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  1. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... Orange Parkinson’s Awareness Month Were you exposed to herbicides during service and have Parkinson’s disease? You may ...

  2. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible Veterans a free Agent Orange Registry health exam for possible long-term health problems related to ...

  3. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  4. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... for survivors' benefits . Research on AL amyloidosis and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... to the compounds of interest found in the herbicide Agent Orange and AL amyloidosis." VA made a ...

  5. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible for a free Agent Orange registry health exam . Research on peripheral neuropathy and herbicides The Health ...

  6. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible for a free Agent Orange registry health exam . Surviving spouses, dependent children and dependent parents of ...

  7. Does Agent Orange cause birth defects?

    PubMed

    Friedman, J M

    1984-04-01

    Large quantities of the defoliant, Agent Orange, were sprayed in Vietnam during the war. Agent Orange was composed of two herbicides: 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, the latter contaminated by small amounts of a highly toxic dioxin (TCDD). The constituents of Agent Orange are capable of producing gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations, at least in some experimental circumstances. TCDD and 2,4,5-T are teratogenic in mice and perhaps in other mammals, but the teratogenicity of these chemicals has not been convincingly demonstrated in humans. There is currently no scientific evidence which indicates that men who were previously exposed to Agent Orange are at increased risk of having children with birth defects, but available data are inadequate to assess this possibility critically.

  8. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors' benefits . Research on porphyria cutanea tarda and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (HMD) (formally known ... on " Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam " that there was sufficient evidence ...

  9. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors' benefits . Research on soft tissue sarcoma and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... report " Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam " and other updates that there ...

  10. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible for a free Agent Orange registry health exam . Surviving spouses, dependent children and dependent parents of ...

  11. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible for a free Agent Orange registry health exam . Surviving spouses, dependent children and dependent parents of ...

  12. Chronic B-Cell Leukemias and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible for a free Agent Orange registry health exam . Surviving spouses, dependent children and dependent parents of ...

  13. Agent Orange exposure and attributed health effects in Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F

    2011-07-01

    Serum dioxin studies of Vietnam (VN) veterans, military historical records of tactical herbicide use in Vietnam, and the compelling evidence of the photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aspects of environmental fate and low bioavailability of TCDD are consistent with few, if any, ground troop veterans being exposed to Agent Orange. That conclusion, however, is contrary to the presumption by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) that military service in Vietnam anytime from January 9, 1962 to May 7, 1975 is a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. The DVA assumption is inconsistent with the scientific principles governing determinations of disease causation. The DVA has nonetheless awarded Agent Orange-related benefits and compensation to an increasing number of VN veterans based on the presumption of exposure and the published findings of the Institute of Medicine that there is sufficient evidence of a "statistical association" (a less stringent standard than "causal relationship") between exposure to tactical herbicides or TCDD and 15 different human diseases. A fairer and more valid approach for VN veterans would have been to enact a program of "Vietnam experience" benefits for those seriously ill, rather than benefits based on the dubious premise of injuries caused by Agent Orange.

  14. 77 FR 69548 - Proposed Information Collection (Agent Orange Registry Code Sheet); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Agent Orange Registry Code Sheet); Comment Request AGENCY... information technology. Title: Agent Orange Registry Code Sheet, VA Form 10-9009. OMB Control Number: 2900..., Agent Orange Registry Code Sheet. The registry will provide a mechanism that will catalogue...

  15. UC-123 Agent Orange Exposure Assessment, Post-Vietnam (1972-1982)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-27

    Consultative Letter 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Nov 2011 – Mar 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UC-123 Agent Orange Exposure Assessment, Post-Vietnam...88ABW-2012-2550, 27 Apr 2012 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We attempted to quantify potential individual exposures to Agent Orange ...characteristics of dried Agent Orange residue, and the conditions of general exposure. At this time, we conclude that the discernable information suggests

  16. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations.

  17. Clinicopathological features of mycosis fungoides in patients exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Soo; Jang, Jun Gyu; Han, Sang Hwa; Park, Jong Bin; Kang, Dong Young; Kim, Sang Tae; Suh, Kee Suck

    2013-08-01

    There are no reports on the clinicopathological features of mycosis fungoides (MF) among veterans exposed to Agent Orange, one of the herbicides used during the Vietnam War. To evaluate the clinical, histopathological and genotypic findings of Vietnam War veterans with MF and a positive history of exposure to Agent Orange, we performed a comparative clinicopathological study between MF patients with a history of Agent Orange exposure and those without a history of Agent Orange exposure. Twelve Vietnam War veterans with MF were identified. The mean interval from Agent Orange exposure to diagnosis was 24.5 years (range, 9-35). Skin lesions were significantly present on exposed and unexposed areas. Most patients (75%) experienced pruritus (mean visual analog scale score of 6.7). MF was manifested by plaques in 10 patients and by lichenification in five. Histopathological features of most cases were consistent with MF. Biopsy specimens also demonstrated irregular acanthosis (66.7%). In the comparative study, MF patients with a history of Agent Orange exposure differed significantly from those without exposure to Agent Orange in demographic and clinical characteristics. In addition, patients with exposure had an increased tendency for lesions in the exposed area. Notably, our patients showed a higher frequency (33.3%) of mycosis fungoides palmaris et plantaris than in previous studies. Histologically, irregular acanthosis was more frequently observed than ordinary MF. Our results indicate that dermatologists should pay close attention to these clinicopathological differences. Careful assessment of history of exposure to defoliants is warranted in some cases suspicious for MF.

  18. Agent Orange Exposure and Prevalence of Self-reported Diseases in Korean Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis. Conclusions Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure. PMID:24137524

  19. Agent Orange Footprint Still Visible in Rural Areas of Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Szakova, Jirina; Balik, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals) were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam). This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968–1971). Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source. PMID:24639878

  20. Science versus policy in establishing equitable Agent Orange disability compensation policy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark A

    2011-07-01

    This article makes the case that current Agent Orange compensation policy for Vietnam War veterans is based neither wholly upon scientific findings about Agent Orange health effects nor on pure public health policy considerations. Rather, it is the logical culmination of decades of experience among policy makers and public health scientists trying to establish clear-cut, equitable, and scientifically defensible compensation policy in the face of limited relevant science and poor or nonexistent exposure data-all within the broader context of Veterans Affairs disability compensation policies, and a deep-seated commitment to support the men and women who served their country during the Vietnam War. Finally, attempts to update current policy will benefit from an understanding of this background.

  1. Vietnamese Victims of Agent Orange and U.S.-Vietnam Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-28

    Respiratory cancers (including lung, larynx, trachea, and bronchus Prostate cancer Acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy Type 2 diabetes ...Vietnam Red Cross List of Diseases Caused by Agent Orange/Dioxin (combined 1998 and 2000 lists) • Acute, chronic and subacute peripheral neuropathy ...health problems, and birth defects prevalent in the Vietnamese population. For example, then U.S. Ambassador to Vietnam Michael W. Marine responded to a

  2. Immunotoxicological effects of Agent Orange exposure to the Vietnam War Korean veterans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Mi; Park, Yeong-Chul; Yu, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Seung-Kwon; Jeon, Seong-Hoon; Park, Kui-Lea; Hur, Sook-Jin; Heo, Yong

    2003-07-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) demonstrated using animals are thymic atrophy, downregulation of cytotoxic T or B lymphocyte differentiation or activation, whereas human immunotoxicities have not been investigated well. This study was undertaken to evaluate overall immunologic spectrum of the Vietnam War Korean veterans exposed to Agent Orange contaminated with TCDD. Quantity of red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit in the veterans suffered from chronic diseases associated with Agent Orange exposure (Veterans-patient group) were decreased in comparison with those of the veterans without the diseases and the age-matched healthy controls, but no differences in leukocyte populations. Plasma IgG levels were lowered in the veterans than the controls, owing to significant decrease in the IgG1 levels. Increase in the IgE levels was observed in the plasma from the veterans. Alteration of T cell-mediated immunity was also resulted from activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with polyclonal T cell activators. Production of IFNgamma, a major cytokine mediating host resistance against infection or tumoregenesis, was lowered in the veterans-patient group. However, production of IL-4 and IL-10, representative cytokines involved with hypersensitivity induction, was enhanced in the patient group. Overall, this study suggests that military service in Vietnam and/or Agent Orange exposure disturbs immune-homeostasis resulting in dysregulation of B and T cell activities.

  3. Dioxin reservoirs in southern Viet Nam--a legacy of Agent Orange.

    PubMed

    Dwernychuk, L Wayne; Cau, Hoang Dinh; Hatfield, Christopher T; Boivin, Thomas G; Hung, Tran Manh; Dung, Phung Tri; Thai, Nguyen Dinh

    2002-04-01

    In the isolated Aluoi Valley of central Viet Nam, very high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were measured in soil, fish fat, duck fat, pooled human blood and breast milk samples collected from A So village between 1996 and 1999. The village was situated on a former military base occupied by US Special Forces between 1963 and 1966. TCDD was a contaminant of the herbicide "Agent Orange", aerially sprayed in the valley between 1965 and 1970, and stored at the A So base. Measured levels were lower near the sites of two other former US bases in the valley which had been occupied for shorter periods of time. In areas where Agent Orange had been applied by low-flying aircraft, levels of TCDD in soil, food and human samples were elevated, but lower than those near the three former US bases. We confirm the apparent food chain transfer of TCDD from contaminated soil to cultured fish pond sediments to fish and duck tissues, then to humans as measured in whole blood and breast milk. We theorize that the Aluoi Valley is a microcosm of southern Viet Nam, where numerous reservoirs of TCDD exist in the soil of former military installations south of the former demilitarized zone. Large quantities of Agent Orange were stored at many sites, used in ground and aerial applications, and spilled. TCDD, through various forms of soil disturbance, can be mobilized from these reservoirs after decades below the surface, and subsequently, introduced into the human food chain.

  4. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar PCB levels in Laotian blood and milk from agent orange-sprayed and nonsprayed areas, 2001.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-11-14

    Agent Orange, a phenoxyherbicide contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), was used by American military forces during the United States-Vietnam war between 1962 and 1971 primarily as a defoliant to destroy forests where enemy troops might find cover. Agent Orange was used mainly in Vietnam, but also to a lesser extent in Laos and Cambodia. In Laos, there have been no prior studies of TCDD contamination from Agent Orange, despite known defoliation and documented records of Agent Orange spraying. This article presents findings of TCDD in human blood and milk from two geographic areas in Laos: Vientiane, a nonsprayed area, and Sepone, an Agent Orange-sprayed area. German and Canadian laboratories used high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 7 dioxin, 10 dibenzofuran, and 4 non-ortho or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in Laotian blood and milk samples. Most subjects tested in this Laos Ministry of Health Study showed low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels, consistent with what would be expected in a primarily rural nonindustrial country. These findings are consistent with relatively low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels recently found in food from these same areas. The chemically and toxicologically related non-ortho PCBs were measured but were found at low levels compared to specimens from other countries, presumably because of less industrialization and industrial pollution in Laos.

  5. Occluded Cigarette Smoke Causing Localized Chloracne Like Comedones (Podium) Skin Diseases Associated with Agent Orange and Other Organochlorines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-20

    This document contains an ethical review and approval, from the Department of the Air Force Air Education and Training Command, for a poster ... presentation entitled Skin Diseases Associated with Agent Orange and Other Organochlorines and a podium presentation entitled Occluded Cigarette Smoke Causing Localized Chloracne Like Comedones.

  6. A geographic information system for characterizing exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam.

    PubMed Central

    Stellman, Jeanne Mager; Stellman, Steven D; Weber, Tracy; Tomasallo, Carrie; Stellman, Andrew B; Christian, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, U.S. military forces dispersed more than 19 million gallons of phenoxy and other herbicidal agents in the Republic of Vietnam, including more than 12 million gallons of dioxin-contaminated Agent Orange, yet only comparatively limited epidemiologic and environmental research has been carried out on the distribution and health effects of this contamination. As part of a response to a National Academy of Sciences' request for development of exposure methodologies for carrying out epidemiologic research, a conceptual framework for estimating exposure opportunity to herbicides and a geographic information system (GIS) have been developed. The GIS is based on a relational database system that integrates extensive data resources on dispersal of herbicides (e.g., HERBS records of Ranch Hand aircraft flight paths, gallonage, and chemical agent), locations of military units and bases, dynamic movement of combat troops in Vietnam, and locations of civilian population centers. The GIS can provide a variety of proximity counts for exposure to 9,141 herbicide application missions. In addition, the GIS can be used to generate a quantitative exposure opportunity index that accounts for quantity of herbicide sprayed, distance, and environmental decay of a toxic factor such as dioxin, and is flexible enough to permit substitution of other mathematical exposure models by the user. The GIS thus provides a basis for estimation of herbicide exposure for use in large-scale epidemiologic studies. To facilitate widespread use of the GIS, a user-friendly software package was developed to permit researchers to assign exposure opportunity indexes to troops, locations, or individuals. PMID:12611661

  7. The Effects of Glucose Therapy Agents-Apple Juice, Orange Juice, and Cola-on Enteral Tube Flow and Patency.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Daphna J; Montreuil, Jasmine; Santoro, Andrea L; Zettas, Antonia; Lowe, Julia

    2016-06-01

    To develop evidence-based hypoglycemia treatment protocols in patients receiving total enteral nutrition, this study determined the effect on enteral tube flow of glucose therapy agents: apple juice, orange juice, and cola, and it also examined the effects of tube type and feed type with these glucose therapy agents. For this study, 12 gastrostomy tubes (6 polyethylene and 6 silicone) were set at 50 mL/h. Each feeding set was filled with Isosource HN with fibre or Novasource Renal. Each tube was irrigated with 1 glucose therapy agent, providing approximately 20 g of carbohydrate every 4 h. Flow-rate measurements were collected at 2 h intervals. The results showed that the glucose therapy agent choice affected flow rates: apple juice and cola had higher average flow rates than orange juice (P = 0.01). A significant difference was found between tube type and enteral formula: polyethylene tubes had higher average flow rates than silicone tubes (P < 0.0001), and Isosource HN with fibre had higher flow rates than Novasource Renal (P = 0.01). We concluded that apple juice and cola have less tube clogging potential than orange juice, and thus may be considered as primary treatment options for hypoglycemia in enterally fed patients. Polyethylene tubes and Isosource HN with fibre were less likely to clog than silicone tubes and Novasource Renal.

  8. Optimization of isolation of cellulose from orange peel using sodium hydroxide and chelating agents.

    PubMed

    Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

    2013-10-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize cellulose recovery from orange peel using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as isolation reagent, and to minimize its ash content using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent. The independent variables were NaOH charge, EDTA charge and cooking time. Other two constant parameters were cooking temperature (98 °C) and liquid-to-solid ratio (7.5). The dependent variables were cellulose yield and ash content. A second-order polynomial model was used for plotting response surfaces and for determining optimum cooking conditions. The analysis of coefficient values for independent variables in the regression equation showed that NaOH and EDTA charges were major factors influencing the cellulose yield and ash content, respectively. Optimum conditions were defined by: NaOH charge 38.2%, EDTA charge 9.56%, and cooking time 317 min. The predicted cellulose yield was 24.06% and ash content 0.69%. A good agreement between the experimental values and the predicted was observed.

  9. External Qi therapy to treat symptoms of Agent Orange Sequelae in Korean combat veterans of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Woo, Won-Hong; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Hong, Sung-Soo; Kim, Hye-Jung; Moon, Sun-Rock

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of Qi therapy as a non-pharmacological treatment for various symptoms presented by Korean combat veterans of the Vietnam War with Agent Orange Sequelae. Nine subjects volunteered to receive 30 minutes of Qi therapy, twice per day for 7 days. There was marked improvement in 89% of the patients with impaired physical activity, 86% of those with psychological disorder, 78% of those with heavy drug use, and 67% of those with fatigue, indigestion and high blood glucose levels. This data suggests that Qi therapy combined with conventional treatment has positive effects in reducing and managing the pain, psychosomatic disorders, and substance abuse in patients with Agent Orange Sequelae. We cannot completely discount the possible influence of the placebo effect, and more objective, clinical measures are needed to study the long-term effects of Qi therapy.

  10. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided.

  11. AGENT ORANGE AS A RISK FACTOR FOR HIGH-GRADE PROSTATE CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Ansbaugh, Nathan; Shannon, Jackilen; Mori, Motomi; Farris, Paige E.; Garzotto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Agent Orange exposure (AOe) is a potential risk factor for the development of prostate cancer (PCa). However, it is unknown whether AOe specifically increases the risk of lethal PCa. This study aimed to determine the association between AOe and the risk of detecting high-grade PCa (HGPCa, Gleason ≥ 7) on biopsy in a US Veteran cohort. METHODS Risk factors included clinico-demographic and laboratory data from veterans referred for an initial prostate biopsy. Outcomes were defined as the presence versus the absence of PCa, HGPCa, or low-grade PCa (LGPCa, Gleason ≤6) in biopsy specimens. Risk amongst AOe veterans relative to unexposed veterans was estimated with multivariate logistic regression. Separate models determined whether AOe was associated with an increased risk of PCa, HGPCa or LGPCa. RESULTS Of 2720 Veterans biopsied, PCa was diagnosed in 896 (32.9%); 459 (16.9%) had HGPCa. AOe was associated with a 52% increase in overall risk of PCa detection (aOR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07–2.13). AOe did not confer an increase in risk of LGPCa (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.81 to 1.91), although a 75% increase in risk of HGPCa (aOR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.74) was observed. AOe was associated with a 2.1 fold increase (95% CI: 1.22 to 3.62, p<0.01) in Gleason 8 or higher PCa. CONCLUSION The increased risk of PCa associated with AOe is driven by an increased risk of HGPCa in men undergoing initial prostate biopsy. These findings could aid in improved PCa screening for Vietnam-era Veterans. PMID:23670242

  12. Clinical Outcome of Veterans with Acute Coronary Syndrome Who Had Been Exposed to Agent Orange

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Bum; Moon, Se Gwon; Kim, Hee Jong; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Hwang, Sun Ho; Kim, Wan

    2012-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), one of the components of Agent Orange, has been reported to be a deadly poison despite its presence at extremely small doses. TCDD is reported to cause various kinds of cancers and other harmful effects on humans. However, a correlation between exposure to TCDD and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is not yet proven. Thus, we examined the correlation between exposure to TCDD and ACS through an analysis of coronary angiograms from veterans of the Vietnam War. Two hundred fifty-one consecutive men undergoing coronary angiograms owing to ACS between April 2004 and May 2009 at Gwangju Veterans Hospital were analyzed. Included subjects were between 50 and 70 years of age. The patients were divided into two groups: 121 patients who had been exposed to TCDD (Group I) and 130 patients who had not been exposed to TCDD (Group II). Clinical and coronary angiographic findings were evaluated. Baseline clinical characteristics, inflammatory markers, and echocardiographic parameters were not significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of hypertension (71.1% vs. 60.0%, p=0.039) and hyperlipidemia (27.3% vs. 16.9%, p=0.038) was higher in Group I than in Group II. Total occlusion, stent length, stent use, and coronary lesion characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) had no relationship with exposure to TCDD. Exposure to TCDD might not affect severity or the rate of MACE in persons with ACS. PMID:22570815

  13. Modification of carotenoid levels by abscission agents and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in 'valencia' sweet orange.

    PubMed

    Alferez, Fernando; Pozo, Luis V; Rouseff, Russell R; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2013-03-27

    The effect of 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) and ethephon on peel color, flavedo carotenoid gene expression, and carotenoid accumulation was investigated in mature 'Valencia' orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit flavedo at three maturation stages. Abscission agent application altered peel color. CMNP was more effective than ethephon in promoting green-to-red (a) and blue-to-yellow (b) color at the middle and late maturation stages and total carotenoid changes at all maturation stages. Altered flow of carotenoid precursors during maturation due to abscission agents was suggested by changes in phytoene desaturase (Pds) and ζ-carotene desaturase (Zds) gene expression. However, each abscission agent affected downstream expression differentially. Ethephon application increased β-carotene hydroxilase (β-Chx) transcript accumulation 12-fold as maturation advanced from the early to middle and late stages. CMNP markedly increased β- and ε-lycopene cyclase (Lcy) transcript accumulation 45- and 15-fold, respectively, at midmaturation. Patterns of carotenoid accumulation in flavedo were supported in part by gene expression changes. CMNP caused greater accumulation of total flavedo carotenoids at all maturation stages when compared with ethephon or controls. In general, CMNP treatment increased total red carotenoids more than ethephon or the control but decreased total yellow carotenoids at each maturation stage. In control fruit flavedo, total red carotenoids increased and yellow carotenoids decreased as maturation progressed. Trends in total red carotenoids during maturation were consistent with measured a values. Changes in carotenoid accumulation and expression patterns in flavedo suggest that regulation of carotenoid accumulation is under transcriptional, translational, and post-translational control.

  14. Is exposure to Agent Orange a risk factor for hepatocellular cancer?—A single-center retrospective study in the U.S. veteran population

    PubMed Central

    Hazratjee, Nyla; Opris, Dan; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Markert, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 15% to 35% of those with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) related cirrhosis will develop hepatocellular cancer (HCC). With this burden increasing across the globe, identification of risk factors for HCC has become imperative. Exposure to Agent Orange has been implicated as a possible risk factor for liver cancer in a study from the Republic of Korea. However, there has been no study in U.S. veterans with CHC and cirrhosis that has evaluated exposure to Agent Orange as a risk factor for HCC. We conducted a retrospective study of U.S. military veterans diagnosed with CHC and cirrhosis over a period of 14 years to evaluate potential risk factors for HCC including exposure to Agent Orange. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 390 patients with confirmed CHC-related cirrhosis between 2000 and 2013 and identified patients with HCC. We compared demographic, laboratory, and other clinical characteristics of patients with and without HCC. Results The mean age of the cohort was 51 years (SD =7.5), with the majority being male (98.5%). Seventy-nine of 390 (20.2%) patients developed HCC, diagnosed on average 8 (SD =4.8) years after diagnosis of CHC. Nearly half (49.4%) were Childs A, 40.5% were Childs B, and 10.1% were Childs C. HCC patients were more likely to be African American than non-HCC patients (40.5% vs. 25.4%, P=0.009) and to be addicted to alcohol (86.1% vs. 74.3%, P=0.027). A trend toward significance was seen in the HCC group for exposure to Agent Orange (16.5% vs. 10.0%, P=0.10) and smoking addiction (88.6% vs. 80.7%, P=0.10). Consequently, race, alcohol addiction, Agent Orange exposure, and smoking addiction were included in the multivariable logistic regression (MLR) analysis. Alcohol addiction [odds ratio (OR) =2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07–4.43] and African American race (OR =2.07; 95% CI, 1.22–3.51) were found to be the only two definitive independent risk factors for HCC in our sample. Conclusions African American race and

  15. Handler, bystander and reentry exposure to TCDD from application of Agent Orange by C-123 aircraft during the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Ross, John H; Hewitt, Andrew; Armitage, James; Solomon, Keith; Watkins, Deborah K; Ginevan, Michael E

    2015-02-01

    Using validated models and methods routinely employed by pesticide regulatory agencies, the absorbed dosages of Agent Orange (AO) herbicide contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were estimated for mixer/loaders, applicators, and individuals in the vicinity of applications of AO by C-123 aircraft during the Vietnam War. Resulting dosages of TCDD were then transformed to estimates of adipose residues, and compared to population biomonitoring of known mixer/loaders and applicators as well as ground troops in Vietnam and civilians in the U.S. Results demonstrate that mixer/loaders and applicators had the greatest exposures and their measured residues of TCDD in adipose were consistent with the estimated exposures. Further, the potentially exposed ground troops, including those who could have been directly sprayed during aerial defoliation, had measured adipose residues that were consistent with those in civilian U.S. populations with no defined source of exposure exposures and both of those cohorts had orders of magnitude less exposure than the mixer/loaders or applicators. Despite the availability of validated exposure modeling methods for decades, the quantitative TCDD dose estimates presented here are the first of their kind for the Vietnam conflict.

  16. Predictors for dioxin accumulation in residents living in Da Nang and Bien Hoa, Vietnam, many years after Agent Orange use.

    PubMed

    Pham, Diem T; Nguyen, Hang M; Boivin, Thomas G; Zajacova, Anna; Huzurbazar, Snehalata V; Bergman, Harold L

    2015-01-01

    Agent Orange (AO) was the main defoliant used by the US in Vietnam from 1961 to 1971; AO was contaminated with dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD). Three major dioxin “hot spots” remain from previous AO storage and use at former US bases at Bien Hoa, Da Nang, and Phu Cat, posing potential health risks for Vietnamese living on or near these hot spots. We evaluated potential risk factors contributing to serum TCDD levels in Vietnamese residents at and near contaminated sites in Da Nang and Bien Hoa, Vietnam. We used multiple linear regression to analyze possible associations of blood dioxin concentrations with demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and dietary risk factors for residents living on or near these hot spots. For the Da Nang study, fish farming on the site, living on property flooded from monsoon rains, and age were among the factors showing significant positive associations with serum TCDD concentrations. For the Bien Hoa study, fish farmers working at this site and their immediate family members had significantly higher serum TCDD concentrations. Our results suggest that water-related activities, especially fish-farming, at the hot spots increased the risk of exposure to dioxin.

  17. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: Psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Robinowitz, R.; Roberts, W.R.; Dolan, M.P.; Patterson, E.T.; Charles, H.L.; Atkins, H.G.; Penk, W.E. )

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience.

  18. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Robinowitz, R; Roberts, W R; Dolan, M P; Patterson, E T; Charles, H L; Atkins, H G; Penk, W E

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, "What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination?" The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience.

  19. Exposure to Agent Orange and occurrence of soft-tissue sarcomas or non-Hodgkin lymphomas: an ongoing study in Vietnam.

    PubMed Central

    Kramárová, E; Kogevinas, M; Anh, C T; Cau, H D; Dai, L C; Stellman, S D; Parkin, D M

    1998-01-01

    Agent Orange was the most common herbicide used in the Second Indochina War in the course of military operations in the former South Vietnam. Agent Orange is contaminated by the carcinogen 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) in mean concentrations of 2 mg/kg. After much dispute of a causal association between exposure to herbicides containing TCDD and occurrence of soft-tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, two simultaneous case-control studies were set up in Vietnam to examine possible relationships. Subject recruitment is ongoing, with target numbers of 150 cases of soft-tissue sarcoma and 150 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and diagnoses at the Cancer Center at Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Two hospital controls are matched to each case. As in other studies of cancer in persons occupationally or otherwise exposed to herbicides and their contaminants, evaluation of past exposure of the recruited subjects is among the most complicated issues. Because accurate records are usually unavailable, surrogate measures of likely exposure are often calculated. As a first approach in our studies we used the Stellman and Stellman exposure index. The index is based on matching subjects' history of residence and the information on times and locations of Agent Orange spraying recorded on HERBS tape by the U.S. Army and taking into account the distance from the spraying as well as environmental and biologic half-life of TCDD. The exposure index is calculated in two centers, New York and Hanoi, with slightly different assumptions. In addition, samples of body tissues from the subjects (20 ml blood, 2 g adipose tissue, and tumor sections in paraffin blocks) are taken and stored. Their future analysis will provide additional source of exposure assessment. Strengths and weaknesses of both exposure measures are discussed in this paper. PMID:9599715

  20. Comparison of serum levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin with indirect estimates of Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam veterans. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The report tests the validity of several indirect methods for estimating the exposure of ground troops to Agent Orange in Vietnam during 1966-69. The study identified a sample of U.S. Army Vietnam veterans of that era and asked them to have blood drawn so that the level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin (TCDD) in serum could be measured. These veterans were selected from among those who served in 65 combat battalions in III Corps, a heavily sprayed part of Vietnam around Saigon. The men selected had all served only one tour in Vietnam and had been discharged with a pay grade of E1-E5, after having spent, on the average, over 300 days in Vietnam. The sample was chosen after the veterans had been stratified on likelihood of exposure (time and space proximity to recorded sprays) according to military records. For comparison, a sample of non-Vietnam U.S. Army veterans of the same era was also examined. The results show no meaningful association between TCDD levels and indirect estimate of Agent Orange exposure in Vietnam, with or without adjustment for other characteristics of the veterans, including age, race, body mass index, and self-reported civilian occupational and home herbicide exposure.

