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Sample records for agent orange

  1. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  2. Dioxin, agent orange

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: dioxin, a prevalent problem; nobody wanted dioxin; agent organe and Vietnam; what we know about and may learn about agent orange and Veterans' health; agent organe and birth defects; dioxin in Missouri; 2, 4, 5-T: the U.S.' disappearing herbicide; Seveso: high-level environmental exposure; the nitro explosion; industrial exposures to dioxin; company behavior in the face of dioxin exposures; dioxin and specific cancers; animal tests of dioxin toxicity; dioxin decions; the present and the future.

  3. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... for survivors' benefits . Research on AL amyloidosis and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... to the compounds of interest found in the herbicide Agent Orange and AL amyloidosis." VA made a ...

  4. Does Agent Orange cause birth defects?

    PubMed

    Friedman, J M

    1984-04-01

    Large quantities of the defoliant, Agent Orange, were sprayed in Vietnam during the war. Agent Orange was composed of two herbicides: 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, the latter contaminated by small amounts of a highly toxic dioxin (TCDD). The constituents of Agent Orange are capable of producing gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations, at least in some experimental circumstances. TCDD and 2,4,5-T are teratogenic in mice and perhaps in other mammals, but the teratogenicity of these chemicals has not been convincingly demonstrated in humans. There is currently no scientific evidence which indicates that men who were previously exposed to Agent Orange are at increased risk of having children with birth defects, but available data are inadequate to assess this possibility critically. PMID:6377557

  5. Does Agent Orange cause birth defects?

    PubMed

    Friedman, J M

    1984-04-01

    Large quantities of the defoliant, Agent Orange, were sprayed in Vietnam during the war. Agent Orange was composed of two herbicides: 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, the latter contaminated by small amounts of a highly toxic dioxin (TCDD). The constituents of Agent Orange are capable of producing gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations, at least in some experimental circumstances. TCDD and 2,4,5-T are teratogenic in mice and perhaps in other mammals, but the teratogenicity of these chemicals has not been convincingly demonstrated in humans. There is currently no scientific evidence which indicates that men who were previously exposed to Agent Orange are at increased risk of having children with birth defects, but available data are inadequate to assess this possibility critically.

  6. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors' benefits . Research on porphyria cutanea tarda and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (HMD) (formally known ... on " Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam " that there was sufficient evidence ...

  7. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors' benefits . Research on soft tissue sarcoma and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... report " Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam " and other updates that there ...

  8. Multiple medical problems following agent orange exposure.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, J L; Islam, A; Akhter, S; Dembinski, W; Kulaylat, M; Ambrus, C M

    2004-01-01

    A patient exposed to agent orange and a gunshot wound during the Vietnam War has developed multiple medical problems including nocardiosis, onychomycosis (Trichophyton rubrum), multiple thromboembolic episodes, hemochromatosis, diabetes mellitus type 2, diabetic neuropathy, activated protein C resistance (without Leyden V 1st mutation), degree A-V block, lung cancer (metastatic adenocarcinoma), carpal tunnel syndrome and arthritis. PMID:18084883

  9. Agent Orange: management of patients exposed in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Anne; Fessele, Kristen

    2003-01-01

    Since the Vietnam War ended in 1975, numerous studies have been conducted to determine if an association exists between Agent Orange exposure and certain disabling conditions specifically cancer. Although a definite causal relationship has not yet been established, sufficient data associate Agent Orange with certain conditions. Because of their advancing age similar to other baby boomers, Vietnam veterans are at a higher risk of developing malignancies. However, their exposure to Agent Orange also may increase their risk for cancer and other associated diseases. This article examines the latest findings of scientific research sponsored by the Department of Veterans Affairs and discusses the importance of well-informed oncology nurses when providing care for patients with cancer exposed to Agent Orange. PMID:12793339

  10. Are Vietnamese food exports contaminated with dioxin from Agent Orange?

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Malisch, Rainer; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-08-01

    In this study the levels of dioxins and dioxinlike compounds, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in food exported from Vietnam to the United States. In the past, some Vietnamese fish was found to be contaminated with dioxin, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, or TCDD, from Agent Orange. U.S. commercial catfish farmers recently claimed that exported Vietnamese food, especially catfish, was contaminated with dioxin from Agent Orange and was thus a matter of concern to the U.S. Congress. In 2001, twenty-two exported Vietnamese food samples (mostly fish) were purchased in the United States and Laos to evaluate possible contamination with dioxin from Agent Orange. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar PCB congeners were measured by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry by laboratories in Germany and Canada certified for dioxin analysis by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the current study, only low levels of dioxins and dioxinlike compounds were present in all exported Vietnamese food analyzed, despite recent findings of elevated levels of one dioxin, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, from Agent Orange exposure in some Vietnamese individuals, presumably due to food consumption. It appears unlikely that exported Vietnamese food is, in general, contaminated with large amounts of dioxin (TCDD) from Agent Orange or other sources. Further food sampling from areas of heavy Agent Orange spraying in Vietnam is warranted to map out where the source of TCDD contamination of food may be originating. PMID:12857631

  11. Agent Orange exposure and attributed health effects in Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Young, Alvin L; Cecil, Paul F

    2011-07-01

    Serum dioxin studies of Vietnam (VN) veterans, military historical records of tactical herbicide use in Vietnam, and the compelling evidence of the photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aspects of environmental fate and low bioavailability of TCDD are consistent with few, if any, ground troop veterans being exposed to Agent Orange. That conclusion, however, is contrary to the presumption by the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) that military service in Vietnam anytime from January 9, 1962 to May 7, 1975 is a proxy for exposure to Agent Orange. The DVA assumption is inconsistent with the scientific principles governing determinations of disease causation. The DVA has nonetheless awarded Agent Orange-related benefits and compensation to an increasing number of VN veterans based on the presumption of exposure and the published findings of the Institute of Medicine that there is sufficient evidence of a "statistical association" (a less stringent standard than "causal relationship") between exposure to tactical herbicides or TCDD and 15 different human diseases. A fairer and more valid approach for VN veterans would have been to enact a program of "Vietnam experience" benefits for those seriously ill, rather than benefits based on the dubious premise of injuries caused by Agent Orange. PMID:21916327

  12. Urologic cancer risks for veterans exposed to Agent Orange.

    PubMed

    Hoenemeyer, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Agent Orange, an herbicide widely used during the Vietnam War, has been linked to various health risks, including urologic malignancy. Exposed veterans are at risk for prostate cancer and may be entitled to compensation if diagnosed with prostate cancer. Current research studies are aimed at mitigating prostate dysplasia and prostate cancer PMID:23734554

  13. Impact of Agent Orange exposure among Korean Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joung-Soon; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Cho, Sung-Il; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Lim, Min-Kyung

    2003-07-01

    In order to determine whether Agent Orange exposure was associated with increased frequency of medical problems, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of Korean veterans during 1995-1996. 1,224 Vietnam and 154 non-Vietnam veterans were included in the study. Exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by structured in-depth interview on the participants' history of service in Vietnam. Health outcomes were assessed by a standardized comprehensive clinical investigation by a group of clinical specialists. The differences in the prevalence of various medical diagnoses were assessed by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests comparing the exposure levels of Vietnam veterans, adjusting for age. Multiple logistic regression was performed to estimate the effect of "service in Vietnam" adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, education, and marital status. Vietnam veterans had an increased frequency of eczema (odds ratio [OR] = 6.54), radiculopathy (OR = 3.98), diabetes (OR = 2.69), peripheral neuropathy (OR = 2.39), and hypertension (OR = 2.29), compared to non-Vietnam veterans, adjusting for potential confounders. In addition, higher levels of exposure among Vietnam veterans were associated with increased frequency of ischemic heart disease (p < 0.01), valvular heart disease (p < 0.01), and retinopathy (p < 0.01). We conclude that exposure to Agent Orange is associated with various health impacts in Korean Vietnam veterans. PMID:12916744

  14. The legacy of Agent Orange: empirical evidence from central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Michael G

    2005-03-01

    This paper seeks to provide a socio-economic impact assessment for Vietnamese victims of the principal US military herbicide, Agent Orange, used during the Vietnam War in the period 1961-71. The study is based on a field survey of 30 affected and 30 unaffected households in Quang Tri province. With this assessment, the paper attempts to address the broader issues of compensation currently available to victims. The coverage and composition of current benefits are deemed inadequate as an effective redress. In view of this, revision of current compensation, the mobilization of an international donor fund and spurred non-governmental support is strongly recommended. PMID:15589674

  15. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations. PMID:26210237

  16. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations.

  17. Clinicopathological features of mycosis fungoides in patients exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Soo; Jang, Jun Gyu; Han, Sang Hwa; Park, Jong Bin; Kang, Dong Young; Kim, Sang Tae; Suh, Kee Suck

    2013-08-01

    There are no reports on the clinicopathological features of mycosis fungoides (MF) among veterans exposed to Agent Orange, one of the herbicides used during the Vietnam War. To evaluate the clinical, histopathological and genotypic findings of Vietnam War veterans with MF and a positive history of exposure to Agent Orange, we performed a comparative clinicopathological study between MF patients with a history of Agent Orange exposure and those without a history of Agent Orange exposure. Twelve Vietnam War veterans with MF were identified. The mean interval from Agent Orange exposure to diagnosis was 24.5 years (range, 9-35). Skin lesions were significantly present on exposed and unexposed areas. Most patients (75%) experienced pruritus (mean visual analog scale score of 6.7). MF was manifested by plaques in 10 patients and by lichenification in five. Histopathological features of most cases were consistent with MF. Biopsy specimens also demonstrated irregular acanthosis (66.7%). In the comparative study, MF patients with a history of Agent Orange exposure differed significantly from those without exposure to Agent Orange in demographic and clinical characteristics. In addition, patients with exposure had an increased tendency for lesions in the exposed area. Notably, our patients showed a higher frequency (33.3%) of mycosis fungoides palmaris et plantaris than in previous studies. Histologically, irregular acanthosis was more frequently observed than ordinary MF. Our results indicate that dermatologists should pay close attention to these clinicopathological differences. Careful assessment of history of exposure to defoliants is warranted in some cases suspicious for MF.

  18. Clinicopathological features of mycosis fungoides in patients exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Soo; Jang, Jun Gyu; Han, Sang Hwa; Park, Jong Bin; Kang, Dong Young; Kim, Sang Tae; Suh, Kee Suck

    2013-08-01

    There are no reports on the clinicopathological features of mycosis fungoides (MF) among veterans exposed to Agent Orange, one of the herbicides used during the Vietnam War. To evaluate the clinical, histopathological and genotypic findings of Vietnam War veterans with MF and a positive history of exposure to Agent Orange, we performed a comparative clinicopathological study between MF patients with a history of Agent Orange exposure and those without a history of Agent Orange exposure. Twelve Vietnam War veterans with MF were identified. The mean interval from Agent Orange exposure to diagnosis was 24.5 years (range, 9-35). Skin lesions were significantly present on exposed and unexposed areas. Most patients (75%) experienced pruritus (mean visual analog scale score of 6.7). MF was manifested by plaques in 10 patients and by lichenification in five. Histopathological features of most cases were consistent with MF. Biopsy specimens also demonstrated irregular acanthosis (66.7%). In the comparative study, MF patients with a history of Agent Orange exposure differed significantly from those without exposure to Agent Orange in demographic and clinical characteristics. In addition, patients with exposure had an increased tendency for lesions in the exposed area. Notably, our patients showed a higher frequency (33.3%) of mycosis fungoides palmaris et plantaris than in previous studies. Histologically, irregular acanthosis was more frequently observed than ordinary MF. Our results indicate that dermatologists should pay close attention to these clinicopathological differences. Careful assessment of history of exposure to defoliants is warranted in some cases suspicious for MF. PMID:23724870

  19. A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ellen T; Boffetta, Paolo; Adami, Hans-Olov; Cole, Philip; Mandel, Jack S

    2014-10-01

    To inform risk assessment and regulatory decision-making, the relationship between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and prostate cancer requires clarification. This article systematically and critically reviews the epidemiologic evidence on the association between exposure to TCDD or Agent Orange, a TCDD-contaminated herbicide used during the Vietnam War, and prostate cancer risk. Articles evaluated include 11 studies of three cohorts, four case-control or cross-sectional studies, and three case-only studies of military veterans with information on estimated Agent Orange or TCDD exposure; 13 studies of seven cohorts, one case-control study, and eight proportionate morbidity or mortality studies of Vietnam veterans without information on Agent Orange exposure; 11 cohort studies of workers with occupational exposure to TCDD; and two studies of one community cohort with environmental exposure to TCDD. The most informative studies, including those of Vietnam veterans involved in Agent Orange spraying or other handling, herbicide manufacturing or spraying workers with occupational TCDD exposure, and community members exposed to TCDD through an industrial accident, consistently reported no significant increase in prostate cancer incidence or mortality. Only some potentially confounded studies of Vietnam veterans compared with the general population, studies with unreliable estimates of Agent Orange exposure, and analyses of selected subgroups of Vietnam veterans reported positive associations. Overall, epidemiologic research offers no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to Agent Orange or TCDD and prostate cancer. More accurate exposure assessment is needed in large epidemiologic studies to rule out a causal association more conclusively. PMID:25064616

  20. A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ellen T; Boffetta, Paolo; Adami, Hans-Olov; Cole, Philip; Mandel, Jack S

    2014-10-01

    To inform risk assessment and regulatory decision-making, the relationship between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and prostate cancer requires clarification. This article systematically and critically reviews the epidemiologic evidence on the association between exposure to TCDD or Agent Orange, a TCDD-contaminated herbicide used during the Vietnam War, and prostate cancer risk. Articles evaluated include 11 studies of three cohorts, four case-control or cross-sectional studies, and three case-only studies of military veterans with information on estimated Agent Orange or TCDD exposure; 13 studies of seven cohorts, one case-control study, and eight proportionate morbidity or mortality studies of Vietnam veterans without information on Agent Orange exposure; 11 cohort studies of workers with occupational exposure to TCDD; and two studies of one community cohort with environmental exposure to TCDD. The most informative studies, including those of Vietnam veterans involved in Agent Orange spraying or other handling, herbicide manufacturing or spraying workers with occupational TCDD exposure, and community members exposed to TCDD through an industrial accident, consistently reported no significant increase in prostate cancer incidence or mortality. Only some potentially confounded studies of Vietnam veterans compared with the general population, studies with unreliable estimates of Agent Orange exposure, and analyses of selected subgroups of Vietnam veterans reported positive associations. Overall, epidemiologic research offers no consistent or convincing evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to Agent Orange or TCDD and prostate cancer. More accurate exposure assessment is needed in large epidemiologic studies to rule out a causal association more conclusively.

  1. Impact of chemical warfare with agent orange on women's reproductive lives in Vietnam: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Le, T N; Johansson, A

    2001-11-01

    During the American war in Vietnam, huge quantities of the highly toxic herbicide dioxin ('Agent Orange'), were sprayed over large areas of central and south Vietnam. In addition to polluting the environment and causing cancers and other diseases in those directly exposed to it, dioxin has caused high rates of pregnancy loss, congenital birth defects and other health problems in their children. This paper reports the findings of a pilot study in the year 2000 among 30 Vietnamese women whose husbands and/or who themselves were exposed to Agent Orange. The aim was to develop research in order to explore the impact of chemical warfare on people's lives. Using the reproductive lifeline and semi-structured interviews, information was gathered on both partners' periods of exposure to Agent Orange, pregnancy outcomes, perceived health problems of children and experiences of living with handicapped children. The women had had a high number of miscarriages and premature births. About two-thirds of their children had congenital malformations or developed disabilities within the first years of life. Most of the families were poor, aggravated by impaired health in the men, the burden of caring for disabled children, and feelings of guilt and inferiority. The plight of 'Agent Orange families' is special and should be placed in its historical and political context.

  2. Agent Orange Exposure and Prevalence of Self-reported Diseases in Korean Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis. Conclusions Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure. PMID:24137524

  3. Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2014-08-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity

  4. Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2014-08-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity

  5. Agent Orange footprint still visible in rural areas of central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Banout, Jan; Urban, Ondrej; Musil, Vojtech; Szakova, Jirina; Balik, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals) were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam). This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968-1971). Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source.

  6. Science versus policy in establishing equitable Agent Orange disability compensation policy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark A

    2011-07-01

    This article makes the case that current Agent Orange compensation policy for Vietnam War veterans is based neither wholly upon scientific findings about Agent Orange health effects nor on pure public health policy considerations. Rather, it is the logical culmination of decades of experience among policy makers and public health scientists trying to establish clear-cut, equitable, and scientifically defensible compensation policy in the face of limited relevant science and poor or nonexistent exposure data-all within the broader context of Veterans Affairs disability compensation policies, and a deep-seated commitment to support the men and women who served their country during the Vietnam War. Finally, attempts to update current policy will benefit from an understanding of this background. PMID:21916328

  7. Agent Orange footprint still visible in rural areas of central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Banout, Jan; Urban, Ondrej; Musil, Vojtech; Szakova, Jirina; Balik, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals) were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam). This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968-1971). Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source. PMID:24639878

  8. Science versus policy in establishing equitable Agent Orange disability compensation policy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark A

    2011-07-01

    This article makes the case that current Agent Orange compensation policy for Vietnam War veterans is based neither wholly upon scientific findings about Agent Orange health effects nor on pure public health policy considerations. Rather, it is the logical culmination of decades of experience among policy makers and public health scientists trying to establish clear-cut, equitable, and scientifically defensible compensation policy in the face of limited relevant science and poor or nonexistent exposure data-all within the broader context of Veterans Affairs disability compensation policies, and a deep-seated commitment to support the men and women who served their country during the Vietnam War. Finally, attempts to update current policy will benefit from an understanding of this background.

  9. Agent Orange Footprint Still Visible in Rural Areas of Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Szakova, Jirina; Balik, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals) were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam). This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968–1971). Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source. PMID:24639878

  10. Immunotoxicological effects of Agent Orange exposure to the Vietnam War Korean veterans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Mi; Park, Yeong-Chul; Yu, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Seung-Kwon; Jeon, Seong-Hoon; Park, Kui-Lea; Hur, Sook-Jin; Heo, Yong

    2003-07-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) demonstrated using animals are thymic atrophy, downregulation of cytotoxic T or B lymphocyte differentiation or activation, whereas human immunotoxicities have not been investigated well. This study was undertaken to evaluate overall immunologic spectrum of the Vietnam War Korean veterans exposed to Agent Orange contaminated with TCDD. Quantity of red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit in the veterans suffered from chronic diseases associated with Agent Orange exposure (Veterans-patient group) were decreased in comparison with those of the veterans without the diseases and the age-matched healthy controls, but no differences in leukocyte populations. Plasma IgG levels were lowered in the veterans than the controls, owing to significant decrease in the IgG1 levels. Increase in the IgE levels was observed in the plasma from the veterans. Alteration of T cell-mediated immunity was also resulted from activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with polyclonal T cell activators. Production of IFNgamma, a major cytokine mediating host resistance against infection or tumoregenesis, was lowered in the veterans-patient group. However, production of IL-4 and IL-10, representative cytokines involved with hypersensitivity induction, was enhanced in the patient group. Overall, this study suggests that military service in Vietnam and/or Agent Orange exposure disturbs immune-homeostasis resulting in dysregulation of B and T cell activities. PMID:12916745

  11. Immunotoxicological effects of Agent Orange exposure to the Vietnam War Korean veterans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Mi; Park, Yeong-Chul; Yu, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Seung-Kwon; Jeon, Seong-Hoon; Park, Kui-Lea; Hur, Sook-Jin; Heo, Yong

    2003-07-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) demonstrated using animals are thymic atrophy, downregulation of cytotoxic T or B lymphocyte differentiation or activation, whereas human immunotoxicities have not been investigated well. This study was undertaken to evaluate overall immunologic spectrum of the Vietnam War Korean veterans exposed to Agent Orange contaminated with TCDD. Quantity of red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit in the veterans suffered from chronic diseases associated with Agent Orange exposure (Veterans-patient group) were decreased in comparison with those of the veterans without the diseases and the age-matched healthy controls, but no differences in leukocyte populations. Plasma IgG levels were lowered in the veterans than the controls, owing to significant decrease in the IgG1 levels. Increase in the IgE levels was observed in the plasma from the veterans. Alteration of T cell-mediated immunity was also resulted from activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with polyclonal T cell activators. Production of IFNgamma, a major cytokine mediating host resistance against infection or tumoregenesis, was lowered in the veterans-patient group. However, production of IL-4 and IL-10, representative cytokines involved with hypersensitivity induction, was enhanced in the patient group. Overall, this study suggests that military service in Vietnam and/or Agent Orange exposure disturbs immune-homeostasis resulting in dysregulation of B and T cell activities.

  12. Dioxin reservoirs in southern Viet Nam--a legacy of Agent Orange.

    PubMed

    Dwernychuk, L Wayne; Cau, Hoang Dinh; Hatfield, Christopher T; Boivin, Thomas G; Hung, Tran Manh; Dung, Phung Tri; Thai, Nguyen Dinh

    2002-04-01

    In the isolated Aluoi Valley of central Viet Nam, very high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were measured in soil, fish fat, duck fat, pooled human blood and breast milk samples collected from A So village between 1996 and 1999. The village was situated on a former military base occupied by US Special Forces between 1963 and 1966. TCDD was a contaminant of the herbicide "Agent Orange", aerially sprayed in the valley between 1965 and 1970, and stored at the A So base. Measured levels were lower near the sites of two other former US bases in the valley which had been occupied for shorter periods of time. In areas where Agent Orange had been applied by low-flying aircraft, levels of TCDD in soil, food and human samples were elevated, but lower than those near the three former US bases. We confirm the apparent food chain transfer of TCDD from contaminated soil to cultured fish pond sediments to fish and duck tissues, then to humans as measured in whole blood and breast milk. We theorize that the Aluoi Valley is a microcosm of southern Viet Nam, where numerous reservoirs of TCDD exist in the soil of former military installations south of the former demilitarized zone. Large quantities of Agent Orange were stored at many sites, used in ground and aerial applications, and spilled. TCDD, through various forms of soil disturbance, can be mobilized from these reservoirs after decades below the surface, and subsequently, introduced into the human food chain.

  13. Dioxin reservoirs in southern Viet Nam--a legacy of Agent Orange.

    PubMed

    Dwernychuk, L Wayne; Cau, Hoang Dinh; Hatfield, Christopher T; Boivin, Thomas G; Hung, Tran Manh; Dung, Phung Tri; Thai, Nguyen Dinh

    2002-04-01

    In the isolated Aluoi Valley of central Viet Nam, very high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were measured in soil, fish fat, duck fat, pooled human blood and breast milk samples collected from A So village between 1996 and 1999. The village was situated on a former military base occupied by US Special Forces between 1963 and 1966. TCDD was a contaminant of the herbicide "Agent Orange", aerially sprayed in the valley between 1965 and 1970, and stored at the A So base. Measured levels were lower near the sites of two other former US bases in the valley which had been occupied for shorter periods of time. In areas where Agent Orange had been applied by low-flying aircraft, levels of TCDD in soil, food and human samples were elevated, but lower than those near the three former US bases. We confirm the apparent food chain transfer of TCDD from contaminated soil to cultured fish pond sediments to fish and duck tissues, then to humans as measured in whole blood and breast milk. We theorize that the Aluoi Valley is a microcosm of southern Viet Nam, where numerous reservoirs of TCDD exist in the soil of former military installations south of the former demilitarized zone. Large quantities of Agent Orange were stored at many sites, used in ground and aerial applications, and spilled. TCDD, through various forms of soil disturbance, can be mobilized from these reservoirs after decades below the surface, and subsequently, introduced into the human food chain. PMID:11993628

  14. Agent Orange Exposure and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) in Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Scialli, Anthony R; Watkins, Deborah K; Ginevan, Michael E

    2015-06-01

    Agent Orange was sprayed in parts of southern Vietnam during the U.S.-Vietnam war and was a mixture of two chlorophenoxy herbicides. The mixture was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD and other dioxins and furans are measurable in the milk of Vietnamese women. We explored whether the TCDD in milk from these women was from Agent Orange and whether lactational exposure can be a mode of transgenerational effects of TCDD from Agent Orange. A review of the world's literature on milk concentrations of polychlorinated compounds showed the presence of TCDD and other dioxins and furans in all countries that have been assessed. The congener profile of these chemicals, that is, the proportion of different congeners in the sample, can be used to assess the source of milk contamination. Measurements in most countries, including contemporary measurements in Vietnam, are consistent with non-Agent Orange exposure sources, including industrial activities and incineration of waste. Models and supporting human data suggest that TCDD from breastfeeding does not persist in a child past adolescence and that the adult body burden of TCDD is independent of whether the individual was breast- or bottle-fed as a child. These findings suggest that exposure to Agent Orange in Vietnam did not result in persistent transgenerational exposure through human milk.

  15. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar PCB levels in Laotian blood and milk from agent orange-sprayed and nonsprayed areas, 2001.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-11-14

    Agent Orange, a phenoxyherbicide contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), was used by American military forces during the United States-Vietnam war between 1962 and 1971 primarily as a defoliant to destroy forests where enemy troops might find cover. Agent Orange was used mainly in Vietnam, but also to a lesser extent in Laos and Cambodia. In Laos, there have been no prior studies of TCDD contamination from Agent Orange, despite known defoliation and documented records of Agent Orange spraying. This article presents findings of TCDD in human blood and milk from two geographic areas in Laos: Vientiane, a nonsprayed area, and Sepone, an Agent Orange-sprayed area. German and Canadian laboratories used high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 7 dioxin, 10 dibenzofuran, and 4 non-ortho or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in Laotian blood and milk samples. Most subjects tested in this Laos Ministry of Health Study showed low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels, consistent with what would be expected in a primarily rural nonindustrial country. These findings are consistent with relatively low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels recently found in food from these same areas. The chemically and toxicologically related non-ortho PCBs were measured but were found at low levels compared to specimens from other countries, presumably because of less industrialization and industrial pollution in Laos. PMID:14555402

  16. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar PCB levels in Laotian blood and milk from agent orange-sprayed and nonsprayed areas, 2001.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-11-14

    Agent Orange, a phenoxyherbicide contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), was used by American military forces during the United States-Vietnam war between 1962 and 1971 primarily as a defoliant to destroy forests where enemy troops might find cover. Agent Orange was used mainly in Vietnam, but also to a lesser extent in Laos and Cambodia. In Laos, there have been no prior studies of TCDD contamination from Agent Orange, despite known defoliation and documented records of Agent Orange spraying. This article presents findings of TCDD in human blood and milk from two geographic areas in Laos: Vientiane, a nonsprayed area, and Sepone, an Agent Orange-sprayed area. German and Canadian laboratories used high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 7 dioxin, 10 dibenzofuran, and 4 non-ortho or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in Laotian blood and milk samples. Most subjects tested in this Laos Ministry of Health Study showed low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels, consistent with what would be expected in a primarily rural nonindustrial country. These findings are consistent with relatively low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels recently found in food from these same areas. The chemically and toxicologically related non-ortho PCBs were measured but were found at low levels compared to specimens from other countries, presumably because of less industrialization and industrial pollution in Laos.

