solar radiation and heat from the deep interior. Currently, numerical models fall into two broad categories: deep, convecting interiors that lack an outer, solar-heated troposphere, or thin shells that represent only a troposphere, with parameterized heating from the lower boundary. Here we present results from a new coupled circulation model that allows deep convective plumes and columnar structures to interact with a stable troposphere that is heated by the sun. Equatorial superrotation, observed on Jupiter and Saturn, extends in axially-aligned columns from the deep interior through the troposphere. A tropospheric midlatitude baroclinic zone due to solar heating competes with the outer edges of the deep rotating columns to characterize midlatitude jet and temperature structure. We demonstrate this interplay between solar heating and interior heating in setting the strength and depth of the jets for a range of idealized gas giants. The relative impact of each is modulated by the static stability of the troposphere, which acts as a proxy for water abundance. We also show the impact of axial tilt, with respect to solar radiation, on asymmetries between the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

  13. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  14. Solar heating and cooling: Technical data and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The solar energy research is reported including climatic data, architectural data, heating and cooling equipment, thermal loads, and economic data. Lists of data sources presented include: selected data sources for solar energy heating and cooling; bibliography of solar energy, and other energy sources; sources for manufacturing and sales, solar energy collectors; and solar energy heating and cooling projects.

  15. Solar-heating and cooling demonstration project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Florida Solar Energy Center has retrofitted office building, approximately 5,000 square feet of area, with solar heating and air-conditioning. Information on operation, installation, controls, and hardware for system is contained in 164 page report. Document includes manufacturer's product literature and detailed drawings.

  16. Solar Heating and Cooling: An Economic Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Arthur E.

    This study serves as an introduction to the important economic considerations that are necessary for an assessment of the potential for solar heating and cooling in the United States. The first chapter introduces the technology that is used to tap solar energy for residential and commercial applications and illustrates the potential significance…

  17. Solar heated oil shale pyrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An improved system for recovery of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from oil shale is presented. The oil shale pyrolysis system is composed of a retort reactor for receiving a bed of oil shale particules which are heated to pyrolyis temperature by means of a recycled solar heated gas stream. The gas stream is separated from the recovered shale oil and a portion of the gas stream is rapidly heated to pyrolysis temperature by passing it through an efficient solar heater. Steam, oxygen, air or other oxidizing gases can be injected into the recycle gas before or after the recycle gas is heated to pyrolysis temperature and thus raise the temperature before it enters the retort reactor. The use of solar thermal heat to preheat the recycle gas and optionally the steam before introducing it into the bed of shale, increases the yield of shale oil.

  18. Heat Pumps With Direct Expansion Solar Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Sadasuke

    In this paper, the studies of heat pump systems using solar collectors as the evaporators, which have been done so far by reserchers, are reviwed. Usually, a solar collector without any cover is preferable to one with ac over because of the necessity of absorbing heat from the ambient air when the intensity of the solar energy on the collector is not enough. The performance of the collector depends on its area and the intensity of the convective heat transfer on the surface. Fins are fixed on the backside of the collector-surface or on the tube in which the refrigerant flows in order to increase the convective heat transfer. For the purpose of using a heat pump efficiently throughout year, a compressor with variable capacity is applied. The solar assisted heat pump can be used for air conditioning at night during the summer. Only a few groups of people have studied cooling by using solar assisted heat pump systems. In Japan, a kind of system for hot water supply has been produced commercially in a company and a kind of system for air conditioning has been installed in buildings commercially by another company.

  19. Solar power satellites - Heat engine or solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, H.; Gregory, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A solar power satellite is the energy-converting element of a system that can deliver some 10 GW of power to utilities on the earth's surface. We evaluated heat engines and solar cells for converting sunshine to electric power at the satellite. A potassium Rankine cycle was the best of the heat engines, and 50 microns thick single-crystal silicon cells were the best of the photovoltaic converters. Neither solar cells nor heat engines had a clear advantage when all factors were considered. The potassium-turbine power plant, however, was more difficult to assemble and required a more expensive orbital assembly base. We therefore based our cost analyses on solar-cell energy conversion, concluding that satellite-generated power could be delivered to utilities for around 4 to 5 cents a kWh.

  20. Solar-Heated Office Building -- Dallas, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar heating system designed to supply 87 percent of space heating and 100 percent of potable hot-water needs of large office building in Dallas, Texas. Unique feature of array serves as roofing over office lobby and gives building attractive triangular appearance. Report includes basic system drawings, test data, operating procedures, and maintenance instructions.

  1. Pacific Regional Solar Heating Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Writers' Development Trust, Toronto (Ontario).

    This handbook is intended as a guide for engineers, architects, and individuals familiar with heating and ventilating applications who wish to design a solar heating system for a residential or small commercial building in the Pacific Coast Region. The climate of the region is discussed by selected cities in terms of the effect of climate on solar…

  2. Heat Lamps Solder Solar Array Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, P. J.; Crouthamel, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Interconnection tabs in a nine-solar-cell array have been soldered simultaneously with radiant heat. Cells and tabs are held in position for soldering by sandwiching them between compliant silicone-rubber vacuum platen and transparent polyimide sealing membrane. Heat lamps warm cells, producing smooth, flat solder joints of high quality.

  3. Introduction to the EC solar heating programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steemers, T. C.

    Educational, developmental, and optimization goals for performing research and development programs on solar space heating systems in Europe are discussed. It is noted that in arranging the programs concern must be given to the designers and architects who will produce the plans, since no conventional curriculum has yet been devised for solar heating design other than training in the basic tools of the designer and architect. Awareness is also necessary of the fact that off-the-shelf solar heating equipment is not yet an established facet of European industry. A Solar Pilot Test Facility has been constructed and features the capability of simulating thermal loads for testing real flat plate collectors, storage, and controls as well as the presence of occupants and varying weather.

  4. Heat loss factor for linear solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullick, S. C.; Nanda, S. K.

    1982-05-01

    Numerical techniques are developed for calculating the heat loss factor through the glass cover of a cylindrical solar concentrator. The configuration considered was a steel tube suspended in the central space of a concentric glass tube. Heat transfer coefficients were determined for both the radiative heat between the tube and the glass and the convective heat transfer within the medium between the steel and the glass. The sum of the two coefficients is treated as the total heat transferred to the outside air by forced or mixed convection. Correlations of the outside to inside heat transfer resistances ratio to the wind velocity, the absorber temperature, the emittance of black paint, etc. were formulated. The results are noted to be applicable to flat plate collectors and useful for manufacturers of solar equipment.

  5. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Solar heating and heating/cooling systems were designed for single family, multifamily, and commercial applications. Subsystems considered included solar collectors, heat storage systems, auxiliary energy sources, working fluids, and supplementary controls, piping, and pumps.

  6. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  7. Liquid for absorption of solar heat

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Kadotani, K.; Marui, T.

    1984-11-13

    A liquid for the absorption of solar heat, useful as an heat-absorbing medium in water heaters and heat collectors comprises: a dispersing medium selected from the group consisting of propylene glycol, mixture of propylene glycol with water, mixture of propylene glycol with water and glycerin, and mixture of glycerin with water, a dispersant selected from the group consisting of polyvinylpyrrolidone, caramel, and mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone with caramel, and a powdered activated carbon as a black coloring material.

  8. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  9. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment by Federal Government Agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Coggeshall, C.; Coughlin, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2009-07-01

    The goal of this report is to examine how federal agencies can finance on-site PV projects. It explains state-level cash incentives available, the importance of solar renewable energy certificate revenues (in certain markets), existing financing structures, as well as innovative financing structures being used by federal agencies to deploy on-site PV. Specific examples from the DOD, DOE, and other federal agencies are highlighted to explain federal project financing in detail.

  10. A regional comparison of solar, heat pump, and solar-heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manton, B. E.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1982-08-01

    A comparative study of the thermal and economic performance of the parallel and series solar heat pump systems, stand alone solar and stand alone heat pump systems for residential space and domestic hot water heating for the U.S. using FCHART 4.0 is presented. Results show that the parallel solar heat pump system yields the greatest energy savings in the south. Very low cost collectors (50-150 dollars/sq m) are required for a series solar heat pump system in order for it to compete economically with the better of the parallel or solar systems. Conventional oil or gas furnaces need to have a seasonal efficiency of at least 70-85% in order to save as much primary energy as the best primary system in the northeast. In addition, the implications of these results for current or proposed federal tax credit measures are discussed.

  11. Wave heating of the solar atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Arregui, Iñigo

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic waves are a relevant component in the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Their significance has increased because of their potential as a remote diagnostic tool and their presumed contribution to plasma heating processes. We discuss our current understanding of coronal heating by magnetic waves, based on recent observational evidence and theoretical advances. The discussion starts with a selection of observational discoveries that have brought magnetic waves to the forefront of the coronal heating discussion. Then, our theoretical understanding of the nature and properties of the observed waves and the physical processes that have been proposed to explain observations are described. Particular attention is given to the sequence of processes that link observed wave characteristics with concealed energy transport, dissipation and heat conversion. We conclude with a commentary on how the combination of theory and observations should help us to understand and quantify magnetic wave heating of the solar atmosphere. PMID:25897091

  12. DOE Solar Process Heat Program: FY1991 Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, R.

    1992-11-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat Program implemented a Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity. For Program purposes, a prefeasibility study is an engineering assessment that investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. The study includes an assessment of institutional issues (e.g., financing, availability of insurance, etc.) that impact the feasibility of the proposed solar project. Solar process heat technology covers solar thermal energy systems (utilizing flat plate or concentrating solar Collectors) for water heating, water preheating, cooling/refrigeration, steam generation, ventilation air heating/preheating, etc. for applications in industry, commerce, and government. The studies are selected for funding through a competitive solicitation. For FY 1991, six projects were selected for funding. As of August 31, 1992, three teams had completed their studies. This paper describes the prefeasibility studies activity, presents the results from the study performed by United Solar Technologies, and summarizes the conclusions from the studies that have been completed to date and their implications for the Solar Process Heat Program.

  13. Department of Energy solar process heat program: FY 1991 solar process heat prefeasibility studies activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, R.

    1992-11-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat Program implemented a Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity. For Program purposes, a prefeasibility study is an engineering assessment that investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. The study includes an assessment of institutional issues (e.g., financing, availability of insurance, etc.) that impact the feasibility of the proposed solar project. Solar process heat technology covers solar thermal energy systems (utilizing flat plate or concentrating solar collectors) for water heating, water preheating, cooling/refrigeration, steam generation, ventilation air heating/preheating, etc., for applications in industry, commerce, and government. The studies are selected for funding through a competitive solicitation. For FY-91, six projects were selected for funding. As of 31 Aug. 1992, three teams had completed their studies. This paper describes the prefeasibility studies activity, presents the results from the study performed by United Solar Technologies, and summarizes the conclusions from the studies that have been completed to date and their implications for the Solar Process Heat Program.

  14. Static solar heat storage composition

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, H.J.

    1981-09-08

    A composition for the storage of heat energy utilizing the heat of fusion of the composition. The composition includes a salthydrate, a nucleating agent and a porous solid. The porous solid is selected from calcium sulfate hemihydrate and soluble calcium sulfate anhydride.

  15. Nanoflare heating model for collisionless solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visakh Kumar, U. L.; Varghese, Bilin Susan; Kurian, P. J.

    2017-02-01

    The problem of coronal heating remains one of the greatest unresolved problems in space science. Magnetic reconnection plays a significant role in heating the solar corona. When two oppositely directed magnetic fields come closer to form a current sheet, the current density of the plasma increases due to which magnetic reconnection and conversion of magnetic energy into thermal energy takes place. The present paper deals with a model for reconnection occurring in the solar corona under steady state in collisionless regime. The model predicts that reconnection time in the solar corona varies inversely with the cube of magnetic field and varies directly with the Lindquist number. Our analysis shows that reconnections are occurring within a time interval of 600 s in the solar corona, producing nanoflares in the energy range 10 21-10 23 erg /s which matches with Yohkoh X-ray observations.

  16. A solar heating system with annual storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, F.; Raffellini, G.

    1981-07-01

    A solar heated house with long term storage capability, built in Trento, Italy, is described. The one story house was built from modular components and has a total heated volume of 1130 cu m. Flat plate solar collectors with a water-antifreeze medium are located beneath the lawn, and six cylindrical underground tanks holding 130 cu m of water heated by thermal energy from the collectors are situated under the garden. The house walls have an 8 cm cavity filled with 5 cm of formaldehyde foam, yielding a heat transmission (U) of 0.37 W/sq m/deg C. The roof and ceilings are insulated with fiberglass and concrete, producing U-values of 0.46 W/sq m/deg C and 0.57 W/sq m/deg C, respectively. Heat pumps using 6 kW move thermal energy between the house and the tanks. Direct hot water heating occurs in the summer, and direct home heating when the stored water temperature exceeds 32 C. A computer model was developed which traces the annual heat flow and it is shown that the system supplies all heating requirements for the house, with electrical requirements equal to 20 percent of the annual house needs.

  17. Solar heating demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bonicatto, L.; Kozak, C.

    1980-01-01

    The demonstration involved a 4-panel solar collector mounted on the industrial arts building. A 120 gallon storage tank supplements a 66 gallon electric hot water heater which supplies hot water for 5 shop wash basins, girl's and boy's lavatories, and a pressure washer in the auto shop. The installation and educational uses of the system are described. (MHR)

  18. Public policy for solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshberg, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Recent analyses indicated that solar heating and cooling systems for residential buildings are nearly economically competitive with conventional fossil fuel or electric systems, the former having higher initial cost but a lower operating cost than the latter. The paper examines obstacles to the widespread acceptance and use of solar space conditioning systems and explores some general policies which could help to overcome them. The discussion covers such institutional barriers limiting the adoption of solar technologies as existing building codes, financing constraints, and organizational structure of the building industry. The potential impact of financial incentives is analyzed. It is noted that a tax incentive of 25% could speed the use of solar energy by 7 to 8 years and produce an 8% reduction in fossil fuel use by 1990. A preliminary incentive package which could be helpful in promoting solar energy both at federal and state levels is proposed, and the necessary incentive level is analysed.

  19. Solar Heating Considerations for Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Brian; Fiedler, Lon

    2012-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, many schools and universities are considering energy-saving solutions, including solar heating options, to lower costs and to attract students and staff that support environmentally friendly practices. However, administrators and facility engineers should take several issues into account before pursuing a solar…

  20. Solar Hot Water Heating by Natural Convection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which a solar collector is used to heat water for domestic use. The working fluid is moved by natural convection so no pumps are required. Experimental apparatus is simple in design and operation so that data can be collected quickly and easily. (Author/JN)

  1. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A collection of monthly status reports on the development of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3, 25, and 75 ton size units.

  2. Atmospheric Solar Heating in Minor Absorption Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah

    1998-01-01

    Solar radiation is the primary source of energy driving atmospheric and oceanic circulations. Concerned with the huge computing time required for computing radiative transfer in weather and climate models, solar heating in minor absorption bands has often been neglected. The individual contributions of these minor bands to the atmospheric heating is small, but collectively they are not negligible. The solar heating in minor bands includes the absorption due to water vapor in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) spectral region from 14284/cm to 25000/cm, the ozone absorption and Rayleigh scattering in the near infrared, as well as the O2 and CO2 absorption in a number of weak bands. Detailed high spectral- and angular-resolution calculations show that the total effect of these minor absorption is to enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approximately 10%. Depending upon the strength of the absorption and the overlapping among gaseous absorption, different approaches are applied to parameterize these minor absorption. The parameterizations are accurate and require little extra time for computing radiative fluxes. They have been efficiently implemented in the various atmospheric models at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, including cloud ensemble, mesoscale, and climate models.

  3. Residential solar-heating system - design brochure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Design brochure for commercially-available solar-heating system is valuable to architects, engineers, and designers. It contains information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout. Drawings and specifications of all components and typical installation details are included in appendix.

  4. Solar Heating in an Elementary School

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar-heating and hot-water system installed in elementary school in Virginia is described in 154 page report. Report contains discussion of design philosophy and acceptance-test report. Provides instructions for installation, maintenance, and operation. Also furnishes mechanical drawings and manufacturers' data on pumps, valves, controllers, and other components.

  5. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made in the manufacture, test, evaluation, installation, problem resolution, performance evaluation, and development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems is described.

  6. Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities: Solar water heating

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This sheet presents information on solar water heaters (passive and active), solar collectors (flat plate, evacuated tube, parabolic trough), lists opportunities for use of solar water heating, and describes what is required and the costs. Important terms are defined.

  7. Nanoflare Heating of Solar and Stellar Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of observational and theoretical evidence suggests that much, and perhaps most, of the Sun's corona is heated by small unresolved bursts of energy called nanoflares. It seems likely that stellar coronae are heated in a similar fashion. Kanoflares are here taken to mean any impulsive heating that occurs within a magnetic flux strand. Many mechanisms have this property, including waves, but we prefer Parker's picture of tangled magnetic fields. The tangling is caused by turbulent convection at the stellar surface, and magnetic energy is released when the stresses reach a critical level. We suggest that the mechanism of energy release is the "secondary instability" of electric current sheets that are present at the boundaries between misaligned strands. I will discuss the collective evidence for solar and stellar nanoflares and hopefully present new results from the Solar Dynamics Observatory that was just launched.

  8. Ground coupled solar heat pumps: analysis of four options

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Heat pump systems which utilize both solar energy and energy withdrawn from the ground are analyzed using a simplified procedure which optimizes the solar storage temperature on a monthly basis. Four ways of introducing collected solar energy to the system are optimized and compared. These include use of actively collected thermal input to the heat pump; use of collected solar energy to heat the load directly (two different ways); and use of a passive option to reduce the effective heating load.

  9. Heat extraction from a large solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, L.J.; Etter, D.E.

    1982-08-01

    The largest operational, salt-gradient solar pond in the United States, occupying 2000 m/sup 2/, was constructed during 1978 in Miamisburg, Ohio. The heat from this solar pond, nearly 1055 GJ/y (1000 million Btu/y) is used to heat an outdoor swimming pool in the summer and an adjacent recreation building during part of the winter. A new heat exchanger system has been installed externally to the pond and operated successfully to deliver 391 GJ (371 million Btu) of heat during May-June. Hot brine water is drawn through a diffuser by a self-priming pump fabricated from fiberglass reinforced plastic. The brine water passes through copper-10% nickel tubes of a tube-and-shell heat exchanger and is then returned to the bottom of the pond. Cooling water from the swimming pool circulates through the shell side of the heat exchanger. Several designs and flow velocities of the brine inlet and outlet diffusers into the pond have been tested in order to minimize the effect of turbulence upon the salt gradient zone.

  10. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, M. L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, A. D.; Bobela, D.; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a "thermal valve," which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  11. Solar Thermoelectricity via Advanced Latent Heat Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Michele L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, Azure D.; Bobela, David; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, Philip A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, Eric S.; Ginley, David S.

    2016-05-31

    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a 'thermal valve,' which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  12. Solar heated two level residence--Akron, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes 1 year evaluation of solar heating and hot water system which satisfied 24 percent of energy requirements. System uses flat plate solar collectors with air as heat transport medium. Rock storage bin stores collected energy; air to liquid heat pump supplies backup heat.

  13. Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The completed system was composed of three basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3,264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which included a 5,000 gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which included piping, pumping and heat transfer components as well as the solemoid activated valves and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and was, therefore, a retrofit system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  14. Solar heating of water utilizing coverites

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.O.

    1984-08-28

    A method and a system of solar heating a body of water, which has its surface exposed to air and radiation from the sun, by covering the surface of the body of water with a floating blanket consisting of thousands of coverites. Each coverite is a sealed bag with its wall comprising a thin flexible translucent film of plastic, which encases a translucent liquid and a translucent gas, so that each coverite compresses its neighboring coverites, whereby its thin flexible wall conforms to the shape of the contacting part of the neighboring coverites' thin flexible walls, whereby the resulting blanket of coverites admits the solar radiation to reach the body of water, and reduces heat absorbing evaporation of the body of water to the air, and thermally insulates the body of water from the air. The liquid and the gas may conveniently be water and air respectively and the plastic may suitably be a polyolefin such as polyethylene.

  15. Direct solar heating for Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Early investigations have shown that a large percentage of the power generated on the Space Station will be needed in the form of high-temperature thermal energy. The most efficient method of satisfying this requirement is through direct utilization of available solar energy. A system concept for the direct use of solar energy on the Space Station, including its benefits to customers, technologists, and designers of the station, is described. After a brief discussion of energy requirements and some possible applications, results of selective tradeoff studies are discussed, showing area reduction benefits and some possible configurations for the practical use of direct solar heating. Following this is a description of system elements and required technologies. Finally, an assessment of available contributive technologies is presented, and a Space Shuttle Orbiter flight experiment is proposed.

  16. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test was reported. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for single family residences, multiple family residences and commercial applications.

  17. Passive vapor transport solar heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    In the systems under consideration, refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector and condensed in thermal storage for space or water heating located within the building at a level below that of the collector. Condensed liquid is lifted to an accumulator above the collector by the vapor pressure generated in the collector. Tests of two systems are described, and it is concluded that one of these systems offers distinct advantages.

  18. Market potential for solar heating and cooling in buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The use of solar heating and cooling for buildings as a method of conserving fossil fuels is discussed. The residential and commercial end use consumption of energy is tabulated. A survey to project the energy requirements for home and industry heating and cooling is developed. The survey indicates that there is a market potential for solar heating and cooling of buildings. A prediction of three to five billion dollars per year as the potential for solar heating and cooling is made.

  19. Prototype solar heating and hot water systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Alternative approaches to solar heating and hot water system configurations were studied, parametrizing the number and location of the dampers, the number and location of the fans, the interface locations with the furnace, the size and type of subsystems, and operating modes. A two-pass air-heating collector was selected based on efficiency and ease of installation. Also, an energy transport module was designed to compactly contain all the mechanical and electrical control components. System performance calculations were carried out over a heating season for the tentative site location at Tunkhnana, Pa. Results illustrate the effect of collector size, storage capacity, and use of a reflector. Factors which affected system performance include site location, insulative quality of the house, and of the system components. A preliminary system performance specification is given.

  20. Use of solar energy to produce process heat for industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K.

    1980-04-01

    The role of solar energy in supplying heat and hot water to residential and commerical buildings is familiar. On the other hand, the role that solar energy may play in displacing imported energy supplies in the industrial and utility sectors often goes unrecognized. The versatility of solar technology lends itself well to applications in industry; particulary to the supplemental supply for process heat. The status of solar thermal technology for industrial process heat applications, including a description of current costs and operating histories is surveyed. The most important objectives to be met in improving system performance, reducing cost, and identifying markets for solar industrial process heat are outlined.

  1. Test and evaluation of a solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report documents results of evaluation tests performed on components of commerical solar heating and hot water system. Subsystems tested include flat plate solar collector, energy transport module, and control panel. Tests conducted include snow and wind loads, flame spread, and smoke classification as well as solar heating operation.

  2. Solar heated vacuum pyrolysis of lunar soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerborn, M.; Neumann, A.; Seboldt, W.; Diekmann, B.

    The goal of the project is the thermal reduction of samples of lunar regolith simulant as a possible technique for producing oxygen by pyrolysis on a lunar base. The extraterrestrial production of oxygen is a key technology for a lunar base or manned missions to near-Earth asteroids or Mars. The solar heated vacuum pyrolysis has some important advantages, because it is based upon the realities of the lunar environment. As a tool for investigating the basic reactions and the technology the DLR High Flux Solar Furnace was used. This facility is operated since 1994 in Cologne. It delivers concentrated solar radiation up to a peak flux of 5 MW/m2. This power can be used to cause thermal or photochemical effects in irradiated materials. For the astrophysical and mineralogical applications discussed here, a vacuum chamber with a solar-adapted design and new instrumentation was developed. The pyrolysis experiments were conducted under high vacuum. Using the concentrated beam of the solar furnace as heat source, the lunar soil simulant samples achieved liquid phase in 10 - 20 seconds and reached temperatures between 1500 to 1900 K, were the relevant processes took place. The heating phase was followed by a controlled cooling. The partial pressure of oxygen and several other constituents in the vapour phase was measured with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer. The temperatures of the samples were measured by an IR camera with a special optical system. Baseline experiments with different reference metal oxides like SiO2, CaO, and ZnO were made to verify the apparatus and investigate background contamination. The data of the five experiments with regolith showed typical features and a similar behaviour of gas partial pressure depending on temperature level, with an increase of oxygen during the strongest irradiation. The detected oxygen originates from thermal decomposition of the mineral sample and caused a large numbers of gas bubbles inside the melt

  3. Graphitic heat shields for solar probe missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundell, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using a graphitic heat-shield system on a solar probe going to within 4 solar radii of the center of the sun is investigated. An analysis of graphite vaporization, with commonly used vaporization coefficients, indicates that the maximum mass-loss rate from a conical shield as large as 4 m in diameter can be kept low enough to avoid interference with measurements of the solar environment. In addition to the mass-loss problem, the problem of protecting the payload from the high-temperature (up to 2300 K) primary shield must be solved. An analysis of radiation exchange between concentric disks provides a technique for designing the intermediate shielding. The technique is applied to the design of a system for the Starprobe spacecraft, and it is found that a system with 10 shields and a payload surface temperature of 600 K will have a payload diameter of 2.45 m. Since this is 61% of the 4-m diameter of the primary shield, it is concluded that a graphitic heat-shield system is feasible for the Starprobe mission.

  4. Heat-Transfer Fluids for Solar-Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    43-page report investigates noncorrosive heat-transport fluids compatible with both metallic and nonmetallic solar collectors and plumbing systems. Report includes tables and figures of X-ray inspections for corrosion and schematics of solar-heat transport systems and heat rejection systems.

  5. Solar Space Heating for Warehouse--Kansas City, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    New report describes warehouse/office building in Kansas City, Kansas which uses solar heating for warehouse portion and conventional heating and cooling for office portion. Building is divided into 20 equal units, each with its own solar-heating system. Modular design enables multiple units to be combined to form offices or warehouses of various sizes as required by tenants.

  6. Solar thermal heating and cooling. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenson, M.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliographic series cites and abstracts the literature and technical papers on the heating and cooling of buildings with solar thermal energy. Over 650 citations are arranged in the following categories: space heating and cooling systems; space heating and cooling models; building energy conservation; architectural considerations, thermal load computations; thermal load measurements, domestic hot water, solar and atmospheric radiation, swimming pools; and economics.

  7. The heating of the quiet solar chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    1990-01-01

    The quiet solar chromosphere shows three distinct regions. Ordered according to the strength of the emission from the low and middle chromosphere they are (1) the magnetic elements on the boundary of supergranulation cells, (2) the bright points in the cell interior, and (3) the truly quiet chromosphere, also in the cell interior. The magnetic elements on the cell boundary are associated with intense magnetic fields and are heated by waves with very long periods, ranging from six to twelve minutes; the bright points are associated with magnetic elements of low field strength and are heated by (long-period) waves with periods near the acoustic cutoff period of three minutes; and the quiet cell interior, which is free of magnetic field, may be heated by short-period acoustic waves, with periods below one minute. This paper reviews mainly the heating of the bright points and concludes that the large-amplitude, long-period waves heating the bright points dissipate enough energy to account for their chromospheric temperature structure.

  8. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems is reported. Manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and monitoring the operation of prototype systems is included. Heating and cooling equipment for single family residential and commercial applications and eight operational test sites (four heating and four heating and cooling) is described.

  9. Pulse beam heating of the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlicky, Marian

    1990-12-01

    A response of the solar atmosphere to pulse beam heating is computed using a one-dimensional hybrid code. While the hydrodynamic part of this program is used to compute the atmospheric response, the pulse beam decelerated by electron-electron and electron-neutral hydrogen interactions in the dense layers of the solar atmosphere is represented by particles. In this new description of an electron beam, the finite transit time of accelerated electrons in the flare loops is taken into account and the hard X-ray radiation is computed directly. Four different pulse beams are considered and their effects are compared. Moreover, the return current losses of the pulse beam are discussed.