  1. Serum 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Levels and Their Association With Age, Body Mass Index, Smoking, Military Record-based Variables, and Estimated Exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Won, Jong-Uk; Song, Jae-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the levels of serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and evaluate their association with age, body mass index, smoking, military record-based variables, and estimated exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods Serum levels of TCDD were analyzed in 102 Vietnam veterans. Information on age, body mass index, and smoking status were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. The perceived exposure was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based exposures were constructed by division/brigade level and battalion/company level unit information using the Stellman exposure opportunity index model. Results The mean and median of serum TCDD levels was 1.2 parts per trillion (ppt) and 0.9 ppt, respectively. Only 2 Vietnam veterans had elevated levels of TCDD (>10 ppt). The levels of TCDD did not tend to increase with the likelihood of exposure to Agent Orange, as estimated from either proximity-based exposure or perceived self-reported exposure. The serum TCDD levels were not significantly different according to military unit, year of first deployment, duration of deployment, military rank, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Conclusions The average serum TCDD levels in the Korean Vietnam veterans were lower than those reported for other occupationally or environmentally exposed groups and US Vietnam veterans, and their use as an objective marker of Agent Orange exposure may have some limitations. The unit of deployment, duration of deployment, year of first deployment, military rank, perceived self-reported exposure, and proximity-based exposure to Agent Orange were not associated with TCDD levels in Korean Vietnam veterans. Age, body mass index and smoking also were not associated with TCDD levels. PMID:24137525

  2. Potent Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats, by Cold-Pressed, Terpeneless, Valencia Orange Oil

    PubMed Central

    Boire, Nicholas; Zhang, Sean; Khuvis, Joshua; Lee, Rick; Rivers, Jennifer; Crandall, Philip; Keel, M. Kevin; Parrish, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The causative agent of White-nose Syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been shown to be fatal to several species of bats in North America. To date, no compounds or chemical control measures have been developed which eliminates the growth of the fungus in the environment or in affected animals. In the current study, we evaluated the activity of cold-pressed, terpeneless orange oil (CPT) against multiple isolates of P. destructans in vitro. For all assays, a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay was used. Standardized spore suspensions were prepared, adjusted to a specific optical density, and used to plate fungal lawns. Plates were incubated at either 15°C or 4°C for up to 6 months and checked at regular intervals for growth. Once controls had grown, zones of inhibition were measured (mm) on test plates and compared to those obtained using current antifungal drugs. All P. destructans isolates were completely inhibited by 100% CPT (10 μL) at 1 month of incubation regardless of temperature (4°C and 15°C). Complete inhibition persisted up to 6 months following a single exposure at this concentration. Of the standard antifungals, only amphotericin B demonstrated any activity, resulting in zone diameters ranging from 58 mm to 74 mm. CPT, at the highest concentration tested (100%), had no significant effect against a variety of other environmental organisms including various filamentous fungi, bacteria and aerobic actinomycetes. Given that CPT is relatively non-toxic, the possibility exists that the all-natural, mixture could be used as an environmental pre-treatment to eradicate P. destructans from bat habitats. Additional studies are needed to assess any undesirable effects of CPT on bat behavior and health and overall impacts on other members of the interconnected ecosystem(s). PMID:26849057

  3. Environmental fate and dietary exposures of humans to TCDD as a result of the spraying of Agent Orange in upland forests of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Armitage, James M; Ginevan, Michael E; Hewitt, Andrew; Ross, John H; Watkins, Deborah K; Solomon, Keith R

    2015-02-15

    The fate and transport of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (TCDD) released into the environment of South Vietnam (SVN) as a consequence of the aerial application of the herbicidal defoliant Agent Orange (AO) were simulated for a generic upland forest scenario and followed over a 50-year period (1965, 1968 and 1970 onwards). Modeled concentrations of TCDD in the environment were then used as inputs to a human exposure model, which focused on long-term exposures via the food chain. Intake rates and body burdens of TCDD were estimated for adult males over the course of the simulation period and compared to available biomonitoring data. One of the most important factors determining the magnitude of the simulated human exposure to TCDD was the fraction of the chemical deposited directly to soil (where it was assumed to have a degradation half-life of 10 or 15years) relative to the fraction assumed to remain on/in the forest canopy following the spray application (where it was assumed to have a degradation half-life of ≤48h). The simulated body burdens under the various scenarios considered were broadly consistent with the biomonitoring data from SVN collected in the mid-1980s to late 1990s. Taken together, the modeling results and empirical data suggest that highly elevated exposures to TCDD (i.e., body burdens in the several 100s of pg/g lipid range and greater) were not common among people inhabiting upland forest locations in SVN sprayed with AO and that peak and average body burdens were broadly similar to those of the general population of the U.S. in the 1970s and early 1980s. The model-based assessment is consistent with the 'hot spot' hypothesis i.e., potential exposures to TCDD linked to activities conducted on or near former bases where AO was stored are greater than potential exposures in areas subjected to aerial spraying.

  4. Exposure to Agent Orange is a significant predictor of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based recurrence and a rapid PSA doubling time after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sagar R.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Aronson, William J.; Kane, Christopher J.; Presti, Joseph C.; Amling, Christopher L.; Terris, Martha K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate and report the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with prostate cancer and previous exposure to Agent Orange (AO), particularly in relationship to race. PATIENTS AND METHODS In 1495 veterans who had undergone RP the clinicopathological characteristics, biochemical progression rates, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (DT) after recurrence between AO-exposed and unexposed men were compared using logistic and linear regression and Cox proportional hazards analyses, and stratified by race. RESULTS The 206 (14%) men with AO exposure were more likely to be black (P = 0.001), younger (P < 0.001), treated more recently (P < 0.001), have a higher body mass index (P = 0.001), have clinical stage T1 disease (P < 0.001), and have lower preoperative PSA levels (P = 0.001). After adjusting for several clinical characteristics, AO exposure was not significantly related to adverse pathological features but was significantly associated with biochemical progression risk (relative risk 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.15–2.09, P = 0.004) and shorter PSADT (P < 0.001) after recurrence (8.2 vs 18.6 months). When stratified by race, these associations were present and similar in both races, with no significant interaction between race and AO exposure for predicting biochemical recurrence or mean adjusted PSADT (P interaction >0.20). CONCLUSIONS Patients with AO exposure and treated with RP were more likely to be black, present with lower risk features, have an increased risk of biochemical progression, and shorter PSADT after recurrence. When stratified by race, the association between AO exposure and poor outcomes was present in both races. These findings suggest that among selected men who choose RP, AO exposure might be associated with more aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:19298411

  5. Potent Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats, by Cold-Pressed, Terpeneless, Valencia Orange Oil.

    PubMed

    Boire, Nicholas; Zhang, Sean; Khuvis, Joshua; Lee, Rick; Rivers, Jennifer; Crandall, Philip; Keel, M Kevin; Parrish, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The causative agent of White-nose Syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been shown to be fatal to several species of bats in North America. To date, no compounds or chemical control measures have been developed which eliminates the growth of the fungus in the environment or in affected animals. In the current study, we evaluated the activity of cold-pressed, terpeneless orange oil (CPT) against multiple isolates of P. destructans in vitro. For all assays, a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay was used. Standardized spore suspensions were prepared, adjusted to a specific optical density, and used to plate fungal lawns. Plates were incubated at either 15°C or 4°C for up to 6 months and checked at regular intervals for growth. Once controls had grown, zones of inhibition were measured (mm) on test plates and compared to those obtained using current antifungal drugs. All P. destructans isolates were completely inhibited by 100% CPT (10 μL) at 1 month of incubation regardless of temperature (4°C and 15°C). Complete inhibition persisted up to 6 months following a single exposure at this concentration. Of the standard antifungals, only amphotericin B demonstrated any activity, resulting in zone diameters ranging from 58 mm to 74 mm. CPT, at the highest concentration tested (100%), had no significant effect against a variety of other environmental organisms including various filamentous fungi, bacteria and aerobic actinomycetes. Given that CPT is relatively non-toxic, the possibility exists that the all-natural, mixture could be used as an environmental pre-treatment to eradicate P. destructans from bat habitats. Additional studies are needed to assess any undesirable effects of CPT on bat behavior and health and overall impacts on other members of the interconnected ecosystem(s).

  6. A field evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a biological control agent for Simulium chutteri (Diptera:Nematocera) in the middle Orange River.

    PubMed

    de Moor, F C; Car, M

    1986-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. israelensis de Barjac (Serotype H-14) (B.t.i.) at a concentration of 1.6 ppm/10 min and a toxicity of 1500 AAU/mg was tested against Simulium chutteri Lewis larvae in the Orange River near Prieska, South Africa. Samples of benthic fauna from the stones-in-current biotope were collected before application of the product and at various intervals up to 80 h afterwards at 4 stations from 200 m to 11 km downstream of the application site. Fauna drift increased slightly after the arrival of the Bacillus at 2 stations 1.4 and 6 km respectively downstream of the application site. Large numerical decreases in benthic simuliid larval numbers after the application of B.t.i. in the Orange River were not statistically different (P greater than 0.05). This indicated that the size of replicated samples that showed significant decreases (P less than 0.05) of simuliid numbers in the Vaal River was not adequate to show statistical differences in the Orange River. The quantity of dead larvae on stones collected from rapids after application of the B.t.i., and the numerical decreases found by comparing median values of larval counts on stones indicated that B.t.i. effectively killed simuliid larvae. Three days after application of the Bacillus, recruitment of small simuliid larvae on stones 1.4 km downstream of the application site was discernible again. Tanytarsini were also numerically reduced after B.t.i. application. At a flow rate of 38 m3/s B.t.i. was visibly effective in killing S. chutteri up to 6 km downstream of the application site and statistically significant decreases (P less than 0.05) in numbers of larvae were seen at a site 11 km downstream of the application site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Agents.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2002-01-01

    Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists.

  8. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  9. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  10. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  11. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  12. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by...

  13. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange.

    PubMed

    Moufida, Saïdani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports on the composition of aroma compounds and fatty acids and some physico-chemical parameters (juice percentage, acidity and total sugars) in five varieties of citrus: blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Volatile compounds and methyl esters have been analyzed by gas chromatography. Limonene is the most abundant compound of monoterpene hydrocarbons for all of the examined juices. Eighteen fatty acids have been identified in the studied citrus juices, their quantification points out that unsaturated acids predominate over the saturated ones. Mean concentration of fatty acids varies from 311.8 mg/l in blood orange juice to 678 mg/l in bitter orange juice.

  14. Growing Oranges. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily lives of three orange growers in Florida and one in California. Two of the Florida orange growers also have other jobs, one as manager of a citrus cooperative and the other as a citrus insurance salesman. The operations of orange groves, the care and picking of oranges,…

  15. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to...

  16. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to...

  17. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to...

  18. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to...

  19. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange B. 74.250 Section 74.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Foods § 74.250 Orange B. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Orange B is.... (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to...

  20. Investigations on the binding of human hemoglobin with orange I and orange II.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei

    2012-08-01

    The interactions between human hemoglobin and orange I (or orange II) were investigated by UV/vis absorption, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectra techniques, and molecular modeling method. Orange I and orange II effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of human hemoglobin by static quenching. The processes of the binding orange I and orange II on human hemoglobin were spontaneous molecular interaction procedure with hydrogen bonds, van der Waals force, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions according to van't Hoff equation and molecular modeling. There is a single class of binding site of orange I (orange II) in human hemoglobin and the molecular modeling study shows that orange I and orange II are dipped into α(2) chain. The results of CD, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated a small loss of α-helical secondary structure of human hemoglobin induced by orange I and orange II.

  1. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is present in orange jasmine and Asian citrus psyllid reared from jasmine at low titers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata, is a common horticultural plant in Florida, and an alternate host of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Orange jasmine has also been reported to harbor the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the causal agent of huanglongbing disease. We ...

  2. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  3. 15. September, 1968 GARDEN BETWEEN NATHANIEL WOODBURY HOUSE, 22 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. September, 1968 GARDEN BETWEEN NATHANIEL WOODBURY HOUSE, 22 ORANGE STREET AND SETH FOLGER HOUSE, 26 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  4. 11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (MASS-912), 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  5. Effects of Acridine Orange on the Growth of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Southwick, Frederick S.; Carr, Howard S.; Carden, George A.; D'Alisa, Rose M.; Rosenkranz, Herbert S.

    1972-01-01

    Exposure of Escherichia coli to critical acridine orange (AO) concentrations did not result in loss of viability. However, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of cells exposed to such agents was rapidly degraded and repolymerized. On the other hand, a bacterium deficient in DNA repair (pol A1−, lacking DNA polymerase) was sensitive to the action of AO. The DNA of such cells was also degraded but it was not repaired. PMID:4553001

  6. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead to continuation...

  7. Biorefinery of waste orange peel.

    PubMed

    Angel Siles López, José; Li, Qiang; Thompson, Ian P

    2010-03-01

    Up to comparatively recently orange peel and the associated residual remnants of membranes resulting from juice extraction represented a significant disposal problem, especially in those regions where orange cultivation is a major industry. However, recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste represents a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products. These developments are critically reviewed in this article. This includes a summary of the chemical composition of the substrate and an assessment of the range of applications in which the peel is deployed. Utilization as a substrate to produce animal feed, fertilizer, essential oils, pectin, ethanol, methane, industrial enzymes, and single cell protein is discussed. The applications described together with those that will no doubt be developed in the future, represent great opportunities to harness the economical benefit of this agro-industrial waste and to develop even more efficient and sustainable systems. A scheme of integrated utilization of orange peel in a biorefinery approach is discussed together with some prediction of further necessary research.

  8. Purple is the new Orange

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blood orange and Cara cara-like citrus varieties with purple or red fruit color, increased antioxidants and modified flavor could be the next generation of cultivars produced via genetic engineering. These varieties are being developed by enhancing the presence of anthocyanin and lycopene pigments...

  9. Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound.

  10. Volatile Profile Comparison of USDA Sweet-Orange-Like Hybrids and Standard Sweet Oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatiles of six hybrids (‘Ambersweet’ orange crossed with one of three different orange hybrids) were analyzed using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to compare the volatile profiles with ‘Hamlin’, the most widely grown early sweet orange in Florida, and ‘Ambersweet’. All hybrids are ...

  11. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  12. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. LOOKING 278°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. 6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  15. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  16. 16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  17. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  18. 8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE STREET (MASS-1063) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. 10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH FOM IN FRONT OF THE LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  20. Efficacy of killer yeasts in the biological control of Penicillium digitatum on Tarocco orange fruits (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Platania, Claudia; Restuccia, Cristina; Muccilli, Serena; Cirvilleri, Gabriella

    2012-05-01

    Killer Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus yeast strains were tested as biocontrol agents against Penicillium digitatum, one the most important causes of postharvest decay in orange fruits. W. anomalus, grown on acidified medium, demonstrated micocinogenic activity against P. digitatum, as indicated by large inhibition halos and hyphal damage resulting from β-glucanase activity. Oranges that had been deliberately inoculated with pathogens were protected from decay by W. anomalus. Inoculation of oranges with W. anomalus strains BS 91 and BS 92 reduced disease severity to 1 and 4%, respectively, for up to 10 days in storage.

  1. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  3. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  4. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  5. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  6. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47...

  7. Agent Orange at the Crossroads of Science and Social Concern

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    five major cate- gories of symptoms: psychiatric, dermatologic, reproductive, peripheral neuropathy , and cancer. The scientific data validate specific...exposure to the herbicides or to TCDD. But most of these symptoms, e.g., peripheral neuropathy , fatigue, weight loss, and some psychological disturbances...primarily from the HERBS tape (a computer listing of herbicide missions in South Vietnam from 1965 through 1971). Figure 1 shows the locations of all

  8. Chronic B-Cell Leukemias and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors' benefits . Research on B-cell leukemias and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (HMD) (formally known ... sufficient evidence of an association between exposure to herbicides and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In 2003, VA recognized ...

  9. 12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH FROM GARDEN (FORMER SITE OF COL. BRAYTON HOUSE) OF #16 TO #18, #20 AND #22 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  11. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  12. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  13. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  14. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  15. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  16. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  17. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  18. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  19. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  20. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  1. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  2. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  3. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  4. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  5. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  6. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  7. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  8. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  9. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  10. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  11. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  12. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  13. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange import regulation. 944.312 Section 944.312....312 Orange import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e (7 U.S.C. 608e-1) of the Agricultural... importation into the United States of any oranges is prohibited unless such oranges grade at least U.S. No....

  14. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in §...

  15. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  16. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  17. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  18. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  19. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  20. Probe for intracellular concentrations of drugs: delayed fluorescence from acridine orange

    SciTech Connect

    Wardman, P.; Dennis, M.F.; White, J.

    1989-04-01

    The aim of this work is to develop fluorescent probes that will indicate effective concentrations of therapeutic agents, or endogenous protectors, at important cellular sites. Acridine orange associates with nucleic acids and emits a 'delayed' fluorescence signal. This signal is quenched by oxidants such as oxygen, nitroaryl radiosensitizers, adriamycin and mitomycin-c, and reductants such as thiols, ascorbate and other radioprotectors. The quenching of the acridine orange delayed fluorescence reflects the effective concentration of these therapeutically-important oxidants and reductants near DNA. The relative concentration of basic radiosensitizers such as pimonidazole (Ro 03-8799) near the DNA is greater than that of misonidazole. Thiols quench the delayed fluorescence signal according to the degree of ionization of the thiol function; this may model the reactivity of thiols with guanine radical sites in DNA. Ascorbate and aminopyrine do not quench the delayed fluorescence from cells stained with acridine orange as these compounds are taken up by cells very inefficiently.

  1. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  2. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  3. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  4. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  5. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  6. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  7. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  8. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  9. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  10. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as specified in § 146.135 or frozen orange juice as specified in § 146.137, or a combination of both, to...

  11. Improvement of biogas production from orange peel waste by leaching of limonene.

    PubMed

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20-40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m(3) methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  12. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    PubMed Central

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3 methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel. PMID:25866787

  13. ACRIDINE ORANGE BINDING BY MICROCOCCUS LYSODEIKTICUS

    PubMed Central

    Beers, Roland F.

    1964-01-01

    Beers, Roland F., Jr. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md). Acridine orange binding by Micrococcus lysodeikticus. J. Bacteriol. 88:1249–1256. 1964.—Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells bind acridine orange (AO) reversibly. The adsorption isotherm is consistent with a highly cooperative-type binding similar to that observed with polyadenylic acid. The cells exhibit a strong buffering action on the concentration of free AO which remains constant (1 μg/ml) over a range from 5 to 95% saturation of the cells by AO. The cells stain either fluorescent orange or green. The fraction stained orange is directly proportional to the quantity of dye adsorbed, indicating that these cells bind a fixed amount of AO (10% of dry weight). The green-stained cells contain less than 1% of the AO bound to orange-stained cells. The results suggest that the abrupt increase in amount of AO bound by the orange-stained cells occurs when the concentration of free AO reaches a threshold concentration. Similar results were obtained with Bacillus cereus. Mg increases the free AO concentration and the extent of binding capacity of the cells. PMID:14234778

  14. Antimatter, clockwork orange, laser divestment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.

    2005-06-01

    In 1972 Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi sponsored a program to holographically record the images of Venetian sculptural treasures for archival purposes. At Laboratorio San Gregorio, where the initial holography took place, G. Musumeci and K. Hempel suggested an experiment to determine whether the concentrated beam from the ruby holographic laser could ablate black-patina crusts from decaying marble. Initial success of a laser-divestment test on a Palazzo Ducale capital launched a search for funding to enable a full-scale laser-conservation demonstration. Later, at a Caltech reunion one of the author's physics professors (Carl Anderson, the discoverer of mu mesons and the positron), noting the prominence of the Venice Film Festival suggested our approaching the motion picture industry. Many years earlier Anderson's Caltech classmate, Frank Capra, had supported the research that led to the discovery of cosmic-ray-generated antimatter on Pikes Peak. (After Caltech, Capra had become a director at Columbia Studios.) Anderson's chance comment led to an introduction to producer Jack Warner at a festival screening of his "A Clockwork Orange" in Asolo. He and his friends contributed US$5000 toward the laser conservation of a marble relief of "The Last Supper" in the Porta della Carta of Venice. This work was conducted in 1980 under the direction of Arch. G. Calcagno. In 1981 it was found that the granite veneer or the newly completed Warner Center Tower had been stained during transit from the quarry. The Venice laser successfully restored the veneer, thereby returning the Warner Brothers' favor.

  15. Physicochemical properties of modified citrus pectins extracted from orange pomace.

    PubMed

    Venzon, Simoni Spohr; Canteri, Maria Helene Giovanetti; Granato, Daniel; Junior, Bogdan Demczuk; Maciel, Giselle Maria; Stafussa, Ana Paula; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2015-07-01

    Modified pectin is a polysaccharide rich in galacturonic acid altered by pH adjustment and thermal treatment used especially as an anti-cancer agent. The aim of this work was to study the physical and chemical properties of modified pectins extracted from orange pomace with citric and nitric acids. The galacturonic acid content, degree of esterification, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy profile, molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity, rheological properties and antioxidant activity of the pectins were evaluated. The modification process caused the de-esterification of pectins and a decrease of molecular weight due to removal of neutral sugars, maintaining the linear chain of galacturonic acid. Such changes also caused a significant increase in the in vitro antioxidant activity (p ≤ 0.05) and influenced the rheological properties of pectin, reducing its viscosity. This work showed that the modification of pectin from orange pomace with citric and nitric acids altered its structural and physical characteristics as well as its biological activity toward a free-radical.

  16. 75 FR 30012 - Friant Power Authority Orange Cove Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Friant Power Authority Orange Cove Irrigation District; Notice of..., 2010. d. Applicant: Friant Power Authority and Orange Cove Irrigation District. e. Name of Project.... Fergus Morrissey, Orange Cove Irrigation District, 1130 Park Boulevard, Orange Cove, CA 93646;...

  17. Orange oil and its application to spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, S.

    1982-12-01

    Orange oil can be extracted from the peel of citrus. In Japan the production of orange oil is about 2000 tons per year. No orange oil has been however used for any specific purpose. The main ingredient of orange oil consists of d-limonen. About 0.6-1.0% oil can be extracted from the peel of ''Unshu orange'', which is a kind of typical Japanese tangerine. Orange oil has 106-140 research octane number which is good for running the CFR engine. The flash point of orange oil measured by Pensky-Martens method was at 56/sup 0/C. For the use of orange oil only as fuel without blending, there was found to be some difficulty in engine startability under cold conditions.

  18. Orange rust: A new surgarcane disease in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange rust of sugarcane was observed approximately 5 miles east of Belle Glade, Florida on CP 80-1743 (a complex hybrid of Sacharum L. species) during the lsat week of June 2007. Orange rust pustules are cinnamon-orange in color, oval and smaller than the darker brown elongate rust pustules of the ...

  19. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  20. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  1. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  2. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  3. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  4. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  5. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  6. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  7. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  8. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  9. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. NOTE IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE FEATURES AT RIGHT. LOOKING 248°WSW - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  11. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  12. 75 FR 55968 - Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX... temporary Special Local Regulation in the Port Arthur Captain of the Port Zone on the Sabine River, Orange... (NPRM) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (75 FR...

  13. 75 FR 41119 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas. This Special Local Regulation is intended to restrict vessels from portions of the..., testing and race in conjunction with the Orange, TX, Thunder on the Sabine boat races. The powerboat...

  14. 76 FR 30890 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas on September 24-25, 2011. This Special Local Regulation is intended to restrict... race in conjunction with the Orange, TX S.P.O.R.T. boat races. The powerboat race and...

  15. 76 FR 52563 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX...) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (76 FR 103). We... Events; Sabine River, Orange, TX. (a) Definitions. As used in this section ``Participant Vessel''...

  16. 77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Orange Juice From Brazil Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would not be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil:...

  17. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  18. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  19. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  20. Inheritance of flower color in periwinkle: orange-red corolla and white eye.

    PubMed

    Sreevalli, Y; Kulkarni, R N; Baskaran, K

    2002-01-01

    The commonly found flower colors in periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)--pink, white, red-eyed, and pale pink center--are reported to be governed by the epistatic interaction between four genes--A, R, W, and I. The mode of inheritance of an uncommon flower color, orange-red corolla and white eye, was studied by crossing an accession possessing this corolla color with a white flowered variety (Nirmal). The phenotype of the F(1) plants and segregation data of F(2) and backcross generations suggested the involvement of two more interacting and independently inherited genes, one (proposed symbol E) determining the presence or absence of red eye and another (proposed symbol O) determining orange-red corolla.

  1. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  2. Limonoid content of sour orange varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern Citrus cultivars are thought to have arisen from three parents- the (pummelo), the mandarin, and citron. Taxological and genetic data support that sweet and sour oranges share a common parentage. However, as their name suggests the organoleptic properties of the fruit from these two familie...

  3. 59 FR- Unshu Oranges From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-03-21

    ... Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations governing the importation and interstate movement of Unshu oranges from Japan by... pv. citri (Hasse) Dye. The strain of citrus canker that occurs in Japan infects the twigs,...

  4. Nuclear structure analysis using the Orange Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Regis, J.-M.; Pascovici, Gh.; Christen, S.; Meersschout, T.; Bernards, C.; Fransen, Ch.; Dewald, A.; Braun, N.; Heinze, S.; Thiel, S.; Jolie, J.; Materna, Th.

    2009-01-28

    Recently, an Orange spectrometer, a focusing iron-free magnetic spectrometer, has been installed at a beam line of the 10 MV Tandem accelerator of the IKP of the University of Cologne. The high efficiency of 15% of 4{pi} for the detection of conversion electrons and the energy resolution of 1% makes the Orange spectrometer a powerful instrument. From the conversion electron spectrum, transition multipolarities can be determined using the so called K to L ratio. In combination with an array of germanium and lanthanum bromide detectors, e{sup -}-{gamma}-coincidences can be performed to investigate the level scheme. Moreover, the very fast lanthanum bromide scintillator with an energy resolution of 3% allows e{sup -}-{gamma} lifetime measurements down to 0.3 ns. A second Orange spectrometer can be added to build the Double Orange Spectrometer for e{sup -}-e{sup -}-coincidences. It is indispensable for lifetime measurements of low intensity or nearby lying transitions as often occur in odd-A and odd-odd nuclei. The capabilities are illustrated with several examples.

  5. Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

  6. 6-Hydroxypelargonidin glycosides in the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Saito, Norio; Murata, Naho; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2003-04-01

    Two 6-hydroxypelargonidin glycosides were isolated from the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria cultivars, and determined to be 6-hydroxypelargonidin 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) and 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], respectively, by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, five known anthocyanidin glycosides, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside were identified in the flowers.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis from a perinone-type dye C.I. Solvent Orange 60 in spectacle frames.

    PubMed

    Shono, M; Kaniwa, M A

    1999-10-01

    This is the 1st case report of allergic contact dermatitis from a perinone-type plastic dye, C.I. Solvent Orange 60, used in the earpieces of spectacle frames. Sensitization of this dye was confirmed by patch tests and chemical analysis of the causative earpieces and coloring agents. Solvent Orange 60 is suspected of being the contact allergen in at least 2 other Japanese cases of spectacle earpiece dermatitis, and provoked strong reactions on sensitized individuals. Its use in products that are applied on human skin for a prolonged period of time, such as spectacle frames or hearing aids, would best be avoided.

  8. Orange County Photovoltaic Project & Educational COmponent

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Renee

    2016-02-12

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the projects implemented, utilizing Department of Energy grant funds, to support the use and understanding of renewable energy in Orange County, Florida and the Greater Orlando Area. Orange County is located in the State of Florida and is most popularly referred to as Orlando. The greater Orlando area’s current population is 1,225,267 and in 2015 was the first destination to surpass 60 million visitors. Orange County utilized grant funds to add to the growing demand for access to charging stations by installing one level 2 dual NovaCharge CT4021 electric vehicle charging station at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. The charging station is considered a “smart” charger connected to a central network operated by a third party. Data collected includes the number of charging sessions, session start and end times, the electricity usage, greenhouse gases saved and other pertinent data used for reporting purposes. Orange County continues to support the use of electric vehicles in Metro Orlando and this project continues to bring awareness to our public regarding using alternative vehicles. Additionally, we offer all visitors to the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center free charges for their electric vehicles 24 hours a day. Since the operation of the charging station there have been 52 unique driver users, a total of 532.2258 kg of greenhouse gas savings and 159.03 gallons of gasoline savings. The installation of the additional electric vehicle charging station is part of a county-wide goal of promoting implementation of renewable energy technologies as well as supporting the use of electric vehicles including the Drive Electric Orlando & Florida programs. http://driveelectricorlando.com/ & ; http://www.driveelectricflorida.org/ . Grant funds were also used for Outreach and Educational efforts. Educational efforts about renewable energy were accomplished through

  9. Giemsa versus acridine orange staining in the fish micronucleus assay and validation for use in water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Polard, T; Jean, S; Merlina, G; Laplanche, C; Pinelli, E; Gauthier, L

    2011-01-01

    This study concerns a comparative analysis of the acridine orange and Giemsa staining procedures for the fish erythrocyte micronucleus assay. The goal was to optimize the assay in the context of field water monitoring. Fish (Carassius carassius) were exposed to a reference genotoxic agent, cyclophosphamide monohydrate 5 mg l(-1) for 2, 4, and 6 days before testing. Slides from each individual were scored using the two procedures. The results show that the assay was more sensitive when acridine orange was used. When slides were Giemsa stained, the presence of ambiguous artefacts, leading to false positives and increasing random variance, reduced the contrast between exposed and control samples. Acridine Orange staining was then applied in the context of water quality monitoring. Fish were exposed for 4 days to water sampled in two hydrological contexts: basal flow and spring flood. The results show that exposure to spring flood water in an agricultural stream can induce mutagenicity.