  17. Agent Orange Exposure and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) in Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Scialli, Anthony R; Watkins, Deborah K; Ginevan, Michael E

    2015-06-01

    Agent Orange was sprayed in parts of southern Vietnam during the U.S.-Vietnam war and was a mixture of two chlorophenoxy herbicides. The mixture was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD and other dioxins and furans are measurable in the milk of Vietnamese women. We explored whether the TCDD in milk from these women was from Agent Orange and whether lactational exposure can be a mode of transgenerational effects of TCDD from Agent Orange. A review of the world's literature on milk concentrations of polychlorinated compounds showed the presence of TCDD and other dioxins and furans in all countries that have been assessed. The congener profile of these chemicals, that is, the proportion of different congeners in the sample, can be used to assess the source of milk contamination. Measurements in most countries, including contemporary measurements in Vietnam, are consistent with non-Agent Orange exposure sources, including industrial activities and incineration of waste. Models and supporting human data suggest that TCDD from breastfeeding does not persist in a child past adolescence and that the adult body burden of TCDD is independent of whether the individual was breast- or bottle-fed as a child. These findings suggest that exposure to Agent Orange in Vietnam did not result in persistent transgenerational exposure through human milk. PMID:26195119

  18. Desmoplastic small round-cell tumor: an adult with previous exposure to agent orange.

    PubMed

    Baz, Walid; El-Soueidi, Raymond; Nakhl, Fadi; Aoun, Nelly; Chin, Nena; Dhar, Meeko

    2010-06-01

    Desmoplastic small round-cell tumor is an uncommon, highly aggressive tumor with a predilection for pediatric age groups and young adults. It is very unusual in the elderly population. Although Agent Orange has been associated with soft-tissue sarcoma, an association with desmoplastic small round-cell tumor has not been reported. A 52-year-old male presented with abdominal distention, dyspnea, and a 9 kg weight loss. Prior history was significant for hepatitis C and diabetes. He was a Vietnam veteran and he admitted being exposed to Agent Orange. On physical examination, the abdomen was distended and tense. Computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis demonstrated extensive mediastinal and retroperitoneal adenopathy, diffuse omental masses and extensive pleural, intra-abdominal and pelvic ascites. Omental core needle biopsy was consistent with desmoplastic small round-cell tumor based on morphology and immunohistochemistry. He responded poorly to chemotherapy with high-dose cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and vincristine and died 5 months after presentation secondary to neutropenic sepsis despite G-CSF support and antibiotics. PMID:20382635

  19. The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Stellman, Jeanne Mager; Stellman, Steven D; Christian, Richard; Weber, Tracy; Tomasallo, Carrie

    2003-04-17

    Herbicides including Agent Orange were sprayed by United States forces for military purposes during the Vietnam War (1961-1971) at a rate more than an order of magnitude greater than for similar domestic weed control. In 1974, the US National Academy of Sciences published estimates of the extent and distribution of herbicides sprayed. Here we present revised estimates, developed using more-complete data. The spray inventory is expanded by more than seven million litres, in particular with heavily dioxin-contaminated herbicides. Estimates for the amount of dioxin sprayed are almost doubled. Hamlet census data reveal that millions of Vietnamese were likely to have been sprayed upon directly. Our identification of specific military herbicide targets has led to a more coherent understanding of spraying. Common errors in earlier interpretations of the spray data are also discussed. PMID:12700752

  20. The Effects of Glucose Therapy Agents-Apple Juice, Orange Juice, and Cola-on Enteral Tube Flow and Patency.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Daphna J; Montreuil, Jasmine; Santoro, Andrea L; Zettas, Antonia; Lowe, Julia

    2016-06-01

    To develop evidence-based hypoglycemia treatment protocols in patients receiving total enteral nutrition, this study determined the effect on enteral tube flow of glucose therapy agents: apple juice, orange juice, and cola, and it also examined the effects of tube type and feed type with these glucose therapy agents. For this study, 12 gastrostomy tubes (6 polyethylene and 6 silicone) were set at 50 mL/h. Each feeding set was filled with Isosource HN with fibre or Novasource Renal. Each tube was irrigated with 1 glucose therapy agent, providing approximately 20 g of carbohydrate every 4 h. Flow-rate measurements were collected at 2 h intervals. The results showed that the glucose therapy agent choice affected flow rates: apple juice and cola had higher average flow rates than orange juice (P = 0.01). A significant difference was found between tube type and enteral formula: polyethylene tubes had higher average flow rates than silicone tubes (P < 0.0001), and Isosource HN with fibre had higher flow rates than Novasource Renal (P = 0.01). We concluded that apple juice and cola have less tube clogging potential than orange juice, and thus may be considered as primary treatment options for hypoglycemia in enterally fed patients. Polyethylene tubes and Isosource HN with fibre were less likely to clog than silicone tubes and Novasource Renal.

  1. The impact of Agent Orange exposure on presentation and prognosis of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Baumann Kreuziger, Lisa M; Tarchand, Gobind; Morrison, Vicki A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to Agent Orange (AO) and the contaminating chemical 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) has been associated with the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Of the 195 veterans diagnosed with CLL from 2001 to 2010 in a retrospective cohort from the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 33 (17%) were exposed to AO. Prognostic factors including Rai stage, lymphocyte doubling time and cytogenetics did not differ between exposed and unexposed patients. Exposed patients were younger at diagnosis (61 vs. 72 years, p < 0.0001) and time to CLL treatment was shorter (9.6 vs. 30.2 months, p = 0.02). Overall survival did not differ between exposed and unexposed patients on Kaplan-Meier analysis, but when adjusted for age, AO exposure had a hazard ratio of death of 1.8 compared to non-exposure (95% confidence interval 0.7-4.5, p = 0.24). The high estimate of the mortality hazard combined with the relatively low numbers in the exposure group suggests that further examination in a larger patient population is warranted. PMID:23573826

  2. Exposure to TCDD from base perimeter application of Agent Orange in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ross, John H; Hewitt, Andrew; Armitage, James; Solomon, Keith; Watkins, Deborah K; Ginevan, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    Using recognized methods routinely employed by pesticide regulatory agencies, the exposures of military personnel that were mixer/loader/applicators (M/L/A) of Agent Orange (AO) for perimeter foliage at bases during the Vietnam War were estimated. From the fraction of TCDD in AO, absorbed dosage of the manufacturing contaminant was estimated. Dermal exposure estimated from spray drift to residents of the bases was calculated using internationally recognized software that accounted for proximity, foliar density of application site, droplet size and wind speed among other factors, and produced estimates of deposition. Those that directly handled AO generally had much higher exposures than those further from the areas of use. The differences in exposure potential varied by M/L/A activity, but were typically orders of magnitude greater than bystanders. However, even the most-exposed M/L/A involved in perimeter application had lifetime exposures comparable to persons living in the U.S. at the time, i.e., ~1.3 to 5 pg TCDD/kg bodyweight. PMID:25531592

  3. Exposure to TCDD from base perimeter application of Agent Orange in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ross, John H; Hewitt, Andrew; Armitage, James; Solomon, Keith; Watkins, Deborah K; Ginevan, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    Using recognized methods routinely employed by pesticide regulatory agencies, the exposures of military personnel that were mixer/loader/applicators (M/L/A) of Agent Orange (AO) for perimeter foliage at bases during the Vietnam War were estimated. From the fraction of TCDD in AO, absorbed dosage of the manufacturing contaminant was estimated. Dermal exposure estimated from spray drift to residents of the bases was calculated using internationally recognized software that accounted for proximity, foliar density of application site, droplet size and wind speed among other factors, and produced estimates of deposition. Those that directly handled AO generally had much higher exposures than those further from the areas of use. The differences in exposure potential varied by M/L/A activity, but were typically orders of magnitude greater than bystanders. However, even the most-exposed M/L/A involved in perimeter application had lifetime exposures comparable to persons living in the U.S. at the time, i.e., ~1.3 to 5 pg TCDD/kg bodyweight.

  4. The impact of Agent Orange exposure on presentation and prognosis of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Baumann Kreuziger, Lisa M; Tarchand, Gobind; Morrison, Vicki A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to Agent Orange (AO) and the contaminating chemical 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) has been associated with the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Of the 195 veterans diagnosed with CLL from 2001 to 2010 in a retrospective cohort from the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 33 (17%) were exposed to AO. Prognostic factors including Rai stage, lymphocyte doubling time and cytogenetics did not differ between exposed and unexposed patients. Exposed patients were younger at diagnosis (61 vs. 72 years, p < 0.0001) and time to CLL treatment was shorter (9.6 vs. 30.2 months, p = 0.02). Overall survival did not differ between exposed and unexposed patients on Kaplan-Meier analysis, but when adjusted for age, AO exposure had a hazard ratio of death of 1.8 compared to non-exposure (95% confidence interval 0.7-4.5, p = 0.24). The high estimate of the mortality hazard combined with the relatively low numbers in the exposure group suggests that further examination in a larger patient population is warranted.

  5. Optimization of isolation of cellulose from orange peel using sodium hydroxide and chelating agents.

    PubMed

    Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

    2013-10-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize cellulose recovery from orange peel using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as isolation reagent, and to minimize its ash content using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent. The independent variables were NaOH charge, EDTA charge and cooking time. Other two constant parameters were cooking temperature (98 °C) and liquid-to-solid ratio (7.5). The dependent variables were cellulose yield and ash content. A second-order polynomial model was used for plotting response surfaces and for determining optimum cooking conditions. The analysis of coefficient values for independent variables in the regression equation showed that NaOH and EDTA charges were major factors influencing the cellulose yield and ash content, respectively. Optimum conditions were defined by: NaOH charge 38.2%, EDTA charge 9.56%, and cooking time 317 min. The predicted cellulose yield was 24.06% and ash content 0.69%. A good agreement between the experimental values and the predicted was observed.

  6. External Qi therapy to treat symptoms of Agent Orange Sequelae in Korean combat veterans of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Woo, Won-Hong; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Hong, Sung-Soo; Kim, Hye-Jung; Moon, Sun-Rock

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of Qi therapy as a non-pharmacological treatment for various symptoms presented by Korean combat veterans of the Vietnam War with Agent Orange Sequelae. Nine subjects volunteered to receive 30 minutes of Qi therapy, twice per day for 7 days. There was marked improvement in 89% of the patients with impaired physical activity, 86% of those with psychological disorder, 78% of those with heavy drug use, and 67% of those with fatigue, indigestion and high blood glucose levels. This data suggests that Qi therapy combined with conventional treatment has positive effects in reducing and managing the pain, psychosomatic disorders, and substance abuse in patients with Agent Orange Sequelae. We cannot completely discount the possible influence of the placebo effect, and more objective, clinical measures are needed to study the long-term effects of Qi therapy.

  7. External Qi therapy to treat symptoms of Agent Orange Sequelae in Korean combat veterans of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Woo, Won-Hong; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Hong, Sung-Soo; Kim, Hye-Jung; Moon, Sun-Rock

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of Qi therapy as a non-pharmacological treatment for various symptoms presented by Korean combat veterans of the Vietnam War with Agent Orange Sequelae. Nine subjects volunteered to receive 30 minutes of Qi therapy, twice per day for 7 days. There was marked improvement in 89% of the patients with impaired physical activity, 86% of those with psychological disorder, 78% of those with heavy drug use, and 67% of those with fatigue, indigestion and high blood glucose levels. This data suggests that Qi therapy combined with conventional treatment has positive effects in reducing and managing the pain, psychosomatic disorders, and substance abuse in patients with Agent Orange Sequelae. We cannot completely discount the possible influence of the placebo effect, and more objective, clinical measures are needed to study the long-term effects of Qi therapy. PMID:15344429

  8. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in blood and adipose tissue of Agent Orange-exposed Vietnam veterans and matched controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, P.C.; Gochfeld, M.; Nygren, M.; Hansson, M.; Rappe, C.; Velez, H.; Ghent-Guenther, T.; Wilson, W.P.

    1988-03-18

    Vietnam veterans who were heavily exposed to Agent Orange exceeded matched control subjects in both blood and adipose tissue levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) but not in the levels of the 12 other 2,3,7,8-substituted dioxins and dibenzofurans that were detected. Since only TCDD among these compounds was present in Agent Orange but all are present in the population of the industrialized world, it is likely that the elevated TCDD levels arose from wartime exposure. The high correlation (r = +.89) of blood with adipose tissue level suggests that there may be a mobile equilibrium between them and that blood measurement could replace adipose tissue measurement of TCDD levels, making the collection of human data less invasive.

  9. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided.

  10. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided. PMID:25510612

  11. Clinical Outcome of Veterans with Acute Coronary Syndrome Who Had Been Exposed to Agent Orange

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Bum; Moon, Se Gwon; Kim, Hee Jong; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Hwang, Sun Ho; Kim, Wan

    2012-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), one of the components of Agent Orange, has been reported to be a deadly poison despite its presence at extremely small doses. TCDD is reported to cause various kinds of cancers and other harmful effects on humans. However, a correlation between exposure to TCDD and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is not yet proven. Thus, we examined the correlation between exposure to TCDD and ACS through an analysis of coronary angiograms from veterans of the Vietnam War. Two hundred fifty-one consecutive men undergoing coronary angiograms owing to ACS between April 2004 and May 2009 at Gwangju Veterans Hospital were analyzed. Included subjects were between 50 and 70 years of age. The patients were divided into two groups: 121 patients who had been exposed to TCDD (Group I) and 130 patients who had not been exposed to TCDD (Group II). Clinical and coronary angiographic findings were evaluated. Baseline clinical characteristics, inflammatory markers, and echocardiographic parameters were not significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of hypertension (71.1% vs. 60.0%, p=0.039) and hyperlipidemia (27.3% vs. 16.9%, p=0.038) was higher in Group I than in Group II. Total occlusion, stent length, stent use, and coronary lesion characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) had no relationship with exposure to TCDD. Exposure to TCDD might not affect severity or the rate of MACE in persons with ACS. PMID:22570815

  12. Paternal exposure to Agent Orange and spina bifida: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh Duc; Taylor, Richard; Roberts, Christine L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies that examine the association between Agent Orange (AO) exposure and the risk of spina bifida. Relevant studies were identified through a computerized literature search of Medline and Embase from 1966 to 2008; a review of the reference list of retrieved articles and conference proceedings; and by contacting researchers for unpublished studies. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to pool the results of individual studies. The Cochrane Q test and index of heterogeneity (I(2)) were used to evaluate heterogeneity, and a funnel plot and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Seven studies, including two Vietnamese and five non-Vietnamese studies, involving 330 cases and 134,884 non-cases were included in the meta-analysis. The overall relative risk (RR) for spina bifida associated with paternal exposure to AO was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48-2.74), with no statistical evidence of heterogeneity across studies. Non-Vietnamese studies showed a slightly higher summary RR (RR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.38-3.56) than Vietnamese studies (RR = 1.92 95% CI: 1.29-2.86). When analyzed separately, the overall association was statistically significant for the three case-control studies (Summary Odds Ratio = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.31-3.86) and the cross sectional study (RR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31-2.96), but not for the three cohort studies (RR: 2.11; 95% CI: 0.78-5.73). Paternal exposure to AO appears to be associated with a statistically increased risk of spina bifida. PMID:19894129

  13. Natural selection for 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralizing bacteria in agent orange contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Rice, J F; Menn, F M; Hay, A G; Sanseverino, J; Sayler, G S

    2005-12-01

    Agent Orange contaminated soils were utilized in direct enrichment culture studies to isolate 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) mineralizing bacteria. Two bacterial cultures able to grow at the expense of 2,4,5-T and/or 2,4-D were isolated. The 2,4,5-T degrading culture was a mixed culture containing two bacteria, Burkholderia species strain JR7B2 and Burkholderia species strain JR7B3. JR7B3 was able to metabolize 2,4,5-T as the sole source of carbon and energy, and demonstrated the ability to affect metabolism of 2,4-D to a lesser degree. Strain JR7B3 was able to mineralize 2,4,5-T in pure culture and utilized 2,4,5-T in the presence of 0.01% yeast extract. Subsequent characterization of the 2,4-D degrading culture showed that one bacterium, Burkholderia species strain JRB1, was able to utilize 2,4-D as a sole carbon and energy source in pure culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments utilizing known genetic sequences from other 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T degrading bacteria demonstrated that these organisms contain gene sequences similar to tfdA, B, C, E, and R (Strain JRB1) and the tftA, C, and E genes (Strain JR7B3). Expression analysis confirmed that tftA, C, and E and tfdA, B, and C were transcribed during 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D dependent growth, respectively. The results indicate a strong selective pressure for 2,4,5-T utilizing strains under field condition. PMID:15865343

  14. Clinical outcome of veterans with acute coronary syndrome who had been exposed to agent orange.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Bum; Kang, Won Yu; Moon, Se Gwon; Kim, Hee Jong; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Hwang, Sun Ho; Kim, Wan

    2012-04-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), one of the components of Agent Orange, has been reported to be a deadly poison despite its presence at extremely small doses. TCDD is reported to cause various kinds of cancers and other harmful effects on humans. However, a correlation between exposure to TCDD and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is not yet proven. Thus, we examined the correlation between exposure to TCDD and ACS through an analysis of coronary angiograms from veterans of the Vietnam War. Two hundred fifty-one consecutive men undergoing coronary angiograms owing to ACS between April 2004 and May 2009 at Gwangju Veterans Hospital were analyzed. Included subjects were between 50 and 70 years of age. The patients were divided into two groups: 121 patients who had been exposed to TCDD (Group I) and 130 patients who had not been exposed to TCDD (Group II). Clinical and coronary angiographic findings were evaluated. Baseline clinical characteristics, inflammatory markers, and echocardiographic parameters were not significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of hypertension (71.1% vs. 60.0%, p=0.039) and hyperlipidemia (27.3% vs. 16.9%, p=0.038) was higher in Group I than in Group II. Total occlusion, stent length, stent use, and coronary lesion characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) had no relationship with exposure to TCDD. Exposure to TCDD might not affect severity or the rate of MACE in persons with ACS. PMID:22570815

  15. Natural selection for 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralizing bacteria in agent orange contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Rice, J F; Menn, F M; Hay, A G; Sanseverino, J; Sayler, G S

    2005-12-01

    Agent Orange contaminated soils were utilized in direct enrichment culture studies to isolate 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) mineralizing bacteria. Two bacterial cultures able to grow at the expense of 2,4,5-T and/or 2,4-D were isolated. The 2,4,5-T degrading culture was a mixed culture containing two bacteria, Burkholderia species strain JR7B2 and Burkholderia species strain JR7B3. JR7B3 was able to metabolize 2,4,5-T as the sole source of carbon and energy, and demonstrated the ability to affect metabolism of 2,4-D to a lesser degree. Strain JR7B3 was able to mineralize 2,4,5-T in pure culture and utilized 2,4,5-T in the presence of 0.01% yeast extract. Subsequent characterization of the 2,4-D degrading culture showed that one bacterium, Burkholderia species strain JRB1, was able to utilize 2,4-D as a sole carbon and energy source in pure culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments utilizing known genetic sequences from other 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T degrading bacteria demonstrated that these organisms contain gene sequences similar to tfdA, B, C, E, and R (Strain JRB1) and the tftA, C, and E genes (Strain JR7B3). Expression analysis confirmed that tftA, C, and E and tfdA, B, and C were transcribed during 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D dependent growth, respectively. The results indicate a strong selective pressure for 2,4,5-T utilizing strains under field condition.

  16. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in food from Agent Orange-sprayed and nonsprayed areas of Laos.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Malisch, Rainer; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-11-28

    During the Vietnam War, a phenoxy-herbicide mixture called Agent Orange, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, or TCDD, was used primarily for destruction of forest and other foliage in order to prevent enemy troop movement and protect American and allied troops and military bases in the south of Vietnam. Smaller areas of Laos and Cambodia were also sprayed with Agent Orange between 1962 and 1971 from fixed-wing aircraft. In 2001, 28 food samples consisting of meat, fish, and dairy products were collected in sprayed and nonsprayed areas of Laos and analyzed for dioxins, dioxinlike dibenzofurans, and selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry at laboratories in Germany and Canada. Low levels of dioxin and other dioxinlike substances were found in Laotian food, similar to levels present in recent exported Vietnamese food to United States. Vietnam is geographically adjacent to Laos. Total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels were similar in samples from sprayed and non-sprayed areas, ranging from 0.009 to 0.851 pg/g or parts per trillion (ppt) in sprayed Sepone, and from 0.022 to 0.537 pg/g or ppt wet weight in non sprayed Vientiane. However, the Laotian fish samples from the Agent Orange-sprayed area had, on average, a higher proportion of total TEQ from TCDD (31.7% vs. 9.4%) compared to the nonsprayed area. Some other food items, duck eggs and pork liver from Sepone, also had severalfold higher TCDD levels than similar food samples from Vientiane, 0.029 vs. 0.011 pg/g and 0.070 vs. 0.004 pg/g wet weight, respectively. There were no substantial differences in levels of dibenzofuran and PCB congeners. In general, elevated TCDD levels were not found in Laotian food samples. It is possible that dioxin-contaminated areas, or "hot spots," exist in Laos as they do in Vietnam, although they have not yet been identified. PMID:14710598

  17. Specter orange.

    PubMed

    Scott-Clark, Cathy; Levy, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    Nearly 30 years after the Vietnam War, a chemical weapon used by U.S. troops is still exacting a hideous toll on each new generation in Vietnam. The dioxin (TCCD) that contaminated the herbicide Agent Orange is one of the most toxic molecules known to science. The contaminant persists in the soil. The United States has done nothing to combat the medical and environmental catastrophe that is overwhelming the country. PMID:15346687

  18. Modification of carotenoid levels by abscission agents and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in 'valencia' sweet orange.

    PubMed

    Alferez, Fernando; Pozo, Luis V; Rouseff, Russell R; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2013-03-27

    The effect of 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) and ethephon on peel color, flavedo carotenoid gene expression, and carotenoid accumulation was investigated in mature 'Valencia' orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit flavedo at three maturation stages. Abscission agent application altered peel color. CMNP was more effective than ethephon in promoting green-to-red (a) and blue-to-yellow (b) color at the middle and late maturation stages and total carotenoid changes at all maturation stages. Altered flow of carotenoid precursors during maturation due to abscission agents was suggested by changes in phytoene desaturase (Pds) and ζ-carotene desaturase (Zds) gene expression. However, each abscission agent affected downstream expression differentially. Ethephon application increased β-carotene hydroxilase (β-Chx) transcript accumulation 12-fold as maturation advanced from the early to middle and late stages. CMNP markedly increased β- and ε-lycopene cyclase (Lcy) transcript accumulation 45- and 15-fold, respectively, at midmaturation. Patterns of carotenoid accumulation in flavedo were supported in part by gene expression changes. CMNP caused greater accumulation of total flavedo carotenoids at all maturation stages when compared with ethephon or controls. In general, CMNP treatment increased total red carotenoids more than ethephon or the control but decreased total yellow carotenoids at each maturation stage. In control fruit flavedo, total red carotenoids increased and yellow carotenoids decreased as maturation progressed. Trends in total red carotenoids during maturation were consistent with measured a values. Changes in carotenoid accumulation and expression patterns in flavedo suggest that regulation of carotenoid accumulation is under transcriptional, translational, and post-translational control.

  19. Is exposure to Agent Orange a risk factor for hepatocellular cancer?—A single-center retrospective study in the U.S. veteran population

    PubMed Central

    Hazratjee, Nyla; Opris, Dan; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Markert, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 15% to 35% of those with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) related cirrhosis will develop hepatocellular cancer (HCC). With this burden increasing across the globe, identification of risk factors for HCC has become imperative. Exposure to Agent Orange has been implicated as a possible risk factor for liver cancer in a study from the Republic of Korea. However, there has been no study in U.S. veterans with CHC and cirrhosis that has evaluated exposure to Agent Orange as a risk factor for HCC. We conducted a retrospective study of U.S. military veterans diagnosed with CHC and cirrhosis over a period of 14 years to evaluate potential risk factors for HCC including exposure to Agent Orange. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 390 patients with confirmed CHC-related cirrhosis between 2000 and 2013 and identified patients with HCC. We compared demographic, laboratory, and other clinical characteristics of patients with and without HCC. Results The mean age of the cohort was 51 years (SD =7.5), with the majority being male (98.5%). Seventy-nine of 390 (20.2%) patients developed HCC, diagnosed on average 8 (SD =4.8) years after diagnosis of CHC. Nearly half (49.4%) were Childs A, 40.5% were Childs B, and 10.1% were Childs C. HCC patients were more likely to be African American than non-HCC patients (40.5% vs. 25.4%, P=0.009) and to be addicted to alcohol (86.1% vs. 74.3%, P=0.027). A trend toward significance was seen in the HCC group for exposure to Agent Orange (16.5% vs. 10.0%, P=0.10) and smoking addiction (88.6% vs. 80.7%, P=0.10). Consequently, race, alcohol addiction, Agent Orange exposure, and smoking addiction were included in the multivariable logistic regression (MLR) analysis. Alcohol addiction [odds ratio (OR) =2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07–4.43] and African American race (OR =2.07; 95% CI, 1.22–3.51) were found to be the only two definitive independent risk factors for HCC in our sample. Conclusions African American race and

  20. Handler, bystander and reentry exposure to TCDD from application of Agent Orange by C-123 aircraft during the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Ross, John H; Hewitt, Andrew; Armitage, James; Solomon, Keith; Watkins, Deborah K; Ginevan, Michael E

    2015-02-01

    Using validated models and methods routinely employed by pesticide regulatory agencies, the absorbed dosages of Agent Orange (AO) herbicide contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were estimated for mixer/loaders, applicators, and individuals in the vicinity of applications of AO by C-123 aircraft during the Vietnam War. Resulting dosages of TCDD were then transformed to estimates of adipose residues, and compared to population biomonitoring of known mixer/loaders and applicators as well as ground troops in Vietnam and civilians in the U.S. Results demonstrate that mixer/loaders and applicators had the greatest exposures and their measured residues of TCDD in adipose were consistent with the estimated exposures. Further, the potentially exposed ground troops, including those who could have been directly sprayed during aerial defoliation, had measured adipose residues that were consistent with those in civilian U.S. populations with no defined source of exposure exposures and both of those cohorts had orders of magnitude less exposure than the mixer/loaders or applicators. Despite the availability of validated exposure modeling methods for decades, the quantitative TCDD dose estimates presented here are the first of their kind for the Vietnam conflict.

  1. Predictors for dioxin accumulation in residents living in Da Nang and Bien Hoa, Vietnam, many years after Agent Orange use.