  10. Solar heated office complex--Greenwood, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report contains thorough docuumentation of project meeting 85 percent of building heat requirements. System uses roof mounted recirculating water solar panels and underground hot water energy storage. Aluminum film reflectors increase total solar flux captured by panels.

  11. Solar assisted heat pumps: A possible wave of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1976-01-01

    With the higher costs of electric power and the widespread interest to use solar energy to reduce the national dependence on fossil fuels, heat pumps are examined to determine their suitability for use with solar energy systems.

  12. Solar heating and cooling diode module

    DOEpatents

    Maloney, Timothy J.

    1986-01-01

    A high efficiency solar heating system comprising a plurality of hollow modular units each for receiving a thermal storage mass, the units being arranged in stacked relation in the exterior frame of a building, each of the units including a port for filling the unit with the mass, a collector region and a storage region, each region having inner and outer walls, the outer wall of the collector region being oriented for exposure to sunlight for heating the thermal storage mass; the storage region having an opening therein and the collector region having a corresponding opening, the openings being joined for communicating the thermal storage mass between the storage and collector regions by thermosiphoning; the collector region being disposed substantially below and in parallel relation to the storage region in the modular unit; and the inner wall of the collector region of each successive modular unit in the stacked relation extending over the outer wall of the storage region of the next lower modular unit in the stacked relation for reducing heat loss from the system. Various modifications and alternatives are disclosed for both heating and cooling applications.

  13. How heat influences CIGSSe solar cells properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flammini, Marco Giacomo; Debernardi, Nicola; Le Ster, Maxime; Bakker, Klaas; Dunne, Brendan; Bosman, Johan; Theelen, Mirjam

    2016-09-01

    Non-encapsulated CIGSSe solar cells, with a silver grid, were exposed to different temperatures for various periods in order to measure the effect of the heat exposure in CIGSSe modules. The heat treatment time and temperature were varied during the experiments, which were executed at atmospheric conditions. In all the cases, after reaching a temperature of about 300°C, the IV measurement showed a reduction of 2-3% in terms of VOC and JSC. This is confirmed respectively by Raman and EQE measurements as well. The efficiency drop was -7%, -29% and -48% respectively for 30 seconds, 300 seconds and 600 seconds of exposure time. With temperatures larger than 225°C, the series resistance starts to increase exponentially and a secondary barrier becomes visible in the IV curve. This barrier prevents the extraction of electrons and consequently reducing the solar cells efficiency. Lock-in thermography demonstrated the formation of shunts on the mechanical scribes only for 300 and 600 seconds exposure times. The shunt resistance reduction is in the range of 5% for all time periods.

  14. Solar-Heated Health Education Center -- North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar heating system described in 55-page report uses 171 collectors, roof-mounted in two arrays. System is designed to supply about 45 percent of heat needs of building with minimal effects on existing structure, mechanical systems, and appearance.

  15. Solar process heat. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-04-01

    Feasibility, design, cost, and economic potential of solar process heat are discussed. Potential applications to industries using hot water or steam and to heat used for dehydration processes in agriculture are covered. Contains 60 abstracts.

  16. Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

  17. Studies on solar heating systems with long-term heat storage for northern high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P.

    The feasibility of liquid-based solar heating systems with seasonal heat storage for cold climates is addressed using thermal performance studies. The thermal analyses are based on several new computer models comprising three different types of seasonal storage: duct storage, rock caverns, and solar ponds. These are employed in a community solar heating system and are mainly charged by solar energy. Simulation models are used to investigate the effects of the system dimensioning on the thermal performance. Different methods used to study the feasibility of a district solar heating system for the Finnish climate are presented. Finally, the computer models are used to determine the expected performance of the first Finnish community solar heating system with seasonal heat storage, the Kerava solar village. Preliminary measurement results from the village are given.

  18. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

  19. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 3: Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-04-01

    Several types of solar water heaters are described and assessed. These include thermosiphon water heaters and pump circulation water heaters. Auxiliary water heating is briefly discussed, and new and retrofit systems are compared. Liquid-based space heating systems and solar air heaters are described and assessed, auxiliary space heating are discussed, and new and retrofit solar space heating systems are compared. The status of flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, and thermal storage systems is examined. Systems improvements, reliability, durability and maintenance are discussed. The economic assessment of space and water heating systems includes a comparison of new systems costs with conventional fuels, and sales history and projections. The variety of participants in the solar industry and users of solar heat is discussed, and various incentives and barriers to solar heating are examined. Several policy implications are discussed, and specific government actions are recommended.

  20. False Dawn of a Solar Age: A History of Solar Heating and Power During the Energy Crisis, 1973-1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scavo, Jordan Michael

    corporations and utilities. Several of these companies embarked on a concerted public misinformation campaign designed to downplay the potential of solar energy, and these actions undermined the development of the nascent solar industries. Solar heating equipment relied on federal stimulus to compete in the market. Yet, federal support for research and development, commercialization, and market facilitation withered under the Reagan administration. Solar occupied a point of convergence for several of Reagan's targets: solar represented Carter, represented big government intervention in the market, and represented environmentalism. Reagan's administration reduced solar funding, redirected and reorganized solar agencies, and repressed solar information. By the early 1980s, Carter's 20% solar goal was dead, and, as a result, the nation's efforts toward developing solar energy were set back decades.

  1. Sodium heat pipe use in solar Stirling power conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Divakaruni, S. M.; Won, Y. S.

    1980-01-01

    Sodium heat pipes were selected for use as a thermal transport method in a focus-mounted, distributed concentrator solar Stirling power conversion system intended to produce 15-20 kWe per unit. Heat pipes were used both to receive thermal power in the solar receiver and to transmit it to a secondary heat pipe containing both latent heat salt (for up to 1.25 hours of thermal storage) and the heat exchanger of the Stirling engine. Experimental tests were performed on five solar receiver heat pipes with various internal wicking configurations. The performance of the heat pipes at various power levels and operating attitudes was investigated at temperatures near 1550 F; the unidirectional heat transfer in these heat pipes was demonstrated in normal operating attitudes and particularly in the inverted position required during overnight stowage of the concentrator.

  2. Glass-heat-pipe evacuated-tube solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; VanSant, J.H.

    1981-08-06

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  3. Hydrophobic Light-to-Heat Conversion Membranes with Self-Healing Ability for Interfacial Solar Heating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianbin; Tang, Bo; Wu, Jinbo; Li, Renyuan; Wang, Peng

    2015-09-02

    Self-healing hydrophobic light-to-heat conversion membranes for interfacial solar heating are fabricated by deposition of light-to-heat conversion material of polypyrrole onto a porous stainless-steel mesh, followed by hydrophobic fluoroalkylsilane modification. The mesh-based membranes spontaneously stay at the water-air interface, collect and convert solar light into heat, and locally heat only the water surface for enhanced evaporation.

  4. Solar Heating System for Recreation Building at Scattergood School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scattergood School, West Branch, IA.

    This report describes the solar heating of two adjoining buildings, a gymnasium and a locker room, at a coeducational boarding school. Federal assistance was obtained from the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) as part of the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program. The system uses a 2,500-square-foot array of…

  5. Solar Injury and Heat Illness. Treatment and Prevention in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to solar injury and heat illness. Physicians can lower children's risk through education about short-term and long-term sequelae and through various prevention efforts. The paper discusses how to screen for risk factors and how to prevent and treat heat illness and solar injury. (SM)

  6. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  7. Thermal storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of thermal storage subsystems for the intermediate and high temperature (100 C to 600 C) solar industrial process heat generation is presented. Primary emphasis is focused on buffering and diurnal storage as well as total energy transport. In addition, advanced thermal storage concepts which appear promising for future solar industrial process heat applications are discussed.

  8. Experience with solar systems for heating swimming pools in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Croy, R.; Peuser, F.A. )

    1994-07-01

    The results of the demonstration programme [open quotes]Efficient Use of Energy in Swimming Pool Construction[close quotes] has had a positive effect on the dissipation of solar systems for swimming pools. Infrared measurements show how a homogeneous flow can be achieved in the absorber field. The fact that solar systems are acceptable can be clearly in evidence that the behaviour of visitors to purely solar-heated pools with variable water temperature does not differ in principle from conventionally-heated pools with constant temperature. Economic considerations of the operation show that swimming pool solar systems are competitive with conventional heating systems.

  9. Solar assisted gas-fired absorption heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. P.; Burke, J. C.; Phillips, B. A.

    1982-08-01

    An evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of coupling an absorption heat pump and an active solar system for residential applications is discussed. The absorption heat pump is based on a new absorption working pair developed by Allied. Three basic modes of coupling were considered, a series arrangement, a parallel arrangement, and a solar drive arrangement. Little overall difference in performance was found for these three modes but the solar drive was chosen for detailed study. A preliminary design of a dual mode absorption generator was developed capable of using simultaneously heat from gas and solar. The performance of such a system was examined in three cities.

  10. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  11. CORE ELECTRON HEATING IN SOLAR WIND RECONNECTION EXHAUSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Pulupa, M. P.; Salem, C.; Phan, T. D.; Bale, S. D.; Gosling, J. T.

    2014-08-10

    We present observational evidence of core electron heating in solar wind reconnection exhausts. We show two example events, one which shows clear heating of the core electrons within the exhaust, and one which demonstrates no heating. The event with heating occurred during a period of high inflow Alfvén speed (V {sub AL}), while the event with no heating had a low V {sub AL}. This agrees with the results of a recent study of magnetopause exhausts, and suggests that similar core electron heating can occur in both symmetric (solar wind) and asymmetric (magnetopause) exhausts.

  12. High heat flux engineering in solar energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, C.P.

    1993-07-01

    Solar thermal energy systems can produce heat fluxes in excess of 10,000 kW/m{sup 2}. This paper provides an introduction to the solar concentrators that produce high heat flux, the receivers that convert the flux into usable thermal energy, and the instrumentation systems used to measure flux in the solar environment. References are incorporated to direct the reader to detailed technical information.

  13. Evaluation of solar collectors for heat pump applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skartvedt, G.; Pedreyra, D.; McMordie, R.; Kidd, J.; Anderson, J.; Jones, R.

    1980-08-01

    The potential utility of very low cost (possibly unglazed and uninsulated) solar collectors to serve as both heat collection and rejection devices for a liquid source heat pump was evaluated. The approach consisted of exercising a detailed analytical simulation of the complete heat pump/solar collector/storage system against heating and cooling loads derived for typical single family residences in eight US cities. The performance of each system was measured against that of a conventional air to air heat pump operating against the same loads. In addition to evaluation of solar collector options, water tanks and buried pipe grids to provide thermal storage was considered. A determination of night sky temperature and convective heat transfer coefficients for surfaces with dimensions typical of solar collectors was included. The experiments were conducted in situ by placing the test apparatus on the roofs of houses in the Denver, Colorado, area.

  14. Solar-heating and cooling system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Package of information includes design data, performance specifications, drawings, hazard analysis, and spare parts list for commercially produced system installed in single-family dwelling in Akron, Ohio. System uses air flat-plate collectors, 12000 kg rock storage and backup heat pump. Solar portion requires 0.7 kW, and provides 35% of average total heating load including hot water. Information aids persons considering installing solar home-heating systems.

  15. Preliminary design package for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Summarized preliminary design information on activities associated with the development, delivery and support of solar heating and cooling systems is given. These systems are for single family dwellings and commercial applications. The heating/cooling system use a reversible vapor compression heat pump that is driven in the cooling mode by a Rankine power loop, and in the heating mode by a variable speed electric motor. The heating/cooling systems differ from the heating-only systems in the arrangement of the heat pump subsystem and the addition of a cooling tower to provide the heat sink for cooling mode operation.

  16. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  17. Development and testing of heat transport fluids for use in active solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Work on heat transport fluids for use with active solar heating and cooling systems is described. Program objectives and how they were accomplished including problems encountered during testing are discussed.

  18. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    SciTech Connect

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially

  19. Theoretical models of Kapton heating in solar array geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to understand pyrolysis of Kapton in solar arrays, a computational heat transfer program was developed. This model allows for the different materials and widely divergent length scales of the problem. The present status of the calculation indicates that thin copper traces surrounded by Kapton and carrying large currents can show large temperature increases, but the other configurations seen on solar arrays have adequate heat sinks to prevent substantial heating of the Kapton. Electron currents from the ambient plasma can also contribute to heating of thin traces. Since Kapton is stable at temperatures as high as 600 C, this indicates that it should be suitable for solar array applications. There are indications that the adhesive sued in solar arrays may be a strong contributor to the pyrolysis problem seen in solar array vacuum chamber tests.

  20. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development. [prototype development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of twelve prototype solar heating/cooling systems, six heating and six heating and cooling systems, two each for single family, multi-family, and commercial applications, is reported. Schedules and technical discussions, along with illustrations on the progress made from April 1, 1977 through June 30, 1977 are detailed.

  1. Solar heating and cooling R and D program coordination support. Final report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the project was to support the US Department of Energy's international R and D activities in the solar heating and cooling area. The cooperative programs were of two types: bilateral (involving the US and one other country) and multilateral (involving the US and several other countries). The multilateral programs supported under this contract were: International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program; and NATO/CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study. Solar heating and cooling projects under the following bilateral programs were supported: US/Mexico; US/Israel; and US/Spain. The assistance to DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies, consisted primarily of program management and coordination support, plus a smaller amount of technical support. This final report summarizes the work performed during the three years of this contract and the accomplishments.

  2. An inexpensive economical solar heating system for homes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, J. W.; Shinn, J. M., Jr.; Kirby, C. E.; Barringer, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    A low-cost solar home heating system to supplement existing warm-air heating systems is described. The report is written in three parts: (1) a brief background on solar heating, (2) experience with a demonstration system, and (3) information for the homeowner who wishes to construct such a system. Instructions are given for a solar heating installation in which the homeowner supplies all labor necessary to install off-the-shelf components estimated to cost $2,000. These components, which include solar collector, heat exchanger, water pump, storage tank, piping, and controls to make the system completely automatic, are available at local lumber yards, hardware stores, and plumbing supply stores, and are relatively simple to install. Manufacturers and prices of each component used and a rough cost analysis based on these prices are included. This report also gives performance data obtained from a demonstration system which was built and tested at the Langley Research Center.

  3. Solar-assisted water-source heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    The construction of two solar assisted water source heat pump systems to evaluate the use of night sky radiation using standard solar collectors is reported. The design of the system's controller is described, and project efforts are summarized. The procedure involved in the determination of the feasibility of night sky radiation as the means of rejecting heat through solar collectors for a sample house is reported. Conclusions on different types of coatings that are used on solar collectors are presented. A system and its backup are designed and cooling tower and night sky radiation are compared.

  4. Solar Thermal Radiant Heating at Pohakuloa Training Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Solar collector panels. • Sizing the array: Using thermal storage of 256,000 BTU/day and 4’ x 10’ flat panel collectors with output of...be arranged side-by-side on the south- facing pitch of roof. – Racked at 30 angle to maximize winter sun. Flat plate solar collectors E2S2– June 2010...radiant heat flooring project will combine solar thermal hot water system with in-floor radiant heating. – Flooring heat only; no domestic water. – Flat

  5. Solar heating system at Quitman County Bank, Marks, Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Information on the Solar Energy Heating System installed in a single story wood frame, cedar exterior, sloped roof building is presented. The system has on-site temperature and power measurements readouts. The 468 square feet of Solaron air flat plate collectors provide for 2,000 square feet of space heating, an estimated 60 percent of the heating load. Solar heated air is distributed to the 235 cubic foot rock storage box or to the load (space heating) by a 960 cubic feet per minute air handler unit. A 7.5 ton Carrier air-to-air heat pump with 15 kilowatts of electric booster strips serve as a back-up (auxiliary) to the solar system. Motorized dampers control the direction of airflow and back draft dampers prevent thermal siphoning of conditioned air.

  6. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Solar Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    The purpose of this report is to present and prioritize the major environmental issues associated with the further development of solar energy as a source of process heat in the industrial and agricultural sectors. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the basic concepts and technologies of solar process heating are reviewed.…

  7. Concerning the improvement of solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidov, Iu. K.

    It is suggested that systems of solar heating and cooling can be simplified by the use of 'organized hydrothermal processes' (OHP) in the elements (e.g., circulation systems and heat storage units) of such systems. This paper defines and classifies such processes. Design diagrams are presented for two types of systems: (1) a heating, hot-water, and storage system with one-phase OHPs; and (2) a gravity-assisted heat pipe and an adsorption-type solar refrigeration system with two-phase OHPs.

  8. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences, Multiple-family Residences and commercial applications.

  9. Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The research activities described herein were concentrated on the areas of economics, heating and cooling systems, architectural design, materials characteristics, climatic conditions, educational information packages, and evaluation of solar energy systems and components.

  10. Residential solar-heating system uses pyramidal optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes reflective panels which optimize annual solar energy collection in attic installation. Subunits include collection, storage, distribution, and 4-mode control systems. Pyramid optical system heats single-family and multi-family dwellings.

  11. The Heating of the Solar Atmosphere: from the Bottom Up?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The heating of the solar atmosphere remains a mystery. Over the past several decades, scientists have examined the observational properties of structures in the solar atmosphere, notably their temperature, density, lifetime, and geometry, to determine the location, frequency, and duration of heating. In this talk, I will review these observational results, focusing on the wealth of information stored in the light curve of structures in different spectral lines or channels available in the Solar Dynamic Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, Hinode's X-ray Telescope and Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer, and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph. I will discuss some recent results from combined data sets that support the heating of the solar atmosphere may be dominated by low, near-constant heating events.

  12. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary design review on the development of a prototype solar heating system for single family dwellings is presented. The collector, storage, transport, control, and site data acquisition subsystems are described.

  13. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Progress in the development of prototype solar heating/cooling systems is reported. Results obtained from refinement/improvement of the single family, multifamily, and commercial systems configurations and generalized studies on several of the subsystems are presented.

  14. Solar heating system for recreation building at Scattergood School

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heins, C. F.

    1978-01-01

    The solar heating facility and the project involved in its construction are described. As such, it has both detailed drawings of the completed system and a section that discusses the bottlenecks that were encountered along the way.

  15. Solar heating system installed at Jackson, Tennessee. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    The solar energy heating system installed at the Coca-Cola Bottling Works in Jackson, Tennessee is described. The system consists of 9480 square feet of Owens-Illinois evacuated tubular solar collectors with attached specular cylindrical reflectors and will provide space heating for the 70,000 square foot production building in the winter, and hot water for the bottle washing equipment the remainder of the year. Component specifications and engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  16. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include system candidates, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test.

  17. Installation package for a Sunspot Cascade Solar Water Heating System

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Elcam, Incorporated of Santa Barbara, California, has developed two solar water heating systems. The systems have been installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed instalation plans and specifications. In addition, it provides instruction on operation, maintenance and installation of solar hot water systems.

  18. Simplified preliminary economic analysis for passive solar heating. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Baldetti, P.J.; Lockard, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report establishes economic feasibility criteria for considering the use of passive solar design. In light of the growing cost of supplying the energy demands of the Air Force, a method is needed to simplify the adaptation of passive solar heating and cooling in future building construction.

  19. Inhibitor analysis for a solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabony, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    A study of potential corrosion inhibitors for the NASA solar heating and cooling system which uses aluminum solar panels is provided. Research consisted of testing using a dynamic corrosion system, along with an economic analysis of proposed corrosion inhibitors. Very good progress was made in finding a suitable inhibitor for the system.

  20. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design and development of marketable solar heating and cooling systems for single family and commercial applications is described. The delivery, installation, and monitoring of the prototype systems are discussed. Seven operational test sites are discussed in terms of system performance. Problems encountered with equipment and installation were usually due to lack of skills required for solar system installation.

  1. Solar Heating for a Bottling Plant -- Jackson, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Report describes retrofit solar-heating system designed for and installed in bottle works in Tennessee. System consists of 9,480 square feet (880 Square meters) of evacuated-tube solar collectors with attached specular cylindrical reflectors. Tubular collectors are expected to supply 55 percent of total thermal load.

  2. Demonstration PreFab Solar Heated Vacation Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariola, Frank; Walencik, Vincent J.

    1978-01-01

    To update a traditional construction shop program, students at Passaic Valley High School, New Jersey, developed a mock-up model of a solar-heated A-frame vacation house using prefab construction. The article describes the project and illustrates it with photographs of the model and a drawing of the solar collector. (MF)

  3. Performance and economics of residential solar space heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehr, F. J.; Vineyard, T. A.; Barnes, R. W.; Oneal, D. L.

    1982-11-01

    The performance and economics of residential solar space heating were studied for various locations in the contiguous United States. Common types of active and passive solar heating systems were analyzed with respect to an average-size, single-family house designed to meet or exceed the thermal requirements of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Minimum Property Standards (HUD-MPS). The solar systems were evaluated in seventeen cities to provide a broad range of climatic conditions. Active systems evaluated consist of air and liquid flat plate collectors with single- and double-glazing: passive systems include Trombe wall, water wall, direct gain, and sunspace systems. The active system solar heating performance was computed using the University of Wisconsin's F-CHART computer program. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Solar Load Ratio (SLR) method was employed to compute solar heating performance for the passive systems. Heating costs were computed with gas, oil, and electricity as backups and as conventional heating system fuels.

  4. Evaluation of programmable calculator programs for analyzing passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Passive solar heating analysis programs, developed for use with hand-held programmable calculators, were evaluated to determine their usefulness in designing passive solar heated buildings. Three separate areas were examined. The first consisted of determining the types of programs and the passive solar heating system types which they can evaluate. The second concerned the ability of the programs to predict actual conditions for a given passive solar heating system operating in a given climate. The third consisted of the amount of time and effort involved in learning and using each program. The results of this study revealed that available programs fall into a range of performance analyses. These analyses range from general yearly system performance to detailed hourly system performance. It was found that most of the programs could only evaluate direct gain passive solar heating systems, and only one could evaluate a combination passive solar heating system. The hourly system performance programs came the closest to predicting actual conditions. However, these programs required the greatest amount of time and effort in learning how to use them and run them. These detailed hourly system performance programs also cost the most. Thus, the more accurate the program is in predicting actual system performance, the greater the amount of money, effort, and time required to use it.

  5. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvat, Pavel; Ostry, Milan; Mauder, Tomas; Klimes, Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data).

  6. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating...

  7. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating...

  8. 24 CFR 200.950 - Building product standards and certification program for solar water heating system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... certification program for solar water heating system. 200.950 Section 200.950 Housing and Urban Development... solar water heating system. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All solar water heating systems shall be...) Document OG-300-93, Operating Guidelines and Minimum Standards for Certifying Solar Water Heating...

  9. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    System analysis activities were directed toward refining the heating system parameters. Trade studies were performed to support hardware selections for all systems and for the heating only operational test sites in particular. The heating system qualification tests were supported by predicting qualification test component performance prior to conducting the test.

  10. Heat engine development for solar thermal power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, H. Q.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    The parabolic dish solar collector systems for converting sunlight to electrical power through a heat engine will, require a small heat engine of high performance long lifetime to be competitive with conventional power systems. The most promising engine candidates are Stirling, high temperature Brayton, and combined cycle. Engines available in the current market today do not meet these requirements. The development of Stirling and high temperature Brayton for automotive applications was studied which utilizes much of the technology developed in this automotive program for solar power engines. The technical status of the engine candidates is reviewed and the components that may additional development to meet solar thermal system requirements are identified.

  11. Development of solar driven absorption air conditioners and heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, K.; Wahlig, M.; Wali, E.; Rasson, J.; Molishever, E.

    1980-03-01

    The development of absorption refrigeration systems for solar active heating and cooling applications is discussed. The approaches investigated are those using air-cooled condenser-absorber and those leading to coefficient of performances (COP) that increase continuously with heat source temperature. This is primarily an experimental project, with the emphasis on designing, fabricating and testing absorption chillers in operating regimes that are particularly suited for solar energy applications. Its demonstrated that the conventional single-effect ammonia-water absorption cycle can be used (with minor modifications) for solar cooling.

  12. Solar-Heated and Cooled Office Building--Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Final report documents solar-energy system installed in office building to provide space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. Collectors mounted on roof track Sun and concentrate rays on fluid-circulating tubes. Collected energy is distributed to hot-water-fired absorption chiller and space-heating and domestic-hot-water preheating systems.

  13. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  14. Alpha particle heating at comet-solar wind interaction regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, A. S.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1995-01-01

    The satellite observations at comet Halley have shown strong heating of solar wind alpha particles over an extended region dominated by high-intensity, low-frequency turbulence. These waves are excited by the water group pickup ions and can energize the solar wind plasma by different heating processes. The alpha particle heating by the Landau damping of kinetic Alfven waves and the transit time damping of low-frequency hydromagnetic waves in this region of high plasma beta are studied in this paper. The Alfven wave heating was shown to be the dominant mechanism for the observed proton heating, but it is found to be insufficient to account for the observed alpha particle heating. The transit time damping due to the interaction of the ions with the electric fields associated with the magnetic field compressions of magnetohydrodynamic waves is found to heat the alpha particles preferentially over the protons. Comparison of the calculated heating times for the transit time damping with the observations from comet Halley shows good agreement. These processes contribute to the thermalization of the solar wind by the conversion of its directed energy into the thermal energy in the transition region at comet-solar wind interaction.

  15. Solar Heated Space Systems. A Unit of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, John; Weber, Robert D.

    Designed for use in vocational education programs, this unit on solar space heating contains information and suggestions for teaching at the secondary school level. It focuses on heating, ventilating, and air conditioning programs. Educational objectives and educational objectives with instructional strategies are provided for each of the eight…

  16. SIMS prototype system 1: Design data brochure. [solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The system, subsystem, and installation requirements are described. System operation and performance are discussed, and procedures for sizing the system to a specific site are presented.

  17. Solar-heated ranger station--Glendo, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report evaluates solar-energy system in residential ranger station. Installation provided 22 percent of space-heating and 58 percent of hot-water energy requirements. Annual net energy savings were 30 million Btu. Report describes system and its subsystems: collector array, storage, hot-water, and space-heating. Average weather conditions of test site, performance values, and energy savings are listed.

  18. Energy resource requirements of a solar heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D. W. O.

    1980-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of the total energy resource use of a solar hot water and space heating system compared to the traditional oil, gas and electric heating options. The methods of energy analysis have been applied to a liquid-based, short-term storage solar space and water heating system for a dwelling in Toronto, and the results indicate that the indirect use of energy resources does not have a major impact on the overall energy conservation characteristics of the system which, being in many respects a worst case, takes 1.0-3.5 years of operation to conserve the energy resources, required to build, operate and maintain the system. Over the assumed 20-year lifetime the solar heating system, sized to provide 50% of the heating requirement to a house, uses between 53 and 62% as many energy resources as a conventional system, heating the same house. The energy-conservation characteristics of the system can be completely negated by the use of thermally generated electricity as backup in a 50% solar heating system which replaces oil or gas heating. The collectors and annual operating energy for the pumps were found to be the two most significant factors in the analysis.

  19. Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-24

    The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems; (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters; (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems; (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project; (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research; and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

  20. Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis

    2010-01-15

    The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

  1. A theory of heating of quiet solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C. S.; Yoon, P. H.; Wang, C. B.

    2015-03-15

    A theory is proposed to discuss the creation of hot solar corona. We pay special attention to the transition region and the low corona, and consider that the sun is quiet. The proposed scenario suggests that the protons are heated by intrinsic Alfvénic turbulence, while the ambient electrons are heated by the hot protons via collisions. The theory contains two prime components: the generation of the Alfvénic fluctuations by the heavy minor ions in the transition region and second, the explanation of the temperature profile in the low solar atmosphere. The proposed heating process operates continuously in time and globally in space.