  10. Orange pectin mediated growth and stability of aqueous gold and silver nanocolloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigoghossian, Karina; dos Santos, Molíria V.; Barud, Hernane S.; da Silva, Robson R.; Rocha, Lucas A.; Caiut, José M. A.; de Assunção, Rosana M. N.; Spanhel, Lubomir; Poulain, Marcel; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.

    2015-06-01

    The role of orange based pectin in the nucleation and growth of silver and gold nanoparticles is addressed. Pectin is a complex polysaccharide found in fruits such as oranges, lemons, passion fruits or apples. It displays smooth and hairy chain regions containing hydroxyl-, ester-, carboxylate- and eventually amine groups that can act as surface ligands interacting under various pH conditions more or less efficiently with growing nanometals. Here, a high methoxy pectin (>50% esterified) was used as a stabilizer/reducing agent in the preparation of gold, silver and silver-gold nanoparticles. Commercial pectin (CP) and pectin extracted from orange bagasse (OP) were used. Optionally, trisodium citrate or oxalic acid we used to reduce AgNO3 and HAuCl4 in aqueous environment. Characterization methods included UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that under different pH conditions, pectin and reducing agents allow producing various nanostructures shapes (triangles, spheres, rods, octahedrons and decahedrons) often with high polydispersity and sizes ranging between 5 nm and 30 nm. In addition, depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH, the surface plasmon bands can be continuously shifted between 410 nm and 600 nm. Finally, pectin seems to be a highly efficient stabilizer of the colloidal systems that show a remarkable stability and unchanged optical spectral response even after five years.

  11. Call Cultures in Orang-Utans?

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A.; Nater, Alexander; Arora, Natasha; Bastian, Meredith L.; Meulman, Ellen; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C.; Atmoko, S. Suci Utami; Pamungkas, Joko; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Hardus, Madeleine E.; van Noordwijk, Maria; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents) has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects). Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval), individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. Conclusion/Significance These results are consistent with the potential presence of ‘call cultures’ and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might assist in bridging

  12. Development and characterization of the NanoOrange protein quantitation assay: a fluorescence-based assay of proteins in solution.

    PubMed

    Jones, Laurie J; Haugland, Richard P; Singer, Victoria L

    2003-04-01

    We developed a sensitive fluorescence assay for the quantitation of proteins in solution using the NanoOrange reagent, a merocyanine dye that produces a large increase in fluorescence quantum yield upon interaction with detergent-coated proteins. The NanoOrange assay allowed for the detection of 10 ng/mL to 10 micrograms/mL protein with a standard fluorometer, offering a broad, dynamic quantitation range and improved sensitivity relative to absorption-based protein solution assays. The protein-to-protein variability of the NanoOrange assay was comparable to those of standard assays, including Lowry, bicinchoninic acid, and Bradford procedures. We also found that the NanoOrange assay is useful for detecting relatively small proteins or large peptides, such as aprotinin and insulin. The assay was somewhat sensitive to the presence of several common contaminants found in protein preparations such as salts and detergents; however, it was insensitive to the presence of reducing agents, nucleic acids, and free amino acids. The simple assay protocol is suitable for automation. Samples are briefly heated in the presence of dye in a detergent-containing diluent, allowed to cool to room temperature, and fluorescence is measured using 485-nm excitation and 590-nm emission wavelengths. Therefore, the NanoOrange assay is well suited for use with standard fluorescence microplate readers, fluorometers, and some laser scanners.

  13. The State of the Art in Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Its Regulation in Pigmented Sweet Oranges [(Citrus sinensis) L. Osbeck].

    PubMed

    Lo Piero, Angela Roberta

    2015-04-29

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments belonging to the flavonoid compound family involved in nature in several aspects of plant development and defense. By bestowing much of the color and flavor on fruits and vegetables, they are components of the human diet and, thanks to their radical-scavenging properties, are not considered exclusively as food products but also as therapeutic agents. Several cultivars of red (or blood) oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck], such as Tarocco, Moro, and Sanguinello, are characterized by the presence of anthocyanins in both the rind and fruit juice vesicles. The amount and composition of anthocyanins in the pigmented orange cultivar vary greatly depending on variety, maturity, region of cultivation, and many other environmental conditions. Most of the blood orange varieties require a wide day-night thermal range to maximize color formation. Therefore, the production of red oranges characterized by high anthocyanin levels is limited to a few regions and in particular to the Sicilian area around Mount Etna in Italy, where the characteristic climate conditions yield fruits of unique color intensity and quality. In this review, both the basic information and the most recent advances in red orange anthocyanins are reported, with intense attention given to their biosynthesis and regulation.

  14. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1998-09-08

    A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

  15. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Ping; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1998-01-01

    A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

  16. Optimization of orange oil nanoemulsion formation by isothermal low-energy methods: influence of the oil phase, surfactant, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuhua; McClements, David Julian

    2014-03-12

    Nanoemulsions are particularly suitable as a platform in the development of delivery systems for lipophilic functional agents. This study shows that transparent orange oil nanoemulsions can be fabricated using an isothermal low-energy method (spontaneous emulsification), which offers the advantage of fabricating flavor oil delivery systems using rapid and simple processing operations. Orange oil nanoemulsions were formed spontaneously by titration of a mixture of orange oil, carrier oil [medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)], and non-ionic surfactant (Tween) into an aqueous solution (5 mM citrate buffer at pH 3.5) with continuous stirring. The oil/emulsion ratio content was kept constant (10 wt %), while the surfactant/emulsion ratio (SER) was varied (2.5-20 wt %). Oil-phase composition (orange oil/MCT ratio), SER, and surfactant type all had an appreciable effect on nanoemulsion formation and stability. Transparent nanoemulsions could be formed under certain conditions: 20% surfactant (Tween 40, 60, or 80) and 10% oil phase (4-6% orange oil + 6-4% MCT). Surfactant type and oil-phase composition also affected the thermal stability of the nanoemulsions. Most of the nanoemulsions broke down after thermal cycling (from 20 to 90 °C and back to 20 °C); however, one system remained transparent after thermal cycling: 20% Tween 80, 5% orange oil, and 5% MCT. The mean droplet size of these nanoemulsions increased over time, but the droplet growth rate was reduced appreciably after dilution. These results have important implications for the design and utilization of nanoemulsions as delivery systems in the food and other industries.

  17. Ultrastructural changes in sweet orange with symptoms of huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. To better understand the ultrastructural changes of sweet orange seedlings in response to infection, anatomical analyses of HLB-infected sweet orange were carried out by light and electron microscopy. A...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  19. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  1. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  3. 76 FR 35886 - Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...--California] Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of... Projects has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) regarding Orange Cove Irrigation District's...

  4. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  5. Volatile and nonvolatile flavor chemical evaluation of USDA orange-mandarin hybrids for comparison to sweet orange and mandarin fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three citrus hybrids, containing 50-75% sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) genome in their pedigrees and similar to sweet orange in fruit size, color and taste, were tested for their potential to be classified as new “sweet orange” cultivars. 'Hamlin', ‘Midsweet’, and three other early to mid-season swe...

  6. Solvent-Switching Gelation and Orange-Red Emission of Ultrasmall Copper Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinhua; Zhang, Qiang Matthew; Feng, Yong; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-01-18

    By tuning the Cu⋅⋅⋅Cu and hydrogen-bonding interactions, the small cluster Cu3 L can be selectively synthesized to develop a stable and highly fluorescent material, as confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectroscopy. Further characterizations, including absorbance spectroscopy, XPS, and XRD demonstrate the formation of tiny Cu nanoclusters (NCs). In water, the as-prepared Cu NCs can exhibit high orange fluorescence via solution evaporation to eliminate hydrogen-bonding, and in dimethylformamide, a strong orange fluorescent gel is obtained by solvent induction to enhance the Cu⋅⋅⋅Cu and hydrogen-bonding interactions. More importantly, the Cu NCs in their substantial form exhibit nonlinear optical properties upon two-photon excitation. These results will shed light on Cu and related cluster applications in two-photon biological imaging, optical power limiting, and solar energy conversion.

  7. Vitiligo and alopecia areata: apples and oranges?

    PubMed

    Harris, John E

    2013-12-01

    Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments.

  8. Fluorescence spectroscopy applied to orange trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcassa, L. G.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Belasque, J., Jr.; Lins, E. C.; Dias Nunes, F.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we have applied laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate biological processes in orange trees (Citrus aurantium L.). We have chosen to investigate water stress and Citrus Canker, which is a disease caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. The fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated by using as an excitation source a 442-nm 15-mW HeCd gas multimode discharge laser and a 532-nm 10-mW Nd3+:YAG laser. The stress manifestation was detected by the variation of fluorescence ratios of the leaves at different wavelengths. The fluorescence ratios present a significant variation, showing the possibility to observe water stress by fluorescence spectrum. The Citrus Canker’s contaminated leaves were discriminated from the healthy leaves using a more complex analysis of the fluorescence spectra. However, we were unable to discriminate it from another disease, and new fluorescence experiments are planned for the future.

  9. Polyphosphate gel/methyl orange supramolecular composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galembeck, André; Silva, Sidicleia B. C.; Silva, José Augusto P.; Del Nero, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this work were to investigate theoretically the optical properties of methyl orange (MO) and the synthesis of new supramolecular composites based on the incorporation of this dye in an aluminum polyphosphate gel network. The theoretical methodology was based in semiempirical (AM1 and INDO/S-CI) and ab initio (3-21G*) methods. Our results reveal the existence of different electronic patterns for the acidic and basic forms of these molecules. Also, we present a theoretical spectroscopic study for the molecules including interactions with water molecules. MO was successfully incorporated in its acidic form within the host matrix, leading to pink-red transparent self-standing films. The dye could be converted to its basic form upon exposure to ammonia vapor. The spectrum of MO basic form within the gel network differs from its behavior in aqueous solution.

  10. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  11. Oranges or "lemons"? Family farming and product quality in the Spanish orange industry, 1870-1960.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In the early twentieth century California became a big exporter of some agricultural products that, until then, had only been grown on a large scale in the mediterranean basin. As a result, exports of those products diminished or stagnated in Mediterranean countries, with important repercussions on their economies. The Spanish orange industry, however, continued to expand, despite the fact that a substantial percentage of Spanish oranges came from farms owned by (often illiterate) small peasants who, in comparison to the California growers, used a great deal of labor, small amounts of capital, and little science. This paper shows that Spanish farmers were in fact capable of growing high-quality oranges at prices that were more competitive than those in California, although interested they often preferred to satisfy the strong demand for middling fruit from Great Britain because it was a more profitable business. This, combined with a deficient use of brand names, gave the Spanish citrus industry serious reputation problems by the 1930s, from which, however, it recovered quickly.

  12. Apollo 17 "Orange soil" and meteorite impact on liquid lava

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1973-01-01

    THE 'orange soil' from Shorty Crater differs greatly from ordinary lunar soils in that it consists of ???99% 10-300 ??m smooth shiny spherules and broken fragments of spherules of transparent orange glass, about 20% of which contain partly crystallized to opaque material. The remaining 1 % is chiefly crystalline basalt fragments. Although the colour of the individual orange spherule varies with thickness from yellow-orange to red-brown, all orange glass in our sample (74220, 70; 0.25 g) has a uniform index of refraction (??? 1.712). By contrast, other lunar soils contain spherules ranging from 1.50 to 1.75. The orange glass is also completely free of bubbles, to the limit of resolution of the light microscope, whereas bubbles are present in many other spherule samples. The spherules generally appear spherical in a normal microscope mount, but when viewed from two directions many are found to be oblate spheroids with axial ratios varying from near 1.00 to as low as 0.42 (Fig. 1a). Some have fissioned during free flight1 and all stages of the fission process are found, as described for the Apollo 11 samples. Only a few spherules seem to have been distorted by landing while still soft. One notable exception is the occurrence of small spherules of orange glass conforming and adhering to the surface of larger black spherules (Fig. 1b). ?? 1973 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes.

    PubMed

    Locke, Devin P; Hillier, LaDeana W; Warren, Wesley C; Worley, Kim C; Nazareth, Lynne V; Muzny, Donna M; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Wang, Zhengyuan; Chinwalla, Asif T; Minx, Pat; Mitreva, Makedonka; Cook, Lisa; Delehaunty, Kim D; Fronick, Catrina; Schmidt, Heather; Fulton, Lucinda A; Fulton, Robert S; Nelson, Joanne O; Magrini, Vincent; Pohl, Craig; Graves, Tina A; Markovic, Chris; Cree, Andy; Dinh, Huyen H; Hume, Jennifer; Kovar, Christie L; Fowler, Gerald R; Lunter, Gerton; Meader, Stephen; Heger, Andreas; Ponting, Chris P; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Eichler, Evan E; White, Simon; Searle, Stephen; Vilella, Albert J; Chen, Yuan; Flicek, Paul; Ma, Jian; Raney, Brian; Suh, Bernard; Burhans, Richard; Herrero, Javier; Haussler, David; Faria, Rui; Fernando, Olga; Darré, Fleur; Farré, Domènec; Gazave, Elodie; Oliva, Meritxell; Navarro, Arcadi; Roberto, Roberta; Capozzi, Oronzo; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Della Valle, Giuliano; Purgato, Stefania; Rocchi, Mariano; Konkel, Miriam K; Walker, Jerilyn A; Ullmer, Brygg; Batzer, Mark A; Smit, Arian F A; Hubley, Robert; Casola, Claudio; Schrider, Daniel R; Hahn, Matthew W; Quesada, Victor; Puente, Xose S; Ordoñez, Gonzalo R; López-Otín, Carlos; Vinar, Tomas; Brejova, Brona; Ratan, Aakrosh; Harris, Robert S; Miller, Webb; Kosiol, Carolin; Lawson, Heather A; Taliwal, Vikas; Martins, André L; Siepel, Adam; Roychoudhury, Arindam; Ma, Xin; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Bustamante, Carlos D; Gutenkunst, Ryan N; Mailund, Thomas; Dutheil, Julien Y; Hobolth, Asger; Schierup, Mikkel H; Ryder, Oliver A; Yoshinaga, Yuko; de Jong, Pieter J; Weinstock, George M; Rogers, Jeffrey; Mardis, Elaine R; Gibbs, Richard A; Wilson, Richard K

    2011-01-27

    'Orang-utan' is derived from a Malay term meaning 'man of the forest' and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution. Here we present a Sumatran orang-utan draft genome assembly and short read sequence data from five Sumatran and five Bornean orang-utan genomes. Our analyses reveal that, compared to other primates, the orang-utan genome has many unique features. Structural evolution of the orang-utan genome has proceeded much more slowly than other great apes, evidenced by fewer rearrangements, less segmental duplication, a lower rate of gene family turnover and surprisingly quiescent Alu repeats, which have played a major role in restructuring other primate genomes. We also describe a primate polymorphic neocentromere, found in both Pongo species, emphasizing the gradual evolution of orang-utan genome structure. Orang-utans have extremely low energy usage for a eutherian mammal, far lower than their hominid relatives. Adding their genome to the repertoire of sequenced primates illuminates new signals of positive selection in several pathways including glycolipid metabolism. From the population perspective, both Pongo species are deeply diverse; however, Sumatran individuals possess greater diversity than their Bornean counterparts, and more species-specific variation. Our estimate of Bornean/Sumatran speciation time, 400,000 years ago, is more recent than most previous studies and underscores the complexity of the orang-utan speciation process. Despite a smaller modern census population size, the Sumatran effective population size (N(e)) expanded exponentially relative to the ancestral N(e) after the split, while Bornean N(e) declined over the same period. Overall, the resources and analyses presented here offer new

  14. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. 906.365... ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.365 Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of oranges...

  15. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. 906.365... ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.365 Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of oranges...

  16. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. 906.365... ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.365 Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of oranges...

  17. 76 FR 73996 - Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International..., Florida during the Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, a series of sailboat races. The Orange Bowl... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive necessary information about the Orange...

  18. 7 CFR 906.365 - Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. 906.365... ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.365 Texas Orange and Grapefruit Regulation 34. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of oranges...

  19. Dystonia not dystopia: effects of the legal high, 'Clockwork Orange'.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Helen Elizabeth; Hawksley, Oliver

    2015-12-10

    A 27-year-old man presented to hospital after smoking a legal high named 'Clockwork Orange'. He suffered dystonia, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, lactic acidosis and a troponin rise. He was treated with procyclidine and intravenous fluids.

  20. Instantaneous network RTK in Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Orange County Real Time GPS Network (OCRTN) is an upgrade of a sub-network of SCIGN sites in southern California to low latency (1-2 sec), high-rate (1 Hz) data streaming, analysis, and dissemination. The project is a collaborative effort of the California Spatial Reference Center (CSRC) and the Orange County Public Resource and Facilities Division, with partners from the geophysical community, local and state government, and the private sector. Currently, ten sites are streaming 1 Hz raw data (Ashtech binary MBEN format) by means of dedicated, point-to-point radio modems to a network hub that translates the asynchronous serial data to TCP/IP and onto a PC workstation residing on a local area network. Software residing on the PC allows multiple clients to access the raw data simultaneously though TCP/IP. One of the clients is a Geodetics RTD server that receives and archives (1) the raw 1 Hz network data, (2) estimates of instantaneous positions and zenith tropospheric delays for quality control and detection of ground motion, and (3) RINEX data to decimated to 30 seconds. Data recovery is typically 99-100%. The server also produces 1 Hz RTCM data (messages 18, 19, 3 and 22) that are available by means of TCP/IP to RTK clients with wireless Internet modems. Coverage is excellent throughout the county. The server supports standard RTK users and is compatible with existing GPS instrumentation. Typical latency is 1-2 s, with initialization times of several seconds to minutes OCRTN site spacing is 10-15 km. In addition, the server supports “smart clients” who can retrieve data from the closest n sites (typically 3) and obtain an instantaneous network RTK position with 1-2 s latency. This mode currently requires a PDA running the RTD client software, and a wireless card. Since there is no initialization and re-initialization required this approach is well suited to support high-precision (centimeter-level) dynamic applications such as intelligent transportation

  1. Herbicide Orange Site Characterization Study Naval Construction Battalion Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    revrs if necU~ary and identify by block muenbers IELD GROUP sue, GR. Herbicide Orange) -2,4-D’ Analytical Methods) 1 ,ni IDioxin Soil Samli~ 3*3TRACT...THIS PAGE Cont-mination levels ranged between rordetectable and approximately 200 ppb. Average values were below 10 ppt in surface soils and...analysis of a soil sampling program performed at the former Herbicide Orange storage site on the Naval Construction Battalion Center. Over 1700 soil

  2. Biological control of Penicillium italicum, P. digitatum and P. expansum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis schoenii on oranges

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Raphael S.; Silva, Francisco L.; Silva, Juliana F.M.; Morais, Paula B.; Braga, Danúbia T; Rosa, Carlos A.; Corrêa Jr., Ary

    2008-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the ability of Saccharomycopsis schoenii Nadson and Krassiln (UWO-PS 80-91) as biocontrol agent against plant pathogenic filamentous fungi P. expansum Link (UFMG 01-2002), P. italicum Wehmer (LCP 61.1199), and P. digitatum (Pers.: Fr.) (LCP 984263, LCP 68175 and LCP 4354). S. schoenii was able to reduce disease severity in oranges inoculated with all fungi. Among the phytopathogens, P. digitatum LCP4354 was the most virulent whereas P. digitatum LCP 68175 was the most susceptible to predation. The yeast was able to survive for 21 days on the fruit surface and did not produce lesions on oranges. Production of antagonistic substances by S. schoenii was not detected using standard techniques. Our results point to the potential use of S. schoenii to control postharvest phytopathogens in fruits. PMID:24031185

  3. Biological control of Penicillium italicum, P. digitatum and P. expansum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis schoenii on oranges.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Raphael S; Silva, Francisco L; Silva, Juliana F M; Morais, Paula B; Braga, Danúbia T; Rosa, Carlos A; Corrêa, Ary

    2008-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the ability of Saccharomycopsis schoenii Nadson and Krassiln (UWO-PS 80-91) as biocontrol agent against plant pathogenic filamentous fungi P. expansum Link (UFMG 01-2002), P. italicum Wehmer (LCP 61.1199), and P. digitatum (Pers.: Fr.) (LCP 984263, LCP 68175 and LCP 4354). S. schoenii was able to reduce disease severity in oranges inoculated with all fungi. Among the phytopathogens, P. digitatum LCP4354 was the most virulent whereas P. digitatum LCP 68175 was the most susceptible to predation. The yeast was able to survive for 21 days on the fruit surface and did not produce lesions on oranges. Production of antagonistic substances by S. schoenii was not detected using standard techniques. Our results point to the potential use of S. schoenii to control postharvest phytopathogens in fruits.

  4. The Signaling State of Orange Carotenoid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Maksimov, Eugene G.; Shirshin, Evgeny A.; Sluchanko, Nikolai N.; Zlenko, Dmitry V.; Parshina, Evgenia Y.; Tsoraev, Georgy V.; Klementiev, Konstantin E.; Budylin, Gleb S.; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Friedrich, Thomas; Fadeev, Victor V.; Paschenko, Vladimir Z.; Rubin, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is the photoactive protein that is responsible for high light tolerance in cyanobacteria. We studied the kinetics of the OCP photocycle by monitoring changes in its absorption spectrum, intrinsic fluorescence, and fluorescence of the Nile red dye bound to OCP. It was demonstrated that all of these three methods provide the same kinetic parameters of the photocycle, namely, the kinetics of OCP relaxation in darkness was biexponential with a ratio of two components equal to 2:1 independently of temperature. Whereas the changes of the absorption spectrum of OCP characterize the geometry and environment of its chromophore, the intrinsic fluorescence of OCP reveals changes in its tertiary structure, and the fluorescence properties of Nile red indicate the exposure of hydrophobic surface areas of OCP to the solvent following the photocycle. The results of molecular-dynamics studies indicated the presence of two metastable conformations of 3′-hydroxyechinenone, which is consistent with characteristic changes in the Raman spectra. We conclude that rotation of the β-ionylidene ring in the C-terminal domain of OCP could be one of the first conformational rearrangements that occur during photoactivation. The obtained results suggest that the photoactivated form of OCP represents a molten globule-like state that is characterized by increased mobility of tertiary structure elements and solvent accessibility. PMID:26244741

  5. Hydrology of Lake Butler, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, James L.; Schiffer, Donna M.

    1984-01-01

    Lake Butler is one of the lakes that collectively make up the Butler chain of lakes in the headwaters of the Kissimmee River, Florida. The bottom configuration of the lake is typical of relict karst features formed during lower stages in sea level. The top of the Floridan aquifer is 50 to 100 feet below the land surface. The drainage area of Lake Butler is approximately 14.5 sq mi and is comprised of sub-basins of other lakes in the vicinity. Surface outflow from Lake Butler is generally southward to Cypress Creek, a tributary of the Kissimmee River. The extremes in lake stage for the period 1933-81 are 94.67 ft on June 23, 1981 and 101.78 ft on September 13, 1960. The median lake stage for this period was 99.28 ft above sea level. The quality of water in Lake Butler is excellent, based on studies of physical, chemical, and biological conditions by the Orange County Pollution Control Department. The lake water is slightly acidic and soft (48 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate). Pesticides in water were below detection levels at two sites sampled in the lake, but were detected in the bottom sediments. (USGS)

  6. Low temperature solution process-based defect-induced orange-red light emitting diode

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Pranab; Baek, Sung-Doo; Hoon Lee, Sang; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong Lee, Su; Il Lee, Tae; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2015-01-01

    We report low-temperature solution-processed p-CuO nanorods (NRs)/n-ZnO NRs heterojunction light emitting diode (LED), exploiting the native point defects of ZnO NRs. ZnO NRs were synthesized at 90 °C by using hydrothermal method while CuO NRs were synthesized at 100 °C by using microwave reaction system. The electrical properties of newly synthesized CuO NRs revealed a promising p-type nature with a hole concentration of 9.64 × 1018 cm−3. The current-voltage characteristic of the heterojunction showed a significantly high rectification ratio of 105 at 4 V with a stable current flow. A broad orange-red emission was obtained from the forward biased LED with a major peak at 610 nm which was attributed to the electron transition from interstitial zinc to interstitial oxygen point defects in ZnO. A minor shoulder peak was also observed at 710 nm, corresponding to red emission which was ascribed to the transition from conduction band of ZnO to oxygen vacancies in ZnO lattice. This study demonstrates a significant progress toward oxide materials based, defect-induced light emitting device with low-cost, low-temperature methods. PMID:26648420

  7. Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr3Gd): Sm3+ orange-red phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zaifa; Xu, Denghui; Sun, Jiayue; Sun, Yumei; Du, Haiyan

    2015-10-01

    Reddish-orange emitting phosphors, Sr3Gd): Sm3+, were successfully synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction. The crystal structure of the phosphors was characterized by x-ray diffraction. The excitation spectra and emission spectra were utilized to characterize the luminescence properties of the as-prepared phosphors. The results show that the phosphor consisted of some sharp emission peaks of Sm3+ ions centered at 564, 600, 647, and 707 nm, respectively. The critical distance of Sr3Gd0.93): 0.07Sm3+ was calculated to be 19.18 Å and the lifetime value of the sample was 1.63 ms. The band gap of Sr3Gd) was estimated to be about 2.74 eV from the diffuse reflection spectrum. The optimum doping concentration is 7 mol. % and the quenching occurs via dipole-dipole interaction according to Dexter's theory. The Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage value of Sr3Gd): Sm3+ phosphors presented that it has high color purity. These results indicated that the Sr3Gd): Sm3+ may be a promising reddish-orange emitting phosphor for cost-effective near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes.

  8. Synthesis and Optical Spectroscopy of YPO4:Eu3+ Orange-Red Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahiaoui, Z.; Hassairi, M. A.; Dammak, M.

    2017-03-01

    YPO4:x mol.% Eu3+ phosphors with different dopant concentrations (x = 3, 5, 8, 11, 13) have been synthesized via high-temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analysis and Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy were applied for detailed structural characterization. Under excitation at wavelength of 395 nm, the photoluminescence spectra displayed the 5D0 → 7F J (J = 1, 2, 3, 4) intra-4f shell transitions related to Eu3+ ion. The radiative lifetime was estimated using the Ω 2 and Ω 4 Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters. The highest luminescence intensity was achieved for an optimal europium concentration of 11 mol.%. The critical energy-transfer distance for Eu3+ ions was evaluated to be 10.74 Å. We also studied the temperature-dependent photoluminescence and Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage chromaticity diagram. It was found that Eu3+-doped YPO4 exhibited good thermal stability and its emission intensity decreased slightly above room temperature. In addition, the color purity of this phosphor was as high as 91% for the YPO4:13% Eu3+ sample, making it a potential orange-red phosphor for application in ultraviolet-pumped white light-emitting diodes.

  9. Outdoor residential water use trends in Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijoor, N. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Berg, J.; Baum-Haley, M.

    2012-12-01

    Irrigation is required to maintain outdoor landscapes in semi-arid climates, such as in Orange County, California. Landscape water use efficiency is a priority in Orange County, as nearly half the water supply is imported and the region is vulnerable to water shortages. The purpose of this research is to determine whether single family household residents adjust landscape irrigation based on climate or income in Orange County. Specifically, the goals were to (1) estimate the volume of single family residence (SFR) landscape irrigation applied (2) determine the depth (mm) of over- or under-irrigation compared to theoretical need (3) determine the climatic and socioeconomic controls on landscape irrigation. We plan to compare results from agencies with uniform vs. allocation-based rate structures. A research partnership was established between six water retail agencies in Orange County: Huntington Beach Water District, El Toro Water District, Irvine Ranch Water District, East Orange County Water District, City of San Juan Capistrano, and Laguna Beach County Water District. These agencies represent a wide range of climatic and economic conditions and contributed between 3 and 13 years of SFR water use data on a monthly/bimonthly basis. Household water use, climate, and socioeconomic factors were mapped using Arcview GIS. Air temperature (California Irrigation Management Information System), precipitation (Orange County Cooperative Observer System), landscape size, and income (US Census) were evaluated as possible controls on SFR water use. Findings indicate that landscape water use may constitute the majority of household water use. We found over-irrigation relative to plant water demand in areas of Orange County. Domestic landscape water use may depend on climate and/or income. Results suggest a high potential for residential water savings with improved landscape irrigation efficiency. This information would be useful for improving or developing water use efficiency

  10. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    PubMed

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.