    PubMed

    Pham, Diem T; Nguyen, Hang M; Boivin, Thomas G; Zajacova, Anna; Huzurbazar, Snehalata V; Bergman, Harold L

    2015-01-01

    Agent Orange (AO) was the main defoliant used by the US in Vietnam from 1961 to 1971; AO was contaminated with dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD). Three major dioxin “hot spots” remain from previous AO storage and use at former US bases at Bien Hoa, Da Nang, and Phu Cat, posing potential health risks for Vietnamese living on or near these hot spots. We evaluated potential risk factors contributing to serum TCDD levels in Vietnamese residents at and near contaminated sites in Da Nang and Bien Hoa, Vietnam. We used multiple linear regression to analyze possible associations of blood dioxin concentrations with demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and dietary risk factors for residents living on or near these hot spots. For the Da Nang study, fish farming on the site, living on property flooded from monsoon rains, and age were among the factors showing significant positive associations with serum TCDD concentrations. For the Bien Hoa study, fish farmers working at this site and their immediate family members had significantly higher serum TCDD concentrations. Our results suggest that water-related activities, especially fish-farming, at the hot spots increased the risk of exposure to dioxin. PMID:25463251

  2. Predictors for dioxin accumulation in residents living in Da Nang and Bien Hoa, Vietnam, many years after Agent Orange use.

    PubMed

    Pham, Diem T; Nguyen, Hang M; Boivin, Thomas G; Zajacova, Anna; Huzurbazar, Snehalata V; Bergman, Harold L

    2015-01-01

    Agent Orange (AO) was the main defoliant used by the US in Vietnam from 1961 to 1971; AO was contaminated with dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD). Three major dioxin “hot spots” remain from previous AO storage and use at former US bases at Bien Hoa, Da Nang, and Phu Cat, posing potential health risks for Vietnamese living on or near these hot spots. We evaluated potential risk factors contributing to serum TCDD levels in Vietnamese residents at and near contaminated sites in Da Nang and Bien Hoa, Vietnam. We used multiple linear regression to analyze possible associations of blood dioxin concentrations with demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and dietary risk factors for residents living on or near these hot spots. For the Da Nang study, fish farming on the site, living on property flooded from monsoon rains, and age were among the factors showing significant positive associations with serum TCDD concentrations. For the Bien Hoa study, fish farmers working at this site and their immediate family members had significantly higher serum TCDD concentrations. Our results suggest that water-related activities, especially fish-farming, at the hot spots increased the risk of exposure to dioxin.

  3. Handler, bystander and reentry exposure to TCDD from application of Agent Orange by C-123 aircraft during the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Ross, John H; Hewitt, Andrew; Armitage, James; Solomon, Keith; Watkins, Deborah K; Ginevan, Michael E

    2015-02-01

    Using validated models and methods routinely employed by pesticide regulatory agencies, the absorbed dosages of Agent Orange (AO) herbicide contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were estimated for mixer/loaders, applicators, and individuals in the vicinity of applications of AO by C-123 aircraft during the Vietnam War. Resulting dosages of TCDD were then transformed to estimates of adipose residues, and compared to population biomonitoring of known mixer/loaders and applicators as well as ground troops in Vietnam and civilians in the U.S. Results demonstrate that mixer/loaders and applicators had the greatest exposures and their measured residues of TCDD in adipose were consistent with the estimated exposures. Further, the potentially exposed ground troops, including those who could have been directly sprayed during aerial defoliation, had measured adipose residues that were consistent with those in civilian U.S. populations with no defined source of exposure exposures and both of those cohorts had orders of magnitude less exposure than the mixer/loaders or applicators. Despite the availability of validated exposure modeling methods for decades, the quantitative TCDD dose estimates presented here are the first of their kind for the Vietnam conflict. PMID:25461054

  4. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: Psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Robinowitz, R.; Roberts, W.R.; Dolan, M.P.; Patterson, E.T.; Charles, H.L.; Atkins, H.G.; Penk, W.E. )

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience.

  5. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Robinowitz, R; Roberts, W R; Dolan, M P; Patterson, E T; Charles, H L; Atkins, H G; Penk, W E

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, "What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination?" The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience. PMID:2808727

  6. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Robinowitz, R; Roberts, W R; Dolan, M P; Patterson, E T; Charles, H L; Atkins, H G; Penk, W E

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, "What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination?" The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience.

  7. Agent Orange. Update.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, L G

    1983-12-01

    Review of the available literature on dioxin over the last several years is reported. There has been considerable writing on the subject, but extraction of true scientific data from emotionalism and sensationalism remains difficult. We must continue to remain alert to potential hazards stemming from this herbicidal chemical and await more definitive and conclusive studies than have been published to date. PMID:6364790

  8. Insulin sensitivity following agent orange exposure in Vietnam veterans with high blood levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Kern, Philip A; Said, Sufyan; Jackson, William G; Michalek, Joel E

    2004-09-01

    Our objective was to determine whether insulin sensitivity was related to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange. Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for spraying Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971, and comparison veterans who did not spray herbicides were included. We measured insulin sensitivity (S(I)) using a frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test in a matched study of 29 matched pairs of veterans and a quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) based on fasting glucose and insulin in 71 matched pairs. No group differences were found with regard to the mean values of S(I), QUICKI, TNFalpha, adiponectin, and two measures of insulin secretion. However, S(I) and QUICKI decreased significantly with regard to TCDD (P = 0.01 and 0.02). A corresponding pattern (although not significant) was found for blood levels of TNFalpha and adiponectin. These data suggest that high blood TCDD levels may promote an insulin-resistant state, but the magnitude of this effect appeared to be small, such that an 18-fold increase in blood TCDD due to increased exposure resulted in only a 10% change in S(I) in the 29 matched pairs. PMID:15356078

  9. Comparison of serum levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin with indirect estimates of Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam veterans. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The report tests the validity of several indirect methods for estimating the exposure of ground troops to Agent Orange in Vietnam during 1966-69. The study identified a sample of U.S. Army Vietnam veterans of that era and asked them to have blood drawn so that the level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin (TCDD) in serum could be measured. These veterans were selected from among those who served in 65 combat battalions in III Corps, a heavily sprayed part of Vietnam around Saigon. The men selected had all served only one tour in Vietnam and had been discharged with a pay grade of E1-E5, after having spent, on the average, over 300 days in Vietnam. The sample was chosen after the veterans had been stratified on likelihood of exposure (time and space proximity to recorded sprays) according to military records. For comparison, a sample of non-Vietnam U.S. Army veterans of the same era was also examined. The results show no meaningful association between TCDD levels and indirect estimate of Agent Orange exposure in Vietnam, with or without adjustment for other characteristics of the veterans, including age, race, body mass index, and self-reported civilian occupational and home herbicide exposure.

  10. Identification of a Mycobacterium sp. as the causative agent of orange nodular lesions in the Atlantic sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Catherine; Huntsberger, Carl; Markey, Kathryn; Inglis, Susan; Smolowitz, Roxanna

    2016-03-30

    The Atlantic sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus is an economically important species in the offshore fisheries on the east coast of the USA. Recently, animals collected from waters ranging from Massachusetts to Maryland have shown variably sized (up to 1 cm in diameter) orange nodular foci, predominantly in the adductor muscle tissue, but also in other organs. Histological evaluation of the nodular lesions showed rod-shaped bacteria that stain acid-fast positive and Gram-positive. PCR methodology was employed to identify the causative organism of the nodules as a Mycobacterium sp. using analysis of the partial 16S gene and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. Based upon genotypic findings, the causative bacterium fits well into the genus Mycobacterium.

  11. Serum 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Levels and Their Association With Age, Body Mass Index, Smoking, Military Record-based Variables, and Estimated Exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Won, Jong-Uk; Song, Jae-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the levels of serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and evaluate their association with age, body mass index, smoking, military record-based variables, and estimated exposure to Agent Orange in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods Serum levels of TCDD were analyzed in 102 Vietnam veterans. Information on age, body mass index, and smoking status were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. The perceived exposure was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based exposures were constructed by division/brigade level and battalion/company level unit information using the Stellman exposure opportunity index model. Results The mean and median of serum TCDD levels was 1.2 parts per trillion (ppt) and 0.9 ppt, respectively. Only 2 Vietnam veterans had elevated levels of TCDD (>10 ppt). The levels of TCDD did not tend to increase with the likelihood of exposure to Agent Orange, as estimated from either proximity-based exposure or perceived self-reported exposure. The serum TCDD levels were not significantly different according to military unit, year of first deployment, duration of deployment, military rank, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Conclusions The average serum TCDD levels in the Korean Vietnam veterans were lower than those reported for other occupationally or environmentally exposed groups and US Vietnam veterans, and their use as an objective marker of Agent Orange exposure may have some limitations. The unit of deployment, duration of deployment, year of first deployment, military rank, perceived self-reported exposure, and proximity-based exposure to Agent Orange were not associated with TCDD levels in Korean Vietnam veterans. Age, body mass index and smoking also were not associated with TCDD levels. PMID:24137525

  12. Exposure opportunity models for Agent Orange, dioxin, and other military herbicides used in Vietnam, 1961-1971.

    PubMed

    Stellman, Steven D; Stellman, Jeanne M

    2004-07-01

    Nearly 19.5 million gallons of herbicides were sprayed on the Republic of Vietnam between 1961 and 1971 for military purposes. Amounts of spray and patterns of applications are available in an electronic file called HERBS that contains records of 9141 defoliation missions, including detailed coordinates of US Air Force Ranch Hand aircraft flight paths, along with chemical agent and gallonage sprayed. Two classes of models for use in epidemiological and environmental studies that utilize the HERBS data for estimating relative exposure opportunity indices are presented: a discrete "hits" model that counts instances of proximity in time and space to known herbicide applications, and a continuous exposure opportunity index, E4, that takes into account type and amount of herbicide sprayed, distance from spray application, and time interval when exposure may have occurred. Both direct spraying and indirect exposure to herbicide (or dioxin) that may have remained in the local environment are considered, using a conservative first-order model for environmental disappearance. A correction factor for dermal versus respiratory routes of entry has been incorporated. E4 has a log-normal distribution that spans six orders of magnitude, thus providing a substantial amount of discrimination between sprayed and unsprayed areas. The models improve on earlier ones by making full use of the geometry of the HERBS spray flight paths of Ranch Hand aircraft. To the extent possible so many decades after the War, the models have been qualitatively validated by comparison with recent dioxin soil and biota samples from heavily contaminated areas of Vietnam, and quantitatively validated against adipose dioxin obtained in epidemiological studies of Vietnamese. These models are incorporated within a geographic information system (GIS) that may be used, as one would expect, to identify locations such as hamlets, villages, and military installations sprayed by herbicide. In a novel application

  13. Exposure opportunity models for Agent Orange, dioxin, and other military herbicides used in Vietnam, 1961-1971.

    PubMed

    Stellman, Steven D; Stellman, Jeanne M

    2004-07-01

    Nearly 19.5 million gallons of herbicides were sprayed on the Republic of Vietnam between 1961 and 1971 for military purposes. Amounts of spray and patterns of applications are available in an electronic file called HERBS that contains records of 9141 defoliation missions, including detailed coordinates of US Air Force Ranch Hand aircraft flight paths, along with chemical agent and gallonage sprayed. Two classes of models for use in epidemiological and environmental studies that utilize the HERBS data for estimating relative exposure opportunity indices are presented: a discrete "hits" model that counts instances of proximity in time and space to known herbicide applications, and a continuous exposure opportunity index, E4, that takes into account type and amount of herbicide sprayed, distance from spray application, and time interval when exposure may have occurred. Both direct spraying and indirect exposure to herbicide (or dioxin) that may have remained in the local environment are considered, using a conservative first-order model for environmental disappearance. A correction factor for dermal versus respiratory routes of entry has been incorporated. E4 has a log-normal distribution that spans six orders of magnitude, thus providing a substantial amount of discrimination between sprayed and unsprayed areas. The models improve on earlier ones by making full use of the geometry of the HERBS spray flight paths of Ranch Hand aircraft. To the extent possible so many decades after the War, the models have been qualitatively validated by comparison with recent dioxin soil and biota samples from heavily contaminated areas of Vietnam, and quantitatively validated against adipose dioxin obtained in epidemiological studies of Vietnamese. These models are incorporated within a geographic information system (GIS) that may be used, as one would expect, to identify locations such as hamlets, villages, and military installations sprayed by herbicide. In a novel application

  14. Potent Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats, by Cold-Pressed, Terpeneless, Valencia Orange Oil

    PubMed Central

    Boire, Nicholas; Zhang, Sean; Khuvis, Joshua; Lee, Rick; Rivers, Jennifer; Crandall, Philip; Keel, M. Kevin; Parrish, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The causative agent of White-nose Syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been shown to be fatal to several species of bats in North America. To date, no compounds or chemical control measures have been developed which eliminates the growth of the fungus in the environment or in affected animals. In the current study, we evaluated the activity of cold-pressed, terpeneless orange oil (CPT) against multiple isolates of P. destructans in vitro. For all assays, a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay was used. Standardized spore suspensions were prepared, adjusted to a specific optical density, and used to plate fungal lawns. Plates were incubated at either 15°C or 4°C for up to 6 months and checked at regular intervals for growth. Once controls had grown, zones of inhibition were measured (mm) on test plates and compared to those obtained using current antifungal drugs. All P. destructans isolates were completely inhibited by 100% CPT (10 μL) at 1 month of incubation regardless of temperature (4°C and 15°C). Complete inhibition persisted up to 6 months following a single exposure at this concentration. Of the standard antifungals, only amphotericin B demonstrated any activity, resulting in zone diameters ranging from 58 mm to 74 mm. CPT, at the highest concentration tested (100%), had no significant effect against a variety of other environmental organisms including various filamentous fungi, bacteria and aerobic actinomycetes. Given that CPT is relatively non-toxic, the possibility exists that the all-natural, mixture could be used as an environmental pre-treatment to eradicate P. destructans from bat habitats. Additional studies are needed to assess any undesirable effects of CPT on bat behavior and health and overall impacts on other members of the interconnected ecosystem(s). PMID:26849057

  15. Environmental fate and dietary exposures of humans to TCDD as a result of the spraying of Agent Orange in upland forests of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Armitage, James M; Ginevan, Michael E; Hewitt, Andrew; Ross, John H; Watkins, Deborah K; Solomon, Keith R

    2015-02-15

    The fate and transport of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (TCDD) released into the environment of South Vietnam (SVN) as a consequence of the aerial application of the herbicidal defoliant Agent Orange (AO) were simulated for a generic upland forest scenario and followed over a 50-year period (1965, 1968 and 1970 onwards). Modeled concentrations of TCDD in the environment were then used as inputs to a human exposure model, which focused on long-term exposures via the food chain. Intake rates and body burdens of TCDD were estimated for adult males over the course of the simulation period and compared to available biomonitoring data. One of the most important factors determining the magnitude of the simulated human exposure to TCDD was the fraction of the chemical deposited directly to soil (where it was assumed to have a degradation half-life of 10 or 15years) relative to the fraction assumed to remain on/in the forest canopy following the spray application (where it was assumed to have a degradation half-life of ≤48h). The simulated body burdens under the various scenarios considered were broadly consistent with the biomonitoring data from SVN collected in the mid-1980s to late 1990s. Taken together, the modeling results and empirical data suggest that highly elevated exposures to TCDD (i.e., body burdens in the several 100s of pg/g lipid range and greater) were not common among people inhabiting upland forest locations in SVN sprayed with AO and that peak and average body burdens were broadly similar to those of the general population of the U.S. in the 1970s and early 1980s. The model-based assessment is consistent with the 'hot spot' hypothesis i.e., potential exposures to TCDD linked to activities conducted on or near former bases where AO was stored are greater than potential exposures in areas subjected to aerial spraying. PMID:25433383

  16. Environmental fate and dietary exposures of humans to TCDD as a result of the spraying of Agent Orange in upland forests of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Armitage, James M; Ginevan, Michael E; Hewitt, Andrew; Ross, John H; Watkins, Deborah K; Solomon, Keith R

    2015-02-15

    The fate and transport of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (TCDD) released into the environment of South Vietnam (SVN) as a consequence of the aerial application of the herbicidal defoliant Agent Orange (AO) were simulated for a generic upland forest scenario and followed over a 50-year period (1965, 1968 and 1970 onwards). Modeled concentrations of TCDD in the environment were then used as inputs to a human exposure model, which focused on long-term exposures via the food chain. Intake rates and body burdens of TCDD were estimated for adult males over the course of the simulation period and compared to available biomonitoring data. One of the most important factors determining the magnitude of the simulated human exposure to TCDD was the fraction of the chemical deposited directly to soil (where it was assumed to have a degradation half-life of 10 or 15years) relative to the fraction assumed to remain on/in the forest canopy following the spray application (where it was assumed to have a degradation half-life of ≤48h). The simulated body burdens under the various scenarios considered were broadly consistent with the biomonitoring data from SVN collected in the mid-1980s to late 1990s. Taken together, the modeling results and empirical data suggest that highly elevated exposures to TCDD (i.e., body burdens in the several 100s of pg/g lipid range and greater) were not common among people inhabiting upland forest locations in SVN sprayed with AO and that peak and average body burdens were broadly similar to those of the general population of the U.S. in the 1970s and early 1980s. The model-based assessment is consistent with the 'hot spot' hypothesis i.e., potential exposures to TCDD linked to activities conducted on or near former bases where AO was stored are greater than potential exposures in areas subjected to aerial spraying.

  17. Exposure to Agent Orange is a significant predictor of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based recurrence and a rapid PSA doubling time after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sagar R.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Aronson, William J.; Kane, Christopher J.; Presti, Joseph C.; Amling, Christopher L.; Terris, Martha K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate and report the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with prostate cancer and previous exposure to Agent Orange (AO), particularly in relationship to race. PATIENTS AND METHODS In 1495 veterans who had undergone RP the clinicopathological characteristics, biochemical progression rates, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (DT) after recurrence between AO-exposed and unexposed men were compared using logistic and linear regression and Cox proportional hazards analyses, and stratified by race. RESULTS The 206 (14%) men with AO exposure were more likely to be black (P = 0.001), younger (P < 0.001), treated more recently (P < 0.001), have a higher body mass index (P = 0.001), have clinical stage T1 disease (P < 0.001), and have lower preoperative PSA levels (P = 0.001). After adjusting for several clinical characteristics, AO exposure was not significantly related to adverse pathological features but was significantly associated with biochemical progression risk (relative risk 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.15–2.09, P = 0.004) and shorter PSADT (P < 0.001) after recurrence (8.2 vs 18.6 months). When stratified by race, these associations were present and similar in both races, with no significant interaction between race and AO exposure for predicting biochemical recurrence or mean adjusted PSADT (P interaction >0.20). CONCLUSIONS Patients with AO exposure and treated with RP were more likely to be black, present with lower risk features, have an increased risk of biochemical progression, and shorter PSADT after recurrence. When stratified by race, the association between AO exposure and poor outcomes was present in both races. These findings suggest that among selected men who choose RP, AO exposure might be associated with more aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:19298411

  18. Potent Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats, by Cold-Pressed, Terpeneless, Valencia Orange Oil.

    PubMed

    Boire, Nicholas; Zhang, Sean; Khuvis, Joshua; Lee, Rick; Rivers, Jennifer; Crandall, Philip; Keel, M Kevin; Parrish, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The causative agent of White-nose Syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been shown to be fatal to several species of bats in North America. To date, no compounds or chemical control measures have been developed which eliminates the growth of the fungus in the environment or in affected animals. In the current study, we evaluated the activity of cold-pressed, terpeneless orange oil (CPT) against multiple isolates of P. destructans in vitro. For all assays, a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay was used. Standardized spore suspensions were prepared, adjusted to a specific optical density, and used to plate fungal lawns. Plates were incubated at either 15°C or 4°C for up to 6 months and checked at regular intervals for growth. Once controls had grown, zones of inhibition were measured (mm) on test plates and compared to those obtained using current antifungal drugs. All P. destructans isolates were completely inhibited by 100% CPT (10 μL) at 1 month of incubation regardless of temperature (4°C and 15°C). Complete inhibition persisted up to 6 months following a single exposure at this concentration. Of the standard antifungals, only amphotericin B demonstrated any activity, resulting in zone diameters ranging from 58 mm to 74 mm. CPT, at the highest concentration tested (100%), had no significant effect against a variety of other environmental organisms including various filamentous fungi, bacteria and aerobic actinomycetes. Given that CPT is relatively non-toxic, the possibility exists that the all-natural, mixture could be used as an environmental pre-treatment to eradicate P. destructans from bat habitats. Additional studies are needed to assess any undesirable effects of CPT on bat behavior and health and overall impacts on other members of the interconnected ecosystem(s).

  19. Potent Inhibition of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats, by Cold-Pressed, Terpeneless, Valencia Orange Oil.

    PubMed

    Boire, Nicholas; Zhang, Sean; Khuvis, Joshua; Lee, Rick; Rivers, Jennifer; Crandall, Philip; Keel, M Kevin; Parrish, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The causative agent of White-nose Syndrome (WNS), Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has been shown to be fatal to several species of bats in North America. To date, no compounds or chemical control measures have been developed which eliminates the growth of the fungus in the environment or in affected animals. In the current study, we evaluated the activity of cold-pressed, terpeneless orange oil (CPT) against multiple isolates of P. destructans in vitro. For all assays, a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay was used. Standardized spore suspensions were prepared, adjusted to a specific optical density, and used to plate fungal lawns. Plates were incubated at either 15°C or 4°C for up to 6 months and checked at regular intervals for growth. Once controls had grown, zones of inhibition were measured (mm) on test plates and compared to those obtained using current antifungal drugs. All P. destructans isolates were completely inhibited by 100% CPT (10 μL) at 1 month of incubation regardless of temperature (4°C and 15°C). Complete inhibition persisted up to 6 months following a single exposure at this concentration. Of the standard antifungals, only amphotericin B demonstrated any activity, resulting in zone diameters ranging from 58 mm to 74 mm. CPT, at the highest concentration tested (100%), had no significant effect against a variety of other environmental organisms including various filamentous fungi, bacteria and aerobic actinomycetes. Given that CPT is relatively non-toxic, the possibility exists that the all-natural, mixture could be used as an environmental pre-treatment to eradicate P. destructans from bat habitats. Additional studies are needed to assess any undesirable effects of CPT on bat behavior and health and overall impacts on other members of the interconnected ecosystem(s). PMID:26849057

  20. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... registry health exam . Research on peripheral neuropathy and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (HMD) (formally known ... acute or subacute onset may be associated with herbicide exposure. Based on this evidence, VA presumed an ...

  1. Determination of PCDD/Fs in breast milk of women living in the vicinities of Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (Vietnam) and estimation of the infant's daily intake.

    PubMed

    Hue, N T M; Nam, V D; Thuong, N V; Huyen, N T; Phuong, N T H; Hung, N X; Tuan, N H; Son, L K; Minh, N H

    2014-09-01

    Seventeen toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in breast milks using the high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method. Twenty seven breast milk samples were collected from primiparae who have lived over 5 years in wards namely Chinh Gian, An Khe, Khue Trung, and Hoa Thuan Tay which are located near the Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (the AO/Dioxin hot spot). The samples were then analyzed for PCDD/F residues in order to assess the human exposure to dioxins from the AO/Dioxin hot spot, especially health risk to the breast-fed infants. The average TEQ levels in the four studied cohorts ranged from 8.1 to 26 pg/g lipid, with the highest level up to 51 pg TEQ/g lipid found in the An Khe ward. The TEQ level was correlated with geographical position and ranking in the order of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe. The mean estimated PCDD/Fs infant's daily intake in the cohort of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe was about 41, 122, 124, and 134 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, respectively, which are much higher than the tolerable daily intake proposed by the World Health Organization (4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day). PMID:24613651

  2. Determination of PCDD/Fs in breast milk of women living in the vicinities of Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (Vietnam) and estimation of the infant's daily intake.

    PubMed

    Hue, N T M; Nam, V D; Thuong, N V; Huyen, N T; Phuong, N T H; Hung, N X; Tuan, N H; Son, L K; Minh, N H

    2014-09-01

    Seventeen toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in breast milks using the high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method. Twenty seven breast milk samples were collected from primiparae who have lived over 5 years in wards namely Chinh Gian, An Khe, Khue Trung, and Hoa Thuan Tay which are located near the Da Nang Agent Orange hot spot (the AO/Dioxin hot spot). The samples were then analyzed for PCDD/F residues in order to assess the human exposure to dioxins from the AO/Dioxin hot spot, especially health risk to the breast-fed infants. The average TEQ levels in the four studied cohorts ranged from 8.1 to 26 pg/g lipid, with the highest level up to 51 pg TEQ/g lipid found in the An Khe ward. The TEQ level was correlated with geographical position and ranking in the order of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe. The mean estimated PCDD/Fs infant's daily intake in the cohort of Khue Trung, Hoa Thuan Tay, Chinh Gian and An Khe was about 41, 122, 124, and 134 pg TEQ/kg bw/day, respectively, which are much higher than the tolerable daily intake proposed by the World Health Organization (4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day).

  3. Allergenicity of orange juice and orange seeds: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S L; Ye, S T; Yu, Y

    1989-06-01

    Oranges are considered to be common allergenic fruits in China. They may induce severe food allergy in sensitive individuals. Allergic histories were analyzed in 26 orange-sensitive patients. Intradermal tests with extracts of orange juice and seeds were performed in 16 out of the 26 patients. P-K test was performed in one patient. The allergic history analysis suggested that clinical symptoms of some orange-allergic subjects were different from other fruit allergies but similar to nut and other oil plant seed allergies. The skin test and P-K test showed that the major allergenic components of orange reside in orange seeds instead of orange juice. Systemic reactions developed in 5 patients after intradermal tests with 1:20-200 (w/v) orange seed extracts. We considered that orange seed contains high potent allergens which may induce orange sensitivity due to careless chewing of orange seeds. PMID:2751771

  4. Distribution and quantification of Candidatus Liberibacter americanus, agent of huanglongbing disease of citrus in São Paulo State, Brasil, in leaves of an affected sweet orange tree as determined by PCR.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Diva C; Saillard, Colette; Couture, Carole; Martins, Elaine C; Wulff, Nelson A; Eveillard-Jagoueix, Sandrine; Yamamoto, Pedro T; Ayres, Antonio J; Bové, Joseph M

    2008-06-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), an insect-transmitted disease of citrus, known for many years in Asia and Africa, has appeared in the state of São Paulo State (SSP), Brazil, in 2004, and the state of Florida, USA, in 2005. HLB endangers the very existence of citrus, as trees infected with the bacterial pathogen, irrevocably decline. In the absence of curative procedures, control of HLB is difficult and only based on prevention. Even though not available in culture, the HLB bacterium could be shown to be Gram-negative and to represent a new candidate genus, Candidatus Liberibacter, in the alpha subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Three Candidatus (Ca.) L. species occur: Ca. L. africanus in Africa, Ca. L. asiaticus in Asia, SSP, and Florida, and Ca. L. americanus in SSP. The liberibacters occur exclusively in the phloem sieve tubes. On affected trees, HLB symptoms are often seen on certain branches only, suggesting an uneven distribution of the Liberibacter. Occurrence of Ca. L. americanus, the major HLB agent in SSP, has been examined in 822 leaf samples from an affected sweet orange tree by two conventional PCR techniques and a newly developed real time (RTi) PCR, also used for quantification of the Liberibacter in the leaves. Even though RTi-PCR was able to detect as few as 10 liberibacters per gram of leaf tissue (l/g), no liberibacters could be detected in any of the many leaf samples from a symptomless branch, while in blotchy mottle leaves from symptomatic branches of the same tree, the Liberibacter titer reached values as high as 10(7)l/g. These results demonstrate the uneven distribution of the Liberibacter in HLB-affected trees.