  2. Daytime Solar Heating of Photovoltaic Arrays in Low Density Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, J.; Vayner, B.; Ferguson, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current work is to determine the out-gassing rate of H2O molecules for a solar array placed under daytime solar heating (full sunlight) conditions typically encountered in a Low Earth Orbital (LEO) environment. Arc rates are established for individual arrays held at 14 C and are used as a baseline for future comparisons. Radiated thermal solar flux incident to the array is simulated by mounting a stainless steel panel equipped with resistive heating elements several centimeters behind the array. A thermal plot of the heater plate temperature and the array temperature as a function of heating time is then obtained. A mass spectrometer is used to record the levels of partial pressure of water vapor in the test chamber after each of the 5 heating/cooling cycles. Each of the heating cycles was set to time duration of 40 minutes to simulate the daytime solar heat flux to the array over a single orbit. Finally the array is cooled back to ambient temperature after 5 complete cycles and the arc rates of the solar arrays is retested. A comparison of the various data is presented with rather some unexpected results.

  3. Design and fabrication of brayton cycle solar heat receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendelson, I.

    1971-01-01

    A detail design and fabrication of a solar heat receiver using lithium fluoride as the heat storage material was completed. A gas flow analysis was performed to achieve uniform flow distribution within overall pressure drop limitations. Structural analyses and allowable design criteria were developed for anticipated environments such as launch, pressure containment, and thermal cycling. A complete heat receiver assembly was fabricated almost entirely from the refractory alloy, niobium-1% zirconium.

  4. Intermittency and local heating in the solar wind.

    PubMed

    Osman, K T; Matthaeus, W H; Wan, M; Rappazzo, A F

    2012-06-29

    Evidence for nonuniform heating in the solar wind plasma near current sheets dynamically generated by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is obtained using measurements from the ACE spacecraft. These coherent structures only constitute 19% of the data, but contribute 50% of the total plasma internal energy. Intermittent heating manifests as elevations in proton temperature near current sheets, resulting in regional heating and temperature enhancements extending over several hours. The number density of non-Gaussian structures is found to be proportional to the mean proton temperature and solar wind speed. These results suggest magnetofluid turbulence drives intermittent dissipation through a hierarchy of coherent structures, which collectively could be a significant source of coronal and solar wind heating.

  5. The development of a solar residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The MSFC solar heating and cooling facility was assembled to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, to provide an engineering evaluation of the total system and the key subsystems, and to investigate areas of possible improvement in design and efficiency. The basic solar heating and cooling system utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling. A complete description of all systems is given. Development activities for this test system included assembly, checkout, operation, modification, and data analysis, all of which are discussed. Selected data analyses for the first 15 weeks of testing are included, findings associated with energy storage and the energy storage system are outlined, and conclusions resulting from test findings are provided. An evaluation of the data for summer operation indicates that the current system is capable of supplying an average of 50 percent of the thermal energy required to drive the air conditioner. Preliminary evaluation of data collected for operation in the heating mode during the winter indicates that nearly 100 percent of the thermal energy required for heating can be supplied by the system.

  6. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  7. SOLTECH 1992 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17-20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil, (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, and (6) Photovoltaic (PV) Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35 mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  8. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar heated and cooled buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a direct contract liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) storage unit in a solar heating and cooling system is established. Experimental performance data were obtained from the CSU Solar House I using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions. A simulation model for the system was developed. The model was validated using the experimental data and applied in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year. The life-cycle cost of the system was estimated for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger. It is concluded that while there is a performance advantage with a DCLLHE system over a conventional solar system, the advantage is not sufficiently large to overcome slightly higher capital and operating costs for the DCLLHE system.

  9. Solar heat storage in phase change material

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, H.J.

    1984-02-28

    The objective of this project was to develop a chemical heat storage system that had a phase change with release of latent heat at about 105/sup 0/F. The primary reason this kind on system was sought was that heat storage capacity of commonly used storage systems do not match the heat collection capacity of open air collectors. In addition to the phase change three other factors were considered: the cost of the material, the amount of heat the system would hold per unit volume, and the rate at which the system released sensible and latent heat. One hundred nineteen tests were made on 32 systems. Only data on six of the more promising are presented. In the six systems, borax was used as the major component with other materials used as nucleating agents toraise the temperature of phase change.

  10. Turbulent resistive heating of solar coronal arches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, G.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility that coronal heating occurs by means of anomalous Joule heating by electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is examined, with consideration given to currents running from foot of a loop to the other. It is assumed that self-fields generated by the currents are absent and currents follow the direction of the magnetic field, allowing the plasma cylinder to expand radially. Ion and electron heating rates are defined within the cylinder, together with longitudinal conduction and convection, radiation and cross-field transport, all in terms of Coulomb and turbulent effects. The dominant force is identified as electrostatic ion cyclotron instability, while ion acoustic modes remain stable. Rapid heating from an initial temperature of 10 eV to 100-1000 eV levels is calculated, with plasma reaching and maintaining a temperature in the 100 eV range. Strong heating is also possible according to the turbulent Ohm's law and by resistive heating.

  11. Flat plate solar air heater with latent heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touati, B.; Kerroumi, N.; Virgone, J.

    2017-02-01

    Our work contains two parts, first is an experimental study of the solar air heater with a simple flow and forced convection, we can use thatlaste oneit in many engineering's sectors as solardrying, space heating in particular. The second part is a numerical study with ansys fluent 15 of the storage of part of this solar thermal energy produced,using latent heat by using phase change materials (PCM). In the experimental parts, we realize and tested our solar air heater in URER.MS ADRAR, locate in southwest Algeria. Where we measured the solarradiation, ambient temperature, air flow, thetemperature of the absorber, glasses and the outlet temperature of the solar air heater from the Sunrise to the sunset. In the second part, we added a PCM at outlet part of the solar air heater. This PCM store a part of the energy produced in the day to be used in peak period at evening by using the latent heat where the PCMs present a grateful storagesystem.A numerical study of the fusion or also named the charging of the PCM using ANSYS Fluent 15, this code use the method of enthalpies to solve the fusion and solidification formulations. Furthermore, to improve the conjugate heat transfer between the heat transfer fluid (Air heated in solar plate air heater) and the PCM, we simulate the effect of adding fins to our geometry. Also, four user define are write in C code to describe the thermophysicalpropriety of the PCM, and the inlet temperature of our geometry which is the temperature at the outflow of the solar heater.

  12. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar-heated and cooled buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01

    The procedure used was to obtain experimental performance data from a solar system using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions, develop a simulation model for the system, validate the model using the data, apply the model in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year, and estimate the life-cycle cost of the system for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

  13. Evaluation of solar collectors for heat pump applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Skartvedt, Gary; Pedreyra, Donald; McMordle, Dr., Robert; Kidd, James; Anderson, Jerome; Jones, Richard

    1980-08-01

    The study was initiated to evaluate the potential utility of very low cost (possibly unglazed and uninsulated) solar collectors to serve as both heat collection and rejection devices for a liquid source heat pump. The approach consisted of exercising a detailed analytical simulation of the complete heat pump/solar collector/storage system against heating and cooling loads derived for typical single-family residences in eight US cities. The performance of each system was measured against that of a conventional air-to-air heat pump operating against the same loads. In addition to evaluation of solar collector options, the study included consideration of water tanks and buried pipe grids to provide thermal storage. As a supplement to the analytical tasks, the study included an experimental determination of night sky temperature and convective heat transfer coefficients for surfaces with dimensions typical of solar collectors. The experiments were conducted in situ by placing the test apparatus on the roofs of houses in the Denver, Colorado, area. (MHR)

  14. Applicability of uniform heat flux Nusselt number correlations to thermosyphon heat exchangers for solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, S.; Davidson, J.

    1999-05-01

    Nusselt numbers are measured in three counterflow tube-in-shell heat exchangers with flow rates and temperatures representative of thermosyphon operation in solar water heating systems. Mixed convection heat transfer correlations for these tube-in-shell heat exchangers were previously developed in Dahl and Davidson (1998) from data obtained in carefully controlled experiments with uniform heat flux at the tube walls. The data presented in this paper confirm that the uniform heat flux correlations apply under more realistic conditions. Water flows in the shell and 50 percent ethylene glycol circulates in the tubes. Actual Nusselt numbers are within 15 percent of the values predicted for a constant heat flux boundary condition. The data reconfirm the importance of mixed convection in determining heat transfer rates. Under most operating conditions, natural convection heat transfer accounts for more than half of the total heat transfer rate.

  15. Applicability of uniform heat flux Nusselt number correlations to thermosyphon heat exchangers for solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, S.; Davidson, J.

    1999-07-01

    Nusselt numbers are measured in three counterflow tube-in-shell heat exchangers with flow rates and temperatures representative of thermosyphon operation in solar water heating systems. Mixed convection heat transfer correlations for these tube-in-shell heat exchangers were previously developed in Dahl and Davidson (1998) from data obtained in carefully controlled experiments with uniform heat flux at the tube walls. The data presented in this paper confirm that the uniform heat flux correlations apply under more realistic conditions. Water flows in the shell and 50% ethylene glycol is circulated in the tubes. Actual Nusselt numbers are within 15% of the values predicted for a constant heat flux boundary condition. The data reconfirm the importance of mixed convection in determining heat transfer rates. Under most operating conditions, natural convection heat transfer accounts for more than half of the total heat transfer rate.

  16. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool colored' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland U.S. latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {le} 5:12 [23{sup o}]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool-roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear-sky air mass one global horizontal ('AM1GH') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer.

  17. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Designs were completed, hardware was received, and hardware was shipped to two sites. A change was made in the heat pump working fluid. Problem investigation of shroud coatings for the collector received emphasis.

  18. Single-family-residence solar heating--Carlsbad, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Solar-heating and hot-water system includes 408 square feet of flat-plate air collectors, rock storage bin, energy transport system, air-to-water heat exchanger, controls, and hot-water preheat tank. Hot-air oil furnace supplies auxiliary space heating, and electricity powers air-handler blower and hot water preheat pump. For 12 month period, system provided 43 percent of space-heating and 53 percent of hot-water energy; net energy savings were 23.072 million Btu.

  19. Heat transfer characteristics of a linear solar collector.

    PubMed

    Seraphin, B O

    1973-02-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of a linear solar energy collector are calculated as functions of dimensions, spectral quality of the selective absorber surface, optical flux concentration of the optical configuration, and thermal parameters and flow rate of the heat transfer medium. Carnot efficiency, exit temperature, and an upper limit to the amount of heat extracted are determined for systems in which liquid sodium serves as the heat transfer medium. The performance is evaluated for selective absorber surfaces representing the state of the art as well as for surfaces requiring a more mature thin-film technology.

  20. Solar heating system at Security State Bank, Starkville, Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The 312 square feet of Solaron flat plate air collectors provide for 788 square feet of space heating, an estimated 55 percent of the heating load. Solar heated air is distributed to the 96 cubic foot steel cylinder, which contains two inch diameter rocks. An air handler unit moves the air over the collector and into the steel cylinder. Four motorized dampers and two gravity dampers are also part of the system. A Solaron controller which has sensors located at the collectors, rock storage, and at the return air, automatically controls the system. Auxiliary heating energy is provided by electric resistance duct heaters.

  1. Heat transfer to the adsorbent in solar adsorption cooling device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Papucik, Stefan; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with design and construction of solar adsorption cooling device and with heat transfer problem in adsorber. The most important part of adsorption cooling system is adsorber/desorber containing adsorbent. Zeolith (adsorbent) type was chosen for its high adsorption capacity, like a coolant was used water. In adsorber/desorber occur, at heating of adsorbent, to heat transfer from heat change medium to the adsorbent. The time required for heating of adsorber filling is very important, because on it depend flexibility of cooling system. Zeolith has a large thermal resistance, therefore it had to be adapted the design and construction of adsorber. As the best shows the tube type of adsorber with double coat construction. By this construction is ensured thin layer of adsorbent and heating is quick in all volume of adsorbent. The process of heat transfer was experimentally measured, but for comparison simulated in ANSYS, too.

  2. Effects of Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Roof Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, A.; Klessl, J.; Samady, M.; Luvall, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is a major contributor to urban energy use. In single story buildings with large surface area such as warehouses most of the heat enters through the roof. A rooftop modification that has not been examined experimentally is solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays. In California alone, several GW in residential and commercial rooftop PV are approved or in the planning stages. With the PV solar conversion efficiency ranging from 5-20% and a typical installed PV solar reflectance of 16-27%, 53-79% of the solar energy heats the panel. Most of this heat is then either transferred to the atmosphere or the building underneath. Consequently solar PV has indirect effects on roof heat transfer. The effect of rooftop PV systems on the building roof and indoor energy balance as well as their economic impacts on building HVAC costs have not been investigated. Roof calculator models currently do not account for rooftop modifications such as PV arrays. In this study, we report extensive measurements of a building containing a flush mount and a tilted solar PV array as well as exposed reference roof. Exterior air and surface temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation were measured and thermal infrared (TIR) images of the interior ceiling were taken. We found that in daytime the ceiling surface temperature under the PV arrays was significantly cooler than under the exposed roof. The maximum difference of 2.5 C was observed at around 1800h, close to typical time of peak energy demand. Conversely at night, the ceiling temperature under the PV arrays was warmer, especially for the array mounted flat onto the roof. A one dimensional conductive heat flux model was used to calculate the temperature profile through the roof. The heat flux into the bottom layer was used as an estimate of the heat flux into the building. The mean daytime heat flux (1200-2000 PST) under the exposed roof in the model was 14.0 Watts per square meter larger than

  3. Thermal performance of evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Nandy; Kristian, M. R.; David, R.; Haliansyah, K.; Ariantara, Bambang

    2016-06-01

    The high fossil energy consumption not only causes the scarcity of energy but also raises problems of global warming. Increasing needs of fossil fuel could be reduced through the utilization of solar energy by using solar collectors. Indonesia has the abundant potential for solar energy, but non-renewable energy sources still dominate energy consumption. With heat pipe as passive heat transfer device, evacuated tube solar collector is expected to heat up water for industrial and home usage without external power supply needed to circulate water inside the solar collector. This research was conducted to determine the performance of heat pipe-based evacuated tube solar collector as solar water heater experimentally. The experiments were carried out using stainless steel screen mesh as a wick material, and water and Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid as working fluid, and applying inclination angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. To analyze the heat absorbed and transferred by the prototype, water at 30°C was circulated through the condenser. A 150 Watt halogen lamp was used as sun simulator, and the prototype was covered by an insulation box to obtain a steady state condition with a minimum affection of ambient changes. Experimental results show that the usage of Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid at 30° inclination angle provides the highest thermal performance, which gives efficiency as high as 0.196 and thermal resistance as low as 5.32 °C/W. The use of nanofluid as working fluid enhances thermal performance due to high thermal conductivity of the working fluid. The increase of the inclination angle plays a role in the drainage of the condensate to the evaporator that leads to higher thermal performance until the optimal inclination angle is reached.

  4. Solar residential heating and cooling system development test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.; Melton, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    A solar heating and cooling system is described, which was installed in a simulated home at Marshall Space Flight Center. Performance data are provided for the checkout and initial operational phase for key subsystems and for the total system. Valuable information was obtained with regard to operation of a solar cooling system during the first summer of operation. Areas where improvements and modifications are required to optimize such a system are discussed.

  5. Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The acquisition and processing of selected parametric data for inclusion in a computerized Data Base using the Marshall Information Retrieval and Data System (MIRADS) developed by NASA-MSFC is discussed. This data base provides extensive technical and socioeconomic information related to solar energy heating and cooling on a national scale. A broadly based research approach was used to assist in the support of program management and the application of a cost-effective program for solar energy development and demonstration.

  6. Alternative economic evaluation measures for solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-30

    The measures most commonly used to assist decision-makers in evaluating the economic merits of solar energy projects are described and compared. An example is given to illustrate the economic evaluation measures and the results are applied to a solar industrial process heat project. Four widely used economic measures are: net present value, benefit-cost ratio, internal rate of return, and payback period. (MHR)

  7. Heating mechanisms of the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    The solar corona is a tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun. Its million-degree temperature was discovered spectroscopically in the 1940s, but its origin has been debated since then without complete convergence. Currently there are two classes of models; the wave theory and the microflare/nanoflare theory. Both models have merits and disadvantages, but the essential issues are nearly pinned down. Recent revival of the wave theory is one of the many contributions from Japanese solar observing satellite Hinode launched in 2006.

  8. Heating mechanisms of the solar corona.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The solar corona is a tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun. Its million-degree temperature was discovered spectroscopically in the 1940s, but its origin has been debated since then without complete convergence. Currently there are two classes of models; the wave theory and the microflare/nanoflare theory. Both models have merits and disadvantages, but the essential issues are nearly pinned down. Recent revival of the wave theory is one of the many contributions from Japanese solar observing satellite Hinode launched in 2006.

  9. Installation package for a domestic solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The installation of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is described. The systems consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy.

  10. Economics of geothermal, solar, and conventional space heating

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.; Price, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    The competitive outlook for geothermal and solar heating changed dramatically during the past year. With the recent sharp price increases in imported oil and natural gas and the planned decontrol of domestic prices, geothermal and solar energy will become competitive for space heating throughout most of the country. Under these new conditions, geothermal energy could competitively provide about 40% of the national demand for space heat and domestic hot water (about 7 quads based on 1980 demands). Nearly all of the geothermal energy demand would be in high-population-density areas. Solar energy could competitively provide about 50% (about 9 quads) of the annual demand. Most of the solar energy demand would be concentrated in suburban and rural areas. Conventional energy should remain competitive for about 30% (about 5 quads) of the annual demand. Conventional energy demand would be concentrated in the South and as supplemental energy for solar/conventional systems. Geothermal, solar, and conventional energy would be equally competitive for about 20% of the annual demand, which is why the individual market shares add to 120%.

  11. HEAP: Heat Energy Analysis Program, a computer model simulating solar receivers. [solving the heat transfer problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program which can distinguish between different receiver designs, and predict transient performance under variable solar flux, or ambient temperatures, etc. has a basic structure that fits a general heat transfer problem, but with specific features that are custom-made for solar receivers. The code is written in MBASIC computer language. The methodology followed in solving the heat transfer problem is explained. A program flow chart, an explanation of input and output tables, and an example of the simulation of a cavity-type solar receiver are included.

  12. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  13. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Two prototype solar heating and hot water systems for use in single-family dwellings or commercial buildings were designed. Subsystems included are: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The systems are designed for Yosemite, California, and Pueblo, Colorado. The necessary information to evaluate the preliminary design for these solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Included are a proposed instrumentation plan, a training program, hazard analysis, preliminary design drawings, and other information about the design of the system.

  14. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Application surveys and performance studies were conducted to determine a solar heating and hot water configuration that could be used in a variety of applications, and to identify subsystem modules that could be utilized in a building block fashion to adapt hardware items to single and multi-family residential and commercial systems. Topics discussed include: subsystem development for the solar collectors, controls, other components, energy management module, and the heating system configuration test. Operational tests conducted at an Illinois farmhouse, and a YWCA in Spokane, Washington are discussed.

  15. Magnetoacoustic heating of the solar chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.; Chitre, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Long-period acoustic waves generated in the solar convection zone can propagate radially outward through the overlying atmosphere and get resonantly absorbed in the magnetic arches of the low-lying chromospheric canopy. The resulting Poynting and acoustic flux that enters the magnetic canopy in the network regions is demonstrated to be adequate to account for the observed chromospheric emission.

  16. Solar hydrogen: harvesting light and heat from sun (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liejin; Jing, Dengwei

    2015-09-01

    My research group in the State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering (SKLMF), Xi'an Jiaotong University has been focusing on renewable energy, especially solar hydrogen, for about 20 years. In this presentation, I will present the most recent progress in our group on solar hydrogen production using light and heat. Firstly, "cheap" photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic water splitting, including both nanostructured materials and pilot-scale demonstration in our group for light-driven solar hydrogen (artificial photosynthesis) will be introduced. Then I will make a deep introduction to the achievements on the thermal-driven solar hydrogen, i.e., biomass/coal gasification in supercritical water for large-scale and low-cost hydrogen production using concentrated solar light.

  17. Active solar heating and cooling information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on active solar heating and cooling (SHAC). An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 19 SHAC groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Manufacturers (4 groups), Distributors, Installers, Architects, Builders, Planners, Engineers (2 groups), Representatives of Utilities, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, Building Owners/Managers, and Homeowners (2 groups). The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  18. Solar Heating System installed at Belz Investment Company, Memphis, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    A hot air solar system which utilizes flat plate air collectors is discussed. Collector areas for each of four buildings cover 780 sq ft, with storage capacity of 390 cu ft per building. The air system has a special air handling unit to move air through the collectors and into and out of the rock storage, with connection to the air duct distribution system. The heat of the motor is added to the heat delivered to the system. The solar system also includes four motorized special low leakage dampers and two gravity fabric dampers. The system is automatically controlled by a solid state controller with three thermistors: one located in the collectors, one in the rock box to plenum, one in the return air duct from the heated space. A three stage heating thermostat, located in the conditioned space, controls the operation.

  19. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    DOEpatents

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  20. Solar Heating System installed at Belz Investment Company, Memphis, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A hot air solar system which utilizes flat plate air collectors is discussed. Collector areas for each of four buildings cover 780 sq ft, with storage capacity of 390 cu ft per building. The air system has a special air handling unit to move air through the collectors and into and out of the rock storage, with connection to the air duct distribution system. The heat of the motor is added to the heat delivered to the system. The solar system also includes four motorized special low leakage dampers and two gravity fabric dampers. The system is automatically controlled by a solid state controller with three thermistors: one located in the collectors, one in the rock box to plenum, one in the return air duct from the heated space. A three stage heating thermostat, located in the conditioned space, controls the operation.

  1. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  2. Solar heat transport fluids for solar energy collection systems: A collection of quarterly reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Noncorrosive fluid subsystem is being developed that is compatible with closed-loop solar heating and combined heating and hot water systems. The system is also to be compatible with both metallic and nonmetallic plumbing systems, and any combination of these. At least 100 gallons of each type of fluid recommended by the contractor will be delivered.

  3. Solar heating of GaAs nanowire solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-11-30

    We use a coupled thermal-optical approach to model the operating temperature rise in GaAs nanowire solar cells. We find that despite more highly concentrated light absorption and lower thermal conductivity, the overall temperature rise in a nanowire structure is no higher than in a planar structure. Moreover, coating the nanowires with a transparent polymer can increase the radiative cooling power by 2.2 times, lowering the operating temperature by nearly 7 K.

  4. International Energy Agency, Heat Pump Center: The role of CNR/PFE in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallavalle, F.; Piantoni, E.; Recchi, V.

    The official integration of Italy to the International Energy Agency (IEA) heat pump centers program is discussed. The National Research Center coordinates the Italian activities related to the IEA. The operating programs of several types of heat pumps, coordinated by different countries are described. The heat pump markets in European countries and in the United States are briefly commented on.

  5. The heat recovery with heat transfer methods from solar photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özakın, A. N.; Karsli, S.; Kaya, F.; Güllüce, H.

    2016-04-01

    Although there are many fluctuations in energy prices, they seems like rising day by day. Thus energy recovery systems have increasingly trend. Photovoltaic systems converts solar radiation directly into electrical energy thanks to semiconductors. But due to the nature of semiconductors, whole of solar energy cannot turn into electrical energy and the remaining energy turns into waste heat. The aim of this research is evaluate this waste heat energy by air cooling system. So, the energy efficiency of the system will be increased using appropriate heat transfer technologies such as fin, turbulator etc.

  6. Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Fuels via Partial Redox Cycles with Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-19

    HEATS Project: The University of Minnesota is developing a solar thermochemical reactor that will efficiently produce fuel from sunlight, using solar energy to produce heat to break chemical bonds. The University of Minnesota is envisioning producing the fuel by using partial redox cycles and ceria-based reactive materials. The team will achieve unprecedented solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies of more than 10% (where current state-of-the-art efficiency is 1%) by combined efforts and innovations in material development, and reactor design with effective heat recovery mechanisms and demonstration. This new technology will allow for the effective use of vast domestic solar resources to produce precursors to synthetic fuels that could replace gasoline.

  7. Corrosion inhibitors for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Deramus, G. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Problems dealing with corrosion and corrosion protection of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. A test program was conducted to find suitable and effective corrosion inhibitors for systems employing either water or antifreeze solutions for heat transfer and storage. Aluminum-mild-steel-copper-stainless steel assemblies in electrical contact were used to simulate a multimetallic system which is the type most likely to be employed. Several inhibitors show promise for this application.

  8. Quasi-exospheric heat flux of solar-wind electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, A.; Schultz, M.

    1975-01-01

    Density, bulk-velocity, and heat-flow moments are calculated for truncated Maxwellian distributions representing the cool and hot populations of solar-wind electrons, as realized at the base of a hypothetical exosphere. The electrostatic potential is thus calculated by requiring charge quasi-neutrality and the absence of electrical current. Plasma-kinetic coupling of the cool-electron and proton bulk velocities leads to an increase in the electrostatic potential and a decrease in the heat-flow moment.

  9. Solar energy and heat pumps: Can this marriage be saved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. W.

    Work on systems for building space and water heating and space cooling which combine vapor compression heat pumps with the use of solar energy led to promising system configurations which portend reasonable cost and beneficial impact on utility load profiles in addition to conserving energy. A historical perspective on this work are presented. The ranges of system possibilities are elucidated and two promising systems are described.

  10. Solar Heating of Buildings and Domestic Hot Water. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Structural Criteria Chapter 5 Central Heating Plant Chapter 8 Corrosion Protection Chapter 9 Water Conditioning Chapter 9 Housing & Building Designs...equipment requirements and limitations must be con- sidered in the analysis and design of solar powered absorption systems. The first consideration...In these systems the shaft power produced by a heat engine drives the compressor in a conventional vapor compression- type cooling machine. The

  11. Solar-heated swimming school--Wilmington, Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes operation, installation, and performance of solar-energy system which provides alternative to natural gas pool heating. System is comprised of 2,500 square feet of liquid flat-plate collectors connected to 3,600 galloon; gallongalloon storage tank, with microcomputer-based controls. Extension of building incorporates vertical-wall, passive collection system which provides quarter of heated fresh air for office.

  12. The Potential of Heat Collection from Solar Radiation in Asphalt Solar Collectors in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddu, Salmia; Talib, Siti Hidayah Abdul; Itam, Zarina

    2016-03-01

    The implementation of asphalt solar collectors as a means of an energy source is being widely studied in recent years. Asphalt pavements are exposed to daily solar radiation, and are capable of reaching up to 70°C in temperature. The potential of harvesting energy from solar pavements as an alternative energy source in replace of non-renewable energy sources prone to depletion such as fuel is promising. In Malaysia, the sun intensity is quite high and for this reason, absorbing the heat from sun radiation, and then utilizing it in many other applications such as generating electricity could definitely be impressive. Previous researches on the different methods of studying the effect of heat absorption caused by solar radiation prove to be quite old and inaffective. More recent findings, on the otherhand, prove to be more informative. This paper focuses on determining the potential of heat collection from solar radiation in asphalt solar collectors using steel piping. The asphalt solar collector model constructed for this research was prepared in the civil engineering laboratory. The hot mixed asphalt (HMA) contains 10% bitumen mixed with 90% aggregates of the total size of asphalt. Three stainless steel pipes were embedded into the interior region of the model according to the design criteria, and then put to test. Results show that harvesting energy from asphalt solar collectors proves highly potential in Malaysia due its the hot climate.

  13. Is magnetic topology important for heating the solar atmosphere?

    PubMed

    Parnell, Clare E; Stevenson, Julie E H; Threlfall, James; Edwards, Sarah J

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic fields permeate the entire solar atmosphere weaving an extremely complex pattern on both local and global scales. In order to understand the nature of this tangled web of magnetic fields, its magnetic skeleton, which forms the boundaries between topologically distinct flux domains, may be determined. The magnetic skeleton consists of null points, separatrix surfaces, spines and separators. The skeleton is often used to clearly visualize key elements of the magnetic configuration, but parts of the skeleton are also locations where currents and waves may collect and dissipate. In this review, the nature of the magnetic skeleton on both global and local scales, over solar cycle time scales, is explained. The behaviour of wave pulses in the vicinity of both nulls and separators is discussed and so too is the formation of current layers and reconnection at the same features. Each of these processes leads to heating of the solar atmosphere, but collectively do they provide enough heat, spread over a wide enough area, to explain the energy losses throughout the solar atmosphere? Here, we consider this question for the three different solar regions: active regions, open-field regions and the quiet Sun. We find that the heating of active regions and open-field regions is highly unlikely to be due to reconnection or wave dissipation at topological features, but it is possible that these may play a role in the heating of the quiet Sun. In active regions, the absence of a complex topology may play an important role in allowing large energies to build up and then, subsequently, be explosively released in the form of a solar flare. Additionally, knowledge of the intricate boundaries of open-field regions (which the magnetic skeleton provides) could be very important in determining the main acceleration mechanism(s) of the solar wind.