  11. Antibiotic Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... producing ). Examples of this type are the alcohols, chlorine, peroxides, and aldehydes. The second group consists mostly ... viruses have some kind of antibacterial agent. Alcohols, chlorine and peroxides have been used for many decades ...

  12. Solid state yellow and orange lasers for flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Veena; Karpov, Vladimir; Linton, Claudette; Subach, Fedor V; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Telford, William G

    2008-06-01

    Diode and DPSS lasers emitting a variety of wavelengths are now commonly incorporated into flow cytometers, greatly increasing our capacity to excite a wide variety of fluorochromes. Until recently, however, virtually no practical technology existed for generating yellow or orange laser light for flow cytometry that was compatible with smaller instrumentation. In this study, we evaluate several new solid state laser systems that emit from the 570 to 600 nm as excitation sources for flow cytometry. DPSS 580, 589, and 592 nm sources were integrated into a cuvette-based flow cytometer (BD LSR II) and a stream-in-air cell sorter (FACSVantage DiVa), and used to excite a variety of yellow, orange, and red excited fluorochromes, including Texas Red, APC, and its tandem conjugates, and the genetically encoded red fluorescent protein HcRed and the more recently developed Katushka. All laser sources were successfully incorporated into the indicated flow cytometry platforms. The yellow and orange sources (particularly 592 nm) were ideal for exciting Texas Red, and provided excitation of APC and its tandems that was comparable to a traditional red laser source, albeit at higher power levels than red sources. Yellow and orange laser light was optimal for exciting HcRed and Katushka. Practical yellow and orange laser sources are now available for flow cytometry. This technology fills an important gap in the laser wavelengths available for flow, now almost any fluorochrome requiring visible light excitation can be accommodated.

  13. Malaria of the orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus) in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Peters, W

    1976-09-28

    The primary objective of this project was to study the life cycle and ecology of Plasmodium pitheci, a malaria parasite of the orang-utan. The field work was based on the orang-utan rehabilitation centre in the Sepilok Forest Reserve of eastern Sabah. Two visits were made to Sepilok, the first in February and March, 1972, and the second (by W.P.) in January 1974. On the first visit two species of "surrogate host" were taken to Sabah, i.e. chimpanzees and Aotus monkeys for experimental work. The arboreal habitat of the orang-utan in the dipterocarp forests of eastern Sabah is described. In the Sepilok Forest Reserve dwell gibbons and leaf-monkeys, in addition to a small population of semi-domesticated and wild, free-ranging orang-utans of various ages. Although numerous species of anopheline mosquitoes have been collected in eastern Sabah, longitudinal studies are not available. Anopheles balabacensis was caught both attracted to orang-utans and to man at Sepilok. This species which is the main vector of human malaria in the north of Borneo, is suspected also of transmitting orang-utan malaria in this part of Sabah. Repeated blood examinations have been made on a number of orang-utans in the centre since 1966 and a high prevalence of infection was recorded with Plasmodium pitheci. In 1966 10 out of 19 animals had demonstrable parasitaemia. Detailed case histories are presented to show the course of parasitaemia in several orang-utans. Infections of P. pitheci were found to run a very chronic course. During the 1972 expedition a second, previously undescribed malaria parasite of the orang-utan was discovered, and was named P. silvaticum. The new parasite was successfully transmitted both by blood inoculation and, later, by sporozoite inoculation, into splenectomized chimpanzees. Although both species of malaria parasite may cause transitory signs of illness, orang-utans in general appear to be little discomforted by the infection. The animals do however suffer from

  14. Effect of diet orange soda on urinary lithogenicity.

    PubMed

    Sumorok, Nicola T; Asplin, John R; Eisner, Brian H; Stoller, Marshall L; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that certain beverages decrease urinary lithogenicity by increasing urine citrate excretion. Diet Sunkist Orange soda had the highest concentration of citrate and total alkali content among 12 diet sodas previously assayed. We studied the effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda consumption on urinary chemistry. Nine healthy men and women ages 26-54 years completed the study. During the control period, subjects drank 36 oz of water for 3 days in addition to their own, self-selected diet and recorded a food diary. During the study period, the subjects drank three 12-oz cans of Diet Sunkist Orange soda a day instead of water, and replicated their diets from the control period. In each period, the subjects performed 24-h urine collections on days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, including urinary citrate levels and pH. Diet Sunkist Orange soda increased urinary citrate excretion by 60 mg/day, which was not statistically significant (95% CI -75 to 195, P value 0.34). There was no significant change in pH from the control period to the study period (pH: 6.29-6.21; 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.25, P = 0.30). Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not significantly different between the control and study periods. Despite the relatively high citrate and total alkali content of Diet Sunkist Orange soda, the volume consumed in this study (36 oz per day) did not provide sufficient potential base to significantly alter urine composition in healthy subjects with normocitraturia. The effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda on urinary chemistry in patients with hypocitraturia and nephrolithiasis is not likely to have a clinically significant effect to prevent calcium or uric acid stones.

  15. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  16. Orange County Government Solar Demonstration and Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Renee; Cunniff, Lori

    2015-05-12

    Orange County Florida completed the construction of a 20 kilowatt Solar Demonstration and Research Facility in March 2015. The system was constructed at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center whose electric service address is 6021 South Conway Road, Orlando, Florida 32802. The Solar Demonstration and Research Facility is comprised of 72 polycrystalline photovoltaic modules and 3 inverters which convert direct current from the solar panels to alternating current electricity. Each module produces 270 watts of direct current power, for a total canopy production of just under 20,000 watts. The solar modules were installed with a fixed tilt of 5 degrees and face south, toward the equator to maximize the amount of sunlight captures. Each year, the electricity generated by the solar array will help eliminate 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions as well as provide covered parking for staff and visitors vehicles. The solar array is expected to generate 27,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually equating to an estimated $266 savings in the monthly electric bill, or $3,180 annually for the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. In addition to reducing the electric bill for the Extension Center, Orange County’s solar array also takes advantage of a rebate incentive offered by the local utility, Orlando Utility Commission, which provided a meter that measures the amount of power produced by the solar array. The local utility company’s Solar Photovoltaic Production Incentive will pay Orange County $0.05 per kilowatt hour for the power that is produced by the solar array. This incentive is provided in addition to Net Metering benefits, which is an effort to promote the use of clean, renewable energy on the electric grid. The Photovoltaic Solar Demonstration and Research Facility also serves an educational tool to the public; the solar array is tied directly into a data logger that provides real time power

  17. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning a previous Removal Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange...

  18. 77 FR 3326 - Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement in Orange County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Environmental Impact Statement in Orange County, NC AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), North... Elizabeth Brady Road Extension between US 70 Business and US 70 Bypass in Orange County, North Carolina....

  19. 75 FR 1010 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Clark, Floyd, Lawrence, Orange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ..., Floyd, Lawrence, Orange, and Washington Counties, IN On December 18, 2009, CSX Transportation, Inc... Albany, in Clark, Floyd, Lawrence, Orange, and Washington Counties, IN.\\1\\ The line traverses...

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of wastewater pollutants: titanium dioxide mediated degradation of methyl orange and beta-naphthol orange.

    PubMed

    Antharjanam, Sudhadevi; Philip, Robert; Suresh, Das

    2003-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes such as methyl orange and beta-naphthol orange in aqueous suspensions of TiO2 has been investigated under a variety of conditions. The kinetics of degradation was studied under different conditions such as reaction pH, substrate and catalyst concentration, and types of titanium dioxide used and in the presence of electron acceptors and electron donors. The degradation rates of the dyes have been found to be strongly influenced by all the above parameters. Carbon dioxide yield measurements indicate that only partial mineralization occurs in the initial phase of oxidation.

  1. Educating the Orang Asli Children: Exploring Indigenous Children's Practices and Experiences in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    The author is concerned with the education available for the Orang Asli, an indigenous minority community in Malaysia. Literature written about Orang Asli and education mostly assumes a deficit perspective where the lack of educational achievement among the Orang Asli children is often attributed to their culture and community. Therefore, rather…

  2. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  3. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  4. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  5. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  6. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  7. Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange head leaves are a desirable quality trait for Chinese cabbage. Our previous fine mapping identified BrCRTISO as the Br-or candidate gene for the orange Chinese cabbage mutant. Here we examined the BrCRTISO gene from white and orange head Chinese cabbage. While BrCRTISO from the white control ...

  8. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  10. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  16. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column...

  17. 76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange... establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach... Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October 6, 2011 through October 9, 2011. This...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  19. 78 FR 32068 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida... marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida (order). The Citrus... oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida, hereinafter referred to as the...

  20. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  1. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  3. 78 FR 14236 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Revising Reporting Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida... prescribed under the Federal marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in... handling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida, hereinafter referred to as...

  4. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  5. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... International Trade Administration Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY... order on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ On April 13, 2012, the International Trade Commission..., 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012)...

  6. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 117--Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Shipbuilding), Orange, TX On January 10, 2013, the Foreign Trade Zone of Southeast...-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Signal International Texas GP, LLC, in Orange, Texas....

  7. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  9. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  11. 78 FR 2908 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and... regulates the handling of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in Florida. Assessments upon... Marketing Order No. 905, amended (7 CFR part 905), regulating the handling of oranges,...

  12. 78 FR 37779 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Untreated Oranges...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Collection; Untreated Oranges, Tangerines, and Grapefruit From Mexico Transiting the United States to Foreign... approval of an information collection associated with the regulations for the transit of untreated oranges...: For information on the regulations for the transit of untreated oranges, tangerines, and...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  15. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  17. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51... Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  2. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  3. 78 FR 52079 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Relaxing Size and Grade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Relaxing Size and Grade Requirements on Valencia and Other Late Type Oranges AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... prescribed under the marketing order for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos grown in...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  5. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column...

  6. 76 FR 30754 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Riverside and Orange Counties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...: Riverside and Orange Counties, CA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a proposed highway project in Riverside and Orange... in Riverside and Orange Counties. The State Route 91 Corridor Improvement Project proposes to...

  7. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51... Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed...

  8. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  10. 7 CFR 905.306 - Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation... AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Grade and Size Requirements § 905.306 Orange, Grapefruit, Tangerine and Tangelo Regulation. (a) During the period specified in column...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-44 - Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-44 Untreated grapefruit, sweet oranges, and tangerines from Mexico for processing. Untreated grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis),...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  13. 77 FR 30504 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty... orange juice (OJ) from Brazil for a period of review (POR) of March 1, 2011, through February 29, 2012.\\1....\\2\\ \\2\\ See Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  15. 77 FR 75550 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle... in Miami, FL during the 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship. The event will take place on January 13... purpose of the rule is to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the 2013 Orange...

  16. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  17. Regulation of Orange Carotenoid Protein Activity in Cyanobacterial Photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Thurotte, Adrien; Lopez-Igual, Rocio; Wilson, Adjélé; Comolet, Léa; Bourcier de Carbon, Céline; Xiao, Fugui; Kirilovsky, Diana

    2015-09-01

    Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria have developed mechanisms to decrease the energy arriving at reaction centers to protect themselves from high irradiance. In cyanobacteria, the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) and the Fluorescence Recovery Protein are essential elements in this mechanism. Absorption of strong blue-green light by the OCP induces carotenoid and protein conformational changes converting the orange (inactive) OCP into a red (active) OCP. Only the red orange carotenoid protein (OCP(r)) is able to bind to phycobilisomes, the cyanobacterial antenna, and to quench excess energy. In this work, we have constructed and characterized several OCP mutants and focused on the role of the OCP N-terminal arm in photoactivation and excitation energy dissipation. The N-terminal arm largely stabilizes the closed orange OCP structure by interacting with its C-terminal domain. This avoids photoactivation at low irradiance. In addition, it slows the OCP detachment from phycobilisomes by hindering fluorescence recovery protein interaction with bound OCP(r). This maintains thermal dissipation of excess energy for a longer time. Pro-22, at the beginning of the N-terminal arm, has a key role in the correct positioning of the arm in OCP(r), enabling strong OCP binding to phycobilisomes, but is not essential for photoactivation. Our results also show that the opening of the OCP during photoactivation is caused by the movement of the C-terminal domain with respect to the N-terminal domain and the N-terminal arm.

  18. Fertilization and pesticides affect mandarin orange nutrient composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of the application of foliar fertilization and pesticide on nutritional quality of mandarin orange juices were evaluated using 1H NMR metabolomics. Significant differences between the use of fertilizer and pesticides during fruit formation were observed, and included changes in sugar, am...

  19. Nutrition Program Boosts Dental Health of Orange County Migrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Anne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In Orange County, California, 76 migrant preschool children and 45 parents participated in a 7-week pilot program concerned with preventing dental disease by encouraging good dental habits and healthy food choices. Parent questionnaires revealed that the most remarkable program-related change was a decrease in consumption of sugary foods for over…

  20. Asian citrus psyllid, huanglongbing and the orange jasmine conundrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important invasive pest in Florida because it vectors a bacterium ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ (LAS) responsible for a devastating citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB). Soon after finding HLB in Florida, concerns arose that orange jasmine in urban areas wo...

  1. Two Lesser Dystopias: "We" and "A Clockwork Orange."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnsley, John H.

    1984-01-01

    Both the Russian novel "We" and the Anthony Burgess novel "A Clockwork Orange" offer frightening glimpses of a future society. But the contrast between these visions is striking. "We" is concerned with the misuse of technology, Burgess's book with the misuse of psychology. Both warn about the misuse of state power.…

  2. Dropout Prevention Initiatives for Malaysian Indigenous Orang Asli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…

  3. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  4. Control of Orange Hawkweed (Hieracium aurantiacum) in Southern Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange hawkweed is a perennial European plant and an escaped ornamental that has colonized roadsides and grasslands in south central and southeast Alaska. This plant is forming near monotypic stands, reducing plant diversity and decreasing pasture productivity. A replicated greenhouse study was cond...

  5. The pharmacokinetics and health benefits of orange peel compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange peel is a resource rich in phenolic antioxidants, including several classes of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates. These compounds have been extensively studied for their biological actions particularly against chronic diseases in humans. Yet, full development of these materials as new, commerc...

  6. Formation of Diketopiperazines by Penicillium italicum Isolated from Oranges

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Peter M.; Kennedy, Barry P. C.; Harwig, Joost; Chen, Y-K.

    1974-01-01

    Prolyl-2-(1′,1′-dimethylallyl)tryptophyldiketopiperazine and 12,13-dehydroprolyl-2-(1′,1′-dimethylallyl)tryptophyldiketopiperazine, known metabolites of Aspergillus ustus, were produced in low yield by Penicillium italicum in liquid culture and on unsterilized orange peel. PMID:4441068

  7. The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-11-01

    Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers.

  8. The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; Andrés, Victoria San; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M.; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers. PMID:22212123

  9. Building a Model System of Developmental Services in Orange County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal; Russ, Shirley; Regalado, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, California voters passed Proposition 10, the California Children and Families First Act, which provides for an excise tax on tobacco products to fund parent education, health and child care programs that promote early childhood development for 0-5s. Since the adoption of its first Strategic Plan (2000), the Orange County First 5…

  10. Risky Business: An Analysis of Orange County's Investment Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, John H.; Fairclough, Scott

    1996-01-01

    The investment strategy of Orange County (California), which led to insolvency of its investment pool, is analyzed and lessons applicable to institutions of higher education are examined. Focus is on two elements: leveraged investment strategy that depended on stable or declining interest rates, and a liquidity crisis. It is concluded that…

  11. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; German, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water supply in central Florida and is critical for aquatic habitats and human consumption. To provide a better understanding for the conservation, development, and management of the water resources of Orange County, Florida, a study of the hydrogeologic framework, water budget, and ground-water quality characteristics was conducted from 1998 through 2002. The study also included extensive analyses of the surface-water resources, published as a separate report. An increase in population from about 264,000 in 1960 to 896,000 in 2000 and subsequent urban growth throughout this region has been accompanied by a substantial increase in water use. Total ground-water use in Orange County increased from about 82 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 287 million gallons per day in 2000. The hydrogeology of Orange County consists of three major hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. Data were compiled from 634 sites to construct hydrogeologic maps and sections of Orange County. Water-level elevations measured in 23 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system ranged from about 10.6 feet in eastern Orange County to 123.8 feet above NGVD 29 in northwestern Orange County from March 2000 through September 2001. Water levels also were measured in 14 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels fluctuate over time from seasonal and annual variations in rainfall; however, water levels in a number of wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer have declined over time. Withdrawal of ground water from the aquifers by pumping probably is causing the declines because the average annual precipitation rate has not changed substantially in central Florida since the 1930s, although yearly rates can vary. A generalized water budget was computed for Orange County from 1991 to 2000. Average rates for the 10-year period for the following budget components were computed based

  12. Variability of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Orange Colored Capsicum spp.

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Ivette; Hamby, Shane; Romero, Joslynn; Bosland, Paul W.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    Pepper, Capsicum spp., is a worldwide crop valued for heat, nutrition, and rich pigment content. Carotenoids, the largest group of plant pigments, function as antioxidants and as vitamin A precursors. The most abundant carotenoids in ripe pepper fruits are β-carotene, capsanthin, and capsorubin. In this study, the carotenoid composition of orange fruited Capsicum lines was defined along with the allelic variability of the biosynthetic enzymes. The carotenoid chemical profiles present in seven orange pepper varieties were determined using a novel UPLC method. The orange appearance of the fruit was due either to the accumulation of β-carotene, or in two cases, due to only the accumulation of red and yellow carotenoids. Four carotenoid biosynthetic genes, Psy, Lcyb, CrtZ-2, and Ccs were cloned and sequenced from these cultivars. This data tested the hypothesis that different alleles for specific carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes are associated with specific carotenoid profiles in orange peppers. While the coding regions within Psy and CrtZ-2 did not change in any of the lines, the genomic sequence contained introns not previously reported. Lcyb and Ccs contained no introns but did exhibit polymorphisms resulting in amino acid changes; a new Ccs variant was found. When selectively breeding for high provitamin A levels, phenotypic recurrent selection based on fruit color is not sufficient, carotenoid chemical composition should also be conducted. Based on these results, specific alleles are candidate molecular markers for selection of orange pepper lines with high β-carotene and therefore high pro-vitamin A levels. PMID:20582146

  13. Computational study on the color change of 3‧-hydroxyechinenone in the orange carotenoid protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yukie

    2016-05-01

    The orange carotenoid protein, which contains 3‧-hydroxyechinenone (hECN), changes color from orange to red when irradiated with blue-green light. In this study, the origins of the color change have been investigated. The conformation of hECN in the red form is more planar than that in the orange form; consequently, the absorption band is red-shifted on conversion from the orange form to the red form. Another source of the red shift is that the electrostatic field generated by the protein in the red form stabilizes the excited state better than that generated by the protein in the orange form.

  14. First report of Puccinia kuehnii, causal agent of orange rust of sugarcane, in Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2007, at Masagua, Escuintla Department, Guatemala , uredial lesions were observed on a sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) cultivar (CP 72-2086) considered resistant to brown rust caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd. that appeared different from those of bro...

  15. Veterans Affairs: Health Care and Benefits for Veterans Exposed to Agent Orange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-22

    comply with the notice and comment requirements of the Administrative Procedures Act ( APA ).38 Subsequent Actions On September 21, 2006, Secretary...found by the CAVC not to have been properly rescinded under the APA .41 This action was taken by the VA as a preemptive measure in the event the...53 Norma Ketchum and Joel Michalek, “Postservice Mortality of Air Force Veterans Occupationally Exposed to Herbicides During the Vietnam

  16. Veterans Affairs: Health Care and Benefits for Veterans Exposed to Agent Orange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-11

    the Administrative Procedures Act ( APA ).20 Current Status. On September 21, 2006, Secretary Nicholson issued a memorandum directing the Board of...provisions of its Adjudication Procedures Manual, M21-1 (M21-1), that were found by the CAVC not to have been properly rescinded under the APA .22...of the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment. 24 Norma Ketchum and Joel Michalek, “Postservice Mortality of Air Force Veterans Occupationally

  17. Dioxins and cytogenetic status of villagers after 40 years of agent Orange application in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Sycheva, Lyudmila P; Umnova, Nataliya V; Kovalenko, Maria A; Zhurkov, Vjacheslav S; Shelepchikov, Andrey A; Roumak, Vladimir S

    2016-02-01

    We have examined cytogenetic status of the rural population living on dioxin-contaminated territories (DCT, TCDD in soil 2.6 ng/kg) compared to the villagers of the control area (TCDD in soil 0.18 ng kg(-1)). The examination took place almost 40 years after the war. The consequences of some confounding factors (years of residence in the region, farming, and aging) has been examined. Karyological analysis of buccal and nasal epitheliocytes among healthy adult males living on DCT and control area (26 and 35 persons) was conducted. A wide range of cytogenetic (micronuclei, nuclear protrusions), proliferative (binucleated cells and cells with doubled nucleus) and endpoints of cell death (cells with perinuclear vacuoles, with damaged nucleus membrane, condensed chromatin, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyolysis) had been analyzed. The frequent amount of cells with nuclear protrusions in both epithelia was slightly decreased in the DСT group. Biomarkers of early and late stages of nuclear destruction in buccal epithelium (cells with damaged nuclear membrane, karyolysis) were elevated significantly in DCT. Higher level of the same parameters was also identified in nasal epithelium. The cytogenetic status of healthy adult males on DCT had got "normalization" by present moment in comparison with our early data. Nevertheless, in exposed group some alteration of the cytogenetic status was being registered (mostly biomarkers of apoptosis). Years of residence (and exposure to dioxins) affected the cytogenetic status of DCT inhabitants, whereas no influence of farming factors (pesticides, fertilizers, etc.) had been discovered. Some biomarkers of proliferation and cell death were affected by aging.

  18. 78 FR 6853 - Agency Information Collection (Agent Orange Registry Code Sheet) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... required to organize and update the information contained in AOR to be able to notify Vietnam era veterans who served in the Republic of Vietnam of any increased health risks resulting from exposure to dioxin... VA that is similar to the Persian Gulf War Veterans Health Registry. Registry examinations...

  19. A resolution designating the month of August 2009 as "Agent Orange Awareness Month".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Collins, Susan M. [R-ME

    2009-08-06

    08/06/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S9060; text as passed Senate: CR S9060; text of measure as introduced: CR S9046) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Vietnamese Victims of Agent Orange and U.S.-Vietnam Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-21

    1998 and 2000 lists) • Acute, chronic and subacute peripheral neuropathy • Chloracne • Diabetes (Type 2) • Hepatoma • Hodgkin’s disease • Lipid...www.state.gov/t/pm/rls/rpt/walkearth/2006/ 68018.htm]. birth defects prevalent in the Vietnamese population. As a result, the United States has...prostate cancer, and type 2 diabetes . Other CRS-18 diseases on the VRC’s list are not recognized by the U.S. government as being related to dioxin

  1. Parental Military Service, Agent Orange Exposure, and the Risk of Rhabdomyosarcoma in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Grufferman, Seymour; Lupo, Philip J.; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Danysh, Heather E.; Erhardt, Erik B.; Ognjanovic, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of parental military service-related exposures and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) risk in offspring using data from a large case-control study of childhood RMS. Study design Cases (n=319) were enrolled from the third trial run by the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group. Population-based controls (n=319) were pair-matched to cases on race, sex, and age. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate parental military service-related exposures and their associations with childhood RMS by generating adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05. Results There were no significant associations between parental military service and childhood RMS. The strongest association was with maternal military service; however, this association was attenuated and did not remain significant after adjusting for covariates (aOR=2.75, 95% CI: 0.71, 10.62). An elevated effect estimate was found when assessing paternal exposure to AO and childhood RMS but was not statistically significant (aOR=1.72, 95% CI: 0.55, 5.41). Conclusions We found little evidence that parental military service of AO exposure influences the risk of RMS in offspring these factors influence disease risk. These findings are notable in light of the continuing controversies surrounding the intergenerational effects of AO exposure. PMID:25241182

  2. A FRET-facilitated photoswitching using an orange fluorescent protein with the fast photoconversion kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Subach, Oksana M.; Entenberg, David; Condeelis, John S.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins photoswitchable with non-cytotoxic light irradiation and spectrally distinct from multiple available photoconvertible green-to-red probes are in high demand. We have developed a monomeric fluorescent protein, called PSmOrange2, which is photoswitchable with blue light from an orange (ex./em. at 546 nm/561 nm) to a far-red (ex./em. at 619 nm/651 nm) form. Compared to another orange-to-far-red photoconvertable variant, PSmOrange2 has blue-shifted photoswitching action spectrum, 9-fold higher photoconversion contrast, and up to 10-fold faster photoswitching kinetics. This results in the 4-fold more PSmOrange2 molecules being photoconverted in mammalian cells. Compared to common orange fluorescent proteins, such as mOrange, the orange form of PSmOrange has substantially higher photostability allowing its use in multicolor imaging applications to track dynamics of multiple populations of intracellular objects. The PSmOrange2 photochemical properties allow its efficient photoswitching with common two-photon lasers and, moreover, via Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from green fluorescent donors. We have termed the latter effect a FRET-facilitated photoswitching and demonstrated it using several sets of interacting proteins. The enhanced photoswitching properties of PSmOrange2 make it a superior photoconvertable protein tag for flow cytometry, conventional microscopy, and two-photon imaging of live cells. PMID:22900938

  3. Red-fleshed sweet orange juice improves the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Dourado, Grace K Z S; Cesar, Thais B

    2015-01-01

    Orange juice consumption can promote lower levels of oxidative stress and inflammation due to the antioxidant activity of citrus flavonoids and carotenoids. In addition, red-fleshed sweet orange juice (red orange juice) also contains lycopene. This study investigated the effects of red orange juice consumption on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Volunteers consumed red orange juice daily for 8 weeks, with clinical and biochemical assessments performed at baseline and on the final day. There was no change in the abdominal obesity, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein decreased, while there was an increase of the antioxidant activity in serum after red orange juice consumption. Insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure were reduced in normal-weight volunteers, while diastolic blood pressure decreased in overweight volunteers after intervention. Red orange juice showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties that may prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  4. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  5. Certification of standard reference materials containing bitter orange.

    PubMed

    Sander, L C; Putzbach, K; Nelson, B C; Rimmer, C A; Bedner, M; Thomas, J Brown; Porter, B J; Wood, L J; Schantz, M M; Murphy, K E; Sharpless, K E; Wise, S A; Yen, J H; Siitonen, P H; Evans, R L; Nguyen Pho, A; Roman, M C; Betz, J M

    2008-07-01

    A suite of three dietary supplement standard reference materials (SRMs) containing bitter orange has been developed, and the levels of five alkaloids and caffeine have been measured by multiple analytical methods. Synephrine, octopamine, tyramine, N-methyltyramine, hordenine, total alkaloids, and caffeine were determined by as many as six analytical methods, with measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and at two collaborating laboratories. The methods offer substantial independence, with two types of extractions, two separation methods, and four detection methods. Excellent agreement was obtained among the measurements, with data reproducibility for most methods and analytes better than 5% relative standard deviation. The bitter-orange-containing dietary supplement SRMs are intended primarily for use as measurement controls and for use in the development and validation of analytical methods.

  6. Skin Color Variation in Orang Asli Tribes of Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Khai C.; Ngu, Mee S.; Reid, Katherine P.; Teh, Mei S.; Aida, Zamzuraida S.; Koh, Danny XR.; Berg, Arthur; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Salleh, Hood; Clyde, Mahani M.; Md-Zain, Badrul M.; Canfield, Victor A.; Cheng, Keith C.

    2012-01-01

    Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10–20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest) to 75 (darkest); both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively). Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes. PMID:22912732

  7. The curious case of the orange coloured tonsils.

    PubMed

    Ravesloot, M J L; Bril, H; Braamskamp, M J; Wiegman, A; Wong Chung, R P

    2014-12-01

    Tangier disease is an extremely rare and severe form of high density lipoprotein deficiency. Even though there is no specific therapy for patients with Tangier disease, it is important to recognize the clinical presentation as patients are at an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis and subsequent CVD. The case discussed in this report, illustrates the importance of recognizing that orange discoloured tonsils are an indication that the patient could be suffering from Tangier's disease.