  5. Clinical results with acridine orange using a novel confocal laparoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanbakuchi, Anthony A.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2009-02-01

    We previously reported on the development of a multi-spectral confocal laparoscope for clinical imaging. In this paper we present current results using the system to image ovaries with a new laparoscope design using the contrast agent acridine orange. This new laparoscope integrates computer controlled systems for focus, depth scans, and localized contrast agent delivery. Precise axial position control is accomplished with tiny stepper motors integrated inside the laparoscope handle. Ergonomic handle controls allow for data acquisition, deliver of contrast agents, and adjustment of imaging depth during procedures by the surgeon. We have approval to use acridine orange in our clinical trials to image ovaries in vivo during oophorectomies. We present in vivo results using both acridine orange and fluorescein as the topically administered contrast agent.

  6. Growing Oranges. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily lives of three orange growers in Florida and one in California. Two of the Florida orange growers also have other jobs, one as manager of a citrus cooperative and the other as a citrus insurance salesman. The operations of orange groves, the care and picking of oranges,…

  7. Acridine orange as a biosensitive photovoltaic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Faranak; Bauld, Reg; Fanchini, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    Acridine orange (AO), a biosensitive molecule that is customarily used for labeling nucleic acids including DNA and RNA, is here investigated as a cost effective, water soluble, and photoactive material for the fabrication of potentially biosensitive organic photovoltaics. The electronic energy levels of AO are determined using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The effect of anticrystallization agents, as well as low-temperature annealing, on the work function of AO is investigated: amorphous AO films are shown to possess a significantly higher work function than microcrystalline AO films and the work function also increases by annealing. Photo-induced processes in AO films are investigated by considering the changes of the KPFM signal under illumination. We demonstrate that acridine orange is able to photogenerate electron-hole pairs at rates comparable to the most commonly used solar-grade photovoltaic materials, including polythiophenes. In addition, the effect of the morphology of different types of AO thin films spun from different solvents is studied in bilayer photovoltaic devices fabricated from stacks of AO and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester thin films.

  8. 15. September, 1968 GARDEN BETWEEN NATHANIEL WOODBURY HOUSE, 22 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. September, 1968 GARDEN BETWEEN NATHANIEL WOODBURY HOUSE, 22 ORANGE STREET AND SETH FOLGER HOUSE, 26 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  9. 11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. August, 1970 ORANGE STREET SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (MASS-912), 14 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  11. Purple is the new Orange

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blood orange and Cara cara-like citrus varieties with purple or red fruit color, increased antioxidants and modified flavor could be the next generation of cultivars produced via genetic engineering. These varieties are being developed by enhancing the presence of anthocyanin and lycopene pigments...

  12. Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound.

  13. 7 CFR 905.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 905.86 Section 905.86 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.86 Agents. The...

  14. 7 CFR 905.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 905.86 Section 905.86 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.86 Agents. The...

  15. 7 CFR 906.59 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 906.59 Section 906.59 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 906.59 Agents. The...

  16. 7 CFR 906.59 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 906.59 Section 906.59 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 906.59 Agents. The...

  17. 7 CFR 905.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 905.86 Section 905.86 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.86 Agents. The...

  18. 7 CFR 905.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agents. 905.86 Section 905.86 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.86 Agents. The...

  19. 7 CFR 906.59 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agents. 906.59 Section 906.59 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 906.59 Agents. The...

  20. 7 CFR 906.59 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agents. 906.59 Section 906.59 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 906.59 Agents. The...

  1. 7 CFR 905.86 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agents. 905.86 Section 905.86 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES, AND TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.86 Agents. The...

  2. 7 CFR 906.59 - Agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agents. 906.59 Section 906.59 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 906.59 Agents. The...

  3. Photoconversion in orange and red fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Gert-Jan; Hazelwood, Kristin L; Murphy, Christopher S; Davidson, Michael W; Piston, David W

    2009-05-01

    We found that photoconversion is fairly common among orange and red fluorescent proteins, as in a screen of 12 proteins, 8 exhibited photoconversion. Specifically, three red fluorescent proteins could be switched to a green state, and two orange variants could be photoconverted to a far-red state. The orange proteins are ideal for dual-probe highlighter applications, and they exhibited the most red-shifted excitation of all fluorescent proteins described to date.

  4. Efficacy of killer yeasts in the biological control of Penicillium digitatum on Tarocco orange fruits (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Platania, Claudia; Restuccia, Cristina; Muccilli, Serena; Cirvilleri, Gabriella

    2012-05-01

    Killer Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus yeast strains were tested as biocontrol agents against Penicillium digitatum, one the most important causes of postharvest decay in orange fruits. W. anomalus, grown on acidified medium, demonstrated micocinogenic activity against P. digitatum, as indicated by large inhibition halos and hyphal damage resulting from β-glucanase activity. Oranges that had been deliberately inoculated with pathogens were protected from decay by W. anomalus. Inoculation of oranges with W. anomalus strains BS 91 and BS 92 reduced disease severity to 1 and 4%, respectively, for up to 10 days in storage.

  5. 2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. August, 1970 VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON ORANGE STREET FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  6. 10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH FOM IN FRONT OF THE LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  7. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. LOOKING 278°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. August, 1970 #31 ORANGE STREET & GENERAL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  9. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  11. 8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. August, 1970 PUMP BEHIND PELEG COGGESHALL HOUSE, 10 ORANGE STREET (MASS-1063) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  12. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  13. 6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. Detection of oranges from a color image of an orange tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Arthur R.; Gallagher, A.; Eriksson, J.

    1999-10-01

    The progress of robotic and machine vision technology has increased the demand for sophisticated methods for performing automatic harvesting of fruit. The harvesting of fruit, until recently, has been performed manually and is quite labor intensive. An automatic robot harvesting system that uses machine vision to locate and extract the fruit would free the agricultural industry from the ups and downs of the labor market. The environment in which robotic fruit harvesters must work presents many challenges due to the inherent variability from one location to the next. This paper takes a step towards this goal by outlining a machine vision algorithm that detects and accurately locates oranges from a color image of an orange tree. Previous work in this area has focused on differentiating the orange regions from the rest of the picture and not locating the actual oranges themselves. Failure to locate the oranges, however, leads to a reduced number of successful pick attempts. This paper presents a new approach for orange region segmentation in which the circumference of the individual oranges as well as partially occluded oranges are located. Accurately defining the circumference of each orange allows a robotic harvester to cut the stem of the orange by either scanning the top of the orange with a laser or by directing a robotic arm towards the stem to automatically cut it. A modified version of the K- means algorithm is used to initially segment the oranges from the canopy of the orange tree. Morphological processing is then used to locate occluded oranges and an iterative circle finding algorithm is used to define the circumference of the segmented oranges.

  15. Chronic B-Cell Leukemias and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors' benefits . Research on B-cell leukemias and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (HMD) (formally known ... sufficient evidence of an association between exposure to herbicides and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In 2003, VA recognized ...

  16. Biomethanization of orange peel waste.

    PubMed

    Martín, M A; Siles, J A; Chica, A F; Martín, A

    2010-12-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste is a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products such as methane. Following a pre-treatment to extract D-limonene, the anaerobic digestion of orange peel waste was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. D-limonene removals of 70% were reached with pre-treatment. The results showed the convenience of thermophilic conditions for treating this waste as the methane production rate and biodegradability were higher than at mesophilic temperature. At pilot scale, a thermophilic continuously stirred-tank reactor working in semi-continuous mode was employed. The OLR was found to be in the range of 1.20-3.67 kg COD/m(3) d; the most appropriate range for working under stable conditions at SRT of 25 d. The methane yield coefficient was found to be 0.27-0.29 L(STP)CH(4)/g added COD and the biodegradability 84-90% under these conditions. However, acidification occurred at the highest OLR.

  17. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... juice from Brazil (71 FR 12183). The Commission is conducting a review to determine whether revocation... frozen concentrated orange juice for further manufacturing and NFC stands for conventional pasteurized... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  18. Trouble Brewing in Orange County. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Orange County will soon face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that Orange County faces a total $41.2 billion liability for retiree benefits that are underfunded--including $9.4 billion for the county pension system and an estimated…

  19. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  20. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  1. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  2. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  3. 7 CFR 29.1043 - Orange (F).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange (F). 29.1043 Section 29.1043 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1043 Orange (F). A reddish yellow....

  4. Mini-orange spectrometer at CIAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yun; Wu, Xiao-Guang; Li, Guang-Sheng; Li, Cong-Bo; He, Chuang-Ye; Chen, Qi-Ming; Zhong, Jian; Zhou, Wen-Kui; Deng, Li-Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ji

    2016-08-01

    A mini-orange spectrometer used for in-beam measurements of internal conversion electrons, consisting of a Si(Li) detector and different sets of SmO5 permanent magnets for filtering and transporting the conversion electrons to the Si(Li) detector, has been developed at the China Institute of Atomic Energy. The working principles and configuration of the mini-orange spectrometer are described. The performance of the setup is illustrated by measured singles conversion electron spectra using the mini-orange spectrometer. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305269, 11375267, 11475072, 11405274, 11205068, 11175259)

  5. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice...

  6. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice...

  7. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice...

  8. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice...

  9. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice...

  10. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  11. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  12. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  13. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  14. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  15. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  16. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or...

  17. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared from unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges as specified in § 146.135, to which may be...

  18. 12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. July, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING SOUTH FROM GARDEN (FORMER SITE OF COL. BRAYTON HOUSE) OF #16 TO #18, #20 AND #22 ORANGE STREET - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    PubMed Central

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3 methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel. PMID:25866787

  20. Improvement of biogas production from orange peel waste by leaching of limonene.

    PubMed

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20-40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m(3) methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

  1. Improvement of biogas production from orange peel waste by leaching of limonene.

    PubMed

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20-40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m(3) methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel. PMID:25866787

  2. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  3. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  4. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  5. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  6. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135, except that it is frozen. (b) The name of the food is “Frozen orange juice”. Such name may be preceded...

  7. Antimatter, clockwork orange, laser divestment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.

    2005-06-01

    In 1972 Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi sponsored a program to holographically record the images of Venetian sculptural treasures for archival purposes. At Laboratorio San Gregorio, where the initial holography took place, G. Musumeci and K. Hempel suggested an experiment to determine whether the concentrated beam from the ruby holographic laser could ablate black-patina crusts from decaying marble. Initial success of a laser-divestment test on a Palazzo Ducale capital launched a search for funding to enable a full-scale laser-conservation demonstration. Later, at a Caltech reunion one of the author's physics professors (Carl Anderson, the discoverer of mu mesons and the positron), noting the prominence of the Venice Film Festival suggested our approaching the motion picture industry. Many years earlier Anderson's Caltech classmate, Frank Capra, had supported the research that led to the discovery of cosmic-ray-generated antimatter on Pikes Peak. (After Caltech, Capra had become a director at Columbia Studios.) Anderson's chance comment led to an introduction to producer Jack Warner at a festival screening of his "A Clockwork Orange" in Asolo. He and his friends contributed US$5000 toward the laser conservation of a marble relief of "The Last Supper" in the Porta della Carta of Venice. This work was conducted in 1980 under the direction of Arch. G. Calcagno. In 1981 it was found that the granite veneer or the newly completed Warner Center Tower had been stained during transit from the quarry. The Venice laser successfully restored the veneer, thereby returning the Warner Brothers' favor.

  8. Physicochemical properties of modified citrus pectins extracted from orange pomace.

    PubMed

    Venzon, Simoni Spohr; Canteri, Maria Helene Giovanetti; Granato, Daniel; Junior, Bogdan Demczuk; Maciel, Giselle Maria; Stafussa, Ana Paula; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2015-07-01

    Modified pectin is a polysaccharide rich in galacturonic acid altered by pH adjustment and thermal treatment used especially as an anti-cancer agent. The aim of this work was to study the physical and chemical properties of modified pectins extracted from orange pomace with citric and nitric acids. The galacturonic acid content, degree of esterification, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy profile, molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity, rheological properties and antioxidant activity of the pectins were evaluated. The modification process caused the de-esterification of pectins and a decrease of molecular weight due to removal of neutral sugars, maintaining the linear chain of galacturonic acid. Such changes also caused a significant increase in the in vitro antioxidant activity (p ≤ 0.05) and influenced the rheological properties of pectin, reducing its viscosity. This work showed that the modification of pectin from orange pomace with citric and nitric acids altered its structural and physical characteristics as well as its biological activity toward a free-radical.

  9. Cellulose extraction from orange peel using sulfite digestion reagents.

    PubMed

    Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

    2011-11-01

    Orange peel (OP) was used as raw material for cellulose extraction. Two different pulping reagents were used, sodium sulfite and sodium metabisulfite. The effect of the main process parameters, sulfite agent dosage and reaction duration, on cellulose yield was investigated. A central composite rotatable design involving two variables at five levels and response surface methodology were used for the optimization of cellulose recovery. Other two invariable parameters were reaction temperature and hydromodulus. The optimum yields, referred to the weight of double extracted OP, were 40.4% and 45.2% for sodium sulfite and sodium metabisulfite digestions, respectively. The crude celluloses were bleached with hypochlorite and oxygen. The physicochemical characterization data of these cellulose materials indicate good levels of purity, low crystallinities, good whitenesses, good water retention and moderate molecular weights. According to these specific properties the recovered celluloses could be used as fillers, water absorbents, or as raw materials for cellulose derivatives.

  10. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    PubMed

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products.

  11. Orange oil and its application to spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, S.

    1982-12-01

    Orange oil can be extracted from the peel of citrus. In Japan the production of orange oil is about 2000 tons per year. No orange oil has been however used for any specific purpose. The main ingredient of orange oil consists of d-limonen. About 0.6-1.0% oil can be extracted from the peel of ''Unshu orange'', which is a kind of typical Japanese tangerine. Orange oil has 106-140 research octane number which is good for running the CFR engine. The flash point of orange oil measured by Pensky-Martens method was at 56/sup 0/C. For the use of orange oil only as fuel without blending, there was found to be some difficulty in engine startability under cold conditions.

  12. Orange rust: A new surgarcane disease in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange rust of sugarcane was observed approximately 5 miles east of Belle Glade, Florida on CP 80-1743 (a complex hybrid of Sacharum L. species) during the lsat week of June 2007. Orange rust pustules are cinnamon-orange in color, oval and smaller than the darker brown elongate rust pustules of the ...

  13. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  14. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  15. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  16. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  17. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  18. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  19. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  20. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  1. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  2. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared for further manufacturing use. It is prepared from unfermented juice...

  3. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized orange juice. 146.140 Section 146.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food...

  4. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. NOTE IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE FEATURES AT RIGHT. LOOKING 248°WSW - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 76 FR 52563 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (76 FR 103). We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... Events; Sabine River, Orange, TX. (a) Definitions. As used in this section ``Participant Vessel''...

  6. Influence of orange juice in the levels and in the genotoxicity of iron and copper.

    PubMed

    Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Prá, Daniel; Giulian, Raquel; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Yoneama, Maria Lúcia; da Silva, Juliana; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2006-03-01

    World consumption of natural juices is increasing as a consequence of the human search for a healthier life. The juice production industry, especially for orange juice, is expanding in several countries and particularly in Brazil. Despite scientific data reporting beneficial properties derived from juice consumption, some components of juices have been identified as mutagenic or carcinogenic. Carcinogenic or genotoxic effects may be mediated by the interaction of juice components with transition metals or by sub-products of juice auto-oxidation. In this study, the mutagenic potential of orange juice and two metallic agents used in dietary supplementation, FeSO(4) and CuSO(4), were investigated using the comet assay in mouse blood cells (in vivo). Both metal compounds were genotoxic for eukaryotic cells after 24h treatment at the doses used. Significant damage repair was observed after 48h of treatment with the same compounds. Orange juice had a modulating effect on the action of metallic sulfates. In the case of iron treatment, the presence of the orange juice had a preventive, but not restorative, effect. On the other hand, in the case of copper treatment, the effects were both preventive and restorative. PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) analysis indicated a positive correlation between DNA damage and the hepatic levels of iron and a negative correlation between whole blood copper and DNA damage. A negative correlation between hepatic iron and whole blood copper content was also seen in the treatment with both ferrous and cupric sulfates. PMID:16263202

  7. Dissipation of insect growth regulators in fresh orange and orange juice.

    PubMed

    Payá, P; Oliva, J; Cámara, M A; Barba, A

    2007-01-01

    It was studied the dissipation rates of fenoxycarb, Lufenuron, flufenoxuron and pyriproxyfen from their application on navelina orange crops to the production of orange juice. Supervised trials were carried out for the phytosanitary treatments under two situations, one according to Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and the other one with Critical Agricultural Practices (CAP). Samples of both situations were transformed into orange juice according to the current industrial process. The analytical methodology included acetone and dichloromethane/petroleum ether extraction and aminopropyl-based cleanup. Method validation followed SANCO Guidelines. The final objective was the determination of the exposure to the residues in raw and processed orange when good and critical agricultural conditions are used in the field. PMID:18399437

  8. Orange County Outdoor School: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Divided into six sections, the guide provides helpful information for the teacher to prepare students to attend the Orange County Outdoor School. Pre-camp responsibilities section provides pre-camp preparation checklists for the principal, teacher, parents, school nurse, and outdoor specialist; a checklist for morning departure; discipline policy…

  9. Limonoid content of sour orange varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern Citrus cultivars are thought to have arisen from three parents- the (pummelo), the mandarin, and citron. Taxological and genetic data support that sweet and sour oranges share a common parentage. However, as their name suggests the organoleptic properties of the fruit from these two familie...

  10. 21 CFR 74.250 - Orange B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... principally the disodium salt of 1-(4-sulfophenyl)-3-ethylcarboxy-4-(4-sulfonaphthylazo)-5-hydro-xypyrazole. (2) The diluents in color additive mixtures for food use containing Orange B are limited to those... than 6.0 percent. Chlorides and sulfates (calculated as the sodium salts), not more than 7.0...

  11. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  12. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  13. Nuclear structure analysis using the Orange Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Regis, J.-M.; Pascovici, Gh.; Christen, S.; Meersschout, T.; Bernards, C.; Fransen, Ch.; Dewald, A.; Braun, N.; Heinze, S.; Thiel, S.; Jolie, J.; Materna, Th.

    2009-01-28

    Recently, an Orange spectrometer, a focusing iron-free magnetic spectrometer, has been installed at a beam line of the 10 MV Tandem accelerator of the IKP of the University of Cologne. The high efficiency of 15% of 4{pi} for the detection of conversion electrons and the energy resolution of 1% makes the Orange spectrometer a powerful instrument. From the conversion electron spectrum, transition multipolarities can be determined using the so called K to L ratio. In combination with an array of germanium and lanthanum bromide detectors, e{sup -}-{gamma}-coincidences can be performed to investigate the level scheme. Moreover, the very fast lanthanum bromide scintillator with an energy resolution of 3% allows e{sup -}-{gamma} lifetime measurements down to 0.3 ns. A second Orange spectrometer can be added to build the Double Orange Spectrometer for e{sup -}-e{sup -}-coincidences. It is indispensable for lifetime measurements of low intensity or nearby lying transitions as often occur in odd-A and odd-odd nuclei. The capabilities are illustrated with several examples.

  14. The use of the PMI/mannose selection system to recover transgenic sweet orange plants (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Boscariol, R L; Almeida, W A B; Derbyshire, M T V C; Mourão Filho, F A A; Mendes, B M J

    2003-09-01

    A new method for obtaining transgenic sweet orange plants was developed in which positive selection (Positech) based on the Escherichia coli phosphomannose-isomerase (PMI) gene as the selectable marker gene and mannose as the selective agent was used. Epicotyl segments from in vitro-germinated plants of Valencia, Hamlin, Natal and Pera sweet oranges were inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA101-pNOV2116 and subsequently selected on medium supplemented with different concentrations of mannose or with a combination of mannose and sucrose as a carbon source. Genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot. The transgene expression was evaluated using a chlorophenol red assay and isoenzymes. The transformation efficiency rate ranged from 3% to 23.8%, depending on cultivar. This system provides an efficient manner for selecting transgenic sweet orange plants without using antibiotics or herbicides.

  15. Orange pectin mediated growth and stability of aqueous gold and silver nanocolloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigoghossian, Karina; dos Santos, Molíria V.; Barud, Hernane S.; da Silva, Robson R.; Rocha, Lucas A.; Caiut, José M. A.; de Assunção, Rosana M. N.; Spanhel, Lubomir; Poulain, Marcel; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.

    2015-06-01

    The role of orange based pectin in the nucleation and growth of silver and gold nanoparticles is addressed. Pectin is a complex polysaccharide found in fruits such as oranges, lemons, passion fruits or apples. It displays smooth and hairy chain regions containing hydroxyl-, ester-, carboxylate- and eventually amine groups that can act as surface ligands interacting under various pH conditions more or less efficiently with growing nanometals. Here, a high methoxy pectin (>50% esterified) was used as a stabilizer/reducing agent in the preparation of gold, silver and silver-gold nanoparticles. Commercial pectin (CP) and pectin extracted from orange bagasse (OP) were used. Optionally, trisodium citrate or oxalic acid we used to reduce AgNO3 and HAuCl4 in aqueous environment. Characterization methods included UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that under different pH conditions, pectin and reducing agents allow producing various nanostructures shapes (triangles, spheres, rods, octahedrons and decahedrons) often with high polydispersity and sizes ranging between 5 nm and 30 nm. In addition, depending on Ag/Au-ratio and pH, the surface plasmon bands can be continuously shifted between 410 nm and 600 nm. Finally, pectin seems to be a highly efficient stabilizer of the colloidal systems that show a remarkable stability and unchanged optical spectral response even after five years.

  16. The State of the Art in Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Its Regulation in Pigmented Sweet Oranges [(Citrus sinensis) L. Osbeck].

    PubMed

    Lo Piero, Angela Roberta

    2015-04-29

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments belonging to the flavonoid compound family involved in nature in several aspects of plant development and defense. By bestowing much of the color and flavor on fruits and vegetables, they are components of the human diet and, thanks to their radical-scavenging properties, are not considered exclusively as food products but also as therapeutic agents. Several cultivars of red (or blood) oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck], such as Tarocco, Moro, and Sanguinello, are characterized by the presence of anthocyanins in both the rind and fruit juice vesicles. The amount and composition of anthocyanins in the pigmented orange cultivar vary greatly depending on variety, maturity, region of cultivation, and many other environmental conditions. Most of the blood orange varieties require a wide day-night thermal range to maximize color formation. Therefore, the production of red oranges characterized by high anthocyanin levels is limited to a few regions and in particular to the Sicilian area around Mount Etna in Italy, where the characteristic climate conditions yield fruits of unique color intensity and quality. In this review, both the basic information and the most recent advances in red orange anthocyanins are reported, with intense attention given to their biosynthesis and regulation.

  17. Effect of calcium oxalate on the photocatalytic degradation of Orange II on ZnO surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassaid, S.; Ziane, B.; Badaoui, M.; Chaib, M.; Robert, D.

    2013-06-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of aqueous solution of Orange II, has been investigated in the presence of ZnO catalyst with calcium oxalate as sacrificial agent. This study demonstrated that the performance of ZnO photocatalyst can be improved by addition of calcium oxalate. Results show that adsorption is an important parameter controlling the degradation phenomena. Indeed, the added oxalate causes a drop in the pH medium, what causes a better adsorption of Orange II on the ZnO surface. The effect of calcium oxalate is to increase the concentration of superoxides (O{2/·-}) and hydroperoxides (HO2·) radicals, which are key intermediaries in the mechanism of photodegradation because of their powerful force of oxidation.

  18. Flora of the Orange Cliffs of Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Shultz, L.M.; Neely, E.E.; Tuhy, J.S.

    1987-04-30

    The Orange Cliffs area, an area rich in oil sands deposits and defined here as part of the Colorado Plateau floristic province, harbors approximately 209 species in 123 genera and 49 families. Because of the potential of exploitation of the oil sands deposits in the area, a species checklist was made and a discussion of physical and floristic aspects of the region is given here. The flora is compared statistically to the San Rafael Swell flora, which is also a subset of the Colorado Plateau. They define six vegetation types and three edaphic communities; these are described and mapped. Of eleven endemic plant species in the Orange Cliffs, three are local and rare. Sites for Astragalus nidularius, A. moencoppensis, and Xylorhiza glabriuscula var. linearifolia are discussed and mapped. 24 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Call Cultures in Orang-Utans?

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A.; Nater, Alexander; Arora, Natasha; Bastian, Meredith L.; Meulman, Ellen; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C.; Atmoko, S. Suci Utami; Pamungkas, Joko; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Hardus, Madeleine E.; van Noordwijk, Maria; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents) has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects). Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval), individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. Conclusion/Significance These results are consistent with the potential presence of ‘call cultures’ and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might assist in bridging

  20. Klebsiella pneumoniae in orange juice concentrate.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, F A; Hazen, T C; López-Torres, A J; Rechani, P

    1985-01-01

    Fecal coliform-positive, capsule-forming Klebsiella pneumoniae cells were observed in high densities (10(4) to 10(8) CFU/100 ml) in two commercial batches of frozen orange juice concentrate at a cannery in Puerto Rico. Contamination of both lots was gross and included off colors and odors. Isolates of K. pneumoniae from these concentrates revealed growth at 4, 25, and 34 degrees C with generation times from 0.39 to 1.84 h. PMID:3893321

  1. Thiazole orange as fluorescent universal base in peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Olaf; Seitz, Oliver

    2003-12-01

    Thiazole orange is shown to possess characteristics of a universal base while maintaining duplex stability. Its fluorescence properties allowed distinction between matched and single mismatched hybridisation.