  14. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida solar energy center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-02-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. The system was designed to supply approximately 70 percent of the annual cooling and 100 percent of the heating load. The project provides unique high temperature, nonimaging, nontracking, evacuated tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection. Information is provided on the system's acceptance test results operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings.

  15. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida solar energy center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. The system was designed to supply approximately 70 percent of the annual cooling and 100 percent of the heating load. The project provides unique high temperature, nonimaging, nontracking, evacuated tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection. Information is provided on the system's acceptance test results operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings.

  16. Solar dynamic heat rejection technology. Task 1: System concept development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Eric; Carlson, Albert W.

    1987-01-01

    The results are presented of a concept development study of heat rejection systems for Space Station solar dynamic power systems. The heat rejection concepts are based on recent developments in high thermal transport capacity heat pipe radiators. The thermal performance and weights of each of the heat rejection subsystems is addressed in detail, and critical technologies which require development tests and evaluation for successful demonstration are assessed and identified. Baseline and several alternate heat rejection system configurations and optimum designs are developed for both Brayton and Rankine cycles. The thermal performance, mass properties, assembly requirements, reliability, maintenance requirements and life cycle cost are determined for each configuration. A specific design was then selected for each configuration which represents an optimum design for that configuration. The final recommendations of heat rejection system configuration for either the Brayton or Rankine cycles depend on the priorities established for the evaluation criteria.

  17. Solar heating system final design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The system is composed of a warm air collector, a logic control unit and a universal switching and transport unit. The collector was originally conceived and designed as an integrated roof/wall system and therefore provides a dual function in the structure. The collector serves both as a solar energy conversion system and as a structural weather resistant skin. The control unit provides totally automatic control over the operation of the system. It receives input data from sensor probes in collectors, storage and living space. The logic was designed so as to make maximum use of solar energy and minimize use of conventional energy. The transport and switching unit is a high-efficiency air-handling system equipped with gear motor valves that respond to outputs from the control system. The fan unit was designed for maximum durability and efficiency in operation, and has permanently lubricated ball bearings and excellent air-handling efficiency.

  18. (Solar clothes dryer and wastewater heat exchanger). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, B.F.

    1984-12-04

    The first project investigated the technical possibilities of adapting a domestic electric clothes dryer to utilize solar-heated water as the heat source, replacing electric resistance heat. The second project attempted to extract wastewater heat from a commercial dishwasher to preheat fresh water to be used in the next dish washing cycle. It is felt that the clothes dryer project has met all of intended goals. Although a solar application has some real-world practical problems, the application of a dryer connected directly to the home heating system will prove to be cost-beneficial over the life of a dryer. The additional cost of a heat exchanger is not excessive, and the installation cost, if installed with the initial house plumbing is less than $100. From a practical point of view, the complexity of installing a wastewater heat extracter is considered impractical. The environment in which such equipment must operate is difficult at best, and most restaurants prefer to maintain as simple an operation as possible. If problems were to occur in this type of equipment, the kitchen would effectively be crippled. In conclusion, further research in the concept is not recommended. Recent advances in commercial dishwashers have also considerably reduced the heat losses which accompanied equipment only a few years old.

  19. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  20. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida Solar Energy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. Information is provided on the system's test, operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings. The Center's office building, approximately 5000 square feet of space, with solar air conditioning and heating as a demonstration of the technical feasibility is located just north of Port Canaveral, Florida. The system was designed to supply approximately 70% of the annual cooling and 100% of the heating load. The project provides unique high-temperature, non-imaging, non-tracking, evacuated-tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection.

  1. Decadal variability of upper ocean heat content in the Pacific: Responding to the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Yan, Shuangxi; Qiao, Fangli

    2015-12-01

    Ocean heat content anomaly (OHCa) time series in some areas of the Pacific are significantly correlated with the total solar irradiance (TSI). Using the composite mean-difference method, we determined the mean response of OHCa in the upper-700 m of the ocean to the TSI. Among the high solar response areas, we figure out two regions, one in the tropical mid-Pacific and the other in the western Pacific, where the OHCa present decadal variations, but different phases. The variation in phase of the solar response indicates that there exists an agency for the OHCa's response to TSI.

  2. Computational and experimental studies on large scale solar heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltola, S.

    The experimental part of the work deals mainly with the experiences gained from the Kerava Solar Village (KSV) but some additional remarks are presented from international studies. The measured thermal performance of the KSV heating system indicates considerably poorer performance than original design values. Reasons for this are studied by means of computational analyses. Fundamental problems with KSV systems was too small storage size with respect both to installed collector area and connected load. From an operational point of view, the frequent heat pump failures were the most severe problem. Computational tools for large solar heating system design and analyses are presented. Numerical models developed in this work, the KERCONT and SUPERSOL, are validated with measured performance from the KSV indicating reasonably good accuracy. The tools have been applied for detecting KSV heating system problems and for finding solutions for them as well as for re-design of the system. More general analyses are presented on the applicability of the KSV system principle in other load sizes and locations. A new approach for preliminary studies on Central Solar Heating Plants with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) is described. The analytical model, SOLCHIPS, is shown to be a very effective tool for pre-design studies. The validity of SOLCHIPS approach is studied by comparing the results against results from validated numerical model, MINSUN. In the last part of the work, preliminary results from numerical simulations of summer time district solar heating with short term storage are presented. According to the analyses, these systems should provide heat at or below the cost achievable with seasonal storage systems.

  3. Solar Space and Water Heating for School -- Dallas, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    90 page report gives overview of retrofitted solar space-heating and hot-water system installation for 61-year-old high school. Description, specifications, modifications, plan drawings for roof, three floors, basement, correspondence, and documents are part of report.

  4. Building with integral solar-heat storage--Starkville, Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Column supporting roof also houses rock-storage bin of solar-energy system supplying more than half building space heating load. Conventional heaters supply hot water. Since bin is deeper and narrower than normal, individual pebble size was increased to keep airflow resistance at minimum.

  5. Residential solar-heating system-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for modular solar heating system includes performance specifications, design data, installation guidelines, and other information that should be valuable to those interested in system (or similar systems) for projected installation. When installed in insulated "energy saver" home, system can supply large percentage of total energy needs of building.

  6. Corrosion inhibitors for solar-heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.

    1979-01-01

    Report describes results of tests conducted to evaluate abilities of 12 candidate corrosion inhibitors to protect aluminum, steel, copper, or stainless steel at typical conditions encountered in solar heating and cooling systems. Inhibitors are based on sodium salts including nitrates, borates, silicates, and phosphates.

  7. Design parameters of a solar-driven heat engine

    SciTech Connect

    Goektun, S.

    1996-01-01

    Maximum power and efficiency are treated at the maximum power output of an internally and externally irreversible solar-driven power plant heat engine. It was found that the thermal efficiency depends on the cycle-irreversibility parameter must be less than 1.0 for maximum power output.

  8. Corrosion inhibitors for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.

    1978-01-01

    Inhibitors which appeared promising in previous tests and additional inhibitors including several proprietary products were evaluated. Evaluation of the inhibitors was based on corrosion protection afforded an aluminum-mild steel-copper-stainless steel assembly in a hot corrosive water. Of the inhibitors tested two were found to be effective and show promise for protecting multimetallic solar heating systems.

  9. Solar Space and Water Heating for Hospital --Charlottesville, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Solar heating system described in an 86-page report consists of 88 single-glazed selectively-coated baseplate collector modules, hot-water coils in air ducts, domestic-hot-water preheat tank, 3,000 Gallon (11,350-1) concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other components.

  10. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

  11. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of a multi-family solar heating and domestic hot water prototype system is presented. The report contains the necessary information to evaluate the system. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control and Government-furnished site data acquisition.

  12. Exterior direct view of (nonoriginal), solar heating panels, and top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior direct view of (non-original), solar heating panels, and top of typical rectangular trash-dump tower at roof of Building 6, looking north - North Beach Place, 401 Bay Street, 500 Francisco Street, 401 Bay Street, 500 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. Cooling-load implications for residential passive solar heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. W.; McFarland, R. D.

    1983-11-01

    The quantification of cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described, along with the computer simulation model used for calculating cooling loads. A sample of interim results is also presented. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in the design, to estimate the annual cooling energy requirement of a given building.

  14. Research on medium and high temperature solar heat storage materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, D.; Jucker, J.; Koch, D.; Krahling, H.; Supper, W.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of solar heat storage materials, preliminary tests in which melting and solidification characteristics are tested, and service life and cycling tests are reported. Various aspects of corrosion are discussed as well as decision about ultimate selection of materials. A program for storage and evaluation of data is included.

  15. Investigation and analysis on a cellular heat pipe flat solar heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. T.; Hu, Y. C.; Hong, R. H.; Cen, K. F.

    2005-12-01

    A new cellular heat pipe flat solar energy collector is introduced, and the thermal performance of the new solar heater comprised by water heat pipe or acetone heat pipe is tested. The results are compared with the performance of the evacuated glass tube solar heater. It is found that: the heat loss coefficient of the cellular heat pipe flat solar heater is 54% less than that of the evacuated glass tube solar heater, while the daily average efficiency of solar absorbency is 15% higher, when the water temperature of heating is lower than 65°C. In conclusion, the thermal performance of such new solar heater is better than that of evacuated glass tube solar heater or ordinary flat solar heater, both of which are still popular in China. This new solar energy application promises to be a prosperous technology.

  16. Heat transparent high intensity high efficiency solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar cell design is described. A surface of each solar cell has a plurality of grooves. Each groove has a vertical face and a slanted face that is covered by a reflecting metal. Light rays are reflected from the slanted face through the vertical face where they traverse a photovoltaic junction. As the light rays travel to the slanted face of an adjacent groove, they again traverse the junction. The underside of the reflecting coating directs the light rays toward the opposite surface of solar cell as they traverse the junction again. When the light rays travel through the solar cell and reach the saw toothed grooves on the under side, the process of reflection and repeatedly traversing the junction again takes place. The light rays ultimately emerge from the solar cell. These solar cells are particularly useful at very high levels of insolation because the infrared or heat radiation passes through the cells without being appreciably absorbed to heat the cell.

  17. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating and cooling is described which is designed to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2,200 square feet. Five 3 ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3,000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two 3,000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  18. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    A solar heating and cooling is described which is designed to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2,200 square feet. Five 3 ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3,000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two 3,000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  19. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat, phase 1 design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-08-01

    The system consists of 42,420 sq ft of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors are oriented in a North-South configuration and track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) is circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370 F and 450 F respectively. These temperatures are constantly maintained via a variable flow rate through the collectors (the flow rate varies in direct proportion to the level of insolation). Superheated steam is the final product of the solar energy system. Final steam quality at the steam generator is 420 F and 165 Psia.

  20. The effects of air leaks on solar air heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkin, R.; Cash, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the effects of leakages in collector and duct work on the system performance of a typical single-family residence solar air heating system. Positive (leakage out) and negative (leakage in) pressure systems were examined. Collector and duct leakage rates were varied from 10 to 30 percent of the system flow rate. Within the range of leakage rates investigated, solar contribution to heated space and domestic hot water loads was found to be reduced up to 30 percent from the no-leak system contribution with duct leakage equally divided between supply and return duct; with supply duct leakage greater than return leakage a reduction of up to 35 percent was noted. The negative pressure system exhibited a reduction in solar contribution somewhat larger than the positive pressure system for the same leakage rates.

  1. Heat-rejection design for large concentrating solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, E. P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of heat rejection devices (radiators) on the performance and cost of large concentrating solar arrays for space application. Overall array characteristics are derived from the weight, cost, and performance of four major components; namely primary structure, optics/secondary structure, radiator, and solar panel. An ideal concentrator analysis is used to establish general cost and performance trends independent of specific array design. Both passive and heat-pipe radiation are evaluated, with an incremental cost-of-power approach used in the evaluation. Passive radiators are found to be more cost effective with silicon than with gallium arsenide (GaAs) arrays. Representative concentrating arrays have been evaluated for both near-term and advanced solar cell technology. Minimum cost of power is achieved at geometric concentration ratios in the range 2 to 6.

  2. Heating of the Solar Corona and its Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2009-01-01

    At several million degrees, the solar corona is more than two orders of magnitude hotter than the underlying solar surface. The reason for these extreme conditions has been a puzzle for decades and is considered one of the fundamental problems in astrophysics. Much of the coronal plasma is organized by the magnetic field into arch-like structures called loops. Recent observational and theoretical advances have led to great progress in understanding the nature of these loops. In particular, we now believe they are bundles of unresolved magnetic strands that are heated by storms of impulsive energy bursts called nanoflares. Turbulent convection at the solar surface shuffles the footpoints of the strands and causes them to become tangled. A nanoflare occurs when the magnetic stresses reach a critical threshold, probably by way of a mechanism called the secondary instability. I will describe our current state of knowledge concerning the corona, its loops, and how they are heated.

  3. Solar/gas Rankine/Rankine-cycle heat pump assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, H. E.; Melikian, G.

    1982-07-01

    This report contains an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of Rankine-cycle solar-augmented gas-fired heat pumps (SAGFHP) for multi-family residential and light-commercial applications. The SAGFHP design considered in this report is based on the successful UTRC turbocompressor system which has been tested both in the laboratory and in a solar cooling installation in Phoenix. AZ. An hour-by-hour modeling of present-design SAGFHP performance in multi-family and office buildings in New York, Wisconsin, Nebraska and Oregon indicated that, even without solar augmentation, primary energy savings of up 17% and 31% could be achieved relative to advanced furnace plus electric air conditioning systems and electric heat pumps, respectively.

  4. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the program during the sixth program quarter is reported. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. The William O'Brien single-family heating system was installed and is operational. The New Castle single-family heating residence is under construction. The Kansas University (KU) system is in the final design stages. The 25 ton cooling subsystem for KU is the debugging stage. Pressure drops that were greater than anticipated were encountered. The 3 ton simulation work is being finalized and the design parameters for the Rankine system were determined from simulation output.

  5. Adiabatic heating in impulsive solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maetzler, C.; Bai, T.; Crannell, C. J.; Frost, K. J.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic X-ray spectra of two simple, impulsive solar flares are examined together with H alpha, microwave and meter wave radio observations. X-ray spectra of both events were characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung from single temperature plasmas. The symmetry between rise and fall was found to hold for the temperature and emission measure. The relationship between temperature and emission measure was that of an adiabatic compression followed by adiabatic expansion; the adiabatic index of 5/3 indicated that the electron distribution remained isotropic. Observations in H alpha provided further evidence for compressive energy transfer.

  6. Decontamination of drinking water by direct heating in solar panels.

    PubMed

    Fjendbo Jørgensen, A J; Nøhr, K; Sørensen, H; Boisen, F

    1998-09-01

    A device was developed for direct heating of water by solar radiation in a flow-through system of copper pipes. An adjustable thermostat valve prevents water below the chosen temperature from being withdrawn. The results show that it is possible to eliminate coliform and thermotolerant coliform bacteria from naturally contaminated river water by heating to temperatures of 65 degrees C or above. Artificial additions of Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli to contaminated river water were also inactivated after heating to 65 degrees C and above. The total viable count could be reduced by a factor of 1000. The heat-resistant bacteria isolated from the Mlalakuva River (Tanzania) were spore-forming bacteria which exhibited greater heat resistance than commonly used test bacteria originating from countries with colder climates. To provide a good safety margin it is recommended that an outlet water temperature of 75 degrees C be used. At that temperature the daily production was about 501 of decontaminated water per m2 of solar panel, an amount that could be doubled by using a heat exchanger to recycle the heat.

  7. Seasonal storage of energy in solar heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J. E.; Klein, S. A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on several aspects of seasonal storage for space heating using water as the storage medium. The interrelationships between collector area, storage volume, and system performance are investigated using the transient simulation program TRNSYS. The situations for which seasonal storage is most promising are presented. Particular emphasis is placed upon design of seasonal storage systems. A design method is presented which is applicable for storage capacities ranging from a few days to seasonal storage. This design method, coupled with cost information, should be useful in assessing the economic viability of seasonal storage systems. Also investigated are the importance of the load heat exchanger size, tank insulation, collector slope, and year-to-year weather variations in system design.

  8. Solar space heating installed at Kansas City, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The solar energy system was constructed with the new 48,800 square feet warehouse to heat the warehouse area of about 39,000 square feet while the auxiliary energy system heats the office area of about 9800 square feet. The building is divided into 20 equal units, and each has its own solar system. The modular design permits the flexibility of combining multiple units to form offices or warehouses of various size floor areas as required by a tenant. Each unit has 20 collectors which are mounted in a single row. The collectors, manufactured by Solaron Corporation, are double glazed flat plate collectors with a gross area of 7800 ft/sup 2/. Air is heated either through the collectors or by the electric resistance duct coils. No freeze protection or storage is required for this system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  9. Solar water heating system for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of the feasibility of using a solar water heater for a lunar base is described. During the investigation, computer codes were developed to model the lunar base configuration, lunar orbit, and heating systems. Numerous collector geometries, orientation variations, and system options were identified and analyzed. The results indicate that the recommended solar water heater could provide 88 percent of the design load and would not require changes in the overall lunar base design. The system would give a 'safe-haven' water heating capability and use only 7 percent to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric heating system. As a result, a fixed position photovoltaic array can be reduced by 21 sq m.

  10. A reference heat source for solar collector thermal testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, S. J.; Bernier, M. A.

    1984-12-01

    A direct-comparison reference heat source (RHS), used for testing liquid-based solar collectors, is described. A major advantage of the RHS is its capability to measure the product of mass flow and specific heat directly in the test loop. Calibration tests are performed on two reference heat sources over a range of flowrates and inlet temperatures normally encountered in flat-plate solar collector testing (10 C to 95 C). It is shown that at low flowrates (less than or equal to 0.008 kg/s), localized boiling may introduce errors if the heater power density is not reduced as well, whereas operation at flowrates greater than 0.05 kg/s reduces the temperature rise across the RHS, increasing temperature measurement uncertainty. To achieve satisfactory results with an RHS, a stable inlet temperature, good flowrate control, and regulation of the power supplied to the heater are required.

  11. Solar space heating installed at Kansas City, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The solar energy system was constructed with the 48,800 square feet warehouse to heat the warehouse area of about 39,000 square feet while an auxiliary energy system heats the office area of about 9,800 square feet. The building is divided into 20 equal units, and each has its own solar system. The modular design permits the flexibility of combining multiple units to form offices or warehouses of various size floor areas as required by a tenant. Each unit has 20 collectors which are mounted in a single row. The collectors are double glazed flat plate collectors with a gross area of 7,800 sq ft. Air is heated either through the collectors or by the electric resistance duct coils. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  12. Solar space heating installed at Kansas City, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    The solar energy system was constructed with the 48,800 square feet warehouse to heat the warehouse area of about 39,000 square feet while an auxiliary energy system heats the office area of about 9,800 square feet. The building is divided into 20 equal units, and each has its own solar system. The modular design permits the flexibility of combining multiple units to form offices or warehouses of various size floor areas as required by a tenant. Each unit has 20 collectors which are mounted in a single row. The collectors are double glazed flat plate collectors with a gross area of 7,800 sq ft. Air is heated either through the collectors or by the electric resistance duct coils. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  13. Solar heating panel forming apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, R.O.

    1981-01-06

    A supply of hollow plastic tubing is obtained from an extrusion and sizing apparatus, or from a supply of hollow tubing on a reel. The hollow tubing is provided at a predetermined speed to a tensioning device which imparts a tension in the hollow tubing and delivers it to a feeding point at one edge of the periphery of a rotating drum. The continuous hollow tubing is wound around the periphery of the drum at the one edge and it is forced axially on the periphery by a helical shoe overlying the periphery at the one edge. A bank of quartz lamps heats one side of the hollow plastic tubing just prior to reaching the feeding point, and another bank of quartz lamps heats the opposite side of the hollow plastic tubing at the one edge of the drum just after the tubing passes the shoe. The two heated surfaces are pressed together by the axial force exerted by the shoe, and are fused in side by side relation to form a cylinder having a wall consisting of spiral turns of the plastic tubing fused together.

  14. Performance of active solar space-heating systems, 1980-1981 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.; Kendall, P.; Pakkala, P.; Cramer, M.

    1981-01-01

    Data are provided on 32 solar heating sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN). Of these, comprehensive data are included for 14 sites which cover a range of system types and solar applications. A brief description of the remaining sites is included along with system problems experienced which prevented comprehensive seasonal analyses. Tables and discussions of individual site parameters such as collector areas, storage tank sizes, manufacturers, building dimensions, etc. are provided. Tables and summaries of 1980-1981 heating season data are also provided. Analysis results are presented in graphic form to highlight key summary information. Performance indices are graphed for two major groups of collectors - liquid and air. Comparative results of multiple NSDN systems' operation for the 1980-1981 heating season are summarized with discussions of specific cases and conclusions which may be drawn from the data. (LEW)

  15. Solar-heated municipal swimming pools, a case study: Dade County, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, M.

    1981-09-01

    The installation of a solar energy system to heat the water in the swimming pool in one of Dade County, Florida's major parks is described. The mechanics of solar heated swimming pools are explained. The solar heating system consists of 216 unglazed polypropylene tube collectors, a differential thermostat, and the distribution system. The systems performance and economics as well as future plants are discussed.

  16. Study of magnetic notions in the solar photosphere and their implications for heating the solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, Robert W.

    1995-01-01

    This progress report covers the first year of NASA Grant NAGw-2545, a study of magnetic structure in the solar photosphere and chromosphere. We have made significant progress in three areas: (1) analysis of vorticity in photospheric convection, which probably affects solar atmospheric heating through the stresses it imposes on photospheric magnetic fields; (2) modelling of the horizontal motions of magnetic footpoints in the solar photosphere using an assumed relation between brightness and vertical motion as well as continuity of flow; and (3) observations and analysis of infrared CO lines formed near the solar temperature minimum, whose structure and dynamics also yield important clues to the nature of heating of the upper atmosphere. Each of these areas are summarized in this report, with copies of those papers prepared or published this year included.

  17. Comparison of solar heat pump systems to conventional methods for residential heating, cooling, and water heating, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, P. J.; Morehouse, J. H.

    1980-04-01

    The series and parallel combined solar heat pump systems investigated are at best marginally competitive, on a 20 year life cycle cost basis, with conventional oil and electric furnace systems. The combined solar heat pump systems are not economically competitive with conventional gas furnace or stand alone heat pump systems for residential space heating, cooling and water heating. The combined solar heat pump systems do offer the potential for significant energy savings as compared to conventional furnace systems and the stand alone heat pump. The cost of that savings, however, is beyond that which the average consumer can be expected to pay. Barring unforeseen manufacturing process or materials breakthroughs, parallel systems prices are firm. The prices listed for series systems already include low cost site built collectors and an optimistic estimate of the liquid to air heat pump costs, and prices on other series system components are firm. A collector cost sensitivity analysis did not offer any encouraging directions towards significant systems cost reduction.

  18. Thermal State-of-Charge in Solar Heat Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Carsie A., Jr.; Glakpe, Emmanuel K.; Cannon, Joseph N.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to determine the so-called thermal state-of-charge (SOC) in solar heat receivers employing encapsulated phase change materials (PCMS) that undergo cyclic melting and freezing. The present problem is relevant to space solar dynamic power systems that would typically operate in low-Earth-orbit (LEO). The solar heat receiver is integrated into a closed-cycle Brayton engine that produces electric power during sunlight and eclipse periods of the orbit cycle. The concepts of available power and virtual source temperature, both on a finite-time basis, are used as the basis for determining the SOC. Analytic expressions for the available power crossing the aperture plane of the receiver, available power stored in the receiver, and available power delivered to the working fluid are derived, all of which are related to the SOC through measurable parameters. Lower and upper bounds on the SOC are proposed in order to delineate absolute limiting cases for a range of input parameters (orbital, geometric, etc.). SOC characterization is also performed in the subcooled, two-phase, and superheat regimes. Finally, a previously-developed physical and numerical model of the solar heat receiver component of NASA Lewis Research Center's Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) system is used in order to predict the SOC as a function of measurable parameters.

  19. Advanced sensible heat solar receiver for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Timothy J.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis, through in-house efforts, has begun a study to generate a conceptual design of a sensible heat solar receiver and to determine the feasibility of such a system for space power applications. The sensible heat solar receiver generated in this study uses pure lithium as the thermal storage medium and was designed for a 7 kWe Brayton (PCS) operating at 1100 K. The receiver consists of two stages interconnected via temperature sensing variable conductance sodium heat pipes. The lithium is contained within a niobium vessel and the outer shell of the receiver is constructed of third generation rigid, fibrous ceramic insulation material. Reradiation losses are controlled with niobium and aluminum shields. By nature of design, the sensible heat receiver generated in this study is comparable in both size and mass to a latent heat system of similar thermal capacitance. The heat receiver design and thermal analysis was conducted through the combined use of PATRAN, SINDA, TRASYS, and NASTRAN software packages.

  20. Advanced sensible heat solar receiver for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Timothy J.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis, through in-house efforts, has begun a study to generate a conceptual design of a sensible heat solar receiver and to determine the feasibility of such a system for space power applications. The sensible heat solar receiver generated in this study uses pure lithium as the thermal storage medium and was designed for a 7 kWe Brayton (PCS) operating at 1100 K. The receiver consists of two stages interconnected via temperature sensing variable conductance sodium heat pipes. The lithium is contained within a niobium vessel and the outer shell of the receiver is constructed of third generation rigid, fibrous ceramic insulation material. Reradiation losses are controlled with niobium and aluminum shields. By nature of design, the sensible heat receiver generated in this study is comparable in both size and mass to a latent heat system of similar thermal capacitance. The heat receiver design and thermal analysis were conducted through the combined use of PATRAN, SINDA, TRASYS, and NASTRAN software packages.

  1. Joule heating and anomalous resistivity in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, S. R.

    2009-06-01

    Recent radioastronomical observations of Faraday rotation in the solar corona can be interpreted as evidence for coronal currents, with values as large as 2.5×109 Amperes (Spangler, 2007). These estimates of currents are used to develop a model for Joule heating in the corona. It is assumed that the currents are concentrated in thin current sheets, as suggested by theories of two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The Spitzer result for the resistivity is adopted as a lower limit to the true resistivity. The calculated volumetric heating rate is compared with an independent theoretical estimate by Cranmer et al. (2007). This latter estimate accounts for the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the corona at a heliocentric distance of several solar radii. Our calculated Joule heating rate is less than the Cranmer et al estimate by at least a factor of 3×105. The currents inferred from the observations of Spangler (2007) are not relevant to coronal heating unless the true resistivity is enormously increased relative to the Spitzer value. However, the same model for turbulent current sheets used to calculate the heating rate also gives an electron drift speed which can be comparable to the electron thermal speed, and larger than the ion acoustic speed. It is therefore possible that the coronal current sheets are unstable to current-driven instabilities which produce high levels of waves, enhance the resistivity and thus the heating rate.

  2. Solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Landerman, A.M.; Biancardi, F.R.; Melikian, G.; Meader, M.D.; Kepler, C.E.; Anderson, T.J.; Sitler, J.W.