  8. Mechanism of sorption sulpho-derivative organic chelating agents on strong base anion exchanger Amberlite IRA-402 by FT-IR/PAS and DRS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronski, G.; Pasieczna-Patkowska, S.; Hubicki, Z.

    2008-02-01

    In the paper, strong base anion exchanger Amberlite IRA-402 was modified by using sulpho-derivative organic chelating agents as: Brilliant Yellow, Xylenol Orange, Bromophenyl Blue. The investigations exhibited, that anion exchanger Amberlite IRA-402 is modified very simply by organic chelating agents (working capacity 0.25 0.5 g/cm3).

  9. Pharmacokinetics of flavanone glycosides after ingestion of single doses of fresh-squeezed orange juice versus commercially processed orange juice in healthy humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids known to be beneficial to cardiovascular health in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the pharmacokinetics of the main flavanone glycosides, hesperidin and narirutin, in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squee...

  10. Synephrine - A potential biomarker for orange honey authenticity.

    PubMed

    Tette, Patrícia A S; Guidi, Letícia R; Bastos, Esther M A F; Fernandes, Christian; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A

    2017-08-15

    A LC-MS/MS method for synephrine as a biomarker for orange honey authenticity was developed and validated. The sample was extracted with 5% TCA and cleaned up with Florisil providing 83.7% recoveries. Ions transitions for quantification and identification were 168→135.0 and 168→107.0, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.66 and 1.0ng/g, respectively. Synephrine was detected in orange honey at levels from 79.2 to 432.2ng/g, but not in other monofloral honeys. It was also present in some wildflower honeys (9.4-236.5ng/g), showing contribution of citrus to this polyfloral honey. Results were confirmed by qualitative pollen analysis. No citrus pollen was detected in honey containing synephrine levels ≤43.8ng/g, suggesting that synephrine in honey is more sensitive compared to pollen analysis. Synephrine was found in citrus but not in other apiculture flowers. Therefore, synephrine is a botanical marker to differentiate and attest authenticity of orange honey.

  11. Authentication of Concentrated Orange Essential Oils Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Muñoz, G. A.; Balderas López, J. A.; López González, R. F.

    2012-11-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PS) was used to study the thermal diffusivity and its relation with the composition in folded (concentrated) cold-pressed Mexican orange essential oils. A linear relation between the amplitude (on a semi-log scale) and phase, as functions of the sample thickness, for PS was obtained through a theoretical model to fit the experimental data for thermal-diffusivity measurements in concentrated orange essential oils. Experimental results showed a linear increase in thermal-diffusivity values with the folding degree: 5-fold, 10-fold, 20-fold, and 35-fold due to a decrease in terpenes (mainly D-limonene) related with the folding process that can be correlated with the thermal diffusivity of the orange essential oils. The obtained values in this study and those previously reported (see Int. J. Thermophys. 32, 1066, 2011) showed the possibility of using this thermal property to make distinctions between citrus oils obtained by different extraction processes and also between concentrated citrus oils. This provides the viability of a new complementary method for this purpose, contrasting with the use of density and refraction index, physical properties commonly used in the authentication of citrus essential oils.

  12. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  13. Consumption of orange fermented beverage reduces cardiovascular risk factors in healthy mice.

    PubMed

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Berná, Genoveva; Ortega, Ángeles; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Cerrillo, Isabel; Martín, Franz; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad

    2015-04-01

    The consumption of fruits prevents the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Alcoholic fermentation has been carried out in fruits resulting in products which provide high concentration of bioactive compounds and variable alcohol content. The aim of this study was to assess the potential beneficial effect of an orange beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation and pasteurization of orange juice on cardiovascular risk biomarkers. For this purpose, four mice groups (n = 8) ingested orange beverage (equivalent volume to 250 mL/day in human), orange juice, alcoholic solution (at the proportional amount of orange beverage) or water during 12 weeks. The equivalent amount to double serving of orange beverage (500 mL/day) was administered to mice in a subsequent intervention, and a control group was also evaluated. Orange beverage consumption increased levels of glutathione and uric acid, improved lipid profile, decreased oxidized LDL and maintained levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein. Synergistic effects between the bioactive compounds and the alcohol content of orange beverage may occur. The intake of double serving also increased antioxidant enzyme activities, bilirubin content and plasma antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that orange beverage may produce greater protection against cardiovascular risk factors than orange juice in healthy mice.

  14. Assessing a traceability technique in fresh oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) with an HS-SPME-GC-MS method. Towards a volatile characterisation of organic oranges.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Francisco Julián; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Ruiz-Moreno, María José

    2017-04-15

    A targeted approach using HS-SPME-GC-MS was performed to compare flavour compounds of 'Navelina' and 'Salustiana' orange cultivars from organic and conventional management systems. Both varieties of conventional oranges showed higher content of ester compounds. On the other hand, higher content of some compounds related with the geranyl-diphosphate pathway (neryl and geranyl acetates) and some terpenoids were found in the organic samples. Furthermore, the partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) achieved an effective classification for oranges based on the farming system using their volatile profiles (90 and 100% correct classification). To our knowledge, it is the first time that a comparative study dealing with farming systems and orange aroma profile has been performed. These new insights, taking into account local databases, cultivars and advanced analytical tools, highlight the potential of volatile composition for organic orange discrimination.

  15. Aggregation of acridine orange: crystal structure of acridine orange tetrachlorozincate 2C17H19N3-2HCl-ZnCl2-CH3COOH.

    PubMed

    Obendorf, S K; Pickworth Glusker, J; Hansen, P R; Berman, H M; Carrell, H L

    1976-01-01

    The crystal structure of the biological stain, "acridine orange," has been determined. This compound, when crystallized from ethanol, is shown to be a zinc chloride double salt of acridine orange, containing, in addition, acetic acid of crystallization. These additional components are residuals from the method of preparation of acridine orange. This complex, 2 acridine orange-2HCl-ZnCl2-CH3COOH, (2C17H19N3-2HCl-ZnCl2-CH3COOH) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21, a = 9.965 (2), b = 21.507 (6), c = 9.645 (2) A, beta = 113.98 degrees (2), V = 1888.7 (8) A3, FW = 800.0, Z = 2, DX = 1.41 g-cm-3, Dobs = 1.43 (9) g-cm-3. Three-dimensional diffraction data were collected with CuKalpha radiation, and the structure refined to R = 0.065 for 1885 observed reflections. In the crystal structure hydrogen bonds are formed, via the protonated nitrogen atom of the central rings of two acridine orange cations, to two chloride ions in a ZnCl42- tetrahedral grouping. These two acridine orange molecules are stacked in parallel planes, approximately 3.4 A apart, with the long axes of the ring systems inclined at 26.5 to each other. Thus an apparent dimerization of the acridine, orange is facilitated by the anions present, resulting in the complex studied. The two -N(CH3)2 groups of each acridine orange molecule are not protonated in this crystalline form. The mode of molecular packing found here may be relevant to models for the external stacking of acridine orange around a DNA molecule. The importance of removing any zinc salt from acridine orange preparations prior to aggregation studies is stressed.

  16. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  17. Electrolytic treatment of methyl orange in aqueous solution using three-dimensional electrode reactor coupling ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    He, Pingting; Wang, Ling; Xue, Jianjun; Cao, Zhibin

    2010-04-01

    The treatment of wastewater containing methyl orange was investigated experimentally using a three-dimensional electrode reactor coupling ultrasonics and the effect of ultrasonics on the degradation was studied. The effects of cell voltage, original concentration of methyl orange, pH value and the concentration of electrolyte on the removal efficiency were considered. The experimental results indicated that the removal rate of methyl orange exceeded 99% and the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) approached 84% under the optimum conditions. Using ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis, a general degradation pathway for methyl orange was proposed based on the analysis of intermediate compounds. According to the ultraviolet-visible spectral changes during degradation of methyl orange, it can be presumed that the removal of COD(Cr) lags behind the removal of methyl orange because the structure of the benzene ring was more difficult to destroy compared with the azo double bonds.

  18. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  19. Phototoxic and contact toxic reactions of the exocarp of sweet oranges: a common cause of cheilitis?

    PubMed

    Volden, G; Krokan, H; Kavli, G; Midelfart, K

    1983-05-01

    Irritant skin reactions were produced within 1 h after application of the exocarp of sweet oranges or alcoholic extracts therefrom. Such reactions faded within 48 h. The exocarp, or extracts thereof, induced phototoxic reactions which were strongest at 72 h after exposure. The phototoxic reactions were only induced in natural blondes and only with some oranges. The in vivo phototoxic reactions were confirmed in vitro, causing a slight but clear photo-inhibition of Candida albicans. Only some oranges inhibited growth.

  20. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  6. 21 CFR 73.3112 - C.I. Vat Orange 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false C.I. Vat Orange 1. 73.3112 Section 73.3112 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3112 C.I. Vat Orange 1. (a) Identity. The color additive is C.I. Vat Orange 1, Colour Index No. 59105. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1)...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  8. Evaluation for elimination of methylene-orange from aqueous media by using membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuǧrul, A. B.; Altinsoy, N.; Demir, E.; Erentürk, S. Akyıl; Karatepe, N.; Haciyakupoǧlu, S.; Büyük, B.; Baydoǧan, N.; Baytaş, A. F.

    2017-02-01

    Elimination of the methylene orange which are the main sources of environmental pollution from aqueous media were investigated experimentally by using 0.45 µm hydrophilic nylon membran. Removal of the methylene orange were performed with successfully. Furthermore, repetition effect also was examined rationally. With this study, membrane usage for elimination of the methylene orange are convenient for elimination of them from the aqueous media.

  9. 21 CFR 73.3112 - C.I. Vat Orange 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false C.I. Vat Orange 1. 73.3112 Section 73.3112 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3112 C.I. Vat Orange 1. (a) Identity. The color additive is C.I. Vat Orange 1, Colour Index No. 59105. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1)...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  7. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  8. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  9. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  11. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  14. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  18. 21 CFR 73.3112 - C.I. Vat Orange 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false C.I. Vat Orange 1. 73.3112 Section 73.3112 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3112 C.I. Vat Orange 1. (a) Identity. The color additive is C.I. Vat Orange 1, Colour Index No. 59105. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1)...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  2. Mass spectrometric 13C/12C determinations to detect high fructose corn syrup in orange juice: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Doner, L W; Bills, D D; Carro, O; Drimmie, R; Fritz, P; Gearing, J N; Hillaire-Marcel, C; Parker, P L; Reeseman, F M; Smith, B N; Ziegler, H

    1982-05-01

    The 13C/12C ratios in orange juice are sufficiently uniform and different from those in high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) so that the addition of HFCS to orange juice can be detected. HFCS averages -9.7% (parts per thousand) delta 13C, orange juice averages -24.5%, and mixtures of HFCS and orange juice possess intermediate values. One pure orange juice and 4 orange juice -HFCS mixtures containing from 25 to 70% orange juice were properly classified by 7 collaborators. Samples with delta 13C values less negative than -22.1%, 4 standard deviations from the mean of pure juices, can, with a high degree of confidence, be classified as adulterated. Samples with values more negative than -22.1% must be considered unadulterated with HFCS, because pure orange juices possess a range of delta 13C values. The 13C/12C mass spectrometric method was adopted official first action for detecting HFCS in orange juice.

  3. Study of the absorption spectra of Fricke Xylenol Orange gel dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Gambarini, Grazia; Artuso, Emanuele; Liosi, Giulia Maria; Giacobbo, Francesca; Mariani, Mari; Brambilla, Luigi; Castiglioni, Chiara; Carrara, Mauro; Pignoli, Emanuele

    2015-07-01

    A systematic study of the absorption spectra of Fricke Xylenol Orange gel dosimeters has been performed, in the wavelength range from 300 nm to 700 nm. The spectrum of Xylenol Orange (without ferrous sulphate solution) has been achieved, in order to subtract its contribution from the absorption spectra of the irradiated Fricke Xylenol Orange gel dosimeters. The absorbance due to ferric ions chelated by Xylenol Orange has been studied for various irradiation doses. Two absorbance peaks are visible, mainly at low doses: the first peak increases with the dose more slowly than the second one. This effect can explain the apparent threshold dose that was frequently evidenced. (authors)

  4. Interactions of hypericin with a model mutagen - Acridine orange analyzed by light absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzak, Monika; Szabelski, Mariusz; Kasparek, Adam; Wieczorek, Zbigniew

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to estimate the ability of hypericin to interact with a model mutagen - acridine orange. The hetero-association of hypericin and acridine orange was investigated with absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy methods in aqueous solution of DMSO. The data indicate that hypericin forms complexes with acridine orange and that the association constants are relatively high and depend on DMSO concentration. The absorption spectra of the hypericin - acridine orange complexes were examined as well. Owing to its ability to interact with flat aromatic compounds, hypericin may potentially be used as an interceptor molecule.

  5. Terpene down-regulation in orange reveals the role of fruit aromas in mediating interactions with insect herbivores and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-06-01

    Plants use volatile terpene compounds as odor cues for communicating with the environment. Fleshy fruits are particularly rich in volatiles that deter herbivores and attract seed dispersal agents. We have investigated how terpenes in citrus fruit peels affect the interaction between the plant, insects, and microorganisms. Because limonene represents up to 97% of the total volatiles in orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel, we chose to down-regulate the expression of a limonene synthase gene in orange plants by introducing an antisense construct of this gene. Transgenic fruits showed reduced accumulation of limonene in the peel. When these fruits were challenged with either the fungus Penicillium digitatum or with the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, they showed marked resistance against these pathogens that were unable to infect the peel tissues. Moreover, males of the citrus pest medfly (Ceratitis capitata) were less attracted to low limonene-expressing fruits than to control fruits. These results indicate that limonene accumulation in the peel of citrus fruit appears to be involved in the successful trophic interaction between fruits, insects, and microorganisms. Terpene down-regulation might be a strategy to generate broad-spectrum resistance against pests and pathogens in fleshy fruits from economically important crops. In addition, terpene engineering may be important for studying the basic ecological interactions between fruits, herbivores, and pathogens.

  6. Effects of organic fertilisation on sweet orange bearing trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roccuzzo, Giancarlo; Torrisi, Biagio; Canali, Stefano; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    In a study realised over a five year period (2001-2006) on orange bearing trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] cv. ‘Valencia late', grafted on sour orange (C. aurantium L.), four fertiliser treatments were applied: citrus by-products compost (CB), poultry manure (PM), livestock waste compost (LW) and mineral fertiliser (MF), as control. The trees, with the exception of MF treatment, were organically grown since 1994 in the experimental farm of CRA-ACM in Lentini, Sicily, and received the same N input every year. The research objectives were to evaluate the effect of long term repeated organic fertilisers application on i) soil fertility; ii) citrus bearing trees nutritional status by means of leaf analysis and iii) yield and fruit quality, determining parameters currently utilized to evaluate sweet orange production either for fresh consumption and processing. The CB treatment showed significantly higher values of Corg in soil than MF treatment (about 30%). Corg in PM and LW treatments was higher than MF treatment (13% and 20%, respectively), but these differences were not statistically significant either from the control treatment nor from the soil fertilised with CB. Similar trend was showed by the humic and fulvic C being the values of the CB treatment significantly higher than the control. PM and LW treatments had intermediate values, without statistical significance. The long term addition to soil of a quality compost (CB) with high C/N ratio increased the level of nutrients wich usually show low availability for citrus plants (P, Fe, Zn, Mn), as demonstrated by leaf analysis. No significant difference was noticed as far as yield was concerned, whereas CB treatment enhanced some fruit quality parameters.

  7. Submerged citric acid fermentation on orange peel autohydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Beatriz; Torrado, Ana; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2008-04-09

    The citrus-processing industry generates in the Mediterranean area huge amounts of orange peel as a byproduct from the industrial extraction of citrus juices. To reduce its environmental impact as well as to provide an extra profit, this residue was investigated in this study as an alternative substrate for the fermentative production of citric acid. Orange peel contained 16.9% soluble sugars, 9.21% cellulose, 10.5% hemicellulose, and 42.5% pectin as the most important components. To get solutions rich in soluble and starchy sugars to be used as a carbon source for citric acid fermentation, this raw material was submitted to autohydrolysis, a process that does not make use of any acidic catalyst. Liquors obtained by this process under optimum conditions (temperature of 130 degrees C and a liquid/solid ratio of 8.0 g/g) contained 38.2 g/L free sugars (8.3 g/L sucrose, 13.7 g/L glucose, and 16.2 g/L fructose) and significant amounts of metals, particularly Mg, Ca, Zn, and K. Without additional nutrients, these liquors were employed for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger CECT 2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599). Addition of calcium carbonate enhanced citric acid production because it prevented progressive acidification of the medium. Moreover, the influence of methanol addition on citric acid formation was investigated. Under the best conditions (40 mL of methanol/kg of medium), an effective conversion of sugars into citric acid was ensured (maximum citric acid concentration of 9.2 g/L, volumetric productivity of 0.128 g/(L.h), and yield of product on consumed sugars of 0.53 g/g), hence demonstrating the potential of orange peel wastes as an alternative raw material for citric acid fermentation.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange using polymer-titania microcomposites.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Cecil A; Gupta, Vinay K

    2009-05-15

    Photodegradation of an organic dye was studied experimentally using novel polymer-titania microcomposites. These microcomposites were prepared from titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles embedded within cross-linked, thermally-responsive microgels of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and contained interpenetrating linear chains of poly(acrylic acid) that functionalize the nanoparticles of TiO(2). Because these microcomposites settle more than a hundred times faster than freely suspended TiO(2) nanoparticles, they are extremely useful for simple gravity separation of the photocatalyst in applications that employ titania nanoparticles. Methyl orange (MO) was used as a model contaminant to investigate the degradation kinetics using the microcomposites in aqueous suspensions. Kinetics of the photodegradation were evaluated by monitoring the changes in methyl orange concentration using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic behavior of functional microcomposites containing 65 wt% titania was studied and the influence of the solution pH as well as the total titania concentration in solution was explored. The results indicated that pH of the solution changes the surface interactions between the poly(acrylic acid), titania, and methyl orange and this interplay determined the overall degradation kinetics of the chemical contaminants. Nearly identical reaction rate constants were observed in acidic solutions for the microcomposites when compared to freely suspended titania. The latter showed higher rate constants than the microcomposites at a neutral pH. Release of the titania from the microcomposites was observed under basic conditions. Complete degradation of the microcomposites was observed after prolonged (7-13 h) UV irradiation. However, the microcomposites were easily regenerated by addition of microgels and no loss of photocatalytic activity was observed.

  9. Obtaining lipases from byproducts of orange juice processing.

    PubMed

    Okino-Delgado, Clarissa Hamaio; Fleuri, Luciana Francisco

    2014-11-15

    The presence of lipases was observed in three byproducts of orange juice processing: peel, core and frit. The enzymes were characterised biochemically over a wide pH range from neutral (6-7) to alkaline (8-9). The optimal temperature for the activity of these byproducts showed wide range at 20°C to 70°C, indicating fairly high thermostability. The activities were monitored on p-NP-butyrate, p-NP-laurate and p-NP-palmitate. For the first time, lipase activity was detected in these residues, reaching 68.5 lipase U/g for the crude extract from fractions called frit.

  10. Mars Life? - Orange-colored Carbonate Mineral Globules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photograph shows orange-colored carbonate mineral globules found in a meteorite, called ALH84001, believed to have once been a part of Mars. These carbonate minerals in the meteorite are believed to have been formed on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago. Their structure and chemistry suggest that they may have been formed with the assistance of primitive, bacteria-like living organisms. A two-year investigation by a NASA research team found organic molecules, mineral features characteristic of biological activity and possible microscopic fossils inside of carbonate minerals such as these in the meteorite.

  11. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    The Orange Juice Clock, in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker, has been a popular classroom, conference, and workshop demonstration for nearly 10 years. It is widely enjoyed because it shows visually how chemistry - or more precisely, electrochemistry - is responsible for the very common phenomenon of a clock ticking. The chemistry of the process can also be understood on a variety of levels, from middle school (simple electron flow in a circuit, Ohm's law) and high school (reduction/oxidation and standard cell potentials) to first-year college (cell potential at nonideal conditions) and graduate school courses (overpotential and charge transfer across interfaces.) The discussion that follows considers the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the demonstration. The History The demonstration was devised by one of us (PK) in 1986, after reading an activity in Hubert Alyea's 1947 compendium of chemical demonstrations from this Journal (1). In that activity, Alyea hooked a magnesium strip to the negative battery terminal of an electric bell and hooked a copper strip to the positive terminal. He placed the loose ends of the strips into a 1M 2SO4 solution and the bell rang. After trying the demonstration, it seemed to make sense to modify the electrolyte to orange juice because it is safe, readily available, and would be a mixture in which the magnesium would oxidize more slowly than in sulfuric acid. Further, a clock was substituted for the bell because a clock is easier on the ears than a bell. A video of the orange-juice clock setup is given as Figure 1. Figure 1.The orange juice clock set up. Video of orange juice clock was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The apparatus was presented in 1987 as part of a teacher workshop led by Irwin Talesnick, then of Queen's University in Canada. Talesnick, whose distinguished career has been

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and protein labeling of difunctional magnetic nanoparticles modified with thiazole orange dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xuening; Zhu, Huifang; Zhou, Jianguo; Yu, Lu

    2014-03-01

    A dual functional nanoparticle was designed and synthesized by encapsulating magnetic core inside silica particles and subsequently a thiazole orange (TO) dye derivative was modified on the surface of the nanoparticles. The obtained particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, Uv-Vis spectrophotometer, fluorescence spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, etc. The size of preliminary magnetic particles is ca. 7 nm, but after coating a silica layer and dye, the size of particles is increased to ca. 60 nm. The hydrodynamic diameter, water dispersibility, and zeta potential were also determined. The hydrodynamic diameter of particles with silica and dye is 65.2 and 70.5 nm, respectively, with positive zeta potential (25.1, 38.5 mV). Furthermore magnetic properties of the particles were measured and the experimental results suggested that it could meet the requirement of application as magnetic resonance imaging agent. Finally to verify the availability of the particles as fluorescent labeling, protein labeling experiment was performed using bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein and the results showed that the dual functional particle has higher affinity with BSA than TO molecule itself.

  13. Ectopic accumulation of linalool confers resistance to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in transgenic sweet orange plants.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Rodríguez, Ana; Fujii, Hiroshi; Goto, Shingo; Matsuura, Takakazu; Hojo, Yuko; Ikeda, Yoko; Mori, Izumi C; Fujikawa, Takashi; Peña, Leandro; Omura, Mitsuo

    2017-01-27

    In order to clarify whether high linalool content in citrus leaves alone induces strong field resistance to citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), and to assess whether this trait can be transferred to a citrus type highly sensitive to the bacterium, transgenic 'Hamlin' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) plants over-expressing a linalool synthase gene (CuSTS3-1) were generated. Transgenic lines (LIL) with the highest linalool content showed strong resistance to citrus canker when spray inoculated with the bacterium. In LIL plants inoculated by wounding (multiple-needle inoculation), the linalool level was correlated with the repression of the bacterial titer and up-regulation of defense-related genes. The exogenous application of salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate or linalool triggered responses similar to those constitutively induced in LIL plants. The linalool content in Ponkan mandarin leaves was significantly higher than that of leaves from six other representative citrus genotypes with different susceptibilities to Xcc We propose that linalool-mediated resistance might be unique to citrus tissues accumulating large amounts of volatile organic compounds in oil cells. Linalool might act not only as a direct antibacterial agent, but also as a signal molecule involved in triggering a non-host resistance response against Xcc.

  14. Chromate enhanced visible light driven TiO₂ photocatalytic mechanism on Acid Orange 7 photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeoung-Sheng; Shen, Jyun-Hong; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2014-06-15

    When hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is added to a TiO2 photocatalytic reaction, the decolorization and mineralization efficiencies of azo dyes Acid Orange 7 (AO7) are enhanced even though the mechanism is unclear. This study used 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as the scavenger and the analysis of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to investigate this enhancement effect by observing the hydroxyl radical (OH) generation of the Cr(VI)/TiO2 system under UV and visible light (Vis) irradiation. With Cr(VI), the decolorization efficiencies were approximately 95% and 62% under UV and Vis, and those efficiencies were 25% less in the absence of Cr(VI). The phenomena of the DMPO-OH signals during the ESR analysis under Vis 405 and 550 nm irradiation were obviously the enhancement effects of Cr(VI) in aerobic conditions. In anoxic conditions, the catalytic effects of Cr(VI) could not be achieved due to the lack of a redox reaction between Cr(VI) and the adsorbed oxygen at the oxygen vacancy sites on the TiO2 surfaces. The results suggest that by introducing the agents of redox reactions such as chromate ions, we could lower the photoenergy of TiO2 needed and allow Vis irradiation to activate photocatalysis.

  15. Colour and carotenoid changes of pasteurised orange juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Scheling; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Tomic, Jovana; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-03-15

    The correlation of carotenoid changes with colour degradation of pasteurised single strength orange juice was investigated at 20, 28, 35 and 42°C for a total of 32 weeks of storage. Changes in colour were assessed using the CIELAB system and were kinetically described by a zero-order model. L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), ΔE(∗), Cab(∗) and hab were significantly changed during storage (p<0.05). Activation energies for all colour parameters were 64-73 kJ mol(-1). Several carotenoids showed important changes and appeared to have different susceptibilities to storage. A decrease of β-cryptoxanthin was observed at higher temperatures, whereas antheraxanthin started to decrease at lower temperatures. Depending on the time and temperature, changes in carotenoids could be due to isomerisation reactions, which may lead to a perceptible colour change. Although the contribution of carotenoids was recognised to some extent, other reactions seem of major importance for colour degradation of orange juice during storage.

  16. Genetic Signature of Anthropogenic Population Collapse in Orang-utans

    PubMed Central

    Ancrenaz, Marc; Lackman-Ancrenaz, Isabelle; Andau, Patrick; Bruford, Michael W

    2006-01-01

    Great ape populations are undergoing a dramatic decline, which is predicted to result in their extinction in the wild from entire regions in the near future. Recent findings have particularly focused on African apes, and have implicated multiple factors contributing to this decline, such as deforestation, hunting, and disease. Less well-publicised, but equally dramatic, has been the decline in orang-utans, whose distribution is limited to parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Using the largest-ever genetic sample from wild orang-utan populations, we show strong evidence for a recent demographic collapse in North Eastern Borneo and demonstrate that this signature is independent of the mutation and demographic models used. This is the first demonstration that genetic data can detect and quantify the effect of recent, human-induced deforestation and habitat fragmentation on an endangered species. Because current demographic collapses are usually confounded by ancient events, this suggests a much more dramatic decline than demographic data alone and emphasises the need for major conservation efforts. PMID:16417405

  17. Electro-peroxone treatment of Orange II dye wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bakheet, Belal; Yuan, Shi; Li, Zhaoxin; Wang, Huijiao; Zuo, Jiane; Komarneni, Sridhar; Wang, Yujue

    2013-10-15

    Degradation of a synthetic azo dye, Orange II, by electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) treatment was investigated. During the E-peroxone process, ozone generator effluent (O2 and O3 gas mixture) was continuously sparged into an electrolysis reactor, which was equipped with a carbon-polytetrafluorethylene (carbon-PTFE) cathode to electrochemically convert the sparged O2 to H2O2. The in-situ generated H2O2 then reacted with the sparged O3 to produce •OH, which can oxidize ozone-refractory organic pollutants effectively. Thus, by simply combining conventional ozonation and electrolysis processes, and using a cathode that can effectively convert O2 to H2O2, the E-peroxone process degraded Orange II much more effectively than the two processes individually. Complete decolorization and 95.7% total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization were obtained after 4 and 45 min of the E-peroxone treatment, respectively. In comparison, only 55.6 and 15.3% TOC were mineralized after 90 min of the individual ozonation and electrolysis treatments, respectively. In addition to its high efficiency, the E-peroxone process was effective over a wide range of pH (3-10) and did not produce any secondary pollutants. The E-peroxone process can thus provide an effective and environmentally-friendly alternative for wastewater treatment.