  2. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  3. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:25198345

  4. Phenology of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and associated parasitoids on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, in Punjab Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shouket Zaman; Arif, Muhammad Jalal; Hoddle, Christina D; Hoddle, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    The population phenology of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, was monitored weekly for 110 wk on two species of Citrus, kinnow mandarin and sweet orange, at two different research sites in Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. Citrus flush growth patterns were monitored and natural enemy surveys were conducted weekly. Flush patterns were similar for kinnow and sweet orange. However, flush on sweet orange was consistently more heavily infested with Asian citrus psyllid than kinnow flush; densities of Asian citrus psyllid eggs, nymphs, and adults were higher on sweet orange when compared with kinnow. When measured in terms of mean cumulative insect or Asian citrus psyllid days, eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than kinnow. Two parasitoids were recorded attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal). The dominant parasitoid species attacking Asian citrus psyllid nymphs on kinnow and sweet orange was T. radiata, with parasitism averaging 26%. D. aligarhensis parasitism averaged 17%. Generalist predators such as coccinellids and chrysopids were collected infrequently and were likely not important natural enemies at these study sites. Immature spiders, in particular, salticids and yellow sac spiders, were common and may be important predators of all Asian citrus psyllid life stages. Low year round Asian citrus psyllid densities on kinnow and possibly high summer temperatures, may, in part, contribute to the success of this cultivar in Punjab where Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the putative causative agent of huanglongbing, a debilitating citrus disease, is widespread and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid.

  5. Asthma induced by sulphur dioxide, benzoate and tartrazine contained in orange drinks.

    PubMed

    Freedman, B J

    1977-09-01

    Of 272 patients with asthma, thirty (11%) gave a history of exacerbations occurring after ingestion, solutions of orange orange drinks. Fourteen of these were given provocation tests by drinking, on separate occasions of sulphur dioxide, sodium benzoate and tartrazine, which are present in all orange drinks. Eight reacted to sulphur dioxide with a fall in FEV1, four to sodium benzoate and one to tartrazine, and four did not react to any of these agents. Three of the benzoate patients were also sensitive to sulphur dioxide. The sulphur dioxide sensitive patients were predominantly young, with extrinsic asthma. The benzoate sensitive patients were predominantly middle-aged and the proportion with intrinsic asthma was higher. Prior inhalation of sodium cromoglycate by four patients inhibited the reaction to these substances. Sulphur dioxide has not previously been reported to cause exacerbations of asthma when ingested as a food preservative. It is used as a preservative in a wide range of acidic beverages and foods, and should be considered as possibly causal in patients suffering from apparently cryptogenic asthma, and asthma seemingly due to food allergy. PMID:412611

  6. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Ping; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1998-01-01

    A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

  7. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1998-09-08

    A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

  8. Orange/Red Fluorescence of Active Caries by Retrospective Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Felix Gomez, Grace; Eckert, George J; Ferreira Zandona, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective clinical study determined the association of caries activity and orange/red fluorescence on quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) images of surfaces that progressed to cavitation, as determined by clinical visual examination. A random sample of QLF images from 565 children (5-13 years) previously enrolled in a longitudinal study was selected. Buccal, lingual and occlusal surface images obtained after professional brushing at baseline and every 4 months over a 4-year period were analyzed for red fluorescence. Surfaces that progressed (n = 224) to cavitation according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS 0/1/2/3/4 to 5/6 or filling), and surfaces that did not progress (n = 486) were included. QA2 image analysis software outputs the percentage increase of the red/green components as x0394;R and area of x0394;R (areax0394;R) at different thresholds. Mixed-model ANOVA was used to compare progressive and nonprogressive surfaces to account for correlations of red fluorescence (x0394;R and areax0394;R) between surfaces within a subject. The first analysis used the first observation for each surface or the first available visit if the surface was unerupted (baseline), while the second analysis used the last observation prior to cavitation for surfaces that progressed and the last observation for surfaces that did not progress (final). There was a significant (p < 0.05) association between red fluorescence and progression to cavitation at thresholds x0394;R0, x0394;R10, x0394;R20, x0394;R60, x0394;R70, x0394;R80, x0394;R90 and x0394;Rmax at baseline and for x0394;R0 and x0394;R10 at the final observation. Quantification of orange/red fluorescence may help to identify lesions that progress to cavitation. Future studies identifying microbiological factors causing orange/ red fluorescence and its caries activity are indicated. PMID:27160323

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of zirconium with xylenol orange

    SciTech Connect

    Antepenko, R J

    1982-05-14

    High purity hydride forming metal films are used as hydrogen isotope occluders and function as electrodes in neutron generator tubes. This use of zirconium occluder films requires reliable analytical methods for routine determination of the zirconium film weight in a production environment. In this study, a spectrophotometric method was evaluated for the determination of zirconium films. The method is based upon the formation of a highly colored zirconium complex with xylenol orange in a dilute perchloric acid medium. Dilute hydrofluoric acid is used in this procedure to selectively dissolve the zirconium film off the substrate. A perchloric acid fuming step is used to remove hydrofluoric acid from the solution. The zirconium solutions are depolymerized before complex formation by heating in 2 N perchloric acid. The zirconium complex exhibits a maximum absorbance in 0.2 to 0.3 M perchloric acid at a wavelength of 531 nanometers. Beer's law is obeyed for zirconium concentrations through 2.1 parts per million. Molybdenum, at concentrations equal to zirconium, does not interfere with the xylenol orange method.

  10. Ultrastructural changes in sweet orange with symptoms of huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide. To better understand the ultrastructural changes of sweet orange seedlings in response to infection, anatomical analyses of HLB-infected sweet orange were carried out by light and electron microscopy. A...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  12. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  13. 75 FR 41119 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas. This Special Local Regulation is intended to restrict vessels from portions of...

  14. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  15. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  16. 76 FR 30890 - Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX... River, Orange, Texas on September 24-25, 2011. This Special Local Regulation is intended to...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1044 - Orange Red (FR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orange Red (FR). 29.1044 Section 29.1044 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1044 Orange Red (FR). A yellowish red....

  18. 75 FR 55968 - Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... (NPRM) entitled Special Local Regulations; Sabine River, Orange, TX in the Federal Register (75 FR 41119... published in 75 FR 41119. Regulatory Analyses We developed this rule after considering numerous statutes and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations, Sabine River; Orange,...

  19. The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Chen, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Xiaoan; Chen, Dijun; Zhu, Andan; Chen, Chunli; Bertrand, Denis; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Hao, Bao-Hai; Lyon, Matthew P; Chen, Jiongjiong; Gao, Song; Xing, Feng; Lan, Hong; Chang, Ji-Wei; Ge, Xianhong; Lei, Yang; Hu, Qun; Miao, Yin; Wang, Lun; Xiao, Shixin; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Zeng, Wenfang; Guo, Fei; Cao, Hongbo; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Xi-Wen; Cheng, Yun-Jiang; Xu, Juan; Liu, Ji-Hong; Luo, Oscar Junhong; Tang, Zhonghui; Guo, Wen-Wu; Kuang, Hanhui; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Roose, Mikeal L; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Ruan, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Oranges are an important nutritional source for human health and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The assembled sequence covers 87.3% of the estimated orange genome, which is relatively compact, as 20% is composed of repetitive elements. We predicted 29,445 protein-coding genes, half of which are in the heterozygous state. With additional sequencing of two more citrus species and comparative analyses of seven citrus genomes, we present evidence to suggest that sweet orange originated from a backcross hybrid between pummelo and mandarin. Focused analysis on genes involved in vitamin C metabolism showed that GalUR, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of the galacturonate pathway, is significantly upregulated in orange fruit, and the recent expansion of this gene family may provide a genomic basis. This draft genome represents a valuable resource for understanding and improving many important citrus traits in the future.

  20. Volatile and nonvolatile flavor chemical evaluation of USDA orange-mandarin hybrids for comparison to sweet orange and mandarin fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three citrus hybrids, containing 50-75% sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) genome in their pedigrees and similar to sweet orange in fruit size, color and taste, were tested for their potential to be classified as new “sweet orange” cultivars. 'Hamlin', ‘Midsweet’, and three other early to mid-season swe...

  1. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of industrial orange waste.

    PubMed

    Kaparaju, P L N; Rintala, J A

    2006-06-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of industrial orange waste (pulp and peel) with subsequent aerobic post-treatment of the digestate was evaluated. Methane production potential was first determined in batch assays and the effects of operational parameters such as hydraulic retention times (HRT) and organic loading rates (OLR) on process performance were studied through semi-continuous digestion. In batch assays, methane production potential of about 0.49 m(3) kg(-1) volatile solids (VS)(added waste) was achieved. In semi-continuous digestion, loading at 2.8 kgVS m(-3) d(-1) (2.9 kg total solids (TS) m(-3) d(-1)) and HRT of 26 d produced specific methane yields of 0.6 m(3) kg(-1) VS (added waste) (0.63 m(3) kg(-1) VS(added waste)). Operating at a higher OLR of 4.2 kgVS m(-3) d(-1) (4.4 kg TS m(-3) d(-1)) and 40 d HRT produced 0.5 m(3) of methane kg(-1) VS (added waste) (0.63-0.52 m(3) kg(-1) TS (added waste). Up to 70% of TS of industrial orange waste (11.6% TS) was methanised. Further increase in OLR to 5.6 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) (5.9 kg TS m(-3) d(-1); HRT of 20 d) resulted in an unstable and non-functional digester process shown directly through complete cessation of methanogenesis, drop in methane content, reduced pH and increase in volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, especially acetate and soluble chemical oxygen demand. A pH adjustment (from an initial 3.2 to ca. 8) for the low pH orange waste was necessary and was found to be a crucial factor for stable digester operation as the process showed a tendency to be inhibited due to accumulation of VFAs and decrease in digester pH. Aerobic post-treatment of digestate resulted in removal of ammonia and VFAs. PMID:16865918

  2. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. PMID:23909609

  3. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  4. Solvent-Switching Gelation and Orange-Red Emission of Ultrasmall Copper Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinhua; Zhang, Qiang Matthew; Feng, Yong; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-01-18

    By tuning the Cu⋅⋅⋅Cu and hydrogen-bonding interactions, the small cluster Cu3 L can be selectively synthesized to develop a stable and highly fluorescent material, as confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectroscopy. Further characterizations, including absorbance spectroscopy, XPS, and XRD demonstrate the formation of tiny Cu nanoclusters (NCs). In water, the as-prepared Cu NCs can exhibit high orange fluorescence via solution evaporation to eliminate hydrogen-bonding, and in dimethylformamide, a strong orange fluorescent gel is obtained by solvent induction to enhance the Cu⋅⋅⋅Cu and hydrogen-bonding interactions. More importantly, the Cu NCs in their substantial form exhibit nonlinear optical properties upon two-photon excitation. These results will shed light on Cu and related cluster applications in two-photon biological imaging, optical power limiting, and solar energy conversion. PMID:26584405

  5. Fluorescence spectroscopy applied to orange trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcassa, L. G.; Gasparoto, M. C. G.; Belasque, J., Jr.; Lins, E. C.; Dias Nunes, F.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we have applied laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate biological processes in orange trees (Citrus aurantium L.). We have chosen to investigate water stress and Citrus Canker, which is a disease caused by the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri bacteria. The fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated by using as an excitation source a 442-nm 15-mW HeCd gas multimode discharge laser and a 532-nm 10-mW Nd3+:YAG laser. The stress manifestation was detected by the variation of fluorescence ratios of the leaves at different wavelengths. The fluorescence ratios present a significant variation, showing the possibility to observe water stress by fluorescence spectrum. The Citrus Canker’s contaminated leaves were discriminated from the healthy leaves using a more complex analysis of the fluorescence spectra. However, we were unable to discriminate it from another disease, and new fluorescence experiments are planned for the future.

  6. Oranges or "lemons"? Family farming and product quality in the Spanish orange industry, 1870-1960.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In the early twentieth century California became a big exporter of some agricultural products that, until then, had only been grown on a large scale in the mediterranean basin. As a result, exports of those products diminished or stagnated in Mediterranean countries, with important repercussions on their economies. The Spanish orange industry, however, continued to expand, despite the fact that a substantial percentage of Spanish oranges came from farms owned by (often illiterate) small peasants who, in comparison to the California growers, used a great deal of labor, small amounts of capital, and little science. This paper shows that Spanish farmers were in fact capable of growing high-quality oranges at prices that were more competitive than those in California, although interested they often preferred to satisfy the strong demand for middling fruit from Great Britain because it was a more profitable business. This, combined with a deficient use of brand names, gave the Spanish citrus industry serious reputation problems by the 1930s, from which, however, it recovered quickly.

  7. Structural characterization of a thiazoline-containing chromophore in an orange fluorescent protein, monomeric Kusabira Orange.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Akihiro; Fukumura, Eiko; Karasawa, Satoshi; Mizuno, Hideaki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Shiro, Yoshitsugu

    2008-11-01

    Monomeric Kusabira Orange (mKO) is a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like protein that emits orange light at a peak of 559 nm. We analyzed its X-ray structure at 1.65 A and found a novel three-ring chromophore that developed autocatalytically from a Cys65-Tyr66-Glu67 tripeptide in which the side chain of Cys65 formed the third 2-hydroxy-3-thiazoline ring. As a result, the chromophore contained the CNCOH group at the 2-position of the imidazolinone moiety such that the conjugated pi-electron system of the chromophore was more extended than that of GFP but less extended than that of the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed). Since a sulfur atom has potent nucleophilic character, the third 3-thiazoline ring is rapidly and completely cyclized. Furthermore, our structure reveals the presence of a pi-pi stacking interaction between His197 and the chromophore as well as a pi-cation interaction between Arg69 and the chromophore. These structural findings are sufficient to account for the orange emission, pH tolerance, and photostability of mKO.

  8. Oranges or "lemons"? Family farming and product quality in the Spanish orange industry, 1870-1960.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In the early twentieth century California became a big exporter of some agricultural products that, until then, had only been grown on a large scale in the mediterranean basin. As a result, exports of those products diminished or stagnated in Mediterranean countries, with important repercussions on their economies. The Spanish orange industry, however, continued to expand, despite the fact that a substantial percentage of Spanish oranges came from farms owned by (often illiterate) small peasants who, in comparison to the California growers, used a great deal of labor, small amounts of capital, and little science. This paper shows that Spanish farmers were in fact capable of growing high-quality oranges at prices that were more competitive than those in California, although interested they often preferred to satisfy the strong demand for middling fruit from Great Britain because it was a more profitable business. This, combined with a deficient use of brand names, gave the Spanish citrus industry serious reputation problems by the 1930s, from which, however, it recovered quickly. PMID:20509234

  9. Apollo 17 "Orange soil" and meteorite impact on liquid lava

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1973-01-01

    THE 'orange soil' from Shorty Crater differs greatly from ordinary lunar soils in that it consists of ???99% 10-300 ??m smooth shiny spherules and broken fragments of spherules of transparent orange glass, about 20% of which contain partly crystallized to opaque material. The remaining 1 % is chiefly crystalline basalt fragments. Although the colour of the individual orange spherule varies with thickness from yellow-orange to red-brown, all orange glass in our sample (74220, 70; 0.25 g) has a uniform index of refraction (??? 1.712). By contrast, other lunar soils contain spherules ranging from 1.50 to 1.75. The orange glass is also completely free of bubbles, to the limit of resolution of the light microscope, whereas bubbles are present in many other spherule samples. The spherules generally appear spherical in a normal microscope mount, but when viewed from two directions many are found to be oblate spheroids with axial ratios varying from near 1.00 to as low as 0.42 (Fig. 1a). Some have fissioned during free flight1 and all stages of the fission process are found, as described for the Apollo 11 samples. Only a few spherules seem to have been distorted by landing while still soft. One notable exception is the occurrence of small spherules of orange glass conforming and adhering to the surface of larger black spherules (Fig. 1b). ?? 1973 Nature Publishing Group.

  10. Geology, prospects in Orange basin offshore western South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Muntingh, A. Ltd., Parow )

    1993-01-25

    With the fast changing political situation in South Africa it has become possible for Soekor (Pty.) Ltd. To invite international companies to participate in oil and gas exploration in the South African part of the Orange basin. This paper reports on the Orange basin, which comprises a 130,000 sq km area off western South Africa that extends northwards into Namibia, represents a large frontier basin with known hydrocarbon accumulations and the potential for giant fields. Comprehensive seismic coverage and a recent deep-water seismic survey in the Orange basin indicate exciting opportunities in the form of shallow and deep-water plays.

  11. Biological control of Penicillium italicum, P. digitatum and P. expansum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis schoenii on oranges

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Raphael S.; Silva, Francisco L.; Silva, Juliana F.M.; Morais, Paula B.; Braga, Danúbia T; Rosa, Carlos A.; Corrêa Jr., Ary

    2008-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the ability of Saccharomycopsis schoenii Nadson and Krassiln (UWO-PS 80-91) as biocontrol agent against plant pathogenic filamentous fungi P. expansum Link (UFMG 01-2002), P. italicum Wehmer (LCP 61.1199), and P. digitatum (Pers.: Fr.) (LCP 984263, LCP 68175 and LCP 4354). S. schoenii was able to reduce disease severity in oranges inoculated with all fungi. Among the phytopathogens, P. digitatum LCP4354 was the most virulent whereas P. digitatum LCP 68175 was the most susceptible to predation. The yeast was able to survive for 21 days on the fruit surface and did not produce lesions on oranges. Production of antagonistic substances by S. schoenii was not detected using standard techniques. Our results point to the potential use of S. schoenii to control postharvest phytopathogens in fruits. PMID:24031185

  12. Instantaneous network RTK in Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Orange County Real Time GPS Network (OCRTN) is an upgrade of a sub-network of SCIGN sites in southern California to low latency (1-2 sec), high-rate (1 Hz) data streaming, analysis, and dissemination. The project is a collaborative effort of the California Spatial Reference Center (CSRC) and the Orange County Public Resource and Facilities Division, with partners from the geophysical community, local and state government, and the private sector. Currently, ten sites are streaming 1 Hz raw data (Ashtech binary MBEN format) by means of dedicated, point-to-point radio modems to a network hub that translates the asynchronous serial data to TCP/IP and onto a PC workstation residing on a local area network. Software residing on the PC allows multiple clients to access the raw data simultaneously though TCP/IP. One of the clients is a Geodetics RTD server that receives and archives (1) the raw 1 Hz network data, (2) estimates of instantaneous positions and zenith tropospheric delays for quality control and detection of ground motion, and (3) RINEX data to decimated to 30 seconds. Data recovery is typically 99-100%. The server also produces 1 Hz RTCM data (messages 18, 19, 3 and 22) that are available by means of TCP/IP to RTK clients with wireless Internet modems. Coverage is excellent throughout the county. The server supports standard RTK users and is compatible with existing GPS instrumentation. Typical latency is 1-2 s, with initialization times of several seconds to minutes OCRTN site spacing is 10-15 km. In addition, the server supports “smart clients” who can retrieve data from the closest n sites (typically 3) and obtain an instantaneous network RTK position with 1-2 s latency. This mode currently requires a PDA running the RTD client software, and a wireless card. Since there is no initialization and re-initialization required this approach is well suited to support high-precision (centimeter-level) dynamic applications such as intelligent transportation

  13. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  14. The Signaling State of Orange Carotenoid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Maksimov, Eugene G.; Shirshin, Evgeny A.; Sluchanko, Nikolai N.; Zlenko, Dmitry V.; Parshina, Evgenia Y.; Tsoraev, Georgy V.; Klementiev, Konstantin E.; Budylin, Gleb S.; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Friedrich, Thomas; Fadeev, Victor V.; Paschenko, Vladimir Z.; Rubin, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is the photoactive protein that is responsible for high light tolerance in cyanobacteria. We studied the kinetics of the OCP photocycle by monitoring changes in its absorption spectrum, intrinsic fluorescence, and fluorescence of the Nile red dye bound to OCP. It was demonstrated that all of these three methods provide the same kinetic parameters of the photocycle, namely, the kinetics of OCP relaxation in darkness was biexponential with a ratio of two components equal to 2:1 independently of temperature. Whereas the changes of the absorption spectrum of OCP characterize the geometry and environment of its chromophore, the intrinsic fluorescence of OCP reveals changes in its tertiary structure, and the fluorescence properties of Nile red indicate the exposure of hydrophobic surface areas of OCP to the solvent following the photocycle. The results of molecular-dynamics studies indicated the presence of two metastable conformations of 3′-hydroxyechinenone, which is consistent with characteristic changes in the Raman spectra. We conclude that rotation of the β-ionylidene ring in the C-terminal domain of OCP could be one of the first conformational rearrangements that occur during photoactivation. The obtained results suggest that the photoactivated form of OCP represents a molten globule-like state that is characterized by increased mobility of tertiary structure elements and solvent accessibility. PMID:26244741

  15. Hydrology of Lake Butler, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, James L.; Schiffer, Donna M.

    1984-01-01

    Lake Butler is one of the lakes that collectively make up the Butler chain of lakes in the headwaters of the Kissimmee River, Florida. The bottom configuration of the lake is typical of relict karst features formed during lower stages in sea level. The top of the Floridan aquifer is 50 to 100 feet below the land surface. The drainage area of Lake Butler is approximately 14.5 sq mi and is comprised of sub-basins of other lakes in the vicinity. Surface outflow from Lake Butler is generally southward to Cypress Creek, a tributary of the Kissimmee River. The extremes in lake stage for the period 1933-81 are 94.67 ft on June 23, 1981 and 101.78 ft on September 13, 1960. The median lake stage for this period was 99.28 ft above sea level. The quality of water in Lake Butler is excellent, based on studies of physical, chemical, and biological conditions by the Orange County Pollution Control Department. The lake water is slightly acidic and soft (48 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate). Pesticides in water were below detection levels at two sites sampled in the lake, but were detected in the bottom sediments. (USGS)

  16. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E

    1992-03-01

    In recent years, introduction of new and more effective agents has improved the overall therapy for parasitic infections. This field, however, is still plagued by numerous problems, including the development of resistance to antimicrobial agents (especially with malaria), unavailability of agents in the United States or lack of approval by the Food and Drug Administration, and major toxicities or lack of experience in pregnant women and children, which limits use in these groups of patients. Widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and other agents has complicated the treatment and prophylaxis of this type of malaria. A combination of quinine and Fansidar is usually effective oral therapy for falciparum malaria; quinidine may be administered if intravenous therapy is needed. Mefloquine, which is currently recommended for prophylaxis against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum, is also effective for single-dose oral treatment, although this regimen has not yet been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Metronidazole has been widely used for treatment of gastroenteritis due to Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia (not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the latter) and is considered safe and effective. A new macrolide, azithromycin, has been reported to be effective for cryptosporidiosis in experimental animals; currently, no effective therapy is available for human infections. Combinations of sulfonamides with other antifolates, trimethoprim or pyrimethamine, are recommended therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia or toxoplasmosis, respectively. Therapies for the various types of leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are complex, often toxic, and often of limited efficacy. The benzimidazoles are effective for roundworm infections, although thiabendazole has severe toxic effects. The recent introduction of ivermectin has revolutionized the treatment and control of onchocerciasis. Another relatively new agent, praziquantel

  17. Bacterial community in Haemaphysalis ticks of domesticated animals from the Orang Asli communities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Jing-Jing; Chen, Fezshin; Kho, Kai Ling; Ahmad Shanizza, Azzy Iyzati; Lim, Fang-Shiang; Tan, Kim-Kee; Chang, Li-Yen; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2016-07-01

    Ticks are vectors in the transmission of many important infectious diseases in human and animals. Ticks can be readily found in the semi-forested areas such as the settlements of the indigenous people in Malaysia, the Orang Asli. There is still minimal information available on the bacterial agents associated with ticks found in Malaysia. We performed a survey of the bacterial communities associated with ticks collected from domestic animals found in two Orang Asli villages in Malaysia. We collected 62 ticks, microscopically and molecularly identified as related to Haemaphysalis wellingtoni, Haemaphysalis hystricis and Haemaphysalis bispinosa. Bacterial 16s rRNA hypervariable region (V6) amplicon libraries prepared from the tick samples were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. We detected a total of 392 possible bacterial genera after pooling and sequencing 20 samples, indicating a diverse bacterial community profile. Dominant taxa include the potential tick endosymbiont, Coxiella. Other dominant taxa include the tick-associated pathogen, Rickettsia, and environmental bacteria such as Bacillus, Mycobacterium, Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas. Other known tick-associated bacteria were also detected, including Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsiella and Wolbachia, albeit at very low abundance. Specific PCR was performed on selected samples to identify Rickettsia and Coxiella. Sequence of Rickettsia felis, which causes spotted fever in human and cats, was identified in one sample. Coxiella endosymbionts were detected in three samples. This study provides the baseline knowledge of the microbiome of ticks in Malaysia, focusing on tick-associated bacteria affecting the Orang Asli communities. The role of the herein found Coxiella and Rickettsia in tick physiology or disease transmission merits further investigation. PMID:27132518

  18. Bacterial community in Haemaphysalis ticks of domesticated animals from the Orang Asli communities in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Jing-Jing; Chen, Fezshin; Kho, Kai Ling; Ahmad Shanizza, Azzy Iyzati; Lim, Fang-Shiang; Tan, Kim-Kee; Chang, Li-Yen; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2016-07-01

    Ticks are vectors in the transmission of many important infectious diseases in human and animals. Ticks can be readily found in the semi-forested areas such as the settlements of the indigenous people in Malaysia, the Orang Asli. There is still minimal information available on the bacterial agents associated with ticks found in Malaysia. We performed a survey of the bacterial communities associated with ticks collected from domestic animals found in two Orang Asli villages in Malaysia. We collected 62 ticks, microscopically and molecularly identified as related to Haemaphysalis wellingtoni, Haemaphysalis hystricis and Haemaphysalis bispinosa. Bacterial 16s rRNA hypervariable region (V6) amplicon libraries prepared from the tick samples were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. We detected a total of 392 possible bacterial genera after pooling and sequencing 20 samples, indicating a diverse bacterial community profile. Dominant taxa include the potential tick endosymbiont, Coxiella. Other dominant taxa include the tick-associated pathogen, Rickettsia, and environmental bacteria such as Bacillus, Mycobacterium, Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas. Other known tick-associated bacteria were also detected, including Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsiella and Wolbachia, albeit at very low abundance. Specific PCR was performed on selected samples to identify Rickettsia and Coxiella. Sequence of Rickettsia felis, which causes spotted fever in human and cats, was identified in one sample. Coxiella endosymbionts were detected in three samples. This study provides the baseline knowledge of the microbiome of ticks in Malaysia, focusing on tick-associated bacteria affecting the Orang Asli communities. The role of the herein found Coxiella and Rickettsia in tick physiology or disease transmission merits further investigation.