    1982-08-12

    The turbocompressor comprises a power turbine and a compressor turbine having respective rotors and on a common shaft, rotatably supported by bearings. A first working fluid is supplied by a power loop and is expanded in the turbine. A second working fluid is compressed in the turbine and is circulated in a heat pump loop. A lubricant is mixed with the second working fluid but is excluded from the first working fluid. The bearings are cooled and lubricated by a system which circulates the second working fluid and the intermixed lubricant through the bearings. Such system includes a pump, a thermostatic expansion valve for expanding the working fluid into the space between the bearings, and a return conduit system for withdrawing the expanded working fluid after it passes through the bearings and for returning the working fluid to the evaporator. A shaft seal excludes the lubricant from the power turbine. The power loop includes a float operable by liquid working fluid in the condenser for controlling a recirculation valve so as to maintain a minimum liquid level in the condenser, while causing a feed pump to pump most of the working fluid into the vapor generator. The heat pump compressor loop includes a float in the condenser for operating and expansion valve to maintain a minimum liquid working fluid level in the condenser while causing most of the working fluid to be expanded into the evaporator.

  3. Solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Landerman, A.M.; Anderson, T.J.; Biancardi, F.; Kepler, C.E.; Meader, M.D.; Melikian, G.; Sitler, J.W.

    1984-08-14

    The turbocompressor comprises a power turbine and a compressor turbine having respective rotors on a common shaft, rotatably supported by bearings. A first working fluid is supplied by a power loop and is expanded in the turbine. A second working fluid is compressed in the turbine and is circulated in a heat pump loop. A lubricant is mixed with the second working fluid but is excluded from the first working fluid. Bearings are cooled and lubricated by a system which circulates the second working fluid and the intermixed lubricant through the bearings. Such system includes a pump, a thermostatic expansion valve for expanding the working fluid into the space between the bearings, and a return conduit system for withdrawing the expanded working fluid after it passes through the bearings and for returning the working fluid to the evaporator. A shaft seal excludes the lubricant from the power turbine. The power loop includes a float operable by liquid working fluid in the condenser for controlling a recirculation valve so as to maintain a minimum liquid level in the condenser, while causing a feed pump to pump most of the working fluid into the vapor generator. The heat pump compressor loop includes a float in the condenser for operating an expansion valve to maintain a minimum liquid working fluid level in the condenser while causing most of the working fluid to be expanded into the evaporator.

  4. Heat Pipe Solar Receiver Development Activities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.R.; Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.; Rawlinson, K.S.; Showalter, S.K.

    1999-01-08

    Over the past decade, Sandia National Laboratories has been involved in the development of receivers to transfer energy from the focus of a parabolic dish concentrator to the heater tubes of a Stirling engine. Through the isothermal evaporation and condensation of sodium. a heat-pipe receiver can efficiently transfer energy to an engine's working fluid and compensate for irregularities in the flux distribution that is delivered by the concentrator. The operation of the heat pipe is completely passive because the liquid sodium is distributed over the solar-heated surface by capillary pumping provided by a wick structure. Tests have shown that using a heat pipe can boost the system performance by twenty percent when compared to directly illuminating the engine heater tubes. Designing heat pipe solar receivers has presented several challenges. The relatively large area ({approximately}0.2 m{sup 2}) of the receiver surface makes it difficult to design a wick that can continuously provide liquid sodium to all regions of the heated surface. Selecting a wick structure with smaller pores will improve capillary pumping capabilities of the wick, but the small pores will restrict the flow of liquid and generate high pressure drops. Selecting a wick that is comprised of very tine filaments can increase the permeability of the wick and thereby reduce flow losses, however, the fine wick structure is more susceptible to corrosion and mechanical damage. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the issues encountered in the design of heat pipe solar receivers and solutions to problems that have arisen. Topics include: flow characterization in the receiver, the design of wick systems. the minimization of corrosion and dissolution of metals in sodium systems. and the prevention of mechanical failure in high porosity wick structures.

  5. Dynamic conversion of solar generated heat to electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. C.; Fourakis, E.; Hammer, J. M.; Smith, G. A.; Grosskreutz, J. C.; Mcbride, E.

    1974-01-01

    The effort undertaken during this program led to the selection of the water-superheated steam (850 psig/900 F) crescent central receiver as the preferred concept from among 11 candidate systems across the technological spectrum of the dynamic conversion of solar generated heat to electricity. The solar power plant designs were investigated in the range of plant capacities from 100 to 1000 Mw(e). The investigations considered the impacts of plant size, collector design, feed-water temperature ratio, heat rejection equipment, ground cover, and location on solar power technical and economic feasibility. For the distributed receiver systems, the optimization studies showed that plant capacities less than 100 Mw(e) may be best. Although the size of central receiver concepts was not parametrically investigated, all indications are that the optimal plant capacity for central receiver systems will be in the range from 50 to 200 Mw(e). Solar thermal power plant site selection criteria and methodology were also established and used to evaluate potentially suitable sites. The result of this effort was to identify a site south of Inyokern, California, as typically suitable for a solar thermal power plant. The criteria used in the selection process included insolation and climatological characteristics, topography, and seismic history as well as water availability.

  6. Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at Troy-Miami County Public Library, Troy, Ohio. The completed system is composed of tree basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which includes a 5000-gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which includes piping, pumping and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and is, therefore, a retrofit system. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  7. Performance of a hybrid solar heating system of the solar laboratory at the JRC-ISPRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hattem, D.; Aranovitch, E.; Actis-Dato, P.

    System features and the three year performance data from the solar laboratory at Ispra, which is heated by a heat pump, flat plate collectors, and storage unit are summarized. The heating system has 41 sq m of collector surface, a 50 cu m concrete hot water storage tank, a heat pump with a 17 kW capacity, a floor heating system, and a 2 cu m heat storage as a buffer for the collectors. The building requires 300 W/ deg C for heating and has a peak demand of 9 kW. Chilled water is stored in the underground large tank during the summer for cooling purposes, and one month is alotted to thermally charge the tank before the winter. The addition of the heat pump and storage to the solar flat plate collector system has increased the effective energy gain of the collectors to 1190 MJ/sq m, or 2.5 times the effectiveness without the storage and heat pump.

  8. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating on cooling system is described which is designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1,596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glyco water solution through the collectors into a hot water system exchanger. The water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2,300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described.

  9. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    A solar heating on cooling system is described which is designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1,596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glyco water solution through the collectors into a hot water system exchanger. The water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2,300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described.

  10. Self-pumping solar heating system with geyser pumping action

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, E.L.; Bartera, R.E.

    1984-10-23

    A self-pumping solar heating system having a collector including a multitude of small diameter riser tubes from which heated liquid is pumped into a header by a geyser action. A vapor condenser assures a header pressure conducive to bubble nucleation in the riser tube upper end segments. The level of liquid within the header or its outlet is higher than the liquid level in the riser tubes to produce a gravity imbalance capable of circulating heated liquid past a storage heat exchanger, below the header, and then upwardly through the closed vapor condenser in the header prior to return to a collector inlet manifold. A modified header utilizes an open vapor condenser in vapor communication with the collector header.

  11. Market development directory for solar industrial process heat systems

    SciTech Connect

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a basis for market development activities through a location listing of key trade associations, trade periodicals, and key firms for three target groups. Potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers were identified as the prime targets for market development activities. The bulk of the directory is a listing of these two groups. The third group, solar IPH equipment manufacturers, was included to provide an information source for potential industrial users and potential IPH system designers. Trade associates and their publications are listed for selected four-digit Standard Industrial Code (SIC) industries. Since industries requiring relatively lower temperature process heat probably will comprise most of the near-term market for solar IPH systems, the 80 SIC's included in this chapter have process temperature requirements less than 350/sup 0/F. Some key statistics and a location list of the largest plants (according to number of employees) in each state are included for 15 of the 80 SIC's. Architectural/engineering and consulting firms are listed which are known to have solar experience. Professional associated and periodicals to which information on solar IPH sytstems may be directed also are included. Solar equipment manufacturers and their associations are listed. The listing is based on the SERI Solar Energy Information Data Base (SEIDB).

  12. Design of Solar Heat Sheet for Air Heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, S. Shanmuga; Premalatha, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, I.

    2011-12-01

    The technique of harnessing solar energy for drying offers significant potential to dry agricultural products such as food grains, fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants, thereby eliminating many of the problems experienced with open-sun drying and industrial drying, besides saving huge quantities of fossil fuels. A great deal of experimental work over the last few decades has already demonstrated that agricultural products can be satisfactorily dehydrated using solar energy. Various designs of small scale solar dryers have been developed in the recent past, mainly for drying agricultural products. Major problems experienced with solar dryers are their non-reliability as their operation largely depends on local weather conditions. While back-up heaters and hybrid dryers partly solved this issue, difficulties in controlling the drying air temperature and flow rate remains a problem, and affects the quality of the dried product. This study is aimed at eliminating the fluctuations in the quality of hot air supplied by simple solar air heaters used for drying fruits, vegetables and other applications. It is an attempt to analyse the applicability of the combination of an glazed transpired solar collector (tank), thermal storage and a intake fan(suction fan) to achieve a steady supply of air at a different atmospheric temperature and flow rate for drying fruits and vegetables. Development of an efficient, low-cost and reliable air heating system for drying applications is done.

  13. Optimal heat pumps for solar-assisted heat-pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catan, M. A.

    Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigates the design of optimal heat pumps for solar assisted heat pump (SAPH) systems. Heat pump designs suitable for two generic systems, identified in the course of recent analytical work, are being studied. These are series SAHP systems operating at evaporator temperatures in the -5 to 10 C range and those operating at evaporator temperatures in the 10 to 35 C range. A heat pump simulator has been constructed with liquid based source subsystem and two load subsystems, one for testing air cooled condensers and one for testing water cooled condensers. Heat pumps tested were composed of various components including several types of variable and fixed capacity compressors, two types of expansion devices, and heat exchangers varying in size and type.

  14. Thermal storage studies for solar heating and cooling: Applications using chemical heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offenhartz, P. O.

    1981-04-01

    The simulation of chemical heat pumps and simulations (including heating, cooling, and domestic hot water) were performed for Washington, D.C. and Ft. Worth, Texas. Direct weekly comparisons of the H2SO4/H2O and CaCl2/CH3OH cycles were carried out. Projected performance of the NH4NO3/NH3 cycle was also investigated, and was identical to H2SO4/H2O. In all simulated cases, the solar collector is a fixed evacuated tube system. With standard residential loads, the chemical heat pumps performed well. Gas fired backup via the heat pump was quite effective in reducing fossil fuel consumption. Chemical heat pumps are designed to reject heat at relatively high temperatures, however, they are also effective in providing domestic hot water.

  15. Solar/performance goals for solar and ground-coupled heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-09-01

    Cost goals for combined solar/heat pump systems are developed. Three methods of analysis are used: simple payback, positive cash flow, and life cycle costing. The goals are parameterized on system energy efficiency, with the air-to-air heat pump as the conventional system which is used as a basis for comparison. Cost goals for nine systems are determined in three generic climates.

  16. Evidence for Inhomogeneous Heating in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, A.; Osman, K.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Servidio, S.

    2010-12-01

    Solar wind observations and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are used to probe the nature of turbulence heating and its relationship to inhomogeneity and coherent structures. In particular, the electron heat flux, electron temperature, and ion temperature are studied using ACE and Wind data. These heating diagnostics are also compared with numerically obtained estimates of the local dissipation density. In each case, the vector increments of the magnetic field, normalized to their standard deviation [1], are used to conditionally sample the data. Coherent structures, which are sources of inhomogeneity and intermittency in MHD turbulence, are found to be associated with enhancements in each of the heating related diagnostics. This supports the hypothesis that significant inhomogeneous heating occurs in the solar wind, connected with current sheets that are dynamically generated by MHD turbulence. Indeed, MHD simulations identify a subset of these coherent current sheets as magnetic reconnection sites. The possibility of using similar intermittency-related techniques to complement current magnetic reconnection identification methods is explored. [1] A. Greco et al, ApJ., 691, L111 (2009)

  17. Acceleration of runaway electrons and Joule heating in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The electric field acceleration of electrons out of a thermal plasma and the simultaneous Joule heating of the plasma are studied. Acceleration and heating timescales are derived and compared, and upper limits are obtained on the acceleration volume and the rate at which electrons can be accelerated. These upper limits, determined by the maximum magnetic field strength observed in flaring regions, place stringent restrictions upon the acceleration process. The role of the plasma resistivity in these processes is examined, and possible sources of anomalous resistivity are summarized. The implications of these results for the microwave and hard X-ray emission from solar flares are examined.

  18. Acceleration of runaway electrons and Joule heating in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    The electric field acceleration of electrons out of a thermal plasma and the simultaneous Joule heating of the plasma are studied. Acceleration and heating timescales are derived and compared, and upper limits are obtained on the acceleration volume and the rate at which electrons can be accelerated. These upper limits, determined by the maximum magnetic field strength observed in flaring regions, place stringent restrictions upon the acceleration process. The role of the plasma resistivity in these processes is examined, and possible sources of anomalous resistivity are summarized. The implications of these results for the microwave and hard X-ray emission from solar flares are examined.

  19. Wave motions and wave heating in the upper solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletto, G.

    The experimental and theoretical evidence favoring the wave heating mechanism in the low chromosphere is briefly reviewed, and the possibility of maintaining this mechanism, with proper modifications, in the higher layer is studied. Wave mode candidates for heating at high levels are analyzed, including gravity waves and Alfven waves. Waves in the upper chromosphere and the transition region are considered, showing power spectra of oscillations in lines forming at increasing heights in the solar atmosphere, fluctuations in UV line intensity, the predicted relationship between velocity and intensity modulation for acoustic waves, and sample results from UV spectrometer and polarimeter observations. It is concluded that in the upper chromosphere and transition regions, observations fail to reveal an acoustic flux adequate to compensate for the energy losses in these layers. Alfven waves, observed in the solar wind, could supply the required energy flux, but their presence cannot either be confirmed or ruled out.

  20. Models of the Solar Atmospheric Response to Flare Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Joel

    2011-01-01

    I will present models of the solar atmospheric response to flare heating. The models solve the equations of non-LTE radiation hydrodynamics with an electron beam added as a flare energy source term. Radiative transfer is solved in detail for many important optically thick hydrogen and helium transitions and numerous optically thin EUV lines making the models ideally suited to study the emission that is produced during flares. I will pay special attention to understanding key EUV lines as well the mechanism for white light production. I will also present preliminary results of how the model solar atmosphere responds to Fletcher & Hudson type flare heating. I will compare this with the results from flare simulations using the standard thick target model.

  1. Recommendations for European solar collector test methods (Liquid heating collectors)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrick, A.; Gillett, W. B.

    Standardized testing formats, equipment, conditions, and tests defined as part of the solar flat plate collector testing program performed by the Commission of the European Communities are detailed. The work is a product of efforts at 20 laboratories, and alternative methods have been characterized for tailoring tests to particular locations and climatic conditions. The testing methods are intended for collectors using a liquid as the heat transfer medium. Procedures have been defined for examining steady state and transient performance, heat loss, thermal capacity, pressure drop, and anemometry. Instrumentation types and accuracies have been defined, and a standardized format for presentation of results has been developed. The tests are tailored for determining the durability of the flat plate systems under simulated solar radiation conditions.

  2. Solar industrial process heat: A study of applications and attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, V.

    1981-04-01

    Data were gathered through site visits to 100 industrial plants. The site specific data suggests several possible near term market opportunities for solar thermal energy systems. Plants using electricity as their primary fuel for industrial process heat were identified, on the basis of their high fuel prices, as attractive early entry markets for solar energy. Additional opportunities were reflected in plants that had accomplished much of their conservation plans, or bad sizeable percentages of their operating budgets committed to energy expenses. A suitability analysis identified eleven industrial plants as highly suitable for solar thermal applications, they included producers of fluid milk, pottery, canned and bottled soft drinks, fabricated structural metal, refined petroleum, aluminum cans, chrome and nickel plating and stamped frame metal and metal finishings.

  3. Development of a neural network heating controller for solar buildings.

    PubMed

    Argiriou, A A; Bellas-Velidis, I; Balaras, C A

    2000-09-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN's) are more and more widely used in energy management processes. ANN's can be very useful in optimizing the energy demand of buildings, especially of those of high thermal inertia. These include the so-called solar buildings. For those buildings, a controller able to forecast not only the energy demand but also the weather conditions can lead to energy savings while maintaining thermal comfort. In this paper, such an ANN controller is proposed. It consists of a meteorological module, forecasting the ambient temperature and solar irradiance, the heating energy switch predictor module and the indoor temperature-defining module. The performance of the controller has been tested both experimentally and in a building thermal simulation environment. The results showed that the use of the proposed controller can lead to 7.5% annual energy savings in the case of a highly insulated passive solar test cell.

  4. Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaki, S.

    1989-05-01

    The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The program for 1989-90 is separated into seven tasks. There are asks for each of the three solar houses, a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, a task involving development of an improved evacuated tube collector, a management task, and a task under which an international workshop will test IEA Task 4 models. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

  5. municipal recreation center is heated and cooled by solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Major fraction of energy requirements for community building is ksupplied by Sun. The 238 flat plate solar collectors are roof mounted on single story structure enclosing gymnasium, locker area, and health care clinic; heat exchanger transfers collected energy to 6,000 gallon storage tank. Final report chronicles project from inception to completion, documenting performance, costs, operating modes, and data acquisition system. Appendix contains manufacturers' product literature and engineering drawings.

  6. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is presented. The information contained in this report includes system certification, system functional description, system configuration, system specification, system performance and other documents pertaining to the progress and the design of the system. This system, which is intended for use in the normal single-family residence, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, and Government-furnished Site Data Acquisition.

  7. Design data brochure for CSI series V solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Generalized information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout is presented to assist the architect or designer in preparing construction drawings and specifications for the installation of the CSI integrated solar heating systems. Efficiency in space utilization of a full length collector and the importance of proper sizing of the collector array are among the topics discussed. Details of storage and transport subsystems are provided along with drawings and specifications of all components of the CSI system.

  8. Solar heating for an observatory--Lincoln, Nebraska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes solar-energy system for 50 seat observatory that provides 60 percent of space heating needs. System includes 9 flat-plate collectors, rock storage bin, blowers, controls, ducting, and auxiliary natural-gas furnace; it has five operation modes. Net energy savings were 11.31 million Btu for 12 months, or equivalent of 1.9 barrels of oil. Report appendixes list performance factor definitions, performance equations, and average area weather conditions.

  9. Theoretical investigation on thermal performance of heat pipe flat plate solar collector with cross flow heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lan; Wu, Shuang-Ying; Zhang, Qiao-Ling; Li, You-Rong

    2012-07-01

    Based on the heat transfer characteristics of absorber plate and the heat transfer effectiveness-number of heat transfer unit method of heat exchanger, a new theoretical method of analyzing the thermal performance of heat pipe flat plate solar collector with cross flow heat exchanger has been put forward and validated by comparisons with the experimental and numerical results in pre-existing literature. The proposed theoretical method can be used to analyze and discuss the influence of relevant parameters on the thermal performance of heat pipe flat plate solar collector.

  10. Some observations of heated gallium arsenide heteroface solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friesen, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    GaAlAs/GaAs heteroface solar cells used in space offer advantages of higher operating temperatures and recovery from radiation damage using thermal annealing. Experiments were conducted to examine the effects on the room temperature photovoltaic properties of cells due to heating in a vacuum at temperatures encountered in radiation damage annealing. Some degradation of photovoltaic properties was observed for all the cells that were heated. The lifetime, due to heating, for a 20-percent degradation in output power was estimated for cells heated at 200 C and 400 C. The results for cells that were heated at 200 C for 1750 hours indicate a lifetime of at least 3 years. The results for cells that were heated at 400 C for 264 hours indicate that lifetimes in the range of 350 hours to 1400 hours may be expected. The results indicate that for cells that must be heated at 400 C the selection of fabrication techniques and materials is particularly important.

  11. Initial operation of a solar heating and cooling system in a full-scale solar building test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, R. H.; Miao, D.; Hamlet, I. L.; Jensen, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Solar Building Test Facility (SBTF) located at Hampton, Virginia became operational in early summer of 1976. This facility is a joint effort by NASA-Lewis and NASA-Langley to advance the technology for heating and cooling of office buildings with solar energy. Its purposes are to (1) test system components which include high-performing collectors, (2) test performance of complete solar heating and cooling system, (3) investigate component interactions and (4) investigate durability, maintenance and reliability of components. The SBTF consists of a 50,000 square foot office building modified to accept solar heated water for operation of an absorption air conditioner and for the baseboard heating system. A 12,666 square foot solar collector field with a 30,000 gallon storage tank provides the solar heated water. A description of the system and the collectors selected is given here, along with the objectives, test approach, expected system performance and some preliminary results.

  12. Initial operation of a solar heating and cooling system in a full-scale solar building test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, R. H.; Miao, D.; Hamlet, I. L.; Jensen, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Solar Building Test Facility (SBTF) was constructed to advance the technology for heating and cooling of office buildings with solar energy. Its purposes are to (1) test system components which include high-performing collectors, (2) test the performance of a complete solar heating and cooling system, (3) investigate component interactions, and (4) investigate durability, maintenance and reliability of components. The SBTF consists of a 50,000 square foot office building modified to accept solar heated water for operation of an absorption air conditioner and for the baseboard heating system. A 12,666 square foot solar collector field with a 30,000 gallon storage tank provides the solar heated water. A description of the system and the collectors selected is printed along with the objectives, test approach, expected system performance, and some preliminary results.

  13. Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

  14. Assessment of solar-assisted gas-fired heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-06-01

    As a possible application for the Goldstone Energy Project, the performance of a 10 ton heat pump unit using a hybrid solar gas energy source was evaluated in an effort to optimize the solar collector size. The heat pump system is designed to provide all the cooling and/or heating requirements of a selected office building. The system performance is to be augmented in the heating mode by utilizing the waste heat from the power cycle. A simplified system analysis is described to assess and compute interrrelationships of the engine, heat pump, and solar and building performance parameters, and to optimize the solar concentrator/building area ratio for a minimum total system cost. In addition, four alternative heating cooling systems, commonly used for building comfort, are described; their costs are compared, and are found to be less competitive with the gas solar heat pump system at the projected solar equipment costs.

  15. Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well a previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--1992 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space hearing systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Heating the Solar Corona: Observations for Model Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestlerode, C. M.; Poland, A. I.

    2005-12-01

    A prominent question in solar physics concerns the sources of coronal heating. This problem can be addressed through observations of closed magnetic loops which have high enough density to provide adequate temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. Measurements of temperature, density, and velocity throughout the loop can be used for boundary conditions and compared with quantities for model calculations. In this paper, we present Solar Ultraviolet Measurements from Emitted Radiation (SUMER) data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory's (SOHO's) JOP 161 program. The SUMER instrument has high spatial and spectral resolution over several different spectral lines and therefore the data cover a large temperature range. The analyzed lines include Mg VIII, Mg IX, N III, N IV, Ne VIII, O IV, O V, S IV, S V, and S X with temperatures ranging from 60,000 K (S IV) to 0.9 MK (Mg IX). The velocity profiles are created using Gaussian fitting with wavelength calibration determined using average quiet Sun velocities from known Doppler velocity shifts. The velocity profiles show important changes in solar foot point plasma speed both spatially and temporally. This analysis builds on previous analysis of solar spectral lines observed with the SOHO Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS); the advantage of the SUMER instrument is better resolution, both spectrally and spatially. This work was funded by NASA, Living with a Star Program.

  17. Solar Air Heating Metal Roofing for Reroofing, New Construction, and Retrofit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-20

    annual energy and life cycle savings from developing a solar assisted geothermal heating and cooling system . The project is funded by the Department...to the geothermal loop. The measurements proved the solar heated air resource and attic exhaust fan system are adequate for solar heat recovery to...support a geothermal heating system . Subsequent to the radiant barrier installation the overall geothermal project was reconfigured due to budget

  18. Comparison of three systems of solar water heating by thermosiphon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, E.; Guzmán, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    The main purpose of this project was to elaborate a comparison between three water heating systems; using two plane water heating solar collector and another using a vacuum tube heater, all of them are on top of the cafeteria's roof on building of the “Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana” in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Through testing was determined each type of water heating systems' performance, where the Stainless Steel tube collector reached a maximum efficiency of 71.58%, the Copper Tubing Collector a maximum value of 76.31% and for the Vacuum Tube Heater Collector a maximum efficiency of 72.33%. The collector with copper coil was the system more efficient. So, taking into account the Performance and Temperature Curves, along with the weather conditions at the time of the testing we determined that the most efficient Solar Heating System is the one using a Vacuum Tube Heater Collector. Reaching a maximum efficiency of 72.33% and a maximum temperature of 62.6°C.

  19. Building America Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    R. Aldrich and J. Williamson

    2016-05-01

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: (1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads. (2.) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes. (3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating. (4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support form the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  20. Role of Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, Robb; Williamson, James

    2016-04-08

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: 1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads; 2) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes; 3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating; and 4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support from the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  1. HEATING OF THE MAGNETIZED SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE BY PARTIAL IONIZATION EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Khomenko, E.; Collados, M.

    2012-03-10

    In this paper, we study the heating of the magnetized solar chromosphere induced by the large fraction of neutral atoms present in this layer. The presence of neutrals, together with the decrease with height of the collisional coupling, leads to deviations from the classical magnetohydrodynamic behavior of the chromospheric plasma. A relative net motion appears between the neutral and ionized components, usually referred to as ambipolar diffusion. The dissipation of currents in the chromosphere is enhanced by orders of magnitude due to the action of ambipolar diffusion, as compared with the standard ohmic diffusion. We propose that a significant amount of magnetic energy can be released to the chromosphere just by existing force-free 10-40 G magnetic fields there. As a consequence, we conclude that ambipolar diffusion is an important process that should be included in chromospheric heating models, as it has the potential to rapidly heat the chromosphere. We perform analytical estimations and numerical simulations to prove this idea.

  2. Mass and heat transfer model of Tubular Solar Still

    SciTech Connect

    Ahsan, Amimul; Fukuhara, Teruyuki

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, a new mass and heat transfer model of a Tubular Solar Still (TSS) was proposed incorporating various mass and heat transfer coefficients taking account of the humid air properties inside the still. The heat balance of the humid air and the mass balance of the water vapor in the humid air were formulized for the first time. As a result, the proposed model enabled to calculate the diurnal variations of the temperature, water vapor density and relative humidity of the humid air, and to predict the hourly condensation flux besides the temperatures of the water, cover and trough, and the hourly evaporation flux. The validity of the proposed model was verified using the field experimental results carried out in Fukui, Japan and Muscat, Oman in 2008. The diurnal variations of the calculated temperatures and water vapor densities had a good agreement with the observed ones. Furthermore, the proposed model can predict the daily and hourly production flux precisely. (author)

  3. Solar coronal loop heating by cross-field wave transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amendt, Peter; Benford, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Solar coronal arches heated by turbulent ion-cyclotron waves may suffer significant cross-field transport by these waves. Nonlinear processes fix the wave-propagation speed at about a tenth of the ion thermal velocity, which seems sufficient to spread heat from a central core into a large cool surrounding cocoon. Waves heat cocoon ions both through classical ion-electron collisions and by turbulent stochastic ion motions. Plausible cocoon sizes set by wave damping are in roughly kilometers, although the wave-emitting core may be only 100 m wide. Detailed study of nonlinear stabilization and energy-deposition rates predicts that nearby regions can heat to values intermediate between the roughly electron volt foot-point temperatures and the about 100 eV core, which is heated by anomalous Ohmic losses. A volume of 100 times the core volume may be affected. This qualitative result may solve a persistent problem with current-driven coronal heating; that it affects only small volumes and provides no way to produce the extended warm structures perceptible to existing instruments.