  18. Volatile emissions of navel oranges as predictors of freeze damage.

    PubMed

    Obenland, David M; Aung, Louis H; Bridges, David L; Mackey, Bruce E

    2003-05-21

    Volatile emissions of navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cv. Washington) fruit were evaluated as a means for predicting and gauging freeze damage. The fruits were subjected to -5 or -7 degrees C treatments in a laboratory freezer for various time periods of 2-9.5 h and stored at 23 degrees C for 1, 2, or 7 days, after which time the emission of volatiles from the fruit was measured. Following the final day of volatile measurements the fruits were stored at 5 degrees C for an additional 2-3 weeks and then evaluated for fruit quality characteristics. Peel injury in the form of brown lesions, drying of the juice vesicles, a decline in acidity, and a loss of flavor were observed to occur as a result of freezing. Corresponding to the loss in fruit quality were large increases in the emissions of ethanol, ethyl butanoate, methyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate. With the exception of methyl hexanoate, for which volatile emissions decreased during storage for 7 days at 23 degrees C, all of the other volatiles were relatively unchanged in amount by storage. Treatment at -7 degrees C caused greater injury, quality loss, and more volatile emanation than did freezing at -5 degrees C. The measurement of volatile emissions appears to be a useful approach to identify freeze-damaged navel oranges.

  19. Genetic signature of anthropogenic population collapse in orang-utans.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Benoît; Chikhi, Lounès; Ancrenaz, Marc; Lackman-Ancrenaz, Isabelle; Andau, Patrick; Bruford, Michael W

    2006-02-01

    Great ape populations are undergoing a dramatic decline, which is predicted to result in their extinction in the wild from entire regions in the near future. Recent findings have particularly focused on African apes, and have implicated multiple factors contributing to this decline, such as deforestation, hunting, and disease. Less well-publicised, but equally dramatic, has been the decline in orang-utans, whose distribution is limited to parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Using the largest-ever genetic sample from wild orang-utan populations, we show strong evidence for a recent demographic collapse in North Eastern Borneo and demonstrate that this signature is independent of the mutation and demographic models used. This is the first demonstration that genetic data can detect and quantify the effect of recent, human-induced deforestation and habitat fragmentation on an endangered species. Because current demographic collapses are usually confounded by ancient events, this suggests a much more dramatic decline than demographic data alone and emphasises the need for major conservation efforts.

  20. Phosphorus Recovery Using Zirconium-Loaded Saponified Orange Juice Residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mitsunori; Biswas, Biplob K.; Ohura, Seichirou; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke

    Zirconium was immobilized to orange juice residue, to investigate the feasibility of using zirconium-loaded saponified orange juice residue (Zr-SOJR) for phosphorus recovery from secondary effluent and the extraction solution from incinerated sewage sludge ash by using H2SO4 and HCl. These had phosphorus concentrations of 68.2 mg/dm3 and 5.9 mg/dm3, respectively. The phosphorus removal rate secondary effluent increased with an increasing solid/liquid ratio in batch experiments. The adsorption capacity of Zr-SOJR was also compared with those obtained using a synthetic phosphorus solution and using zirconium-loaded ferrite. The prepared absorbent was effective for phosphorus removal and exhibited a reasonably high sorption capacity, twice that of zirconium ferrite. Secondary effluent was treated by packed column, and this reached break-through after 300 bed volumes. The results from phosphorous extraction from the ash indicate that can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorous and thus can be absorbed by Zr-SOJR.

  1. GUS Gene Expression Driven by A Citrus Promoter in Transgenic Tobacco and 'Valencia' Sweet Orange

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene promoter (CsPP). Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange explants with Agrobacteriu...

  2. Quantification of Las gene by qPCR from orange juice extracted from Huanglongbing infected fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to establish a methodology to quantify the Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) in orange juice as an indicator of orange juice quality. Current standard method for citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) diagnosis is using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) to quan...

  3. Huanglongbing disease impacts on volatile profiles of peel oil in 'Hamlin' and 'Valencia' oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange fruit and juice from Huanglongbing (HLB) affected trees have been reported to be off-flavored, and this is the first report on volatile components of citrus peel oil affected by HLB disease. ‘Valencia’ oranges were harvested from commercial groves in South Florida. Fruit samples (26), each ob...

  4. 78 FR 23208 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... evaluation document to determine the risk posed by peach fruit fly in oranges and tangerines from Egypt... neutralize peach fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly in oranges and tangerines. We are making the pest list... the establishment of peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata), which is also a pest of citrus in...

  5. Metabolic engineering of β-carotene in orange fruit increases its in vivo antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Pons, Elsa; Alquézar, Berta; Rodríguez, Ana; Martorell, Patricia; Genovés, Salvador; Ramón, Daniel; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Peña, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Orange is a major crop and an important source of health-promoting bioactive compounds. Increasing the levels of specific antioxidants in orange fruit through metabolic engineering could strengthen the fruit's health benefits. In this work, we have afforded enhancing the β-carotene content of orange fruit through blocking by RNA interference the expression of an endogenous β-carotene hydroxylase gene (Csβ-CHX) that is involved in the conversion of β-carotene into xanthophylls. Additionally, we have simultaneously overexpressed a key regulator gene of flowering transition, the FLOWERING LOCUS T from sweet orange (CsFT), in the transgenic juvenile plants, which allowed us to obtain fruit in an extremely short period of time. Silencing the Csβ-CHX gene resulted in oranges with a deep yellow ('golden') phenotype and significant increases (up to 36-fold) in β-carotene content in the pulp. The capacity of β-carotene-enriched oranges for protection against oxidative stress in vivo was assessed using Caenorhabditis elegans as experimental animal model. Golden oranges induced a 20% higher antioxidant effect than the isogenic control. This is the first example of the successful metabolic engineering of the β-carotene content (or the content of any other phytonutrient) in oranges and demonstrates the potential of genetic engineering for the nutritional enhancement of fruit tree crops.

  6. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  7. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  10. Peel fluorescence as a means to identify freeze-damaged oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence to identify navel oranges (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) that were internally freeze-damaged was evaluated using fruit harvested following a natural freeze that occurred in California in January 2007. In the first part of the test, oranges were harvested after t...

  11. Lack of evidence for transmission of Xylella fastidiosa from infected sweet orange seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus variegated chlorosis is among the principle diseases that affect sweet orange in Brazil and Argentina, and is viewed as an emerging threat by the U.S. sweet orange industry. The disease is caused by the fastidious bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, and can be transmitted by both leafhopper insect...

  12. Application of ultraviolet-C light on oranges for the inactivation of postharvest wound pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germicidal effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on the postharvest wound pathogens of citrus fruits namely Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum were investigated. P. digitatum and P. italicum spores were inoculated (4.00 – 4.50 log cfu/ orange) onto Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinens...

  13. Identifying Markers for Resistance to Sugarcane Orange Rust (Puccinia kuehnii) via Selective Genotyping and Capture Sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane orange rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia kuehnii, is a serious disease of sugarcane. The most effective strategy to combat the disease is to develop resistant sugarcane cultivars. Phenotypic screening for resistance to orange rust is a laborious and time-consuming process, and breeders...

  14. 75 FR 20874 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Orange County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Orange County, CA... to milepost 508.65 near the City of Brea, in Orange County, CA. The line traverses United...

  15. 76 FR 71108 - Applications of Orange Air, LLC for Certificate Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Applications of Orange Air, LLC for Certificate Authority AGENCY: Department of... why it should not issue orders finding Orange Air, LLC, fit, willing, and able, and awarding...

  16. Orange juice consumed regularly decreased the Insulin Resistance in normal subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange juice is a natural source of citrus flavonoids, that can protect against coronary heart disease (CHD) and cancer, and it can be easily incorporated into a healthy diet. In spite of this, orange juice is also associated with high sugar intake (glucose and fructose) that can increase insulin re...

  17. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  18. Evaluation of Pharmacologic Agents to Suppress Intraocular Cellular Proliferation Following Trauma. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    following enucleation e.q . . .. - .° -15- TABLE 3 METHYLTREXATE 2 m& 2 day post pharm. Clinical Tractional Detacnent* animal op uveiti agent- # (1-4) or...op uveiti agent - - # (1-4) or control 1 wk 2 wk 4 wk 6 wk 12 wk Grogs "aam** __. editta njection of’ drug Orange 31 3 C Reflex / S 2 C R IF 1 C E D...1.0 mg *2 day pobt pharm. Clinical Tractional Detachment* animal op uveitis agent Si (1-4) or control 1 wk 2 wk 4 wk 6 wk 12 wk Groud Exum** Imeie

  19. A role for the deep orange and carnation eye color genes in lysosomal delivery in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sevrioukov, E A; He, J P; Moghrabi, N; Sunio, A; Krämer, H

    1999-10-01

    Deep orange and carnation are two of the classic eye color genes in Drosophila. Here, we demonstrate that Deep orange is part of a protein complex that localizes to endosomal compartments. A second component of this complex is Carnation, a homolog of Sec1p-like regulators of membrane fusion. Because complete loss of deep orange function is lethal, the role of this complex in intracellular trafficking was analyzed in deep orange mutant clones. Retinal cells devoid of deep orange function completely lacked pigmentation and exhibited exaggerated multivesicular structures. Furthermore, a defect in endocytic trafficking was visualized in developing photoreceptor cells. These results provide direct evidence that eye color mutations of the granule group also disrupt vesicular trafficking to lysosomes.

  20. Phenolic compounds and the colour of oranges subjected to a combination treatment of waxing and irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C.

    2000-03-01

    The effects of waxing, irradiation dose and storage on phenolics and colour of irradiated oranges were investigated. Mature oranges ( Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0, 1 or 2 kGy radiation and stored up to 9 weeks at 20°C and 40-50% r.h. Colour of the oranges, total phenols and flavones in the peel were measured. Phenolic compounds increased with irradiation dose and storage time. Hue angle, value and chroma of the orange colour were more affected by waxing and storage time than the irradiation treatment. Changes in the phenolic compounds were linked with changes in the redness and saturation of the orange colour. Irradiation stimulated synthesis of flavones; waxing controlled changes induced by irradiation.

  1. Hydroxylated polymethoxyflavones and methylated flavonoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiming; Lo, Chih-Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2006-06-14

    Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) from citrus genus have been of particular interest because of their broad spectrum of biological activities, including antiinflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antiatherogenic properties. There have been increasing interests in the exploration of health beneficial properties of PMFs in citrus fruits. Therefore, the isolation and characterization of PMFs from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel will lead to new applications of the byproducts from orange juice processes and other orange consumption in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products. In our study, eight hydroxylated PMFs, six PMFs, one polymethoxyflavanone, one hydroxylated polymethoxyflavanone, and two hydroxylated polymethoxychalcones were isolated from sweet orange peel and their structures were elucidated by various MS, UV, and different NMR techniques. Some of the hydroxylated PMFs and chalcones are newly isolated from sweet orange peel.

  2. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP): a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  3. Highly efficient non-doped orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on a novel iridium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yige; Wang, Xu; Li, Ming; Yu, Junsheng; Lu, Zhiyun

    2014-09-01

    The non-doped orange-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting device (PHOLED) based on a newly synthesized iridium complex, bis[2-(biphenyl-4-yl)benzothiazole-N,C2']iridium(III)(acetylacetonate) [(4Phbt)2Ir(acac)] has been demonstrated. The non-doped device with (4Phbt)2Ir(acac) as the emissive layer achieved ideal turn-on voltage (<4 V) and superior power efficiency (5 lm/W) as well as luminance efficiency (6 cd/A), respectively. Our device performance indicates that (4Phbt)2Ir(acac) possesses excellent self-quenching-resistant property. The potential of this property is originated from the introduction of bulky and twisted aromatic substituents in ligands, which break the molecular planarity and obstruct the molecular packing. Besides, the high electroluminescence efficiency is also attributed to that the energy level alignment between (4Phbt)2Ir(acac) and adjacent charge-transporting materials forms a well-like structure, which confines exciton effectively in emissive layer.

  4. A promising orange-red emitting nanocrystalline NaCaBO3:Sm3+ phosphor for solid state lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedyal, A. K.; Kumar, Vinay; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Swart, H. C.

    2014-03-01

    Orange-red emitting NaCaBO3:Sm3+ nanophosphors were prepared by combustion method using metal nitrates and urea as initial materials. The phase of the product was identified by x-ray diffraction technique (XRD) and was found to be orthorhombic with a space group Pmmn and lattice parameters a = 16.12 Å, b = 10.25 Å, c = 3.52 Å and V = 581.60 Å3 calculated with the POWD program. The average particle size of the nanophosphor calculated from the XRD data and cross verified by TEM was 34 nm. The spectral properties of the NaCaBO3:Sm3+ nanophosphors were studied under near UV and electron excitation, which shows characteristic emission lines assigned to the transition (4G5/2 to the 6Hj, j = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2, 11/2) of the Sm3+ ion. The optimal Sm3+ ion concentration and its critical energy distance were determined as x = 2 mol% and 59.97 Å, respectively and the dipole-dipole interactions were responsible for concentration quenching in the present phosphor. The band gap of the phosphor was calculated to be 5.82 eV. The phosphorescence decay curve was also measured.

  5. DYNAMICS OF ACRIDINE ORANGE-CELL INTERACTION. II. DYE-INDUCED ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN MULTIVESICULAR BODIES (ACRIDINE ORANGE PARTICLES).

    PubMed

    ROBBINS, E; MARCUS, P I; GONATAS, N K

    1964-04-01

    The brilliantly fluorescent cytoplasmic particles that accumulate in HeLa cells treated with acridine orange, previously referred to as acridine orange particles, are shown to represent acid phosphatase positive multivesicular bodies (MVB). Dynamic changes in the ultrastructure of these organelles may be induced by varying the concentration of extracellular dye and the length of exposure to the dye. Low concentrations of dye for long intervals of time lead to marked hypertrophy of the MVB and accumulation of myelin figures within them, the acid phosphatase activity being retained. High concentrations of dye for short time intervals lead initially to a diffuse distribution of dye through out the cytoplasm (cytoplasmic reddening) as viewed in the fluorescence microscope. When cells are stained in this way and incubated in a dye-free medium, the diffusely distributed dye is segregated into MVB within 1 hour. Ultrastructurally, these MVB show dilatation but no myelin figures. The process of dye segregation is energy dependent and will not occur in starved cells. This energy dependence and the occurrence of segregation via dilatation of the MVB rather than ultrastructural transformation, i.e. formation of new binding sites, suggests that the process involves an active transport mechanism. Of the various energy sources supplied to starved cells, only glucose, mannose, and pyruvate are fully effective in supporting dye segregation. Blockage of the tricarboxylic acid cycle with malonate inhibits the effects of pyruvate but not of glucose, demonstrating the efficacy of both the tricarboxylic acid and glycolytic cycles in supplying energy for the process.

  6. Preparation and luminescence properties of orange-red Ba3Y(PO4)3:Sm3+ phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiguang; Xu, Denghui; Sun, Jiayue

    2015-04-01

    Ba3Y(PO4)3:Sm3+ phosphors were prepared by a high temperature solid-state reaction in air. X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence spectra and temperature-dependent emission spectra were utilized to characterize the structure and luminescence properties of the as-prepared phosphor. The results show that the phosphor can be efficiently excited by ultraviolet light and emit a satisfactory orange-red performance, nicely, fitting in well with the widely used UV LED chip. Under 403 nm excitation, the 4G5/2 → 6HJ (J = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2, and 11/2) emissions of Sm3+ are obviously observed. The optimum doping concentration is 5 mol% and corresponding quenching behavior is ascribed to be electric dipole-dipole interaction according to Dexter's theory. The temperature dependent luminescence of Ba3Y(PO4)3:Sm3+ phosphor is also discussed, and the activation energy for thermal quenching is calculated as 0.34 eV. Furthermore, the chromaticity coordinates of Ba3Y(PO4)3:Sm3+ phosphor are calculated to be (0.5558, 0.4380) and the lifetime values of Ba3Y0.995(PO4)3:0.005Sm3+ was 2.45 ms.

  7. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids, flavonoids, and vitamin C from differently processed oranges and orange juices [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck].

    PubMed

    Aschoff, Julian K; Kaufmann, Sabrina; Kalkan, Onur; Neidhart, Sybille; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-01-21

    Carotenoid, flavonoid, and vitamin C concentrations were determined in fresh orange segments and a puree-like homogenate derived thereof, as well as freshly squeezed, flash-pasteurized, and pasteurized juices. Lutein and β-cryptoxanthin were slightly degraded during dejuicing, whereas β-carotene levels were retained. Vitamin C levels remained unaffected, whereas flavonoid levels decreased 8-fold upon juice extraction, most likely due to the removal of flavonoid-rich albedo and juice vesicles. Likewise, the presence of such fibrous matrix compounds during in vitro digestion was assumed to significantly lower the total bioaccessibility (BA) of all carotenoids from fresh fruit segments (12%) as compared to juices (29-30%). Mechanical disruption of orange segments prior to digestion did not alter carotenoid BA, whereas pasteurization of the freshly squeezed juice slightly increased BA by 9-11%. In addition to carotenoid BA, the stabilities of hesperidin, narirutin, and vitamin C including dehydroascorbic acid during in vitro digestion were monitored, and applied analytical methods were briefly validated.

  8. Volatile Profile Comparison of USDA Sweet Orange-like Hybrids versus ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Ambersweet’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six orange hybrids, formed by crossing ‘Ambersweet’, a hybrid classified as sweet orange, with one of three different hybrids, were selected for fruit size, color, and taste as potential new sweet orange cultivars. The objective of this research was to analyze the volatile profiles of these hybrids ...

  9. Volatile profile comparison of USDA sweet-orange-like hybrids vs ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Ambersweet’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatiles of six hybrids (‘Ambersweet’ orange crossed with one of three different orange hybrids) were analyzed using a gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to compare the volatile profiles with ‘Ambersweet’ and ‘Hamlin’, the most widely grown early sweet orange in Florida. All hybrids are...

  10. 75 FR 29559 - The 13th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... No. FDA-2010-N-0001] The 13th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs... Orange County Regulatory Affairs Discussion Group (OCRA). The conference is intended to provide the drug...; or Orange County Regulatory Affairs Discussion Group [[Page 29560

  11. 76 FR 30197 - Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orderon Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade... whether revocation of the antidumping duty orderon orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead...

  12. 76 FR 36080 - Foreign-Trade Zone 37-Orange County, NY; Application for Reorganization (Expansion of Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 37--Orange County, NY; Application for Reorganization... Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board (the Board) by the County of Orange, New York, grantee of FTZ 37..., 75 FR 29727, 5/27/10). The zone project currently has a service area that includes Orange County....

  13. 76 FR 43344 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Certain Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... revocation of the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead...

  14. 76 FR 49381 - Oranges and Grapefruit Grown in Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 906 Oranges and Grapefruit Grown in Lower... 7/10-bushel carton or equivalent of oranges and grapefruit handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of oranges and grapefruit grown in the Lower...

  15. 78 FR 12033 - Foreign-Trade Zone 37-Orange County, NY, Application for Reorganization (Expansion of Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 37--Orange County, NY, Application for Reorganization...-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board (the Board) by the County of Orange, grantee of Foreign-Trade Zone 37..., 76 FR 67407, 11/1/2011). The zone project currently has a service area that includes Orange...

  16. Adsorption and decolorization kinetics of methyl orange by anaerobic sludge.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-05-01

    Adsorption and decolorization kinetics of methyl orange (MO) by anaerobic sludge in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors were investigated. The anaerobic sludge was found to have a saturated adsorption capacity of 36 ± 1 mg g MLSS(-1) to MO. UV/visible spectrophotometer and high-performance liquid chromatography analytical results indicated that the MO adsorption and decolorization occurred simultaneously in this system. This process at various substrate concentrations could be well simulated using a modified two-stage model with apparent pseudo first-order kinetics. Furthermore, a noncompetitive inhibition kinetic model was also developed to describe the MO decolorization process at high NaCl concentrations, and an inhibition constant of 3.67 g NaCl l(-1) was estimated. This study offers an insight into the adsorption and decolorization processes of azo dyes by anaerobic sludge and provides a better understanding of the anaerobic dye decolorization mechanisms.

  17. Encapsulation of orange terpenes investigating a plasticisation extrusion process.

    PubMed

    Tackenberg, Markus W; Krauss, Ralph; Schuchmann, Heike P; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Extrusion is widely used for flavour encapsulation. However, there is a lack of process understanding. This study is aimed at improving the understanding of a counter rotating twin screw extrusion process. Orange terpenes as model flavour, maltodextrin and sucrose as matrix materials, and a water feed rate between 4.0% and 5.7% were applied. Product temperatures < 80 °C and specific mechanical energy inputs <260 Wh/kg resulted. Amorphous and partly crystalline samples were obtained. The loss of crystalline sucrose was linked to a dissolution process of the sugar in the available water amount. Melting of the excipients did not arise, resulting in a plasticisation extrusion process. Maximally 67% of the flavour was retained (corresponding to a 4.1% product flavour load). The flavour loss correlated with insufficient mixing during the process and flavour evaporation after extrusion. Based on these results, recommendations for an improved encapsulation process are given.

  18. Undocumented Latina immigrants in Orange County, California: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Chavez, L R; Hubbell, F A; Mishra, S I; Valdez, R B

    1997-01-01

    "This article examines a unique data set randomly collected from Latinas (including 160 undocumented immigrants) and non-Hispanic white women in Orange County, California, including undocumented and documented Latina immigrants, Latina citizens, and non-Hispanic white women. Our survey suggests that undocumented Latinas are younger than documented Latinas, and immigrant Latinas are generally younger than U.S.-citizen Latinas and Anglo women. Undocumented and documented Latinas work in menial service sector jobs, often in domestic services. Most do not have job-related benefits such as medical insurance.... Despite their immigration status, undocumented Latina immigrants often viewed themselves as part of a community in the United States, which significantly influenced their intentions to stay in the United States. Contrary to much of the recent public policy debate over immigration, we did not find that social services influenced Latina immigrants' intentions to stay in the United States."

  19. Biotransformation studies of textile dye Remazol Orange 3R.

    PubMed

    Surwase, Swati V; Deshpande, Krutika K; Phugare, Swapnil S; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, biotransformation of Remazol Orange 3R (RO3R) was studied using well-known bacterial isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BCH. The dye was decolorized up to 98 % within 15 min. The induction in the level of various oxidoreductive enzymes viz. laccase, tyrosinase, veratryl alcohol oxidase and DCIP reductase were observed in the cells obtained after decolorization of RO3R, which supports their role in decolorization. The metabolites of RO3R obtained after biodegradation were identified and characterized by various analytical techniques viz, HPLC, FTIR, and GC-MS. The RO3R was transformed to the N-(7 amino 8 hydroxy-napthalen-2yl) actamide (m/z, 198), Acetamide (m/z, 59) and Napthalen-1-ol (m/z, 144).

  20. Diets of deepwater oreos (Oreosomatidae) and orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus.

    PubMed

    Forman, J S; Horn, P L; Stevens, D W

    2016-06-01

    The diets of black oreo Allocyttus niger, smooth oreo Pseudocyttus maculatus, spiky oreo Neocyttus rhomboidalis and orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus were determined from examination of contents of 240, 311, 76 and 415 non-empty stomachs, from fishes sampled by bottom trawl on Chatham Rise to the east of South Island, New Zealand. Hoplostethus atlanticus had an opportunistic predatory strategy with a broad diet dominated by prawns and mesopelagic teleosts, but with substantial components of mysids and cephalopods. Pseudocyttus maculatus was strongly specialized on gelatinous zooplankton (jellyfish and salps). Allocyttus niger consumed mainly salps and hyperiid amphipods, and to a lesser extent fishes, prawns, mysids and copepods. Neocyttus rhomboidalis primarily consumed salps, along with mysids, euphausiids and fishes. Only P. maculatus did not exhibit significant ontogenetic variation in diet. The diets were also influenced by year and bottom depth. Differences in the distributions and diets of the four species probably reduce conflicts in resource use.

  1. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26805899

  2. Space Radar Image of Orange County, California (annotated version)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Orange County, Calif., shows the massive urbanization of this rapidly growing region located just south of Los Angeles. Orange County, sandwiched between rugged mountains and the Pacific Ocean, includes the communities of Anaheim, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach. Anaheim Stadium can be seen in the upper center of the image, as a small white ring to the right of a major freeway intersection. The large dark blue rectangular area in the upper left is the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station and adjacent wildlife refuge. Runways of the El Toro Marine Air Station appear as a black 'x' near the center of the image. The large purple area to the left of the the Air Station and extending to the coast is the scar left by the Laguna wildfire of October 1993. The sparse vegetation left in the wake of the fire provides a weak source of radar echoes, making the burn areas distinctively dark in the image. Another large burn area, from the Ortega fire of 1993, is seen in the mountains in the lower right of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 3, 1994. The image is centered at 33.7 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 66.2 kilometers by 44.2 kilometers (41.0 miles by 27.4 miles). The colors are assigned todifferent frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  3. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    PubMed

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-20

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m²·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m²·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  4. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  5. Crystal structure of phototoxic orange fluorescent proteins with α tryptophan-based chromophore

    DOE PAGES

    Pletneva, Nadya V.; Pletnev, Vladimir Z.; Sarkisyan, Karen S.; ...

    2015-12-23

    Phototoxic fluorescent proteins represent a sparse group of genetically encoded photosensitizers that could be used for precise light-induced inactivation of target proteins, DNA damage, and cell killing. Only two such GFP-based fluorescent proteins (FPs), KillerRed and its monomeric variant SuperNova, were described up to date. We present a crystallographic study of their two orange successors, dimeric KillerOrange and monomeric mKiller-Orange, at 1.81 and 1.57 Å resolution, respectively. They are the first orange-emitting protein photosensitizers with a tryptophan-based chromophore (Gln65-Trp66-Gly67). Same as their red progenitors, both orange photosensitizers have a water-filled channel connecting the chromophore to the β-barrel exterior and enablingmore » transport of ROS. In both proteins, Trp66 of the chromophore adopts an unusual trans-cis conformation stabilized by H-bond with the nearby Gln159. This trans-cis conformation along with the water channel was shown to be a key structural feature providing bright orange emission and phototoxicity of both examined orange photosensitizers.« less

  6. Crystal structure of phototoxic orange fluorescent proteins with α tryptophan-based chromophore

    SciTech Connect

    Pletneva, Nadya V.; Pletnev, Vladimir Z.; Sarkisyan, Karen S.; Gorbachev, Dmitry A.; Egorov, Evgeny S.; Mishin, Alexander S.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Dauter, Zbigniew; Pletnev, Sergei

    2015-12-23

    Phototoxic fluorescent proteins represent a sparse group of genetically encoded photosensitizers that could be used for precise light-induced inactivation of target proteins, DNA damage, and cell killing. Only two such GFP-based fluorescent proteins (FPs), KillerRed and its monomeric variant SuperNova, were described up to date. We present a crystallographic study of their two orange successors, dimeric KillerOrange and monomeric mKiller-Orange, at 1.81 and 1.57 Å resolution, respectively. They are the first orange-emitting protein photosensitizers with a tryptophan-based chromophore (Gln65-Trp66-Gly67). Same as their red progenitors, both orange photosensitizers have a water-filled channel connecting the chromophore to the β-barrel exterior and enabling transport of ROS. In both proteins, Trp66 of the chromophore adopts an unusual trans-cis conformation stabilized by H-bond with the nearby Gln159. This trans-cis conformation along with the water channel was shown to be a key structural feature providing bright orange emission and phototoxicity of both examined orange photosensitizers.

  7. Impact of site-directed mutant luciferase on quantitative green and orange/red emission intensities in firefly bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Terakado, Kanako; Nakatsu, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Firefly bioluminescence has attracted great interest because of its high quantum yield and intriguing modifiable colours. Modifications to the structure of the enzyme luciferase can change the emission colour of firefly bioluminescence, and the mechanism of the colour change has been intensively studied by biochemists, structural biologists, optical physicists, and quantum-chemistry theorists. Here, we report on the quantitative spectra of firefly bioluminescence catalysed by wild-type and four site-directed mutant luciferases. While the mutation caused different emission spectra, the spectra differed only in the intensity of the green component (λmax ~ 560 nm). In contrast, the orange (λmax ~ 610 nm) and red (λmax ~ 650 nm) components present in all the spectra were almost unaffected by the modifications to the luciferases and changes in pH. Our results reveal that the intensity of the green component is the unique factor that is influenced by the luciferase structure and other reaction conditions.