  19. Low temperature solution process-based defect-induced orange-red light emitting diode

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Pranab; Baek, Sung-Doo; Hoon Lee, Sang; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong Lee, Su; Il Lee, Tae; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2015-01-01

    We report low-temperature solution-processed p-CuO nanorods (NRs)/n-ZnO NRs heterojunction light emitting diode (LED), exploiting the native point defects of ZnO NRs. ZnO NRs were synthesized at 90 °C by using hydrothermal method while CuO NRs were synthesized at 100 °C by using microwave reaction system. The electrical properties of newly synthesized CuO NRs revealed a promising p-type nature with a hole concentration of 9.64 × 1018 cm−3. The current-voltage characteristic of the heterojunction showed a significantly high rectification ratio of 105 at 4 V with a stable current flow. A broad orange-red emission was obtained from the forward biased LED with a major peak at 610 nm which was attributed to the electron transition from interstitial zinc to interstitial oxygen point defects in ZnO. A minor shoulder peak was also observed at 710 nm, corresponding to red emission which was ascribed to the transition from conduction band of ZnO to oxygen vacancies in ZnO lattice. This study demonstrates a significant progress toward oxide materials based, defect-induced light emitting device with low-cost, low-temperature methods. PMID:26648420

  20. Characterization and luminescence properties of Sr3Gd): Sm3+ orange-red phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zaifa; Xu, Denghui; Sun, Jiayue; Sun, Yumei; Du, Haiyan

    2015-10-01

    Reddish-orange emitting phosphors, Sr3Gd): Sm3+, were successfully synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction. The crystal structure of the phosphors was characterized by x-ray diffraction. The excitation spectra and emission spectra were utilized to characterize the luminescence properties of the as-prepared phosphors. The results show that the phosphor consisted of some sharp emission peaks of Sm3+ ions centered at 564, 600, 647, and 707 nm, respectively. The critical distance of Sr3Gd0.93): 0.07Sm3+ was calculated to be 19.18 Å and the lifetime value of the sample was 1.63 ms. The band gap of Sr3Gd) was estimated to be about 2.74 eV from the diffuse reflection spectrum. The optimum doping concentration is 7 mol. % and the quenching occurs via dipole-dipole interaction according to Dexter's theory. The Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage value of Sr3Gd): Sm3+ phosphors presented that it has high color purity. These results indicated that the Sr3Gd): Sm3+ may be a promising reddish-orange emitting phosphor for cost-effective near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes.

  1. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  2. Outdoor residential water use trends in Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijoor, N. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Berg, J.; Baum-Haley, M.

    2012-12-01

    Irrigation is required to maintain outdoor landscapes in semi-arid climates, such as in Orange County, California. Landscape water use efficiency is a priority in Orange County, as nearly half the water supply is imported and the region is vulnerable to water shortages. The purpose of this research is to determine whether single family household residents adjust landscape irrigation based on climate or income in Orange County. Specifically, the goals were to (1) estimate the volume of single family residence (SFR) landscape irrigation applied (2) determine the depth (mm) of over- or under-irrigation compared to theoretical need (3) determine the climatic and socioeconomic controls on landscape irrigation. We plan to compare results from agencies with uniform vs. allocation-based rate structures. A research partnership was established between six water retail agencies in Orange County: Huntington Beach Water District, El Toro Water District, Irvine Ranch Water District, East Orange County Water District, City of San Juan Capistrano, and Laguna Beach County Water District. These agencies represent a wide range of climatic and economic conditions and contributed between 3 and 13 years of SFR water use data on a monthly/bimonthly basis. Household water use, climate, and socioeconomic factors were mapped using Arcview GIS. Air temperature (California Irrigation Management Information System), precipitation (Orange County Cooperative Observer System), landscape size, and income (US Census) were evaluated as possible controls on SFR water use. Findings indicate that landscape water use may constitute the majority of household water use. We found over-irrigation relative to plant water demand in areas of Orange County. Domestic landscape water use may depend on climate and/or income. Results suggest a high potential for residential water savings with improved landscape irrigation efficiency. This information would be useful for improving or developing water use efficiency

  3. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    PubMed

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life.

  4. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    PubMed

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life. PMID:20874226

  5. Heavy metals in navel orange orchards of Xinfeng County and their transfer from soils to navel oranges.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated heavy metal concentrations in soils and navel oranges of Xinfeng County, a well-known navel orange producing area of China. The results showed that the average concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in orchard soils all increased compared to the regional background values, especially for Cd, which increased by 422%. When compared to the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (GB15618-1995), Pb, Cr and Hg concentrations in all orchard soil samples were below the limit standards, but Cd concentrations in 24 soil samples (21%) and As concentrations in 8 soil samples (7%) exceeded the limit standards. However, concentrations of all heavy metals in navel orange pulps were within the National Food Safety Standard of China (GB 2762-2012). Dietary risk assessment also showed that the exposure to these five heavy metals by consumption of navel oranges could hardly pose adverse health effects on adults and children. Since the range and degree of soil Cd pollution was widest and the most severe of all, Cd was taken as an example to reveal the transfer characteristics of heavy metals in soil-navel orange system. Cd concentrations in different organs of navel orange trees decreased in the following order: root>leaf>peel>pulp. That navel oranges planted in the Cd contaminated soils were within the national food safety standard was mainly due to the low transfer factor for Cd from soil to pulp (TFpulp). Further studies showed that TFpulp was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, organic carbon (OC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Based on these soil properties, a prediction equation for TFpulp was established, which indicated that the risk for Cd concentration of navel orange pulp exceeding the national food limit is generally low, when soil Cd concentration is below 7.30 mg/kg. If appropriate actions are taken to increase soil pH, OC and CEC, Cd concentrations in navel orange pulps

  6. Heavy metals in navel orange orchards of Xinfeng County and their transfer from soils to navel oranges.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated heavy metal concentrations in soils and navel oranges of Xinfeng County, a well-known navel orange producing area of China. The results showed that the average concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in orchard soils all increased compared to the regional background values, especially for Cd, which increased by 422%. When compared to the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (GB15618-1995), Pb, Cr and Hg concentrations in all orchard soil samples were below the limit standards, but Cd concentrations in 24 soil samples (21%) and As concentrations in 8 soil samples (7%) exceeded the limit standards. However, concentrations of all heavy metals in navel orange pulps were within the National Food Safety Standard of China (GB 2762-2012). Dietary risk assessment also showed that the exposure to these five heavy metals by consumption of navel oranges could hardly pose adverse health effects on adults and children. Since the range and degree of soil Cd pollution was widest and the most severe of all, Cd was taken as an example to reveal the transfer characteristics of heavy metals in soil-navel orange system. Cd concentrations in different organs of navel orange trees decreased in the following order: root>leaf>peel>pulp. That navel oranges planted in the Cd contaminated soils were within the national food safety standard was mainly due to the low transfer factor for Cd from soil to pulp (TFpulp). Further studies showed that TFpulp was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, organic carbon (OC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Based on these soil properties, a prediction equation for TFpulp was established, which indicated that the risk for Cd concentration of navel orange pulp exceeding the national food limit is generally low, when soil Cd concentration is below 7.30 mg/kg. If appropriate actions are taken to increase soil pH, OC and CEC, Cd concentrations in navel orange pulps

  7. The pathology of sponge orange band disease affecting the Caribbean barrel sponge Xestospongia muta.

    PubMed

    Angermeier, Hilde; Kamke, Janine; Abdelmohsen, Usama R; Krohne, Georg; Pawlik, Joseph R; Lindquist, Niels L; Hentschel, Ute

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sponge orange band (SOB) disease affecting the prominent Caribbean sponge Xestospongia muta. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that SOB is accompanied by the massive destruction of the pinacoderm. Chlorophyll a content and the main secondary metabolites, tetrahydrofurans, characteristic of X. muta, were significantly lower in bleached than in healthy tissues. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using cyanobacteria-specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed a distinct shift from the Synechococcus/Prochlorococcus clade of sponge symbionts towards several clades of unspecific cyanobacteria, including lineages associated with coral disease (i.e. Leptolyngbya sp.). Underwater infection experiments were conducted by transplanting bleached cores into healthy individuals, but revealed no signs of SOB development. This study provided no evidence for the involvement of a specific microbial pathogen as an etiologic agent of disease; hence, the cause of SOB disease in X. muta remains unidentified.

  8. A polymethoxyflavone mixture, extracted from orange peels, suppresses the UVB-induced expression of MMP-1.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Norihiro; Fujii, Takahiro; Hashizume, Ron; Masaki, Hitoshi

    2016-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) B is the main cause of skin photoageing, which has characteristic features such as deep wrinkles. UVB increases the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the skin and can cause wrinkles by disrupting components of the extracellular matrix, such as collagen fibres. We now report that a polymethoxyflavone (PMF) mixture, extracted from orange peels, suppresses the UVB-induced expression of MMP-1 that involves the inhibition of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. Furthermore, the PMF mixture also inhibits the UVB-induced phosphorylation of JNK. Therefore, the results suggest that the PMF mixture suppresses the UVB-induced expression of MMP-1 through the inhibition of JNK phosphorylation and should be useful as an antiphotoageing agent. PMID:27539903

  9. Effect of diet orange soda on urinary lithogenicity.

    PubMed

    Sumorok, Nicola T; Asplin, John R; Eisner, Brian H; Stoller, Marshall L; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that certain beverages decrease urinary lithogenicity by increasing urine citrate excretion. Diet Sunkist Orange soda had the highest concentration of citrate and total alkali content among 12 diet sodas previously assayed. We studied the effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda consumption on urinary chemistry. Nine healthy men and women ages 26-54 years completed the study. During the control period, subjects drank 36 oz of water for 3 days in addition to their own, self-selected diet and recorded a food diary. During the study period, the subjects drank three 12-oz cans of Diet Sunkist Orange soda a day instead of water, and replicated their diets from the control period. In each period, the subjects performed 24-h urine collections on days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, including urinary citrate levels and pH. Diet Sunkist Orange soda increased urinary citrate excretion by 60 mg/day, which was not statistically significant (95% CI -75 to 195, P value 0.34). There was no significant change in pH from the control period to the study period (pH: 6.29-6.21; 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.25, P = 0.30). Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not significantly different between the control and study periods. Despite the relatively high citrate and total alkali content of Diet Sunkist Orange soda, the volume consumed in this study (36 oz per day) did not provide sufficient potential base to significantly alter urine composition in healthy subjects with normocitraturia. The effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda on urinary chemistry in patients with hypocitraturia and nephrolithiasis is not likely to have a clinically significant effect to prevent calcium or uric acid stones.

  10. Thiazole orange: a new dye for reticulocyte analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, L G; Chen, C H; Chiu, L A

    1986-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a 488-nm excitable fluorescent dye for reticulocyte analysis by the use of fluorescence activated cell cytometry. The chemical structure of thioflavin T, a dye used for reticulocyte analysis with 457-nm excitation, was used as a model. Several dyes were synthesized and evaluated by quantum yield determination, fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry. The best results were obtained with a dye we have named "thiazole orange"; analysis of several blood samples with thiazole orange gave a correlation coefficient of 0.97 as compared to a manual determination of reticulocyte percentage.

  11. Orange County Government Solar Demonstration and Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Renee; Cunniff, Lori

    2015-05-12

    Orange County Florida completed the construction of a 20 kilowatt Solar Demonstration and Research Facility in March 2015. The system was constructed at the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center whose electric service address is 6021 South Conway Road, Orlando, Florida 32802. The Solar Demonstration and Research Facility is comprised of 72 polycrystalline photovoltaic modules and 3 inverters which convert direct current from the solar panels to alternating current electricity. Each module produces 270 watts of direct current power, for a total canopy production of just under 20,000 watts. The solar modules were installed with a fixed tilt of 5 degrees and face south, toward the equator to maximize the amount of sunlight captures. Each year, the electricity generated by the solar array will help eliminate 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions as well as provide covered parking for staff and visitors vehicles. The solar array is expected to generate 27,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually equating to an estimated $266 savings in the monthly electric bill, or $3,180 annually for the Orange County/University of Florida Cooperative Extension Center. In addition to reducing the electric bill for the Extension Center, Orange County’s solar array also takes advantage of a rebate incentive offered by the local utility, Orlando Utility Commission, which provided a meter that measures the amount of power produced by the solar array. The local utility company’s Solar Photovoltaic Production Incentive will pay Orange County $0.05 per kilowatt hour for the power that is produced by the solar array. This incentive is provided in addition to Net Metering benefits, which is an effort to promote the use of clean, renewable energy on the electric grid. The Photovoltaic Solar Demonstration and Research Facility also serves an educational tool to the public; the solar array is tied directly into a data logger that provides real time power

  12. Yellow and orange in cutaneous lesions: clinical and dermoscopic data.

    PubMed

    Bañuls, J; Arribas, P; Berbegal, L; DeLeón, F J; Francés, L; Zaballos, P

    2015-12-01

    Colour of the lesions is clue for the clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis. Nevertheless, we have detected in the literature an uneven relevance of the colours as a diagnostic criterion. Thus, while red, brown and blue have taken important role in dermoscopic descriptions, other like yellow and orange have been given much less importance. This article reviews those lesions in which the yellow and orange colours have been considered constitutive or essential for diagnosis, and on the other hand it emphasizes the entities in which may appear these colours and are not well reflected in the literature. We believe that organize all this information will help us in a better understanding of these pathologies.

  13. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning a previous Removal Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange...

  14. 76 FR 35886 - Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of... Office of Energy Projects has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) regarding Orange Cove...

  15. 75 FR 1010 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Clark, Floyd, Lawrence, Orange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ..., Floyd, Lawrence, Orange, and Washington Counties, IN On December 18, 2009, CSX Transportation, Inc... Albany, in Clark, Floyd, Lawrence, Orange, and Washington Counties, IN.\\1\\ The line traverses...

  16. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  17. Educating the Orang Asli Children: Exploring Indigenous Children's Practices and Experiences in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renganathan, Sumathi

    2016-01-01

    The author is concerned with the education available for the Orang Asli, an indigenous minority community in Malaysia. Literature written about Orang Asli and education mostly assumes a deficit perspective where the lack of educational achievement among the Orang Asli children is often attributed to their culture and community. Therefore, rather…

  18. 76 FR 50176 - Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... order includes certain orange juice for transport and/or further manufacturing, produced in two... Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5... Administrative Review, 74 FR 40167 (Aug. 11, 2009); and Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Final Results...

  19. 75 FR 50999 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... further manufacturing, produced in two different forms: (1) Frozen orange juice in a highly concentrated... Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). Therefore, the scope of this order with regard to... Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice from Brazil, 72 FR 12183 (Mar. 9, 2006). These deposit...

  20. 77 FR 63291 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... this order includes certain orange juice for transport and/or further manufacturing, produced in two... Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order; Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice from Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5... Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (Apr. 20,...

  1. Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange head leaves are a desirable quality trait for Chinese cabbage. Our previous fine mapping identified BrCRTISO as the Br-or candidate gene for the orange Chinese cabbage mutant. Here we examined the BrCRTISO gene from white and orange head Chinese cabbage. While BrCRTISO from the white control ...

  2. 76 FR 73996 - Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International..., Florida during the Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, a series of sailboat races. The Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta is scheduled to take place from Tuesday, December 27, 2011 through Friday,...

  3. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  4. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  5. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  6. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  7. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  11. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  12. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51... Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  17. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  20. 78 FR 37779 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Untreated Oranges...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Collection; Untreated Oranges, Tangerines, and Grapefruit From Mexico Transiting the United States to Foreign... approval of an information collection associated with the regulations for the transit of untreated oranges...: For information on the regulations for the transit of untreated oranges, tangerines, and...

  1. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51... Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed...

  2. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  7. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  10. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  11. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  16. 7 CFR 51.691 - Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. 51..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona) Standard Pack § 51.691 Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  18. 76 FR 54375 - Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange Beach, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Thunder on the Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Orange... establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of the Gulf of Mexico for the waters off Orange Beach... Mexico, south of Orange Beach, Alabama to occur from October 6, 2011 through October 9, 2011. This...

  19. Disease associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents: peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as a final rule its proposal to amend its adjudication regulations by clarifying and expanding the terminology regarding presumptive service connection for acute and subacute peripheral neuropathy associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents. This amendment implements a decision by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs based on findings from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Institute of Medicine report, Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2010. It also amends VA's regulation governing retroactive awards for certain diseases associated with herbicide exposure as required by court orders in the class action litigation of Nehmer v. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. PMID:24040683

  20. Disease associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents: peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as a final rule its proposal to amend its adjudication regulations by clarifying and expanding the terminology regarding presumptive service connection for acute and subacute peripheral neuropathy associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents. This amendment implements a decision by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs based on findings from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Institute of Medicine report, Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2010. It also amends VA's regulation governing retroactive awards for certain diseases associated with herbicide exposure as required by court orders in the class action litigation of Nehmer v. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

  1. Using Impact Fees for Public Schools: The Orange County Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducker, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    Orange County established a system of impact fees imposed on new housing developments to raise funds to finance new school construction. Reviews the events that led to the adoption of such a fee; analyzes the fee and the methodology for calculating it; and reviews the legal issues which arise when impact fees are used to finance public facilities.…

  2. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... manufacture of any orange product which has been converted into sectioned fruit or into fresh juice, or... chemical substances, or by fermentation. (d) Terms and tolerances pertaining to grade and size requirements... Florida, California, and Arizona) (7 CFR 51.680-51.714), shall be applicable herein. (e) Any person...

  3. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manufacture of any orange product which has been converted into sectioned fruit or into fresh juice, or... chemical substances, or by fermentation. (d) Terms and tolerances pertaining to grade and size requirements... Florida, California, and Arizona) (7 CFR 51.680-51.714), shall be applicable herein. (e) Any person...

  4. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... manufacture of any orange product which has been converted into sectioned fruit or into fresh juice, or... chemical substances, or by fermentation. (d) Terms and tolerances pertaining to grade and size requirements... Florida, California, and Arizona) (7 CFR 51.680-51.714), shall be applicable herein. (e) Any person...

  5. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... manufacture of any orange product which has been converted into sectioned fruit or into fresh juice, or... chemical substances, or by fermentation. (d) Terms and tolerances pertaining to grade and size requirements... Florida, California, and Arizona) (7 CFR 51.680-51.714), shall be applicable herein. (e) Any person...

  6. 7 CFR 944.312 - Orange import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... manufacture of any orange product which has been converted into sectioned fruit or into fresh juice, or... chemical substances, or by fermentation. (d) Terms and tolerances pertaining to grade and size requirements... Florida, California, and Arizona) (7 CFR 51.680-51.714), shall be applicable herein. (e) Any person...

  7. Determinants of flavor acceptability during the maturation of navel oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Navel oranges of differing maturities were harvested at regular intervals for three successive seasons and evaluated for external color, percent juice, soluble solid content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA). Fruit from each harvest date were rated by a sensory panel for flavor likeability (hedonic ...

  8. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelter, Paul B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the Orange Juice Clock demonstration in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker. Discusses the chemistry basics, extensions for more advanced students, questions for student/teacher workshop participants, and…

  9. Teen Pregnancy Prevention: Grassroots Efforts in Orange County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Callista Lee

    In 1979, a March of Dimes task force investigation in Orange County, California found a direct correlation between the rising number of low birth weight babies and the rising number of births to teens. Sparked by this investigation, the Coalition Concerned with Adolescent Pregnancy (CCAP), an independent non-profit agency, was formed. CCAP's…

  10. William Orange CB, MD, FRCP, LSA: A Broadmoor pioneer.

    PubMed

    Lansdown, Richard

    2015-05-01

    William Orange was the second Medical Superintendent of Broadmoor and in the 23 years he spent there created a management style that was greatly admired. Among his patients were the painter Richard Dadd, the Surgeon of Crowthorne and the Brighton poisoner. As advisor to the Home Office he also made a significant contribution to the interface between medicine and the law.

  11. Reticulocyte count using thiazole orange. A flow cytometry method.

    PubMed

    Van Hove, L; Goossens, W; Van Duppen, V; Verwilghen, R L

    1990-01-01

    Recently flow cytometry techniques have been developed to replace the microscope reticulocyte count. We used thiazole orange, a RNA binding fluorochrome, to discriminate reticulocytes from mature erythrocytes. Thiazole orange and the Retic-COUNT software package were evaluated for performance of routine analysis on different flow instruments. The applied methodology analysed 10(4) cells semi-automatically in an easily performed manner. Consistent results were obtained with dipotassium EDTA anticoagulated blood (stable for 30 h after venesection), with incubation times in thiazole orange solution ranging from 2 to 7 h at 25 degrees C. This allowed flexibility in specimen collection and storage and assay performance with no change in results. Changes of incubation temperature up to 30 degrees C had no measurable effect. The values obtained showed good linearity, precision and accuracy for normal, low and high reticulocyte counts. However interferences were observed: RBC autofluorescence, nucleated RBC, Howell-Jolly bodies, high leucocyte count, high platelet count and giant platelets, all falsely increased the number of reticulocytes. These artifacts were eliminated by software gate corrections, thus leaving less than 5% of the specimen to be reanalysed by the microscopic method. The thiazole orange flow cytometric method was determined to be a fast, reliable method for the routine clinical quantitation of reticulocytes.

  12. Two Lesser Dystopias: "We" and "A Clockwork Orange."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnsley, John H.

    1984-01-01

    Both the Russian novel "We" and the Anthony Burgess novel "A Clockwork Orange" offer frightening glimpses of a future society. But the contrast between these visions is striking. "We" is concerned with the misuse of technology, Burgess's book with the misuse of psychology. Both warn about the misuse of state power. (CS)

  13. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section 146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  14. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food when concentrated to a dilution ratio of 3 plus 1 is “Canned... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section 146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  16. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section 146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  17. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food when concentrated to a dilution ratio of 3 plus 1 is “Canned... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  18. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific...

  19. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific...

  20. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section 146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  1. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section 146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  2. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific...

  3. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food when concentrated to a dilution ratio of 3 plus 1 is “Canned... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  4. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food when concentrated to a dilution ratio of 3 plus 1 is “Canned... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  5. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific...

  6. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146.154 Section 146.154 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific...

  7. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prevent spoilage. (b) The name of the food when concentrated to a dilution ratio of 3 plus 1 is “Canned... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section 146.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  8. West Orange Collaborative STARK Program, 2002-2003 Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowther, Deborah L.; Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron; Wang, Weiping; Thompson, Laura

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the Year 2 evaluation study results of the Students and Teachers Accessing Real-time Knowledge (STARK) Program in the West Orange Consolidated Independent School District (CSID). The overall purpose of the evaluation was twofold: (a) to provide formative evaluation data to the participant schools to serve as a basis for…

  9. West Orange Collaborative STARK Program. 2003-2004 Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowther, Deborah L.; Thompson, Laura; Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron; Wang, Weiping

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Year 3 evaluation study of the Students and Teachers Accessing Real-time Knowledge (STARK) Program in the West Orange Consolidated Independent School District (CSID). The overall purpose of the evaluation was twofold: (a) to provide formative evaluation data to the participant schools to serve as a basis…

  10. The pharmacokinetics and health benefits of orange peel compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange peel is a resource rich in phenolic antioxidants, including several classes of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates. These compounds have been extensively studied for their biological actions particularly against chronic diseases in humans. Yet, full development of these materials as new, commerc...

  11. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  12. William Orange CB, MD, FRCP, LSA: A Broadmoor pioneer.

    PubMed

    Lansdown, Richard

    2015-05-01

    William Orange was the second Medical Superintendent of Broadmoor and in the 23 years he spent there created a management style that was greatly admired. Among his patients were the painter Richard Dadd, the Surgeon of Crowthorne and the Brighton poisoner. As advisor to the Home Office he also made a significant contribution to the interface between medicine and the law. PMID:25519427

  13. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice from Citrus reticulata or Citrus reticulata hybrids shall not exceed 10...

  14. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice from Citrus reticulata or Citrus reticulata hybrids shall not exceed 10...

  15. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice from Citrus reticulata or Citrus reticulata hybrids shall not exceed 10...

  16. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice from Citrus reticulata or Citrus reticulata hybrids shall not exceed 10...

  17. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., to which may be added unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus reticulata, other Citrus reticulata hybrids, or of Citrus aurantium, or both. However, in the unconcentrated blend, the volume of juice from Citrus reticulata or Citrus reticulata hybrids shall not exceed 10...

  18. Dropout Prevention Initiatives for Malaysian Indigenous Orang Asli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…

  19. Building a Model System of Developmental Services in Orange County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal; Russ, Shirley; Regalado, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, California voters passed Proposition 10, the California Children and Families First Act, which provides for an excise tax on tobacco products to fund parent education, health and child care programs that promote early childhood development for 0-5s. Since the adoption of its first Strategic Plan (2000), the Orange County First 5…

  20. 77 FR 69548 - Proposed Information Collection (Agent Orange Registry Code Sheet); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... required to organize and update the information contained in AOR to be able to notify Vietnam era veterans who served in the Republic of Vietnam of any increased health risks resulting from exposure to dioxin... VA that is similar to the Persian Gulf War Veterans Health Registry. Registry examination is...

  1. Dioxins and cytogenetic status of villagers after 40 years of agent Orange application in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Sycheva, Lyudmila P; Umnova, Nataliya V; Kovalenko, Maria A; Zhurkov, Vjacheslav S; Shelepchikov, Andrey A; Roumak, Vladimir S

    2016-02-01

    We have examined cytogenetic status of the rural population living on dioxin-contaminated territories (DCT, TCDD in soil 2.6 ng/kg) compared to the villagers of the control area (TCDD in soil 0.18 ng kg(-1)). The examination took place almost 40 years after the war. The consequences of some confounding factors (years of residence in the region, farming, and aging) has been examined. Karyological analysis of buccal and nasal epitheliocytes among healthy adult males living on DCT and control area (26 and 35 persons) was conducted. A wide range of cytogenetic (micronuclei, nuclear protrusions), proliferative (binucleated cells and cells with doubled nucleus) and endpoints of cell death (cells with perinuclear vacuoles, with damaged nucleus membrane, condensed chromatin, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyolysis) had been analyzed. The frequent amount of cells with nuclear protrusions in both epithelia was slightly decreased in the DСT group. Biomarkers of early and late stages of nuclear destruction in buccal epithelium (cells with damaged nuclear membrane, karyolysis) were elevated significantly in DCT. Higher level of the same parameters was also identified in nasal epithelium. The cytogenetic status of healthy adult males on DCT had got "normalization" by present moment in comparison with our early data. Nevertheless, in exposed group some alteration of the cytogenetic status was being registered (mostly biomarkers of apoptosis). Years of residence (and exposure to dioxins) affected the cytogenetic status of DCT inhabitants, whereas no influence of farming factors (pesticides, fertilizers, etc.) had been discovered. Some biomarkers of proliferation and cell death were affected by aging.