  4. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  5. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  6. A performance data network for solar process heat systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, G.; Hale, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    A solar process heat (SPH) data network has been developed to access remote-site performance data from operational solar heat systems. Each SPH system in the data network is outfitted with monitoring equipment and a datalogger. The datalogger is accessed via modem from the data network computer at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The dataloggers collect both ten-minute and hourly data and download it to the data network every 24-hours for archiving, processing, and plotting. The system data collected includes energy delivered (fluid temperatures and flow rates) and site meteorological conditions, such as solar insolation and ambient temperature. The SPH performance data network was created for collecting performance data from SPH systems that are serving in industrial applications or from systems using technologies that show promise for industrial applications. The network will be used to identify areas of SPH technology needing further development, to correlate computer models with actual performance, and to improve the credibility of SPH technology. The SPH data network also provides a centralized bank of user-friendly performance data that will give prospective SPH users an indication of how actual systems perform. There are currently three systems being monitored and archived under the SPH data network: two are parabolic trough systems and the third is a flat-plate system. The two trough systems both heat water for prisons; the hot water is used for personal hygiene, kitchen operations, and laundry. The flat plate system heats water for meat processing at a slaughter house. We plan to connect another parabolic trough system to the network during the first months of 1996. We continue to look for good examples of systems using other types of collector technologies and systems serving new applications (such as absorption chilling) to include in the SPH performance data network.

  7. EPA Administrator and San Francisco Bay Area government agencies celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy joined Bay Area agencies to celebrate the Regional Renewable Energy Procurement Project (R-REP), the nation's largest solar energy government collaboration and the launch of the Federal Agg

  8. Differential kinetic dynamics and heating of ions in the turbulent solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Stabile, S.; Pezzi, O.; Servidio, S.; De Marco, R.; Marcucci, F.; Bruno, R.; Lavraud, B.; De Keyser, J.; Consolini, G.; Brienza, D.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Retinò, A.; Vaivads, A.; Salatti, M.; Veltri, P.

    2016-12-01

    The solar wind plasma is a fully ionized and turbulent gas ejected by the outer layers of the solar corona at very high speed, mainly composed by protons and electrons, with a small percentage of helium nuclei and a significantly lower abundance of heavier ions. Since particle collisions are practically negligible, the solar wind is typically not in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. Such a complex system must be described through self-consistent and fully nonlinear models, taking into account its multi-species composition and turbulence. We use a kinetic hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell numerical code to reproduce the turbulent energy cascade down to ion kinetic scales, in typical conditions of the uncontaminated solar wind plasma, with the aim of exploring the differential kinetic dynamics of the dominant ion species, namely protons and alpha particles. We show that the response of different species to the fluctuating electromagnetic fields is different. In particular, a significant differential heating of alphas with respect to protons is observed. Interestingly, the preferential heating process occurs in spatial regions nearby the peaks of ion vorticity and where strong deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium are recovered. Moreover, by feeding a simulator of a top-hat ion spectrometer with the output of the kinetic simulations, we show that measurements by such spectrometer planned on board the Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR mission), a candidate for the next M4 space mission of the European Space Agency, can provide detailed three-dimensional ion velocity distributions, highlighting important non-Maxwellian features. These results support the idea that future space missions will allow a deeper understanding of the physics of the interplanetary medium.

  9. Heat engine development for solar thermal power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, H. Q.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    The technical status of three heat engines (Stirling, high-temperature Brayton, and Combined cycle) for use in solar thermal power systems is presented. Performance goals necessary to develop a system competitive with conventional power requirements include an external heated engine output less than 40 kW, and efficiency power conversion subsystem at least 40% at rated output, and a half-power efficiency of at least 37%. Results show that the Stirling engine can offer a 39% efficiency with 100 hours of life, and a 20% efficiency with 10,000 hours of life, but problems with seals and heater heads exist. With a demonstrated efficiency near 31% at 1500 F and a minimum lifetime of 100,000 hours, the Brayton engine does not offer sufficient engine lifetime, efficiency, and maintenance for solar thermal power systems. Examination of the Rankine bottoming cycle of the Combined cycle engine reveals a 30 year lifetime, but a low efficiency. Additional development of engines for solar use is primarily in the areas of components to provide a long lifetime, high reliability, and low maintenance (no more than $0.001/kW-hr).

  10. Thermal and economic assessment of ground-coupled storage for residential solar heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. K.; Morehouse, J. H.

    1980-11-01

    This study performed an analysis of ground-coupled stand-alone and series configured solar-assisted liquid-to-air heat pump systems for residences. The year-round thermal performance of these systems for space heating, space cooling, and water heating were determined by simulation and compared against non-ground-coupled solar heat pump systems as well as conventional heating and cooling systems in three geographic locations: Washington, D.C., Fort Worth, Tex., and Madison, Wis. The results indicate that without tax credits a combined solar/ground-coupled heat pump system for space heating and cooling is not cost competitive with conventional systems. Its thermal performance is considerably better than non-ground-coupled solar heat pumps in Forth Worth. Though the ground-coupled stand-alone heat pump provides 51% of the heating and cooling load with non-purchased energy in Forth Worth, its thermal performance in Washington and Madison is poor.

  11. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

  12. Heating of the solar corona by the resonant absorption of Alfven waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.

    1986-01-01

    An improved method for calculating the resonance absorption heating rate is discussed and the results are compared with observations in the solar corona. The primary conclusion to be drawn from these calculations is that to the level of the approximation adopted, the observations of the heating rate and nonthermal line broadening in the solar corona are consistent with heating by the resonance absorption mechanism.

  13. Solar Energy School Heating Augmentation Experiment. Sections I, II, and III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    InterTechnology Corp., Warrenton, VA.

    An experimental solar heating system heats five modular classrooms at the Fauquier County High School in Warrenton, Virginia. The present report covers the operation, maintenance, and modifications to the system over the 1974-75 and 1975-76 heating seasons. The solar system has shown the capability of providing essentially 100 percent of the…

  14. Solar Air Heating Metal Roofing for Reroofing, New Construction, and Retrofit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    roof, gym wall and roof before the ESTCP project. ......................... 14 Figure 9. Plan view schematic of solar air heating mechanical systems ...16 Figure 10. Schematic of domestic hot water heating system ................................................. 17...Gaffney Fitness Center, located at Fort Meade, Maryland. The solar air heating metal roofing system uses conventional metal roofing in a traditional

  15. Solar heating for an electronics manufacturing plant--Blue Earth, Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Partial space heating for 97,000 square foot plant is supplied by 360 flat plate solar collectors; energy is sorted as heat in indoor 20,000 gallon water tank. System includes all necessary control electronics for year round operation. During December 1978, solar energy supplied 24.4 percent of building's space heating load.

  16. Liquid flat plate collector and pump for solar heating and cooling systems: A collection of quarterly reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development, fabrication, and delivery of solar subsystems consisting of a solar operated pump, and solar collectors which can be used in solar heating and cooling, or hot water, for single family, multifamily, or commercial applications is reported.

  17. Energy conservation and solar heating for mobile homes

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    Project activities consisted of retro-fitting six (6) mobile homes with extensive energy-conservation improvements and installing solar-space-heating systems on four (4) of these homes. The intent of the project was to evaluate the potential of mobile homes as a low-cost energy-efficient housing option for low- to moderate income families. Using both hard and soft data, it is estimated that an average fuel reduction in excess of 35% was achieved by the conservation improvements alone. The project lacked the expertise and monitoring instruments to properly evaluate the effectiveness of the four solar installations and had to rely on the personal observations of the four families that received the units.

  18. Feasibility evaluation for solar industrial process heat applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stadjuhar, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical method for assessing the feasibility of Solar Industrial Process Heat applications has been developed and implemented in a flexible, fast-calculating computer code - PROSYS/ECONMAT. The performance model PROSYS predicts long-term annual energy output for several collector types, including flat-plate, nontracking concentrator, one-axis tracking concentrator, and two-axis tracking concentrator. Solar equipment cost estimates, annual energy capacity cost, and optional net present worth analysis are provided by ECONMAT. User input consists of detailed industrial process information and optional economic parameters. Internal program data includes meteorological information for 248 US sites, characteristics of more than 20 commercially available collectors representing several generic collector types, and defaults for economic parameters. Because a fullscale conventional back-up fuel system is assumed, storage is not essential and is not included in the model.

  19. International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST); Volume 1: Cases E100-E200

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the Building Energy Simulation Test for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST) project conducted by the Tool Evaluation and Improvement International Energy Agency (IEA) Experts Group. The group was composed of experts from the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme, Task 22, Subtask A. The current test cases, E100-E200, represent the beginning of work on mechanical equipment test cases; additional cases that would expand the current test suite have been proposed for future development.

  20. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ben

    The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae

  1. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Federal buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water.[2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514.

  2. Thermal evaluation of advanced solar dynamic heat receiver performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Roger A.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal performance of a variety of concepts for thermal energy storage as applied to solar dynamic applications is discussed. It is recognized that designs providing large thermal gradients or large temperature swings during orbit are susceptible to early mechanical failure. Concepts incorporating heat pipe technology may encounter operational limitations over sufficiently large ranges. By reviewing the thermal performance of basic designs, the relative merits of the basic concepts are compared. In addition the effect of thermal enhancement and metal utilization as applied to each design provides a partial characterization of the performance improvements to be achieved by developing these technologies.

  3. Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Anoop

    2013-08-14

    A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during

  4. Solar heat gain through a skylight in a light well

    SciTech Connect

    Klems, J.H.

    2001-08-01

    Detailed heat flow measurements on a skylight mounted on a light well of significant depth are presented. It is shown that during the day much of the solar energy that strikes the walls of the well does not reach the space below. Instead, this energy is trapped in the stratified air of the light well and eventually either conducted through the walls of the well or back out through the skylight. The standard model for predicting fenestration heat transfer does not agree with the measurements when it is applied to the skylight/well combination as a whole (the usual practice), but does agree reasonably well when it is applied to the skylight alone, using the well air temperature near the skylight. A more detailed model gives good agreement. Design implications and future research directions are discussed.

  5. Solar-heated municipal swimming pools, a case study: Dade County, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, M.

    1981-09-01

    The experience of installing a solar energy system to heat the water in the swimming pool in one of Dade County, Florida's major parks is described and the mechanics of solar heated swimming pools are explained. The solar heating system consists of 216 unglazed polypropylene tube collectors, a differential thermostat, and the distribution system. The performance and economics of the system are discussed as well as future plants. (LEW)

  6. A comparative study of community solar heating systems for northern high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P. D.

    1984-03-01

    A computational performance study of community solar heating systems with seasonal storage in southern Finland (60 deg N) has been accomplished. Computer simulations are carried out on an hour-by-hour basis and for four types of system configurations. The effect of collector type, storage volume, heat pump and collector area are investigated. The results of the study show that district solar heating systems may provide considerable solar fractions even in strict climatic conditions.

  7. Wallboard with Latent Heat Storage for Passive Solar Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kedl, R.J.

    2001-05-31

    Conventional wallboard impregnated with octadecane paraffin [melting point-23 C (73.5 F)] is being developed as a building material with latent heat storage for passive solar and other applications. Impregnation was accomplished simply by soaking the wallboard in molten wax. Concentrations of wax in the combined product as high as 35% by weight can be achieved. Scale-up of the soaking process, from small laboratory samples to full-sized 4- by 8-ft sheets, has been successfully accomplished. The required construction properties of wallboard are maintained after impregnation, that is, it can be painted and spackled. Long-term, high-temperature exposure tests and thermal cycling tests showed no tendency of the paraffin to migrate within the wallboard, and there was no deterioration of thermal energy storage capacity. In support of this concept, a computer model was developed to handle thermal transport and storage by a phase change material (PCM) dispersed in a porous media. The computer model was confirmed by comparison with known analytical solutions and also by comparison with temperatures measured in wallboard during an experimentally generated thermal transient. Agreement between the model and known solution was excellent. Agreement between the model and thermal transient was good, only after the model was modified to allow the PCM to melt over a temperature range, rather than at a specific melting point. When the melting characteristics of the PCM (melting point, melting range, and heat of fusion), as determined from a differential scanning calorimeter plot, were used in the model, agreement between the model and transient data was very good. The confirmed computer model may now be used in conjunction with a building heating and cooling code to evaluate design parameters and operational characteristics of latent heat storage wallboard for passive solar applications.

  8. Experimental simulation of latent heat thermal energy storage and heat pipe thermal transport for dish concentrator solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, R.; Zimmerman, W. F.; Poon, P. T. Y.

    1981-01-01

    Test results on a modular simulation of the thermal transport and heat storage characteristics of a heat pipe solar receiver (HPSR) with thermal energy storage (TES) are presented. The HPSR features a 15-25 kWe Stirling engine power conversion system at the focal point of a parabolic dish concentrator operating at 827 C. The system collects and retrieves solar heat with sodium pipes and stores the heat in NaF-MgF2 latent heat storage material. The trials were run with a single full scale heat pipe, three full scale TES containers, and an air-cooled heat extraction coil to replace the Stirling engine heat exchanger. Charging and discharging, constant temperature operation, mixed mode operation, thermal inertial, etc. were studied. The heat pipe performance was verified, as were the thermal energy storage and discharge rates and isothermal discharges.

  9. Joule heating and runaway electron acceleration in a solar flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Kundu, Mukul R.; Kane, Sharad R.

    1989-01-01

    The hard and soft x ray and microwave emissions from a solar flare (May 14, 1980) were analyzed and interpreted in terms of Joule heating and runaway electron acceleration in one or more current sheets. It is found that all three emissions can be generated with sub-Dreicer electric fields. The soft x ray emitting plasma can only be heated by a single current sheet if the resistivity in the sheet is well above the classical, collisional resistivity of 10(exp 7) K, 10(exp 11)/cu cm plasma. If the hard x ray emission is from thermal electrons, anomalous resistivity or densities exceeding 3 x 10(exp 12)/cu cm are required. If the hard x ray emission is from nonthermal electrons, the emissions can be produced with classical resistivity in the current sheets if the heating rate is approximately 4 times greater than that deduced from the soft x ray data (with a density of 10(exp 10)/cu cm in the soft x ray emitting region), if there are at least 10(exp 4) current sheets, and if the plasma properties in the sheets are characteristic of the superhot plasma observed in some flares by Lin et al., and with Hinotori. Most of the released energy goes directly into bulk heating, rather than accelerated particles.

  10. A comparison of microwave versus direct solar heating for lunar brick production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yankee, S. J.; Strenski, D. G.; Pletka, B. J.; Patil, D. S.; Mutsuddy, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    Two processing techniques considered suitable for producing bricks from lunar regolith are examined: direct solar heating and microwave heating. An analysis was performed to compare the two processes in terms of the amount of power and time required to fabricate bricks of various sizes. Microwave heating was shown to be significantly faster than solar heating for rapid production of realistic-size bricks. However, the relative simplicity of the solar collector(s) used for the solar furnace compared to the equipment necessary for microwave generation may present an economic tradeoff.

  11. Test bench HEATREC for heat loss measurement on solar receiver tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, José M.; López-Martín, Rafael; Valenzuela, Loreto; Zarza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    In Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) plants the thermal energy of solar radiation is absorbed by solar receiver tubes (HCEs) and it is transferred to a heat transfer fluid. Therefore, heat losses of receiver tubes have a direct influence on STE plants efficiency. A new test bench called HEATREC has been developed by Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in order to determinate the heat losses of receiver tubes under laboratory conditions. The innovation of this test bench consists in the possibility to determine heat losses under controlled vacuum.

  12. Why convective heat transport in the solar nebula was inefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The radial distributions of the effective temperatures of circumstellar disks associated with pre-main sequence (T Tauri) stars are relatively well-constrained by ground-based and spacecraft infrared photometry and radio continuum observations. If the mechanisms by which energy is transported vertically in the disks are understood, these data can be used to constrain models of the thermal structure and evolution of solar nebula. Several studies of the evolution of the solar nebula have included the calculation of the vertical transport of heat by convection. Such calculations rely on a mixing length theory of transport and some assumption regarding the vertical distribution of internal dissipation. In all cases, the results of these calculations indicate that transport by radiation dominates that by convection, even when the nebula is convectively unstable. A simple argument that demonstrates the generality (and limits) of this result, regardless of the details of mixing length theory or the precise distribution of internal heating is presented. It is based on the idea that the radiative gradient in an optically thick nebula generally does not greatly exceed the adiabatic gradient.

  13. Solar transient events and their importance for coronal heating.

    PubMed

    Doyle, J Gerry; Madjarska, Maria S

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, the uninterrupted high resolution coverage of the Sun both from the excellent range of telescopes aboard many spacecrafts and from ground-based instruments has led to a wealth of observations of small-scale dynamic events observed from the chromosphere to the transition region and corona. Since many of these events were observed with different instruments they show different properties from one another. It is suggested that many of these phenomena result from small-scale reconnection events due to the continually evolving magnetic fields as seen at the photospheric level, although waves are thought to play an important heating role as well. Nowadays, there is a general consensus that the key to understanding how the solar plasma is accelerated and heated may well be found in the study of these small-scale dynamic events. Here we give a brief review of the range of observed transient features and suggest that these small-scale events may well have broad implications for the mass and energy balance of the whole upper atmosphere of the Sun and the solar wind.

  14. Electromagnetic heating of minor planets in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, F.; Sonett, C. P.

    1979-01-01

    Electromagnetic processes occurring in the primordial solar system are likely to have significantly affected planetary evolution. In particular, electrical coupling of the kinetic energy of a dense T-Tauri-like solar wind into the interior of the smaller planets could have been a major driver of thermal metamorphism. Accordingly a grid of asteroid models of various sizes and solar distances was constructed using dc transverse magnetic induction theory. Plausible parameterizations with no requirement for a high environmental temperature led to complete melting for Vesta with no melting for Pallas and Ceres. High temperatures were reached in the Pallas model, perhaps implying nonmelting thermal metamorphosis as a cause of its anomalous spectrum. A reversal of this temperature sequence seems implausible, suggesting that the Ceres-Pallas-Vesta dichotomy is a natural outcome of the induction mechanism. Highly localized heating is expected to arise due to an instability in the temperature-controlled current distribution. Localized metamorphosis resulting from this effect may be relevant to the production and evolution of pallasites, the large presumed metal component of S object spectra, and the formation of the lunar magma ocean.

  15. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  16. Bench-scale testing of a heat-pipe receiver for solar thermal electric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Douglas R.; Dudley, Vernon

    Electric power generating systems that couple parabolic-dish solar-concentrators with Stirling engines and generators are currently being developed under the Department of Energy's solar thermal electric program. These systems will use liquid metal heat pipes to transfer energy from the focal point of a solar concentrator to the heater tubes of a Stirling engine. The heat-pipe solar-receivers are required to operate in adverse orientations and accept flux levels on the order of 100 W/sq. cm. To explore the operating limits of heat-pipe solar-receivers, a series of bench-scale heat pipe receivers are being designed and tested. Results from the bench-scale tests and their implications on a full-scale heat-pipe solar receiver are presented in this paper.

  17. The development of a solar-powered residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Efforts to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar power for residential heating and cooling are described. These efforts were concentrated on the analysis, design, and test of a full-scale demonstration system which is currently under construction at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama. The basic solar heating and cooling system under development utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating and water heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling.

  18. Solar passive ceiling system. Final report. [Passive solar heating system with venetian blind reflectors and latent heat storage in ceiling

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction of a 1200 square foot building, with full basement, built to be used as a branch library in a rural area is described. The primary heating source is a passive solar system consisting of a south facing window system. The system consists of: a set of windows located in the south facing wall only, composed of double glazed units; a set of reflectors mounted in each window which reflects sunlight up to the ceiling (the reflectors are similar to venetian blinds); a storage area in the ceiling which absorbs the heat from the reflected sunlight and stores it in foil salt pouches laid in the ceiling; and an automated curtain which automatically covers and uncovers the south facing window system. The system is totally passive and uses no blowers, pumps or other active types of heat distribution equipment. The building contains a basement which is normally not heated, and the north facing wall is bermed four feet high around the north side.

  19. Acceleration of runaway electrons and Joule heating in solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, G.D.

    1985-06-15

    The electric-field acceleration of electrons out of a thermal plasma and the simultaneous Joule heating of the plasma are studied. Acceleration and heating time scales are derived and compared, and upper limits are obtained on the acceleration volume and the rate at which electrons can be accelerated. These upper limits, determined by the maximum magnetic-field strength observed in flaring regions, place stringent restrictions on the acceleration process. The implications of these results for the microwave and hard X-ray emission from solar flares are examined. The major conclusions are: (1) The simple electric-field acceleration of electrons is found, in agreement with Spicer, to be incapable of producing a large enough electron flux to explain the bulk of the observed hard X-ray emission from solar flares as nonthermal bremsstrahlung. For the bulk of the X-ray emission to be nonthermal, at least 10/sup 4/ oppositely directed current channels are required, or an acceleration mechanism that does not result in a net current in the acceleration region is required. (2) lf the bulk of the X-ray emission is thermal, a single current sheet can yield the required heating and acceleration time scales and the required electron energies for the microwave emission. This is accomplished with an electric field that is much smaller than the Dreicer field (E/sub D//Eroughly-equal10--50). (3) The rise time of the nonthermal emission is determined by the time needed to generate the required number of runaway electrons rather than by the time needed to accelerate the electrons to the required energies, which is generally a much shorter time scale. (4) The acceleration of enough electrons to produce a microwave flare requires the resupply of electrons to both the current sheet and the runaway region of velocity space.

  20. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating system installer guidelines are presented for each subsystem. This single family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: (1) liquid cooled flat plate collectors; (2) water storage tank; (3) passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; (4) electric hot water heater; (5) heat pump with electric backup; (6) solar hot water coil unit; (7) tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; (8) control system; and (9) air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance in the form of written descriptions, schematics, detail drawings, pictures, and manufacturer's component data.

  1. Installation guidelines for Solar Heating System, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Heating System installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and includes testing and filling the system. This single-family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is also provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance. Information consists of written procedures, schematics, detail drawings, pictures and manufacturer's component data.

  2. Heat Transfer Analysis of a Solid-Solid Heat Recuperation System for Solar-Driven Nonstoichiometric Redox Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lapp, J; Davidson, JH; Lipinski, W

    2013-03-22

    Heat transfer is predicted for a solid-solid heat recuperation system employed in a novel directly-irradiated solar thermochemical reactor realizing a metal oxide based nonstoichiometric redox cycle for production of synthesis gas from water and carbon dioxide. The system is designed for continuous operation with heat recuperation from a rotating hollow cylinder of a porous reactive material to a counter-rotating inert solid cylinder via radiative transfer. A transient heat transfer model coupling conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer predicts temperatures, rates of heat transfer, and the effectiveness of heat recovery. Heat recovery effectiveness of over 50% is attained within a parametric study of geometric and material parameters corresponding to the design of a two-step solar thermochemical reactor.

  3. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System Installed at the First Solar Heated Office Building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. The Solar System was designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 Solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glycol-water solution through the collectors into a hot water system heat exchanger. The hot water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make-up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described. The system became operational July 11, 1979.

  4. Funding Solar Projects at Federal Agencies: Mechanisms and Selection Criteria (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Implementing solar energy projects at federal facilities is a process. The project planning phase of the process includes determining goals, building a team, determining site feasibility and selecting the appropriate project funding tool. This fact sheet gives practical guidance to assist decision-makers with understanding and selecting the funding tool that would best address their site goals. Because project funding tools are complex, federal agencies should seek project assistance before making final decisions. High capital requirements combined with limits on federal agency energy contracts create challenges for funding solar projects. Solar developers typically require long-term contracts (15-20) years to spread out the initial investment and to enable payments similar to conventional utility bill payments. In the private sector, 20-year contracts have been developed, vetted, and accepted, but the General Services Administration (GSA) contract authority (federal acquisition regulation [FAR] part 41) typically limits contract terms to 10 years. Payments on shorter-term contracts make solar economically unattractive compared with conventional generation. However, in several instances, the federal sector has utilized innovative funding tools that allow long-term contracts or has created a project package that is economically attractive within a shorter contract term.

  5. Combined Active and Passive Solar Space Heating and Solar Hot Water Systems for an Elementary School in Boise, Idaho.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smull, Neil A.; Armstrong, Gerald L.

    1979-01-01

    Amity Elementary School in Boise, Idaho, features a solar space heating and domestic hot water system along with an earth covering to accommodate the passive aspects of energy conservation. (Author/MLF)

  6. Flare heating and ionization of the low solar chromosphere. II - Observations of five solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Canfield, Richard C.; Saba, Julia L. R.

    1990-01-01

    Two neutral Mg spectral lines formed in the temperature-minimum region and the low chromosphere, at 4571 and 5173 A, are used to quantify the changes in the atmospheric structure as a function of time during five solar flares. Eight proposed flare heating and ionization mechanisms and predictions of the effects of each on the temperature minimum region are discussed. Two Mg spectral observations made at the National Solar Observatory (Sacramento Peak), along with observations of hard and soft X-rays from the SMM and GOES satellites, are compared to the predictions of the eight proposed mechanisms. The initial effects in all five flares are consistent with backwarming by enhanced Balmer- and Paschen-continuum radiation originating in the upper chromosphere. Extended heating observed in two of the flares is most likely due to UV irradiation. In all cases heating by the dissipation of nonreversed electric currents, collisions with an electron or proton beam, irradiation by soft X-rays, and dissipation of Alfven waves are eliminated.

  7. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, E.; Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, M.; Heidenreich, Gary; Johnson, Steve

    1988-01-01

    An integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system was developed as part of the Organic Rankine Cycle Solar Dynamic Power System solar receiver for space station application. The solar receiver incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space with a toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe. Part of this thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of earth orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was constructed that contains axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the toluene heater and the TES units to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to demonstrate the heat pipe, TES units, and the heater tube operation. The heat pipe element was operated at design input power of 4.8 kW. Thermal cycle tests were conducted to demonstrate the successful charge and discharge of the TES units. Axial power flux levels up to 15 watts/sq cm were demonstrated and transient tests were conducted on the heat pipe element. Details of the heat pipe development and test procedures are presented.

  8. Window Design Criteria to Avoid Overheating by Excessive Solar Heat Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, A. G.

    Building Research studies show that overheating because of excessive solar heat gains can be troublesome in buildings of lightweight construction with large areas of glazing. The work being done at the Building Research Station provides the data for calculation of peak temperatures resulting from solar heat gain. Attention is given to window size…

  9. Timonium Elementary School Solar Energy Heating and Cooling Augmentation Experiment. Final Engineering Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AAI Corp., Baltimore, MD.

    This report covers a two-year and seven-month solar space heating and cooling experiment conducted at the Timonium Elementary School, Timonium, Maryland. The system was designed to provide a minimum of 50 percent of the energy required during the heating season and to determine the feasibility of using solar energy to power absorption-type…

  10. Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Phase 0. Executive Summary. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Baltimore, MD.

    After the Westinghouse Electric Corporation made a comprehensive analysis of the technical, economic, social, environmental, and institutional factors affecting the feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, it determined that solar heating and cooling systems can become competitive in most regions of the country in…

  11. Solar Heating Experiment on the Grover Cleveland School, Boston, Massachusetts. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Electric Co., Philadelphia, PA. Space Div.

    General Electric Company was one of four contractors who received a contract in early January 1974 to design, build, and install a solar heating experiment in a public school. The overall objective of this program was to obtain data that would assist in evaluating the applicability of solar heating systems in large metropolitan areas. This data…

  12. System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

  13. Solar Energy School Heating Augmentation Experiment. Design, Construction and Initial Operation. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    InterTechnology Corp., Warrenton, VA.

    This report describes an experimental solar heating system, complete with thermal storage and controls, that has met all the heating requirements of five detached classrooms of the Fauquier High School in Warrenton, Virginia. The objectives of the experiment were to (1) demonstrate that solar energy can be used to provide a substantial part of the…

  14. Analysis of heat-pipe absorbers in evacuated-tube solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, J. R.; Schertz, W. W.; Allen, J. W.

    1986-02-01

    Heat transfer in evacuated-tube solar collectors with heat-pipe absorbers is compared with that for similar collectors with flow-through absorbers. In systems that produce hot water or other heated fluids, the heat-pipe absorber suffers a heat transfer penalty compared with the flow-through absorber, but in many cases the penalty can be minimized by proper design at the heat-pipe condenser and system manifold. The heat transfer penalty decreases with decreasing collector heat loss coefficient, suggesting that evacuated tubes with optical concentration are more appropriate for use with heat pipes than evacuated or nonevacuated flat-plate collectors. When the solar collector is used to drive an absorption chiller, the heat-pipe absorber has better heat transfer characteristics than the flow-through absorbers.