  8. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  9. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  10. Fabrication of TiO2/MoS2@zeolite photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiping; Xiao, Xinyan; Zheng, Lili; Wan, Caixia

    2015-12-01

    TiO2/MoS2@zeolite composite photocatalysts with visible-light activity were fabricated via a simple ultrasonic-hydrothermal synthesis method, using TiCl4 as Ti source, MoS2 as a direct sensitizer, glycerol water solution with certain dispersion agent as hydrolytic agent, and zeolite as carrier. The structure, morphology, composition, optical properties, and specific surface area of the as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by using XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDS, TEM, XPS, UV-vis, PL and BET analyzer, respectively. And the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous suspension has been employed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity and degradation kinetics of as-prepared photocatalysts with xenon lamp as irradiation source. The results indicate that: (1) TiO2/MoS2@zeolite composite photocatalysts exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activities for methyl orange (MO) degradation compared to Degussa P25; (2) photocatalytic degradation of MO obeys Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model (pseudo-first order reaction), and its degradation rate constant (kapp) (2.304 h-1) is higher than that of Degussa P25 (0.768 h-1); (3) the heterostructure consisted of zeolite, MoS2 and TiO2 nanostructure could provide synergistic effect for degradation of MO due to the efficient electron transfer process and better absorption property of TiO2/MoS2@zeolite composite photocatalyst.

  11. KillerOrange, a Genetically Encoded Photosensitizer Activated by Blue and Green Light

    PubMed Central

    Bozhanova, Nina G.; Sharonov, George V.; Staroverov, Dmitriy B.; Egorov, Evgeny S.; Ryabova, Anastasia V.; Solntsev, Kyril M.; Mishin, Alexander S.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically encoded photosensitizers, proteins that produce reactive oxygen species when illuminated with visible light, are increasingly used as optogenetic tools. Their applications range from ablation of specific cell populations to precise optical inactivation of cellular proteins. Here, we report an orange mutant of red fluorescent protein KillerRed that becomes toxic when illuminated with blue or green light. This new protein, KillerOrange, carries a tryptophan-based chromophore that is novel for photosensitizers. We show that KillerOrange can be used simultaneously and independently from KillerRed in both bacterial and mammalian cells offering chromatic orthogonality for light-activated toxicity. PMID:26679300

  12. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  13. Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertotti, Mauro; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to determine ascorbic acid concentrations in natural orange juice. The experiment is used with undergraduate pharmacy students to allow understanding of the principles of operation of the coulometer and polarograph. (DDR)

  14. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    PubMed

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement.

  15. Meat-eating by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Buckley, Benjamin J W; Dench, Rosalie J; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C; Bustani, Unyil; Chivers, David J

    2015-10-01

    We present the first evidence for consumption of meat by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus). Meat-eating has been reported in Sumatran orang-utans, specifically the hunting and consumption of slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang), but loris-hunting behaviour has not been observed in the Bornean species and meat of any species is essentially absent from their diet, with only two anecdotal reports of vertebrate meat consumption prior to this current finding in over 40 years of study. In August 2012 an unhabituated adult flanged male orang-utan was observed eating an adult horse-tailed squirrel (Sundasciurus hippurus) carcass in the Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. We suspect this to be a case of scavenging, never reported previously in a Bornean orang-utan.

  16. Comparison of carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression between Valencia and Rohde Red Valencia sweet oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression levels during fruit maturation were compared between ordinary Valencia (VAL) and its more deeply colored mutant Rohde Red Valencia orange (RRV). The two cultivars exhibited different carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms in flavedo and...

  17. Demonstration of InGaN-based orange LEDs with hybrid multiple-quantum-wells structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Daisuke; Niwa, Kazumasa; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of a hybrid multiple-quantum-wells (MQWs) structure in InGaN-based orange light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The hybrid MQWs-LED is composed of orange InGaN double QWs and a blue-green InGaN single QW. Using the hybrid MQWs structure, the orange LEDs exhibited electroluminescence spectra with narrow full widths at half maximum of 51 nm at 20 mA. The light output power and external quantum efficiency of the InGaN-based orange LEDs were 0.23 mW and 0.6%, respectively, at 20 mA.

  18. HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Anita, S; Zahir, W M; Sa'iah, A; Rahimah, M A; Sha'ari, B N

    2007-08-01

    Orang Asli, the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia comprises only 0.5% of total Malaysia population but contribute to 0.06% of total notified HIV cases in the country. Their current knowledge, attitude and practice related to HIV was not known. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out involving 2706 Orang Asli from 33 remote and 47 fringe villages. Generally, the level of knowledge was fair (30%-50%) with mean scores of 55.7% (SD 31.7) while attitudes were negative. There was gender bias towards misconception on HIV transmission and sources of information. HIV seroprevalence of 0.3% was detected while risk behaviors were low. This study provides baseline information for HIV/AIDS preventive programs to the Orang Asli communities.

  19. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l-1. The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters. PMID:25253925

  20. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-05-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l(-1). The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters.

  1. Pesticide residues in orange fruit from citrus orchards in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Jacobo, A; Alcantar-Rosales, V M; Alonso, D; Heras-Ramírez, M E; Elizarragaz-De La Rosa, D; Lugo-Melchor, O Y; Gaspar-Ramirez, O

    2017-04-04

    Some international organizations established Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) in food to protect human health. Mexico lacks regulations in this matter, affecting national and international trade from agroindustry. The aim of this study was to diagnose pesticide residues in oranges from Nuevo Leon, México, in citrus orchards. In May 2014, 100 orange fruit samples were taken randomly from orchards and subjected to analysis for 93 pesticides at residual level by GC/QQQ-MS and LCQ-TOF-MS. Results showed presence of 15 pesticide residues in the samples. The comparison of the residual levels of pesticides found in orange samples among the MRLs allowed by USA, EU and Japanese regulations demonstrated that all samples were below MRLs issued by USA and Japan. Some orange samples were above MRLs issued by the EU. This provides a basis to establish strategies in order to satisfy International Standards to protect human health and encourage Food Safety in Mexico.

  2. 77 FR 73961 - Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and Tangelos Grown in Florida; Redistricting and Reapportionment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 905 Oranges, Grapefruit, Tangerines, and... Qualifications for Grower Membership on the Citrus Administrative Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...). The Committee is responsible for local administration of the Federal marketing order for...

  3. Promoting consumption of fruit in elementary school cafeterias. The effects of slicing apples and oranges.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Mark; Branscum, Adam; Nakayima, Peace Julie

    2009-10-01

    We examined how slicing apples and oranges affected elementary students' selection and consumption of fruit. Slicing increased the percentage of children selecting and consuming oranges, while a similar effect was not found for apples. The impact of slicing fruit was greatest among younger students. These findings suggest that school cafeterias can increase accessibility and consumption of foods through simple, inexpensive food preparation techniques, with the impact of such measures varying by foods and student characteristics.

  4. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein, 2′,4′,5′-triiodofluorescein, and 2′,4′,5′,7′-tetraiodofluorescein. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C... color additive mixtures for coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Orange No....

  5. Intestinal parasitic infections amongst Orang Asli (indigenous) in Malaysia: has socioeconomic development alleviated the problem?

    PubMed

    Lim, Y A L; Romano, N; Colin, N; Chow, S C; Smith, H V

    2009-08-01

    Orang Asli are the indigenous minority peoples of peninsular Malaysia. Despite proactive socioeconomic development initiated by the Malaysian Government in upgrading the quality of life of the Orang Asli communities since 1978, they still remained poor with a current poverty rate of 76.9%. Poverty exacerbates the health problems faced by these communities which include malnourishment, high incidences of infectious diseases (eg. tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria) and the perpetual problem with intestinal parasitic infections. Studies reported that the mean infection rate of intestinal parasitic infections in Orang Asli communities has reduced from 91.1% in 1978, to 64.1% in the subsequent years. Although the results was encouraging, it has to be interpreted with caution because nearly 80% of studies carried out after 1978 still reported high prevalence (i.e. >50%) of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) among Orang Asli communities. Prior to 1978, hookworm infection is the most predominant STH but today, trichuriasis is the most common STH infections. The risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections remained unchanged and studies conducted in recent years suggested that severe STH infections contributed to malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia and low serum retinol in Orang Asli communities. In addition, STH may also contribute to poor cognitive functions and learning ability. Improvements in socioeconomic status in Malaysia have shown positive impact on the reduction of intestinal parasitic infections in other communities however, this positive impact is less significant in the Orang Asli communities. In view of this, a national parasitic infections baseline data on morbidity and mortality in the 18 subgroups of Orang Asli, will assist in identifying intervention programmes required by these communities. It is hope that the adoption of strategies highlighted in the World Health Organisation- Healthy Village Initiatives (WHO-HVI) into Orang Asli communities will

  6. Detection of mandarin in orange juice by single-nucleotide polymorphism qPCR assay.

    PubMed

    Aldeguer, Miriam; López-Andreo, María; Gabaldón, José A; Puyet, Antonio

    2014-02-15

    A dual-probe real time PCR (qPCR) DNA-based analysis was devised for the identification of mandarin in orange juice. A single nucleotide polymorphism at the trnL-trnF intergenic region of the chloroplast chromosome was confirmed in nine orange (Citrus sinensis) and thirteen commercial varieties of mandarin, including Citrus reticulata and Citrus unshiu species and a mandarin × tangelo hybrid. Two short minor-groove binding fluorescent probes targeting the polymorphic sequence were used in the dual-probe qPCR, which allowed the detection of both species in single-tube reactions. The similarity of PCR efficiencies allowed a simple estimation of the ratio mandarin/orange in the juice samples, which correlated to the measured difference of threshold cycle values for both probes. The limit of detection of the assay was 5% of mandarin in orange juice, both when the juice was freshly prepared (not from concentrate) or reconstituted from concentrate, which would allow the detection of fraudulently added mandarin juice. The possible use of the dual-probe system for quantitative measurements was also tested on fruit juice mixtures. qPCR data obtained from samples containing equal amounts of mandarin and orange juice revealed that the mandarin target copy number was approximately 2.6-fold higher than in orange juice. The use of a matrix-adapted control as calibrator to compensate the resulting C(T) bias allowed accurate quantitative measurements to be obtained.

  7. One-step green synthesis of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles used to degrade Orange II.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2016-02-13

    To reduce cost and enhance reactivity, bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were firstly synthesized using grape leaf aqueous extract to remove Orange II. Green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs (98.0%) demonstrated a far higher ability to remove Orange II in 12h compared to Fe NPs (16.0%). Meanwhile, all precursors, e.g., grape leaf extract, Fe(2+) and Pd(2+), had no obvious effect on removing Orange II since less than 2.0% was removed. Kinetics study revealed that the removal rate fitted well to the pseudo-first-order reduction and pseudo-second-order adsorption model, meaning that removing Orange II via Fe/Pd NPs involved both adsorption and catalytic reduction. The remarkable stability of Fe/Pd NPs showed the potential application for removing azo dyes. Furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the changes in Fe/Pd NPs before and after reaction with Orange II. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrum (HPLC-MS) identified the degraded products in the removal of Orange II, and finally a removal mechanism was proposed. This one-step strategy using grape leaf aqueous extract to synthesize Fe/Pd NPs is simple, cost-effective and environmentally benign, making possible the large-scale production of Fe/Pd NPs for field remediation.

  8. Satiation and satiety sensations produced by eating oatmeal vs. oranges. a comparison of different scales.

    PubMed

    Karalus, Melinda; Vickers, Zata

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to use the 5-Factor Satiety Questionnaire (Karalus, 2011) to compare the changes in satiation and satiety produced by eating oranges with the changes produced by eating oatmeal. A secondary objective was to compare the data from the 5-Factor Satiety Questionnaire with that from more traditionally used scales. Thirty participants evaluated hunger and fullness feelings before breakfast and at 0, 60, and 120 min after consuming breakfasts of equal volumes of oranges and oatmeal. We covertly recorded food intake from an ad libitum snack offered 2 h after breakfast. Oranges were less effective than oatmeal for decreasing mental hunger immediately after eating. Mental hunger increased more and mental fullness decreased more during the 2-h period after eating oranges than after eating oatmeal. Neither physical hunger changes nor physical fullness changes differed between the two foods. Participants ate more food at an ad libitum snack 2 h after eating the oranges compared with after eating the oatmeal. We were better able to distinguish the feelings produced by the oatmeal from the feelings produced by the oranges with the factor scales than with the traditional scales of hunger and fullness.

  9. Assessing the Effects of Climate Variability on Orange Yield in Florida to Reduce Production Forecast Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concha Larrauri, P.

    2015-12-01

    Orange production in Florida has experienced a decline over the past decade. Hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 greatly affected production, almost to the same degree as strong freezes that occurred in the 1980's. The spread of the citrus greening disease after the hurricanes has also contributed to a reduction in orange production in Florida. The occurrence of hurricanes and diseases cannot easily be predicted but the additional effects of climate on orange yield can be studied and incorporated into existing production forecasts that are based on physical surveys, such as the October Citrus forecast issued every year by the USDA. Specific climate variables ocurring before and after the October forecast is issued can have impacts on flowering, orange drop rates, growth, and maturation, and can contribute to the forecast error. Here we present a methodology to incorporate local climate variables to predict the USDA's orange production forecast error, and we study the local effects of climate on yield in different counties in Florida. This information can aid farmers to gain an insight on what is to be expected during the orange production cycle, and can help supply chain managers to better plan their strategy.

  10. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Delta agent (Hepatitis D) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delta agent is a type of virus called hepatitis ...

  11. Removal of acridine orange from water by graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiallos, D. Coello; Gómez, C. Vacacela; Usca, G. Tubón; Pérez, D. Cid; Tavolaro, P.; Martino, G.; Caputi, L. S.; Tavolaro, A.

    2015-02-01

    Dyes are usually used in textile manufacturing and are one of the major contaminations in water. Thus, from an environmental point of view, the removal of dyes is of great concern, and recent applications using carbon-based materials showed high adsorption ability. In this work we use graphene oxide (GO) produced by improved Hummer's method, for adsorption of acridine orange dye (AO) in water. GO is a material containing functional groups such as carboxyl, epoxy, ketone, and hydroxyl, that can adsorb cationic dyes. Factors such as initial concentration of dye, the amount of GO, temperature and contact time were evaluated. Results show that the adsorption equilibrium, with the removal of 40% of the dye, is reached in approximately 1 hour, and that the adsorption capacity increases at higher initial concentrations. The highest value of AO adsorbed was 229.8 mg/g equivalent to 92% removal percentage by using AO initial concentration 0.10 mg/mL. FT-IR analysis of GO with adsorbed AO shows changes in the stretching vibrational bands, which corroborate the AO/GO interaction due to the functional groups present in GO. Furthermore, AO adsorbed on GO does not desorb back into water. Our results show that GO is an effective adsorbent and could be used to treat effluents contaminated with dyes.

  12. Orientation toward humans predicts cognitive performance in orang-utans

    PubMed Central

    Damerius, Laura A.; Forss, Sofia I. F.; Kosonen, Zaida K.; Willems, Erik P.; Burkart, Judith M.; Call, Josep; Galdikas, Birute M. F.; Liebal, Katja; Haun, Daniel B. M.; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2017-01-01

    Non-human animals sometimes show marked intraspecific variation in their cognitive abilities that may reflect variation in external inputs and experience during the developmental period. We examined variation in exploration and cognitive performance on a problem-solving task in a large sample of captive orang-utans (Pongo abelii & P. pygmaeus, N = 103) that had experienced different rearing and housing conditions during ontogeny, including human exposure. In addition to measuring exploration and cognitive performance, we also conducted a set of assays of the subjects’ psychological orientation, including reactions towards an unfamiliar human, summarized in the human orientation index (HOI), and towards novel food and objects. Using generalized linear mixed models we found that the HOI, rather than rearing background, best predicted both exploration and problem-solving success. Our results suggest a cascade of processes: human orientation was accompanied by a change in motivation towards problem-solving, expressed in reduced neophobia and increased exploration variety, which led to greater experience, and thus eventually to higher performance in the task. We propose that different experiences with humans caused individuals to vary in curiosity and understanding of the physical problem-solving task. We discuss the implications of these findings for comparative studies of cognitive ability. PMID:28067260

  13. Grain surface features of Apollo 17 orange and black glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Sue J.

    1993-01-01

    Lunar soil sample 74220 and core samples 74001/2 consist mainly of orange glass droplets, droplet fragments, and their crystallized equivalents. These samples are now generally accepted to be pyroclastic ejecta from early lunar volcanic eruptions. It has been known that they contain surface coatings and material rich in volatile condensable phases including S, Zn, F, Cl, and many volatile metals. Meyer summarizes the voluminous published chemical data and calculates the volatile enrichment ratios for most of the surface condensates. In an attempt to more completely understand this enrichment of surface volatiles, we have searched for carbon and carbon-bearing phases on droplet surfaces. We have reviewed many of our existing photomicrographs and energy dispersive analysis (EDX) of grain surfaces and have reexamined some of our older SEM mounts using an improved EDXA system capable of light element detection and analysis (oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon). In addition, we have made fresh mounts using procedures which should minimize carbon contamination or extraneous carbon x-rays and have analyzed for carbon.

  14. Ebola virus derived G-quadruplexes: Thiazole orange interaction.

    PubMed

    Krafčíková, Petra; Demkovičová, Erika; Víglaský, Viktor

    2016-12-13

    The Ebola and Marburg viruses are some of the deadliest viruses in the world. In this study a series of G-rich DNA sequences derived from these types of viruses which possess the potential to form G-quadruplex structures are analyzed. A set of DNA oligonucleotides derived from original viral isolates was used as a representative modeling sequence with which to demonstrate the influence of thiazole orange on circular dichroism (CD) spectral profiles. The results show the unique profile of the induced CD (ICD) signal in the visible region caused by interactions between the ligand and G-quadruplexes. This ligand was found to stabilize the G-quadruplex structure and can also induce topological changes and facilitate G-quadruplex multimerization. Thus, the ICD signatures can be used to determine whether specific unknown sequences can form G-quadruplex motifs. The viral sequences were analyzed using standard spectral and electrophoretic methods. In addition, the ability to target G-quadruplexes located in filoviruses offers researchers attractive therapeutic targets which would be of particular use in the development of novel antiviral therapies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "G-quadruplex" Guest Editor: Dr. Concetta Giancola and Dr. Daniela Montesarchio.

  15. Animal Capture Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  16. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Scarrow, Robert C.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

  17. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  18. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  19. Modelling the anaerobic digestion of wastewater derived from the pressing of orange peel produced in orange juice manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Santos, María de Los Angeles Martín; López, José Angel Siles; Pérez, Arturo Francisco Chica; Martín, Antonio Martín

    2010-06-01

    A kinetic model of the anaerobic digestion of wastewater derived from the pressing of orange peel is proposed. The process was conducted in a laboratory-scale, completely stirred tank reactor operating in batch mode at mesophilic temperature. The anaerobic biodegradability of the physical-chemical pre-treated wastewater was found to be 84%, while methane yield coefficient was 297NmL CH(4)/g COD removed. The mathematical model based on six segregated differential equations simulated the evolution of the concentration of carbon in different forms from biodegradable and non-biodegradable substrate. The transformation steps followed first or second-order kinetics. The kinetic constants corresponding to these stages were found to decrease markedly with the load added to the reactor, showing the occurrence of an inhibition process. The small deviations obtained between the experimental and simulated values demonstrated the suitability of the mathematical model in predicting the behaviour of the microorganisms involved in the anaerobic digestion of this wastewater.

  20. A Domestic cat X Chromosome Linkage Map and the Sex-Linked orange Locus: Mapping of orange, Multiple Origins and Epistasis Over nonagouti

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Nelson, George; David, Victor A.; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Eizirik, Eduardo; Roelke, Melody E.; Kehler, James S.; Hannah, Steven S.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive genetic linkage map of the domestic cat X chromosome was generated with the goal of localizing the genomic position of the classic X-linked orange (O) locus. Microsatellite markers with an average spacing of 3 Mb were selected from sequence traces of the cat 1.9× whole genome sequence (WGS), including the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1). Extreme variation in recombination rates (centimorgans per megabase) was observed along the X chromosome, ranging from a virtual absence of recombination events in a region estimated to be >30 Mb to recombination frequencies of 15.7 cM/Mb in a segment estimated to be <0.3 Mb. This detailed linkage map was applied to position the X-linked orange gene, placing this locus on the q arm of the X chromosome, as opposed to a previously reported location on the p arm. Fine mapping placed the locus between markers at positions 106 and 116.8 Mb in the current 1.9×-coverage sequence assembly of the cat genome. Haplotype analysis revealed potential recombination events that could reduce the size of the candidate region to 3.5 Mb and suggested multiple origins for the orange phenotype in the domestic cat. Furthermore, epistasis of orange over nonagouti was demonstrated at the genetic level. PMID:19189955

  1. Chemical and sensory characterization of orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp,a by-product of orange juice processing using gas-chromatography-olfactometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile composition of commercial orange pulp (from Brazil and Florida, U.S.A.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-Olfactometry (GC-O). In both samples 72 volatiles were detected, of which 58 were identified. Odor-active compounds with high frequency of detection (...

  2. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile of eutrophic individuals after acute intake of fresh orange juice in comparison to the commercial-pasteurized orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus flavonoids from orange juice (OJ) have shown hypolipidemic, hypotension, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the extraction and commercial pasteurization of OJ can influence its nutritional composition in comparison to the fresh squeezed OJ. We evaluated the insulin sensitivity, and th...

  3. Comparative study of flavonoid production in lycopene-accumulated and blonde-flesh sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) during fruit development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiajing; Zhang, Hongyan; Pang, Yibo; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Xu, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Four main flavanone glycosides (FGs) and four main polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) were determined in fruits of 'Cara Cara' navel orange, 'Seike' navel orange, 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). No bitter neohesperidosides were detected in the FG profiles, indicating the functional inability of 1,2-rhamnosyltransferase, though relatively high transcription levels were detected in the fruit tissues of 'Anliu' and 'Honganliu' sweet oranges. Different to the FGs, the PMFs only exist abundantly in the peel and decreased gradually throughout fruit development of sweet oranges, suggesting the expression of methylation-related genes accounting for PMF biosynthesis have tissue-specificity. Significant changes in production of the eight flavonoids were found between red-flesh and blonde-flesh sweet oranges, indicating that lycopene accumulation might have direct or indirect effects on the modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in these citrus fruits.

  4. Acidification of apple and orange hosts by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, L; Viñas, I; Torres, R; Usall, J; Buron-Moles, G; Teixidó, N

    2014-05-16

    New information about virulence mechanisms of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum could be an important avenue to control fungal diseases. In this study, the ability of P. digitatum and P. expansum to enhance their virulence by locally modulating the pH of oranges and apples was evaluated. For each host, pH changes with a compatible pathogen and a non-host pathogen were recorded, and the levels of different organic acids were evaluated to establish possible relationships with host pH modifications. Moreover, fruits were harvested at three maturity stages to determine whether fruit maturity could affect the pathogens' virulence. The pH of oranges and apples decreased when the compatible pathogens (P. digitatum and P. expansum, respectively) decayed the fruit. The main organic acid detected in P. digitatum-decayed oranges was galacturonic acid produced as a consequence of host maceration in the rot development process. However, the obtained results showed that this acid was not responsible for the pH decrease in decayed orange tissue. The mixture of malic and citric acids could at least contribute to the acidification of P. digitatum-decayed oranges. The pH decrease in P. expansum decayed apples is related to the accumulation of gluconic and fumaric acids. The pH of oranges and apples was not affected when the non-host pathogen was not able to macerate the tissues. However, different organic acid contents were detected in comparison to healthy tissues. The main organic acids detected in P. expansum-oranges were oxalic and gluconic and in P. digitatum-apples were citric, gluconic and galacturonic. Further research is needed to identify the pathogenicity factors of both fungi because the contribution of organic acids has profound implications.

  5. Response of CEDIA amphetamines assay after a single dose of bitter orange.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, DiemThuy T; Bui, Linda T; Ambrose, Peter J

    2006-04-01

    Bitter orange has recently been substituted as an ingredient in many "ephedra-free" dietary supplements used for weight loss. The primary active ingredient in bitter orange is synephrine. Previous reports have documented false-positive results from ephedrine with urine amphetamine assays. Because of the similarity in chemical structure of ephedrine and synephrine, it is hypothesized that ingestion of a bitter orange supplement may have the potential to cause false-positive results with urine amphetamine assays. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay after ingestion of bitter orange. Six healthy adult male volunteers were administered a single oral dose of Nature's Way Bitter Orange, a 900-mg dietary supplement extract standardized to 6% synephrine. Urine specimens were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 hours post-administration. Additional urine specimens were collected from 1 subject at 9, 12, and 15 hours after administration. All specimens were analyzed by the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. Urine specific gravity and pH also were measured. All urine specimens demonstrated a negative response to the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. Urine specific gravity ranged from 1.007 to 1.028, and pH ranged from 5.0 to 7.0; thus, reducing the possibility that the negative results were caused by diluted specimens or reduced excretion of synephrine into alkaline urine. This information will be of value when health care providers or those who interpret drug screens are asked to provide consultation regarding the interference of bitter orange supplements with the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay. A single-dose of Nature's Way Bitter Orange was not found to cause a false-positive response to the CEDIA Amphetamines Assay in 6 healthy adult male volunteers.

  6. Effect of processing techniques at industrial scale on orange juice antioxidant and beneficial health compounds.

    PubMed

    Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Gil, Maria I; Ferreres, Federico

    2002-08-28

    Phenolic compounds, vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid and L-dehydroascorbic acid), and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in orange juices manufactured by different techniques. Five processes at industrial scale (squeezing, mild pasteurization, standard pasteurization, concentration, and freezing) used in commercial orange juice manufacturing were studied. In addition, domestic squeezing (a hand processing technique) was compared with commercial squeezing (an industrial FMC single-strength extraction) to evaluate their influences on health components of orange juice. Whole orange juice was divided into soluble and cloud fractions after centrifugation. Total and individual phenolics were analyzed in both fractions by HPLC. Commercial squeezing extracted 22% more phenolics than hand squeezing. The freezing process caused a dramatic decrease in phenolics, whereas the concentration process caused a mild precipitation of these compounds to the juice cloud. In pulp, pasteurization led to degradation of several phenolic compounds, that is, caffeic acid derivatives, vicenin 2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside), and narirutin (5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone-7-rutinoside) with losses of 34.5, 30.7, and 28%, respectively. Regarding vitamin C, orange juice produced by commercial squeezing contained 25% more of this compound than domestic squeezing. Mild and standard pasteurization slightly increased the total vitamin C content as the contribution from the orange solids parts, whereas concentration and freezing did not show significant changes. The content of L-ascorbic acid provided 77-96% of the total antioxidant capacity of orange juice. Mild pasteurization, standard pasteurization, concentration, and freezing did not affect the total antioxidant capacity of juice, but they did, however, in pulp, where it was reduced by 47%.

  7. Orange carotenoid protein burrows into the phycobilisome to provide photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Dvir; Tal, Ofir; Jallet, Denis; Wilson, Adjélé; Kirilovsky, Diana; Adir, Noam

    2016-01-01

    In cyanobacteria, photoprotection from overexcitation of photochemical centers can be obtained by excitation energy dissipation at the level of the phycobilisome (PBS), the cyanobacterial antenna, induced by the orange carotenoid protein (OCP). A single photoactivated OCP bound to the core of the PBS affords almost total energy dissipation. The precise mechanism of OCP energy dissipation is yet to be fully determined, and one question is how the carotenoid can approach any core phycocyanobilin chromophore at a distance that can promote efficient energy quenching. We have performed intersubunit cross-linking using glutaraldehyde of the OCP and PBS followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) to identify cross-linked residues. The only residues of the OCP that cross-link with the PBS are situated in the linker region, between the N- and C-terminal domains and a single C-terminal residue. These links have enabled us to construct a model of the site of OCP binding that differs from previous models. We suggest that the N-terminal domain of the OCP burrows tightly into the PBS while leaving the OCP C-terminal domain on the exterior of the complex. Further analysis shows that the position of the small core linker protein ApcC is shifted within the cylinder cavity, serving to stabilize the interaction between the OCP and the PBS. This is confirmed by a ΔApcC mutant. Penetration of the N-terminal domain can bring the OCP carotenoid to within 5–10 Å of core chromophores; however, alteration of the core structure may be the actual source of energy dissipation. PMID:26957606

  8. Hypercarotenodermia in Zambia: which children turned orange during mango season?

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, S A; Gannon, B M; Kaliwile, C; Chileshe, J

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a public health problem in many countries. The World Health Organization recommends high-dose VA supplements to children aged 6-59 months based on unequivocal evidence that supplements decreased mortality risk. VA supplements were meant as a temporary intervention until more sustainable approaches could be implemented. Fortification of processed foods with preformed VA is a means to improve VA status. The most recent addition of retinyl palmitate to cooking oil in countries that may also fortify margarine and milk will undoubtedly have a positive impact on VA status. However, quantitative measures have not been used to assess the underlying VA status of the groups who have adopted widespread fortification. The addition of preformed VA to otherwise adequate diets in VA may cause excessive total body stores. Monitoring population status will require accurate VA assessment to ensure that hypervitaminosis does not prevail. This perspective describes a cohort of rural Zambian children who have adequate diets in VA, mostly as provitamin A carotenoids; who were given high-dose VA supplements till the age of 5 years; who have access to VA-fortified sugar; and whose mothers had access to VA-fortified sugar throughout pregnancy and lactation. Many of these children turned orange during mango season, and this phenomenon occurred at estimated liver reserve concentrations >1 μmol retinol equivalents/g liver. It will be necessary to continue to monitor VA status, including all sectors of the population that have access to successful interventions, to optimize health with the intent to lower retinol content of fortified foods or better target VA supplementation to areas of most need.