  2. Parental Military Service, Agent Orange Exposure, and the Risk of Rhabdomyosarcoma in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Grufferman, Seymour; Lupo, Philip J.; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Danysh, Heather E.; Erhardt, Erik B.; Ognjanovic, Simona

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of parental military service-related exposures and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) risk in offspring using data from a large case-control study of childhood RMS. Study design Cases (n=319) were enrolled from the third trial run by the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group. Population-based controls (n=319) were pair-matched to cases on race, sex, and age. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate parental military service-related exposures and their associations with childhood RMS by generating adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05. Results There were no significant associations between parental military service and childhood RMS. The strongest association was with maternal military service; however, this association was attenuated and did not remain significant after adjusting for covariates (aOR=2.75, 95% CI: 0.71, 10.62). An elevated effect estimate was found when assessing paternal exposure to AO and childhood RMS but was not statistically significant (aOR=1.72, 95% CI: 0.55, 5.41). Conclusions We found little evidence that parental military service of AO exposure influences the risk of RMS in offspring these factors influence disease risk. These findings are notable in light of the continuing controversies surrounding the intergenerational effects of AO exposure. PMID:25241182

  3. A resolution designating the month of August 2009 as "Agent Orange Awareness Month".

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Collins, Susan M. [R-ME

    2009-08-06

    08/06/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S9060; text as passed Senate: CR S9060; text of measure as introduced: CR S9046) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Dioxins and cytogenetic status of villagers after 40 years of agent Orange application in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Sycheva, Lyudmila P; Umnova, Nataliya V; Kovalenko, Maria A; Zhurkov, Vjacheslav S; Shelepchikov, Andrey A; Roumak, Vladimir S

    2016-02-01

    We have examined cytogenetic status of the rural population living on dioxin-contaminated territories (DCT, TCDD in soil 2.6 ng/kg) compared to the villagers of the control area (TCDD in soil 0.18 ng kg(-1)). The examination took place almost 40 years after the war. The consequences of some confounding factors (years of residence in the region, farming, and aging) has been examined. Karyological analysis of buccal and nasal epitheliocytes among healthy adult males living on DCT and control area (26 and 35 persons) was conducted. A wide range of cytogenetic (micronuclei, nuclear protrusions), proliferative (binucleated cells and cells with doubled nucleus) and endpoints of cell death (cells with perinuclear vacuoles, with damaged nucleus membrane, condensed chromatin, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyolysis) had been analyzed. The frequent amount of cells with nuclear protrusions in both epithelia was slightly decreased in the DСT group. Biomarkers of early and late stages of nuclear destruction in buccal epithelium (cells with damaged nuclear membrane, karyolysis) were elevated significantly in DCT. Higher level of the same parameters was also identified in nasal epithelium. The cytogenetic status of healthy adult males on DCT had got "normalization" by present moment in comparison with our early data. Nevertheless, in exposed group some alteration of the cytogenetic status was being registered (mostly biomarkers of apoptosis). Years of residence (and exposure to dioxins) affected the cytogenetic status of DCT inhabitants, whereas no influence of farming factors (pesticides, fertilizers, etc.) had been discovered. Some biomarkers of proliferation and cell death were affected by aging. PMID:26495825

  5. 78 FR 6853 - Agency Information Collection (Agent Orange Registry Code Sheet) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    .... The PRA submission describes the nature of the information collection and its expected cost and burden....Regulations.gov ; or to VA's OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive...

  6. Filling agents.

    PubMed

    Glavas, Ioannis P

    2005-06-01

    Injectable fillers have become an important component of minimally invasive facial rejuvenation modalities. Their ease of use, effectiveness, low morbidity, and fast results with minimal downtime are factors that have made them popular among patients. Soft tissue augmentation has evolved to a unique combination of medicine and art. A wide selection of available agents and new products, each one with unique properties, may be used alone or in combination. The physician acquires the tools to rebalance facial characteristics not only by filling wrinkles but also by having the ability to shape the face and restore bony contours and lines. Careful selection of candidates, realistic expectations, and an understanding of the limitations of fillers are crucial for a successful result.

  7. Fluorescent properties of oligonucleotide-conjugated thiazole orange probes.

    PubMed

    Privat, Eric; Melvin, Tracy; Mérola, Fabienne; Schweizer, Gerd; Prodhomme, Sylvie; Asseline, Ulysse; Vigny, Paul

    2002-03-01

    The fluorescence properties of thiazole orange, linked via a (1) hydrophobic alkyl or a (2) hydrophilic ethylene glycol chain to the central internucleotidic phosphate group of a pentadeca-2'-deoxyriboadenylate (dA15), are evaluated. Linkage at the phosphate group yields two stereoisomers, S-isomer of the phosphorus chiral center (Sp) and R-isomer of the phosphorus chiral center (Rp); these are studied separately. The character of the linkage chain and the chirality of the internucleotidic phosphate linkage site influence the fluorescent properties of these thiazole orange-oligonucleotide conjugates (TO-probes). Quantum yields of fluorescence (phifl) of between 0.04 and 0.07 were determined for the single-stranded conjugates. The fluorescence yield increased by up to five times upon hybridization with the complementary sequence (d5'[CACT15CAC3']); (phifl values of between 0.06-0.35 were determined for the double-stranded conjugates. The phifl value (0.17) of thiazole orange, 1-(N,N'-trimethylaminopropyl)-4-[3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-(benzo-1,3-thiazole)-2-methylidene]-quinolinium iodide (TO-Pro 1) in the presence of the oligonucleotide duplex (TO-Pro 1: dA15.d5'[CACT15CAC3'] (1:1)) is much less than that for some of the hybrids of the conjugates. Our studies, using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence experiments, show that a number of discrete fluorescent association species between the thiazole orange and the helix are formed. Time-resolved studies on the four double-stranded TO-probes revealed that the fluorescent oligonucleotide-thiazole orange complexes are common, only the distribution of the species varies with the character of the chain and the chirality at the internucleotidic phosphate site. Those TO-probes in which the isomeric structure of the phosphate-chain linkage is Rp, and therefore such that the fluorophore is directed toward the minor groove, have higher phifl values than the Sp isomer. Of the systems studied, thiazole orange linked by an alkyl

  8. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; German, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water supply in central Florida and is critical for aquatic habitats and human consumption. To provide a better understanding for the conservation, development, and management of the water resources of Orange County, Florida, a study of the hydrogeologic framework, water budget, and ground-water quality characteristics was conducted from 1998 through 2002. The study also included extensive analyses of the surface-water resources, published as a separate report. An increase in population from about 264,000 in 1960 to 896,000 in 2000 and subsequent urban growth throughout this region has been accompanied by a substantial increase in water use. Total ground-water use in Orange County increased from about 82 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 287 million gallons per day in 2000. The hydrogeology of Orange County consists of three major hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. Data were compiled from 634 sites to construct hydrogeologic maps and sections of Orange County. Water-level elevations measured in 23 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system ranged from about 10.6 feet in eastern Orange County to 123.8 feet above NGVD 29 in northwestern Orange County from March 2000 through September 2001. Water levels also were measured in 14 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels fluctuate over time from seasonal and annual variations in rainfall; however, water levels in a number of wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer have declined over time. Withdrawal of ground water from the aquifers by pumping probably is causing the declines because the average annual precipitation rate has not changed substantially in central Florida since the 1930s, although yearly rates can vary. A generalized water budget was computed for Orange County from 1991 to 2000. Average rates for the 10-year period for the following budget components were computed based

  9. Harvest control rules for a sustainable orange roughy fishery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doonan, Ian J.; Fu, Dan; Dunn, Matthew R.

    2015-04-01

    Some of the best described examples of unsustainable deep-sea fisheries have been for the orange roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus. Nevertheless, fisheries for orange roughy around New Zealand have persisted for more than 30 years, and some stocks that were overfished and substantially depleted now appear to be recovering. Scientific advice on the status of New Zealand orange roughy stocks has historically used population models fitted to various observational data, but this approach has proved problematic, largely due to uncertainty in recruitment, to the extent that from 2008 these models were replaced by a simple harvest control rule (HCR). The catches taken under this HCR were a fixed proportion of the weight of the mature stock, estimated principally from acoustic surveys. We test the performance of the current HCR, and some alternative HCRs, using a simulation model. The model simulates long-term single-species orange roughy stock dynamics, stock monitoring surveys, and management decisions. We allow for uncertainty in model parameters, but focus on the effects of changes in mean recruitment and recruitment variability, because the latter have been considered the primary source of uncertainty in future stock status. Results show that the current HCR is likely to lead to a sustainable fishery. Nevertheless, there are alternative HCRs that could out-perform the existing HCR. With a reliable series of biomass estimates from acoustic surveys, good knowledge of biological parameters (natural mortality in particular), some revision of a HCR to control catch, and spatial management to control habitat damage, it appears that an orange roughy fishery might achieve best-practice sustainability and environmental standards.

  10. Mechanism of sorption sulpho-derivative organic chelating agents on strong base anion exchanger Amberlite IRA-402 by FT-IR/PAS and DRS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronski, G.; Pasieczna-Patkowska, S.; Hubicki, Z.

    2008-02-01

    In the paper, strong base anion exchanger Amberlite IRA-402 was modified by using sulpho-derivative organic chelating agents as: Brilliant Yellow, Xylenol Orange, Bromophenyl Blue. The investigations exhibited, that anion exchanger Amberlite IRA-402 is modified very simply by organic chelating agents (working capacity 0.25 0.5 g/cm3).

  11. Computational study on the color change of 3‧-hydroxyechinenone in the orange carotenoid protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yukie

    2016-05-01

    The orange carotenoid protein, which contains 3‧-hydroxyechinenone (hECN), changes color from orange to red when irradiated with blue-green light. In this study, the origins of the color change have been investigated. The conformation of hECN in the red form is more planar than that in the orange form; consequently, the absorption band is red-shifted on conversion from the orange form to the red form. Another source of the red shift is that the electrostatic field generated by the protein in the red form stabilizes the excited state better than that generated by the protein in the orange form.

  12. Rapid biodegradation and decolorization of Direct Orange 39 (Orange TGLL) by an isolated bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BCH.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Jyoti P; Phugare, Swapnil S; Dhanve, Rhishikesh S; Jadhav, Shekhar B

    2010-06-01

    A newly isolated novel bacterium from sediments contaminated with dyestuff was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BCH by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The bacterium was extraordinarily active and operative over a wide rage of temperature (10-60 degrees C) and salinity (5-6%), for decolorization of Direct Orange 39 (Orange TGLL) at optimum pH 7. This strain was capable of decolorizing Direct Orange 39; 50 mg l(-1) within 45 +/- 5 min, with 93.06% decolorization, while maximally it could decolorize 1.5 g l(-1) of dye within 48 h with 60% decolorization. Analytical studies as, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, HPLC were employed to confirm the biodegradation of dye and formation of new metabolites. Induction in the activities of lignin peroxidases, DCIP reductase as well as tyrosinase was observed, indicating the significant role of these enzymes in biodegradation of Direct Orange 39. Toxicity studies with Phaseolus mungo and Triticum aestivum revealed the non-toxic nature of degraded metabolites.

  13. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  14. [Commercial orange juice beverages detection by fluorescence spectroscopy combined with PCA-ED and PLSR methods].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang-jun; Zhu, Chun; Chen, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yong; Kong, Fan-biao; Li, Run; Zhu, Zhuo-wei; Wang, Xu; Gao, Shu-mei

    2014-08-01

    In order to classify the orange juiice beverages effectively, the fluorescence character differences of two kinds of orange juice beverages including 100% orange juice and orange drink were analyzed and compared, principal component analysis combined with Euclidean distance was adopted to classify two kinds of orange juice beverages, and ideal classification results were obtained. Meanwhile, the orange juice content estimation model was established by using fluorescence spectroscopy combined with partial least squares regression method, and the correlation coefficient R, root mean square error of calibration RMSEC and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP were 0.997, 0.87% and 2.05%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the calibration model offers comparatively accurate content estimation, which reflect the actual orange juice content in the commercial orange juice beverages. The exploration to classify orange juice beverages was carried out from two aspects of qualitative and quantitative analysis by employing fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics method, which can provide a new idea for the classification and adulteration detection of commercial orange juice beverages, and also can give certain reference basis for the quality control of orange juice raw material.

  15. Red-fleshed sweet orange juice improves the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Dourado, Grace K Z S; Cesar, Thais B

    2015-01-01

    Orange juice consumption can promote lower levels of oxidative stress and inflammation due to the antioxidant activity of citrus flavonoids and carotenoids. In addition, red-fleshed sweet orange juice (red orange juice) also contains lycopene. This study investigated the effects of red orange juice consumption on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Volunteers consumed red orange juice daily for 8 weeks, with clinical and biochemical assessments performed at baseline and on the final day. There was no change in the abdominal obesity, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein decreased, while there was an increase of the antioxidant activity in serum after red orange juice consumption. Insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure were reduced in normal-weight volunteers, while diastolic blood pressure decreased in overweight volunteers after intervention. Red orange juice showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties that may prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  16. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  17. Acridine Orange Conjugated Polymersomes for Simultaneous Nuclear Delivery of Gemcitabine and Doxorubicin to Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Anajafi, Tayebeh; Scott, Michael D; You, Seungyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Choi, Yongki; Qian, Steven Y; Mallik, Sanku

    2016-03-16

    Considering the systemic toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents, there is an urgent need to develop new targeted drug delivery systems. Herein, we have developed a new nuclear targeted, redox sensitive, drug delivery vehicle to simultaneously deliver the anticancer drugs gemcitabine and doxorubicin to the nuclei of pancreatic cancer cells. We prepared polymeric bilayer vesicles (polymersomes), and actively encapsulated the drug combination by the pH gradient method. A redox-sensitive polymer (PEG-S-S-PLA) was incorporated to sensitize the formulation to reducing agent concentration. Acridine orange (AO) was conjugated to the surface of the polymersomes imparting nuclear localizing property. The polymersomes' toxicity and efficacy were compared with those of a free drug combination using monolayer and three-dimensional spheroid cultures of pancreatic cancer cells. We observed that the redox sensitive, nuclear-targeted polymersomes released more than 60% of their encapsulated contents in response to 50 mM glutathione. The nanoparticles are nontoxic; however, the drug encapsulated vesicles have significant toxicity. The prepared formulation can increase the drug's therapeutic index by delivering the drugs directly to the cells' nuclei, one of the key organelles in the cells. This study is likely to initiate research in targeted nuclear delivery using other drug formulations in other types of cancers.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of flavanone glycosides after ingestion of single doses of fresh-squeezed orange juice versus commercially processed orange juice in healthy humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids known to be beneficial to cardiovascular health in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the pharmacokinetics of the main flavanone glycosides, hesperidin and narirutin, in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squee...

  19. 1. 'SANTA ANA RIVER IN SANTA ANA CANYON. ORANGE COUNTY.' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 'SANTA ANA RIVER IN SANTA ANA CANYON. ORANGE COUNTY.' This is an oblique aerial view to the northeast taken from the northeast extremity of the canyon, showing, in the middle distance, the confluence of Chino Creek and the Santa Ana River, site of the future Prado Dam. File number written on negative: R & H 80 026. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  20. Consumption of orange fermented beverage reduces cardiovascular risk factors in healthy mice.

    PubMed

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Berná, Genoveva; Ortega, Ángeles; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Cerrillo, Isabel; Martín, Franz; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad

    2015-04-01

    The consumption of fruits prevents the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Alcoholic fermentation has been carried out in fruits resulting in products which provide high concentration of bioactive compounds and variable alcohol content. The aim of this study was to assess the potential beneficial effect of an orange beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation and pasteurization of orange juice on cardiovascular risk biomarkers. For this purpose, four mice groups (n = 8) ingested orange beverage (equivalent volume to 250 mL/day in human), orange juice, alcoholic solution (at the proportional amount of orange beverage) or water during 12 weeks. The equivalent amount to double serving of orange beverage (500 mL/day) was administered to mice in a subsequent intervention, and a control group was also evaluated. Orange beverage consumption increased levels of glutathione and uric acid, improved lipid profile, decreased oxidized LDL and maintained levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein. Synergistic effects between the bioactive compounds and the alcohol content of orange beverage may occur. The intake of double serving also increased antioxidant enzyme activities, bilirubin content and plasma antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that orange beverage may produce greater protection against cardiovascular risk factors than orange juice in healthy mice.

  1. Development of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on leaves and fruit of orange trees.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Glover, Michelle; Munro, Scott; Beattie, G Andrew C

    2006-08-01

    Development of Epipyas postvittna (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on leaves and fruit of 'Valencia', 'Washington navel', and 'Navelina' orange trees was studied under constant and fluctuating temperatures. E. postvittna was able to complete its life cycle feeding exclusively on leaves or fruit of orange trees. However, larval survival rate was very low (< 20%) on orange tissues compared with that on noncitrus hosts. Among the four types of orange tissues, young orange leaves and fruit afforded larvae higher survival rates than mature orange leaves and fruit. Fruit (young or mature) produced heavier pupae than leaves (young or mature). Larvae developed more slowly on mature orange fruit than on other orange materials and more slowly on orange leaves than on leaves of most noncitrus hosts. Degree-day accumulations based on the fastest developmental rates obtained in this study suggested that E. postvittna is capable of completing 4.4-4.7 generations per year in orange orchards in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. Implications of the results in the management of the insect in citrus are discussed.

  2. In vitro evaluation of the effect of natural orange juices on dentin morphology.

    PubMed

    Zandim, Daniela Leal; Corrêa, Fernanda Oliveira Bello; Rossa Júnior, Carlos; Sampaio, José Eduardo Cezar

    2008-01-01

    The patient's diet has been considered an important etiological factor of dentin hypersensitivity. The frequent ingestion of acidic substances can promote the loss of dental structure or remove the smear layer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of smear layer removal and dentinal tubules exposure by different natural orange juices. Extracted human teeth were submitted to manual scaling in order to develop the smear layer. Seventy dentin samples were obtained and distributed into the following groups: Control, lime orange, lime, valência orange, navel orange, mandarin, and tangerine. Each group included 2 methods of application: Topical and topical + friction. After preparation for SEM analysis, photomicrographs were assessed by a blind calibrated examiner using an index system. The Kruskal-Wallis test indicated a significant influence of the orange juices on smear layer removal. Significant difference was observed between navel orange, valência orange, mandarin and the control group (p < 0.05). These orange juices resulted in greater removal of the smear layer and greater opening of dentinal tubules. The comparison between the application methods for each group using the Mann-Whitney test showed that friction increased smear layer removal significantly only for lime orange and lime. The data suggest that certain natural orange juices are more effective in terms of smear layer removal and dentinal tubules exposure than others. PMID:18622489

  3. Immunochemical Screening of Pesticides (Simazine and Cypermethrin) in Orange Oil

    PubMed Central

    Nichkova, Mikaela; Fu, Xun; Yang, Zheng; Zhong, Ping; Sanborn, James R.; Chang, Dan; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide residue analysis in citrus oils is very important for their quality and marketing. This study assessed the reliability and sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for simazine and cypermethrin screening in orange oil. Simazine was analyzed after extraction of the oil with methanolic phosphate buffer with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 40 µg/L for 1-fold and ~100 µg/L for 10-fold oils. Due to matrix effects the immunoanalysis of cypermethrin required hexane–acetonitrile partitioning followed by silica solid phase extraction. The method detected levels higher than 0.5 ppm (mg/L). This LOQ is lower than the U.S. EPA tolerance level (0.9 ppm) for cypermethrin in citrus oils. A good correlation (r2 0.99) between ELISA and LC-MS/MS was observed for the analysis of both analytes in 1-fold orange oil. Immunochemical screening can be used to reduce instrumental analysis costs by its use in preliminary orange oil screening. PMID:19526986

  4. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants. PMID:27254458

  5. Antioxidant activity of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Alberto; La Fauci, Luca; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Guerra, Maria Clelia; Speroni, Ester; Costa, Stefano; Galvano, Giacomo; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bacchelli, Vanessa; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Galvano, Fabio

    2005-12-01

    Blood orange juice is a typical Italian product whose red color is primarily associated with anthocyanin pigments. Two orange-based products are present on the market: pasteurized pure juice with 40 days of shelf life, and sterilized beverage containing minimum 12% of concentrated fruit juice. The aim of the present paper is to verify the relationships between the antioxidant properties and the anthocyanins content in a sampling of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices. The anthocyanins composition was determined by HPLC-MS/MS, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the Briggs-Rauscher reaction, selected in order to acquire information at acid pH values, by three radical scavenging assays (DMPD, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylenbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), DPPH), and by FRAP assay to monitor the ferric reducing power. Results showed that antioxidant activity, particularly when measured by ABTS method, is positively related to the content of anthocyanins and that the reduction of anthocyanins content, typical of commercial long-shelf life juices, leads to a remarkable loss of antioxidant power.

  6. Stable isotope tracers: natural and anthropogenic recharge, Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Alan E.

    1997-12-01

    Stable isotopic techniques have been utilized to locate occurrences and trace movements of a variety of naturally and anthropogenically recharged waters in aquifers of Orange County, California. This basin is of particular interest not only because it provides the dominant water supply for the two million residents of this well-populated county, but also because it is representative of a common arid environment where natural recharge is dominated by distant, high-elevation precipitation transported by a major river. Such arid basins are particularly sensitive to climatic and anthropogenic disturbance of their recharge and their subsurface hydrology. In order to identify distinctive waters, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios from Orange County wells have been compared with a regional database including an array of surface water samples representative of watershed runoff. Four distinctive subsurface water types can be resolved. Waters of "local" rainfall and imported, "Colorado" River aqueduct origins are easily distinguished from dominant, "native" Santa Ana river compositions by use of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis. Recent human interference with Santa Ana river flow and recharge is also marginally resolvable by isotopic techniques. Distinguishable isotopic signatures of "recent" Santa Ana recharge appear to be due to evaporative loss, perhaps during storage in the Prado Reservoir or in percolation ponds, prior to recharge into Orange County aquifers. Characterization of traceable isotopic signatures of distinct natural and anthropogenic recharge components provides a major advance towards use of such techniques for developing a well constrained, three-dimensional hydrologic model for this complex basin.

  7. Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

    2013-11-01

    The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, α-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

  8. Authentication of Concentrated Orange Essential Oils Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Muñoz, G. A.; Balderas López, J. A.; López González, R. F.

    2012-11-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PS) was used to study the thermal diffusivity and its relation with the composition in folded (concentrated) cold-pressed Mexican orange essential oils. A linear relation between the amplitude (on a semi-log scale) and phase, as functions of the sample thickness, for PS was obtained through a theoretical model to fit the experimental data for thermal-diffusivity measurements in concentrated orange essential oils. Experimental results showed a linear increase in thermal-diffusivity values with the folding degree: 5-fold, 10-fold, 20-fold, and 35-fold due to a decrease in terpenes (mainly D-limonene) related with the folding process that can be correlated with the thermal diffusivity of the orange essential oils. The obtained values in this study and those previously reported (see Int. J. Thermophys. 32, 1066, 2011) showed the possibility of using this thermal property to make distinctions between citrus oils obtained by different extraction processes and also between concentrated citrus oils. This provides the viability of a new complementary method for this purpose, contrasting with the use of density and refraction index, physical properties commonly used in the authentication of citrus essential oils.

  9. Trapping characteristic of halloysite lumen for methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Yan, Hua; Pei, Zhenzhao; Wu, Junyong; Li, Rongrong; Jin, Yanxian; Zhao, Jie

    2015-08-01

    The interaction of clay minerals and dyes is an area of great interest especially in the development of novel adsorbents. In this report, we demonstrated interaction of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and an anionic dye, methyl orange (MO), through a electrostatic attraction. Halloysite lumen has a trapping characteristic for methyl orange, which is mainly determined by the positively charged nature of the inner surface of HNTs. XRD results confirmed that intercalation of methyl orange into HNTs did not occur. SEM-EDS and photostability results showed that MO molecules were primarily in HNTs lumen. Adsorption isotherm studies revealed an interesting phenomenon, i.e., a sudden increase of adsorption capacity occurred in the initial dye concentration of about 75 mg/L, which was just the dye concentration corresponding to the onset of dye oligomer formation. This suggested dye aggregation state had a decisive influence to the adsorption behavior of MO on the halloysite. BET results demonstrated at low and high dye concentrations, single MO molecule and aggregation of several dimers through hydrophobic interaction, interacted with Al-OH2+ sites on the inner wall, respectively. Desorption experiments showed that MO in HNTs can be completely removed with deionized water, indicating halloysite is a low-cost and efficient adsorbent for anionic dye.

  10. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  11. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  12. Effect of ultrahigh-temperature continuous ohmic heating treatment on fresh orange juice.

    PubMed

    Leizerson, Shirly; Shimoni, Eyal

    2005-05-01

    The scope of this study is the effect of ohmic heating thermal treatment on liquid fruit juice made of oranges. Effects of ohmic heating on the quality of orange juice were examined and compared to those of heat pasteurization at 90 degrees C for 50 s. Orange juice was treated at temperatures of 90, 120, and 150 degrees C for 1.13, 0.85, and 0.68 s in an ohmic heating system. Microbial counts showed complete inactivation of bacteria, yeast, and mold during ohmic and conventional treatments. The ohmic heating treatment reduced pectin esterase activity by 98%. The reduction in vitamin C was 15%. Ohmic-heated orange juice maintained higher amounts of the five representative flavor compounds than did heat-pasteurized juice. Sensory evaluation tests showed no difference between fresh and ohmic-heated orange juice. Thus, high-temperature ohmic-heating treatment can be effectively used to pasteurize fresh orange juice with minimal sensory deterioration.

  13. Synthesis and binding properties of oligo-2'-deoxyribonucleotides covalently linked to a thiazole orange derivative.

    PubMed

    Privat, E; Asseline, U

    2001-01-01

    Thiazole orange label was coupled to the eighth phosphate of a pentadeca-2'-deoxyriboadenylate via a phosphoramidate linkage using different linkers. The stereoisomers were separated, and their absolute configurations were determined. Finally, the thiazole orange moiety was also linked to the tenth phosphate of icosathymidylates in both the alpha and the beta series via a phosphoramidate linkage. Once again, the thiazole orange-icosathymidylate conjugates were obtained as pure stereoisomers. The binding properties of these oligo-2'-deoxyribonucleotide-thiazole orange conjugates with their complementary sequences were studied by absorption spectroscopy. The covalent attachment of the thiazole orange derivatives to the oligoadenylates stabilizes the complexes formed with both the DNA and RNA targets. On the contrary, when the thiazole orange is tethered to the oligo-alpha-thymidylate or oligo-beta-thymidylate, no significant stabilization of the duplexes formed with poly r(A) can be observed.

  14. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  15. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  18. 21 CFR 73.3112 - C.I. Vat Orange 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false C.I. Vat Orange 1. 73.3112 Section 73.3112 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3112 C.I. Vat Orange 1. (a) Identity. The color additive is C.I. Vat Orange 1, Colour Index No. 59105. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1)...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  1. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  10. 21 CFR 73.3112 - C.I. Vat Orange 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false C.I. Vat Orange 1. 73.3112 Section 73.3112 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3112 C.I. Vat Orange 1. (a) Identity. The color additive is C.I. Vat Orange 1, Colour Index No. 59105. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1)...