  15. Installation package for integrated programmable electronic controller and hydronic subsystem - solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of the Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manual and information on the power panel and programmable microprocessor, a hydronic solar pump system and a hydronic heating hot water pumping system. These systems are integrated into various configurations for usages in solar energy management, control and monitoring, lighting control, data logging and other solar related applications.

  16. Guidelines for selecting a solar heating, cooling or hot water design

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.J. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Guidelines are presented for the professional who may have to choose between competing solar heating and cooling designs for buildings. The experience of the National Solar Data Network in monitoring over 100 solar installations are drawn upon. Three basic principles and a design selection checklist are developed which will aid in choosing the most cost effective design.

  17. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and cooling system located at the Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas, is discussed. A technical description of the solar system is presented. The costs of the major components and the cost of installing the system are described. Flow diagrams and photographs of the solar system are provided.

  18. Automotive absorption air conditioner utilizing solar and motor waste heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popinski, Z. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In combination with the ground vehicles powered by a waste heat generating electric motor, a cooling system including a generator for driving off refrigerant vapor from a strong refrigerant absorbant solution is described. A solar collector, an air-cooled condenser connected with the generator for converting the refrigerant vapor to its liquid state, an air cooled evaporator connected with the condenser for returning the liquid refrigerant to its vapor state, and an absorber is connected to the generator and to the evaporator for dissolving the refrigerant vapor in the weak refrigerant absorbant solution, for providing a strong refrigerant solution. A pump is used to establish a pressurized flow of strong refrigerant absorbant solution from the absorber through the electric motor, and to the collector.

  19. Electrical discharge heating of chondrules in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Keil, Klaus; Scott, Edward R. D.

    1995-01-01

    We present a rudimentary theoretical assessment of electrical discharge heating as a candidate mechanism for the formation of chondrules in the solar nebula. The discharge model combines estimates of the properties of the nebula, a mechanism for terrestrial thunderstorm electrification, and some fundamental electrical properties of gases. Large uncertainties in the model inputs limit these calculations to order-or-magnitude accuracy. Despite the uncertainty, it is possible to estimate an upper limit to the efficiency of nebular discharges at melting millimeter-sized stony objects. We find that electrical arcs analogous to terrestrial lightning could have occurred in the nebula, but that under most conditions these discharges probably could not have melted chondrules. Despite our difficulties, we believe the topic worthy of further investigation and suggest some experiments which could improve our understanding of nebular discharges.

  20. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, T M; McGuigan, K G; Elmore-Meegan, M; Conroy, R M

    1996-01-01

    We report simulations of the thermal effect of strong equatorial sunshine on water samples contaminated with high populations of fecal coliforms. Water samples, heavily contaminated with a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli (starting population = 20 x 10(5) CFU/ml), are heated to those temperatures recorded for 2-liter samples stored in transparent plastic bottles and exposed to full Kenyan sunshine (maximum water temperature, 55 degrees C). The samples are completely disinfected within 7 h, and no viable E. coli organisms are detected at either the end of the experiment or a further 12 h later, showing that no bacterial recovery has occurred. The feasibility of employing solar disinfection for highly turbid, fecally contaminated water is discussed. PMID:8593045

  1. Solar augmentation for process heat with central receiver technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzé, Johannes P.; du Toit, Philip; Bode, Sebastian J.; Larmuth, James N.; Landman, Willem A.; Gauché, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Coal fired boilers are currently one of the most widespread ways to deliver process heat to industry. John Thompson Boilers (JTB) offer industrial steam supply solutions for industry and utility scale applications in Southern Africa. Transport cost add significant cost to the coal price in locations far from the coal fields in Mpumalanga, Gauteng and Limpopo. The Helio100 project developed a low cost, self-learning, wireless heliostat technology that requires no ground preparation. This is attractive as an augmentation alternative, as it can easily be installed on any open land that a client may have available. This paper explores the techno economic feasibility of solar augmentation for JTB coal fired steam boilers by comparing the fuel savings of a generic 2MW heliostat field at various locations throughout South Africa.

  2. The cavity heat pipe Stirling receiver for space solar dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James B.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1989-01-01

    The receiver/storage unit for the low-earth-orbiting Stirling system is discussed. The design, referred to as the cavity heat pipe (CHP), has been optimized for minimum specific mass and volume width. A specific version of this design at the 7-kWe level has been compared to the space station Brayton solar dynamic design. The space station design utilizes a eutectic mixture of LiF and CaF2. Using the same phase change material, the CHP has been shown to have a specific mass of 40 percent and a volume of 5 percent of that of the space station Brayton at the same power level. Additionally, it complements the free-piston Stirling engine in that it also maintains a relatively flat specific mass down to at least 1 kWe. The technical requirements, tradeoff studies, critical issues, and critical technology experiments are discussed.

  3. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating.

    PubMed

    Joyce, T M; McGuigan, K G; Elmore-Meegan, M; Conroy, R M

    1996-02-01

    We report simulations of the thermal effect of strong equatorial sunshine on water samples contaminated with high populations of fecal coliforms. Water samples, heavily contaminated with a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli (starting population = 20 x 10(5) CFU/ml), are heated to those temperatures recorded for 2-liter samples stored in transparent plastic bottles and exposed to full Kenyan sunshine (maximum water temperature, 55 degrees C). The samples are completely disinfected within 7 h, and no viable E. coli organisms are detected at either the end of the experiment or a further 12 h later, showing that no bacterial recovery has occurred. The feasibility of employing solar disinfection for highly turbid, fecally contaminated water is discussed.

  4. Method of forming oxide coatings. [for solar collector heating panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    This invention is concerned with an improved plating process for covering a substrate with a black metal oxide film. The invention is particularly directed to making a heating panel for a solar collector. A compound is electrodeposited from an aqueous solution containing cobalt metal salts onto a metal substrate. This compound is converted during plating into a black, highly absorbing oxide coating which contains hydrated oxides. This is achieved by the inclusion of an oxidizing agent in the plating bath. The inclusion of an oxidizing agent in the plating bath is contrary to standard electroplating practice. The hydrated oxides are converted to oxides by treatment in a hot bath, such as boiling water. An oxidizing agent may be added to the hot liquid treating bath.

  5. Combined solar heat and power system with a latent heat storage - system simulations for an economic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipf, Verena; Neuhäuser, Anton

    2016-05-01

    Decentralized solar combined heat and power (CHP) systems can be economically feasible, especially when they have a thermal storage. In such systems, heat provided by solar thermal collectors is used to generate electricity and useful heat for e.g. industrial processes. For the supply of energy in times without solar irradiation, a thermal storage can be integrated. In this work, the performance of a solar CHP system using an active latent heat storage with a screw heat exchanger is investigated. Annual yield calculations are conducted in order to calculate annual energy gains and, based on them; economic assumptions are used to calculated economic numbers in order to assess the system performance. The energy savings of a solar system, compared to a system with a fossil fuel supply, are calculated. Then the net present value and the dynamic payback are calculated with these savings, the initial investment costs and the operational costs. By interpretation and comparison of these economic numbers, an optimum system design in terms of solar field size and storage size was determined. It has been shown that the utilization of such systems can be economical in remote areas without gas and grid connection. Optimal storage design parameters in terms of the temperature differences in the heat exchanger and the storage capacity have been determined which can further increase the net present value of such system.

  6. Performance improvement of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak electric auxiliary

    SciTech Connect

    Eltimsahy, A.H.

    1980-06-01

    The design and construction of a heat pump system suitable for incorporating in a space solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility are described. The performance of the system is evaluated. The refrigerating capacity, heating capacity and compressor horsepower for a heat pump system using a piston type compressor are first determined. The heat pump design is also matched with the existing University of Toledo solar house heating system. The refrigerant is Freon-12 working between a condensing temperature of up to 172/sup 0/F and evaporator temperature between 0/sup 0/F and 75/sup 0/F. The heat pump is then installed. Performance indices for the heat pump and the heating system in general are defined and generated by the on-line computer monitoring system for the 1979/80 heating season operation. Monthly and seasonal indices such as heat pump coefficient of performance, collector efficiency, percent of heating load supplied by solar energy and individual components efficiencies in general are recorded. The data collected is then analyzed and compared with previously collected data. The improvement in the performance resulting from the addition of a piston type compressor with an external motor belt drive is then evaluated. Data collected points to the potentially improved operating performance of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility. Data shows that the seasonal percent of space heating load supplied by solar is 60% and the seasonal percent cost of space heating load supplied by solar is 82% with a solar collection coefficient of performance of 4.6. Data also indicates that such a system would pay for itself in 14 years when used in Northwest Ohio.

  7. Solar heating and cooling system installed at RKL Controls Company, Lumberton, New Jersey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    Solar heating and cooling of a 40,000 square foot manufacturing building, sales offices and the solar computer control center/display room are described. Information on system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, manufacturer's literature and as-built drawings are provided also. The solar system is composed of 6000 square feet of Sunworks double glazed flat plate collectors, external above ground storage subsystem, controls, ARKLA absorption chiller, heat recovery and a cooling tower.

  8. Solar-energy heats a transportation test center--Pueblo, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Petroleum-base, thermal energy transport fluid circulating through 583 square feet of flat-plate solar collectors accumulates majority of energy for space heating and domestic hot-water of large Test Center. Report describes operation, maintenance, and performance of system which is suitable for warehouses and similar buildings. For test period from February 1979 to January 1980, solar-heating fraction was 31 percent, solar hot-water fraction 79 percent.

  9. Sensitive test for ion-cyclotron resonant heating in the solar wind.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Justin C; Maruca, Bennett A; Stevens, Michael L; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2013-03-01

    Plasma carrying a spectrum of counterpropagating field-aligned ion-cyclotron waves can strongly and preferentially heat ions through a stochastic Fermi mechanism. Such a process has been proposed to explain the extreme temperatures, temperature anisotropies, and speeds of ions in the solar corona and solar wind. We quantify how differential flow between ion species results in a Doppler shift in the wave spectrum that can prevent this strong heating. Two critical values of differential flow are derived for strong heating of the core and tail of a given ion distribution function. Our comparison of these predictions to observations from the Wind spacecraft reveals excellent agreement. Solar wind helium that meets the condition for strong core heating is nearly 7 times hotter than hydrogen on average. Ion-cyclotron resonance contributes to heating in the solar wind, and there is a close link between heating, differential flow, and temperature anisotropy.

  10. Nonequilibrium ionization effects in asymmetrically heated loops. [in solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spadaro, D.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Mariska, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of nonequilibrium ionization on magnetic loop models with a steady siphon flow that is driven by a nonuniform heating rate are investigated. The model developed by Mariska (1988) to explain the observed redshifts of transition region emission lines is examined, and the number densities of the ions of carbon and oxygen along the loop are computed, with and without the approximation of ionization equilibrium. Considerable deviations from equilibrium were found. In order to determine the consequences of these nonequilibrium effects on the characteristics of the EUV emission from the loop plasma, the profiles and wavelength positions of all the important emission lines due to carbon and oxygen were calculated. The calculations are in broad agreement with Mariska's conclusions, although they show a significant diminution of the Doppler shifts, as well as modifications to the line widths. It is concluded that the inclusion of nonequilibrium effects make it more difficult to reproduce the observed characteristics of the solar transition region by means of the asymmetric-heating models.

  11. Investigation of simple daily solar radiation models suitable for use in the design of solar heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sillman, S.

    1980-08-01

    Solar heating system simulations typically require hourly weather data and the use of a main-line computer. A simpler alternative is to use daily steps with a model for daily solar collection. This report investigates the accuracy of sinusoidal radiation models for use in solar heating simulation. Accuracy of daily radiation models is assessed in two ways: by a theoretical comparison with hourly weather data, and by analysis of results of daily simulation. Results indicate that a daily radiation model can be designed with errors of less than 2%.

  12. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, E. S.; Sena, J. T.; Merrigan, M. A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low Earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the Earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube.

  13. Natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems. Techniacl progress report, June 1, 1995--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.H.

    1998-06-01

    The goals of this project are: (1) to develop guidelines for the design and use of thermosyphon side-arm heat exchangers in solar domestic water heating systems, and (2) to establish appropriate modeling and testing criteria for evaluating the performance of systems using this type of heat exchanger. The tasks for the project are as follows: (1) Develop a model of the thermal performance of thermosyphon heat exchangers in solar water heating applications. A test protocol will be developed which minimizes the number of tests required to adequately account for mixed convection effects. The TRNSYS component model will be fully integrated in a system component model and will use data acquired with the specified test protocol. (2) Conduct a fundamental study to establish friction and heat transfer correlations for conditions and geometries typical of thermosyphon heat exchangers in solar systems. Data will be obtained as a function of a buoyancy parameter based on Grashof and Reynolds numbers. The experimental domain will encompass the ranges expected in solar water heating systems.

  14. Prototype solar heated hot water systems and double-walled heat exchangers: A collection of quarterly reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The plan schedule and status of multiple objectives to be achieved in the development, manufacture, installation, and maintenance of two solar heated hot water prototype systems and two heat exchangers are reported. A computer program developed to resolve problems and evaluate system performance is described.

  15. Passive solar space heating and cooling. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the passive use of solar energy for space heating and cooling in buildings, houses, and homes. Citations discuss the design, performance, models, and economic analysis of heating and cooling systems. Topics include solar architecture, energy consumption analysis, energy conservation, and heat recovery. Also included are thermal comfort, quality of life, and housing for the elderly. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Near-term viability of solar heat applications for the federal sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. A.

    1991-12-01

    Solar thermal technologies are capable of providing heat across a wide range of temperatures, making them potentially attractive for meeting energy requirements for industrial process heat applications and institutional heating. The energy savings that could be realized by solar thermal heat are quite large, potentially several quads annually. Although technologies for delivering heat at temperatures above 100 C currently exist within industry, only a fairly small number of commercial systems have been installed to date. The objective of this paper is to investigate and discuss the prospects for near term solar heat sales to federal facilities as a mechanism for providing an early market niche to the aid the widespread development and implementation of the technology. The specific technical focus is on mid-temperature (100 to 350 C) heat demands that could be met with parabolic trough systems. Federal facilities have several features relative to private industry that may make them attractive for solar heat applications relative to other sectors. Key features are specific policy mandates for conserving energy, a long term planning horizon with well defined decision criteria, and prescribed economic return criteria for conservation and solar investments that are generally less stringent than the investment criteria used by private industry. Federal facilities also have specific difficulties in the sale of solar heat technologies that are different from those of other sectors, and strategies to mitigate these difficulties will be important. For the baseline scenario developed in this paper, the solar heat application was economically competitive with heat provided by natural gas. The system levelized energy cost was $5.9/MBtu for the solar heat case, compared to $6.8/MBtu for the life cycle fuel cost of a natural gas case. A third-party ownership would also be attractive to federal users, since it would guarantee energy savings and would not need initial federal funds.

  17. Performance monitoring of ground-coupled solar-assisted heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, J. D.; Frierson, B.

    1981-02-01

    Three Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company demonstration houses in Perkins, Oklahoma, and the data acquisition systems are described. The project involves comparison of the performance of a ground-coupled, solar-assisted heat pump system with that of a ground coupled heat pump system without solar assist, and with a conventional air source heat pump system. Details of the data acquisition and processing system are given. Problems encountered and anticipated are discussed.

  18. Effectiveness and prospects of using different solar water heating systems under the climatic conditions of the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frid, S. E.; Kolomiets, Yu. G.; Sushnikova, E. V.; Yamuder, V. F.

    2011-11-01

    The results obtained from simulating the operation of three types of solar hot water supply installations in the territory of the Russian Federation is presented: a simplest hot-water installation with accumulation of heated water directly in a solar collector and solar water-heating installations equipped with a separate storage tank and flat-plate or tubular evacuated solar collectors.

  19. Experimental Analysis of Thermoelectric Heat Exchanger for Power Generation from Salinity Gradient Solar Pond Using Low-Grade Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Baljit; Baharin, Nuraida `Aadilia; Remeli, Muhammad Fairuz; Oberoi, Amandeep; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2016-10-01

    Salinity gradient solar ponds act as an integrated thermal solar energy collector and storage system. The temperature difference between the upper convective zone and the lower convective zone of a salinity gradient solar pond can be in the range of 40-60°C. The temperature at the bottom of the pond can reach up to 90°C. Low-grade heat (<100°C) from solar ponds is currently converted into electricity by organic Rankine cycle engines. Thermoelectric generators can operate at very low temperature differences and can be a good candidate to replace organic Rankine cycle engines for power generation from salinity gradient solar ponds. The temperature difference in a solar pond can be used to power thermoelectric generators for electricity production. This paper presents an experimental investigation of a thermoelectric generators heat exchanger system designed to be powered by the hot water from the lower convective zone of a solar pond, and cold water from the upper convective zone of a solar pond. The results obtained have indicated significant prospects of such a system to generate power from low-grade heat for remote area power supply systems.

  20. Steady-state heat transfer in transversely heated porous media with application to focused solar energy collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, L. D.

    1976-01-01

    A fluid flowing in a porous medium heated transversely to the fluid flow is considered. This configuration is applicable to a focused solar energy collector for use in an electric power generating system. A fluidized bed can be regarded as a porous medium with special properties. The solutions presented are valid for describing the effectiveness of such a fluidized bed for collecting concentrated solar energy to heat the working fluid of a heat engine. Results indicate the advantage of high thermal conductivity in the transverse direction and high operating temperature of the porous medium.

  1. Residential Solar Combined Heat and Power Generation using Solar Thermoelectric Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, B.; Wagner, M.; Kunkle, C.; Watson, P.; Williams, R.; Donohoe, R.; Ugarte, K.; Wilmoth, R.; Chong, M. Zachary; Lee, H.

    2015-06-01

    Recent reports on improved efficiencies of solar thermoelectric generation (STEG) systems have generated interest in STEGs as a competitive power generation system. In this paper, the design of a combined cooling and power utilizing concentrated solar power is discussed. Solar radiation is concentrated into a receiver connected to thermoelectric modules, which are used as a topping cycle to generate power and high grade heat necessary to run an absorption chiller. Modeling of the overall system is discussed with experimental data to validate modeling results. A numerical modeling approach is presented which considers temperature variation of the source and sink temperatures and is used to maximize combined efficiency. A system is built with a demonstrated combined efficiency of 32% in actual working conditions with power generation of 3.1 W. Modeling results fell within 3% of the experimental results verifying the approach. An optimization study is performed on the mirror concentration ration and number of modules for thermal load matching and is shown to improve power generation to 26.8 W.

  2. Testing of a new solar coating for solar water heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    AlShamaileh, Ehab

    2010-09-15

    A novel and affordable solar selective coating exhibiting higher solar absorption efficiency compared to the commercial black paint coating used in most ordinary solar water heating systems (SWHSs) has been developed. The coating is fabricated by embedding a metallic particle composed of a nickel-aluminium (NiAl) alloy into the black paint. The optical behaviour of several percentages of the NiAl alloy in the coating is studied using UV-Vis and IR spectroscopies. The chemical composition of the coating was characterized using XRD and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) for both the black and alloy-containing paint. The results allowed deducing that the optimum composition to consider for further testing was 6% NiAl alloy by mass. The applicability of the coating in a real thermosyphonic SWHS was evaluated throughout the year, spanning both hot and cold seasons. It is found that the new coating shows better performance compared to the untreated black paint by an average of 5 C over a period of 1 year. The corrosion resistance of the coating was investigated using electrochemical polarization and weight-loss measurements in the corrosive medium of 3% NaCl in 0.50 M HCl. Higher inhibition efficiency of corrosion was found for the alloy-containing paint compared to the untreated paint by more than 12%. Finally, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphology of the modified coating surface, and compared to the untreated surface. (author)

  3. Solar space heating for the Visitors Center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri is discussed. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 hydronic flat plate collectors which use a 50 percent water ethylene blycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5,000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71 percent of the heating load.

  4. Comparison of Direct Solar Energy to Resistance Heating for Carbothermal Reduction of Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Gustafson, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of two methods of delivering thermal energy to regolith for the carbo thermal reduction process has been performed. The comparison concludes that electrical resistance heating is superior to direct solar energy via solar concentrators for the following reasons: (1) the resistance heating method can process approximately 12 times as much regolith using the same amount of thermal energy as the direct solar energy method because of superior thermal insulation; (2) the resistance heating method is more adaptable to nearer-term robotic exploration precursor missions because it does not require a solar concentrator system; (3) crucible-based methods are more easily adapted to separation of iron metal and glass by-products than direct solar energy because the melt can be poured directly after processing instead of being remelted; and (4) even with projected improvements in the mass of solar concentrators, projected photovoltaic system masses are expected to be even lower.

  5. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, David; Seitzler, Matt; Backman, Christine; Weitzel, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  6. Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (Phase O). Volume 1: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, CA.

    The purpose of this study was to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings. Five selected building types in 14 selected cities were used to determine loads for space heating, space cooling and dehumidification, and domestic service hot water heating. Relying on existing and…

  7. A new way to convert Alfven waves into heat in solar coronal holes - Intermittent magnetic levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Hammer, R.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.; An, C.-H.

    1992-01-01

    In our recent analysis of Alfven wave reflection in solar coronal holes, we found evidence that coronal holes are heated by reflected Alfven waves. This result suggests that the reflection is inherent to the process that dissipates these Alfven waves into heat. We propose a novel dissipation process that is driven by the reflection, and that plausibly dominates the heating in coronal holes.

  8. Power generation plant integrating concentrated solar power receiver and pressurized heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Sakadjian, Bartev B; Flynn, Thomas J; Hu, Shengteng; Velazquez-Vargas, Luis G; Maryamchik, Mikhail

    2016-10-04

    A power plant includes a solar receiver heating solid particles, a standpipe receiving solid particles from the solar receiver, a pressurized heat exchanger heating working fluid by heat transfer through direct contact with heated solid particles flowing out of the bottom of the standpipe, and a flow path for solid particles from the bottom of the standpipe into the pressurized heat exchanger that is sealed by a pressure P produced at the bottom of the standpipe by a column of heated solid particles of height H. The flow path may include a silo or surge tank comprising a pressure vessel connected to the bottom of the standpipe, and a non-mechanical valve. The power plant may further include a turbine driven by heated working fluid discharged from the pressurized heat exchanger, and a compressor driven by the turbine.

  9. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  10. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

  11. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  12. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januševičius, Karolis; Streckienė, Giedrė

    2013-12-01

    In near zero energy buildings (NZEB) built in Baltic countries, heat production systems meet the challenge of large share domestic hot water demand and high required heating capacity. Due to passive solar design, cooling demand in residential buildings also needs an assessment and solution. Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country. The presented paper describes a simulation study of solar assisted heat pump systems carried out in TRNSYS. The purpose of this simulation was to investigate how the performance of a solar assisted heat pump combination varies in near zero energy building. Results of three systems were compared to autonomous (independent) systems simulated performance. Different solar assisted heat pump design solutions with serial and parallel solar thermal collector connections to the heat pump loop were modelled and a passive cooling possibility was assessed. Simulations were performed for three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

  13. Managing compost stability and amendment to soil to enhance soil heating during soil solarization.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Christopher W; Guo, Hongyun; Claypool, Joshua T; Marshall, Megan N; Perano, Kristen M; Stapleton, James J; Vandergheynst, Jean S

    2013-05-01

    Soil solarization is a method of soil heating used to eradicate plant pathogens and weeds that involves passive solar heating of moist soil mulched (covered) with clear plastic tarp. Various types of organic matter may be incorporated into soil prior to solarization to increase biocidal activity of the treatment process. Microbial activity associated with the decomposition of soil organic matter may increase temperatures during solarization, potentially enhancing solarization efficacy. However, the level of organic matter decomposition (stability) necessary for increasing soil temperature is not well characterized, nor is it known if various amendments render the soil phytotoxic to crops following solarization. Laboratory studies and a field trial were performed to determine heat generation in soil amended with compost during solarization. Respiration was measured in amended soil samples prior to and following solarization as a function of soil depth. Additionally, phytotoxicity was estimated through measurement of germination and early growth of lettuce seedlings in greenhouse assays. Amendment of soil with 10%(g/g) compost containing 16.9 mg CO2/gdry weight organic carbon resulted in soil temperatures that were 2-4 °C higher than soil alone. Approximately 85% of total organic carbon within the amended soil was exhausted during 22 days of solarization. There was no significant difference in residual respiration with soil depth down to 17.4 cm. Although freshly amended soil proved highly inhibitory to lettuce seed germination and seedling growth, phytotoxicity was not detected in solarized amended soil after 22 days of field solarization.

  14. Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-07-01

    A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

  15. Design and operation of a solar heating and cooling system for a residential size building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littles, J. W.; Humphries, W. R.; Cody, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The first year of operation of solar house is discussed. Selected design information, together with a brief system description is included. The house was equipped with an integrated solar heating and cooling system which uses fully automated state-of-the art. Evaluation of the data indicate that the solar house heating and cooling system is capable of supplying nearly 100 percent of the thermal energy required for heating and approximately 50 percent of the thermal energy required to operate the absorption cycle air conditioner.

  16. The NASA-Lewis/ERDA solar heating and cooling technology program. [project planning/energy policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couch, J. P.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    Plans by NASA to carry out a major role in a solar heating and cooling program are presented. This role would be to create and test the enabling technology for future solar heating, cooling, and combined heating/cooling systems. The major objectives of the project are to achieve reduction in solar energy system costs, while maintaining adequate performance, reliability, life, and maintenance characteristics. The project approach is discussed, and will be accomplished principally by contract with industry to develop advanced components and subsystems. Advanced hardware will be tested to establish 'technology readiness' both under controlled laboratory conditions and under real sun conditions.

  17. Subsystem design package for Mod 2 site data acquisition system: Solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Mod II Site Data Acquisition Subsystem (SDAS) is designed to collect data from sensors located on residential or commercial buildings using a solar heating and/or cooling system. The SDAS takes the data obtained from sensors located on the solar heating and/or cooling system, processes the data into a suitable format, stores the data for a period of time, and provides the capability for both telephone retrieval by the Central Data Processing System (CDPS) and manual retrieval of the data for transfer to the central site. The unit is designed so it will not degrade the operation of the solar heating/cooling system which it is monitoring.

  18. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  19. Review of state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes. Task 1 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, J E; Diegle, R B

    1980-04-11

    The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank.

  20. Results of heating mode performance tests of a solar-assisted heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of a heat pump, utilizing 8.16 square meters of low-cost solar collectors as the evaporator in a Freon-114 refrigeration cycle, was determined under actual insolation conditions during the summer and fall of 1976. C.O.P.'s (coefficient of performance) greater than 3 were obtained with condensing temperatures around 78 C and evaporating temperatures around 27 C. Ambient temperatures were about 3 C above evaporating temperatures. Similar performance levels were obtained at other insolation and temperature conditions. Experience with the system has identified some component and system changes which should increase the obtainable C.O.P. to about 4.0. These are described along with the system's design rationale. The accumulated data are presented as an appendix.

  1. Installation package for a solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Package consists of installation, operation and maintenance manuals for four commercial solar energy subsystems, including flat plate solar collector pebble bed thermal-storage. Manual gives design information, sizing data, specification drawings, and other material for subsystem.

  2. High temperature metal hydrides as heat storage materials for solar and related applications.

    PubMed

    Felderhoff, Michael; Bogdanović, Borislav

    2009-01-01

    For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 degrees C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

  3. High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications

    PubMed Central

    Felderhoff, Michael; Bogdanović, Borislav

    2009-01-01

    For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described. PMID:19333448

  4. An Economic Analysis of Solar Water & Space Heating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Solar system designs for 13 cities were optimized so as to minimize the life cycle cost over the assumed 20-year lifetime of the solar energy systems. A number of major assumptions were made regarding the solar system, type and use of building, financial considerations, and economic environment used in the design optimization. Seven optimum…

  5. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  6. National commercial solar heating and cooling demonstration: purposes, program activities, and implications for future programs

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, R.; Genest, M.; Bryant, B.