  9. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    PubMed

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  10. Adsorption of Disperse Orange 30 dye onto activated carbon derived from Holm Oak (Quercus Ilex) acorns: A 3(k) factorial design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Tezcan Un, Umran; Ates, Funda; Erginel, Nihal; Ozcan, Oznur; Oduncu, Emre

    2015-05-15

    In this study, samples of activated carbon were prepared from Holm Oak acorns by chemical activation with H3PO4, ZnCl2 and KOH as activating agents. The samples were characterized by SEM, BET, FTIR and elemental analysis, and were then evaluated for the removal of Disperse Orange 30 (DO30) dyes from aqueous solutions. A 3(k) factorial design was used to determine the interaction effects of carbonization temperature, pH, dosage of adsorbent and type of activating agent on the amount of dye removal. Also, level of effectiveness factors were determined by conducting regression models for maximum adsorption efficiency. Of all the samples, the sample generated using ZnCl2 as an activating agent showed a maximum dye removal efficiency of 93.5% at a carbonization temperature of 750 °C, a pH of 2 and an adsorbent dosage of 0.15 g/25 ml. The analysis shows that the adsorption process depends significantly on the type of activating agent used in the preparation of activated carbon.

  11. Terpene Down-Regulation in Orange Reveals the Role of Fruit Aromas in Mediating Interactions with Insect Herbivores and Pathogens1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M.; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Plants use volatile terpene compounds as odor cues for communicating with the environment. Fleshy fruits are particularly rich in volatiles that deter herbivores and attract seed dispersal agents. We have investigated how terpenes in citrus fruit peels affect the interaction between the plant, insects, and microorganisms. Because limonene represents up to 97% of the total volatiles in orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel, we chose to down-regulate the expression of a limonene synthase gene in orange plants by introducing an antisense construct of this gene. Transgenic fruits showed reduced accumulation of limonene in the peel. When these fruits were challenged with either the fungus Penicillium digitatum or with the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, they showed marked resistance against these pathogens that were unable to infect the peel tissues. Moreover, males of the citrus pest medfly (Ceratitis capitata) were less attracted to low limonene-expressing fruits than to control fruits. These results indicate that limonene accumulation in the peel of citrus fruit appears to be involved in the successful trophic interaction between fruits, insects, and microorganisms. Terpene down-regulation might be a strategy to generate broad-spectrum resistance against pests and pathogens in fleshy fruits from economically important crops. In addition, terpene engineering may be important for studying the basic ecological interactions between fruits, herbivores, and pathogens. PMID:21525333

  12. Biogenic synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles using Pisum sativum peels extract and its effect on magnetic and Methyl orange dye degradation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Cheera; Yuvaraja, Gutha; Venkateswarlu, Ponneri

    2017-02-01

    We have been developed facile and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using an aqueous extract of Pisum sativum peels (PS) is used as reducing and capping agent. The as synthesized PS-Fe3O4 MNPs are characterized by diverse techniques such as FTIR, powder XRD, TEM, BET and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The results show that the obtained Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibits high specific surface area (∼17.6 m2/g) and agglomerated spherical in shape with the size range of 20-30 nm. The magnetic properties of PS-Fe3O4 MNPs sample clearly exhibits ferromagnetic nature with a saturation magnetization of 64.2 emu/g. Further, the catalytic properties of PS-Fe3O4 MNPs for degradation of Methyl orange (MO) dye in aqueous solution have been investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The results show that PS-Fe3O4 MNPs is an efficient catalyst for degradation of Methyl orange dye than previously reported ones.

  13. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  14. Specificity of the Cyanobacterial Orange Carotenoid Protein: Influences of Orange Carotenoid Protein and Phycobilisome Structures1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Jallet, Denis; Thurotte, Adrien; Leverenz, Ryan L.; Perreau, François; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Kirilovsky, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have developed a photoprotective mechanism that decreases the energy arriving at the reaction centers by increasing thermal energy dissipation at the level of the phycobilisome (PB), the extramembranous light-harvesting antenna. This mechanism is triggered by the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP), which acts both as the photosensor and the energy quencher. The OCP binds the core of the PB. The structure of this core differs in diverse cyanobacterial strains. Here, using two isolated OCPs and four classes of PBs, we demonstrated that differences exist between OCPs related to PB binding, photoactivity, and carotenoid binding. Synechocystis PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis) OCP, but not Arthrospira platensis PCC 7345 (hereafter Arthrospira) OCP, can attach echinenone in addition to hydroxyechinenone. Arthrospira OCP binds more strongly than Synechocystis OCP to all types of PBs. Synechocystis OCP can strongly bind only its own PB in 0.8 m potassium phosphate. However, if the Synechocystis OCP binds to the PB at very high phosphate concentrations (approximately 1.4 m), it is able to quench the fluorescence of any type of PB, even those isolated from strains that lack the OCP-mediated photoprotective mechanism. Thus, the determining step for the induction of photoprotection is the binding of the OCP to PBs. Our results also indicated that the structure of PBs, at least in vitro, significantly influences OCP binding and the stabilization of OCP-PB complexes. Finally, the fact that the OCP induced large fluorescence quenching even in the two-cylinder core of Synechococcus elongatus PBs strongly suggested that OCP binds to one of the basal allophycocyanin cylinders. PMID:24335507

  15. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations.

  16. A novel orange phosphor of Eu 2+-activated calcium chlorosilicate for white light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Weijia; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Qiuhong; Su, Qiang

    2006-11-01

    Novel orange phosphor of Eu 2+-activated calcium chlorosilicate was synthesized at 1273 K by conventional solid-state reactions under reductive atmosphere and investigated by means of photoluminescence excitation, diffuse reflectance and emission spectroscopies. These results show that this phosphor can be efficiently excited by the incident light of 300-450 nm, well matched with the emission band of 395 nm-emitting InGaN chip, and emits an intense orange light peaking at 585 nm. By combining this phosphor with a 395 nm-emitting InGaN chip, an intense orange light-emitting diode (LED) was fabricated. Under 20 mA forward-bias current, its CIE chromaticity coordinates are (0.486, 0.446). The dependence of as-fabricated orange LED on forward-bias current indicates that it shows excellent chromaticity stability and luminance saturation. These results show that this Eu 2+-activated calcium chlorosilicate is a promising orange-emitting phosphor for near-ultraviolet (UV) InGaN-based white LED.

  17. Absence of furanocoumarins in Advantra Z® (Citrus aurantium, bitter orange) extracts.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Howard; Romano, Felice

    2014-09-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) juice is known for its ability to alter drug metabolism through inhibition of the cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) system, and result in drug-food interactions that may be life threatening. The primary active ingredients in grapefruit responsible for these effects are the furanocoumarins bergapten, bergamottin, and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB). Bergamottin and DHB appear to be the most important in terms of adverse drug interactions. Furanocoumarins are present in the juices and fruits of other Citrus species including C. aurantium (bitter oranges). Bergapten is the predominant furanocoumarin in bitter orange. Bitter orange extracts are widely used in products associated with weight loss, sports performance, and energy production. Questions have been raised about the potential of bitter orange extracts to cause drug interactions. This study examined the furanocoumarin content of four standardized bitter orange extracts (Advantra Z®) by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The results indicated that the total furanocoumarin content of each of the four extracts was less than 20 μg/g, amounts insufficient to exert significant effects on the metabolism of susceptible drugs in human subjects at the doses commonly used for these extracts.

  18. Use of Banana (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) Peel Extract as an Antioxidant Source in Orange Juices.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Lucía; Dorta, Eva; Gloria Lobo, M; González-Mendoza, L Antonio; Díaz, Carlos; González, Mónica

    2017-03-01

    Using banana peel extract as an antioxidant in freshly squeezed orange juices and juices from concentrate was evaluated. Free radical scavenging capacity increased by adding banana peel extracts to both types of orange juice. In addition, remarkable increases in antioxidant capacity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical were observed when equal or greater than 5 mg of banana peel extract per ml of freshly squeezed juice was added. No clear effects were observed in the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Adding 5 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice did not substantially modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of either type of juice. However, undesirable changes in the sensory characteristics (in-mouth sensations and colour) were detected when equal or greater than 10 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice was added. These results confirm that banana peel is a promising natural additive that increases the capacity to scavenge free radicals of orange juice with acceptable sensory and physicochemical characteristics for the consumer.

  19. Kinetic of orange pigment production from Monascus ruber on submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Francielo; Schmidell, Willibaldo; de Oliveira, Débora; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Pigments produced by species of Monascus have been used to coloring rice, meat, sauces, wines and beers in East Asian countries. Monascus can produce orange (precursor), yellow and red pigments. Orange pigments have low solubility in culture media and when react with amino groups they become red and largely soluble. The orange pigments are an alternative to industrial pigment production because the low solubility facilitates the downstream operations. The aim of this work was to study the kinetic on the production of orange pigments by Monascus ruber CCT 3802. The shaking frequency of 300 rpm was favorable to production, whereas higher shaking frequencies showed negative effect. Pigment production was partially associated with cell growth, the critical dissolved oxygen concentration was between 0.894 and 1.388 mgO2 L(-1) at 30 °C, and limiting conditions of dissolved oxygen decreased the production of orange pigments. The maintenance coefficient (mo) and the conversion factor of oxygen in biomass (Yo) were 18.603 mgO2 g x(-1)  h(-1) and 3.133 gx gO 2(-1) and the consideration of these parameters in the oxygen balance to estimate the biomass concentration provided good fits to the experimental data.

  20. Citrus sinensis Annotation Project (CAP): A Comprehensive Database for Sweet Orange Genome

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/. PMID:24489955

  1. Red orange: experimental models and epidemiological evidence of its benefits on human health.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Nolfo, Francesca; Calabrese, Giorgio; Buscemi, Silvio; Drago, Filippo; Veronesi, Umberto; Scuderi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing public interest in plant antioxidants, thanks to the potential anticarcinogenic and cardioprotective actions mediated by their biochemical properties. The red (or blood) orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is a pigmented sweet orange variety typical of eastern Sicily (southern Italy), California, and Spain. In this paper, we discuss the main health-related properties of the red orange that include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. Moreover, the effects on health of its main constituents (namely, flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and anthocyanins) are described. The red orange juice demonstrates an important antioxidant activity by modulating many antioxidant enzyme systems that efficiently counteract the oxidative damage which may play an important role in the etiology of numerous diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. The beneficial effects of this fruit may be mediated by the synergic effects of its compounds. Thus, the supply of natural antioxidant compounds through a balanced diet rich in red oranges might provide protection against oxidative damage under differing conditions and could be more effective than, the supplementation of an individual antioxidant.

  2. Degradation of methyl orange using short-wavelength UV irradiation with oxygen microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Tasaki, Tsutomu; Wada, Tsubasa; Fujimoto, Kanji; Kai, Shinji; Ohe, Kaoru; Oshima, Tatsuya; Baba, Yoshinari; Kukizaki, Masato

    2009-03-15

    A novel wastewater treatment technique using 8 W low-pressure mercury lamps in the presence of uniform-sized microbubbles (diameter = 5.79 microm) was investigated for the decomposition of methyl orange as a model compound in aqueous solution. Photodegradation experiments were conducted with a BLB black light blue lamp (365 nm), a UV-C germicidal lamp (254 nm) and an ozone lamp (185 nm+254 nm) both with and without oxygen microbubbles. The results show that the oxygen microbubbles accelerated the decolorization rate of methyl orange under 185+254 nm irradiation. In contrast, the microbubbles under 365 and 254 nm irradiation were unaffected on the decolorization of methyl orange. It was found that the pseudo-zero order decolorization reaction constant in microbubble system is 2.1 times higher than that in conventional large bubble system. Total organic carbon (TOC) reduction rate of methyl orange was greatly enhanced by oxygen microbubble under 185+254 nm irradiation, however, TOC reduction rate by nitrogen microbubble was much slower than that with 185+254 nm irradiation only. Possible reaction mechanisms for the decolorization and mineralization of methyl orange both with oxygen and nitrogen mirobubbles were proposed in this study.

  3. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.

  4. Influence of industrial processing on orange juice flavanone solubility and transformation to chalcones under gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Gil, María Isabel; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco Abraham; Ferreres, Federico

    2003-05-07

    Orange juice manufactured at industrial scale was subjected to digestion under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions (pH, temperature, and enzyme and chemical conditions) to evaluate the influence of individual industrial processing treatments on flavanone solubility, stability, and ability to permeate through a membrane under simulated physiological conditions. Four industrial processes including squeezing, standard pasteurization, concentration, and freezing were evaluated. Hand squeezing was compared with industrial squeezing. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the orange juices, the flavanones able to permeate through a dialysis membrane, and those remaining in the retentate were evaluated by HPLC as were those present in the insoluble fraction. In all of the assayed orange juices, a high content of precipitated chalcones ( approximately 70% of the total flavanones) was formed under the physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Hand squeezing provided a higher concentration of flavanones in the permeated fraction and lower transformation to chalcones than industrial squeezing. Standard pasteurization did not influence the solubility and permeability of the orange juice flavanones and chalcones. Industrial concentration did not affect the amount of flavanones able to permeate but decreased the chalcones produced. Juices produced from frozen orange juice contained considerably smaller amounts of both soluble flavanones and insoluble chalcones.

  5. Terpene down-regulation triggers defense responses in transgenic orange leading to resistance against fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana; Shimada, Takehiko; Cervera, Magdalena; Alquézar, Berta; Gadea, José; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; De Ollas, Carlos José; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Peña, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Terpenoid volatiles are isoprene compounds that are emitted by plants to communicate with the environment. In addition to their function in repelling herbivores and attracting carnivorous predators in green tissues, the presumed primary function of terpenoid volatiles released from mature fruits is the attraction of seed-dispersing animals. Mature oranges (Citrus sinensis) primarily accumulate terpenes in peel oil glands, with d-limonene accounting for approximately 97% of the total volatile terpenes. In a previous report, we showed that down-regulation of a d-limonene synthase gene alters monoterpene levels in orange antisense (AS) fruits, leading to resistance against Penicillium digitatum infection. A global gene expression analysis of AS versus empty vector (EV) transgenic fruits revealed that the down-regulation of d-limonene up-regulated genes involved in the innate immune response. Basal levels of jasmonic acid were substantially higher in the EV compared with AS oranges. Upon fungal challenge, salicylic acid levels were triggered in EV samples, while jasmonic acid metabolism and signaling were drastically increased in AS orange peels. In nature, d-limonene levels increase in orange fruit once the seeds are fully viable. The inverse correlation between the increase in d-limonene content and the decrease in the defense response suggests that d-limonene promotes infection by microorganisms that are likely involved in facilitating access to the pulp for seed-dispersing frugivores.

  6. Isolation and biological activities of decanal, linalool, valencene, and octanal from sweet orange oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kehai; Chen, Qiulin; Liu, Yanjun; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xichang

    2012-11-01

    Product 1 (82.25% valencene), product 2 (73.36% decanal), product 3 (78.12% octanal), and product 4 (90.61% linalool) were isolated from sweet orange oil by combined usage of molecular distillation and column chromatography. The antioxidant activity of sweet orange oil and these products was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power assays. In this test, product 1 (82.25% valencene), product 2 (73.36% decanal), and product 4 (90.61% linalool) had antioxidant activity, but lower than sweet orange oil. The antimicrobial activity was investigated in order to evaluate their efficacy against 5 microorganisms. The results showed that sweet orange oil, product 2 (73.36% decanal), product 3 (78.12% octanal), and product 4 (90.61% linalool) had inhibitory and bactericidal effect on the test microorganisms (except Penicillium citrinum). Valencene did not show any inhibitory effect. Saccharomyces cerivisiae was more susceptible, especially to the crude sweet orange oil (minimal inhibitory concentration 6.25 μL/mL). The cytotoxicity was evaluated on Hela cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. All test samples showed significant cytotoxicity on the cell lines with IC(50) values much less than 20 μg/mL.

  7. Calculated reciprocity after all: computation behind token transfers in orang-utans.

    PubMed

    Dufour, V; Pelé, M; Neumann, M; Thierry, B; Call, J

    2009-04-23

    Transfers and services are frequent in the animal kingdom. However, there is no clear evidence in animals that such transactions are based on weighing costs and benefits when giving or returning favours and keeping track of them over time (i.e. calculated reciprocity). We tested two orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) in a token-exchange paradigm, in which each individual could exchange a token for food with the experimenter but only after first obtaining the token from the other orang-utan. Each orang-utan possessed tokens valuable to their partner but useless to themselves. Both orang-utans actively transferred numerous tokens (mostly partner-valuable) to their partner. One of the orang-utans routinely used gestures to request tokens while the other complied with such requests. Although initially the transfers were biased in one direction, they became more balanced towards the end of the study. Indeed, data on the last three series produced evidence of reciprocity both between and within trials. We observed an increase in the number and complexity of exchanges and alternations. This study is the first experimental demonstration of the occurrence of direct transfers of goods based on calculated reciprocity in non-human-primates.

  8. Emission of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) during the aerobic decomposition of orange wastes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Xinming

    2015-07-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) emitted from orange wastes during aerobic decomposition were investigated in a laboratory-controlled incubator for a period of two months. Emission of total OVOCs (TOVOCs) from orange wastes reached 1714 mg/dry kg (330 mg/wet kg). Ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, 2-butanone and acetaldehyde were the most abundant OVOC species with shares of 26.9%, 24.8%, 20.3%, 13.9%, 2.8% and 2.5%, respectively, in the TOVOCs released. The emission fluxes of the above top five OVOCs were quite trivial in the beginning but increased sharply to form one "peak emission window" with maximums at days 1-8 until leveling off after 10 days. This type of "peak emission window" was synchronized with the CO2 fluxes and incubation temperature of the orange wastes, indicating that released OVOCs were mainly derived from secondary metabolites of orange substrates through biotic processes rather than abiotic processes or primary volatilization of the inherent pool in oranges. Acetaldehyde instead had emission fluxes decreasing sharply from its initial maximum to nearly zero in about four days, suggesting that it was inherent rather than secondarily formed. For TOVOCs or all OVOC species except 2-butanone and acetone, over 80% of their emissions occurred during the first week, implying that organic wastes might give off a considerable amount of OVOCs during the early disposal period under aerobic conditions.

  9. Murraya paniculata (orange jasmine), a host and possible inoculum reservoir for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, causal agent of Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), considered the most serious vectored-pathogen of citrus, is transmitted in nature by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri and the African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae. In 1999, D. citri was discovered in southern Florida and has become established in FL and TX. Huanglon...

  10. Light-controlled cellular internalization and cytotoxicity of nucleic acid-binding agents. Studies in vitro and in zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Penas, Cristina; Sánchez, Mateo I.; Guerra-Varela, Jorge; Sanchez-Piñón, Laura; Vázquez, M. Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L.

    2016-01-01

    We have synthesized oligoarginine conjugates of selected DNA-binding agents (a bisbenzamidine, acridine and thiazole orange) and demonstrated that the DNA binding and cell internalization properties of such conjugates can be inhibited by appending a negatively charged oligoglutamic tail through a photolabile linker. Irradiation with UV light releases the parent octaarginine conjugates, thus restoring their cell internalization and biological activity. Preliminary assays using zebrafish embryos demonstrates the potential of this prodrug strategy for controlling in vivo cytotoxicity. PMID:26534774

  11. [Adsorption of acid orange II from aqueous solution onto modified peat-resin particles].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-Ye; Yang, Lin-Zhang

    2007-06-01

    The adsorption of acid orange II onto modified peat-resin particles was examined in aqueous solution in a batch system. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic and the intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetic data. The results showed that both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models could be used to describe the adsorption of acid orange II onto modified peat-resin particles. The maximum adsorption capacity was 71.43 mg x g(-1). The data analysis indicated that the intraparticle diffusion model could fit the results of kinetic experiment well. The adsorption rate of acid orange II onto modified peat-resin particles is affected by the initial dye concentrations, sizes and doses of modified peat-resin particles and agitation rates. The surface of modified peat-resin particle is the major adsorption area.

  12. Heterozygosity and orange coloration are associated in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Herdegen, M; Dudka, K; Radwan, J

    2014-01-01

    The good-genes-as-heterozygosity hypothesis predicts that more elaborate male sexual ornaments are associated with higher levels of heterozygosity. Recent theoretical work suggests that such associations are likely to arise in finite, structured populations. We investigated the correlation between multilocus heterozygosity (MLH), which was estimated using 13 microsatellite loci, and male coloration in a wild population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a model species in sexual selection research. We found that MLH was a significant predictor of the relative area of orange spots, a trait that is subject to strong female preference in this species. Neither the relative area of black spots nor the number of black or orange spots was significantly correlated with MLH. We found no statistical support for local effects (i.e. strong effects of heterozygosity at specific markers), which suggests that relative orange spots area reflects genome-wide heterozygosity.

  13. (1)H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics evaluation of non-thermal processing of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Almeida, Francisca D L; Cavalcante, Rosane S; de Brito, Edy S; Cullen, Patrick J; Frias, Jesus M; Bourke, Paula; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of atmospheric cold plasma and ozone treatments on the key compounds (sugars, amino acids and short chain organic acids) in orange juice by NMR and chemometric analysis. The juice was directly and indirectly exposed to atmospheric cold plasma field at 70kV for different treatment time (15, 30, 45 and 60sec). For ozone processing different loads were evaluated. The Principal Component Analysis shown that the groups of compounds are affected differently depending on the processing. The ozone was the processing that more affected the aromatic compounds and atmospheric cold plasma processing affected more the aliphatic compounds. However, these variations did not result in significant changes in orange juice composition as a whole. Thus, NMR data and chemometrics were suitable to follow quality changes in orange juice processing by atmospheric cold plasma and ozone.

  14. Degradation of orange dyes and carbamazepine by soybean peroxidase immobilized on silica monoliths and titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Calza, Paola; Zacchigna, Dario; Laurenti, Enzo

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the removal of three common dyes (orange I, orange II, and methylorange) and of the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine from aqueous solutions by means of enzymatic and photocatalytic treatment was studied. Soybean peroxidase (SBP) was used as biocatalyst, both free in solution and immobilized on silica monoliths, and titanium dioxide as photocatalyst. The combination of the two catalysts led to a faster (about two to four times) removal of all the orange dyes compared to the single systems. All the dyes were completely removed within 2 h, also in the presence of immobilized SBP. As for carbamazepine, photocatalytic treatment prevails on the enzymatic degradation, but the synergistic effect of two catalysts led to a more efficient degradation; carbamazepine's complete disappearance was achieved within 60 min with combined system, while up to 2 h is required with TiO2 only.

  15. Effect of guar gum on stability and physical properties of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ruihuan; Kong, Qing; Mou, Haijin; Fu, Xiaodan

    2017-05-01

    The objective of current study was to determine the stability and physical properties of orange juice which was added with guar gum. The optimal formulation showed good stability and physical properties, in light of better indices on the serum cloudiness (turbidity), sensory analysis, particle size distribution, aroma concentration analysis and rheological properties. By serum cloudiness (turbidity), the viscosity of optimal guar gum used in orange juice was 584mpas; by the other four methods, the optimal formulation was determined: 0.1% guar gum (584mpas) combined with 0.03% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The results indicated that the guar gum can be used to partially replaced CMC and improve the stability and physical properties of orange juice.

  16. Physical properties of inulin and inulin-orange juice: physical characterization and technological application.

    PubMed

    Saavedra-Leos, M Z; Leyva-Porras, C; Martínez-Guerra, E; Pérez-García, S A; Aguilar-Martínez, J A; Álvarez-Salas, C

    2014-05-25

    In this work two systems based on a carbohydrate polymer were studied: inulin as model system and inulin-orange juice as complex system. Both system were stored at different water activity conditions and subsequently characterized. Water adsorption isotherms type II were fitted by the GAB model and the water monolayer content was determined for each system. From thermal analyzes it was found that at low water activities (aw) systems were fully amorphous. As aw increased, crystallinity was developed. This behavior was corroborated by X-ray diffraction. In the inulin-orange juice system, crystallization appears at lower water activity caused by the intensification of the chemical interaction of the low molecular weight species contained in orange juice. Glass transition temperature (Tg), determined by modulated differential scanning calorimeter, decreased with aw. As water is adsorbed, the physical appearance of samples changed which could be observed by optical microscopy and effectively related with the microstructure found by scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Characterization of novel polyomaviruses from Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans.

    PubMed

    Groenewoud, Marlous J; Fagrouch, Zahra; van Gessel, Sabine; Niphuis, Henk; Bulavaite, Aiste; Warren, Kristin S; Heeney, Jonathan L; Verschoor, Ernst J

    2010-03-01

    Serological screening of sera from orang-utans demonstrated a high percentage of sera that cross-reacted with antigens of the polyomavirus (PyV) simian virus 40. Analysis of archival DNA samples from 71 Bornean and eight Sumatran orang-utans with a broad-spectrum PCR assay resulted in the detection of PyV infections in 11 animals from both species. Sequence analysis of the amplicons revealed considerable differences between the PyVs from Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans. The genome from two PyVs, one from each species, was therefore amplified and sequenced. Both viral genomes revealed a characteristic PyV architecture, but lacked an obvious agnogene. Neighbour-joining analysis positioned the viruses in a large cluster together with viruses from bats, bovines, rodents and several primate PyVs from chimpanzees, African green monkeys, squirrel monkeys and the human Merkel cell PyV.

  18. Association between parasite load and orange, but not blue, male nuptial colouration in Etheostoma caeruleum.

    PubMed

    Ciccotto, P J; Dresser, D J; Mendelson, T C

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis that males possessing more vivid nuptial colouration are of better quality with regard to individual measures of health such as parasite infection was investigated by taking spectral measurements of orange and blue bars in the nuptial males of a sexually dichromatic stream fish rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum to determine if male colouration in this species varied with parasite load in the form of black spot disease. The yellow chroma of orange bars, i.e. the relative contribution of wavelengths in the range of 550-625 nm to total brightness, was the only spectral measurement significantly associated with parasite counts. These results are discussed in the context of sexual selection and the potential of orange bars in E. caeruleum to serve as honest indicators of quality to potential mates.

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection among Aborigines (the Orang Asli) in the northeastern region of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Amry Abdul; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Majid, Noorizan Abd; Choo, Keng Ee; Raj, Sundramoorthy Mahendra; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Graham, David Y

    2010-11-01

    Whether the exceptionally low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection reported among Malays is also present among aborigines (the Orang Asli) living in northeastern Peninsular Malaysia is unknown. We studied asymptomatic Orang Asli from settlements situated 210 km from the city of Kota Bharu. The HP infection status was confirmed by a validated serology test. Nineteen percent of 480 Orang Asli tested positive for HP infection. The prevalence was 40.6% in the birth cohort of the 1940s and declined steadily in later cohorts to under 10% among 12-30 year olds. This may be related to the phases of relocation from the jungles into resettlement camps and ultimately into designated villages near rivers. The low prevalence pattern after the 1970s was probably partly a result of improvement in sanitation and hygiene practice in these villages but other unidentified factors may also be operating.

  20. Removal of Methylene Blue and Orange-G from Waste Water Using Magnetic Biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, N. M.; Fo, Y. T.; Al-Salim, Hikmat Said; Sahu, J. N.; Abdullah, E. C.; Nizamuddin, S.; Jayakumar, N. S.; Ganesan, P.

    2015-04-01

    The study on the removal of methylene blue (MB) and orange-G dyes using magnetic biochar derived from the empty fruit bunch (EFB) was carried out. Process parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage, agitation speed and contact time were optimized using Design-Expert Software v.6.0.8. The statistical analysis reveals that the optimum conditions for the maximum adsorption of MB are at pH 2 and pH 10, dosage 1.0 g, and agitation speed and contact time of 125 rpm and 120 min respectively. While for orange-G, at pH 2, dosage 1.0 g, and agitation speed and contact time of 125 rpm and 120 min respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of 31.25 mg/g and 32.36 mg/g for MB and orange-G respectively. The adsorption kinetic for both dyes obeyed pseudo-second order.