    1980-05-01

    The Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974 created a set of activities to demonstrate the potential use of solar heating within a three-year period and of combined solar heating and cooling within a five-year period. This study assesses the Commercial Demonstration Program portion of the activity in terms of its stated goals and objectives. The primary data base was DOE contractor reports on commercial demonstration projects. It was concluded that the program did not provide data to support a positive decision for the immediate construction or purchase of commercial solar systems. However, the program may have contributed to other goals in the subsequent legislation; i.e., research and development information, stimulation of the solar industry, and more informed policy decisions.

  7. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

  8. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Municipal Building complex, Abbeville, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information on the solar energy system installed at the new municipal building for the City of Abbeville, SC is presented, including a description of solar energy system and buildings, lessons learned, and recommendations. The solar space heating system is a direct air heating system. The flat roof collector panel was sized to provide 75% of the heating requirement based on an average day in January. The collectors used are job-built with two layers of filon corrugated fiberglass FRP panels cross lapped make up the cover. The storage consists of a pit filled with washed 3/4 in - 1 1/2 in diameter crushed granite stone. The air handler includes the air handling mechanism, motorized dampers, air circulating blower, sensors, control relays and mode control unit. Solar heating of water is provided only those times when the hot air in the collector is exhausted to the outside.

  9. Solar powered absorption cycle heat pump using phase change materials for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Solar powered heating and cooling system with possible application to residential homes is described. Operating principles of system are defined and illustration of typical energy storage and exchange system is provided.

  10. Design package for a complete residential solar space heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design of a solar space heating and hot water system is reported. System performance specifications, the design data brochure, the system description, and other information pertaining to the design are included.

  11. Modeling Heat Flow In a Calorimeter Equipped With a Textured Solar Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Allen, Bradley J.

    2001-01-01

    Heat engines are being considered for generating electric power for minisatellite applications, particularly for those missions in high radiation threat orbits. To achieve this objective, solar energy must be collected and transported to the hot side of the heat engine. A solar collector is needed having the combined properties of high solar absorptance, low infrared emittance, and high thermal conductivity. To test candidate solar collector concepts, a simple calorimeter was designed, manufactured, and installed in a bench top vacuum chamber to measure heat flow. In addition, a finite element analysis model of the collector/calorimeter combination was made to model this heat flow. The model was tuned based on observations from the as-manufactured collector/calorimeter combination. In addition, the model was exercised to examine other collector concepts, properties, and scale up issues.

  12. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

  13. Energy dashboard for real-time evaluation of a heat pump assisted solar thermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotz, David Allen

    The emergence of net-zero energy buildings, buildings that generate at least as much energy as they consume, has lead to greater use of renewable energy sources such as solar thermal energy. One example is a heat pump assisted solar thermal system, which uses solar thermal collectors with an electrical heat pump backup to supply space heating and domestic hot water. The complexity of such a system can be somewhat problematic for monitoring and maintaining a high level of performance. Therefore, an energy dashboard was developed to provide comprehensive and user friendly performance metrics for a solar heat pump system. Once developed, the energy dashboard was tested over a two-week period in order to determine the functionality of the dashboard program as well as the performance of the heating system itself. The results showed the importance of a user friendly display and how each metric could be used to better maintain and evaluate an energy system. In particular, Energy Factor (EF), which is the ratio of output energy (collected energy) to input energy (consumed energy), was a key metric for summarizing the performance of the heating system. Furthermore, the average EF of the solar heat pump system was 2.29, indicating an efficiency significantly higher than traditional electrical heating systems.

  14. Experimental study of heat transfer in parabolic trough solar receiver: Using two different heat transfer fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahtah, Reda; Bouchoucha, Ali; Abid, Cherifa; Kadja, Mahfoud; Benkafada, Fouzia

    2017-02-01

    The sun provides the earth with huge amounts of energy that can be exploited in various forms. Its exploitation can be done by using a parabolic through solar concentrator integrated with thermal storage tank, that we already made, and it is our main study. This study obviously requires special attention to the effect of the parameters of the fluids, in addition to thermal performances of this system. To do this, we studied the thermal behavior of this concentrator, and by choosing the summer period because of its stable illumination (clear sky). Before starting the test, it is necessary to check the flow circuit and the storage tank which completely filled with fluid, started the measures on the morning, the concentrator directed towards the sun until the sunset, we recorded the variation of different temperatures such as Tin, Tout, Tsur, Tfluid and Tamb. We have compared the evaluation of temperatures between water and thermal oil in order to determine the best thermal behavior and the importance of the specific heat of each fluid. The obtained results of this paper show that by using water inside the receiver, we obtained better performance than by using oil. It can be observed that the oil temperature increasing rapidly compared to water, however, water temperature takes long time to cool down compared to the first fluid which will help in the storage of heat.

  15. Wed. May 13, Hayward, Calif. -- EPA Administrator McCarthy joins San Francisco Bay Area agencies to celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - On Wednesday, May 13, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will join Bay Area agencies to celebrate the nation's largest local government collaborative for solar power and launch the nation's first federal solar partnership. Administ

  16. Dynamic behavior of a solar heated receiver of a gas turbine plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bammert, K.; Johanning, J.

    1986-01-01

    The mainly instationary operation of a solar heated receiver can be simulated with sufficient accuracy only if data about the dynamic behavior are available. For this reason, the dynamic behavior of a solar cavity receiver with parabolic dish collector is investigated. The development of a mathematical simulation considering heat transfer and storage processes is presented and the procedure for a numerical solution is illustrated. The performance of the calculation method is finally demonstrated by simulating the passage of a cloud.

  17. Thermal analysis of five outdoor swimming pools heated by unglazed solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Molineaux, B.; Lachal, B.; Guisan, O. )

    1994-07-01

    We have analysed measurement from five outdoor swimming pools located in Switzerland and heated by unglazed solar collectors. The main contributions to the daily energy balance of the swimming pools are evaluated. They include the active and passive solar gains, as well as the heat losses related to radiation, evaporation, convection, and water renewal (in order of importance). Coherent results are obtained using multilinear regressions in order to determine the best fitting values of the empirical parameters involved in the thermal equations.

  18. Solar energy heating system design package for a single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design of a solar heating and hot water system for a single family dwelling is described. Cost trade studies on the energy conservation and architectural features of the solar house are discussed. The present status of verification for the single family heating system, i.e., proof that the components and the system meet applicable physical and functional requirements, is reported. The system integration drawings, the major subsystems drawings, and the architect's specifications and plans are included.

  19. The characterization and assessment of selected solar thermal energy systems for residential and process heat applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, J. C.

    1980-09-01

    Results of studies of seven solar thermal energy applications are presented. Five of these are residential applications: space heating--active liquid, space heating--active air, domestic hot water--active, space heating--passive, and space heating and cooling--active liquid. Denver, Colorado, was selected as a representative location for each of the above applications. The remaining two applications produce industrial process heat: a flat plate collector system producing 50 C - 100 C hot water for a commercial laundry in Indianapolis, Indiana; and a concentrating collector system that could produce 100 C - 300 C process heat adequate to the needs of a pulp mill in Madison, Wisconsin.

  20. Linear Fresnel Reflector based Solar Radiation Concentrator for Combined Heating and Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Aveek; Bernal, Eva; Seshadri, Satya; Mayer, Oliver; Greaves, Mikal

    2011-12-01

    We have designed and realized a test rig to characterize concentrated solar-based CHP (combined heat and power) generator. Cost benefit analysis has been used to compare alternate technologies, which can cogenerate electrical and thermal power. We have summarized the experimental setup and methods to characterize a concentrated solar thermal (CST) unit. In this paper, we demonstrate the performance data of a concentrated solar thermal system.

  1. Solar Heating Proof-of-Concept Experiment for a Public School Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Glen L.

    Results and conclusions to date of a program to design, erect, and test a 5,000-square-foot solar energy system are presented in this report. The program described demonstrates the ability of solar collectors to supplement the heating and hot water requirements of North View Junior High School in suburban Minneapolis. The report discusses in…

  2. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas is discussed. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  3. Tests of a reduced-scale experimental model of a building solar heating-cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental solar heating and cooling system model has been built and operated, combining elements that are programmable (e.g., heating and cooling load of a building and collected solar energy) with experimental equipment. The experimental system model was based on the loads and components used in the Solar Building Test Facility (SBTF), which includes a 1394 sq m solar collector field at NASA Langley. These tests covered 5 continuous days under summer conditions. For the system model up to 55 percent of the simulated collected solar energy was used for the building load. This amount of solar energy supplied 35 percent of the building cooling load. Heat loss was significant. If tank heat loss were eliminated, which would make it similar to the actual SBTF, 75 percent of the collected solar energy would be used. This amount would supply approximately 50 percent of the building cooling load. A higher fraction of solar energy is possible with a more performance-optimized system.

  4. Solar industrial process heat for Georgia's food processing and textile industries: a market evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Studstill, W.T.

    1980-10-08

    Georgia Tech's Engineering Experiment Station conducted a site-specific market evaluation study of solar industrial process heat for Georgia's food processing and textile industries. Twenty plants were surveyed and six case studies were conducted. The summary resualts of that study are presented with interpretation and conclusions by the Southern Solar Energy Center (SSEC).

  5. Solar Heating and Cooling Experiment for a School in Atlanta. Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Falls Church, VA.

    This report documents the performance and conclusions of a 13-month period of monitoring the performance of the experimental solar heating and cooling system installed in the George A. Towns Elementary School, Atlanta, Georgia. The objectives of the project were to (1) make a significant contribution to solar design, technology, and acceptability;…

  6. 41 CFR 102-74.185 - What heating and cooling policy must Federal agencies follow in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the building systems, Federal agencies must— (a) Operate heating and cooling systems in the most... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What heating and cooling... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  7. 41 CFR 102-74.185 - What heating and cooling policy must Federal agencies follow in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the building systems, Federal agencies must— (a) Operate heating and cooling systems in the most... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What heating and cooling... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  8. 41 CFR 102-74.185 - What heating and cooling policy must Federal agencies follow in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the building systems, Federal agencies must— (a) Operate heating and cooling systems in the most... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What heating and cooling... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  9. 41 CFR 102-74.185 - What heating and cooling policy must Federal agencies follow in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the building systems, Federal agencies must— (a) Operate heating and cooling systems in the most... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What heating and cooling... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  10. 41 CFR 102-74.185 - What heating and cooling policy must Federal agencies follow in Federal facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the building systems, Federal agencies must— (a) Operate heating and cooling systems in the most... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What heating and cooling... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  11. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The solar heating system is designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a newly built Shoney's Big Boy Restaurant which was installed with completion occurring in December 1979. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximately 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating. Designer - Energy Solutions, Incorporated. Contractor - Stephens Brothers, Incorporated. This report includes extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, drawings installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  12. Interaction of a solar space heating system with the thermal behavior of a building

    SciTech Connect

    Vilmer, C.; Warren, M.L.; Auslander, D.

    1980-12-01

    The thermal behavior of a building in response to heat input from an active solar space heating system is analyzed to determine the effect of the variable storage tank temperature on the cycling rate, on-time, and off-time of a heating cycle and on the comfort characteristics of room air temperature swing and of offset of the average air temperature from the setpoint (droop). A simple model of a residential building, a fan coil heat-delivery system, and a bimetal thermostat are used to describe the system. A computer simulation of the system behavior has been developed and verified by comparisons with predictions from previous studies. The system model and simulation are then applied to determine the building response to a typical hydronic solar heating system for different solar storage temperatures, outdoor temperatures, and fan coil sizes. The simulations were run only for those cases where there was sufficient energy from storage to meet the building load requirements.

  13. Charging studies of heat packs using parabolic dish solar energy concentrator for extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohitash; Vyas, Sumita; Kumar, Ravindra; Dixit, Ambesh

    2016-05-01

    Parabolic dish solar energy concentrator with aperture diameter 1.4 m and focal length 0.32 m is designed and fabricated to charge and store solar thermal energy in phase change material (PCM) based heat packs. Overall heat loss factor, heat duty, over all thermal efficiency, and optical efficiency factor are calculated using water sensible heating and cooling tests and values are 16.11 W m-2 K-1, 546.9 W, 49.2% and 0.62 respectively. The performance characteristic curve is generated using these parameters to understand its performance at different ambient temperatures and solar insolation. The fabricated concentrator has been used to charge 16 PCM heat packs with 150 g PCM in each heat pack, which took about 35 minutes for complete charging of PCM heat packs at average ambient temperature 39 °C and solar radiation flux density 715 W m-2 K-1. The charged heat packs are subjected to discharge studies at average ambient temperature about - 7 °C and observed heat release in the temperature range of 48 to 40 °C for 50 minutes, suggesting its applications for comfort and therapeutic applications in high altitude areas.

  14. Calibration of high-heat-flux sensors in a solar furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestrín, J.; Rodríguez-Alonso, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Cañadas, I.; Barbero, F. J.; Langley, L. W.; Barnes, A.

    2006-12-01

    The most common sensors used for the measurement of high solar irradiance are the Gardon gauges, which are usually calibrated using a black body at a certain temperature as the radiant source. This calibration procedure is assumed to produce a systematic error when solar irradiance measurements are taken using these sensors. This paper demonstrates a calorimetric method for calibrating these high-heat-flux gauges in a solar furnace. This procedure has enabled these sensors to be calibrated under concentrated solar radiation at higher irradiances under non-laboratory conditions in the CIEMAT solar furnace at the Plataforma Solar de Almería. Working at higher irradiances has allowed the uncertainty in the calibration constant of these sensors to be reduced. This work experimentally confirms the predicted systematic errors committed when measuring high solar irradiances using Gardon sensors calibrated with a black body.

  15. Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Merrigan, M.A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. Sundstrand Corporation is developing a ORC-SDPS candidate for the Space Station that uses toluene as the organic fluid and LiOH as the TES material. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Solar heating and hot water system installed at James Hurst Elementary School, Portsmouth, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Solar heating and a hot water system installed in an elementary school in Portsmouth, Virginia are examined. The building is zoned into four heating/cooling areas. Each area is equipped with an air handling unit that is monitored and controlled by central control and monitoring system. The solar system for the building uses a collector area of 3,630 sq. ft. of flat plate liquid collectors, and a 6,000 gallon storage tank. System descriptions, maintenance reports, detailed component specifications, and design drawings to evaluate this solar system are reported.

  17. Detailed design procedure for solar industrial-process-heat systems: overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C F

    1982-12-01

    A large number of handbooks have been written on the subject of designing solar heating and cooling systems for buildings. One of these is summarized here. Design Approaches for Solar Industrial Process Heat Systems, published in September 1982, addresses the complete spectrum of problems associated with the design of a solar IPH system. A highly general method, derived from computer simulations, is presented for determining actual energy delivered to the process load. Also covered are siting and selection of subsystem components, cost estimation, safety and environmental considerations, and installation concerns. An overview of the design methodology developed is given and some specific examples of technical issues addressed are provided.

  18. System design package for solar heating and cooling site data acquisition subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Site Data Acquisition Subsystem (SDAS) designed to collect data from sensors located on residential or commercial buildings using a solar heating and/or cooling system is described. It takes the data obtained from sensors located on the solar system, processes the data into suitable format, stores the data for a period of time, and provides the capability for either telephone retrieval by the central data processing system or manual retrieval of the data for transfer to a central site. The SDAS is also designed so that it will not degrade the operation of the solar heating/cooling system which it is monitoring.

  19. Solar heating system installed at Telex Communications, Inc., Blue Earth, Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The solar heating system for space heating a 97,000 square foot building which houses administrative offices, assembly areas, and warehouse space is summarized. Information on system description, test data, major problems and resolutions, performance, operation and maintenance manual, manufacturer's literature, and as-built drawings is presented.

  20. Wood chip drying in connection with combined heat and power or solar energy in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Samuli; Holmberg, Henrik; Myllymaa, Tiina; Kontu, Kaisa; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    20% of the Finnish district heating (DH) power plant fuels are wood-based and the share is increasing. The wood fuel demand probably exceeds the potential supply in the future. The wood fuel drying with waste heat is one profitable opportunity to gain more wood fuel. If the drying energy can be produced with lower primary energy use than combusting the fuel directly, the drying potentially improves the system efficiency. In this study, the drying feasibility in the connection of a combined heat and power (CHP) system, possibly with solar collectors, is calculated. The wood fuel heating can be increased profitably by 6%, using the heat from CHP for drying only when the marginal cost of the heat is low enough, i.e. the electricity price is high enough and there is free capacity after the DH demand. Although the drying is profitable, a larger heat storage can also increase the annual result similarly. The best investment choice depends on the plant properties. Here the optimal system enables 20% DH production cost savings. Solar heat may be profitable, when the solar heat has a 2-3% share of the annual heat demand. However, the dryer or larger storage tank are more profitable investments.

  1. Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.

  2. Solar heating system installed at Blakedale Professional Center, Greenwood, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Information on the solar heating system installed at the Blakedale Professional Center, in Greenwood, South Carolina is presented. The information consists of site and building description, solar system description, performance evaluation, system problems and installation drawings. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 85 percent of the building's heating requirements. The system was installed concurrently with building construction and heats 4,440 square feet of the building. There are 954 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors that are proof-mounted and have a drain-down system to protect the collectors from freezing. A 5,000 gallon steel, polyurethane insulated tank buried underground provides storage. The system was fully instrumented for performance evaluation and integrated into the National Solar Data Network.

  3. Heat transfer and energy analysis of a solar air collector with smooth plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabane, Foued; Moummi, Noureddine

    2014-04-01

    The heat transfer and thermal performance of a single pass solar air heater a smooth plate was investigated experimentally. In the present paper, energy and heat transfer analysis of a solar air collector with smooth plate, this technique is used to determine the optimal thermal performance of flat plate solar air heater by considering the different system and operating parameters to obtain maximum thermal performance. Thermal performance is obtained for different mass flow rate varying in the array 0.0108-0.0202 kg/s with five values, solar intensity; tilt angle and ambient temperature. We discuss the thermal behavior of this type of collector with new design and with my proper construction. An experimental study was carried out on a prototype installed on the experimental tests platform within the University of Biskra in the Algeria. The effects of air mass flow rate, emissivity of channel plates and wind heat transfer coefficient on the accuracy of the criterion are also investigated.

  4. Development of flat-plate solar collectors for the heating and cooling of buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, J. W.; Borzoni, J. T.; Holland, T. H.

    1975-01-01

    The relevant design parameters in the fabrication of a solar collector for heating liquids were examined. The objective was to design, fabricate, and test a low-cost, flat-plate solar collector with high collection efficiency, high durability, and requiring little maintenance. Computer-aided math models of the heat transfer processes in the collector assisted in the design. The preferred physical design parameters were determined from a heat transfer standpoint and the absorber panel configuration, the surface treatment of the absorber panel, the type and thickness of insulation, and the number, spacing and material of the covers were defined. Variations of this configuration were identified, prototypes built, and performance tests performed using a solar simulator. Simulated operation of the baseline collector configuration was combined with insolation data for a number of locations and compared with a predicted load to determine the degree of solar utilization.

  5. Solar heating panel: Parks and Recreation Building, Saugatuck Township Park and Recreation Commission. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-04

    This report is an account of the design and installation of a solar heating system on an existing building in Saugatuck, MI, using existing technology. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the possibilities of alternative energy, educate local craftsmen, and make the building more useful to the community. The structure of the building is described. The process of insulating the structure is described. The design of the solar panel, headers, and strong box full of rocks for heat storage is given complete with blueprints. The installation of the system is also described, including photographs of the solar panel being installed. Included is a performance report on this system by Purbolt's Inc., which describes measurements taken on the system and outlines the system's design and operation. Included also are 12 slides of the structure and the solar heating system. (LEW)

  6. A multifunction wall system for application with solar heating and ground cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. F.; Schubert, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    The research presented in this report is an exploration of one alternative energy building system concept which is attempting to produce performance characteristics in a way closely approaching those of conventional fossil fuel heating and cooling systems. This alternative energy building system is a multifunction wall system for application with solar-heating and ground-cooling. The concept of the system is to expand the use of structure and enclosure elements of a building to function additionally as: (1) the ductwork for the solar-heated or earth-cooled air; (2) the heat transfer membrane between the heated or cooled air and the living environment of the building; (3) the heat storage medium (in winter); and (4) the temperature leveling and control medium. All these functions are integrated into a single wall construction using a new concrete block, surface-bonding cement, and the exterior insulation system. This report presents the series of experiments conducted on the Multifunction Wall System.

  7. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, John W.

    1983-06-28

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  8. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  9. The Thermospheric Semiannual Density Response to Solar EUV Heating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Journal of Atmospheric and Solar - Terrestrial Physics ARTICLE IN PRESS 1364-6826/$ - see front matter Published...hanscom.af.mil (M.J. Kendra). 1 Tel.: +3105734185 (office); fax: +310 454 9665 (fax). 2 Tel.: +7813773203. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar - Terrestrial Physics ] (

  10. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  11. Performance Study of Thermoelectric Solar-Assisted Heat Pump with Reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Soponronnarit, S.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Sarachitti, R.

    2014-06-01

    The simultaneous conversion of solar radiation into thermal and electrical energy in a thermoelectric (TE) solar-assisted heat pump is, for the purposes of this study, referred to as hybrid conversion. To capture more thermal and electrical energy, flat-plate reflectors have been mounted on a TE solar collector. To obtain higher solar radiation intensity on the TE solar collector, the position of the reflectors has been changed and the optimal position of the reflectors determined by both experimental measurements and numerical calculation so as to obtain maximal concentration of solar radiation intensity. The calculated values have been found to be in good agreement with measured ones. Improvements to the thermal energy and electrical power outputs of the system can be achieved by the use of the TE solar-assisted heat pump with reflectors. For the optimum position of the reflectors, the coefficient of performance (COP) of the system formed from a TE solar collector integrated with a heat pump (TESC-HP) was 5.60. The power output and conversion efficiency of the TE modules can reach 10.09 W and 2.40%, respectively, being improved by 34.5% and 18.2%, respectively, compared with the TESC-HP without reflectors.

  12. Multimode solar-heating system--Columbia, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes failure of six-mode pyramidal-optics system to reduce winter energy savings. Over 12 month period, control problems, energy dissipation, and high operating-energy requirements undermined system efficiency. Energy savings were maximal when system in direct space-heating or hot-water preheating mode. In least efficient mode, heat pumps alternatively mingled storage or collector energy, and space heating was provided by electric heat strip.

  13. The Use of Solar Heating and Heat Cured Polymers for Lunar Surface Stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul; Curran, Jerry; Back, Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Dust ejecta can affect visibility during a lunar landing, erode nearby coated surfaces and get into mechanical assemblies of in-place infrastructure. Regolith erosion was observed at many of the Apollo landing sites. This problem needs to be addressed at the beginning of the lunar base missions, as the amount of infrastructure susceptible to problems will increase with each landing. Protecting infrastructure from dust and debris is a crucial step in its long term functionality. A proposed way to mitigate these hazards is to build a lunar launch pad. Other areas of a lunar habitat will also need surface stabilization methods to help mitigate dust hazards. Roads would prevent dust from being lifted during movement and dust free zones might be required for certain areas critical to crew safety or to critical science missions. Work at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is investigating methods of stabilizing the lunar regolith including: sintering the regolith into a solid and using heat or UV cured polymers to stabilize the surface. Sintering, a method in which powders are heated until fusing into solids, has been proposed as one way of building a Lunar launch/landing pad. A solar concentrator has been built and used in the field to sinter JSC-1 Lunar stimulant. Polymer palliatives are used by the military to build helicopter landing pads and roads in dusty and sandy areas. Those polymers are dispersed in a solvent (water), making them unsuitable for lunar use. Commercially available, solvent free, polymer powders are being investigated to determine their viability to work in the same way as the solvent borne terrestrial analog. This presentation will describe the ongoing work at KSC in this field. Results from field testing will be presented. Physical testing results, including compression and abrasion, of field and laboratory prepared samples will be presented.

  14. Solar energy to heat and cool a new NASA Langley office building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    A solar heating and cooling system will be installed at a new NASA office building. The objective of this project is to establish a full-scale working test-bed facility to investigate solar energy for heating and cooling buildings. The energy collected will provide between 80 and 100 percent of the heating and cooling requirements during the cool months and between one-half and two-thirds of the cooling requirements in the summer. Thermal energy storage will be provided to bridge the gap between cloudy and clear days.

  15. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Bunsen

    2014-11-01

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  16. Solar heating system at Quitman County Bank, Marks, Mississippi. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating system installed in a single story wood frame, cedar exterior, sloped roof building, the Quitman County Bank, a branch of the First National Bank of Clarksdale, Mississippi. It is the first solar system in the geographical area and has promoted much interest. The system has on-site temperature and power measurements readouts. The 468 square feet of Solaron air flat plate collectors provide for 2000 square feet of space heating, an estimated 60% of the heating load. Solar heated air is distributed to the 235 cubic foot rock storage box or to the load (space heating) by a 960 cubic feet per minute air handler unit. A 7.5 ton Carrier air-to-air heat pump with 15 kilowatts of electric booster strips serve as a back-up (auxiliary) to the solar system. Motorized dampers control the direction of airflow and back draft dampers prevent thermal siphoning of conditioned air. The system was turned on in September 1979, and acceptance testing completed in February 1980. This is a Pon Cycle 3 Project with the Government sharing $13,445.00 of the $24,921 Solar Energy System installation cost.

  17. Energy-Storage Modules for Active Solar Heating and Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    34 page report describes a melting salt hydrate that stores 12 times as much heat as rocks and other heavy materials. Energy is stored mostly as latent heat; that is, heat that can be stored and recovered without any significant change in temperature. Report also describes development, evaluation and testing of permanently sealed modules containing salt hydrate mixture.

  18. Performance characteristics of a combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  19. International Energy Agency (IEA) Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) sodium cavity and external receiver performance comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.

    1987-10-01

    Experimental data is used to compare the performance of two sodium cooled solar central receivers operated at the International Energy Agency Small Solar Power Systems project near Almeria, Spain. Performance includes point-in-time steady state efficiency, average efficiency, start-up time, and operation time. Point-in-time steady state efficiency calculations were based on the statistical method of least squares using receiver incident and absorbed powers. One receiver, a cavity type, showed a peak steady state receiver efficiency of 87% +/- 5% and an average efficiency of about 67%. The other receiver, an external billboard type, had a peak steady state receiver efficiency of 96% +/- 4% and an average efficiency of about 79%. The original design peak steady state efficiency predictions for both receivers were within the experimentally determined 95% probability interval. Thermal loss test data were evaluated for the external receiver to confirm its point-in-time steady state efficiency independent of the receiver incident power. The thermal loss, which includes emitted radiation, convection, and conduction from the external receiver, was less than 100 kW(sub t) with the receiver operating at normal design conditions and having an absorbed power of over 2200 kW/sub t/.

  20. Summary of studies on space solar power systems of the National Space Development Agency of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Masahiro; Nagayama, Hiroyuki; Saito, Yuka; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2004-03-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan has examined studies on Space Solar Power Systems (SSPS) since FY1998 organizing a special committee and working group. The FY 1998 studies focused on creating a life cycle cost model of the SSPS which sends energy to the Earth using microwave beams (Microwave Power Transmission; MPT). With the use of this model, technological sensitivity was analyzed to identify key research issues that must be pursued in the future. In addition, a conceptual study was conducted on the SSPS using laser power transmission, with attention paid to fiber array lasers. The FY1999 studies examined a system concept of SSPS, and three types of configurations were proposed. We also proposed a draft of the engineering demonstration satellite while examining major element technology. The FY2000 studies surveyed maturity of major element technologies to exam SSPS system concept. Computer simulation of a direct solar pumping solid-state laser, 5.8 GHz microwave transmitter and receiver system and "sandwich module" integrated PV cell, microwave transmitter and antennas were examined as demonstration of element technology.