  11. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  13. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  14. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  1. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  6. 21 CFR 73.3112 - C.I. Vat Orange 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false C.I. Vat Orange 1. 73.3112 Section 73.3112 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3112 C.I. Vat Orange 1. (a) Identity. The color additive is C.I. Vat Orange 1, Colour Index No. 59105. (b) Uses and restrictions. (1)...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  9. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  10. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  13. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  14. Immune responses of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, against virus-like particles of betanodavirus produced in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Xiong; Jin, Bao-Lei; Xu, Yu; Huang, Li-Jie; Huang, Run-Qing; Zhang, Yong; Kwang, Jimmy; He, Jian-Guo; Xie, Jun-Feng

    2014-01-15

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN), a serious disease of cultured marine fish worldwide. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the good novel vaccine candidates to control this disease. Until now, betanodavirus vaccine studies mainly focused on the humoral immune response and mortality after virus challenge. However, little is known about the activation of genes responsible for cellular and innate immunity by vaccines. In the present study, VLPs of orange-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (OGNNV) were produced in prokaryotes and their ability to enter Asian sea bass cells was the same as native virus, suggesting that they possess a similar structure to OGNNV. VLPs immunogenicity was then determined by intramuscularly vaccinating Epinephelus coioides at different concentrations (1.5 or 15 μg g(-1) fish body weight, FBW) and immunizing frequencies (administration once, twice and thrice). A single vaccination with the dosage of 1.5 μg g(-1) FBW is enough to provoke high titer antibodies (average 3 fold higher than that of negative control) with strong neutralizing antibody titer as early as 1 week post immunization. Furthermore, quantitative PCR analysis revealed that eleven genes associated with humoral, cellular and innate immunities were up-regulated in the liver, spleen and head kidney at 12h post immunization, correlating with the early antibody response. In conclusion, we demonstrated that VLP vaccination induced humoral immune responses and activated genes associated with cellular and innate immunity against betanodavirus infection in orange-spotted grouper.

  15. Complexation of thorium and beryllium with xylenol orange

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhonov, V.N.; Smirnova, S.N.

    1986-10-01

    The interaction of thorium and beryllium with Xylenol Orange, which was purified by gel filtration on Molselect G-10, has been studied. Thorium forms a complex with a component ratio M:R = 2:1, = (1.11 +/- 0.02).10/sup 5/, and K/sub st/ = (3.25 +/- 0.89)/sup ./ 10/sup 13/ at pH 2 and a complex with a 1:1 component ratio and = (6.9 +/- 0.1).10/sup 4/ at pH 4. Beryllium forms a complex with a component ratio M:R = 1:1, = (3.6 +/- 0.1)/sup ./ 10/sup 4/, and K/sub st/ = (1.65 + or - 0.06)/sup ./ 10/sup 13/. For both thorium complexes lambda/sub max/ = 565 NM, and for the beryllium complex lambda/sub max/ = 475 nm. The study of the reaction mechanism has shown that the thorium complex with M:R = 2:1 forms when thorium in the form of Th/sup 4 +/ and the reagent in the form of H/sub 5/R/sup -/ interact. In the case of beryllium, the complex forms between BeOH/sup +/ and H/sub 3/R/sup 3 -/. Acetates have little influence on the formation of the thorium complex and a strong influence on the formation of the beryllium complex. Beer's law holds up to thorium and beryllium concentrations equal to 5 x 10/sup -5/ M when the concentration of Xylenol Orange is equal to 6 x 10/sup -5/M. Fluorides, citrates, tartrates, and EDTA interfere with the formation of the complexes of thorium and beryllium with Xylenol Orange.

  16. Submerged citric acid fermentation on orange peel autohydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Beatriz; Torrado, Ana; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2008-04-01

    The citrus-processing industry generates in the Mediterranean area huge amounts of orange peel as a byproduct from the industrial extraction of citrus juices. To reduce its environmental impact as well as to provide an extra profit, this residue was investigated in this study as an alternative substrate for the fermentative production of citric acid. Orange peel contained 16.9% soluble sugars, 9.21% cellulose, 10.5% hemicellulose, and 42.5% pectin as the most important components. To get solutions rich in soluble and starchy sugars to be used as a carbon source for citric acid fermentation, this raw material was submitted to autohydrolysis, a process that does not make use of any acidic catalyst. Liquors obtained by this process under optimum conditions (temperature of 130 degrees C and a liquid/solid ratio of 8.0 g/g) contained 38.2 g/L free sugars (8.3 g/L sucrose, 13.7 g/L glucose, and 16.2 g/L fructose) and significant amounts of metals, particularly Mg, Ca, Zn, and K. Without additional nutrients, these liquors were employed for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger CECT 2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599). Addition of calcium carbonate enhanced citric acid production because it prevented progressive acidification of the medium. Moreover, the influence of methanol addition on citric acid formation was investigated. Under the best conditions (40 mL of methanol/kg of medium), an effective conversion of sugars into citric acid was ensured (maximum citric acid concentration of 9.2 g/L, volumetric productivity of 0.128 g/(L.h), and yield of product on consumed sugars of 0.53 g/g), hence demonstrating the potential of orange peel wastes as an alternative raw material for citric acid fermentation. PMID:18321055

  17. Effects of organic fertilisation on sweet orange bearing trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roccuzzo, Giancarlo; Torrisi, Biagio; Canali, Stefano; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    In a study realised over a five year period (2001-2006) on orange bearing trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] cv. ‘Valencia late', grafted on sour orange (C. aurantium L.), four fertiliser treatments were applied: citrus by-products compost (CB), poultry manure (PM), livestock waste compost (LW) and mineral fertiliser (MF), as control. The trees, with the exception of MF treatment, were organically grown since 1994 in the experimental farm of CRA-ACM in Lentini, Sicily, and received the same N input every year. The research objectives were to evaluate the effect of long term repeated organic fertilisers application on i) soil fertility; ii) citrus bearing trees nutritional status by means of leaf analysis and iii) yield and fruit quality, determining parameters currently utilized to evaluate sweet orange production either for fresh consumption and processing. The CB treatment showed significantly higher values of Corg in soil than MF treatment (about 30%). Corg in PM and LW treatments was higher than MF treatment (13% and 20%, respectively), but these differences were not statistically significant either from the control treatment nor from the soil fertilised with CB. Similar trend was showed by the humic and fulvic C being the values of the CB treatment significantly higher than the control. PM and LW treatments had intermediate values, without statistical significance. The long term addition to soil of a quality compost (CB) with high C/N ratio increased the level of nutrients wich usually show low availability for citrus plants (P, Fe, Zn, Mn), as demonstrated by leaf analysis. No significant difference was noticed as far as yield was concerned, whereas CB treatment enhanced some fruit quality parameters.

  18. Photodegradation of Orange II by mesoporous TiO2.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Liyuan; Zhao, Yaping; Liu, Lu

    2011-09-01

    Mesoporous TiO(2) microspheres were prepared by a hydrothermal reaction and are characterized in this paper. Decoloration and mineralization during photodegradation of Orange II by mesoporous TiO(2) at different pH values, formation of sulfate, relative luminosity to luminous bacteria and recycling experiments of the catalyst were studied. The FTIR results further suggested that the novel mesoporous TiO(2) can not only decolor and mineralize dyes completely but also can be effectively reused several times. On the basis of the research, mesoporous TiO(2) would be a promising photocatalyst for practical use. PMID:21833403

  19. Obtaining lipases from byproducts of orange juice processing.

    PubMed

    Okino-Delgado, Clarissa Hamaio; Fleuri, Luciana Francisco

    2014-11-15

    The presence of lipases was observed in three byproducts of orange juice processing: peel, core and frit. The enzymes were characterised biochemically over a wide pH range from neutral (6-7) to alkaline (8-9). The optimal temperature for the activity of these byproducts showed wide range at 20°C to 70°C, indicating fairly high thermostability. The activities were monitored on p-NP-butyrate, p-NP-laurate and p-NP-palmitate. For the first time, lipase activity was detected in these residues, reaching 68.5 lipase U/g for the crude extract from fractions called frit.

  20. Mars Life? - Orange-colored Carbonate Mineral Globules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photograph shows orange-colored carbonate mineral globules found in a meteorite, called ALH84001, believed to have once been a part of Mars. These carbonate minerals in the meteorite are believed to have been formed on Mars more than 3.6 billion years ago. Their structure and chemistry suggest that they may have been formed with the assistance of primitive, bacteria-like living organisms. A two-year investigation by a NASA research team found organic molecules, mineral features characteristic of biological activity and possible microscopic fossils inside of carbonate minerals such as these in the meteorite.

  1. [Preparation of magnetic quaternary chitosan salt and its adsorption of methyl orange from water].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong-lu; Hu, Xiao-min; Ying, Shi-ying; Wang, Fang

    2013-05-01

    First, quaternary chitosan salts with different substitution degrees were prepared in glycine hydrochloride ([Gly]Cl) ionic liquid. Nano-sized Fe3O4 powder was obtained through chemical co-precipitation method. And then, magnetic quaternary chitosan particles were prepared through inverse suspension cross-linking using Fe3O4 was the nucleus and glutaraldehyde as the cross-linking agent. The influence of different reaction conditions on adsorption was discussed. Adsorption of methyl orange (MO) by magnetic quaternary chitosan particles was studied through the static adsorption method. The results showed that at pH 3.0 and 25 degrees C the adsorption capacity varied from 37.45 mg x g(-1) to 277.5 mg x g(-1) with the MO concentration ranging from 20 mg x L(-1) to 150 mg x L(-1). The adsorption isotherm was fitted to the Freundlich model and the adsorption kinetics was fitted to the pseudo-second order kinetic isotherms capacity experiment. It was found that after the adsorbent was used for four times, its removal rate still exceeded 90%. PMID:23914533

  2. Unraveling multiple binding modes of acridine orange to DNA using a multispectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Mhejabeen; Krishnamurthy, Bhavana; Pal, Haridas

    2016-09-21

    The interaction of acridine orange (AOH(+)) with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) under different dye-DNA conditions has been investigated in detail using multispectroscopic techniques, unraveling a number of hitherto unexplored intricacies of dye-DNA binding. The observed results intriguingly show contrasting binding features when low (2.4 μM) and significantly high (23 μM) dye concentrations are used. It is conclusively inferred from absorption, steady-state fluorescence, circular dichroism, fluorescence decay and anisotropy decay studies that at low [DNA] to [dye] ratio, especially with higher dye concentration, dimeric AOH(+) predominantly binds externally to DNA surfaces through electrostatic interactions. At sufficiently high [DNA] to [dye] ratios, however, the interaction intriguingly changes to monomeric AOH(+) bound to DNA, predominantly in the intercalative mode between DNA base pairs, with partly an electrostatic binding on DNA surfaces. With very low initial dye concentration, monomeric (AOH(+)) mostly binds to DNA through intercalative and electrostatic modes for most DNA to dye ratios. The present study demonstrates a systematic correlation of the striking changes in the photophysical properties of the dye upon multimode binding with DNA. The observed results are of great significance in understanding the fundamental insights of dye/drug binding to DNA hosts, of use in the design of effective therapeutic agents. PMID:27545984

  3. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  4. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  5. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    The Orange Juice Clock, in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker, has been a popular classroom, conference, and workshop demonstration for nearly 10 years. It is widely enjoyed because it shows visually how chemistry - or more precisely, electrochemistry - is responsible for the very common phenomenon of a clock ticking. The chemistry of the process can also be understood on a variety of levels, from middle school (simple electron flow in a circuit, Ohm's law) and high school (reduction/oxidation and standard cell potentials) to first-year college (cell potential at nonideal conditions) and graduate school courses (overpotential and charge transfer across interfaces.) The discussion that follows considers the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the demonstration. The History The demonstration was devised by one of us (PK) in 1986, after reading an activity in Hubert Alyea's 1947 compendium of chemical demonstrations from this Journal (1). In that activity, Alyea hooked a magnesium strip to the negative battery terminal of an electric bell and hooked a copper strip to the positive terminal. He placed the loose ends of the strips into a 1M 2SO4 solution and the bell rang. After trying the demonstration, it seemed to make sense to modify the electrolyte to orange juice because it is safe, readily available, and would be a mixture in which the magnesium would oxidize more slowly than in sulfuric acid. Further, a clock was substituted for the bell because a clock is easier on the ears than a bell. A video of the orange-juice clock setup is given as Figure 1. Figure 1.The orange juice clock set up. Video of orange juice clock was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The apparatus was presented in 1987 as part of a teacher workshop led by Irwin Talesnick, then of Queen's University in Canada. Talesnick, whose distinguished career has been

  6. Regiospecific Ester Hydrolysis by Orange Peel Esterase - An Undergraduate Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugg, Timothy D. H.; Lewin, Andrew M.; Catlin, Eric R.

    1997-01-01

    A simple but effective experiment has been developed to demonstrate the regiospecificity of enzyme catalysis using an esterase activity easily isolated from orange peel. The experiment involves the preparation of diester derivatives of para-, meta- and ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid (e.g. methyl 4-acetoxy-benzoic acid). The derivatives are incubated with orange peel esterase, as a crude extract, and with commercially available pig liver esterase and porcine pancreatic lipase. The enzymatic hydrolysis reactions are monitored by thin layer chromatography, revealing which of the two ester groups is hydrolysed, and the rate of the enzyme-catalysed reaction. The results of a group experiment revealed that in all cases hydrolysis was observed with at least one enzyme, and in most cases the enzymatic hydrolysis was specific for production of either the hydroxy-ester or acyl-acid product. Specificity towards the ortho-substituted series was markedly different to that of the para-substituted series, which could be rationalised in the case of pig liver esterase by a published active site model.

  7. Fermented orange juice: source of higher carotenoid and flavanone contents.

    PubMed

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Cerrillo, Isabel; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Hornero-Méndez, Damaso; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Medina, Sonia; Ferreres, Federico; Berná, Genoveva; Martín, Francisco; Fernández-Pachón, Maria-Soledad

    2013-09-18

    The intake of bioactive compounds and moderate alcohol decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. These effects could be joined in a beverage created by a controlled alcoholic fermentation of orange juice. The influence of controlled alcoholic fermentation on the bioactive compound profile of orange juice has not been previously evaluated, and this is the purpose of the present study. Total and individual flavanones and carotenoids significantly increased throughout the fermentation. The reason for this was an enhanced extraction of these compounds from the pulp. Besides, the potential bioavailability of flavanones increased due to a higher content of hesperetin-7-O-glucoside (2-fold higher at the end of the fermentation process). Ascorbic acid did not undergo a significant change, and only total phenolics decreased. Antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. TEAC and FRAP values remained constant throughout the process. However, ORAC and DPPH values significantly increased. Correlation analysis concluded that the increase in ORAC and DPPH values could be due to enhancement of flavanones.

  8. Mycorrhiza alters the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Yan; Zhang, De-Jian; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-Hua; Wu, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Root hairs and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) coexist in root systems for nutrient and water absorption, but the relation between AM and root hairs is poorly known. A pot study was performed to evaluate the effects of four different AM fungi (AMF), namely, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Diversispora versiformis, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices on root hair development in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings grown in sand. Mycorrhizal seedlings showed significantly higher root hair density than non-mycorrhizal seedlings, irrespective of AMF species. AMF inoculation generally significantly decreased root hair length in the first- and second-order lateral roots but increased it in the third- and fourth-order lateral roots. AMF colonization induced diverse responses in root hair diameter of different order lateral roots. Considerably greater concentrations of phosphorus (P), nitric oxide (NO), glucose, sucrose, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were found in roots of AM seedlings than in non-AM seedlings. Levels of P, NO, carbohydrates, IAA, and MeJA in roots were correlated with AM formation and root hair development. These results suggest that AMF could alter the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange through modulation of physiological activities. F. mosseae, which had the greatest positive effects, could represent an efficient AM fungus for increasing fruit yields or decreasing fertilizer inputs in citrus production.

  9. Mycorrhiza alters the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Yan; Zhang, De-Jian; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-Hua; Wu, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Root hairs and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) coexist in root systems for nutrient and water absorption, but the relation between AM and root hairs is poorly known. A pot study was performed to evaluate the effects of four different AM fungi (AMF), namely, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Diversispora versiformis, Funneliformis mosseae, and Rhizophagus intraradices on root hair development in trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings grown in sand. Mycorrhizal seedlings showed significantly higher root hair density than non-mycorrhizal seedlings, irrespective of AMF species. AMF inoculation generally significantly decreased root hair length in the first- and second-order lateral roots but increased it in the third- and fourth-order lateral roots. AMF colonization induced diverse responses in root hair diameter of different order lateral roots. Considerably greater concentrations of phosphorus (P), nitric oxide (NO), glucose, sucrose, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were found in roots of AM seedlings than in non-AM seedlings. Levels of P, NO, carbohydrates, IAA, and MeJA in roots were correlated with AM formation and root hair development. These results suggest that AMF could alter the profile of root hairs in trifoliate orange through modulation of physiological activities. F. mosseae, which had the greatest positive effects, could represent an efficient AM fungus for increasing fruit yields or decreasing fertilizer inputs in citrus production. PMID:26499883

  10. Phosphorus Recovery Using Zirconium-Loaded Saponified Orange Juice Residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mitsunori; Biswas, Biplob K.; Ohura, Seichirou; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke

    Zirconium was immobilized to orange juice residue, to investigate the feasibility of using zirconium-loaded saponified orange juice residue (Zr-SOJR) for phosphorus recovery from secondary effluent and the extraction solution from incinerated sewage sludge ash by using H2SO4 and HCl. These had phosphorus concentrations of 68.2 mg/dm3 and 5.9 mg/dm3, respectively. The phosphorus removal rate secondary effluent increased with an increasing solid/liquid ratio in batch experiments. The adsorption capacity of Zr-SOJR was also compared with those obtained using a synthetic phosphorus solution and using zirconium-loaded ferrite. The prepared absorbent was effective for phosphorus removal and exhibited a reasonably high sorption capacity, twice that of zirconium ferrite. Secondary effluent was treated by packed column, and this reached break-through after 300 bed volumes. The results from phosphorous extraction from the ash indicate that can be treated with acid to efficiently recover phosphorous and thus can be absorbed by Zr-SOJR.

  11. Counting reticulocytes by flow cytometry: use of thiazole orange.

    PubMed

    Carter, J M; McSweeney, P A; Wakem, P J; Nemet, A M

    1989-01-01

    Thiazole orange is a new fluorescent dye which will bind to the residual RNA in the cytoplasm of reticulocytes and allow their enumeration by FACS analysis. We have evaluated the use of this dye in the routine haematology laboratory. There is an excellent correlation between manual and FACS reticulocyte counts (r = 0.98) but FACS counting showed significantly higher precision (CV = 3.1) than the manual method (CV = 11.9) for single observer, 20.8% for multiple observers). Clinical specimens showed stable reticulocyte counts for 6 h if stored at 4 degrees C allowing efficient batching of samples. There was a significant fall in reticulocyte counts stored for 24 h at both 4 degrees C and 21 degrees C. Evaluation of 78 male and 76 female blood donors by FACS analysis gave normal ranges (mean % +/- 2 SD) of 0.74 +/- 0.48 and 0.84 +/- 0.56 respectively (P less than 0.005). When corrected to absolute values there was no sex difference (36 +/- 24 x 10(9)/l). Thiazole orange is an effective stain for the automated counting of reticulocytes by FACS analysis.

  12. Genetic Signature of Anthropogenic Population Collapse in Orang-utans

    PubMed Central

    Ancrenaz, Marc; Lackman-Ancrenaz, Isabelle; Andau, Patrick; Bruford, Michael W

    2006-01-01

    Great ape populations are undergoing a dramatic decline, which is predicted to result in their extinction in the wild from entire regions in the near future. Recent findings have particularly focused on African apes, and have implicated multiple factors contributing to this decline, such as deforestation, hunting, and disease. Less well-publicised, but equally dramatic, has been the decline in orang-utans, whose distribution is limited to parts of Sumatra and Borneo. Using the largest-ever genetic sample from wild orang-utan populations, we show strong evidence for a recent demographic collapse in North Eastern Borneo and demonstrate that this signature is independent of the mutation and demographic models used. This is the first demonstration that genetic data can detect and quantify the effect of recent, human-induced deforestation and habitat fragmentation on an endangered species. Because current demographic collapses are usually confounded by ancient events, this suggests a much more dramatic decline than demographic data alone and emphasises the need for major conservation efforts. PMID:16417405

  13. Colour and carotenoid changes of pasteurised orange juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Scheling; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Tomic, Jovana; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-03-15

    The correlation of carotenoid changes with colour degradation of pasteurised single strength orange juice was investigated at 20, 28, 35 and 42°C for a total of 32 weeks of storage. Changes in colour were assessed using the CIELAB system and were kinetically described by a zero-order model. L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), ΔE(∗), Cab(∗) and hab were significantly changed during storage (p<0.05). Activation energies for all colour parameters were 64-73 kJ mol(-1). Several carotenoids showed important changes and appeared to have different susceptibilities to storage. A decrease of β-cryptoxanthin was observed at higher temperatures, whereas antheraxanthin started to decrease at lower temperatures. Depending on the time and temperature, changes in carotenoids could be due to isomerisation reactions, which may lead to a perceptible colour change. Although the contribution of carotenoids was recognised to some extent, other reactions seem of major importance for colour degradation of orange juice during storage.

  14. 76 FR 19315 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... certain orange juice from Brazil. See Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice from Brazil, 71 FR... Administrative Review, 75 FR 9162 (Mar. 1, 2010). In accordance with 19 CFR 351.213(b)(2), in March 2010, the... Request for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 22107 (Apr. 27, 2010). Also in April 2010, we issued...

  15. 77 FR 23659 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... duty order on OJ from Brazil. \\1\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 5563 (Feb. 1, 2011) (Initiation Notice). \\2\\ See Certain Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 22343 (Apr. 13, 2012) (ITC... Orange Juice From Brazil, 52 FR 16426 (May 5, 1987). \\4\\ The Department preliminarily found that...

  16. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that the ratio of the Brix reading to the grams of acid, expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 73.3112 - C.I. Vat Orange 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false C.I. Vat Orange 1. 73.3112 Section 73.3112 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3112 C.I. Vat Orange 1. (a) Identity....

  18. GUS Gene Expression Driven by A Citrus Promoter in Transgenic Tobacco and 'Valencia' Sweet Orange

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene promoter (CsPP). Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and ‘Valencia’ sweet orange explants with Agrobacteriu...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of 4′,5... drug use made with D&C Orange No. 11 may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable for use in color additive mixtures for coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications....

  20. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color additive mixtures for use in externally applied drugs made with D&C Orange No. 4 may contain only those diluents that are suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter for use in color additive mixtures...

  1. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of 4′,5... drug use made with D&C Orange No. 11 may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable for use in color additive mixtures for coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications....

  2. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein (CAS... additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Orange No. 5 may contain only those diluents that are suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...

  3. Application of ultraviolet-C light on oranges for the inactivation of postharvest wound pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germicidal effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light on the postharvest wound pathogens of citrus fruits namely Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum were investigated. P. digitatum and P. italicum spores were inoculated (4.00 – 4.50 log cfu/ orange) onto Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinens...

  4. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  5. 78 FR 14075 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (April 20, 2012). We are issuing this determination and publishing... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 73 FR 46584 (Aug. 11, 2008). Following the publication of the final... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended Final Results...

  6. Commercial Packing and Storage of Navel Oranges Alters Aroma Volatiles and Reduces Flavor Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Navel oranges were sampled either from the harvest bin, after the washer, after the waxer or at the end of the packing process in a commercial packing house and stored for 0, 3 or 6 weeks at 5 °C. Individual oranges were analyzed for percent juice, SSC, TA and ethanol concentration and a portion of...

  7. 75 FR 30012 - Friant Power Authority Orange Cove Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Friant Power Authority Orange Cove Irrigation District; Notice of..., 2010. d. Applicant: Friant Power Authority and Orange Cove Irrigation District. e. Name of Project... Friant Dam on the San Joaquin River in Fresno County, California. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power...

  8. 77 FR 75550 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle... in Miami, FL during the 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship. The event will take place on January...

  9. 75 FR 20874 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Orange County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Orange County, CA... to milepost 508.65 near the City of Brea, in Orange County, CA. The line traverses United...

  10. Identifying Markers for Resistance to Sugarcane Orange Rust (Puccinia kuehnii) via Selective Genotyping and Capture Sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane orange rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia kuehnii, is a serious disease of sugarcane. The most effective strategy to combat the disease is to develop resistant sugarcane cultivars. Phenotypic screening for resistance to orange rust is a laborious and time-consuming process, and breeders...

  11. 78 FR 28801 - Foreign-Trade Zone 117-Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (78 FR 4383, 1-22-2013). The FTZ Board has... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 117--Orange, TX, Authorization of Production Activity, Signal International Texas GP, LLC (Shipbuilding), Orange, TX On January 10, 2013, the Foreign Trade Zone of...

  12. 75 FR 62455 - Importation of Fresh Unshu Oranges From the Republic of Korea Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    .... citri. On June 8, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 32310- 32313, Docket No. APHIS-2010... orange, mandarin orange, tangerine, lemon, and lime, at this time, we have no evidence that it...

  13. Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP): a comprehensive database for sweet orange genome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Dijun; Lei, Yang; Chang, Ji-Wei; Hao, Bao-Hai; Xing, Feng; Li, Sen; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Chen, Ling-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most important and widely grown fruit crop with global production ranking firstly among all the fruit crops in the world. Sweet orange accounts for more than half of the Citrus production both in fresh fruit and processed juice. We have sequenced the draft genome of a double-haploid sweet orange (C. sinensis cv. Valencia), and constructed the Citrus sinensis annotation project (CAP) to store and visualize the sequenced genomic and transcriptome data. CAP provides GBrowse-based organization of sweet orange genomic data, which integrates ab initio gene prediction, EST, RNA-seq and RNA-paired end tag (RNA-PET) evidence-based gene annotation. Furthermore, we provide a user-friendly web interface to show the predicted protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and metabolic pathways in sweet orange. CAP provides comprehensive information beneficial to the researchers of sweet orange and other woody plants, which is freely available at http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/.

  14. Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Anatum infection associated with unpasteurized orange juice.

    PubMed

    Krause, G; Terzagian, R; Hammond, R

    2001-12-01

    In March 1999, a patient was infected with Salmonella serotype Anatum after having consumed unpasteurized orange juice from a manufacturer in Florida. We conducted a cohort study among customers of the manufacturer, performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on isolates, and inspected the manufacturing plant. Surveillance data identified three additional patients infected with Salmonella Anatum showing indistinguishable or closely related PFGE patterns. Three of the four patients had consumed orange juice from the same manufacturer. In the cohort study, 6 of 68 persons (9%) who consumed orange juice and/or orange ice cream from the manufacturer were ill, compared with 1 of 47 (2%) who did not. A positive antigen test for Salmonella species and coliform growth in juice samples taken from the production line suggested contamination during the manufacturing process. Commercially produced orange juice should be pasteurized or otherwise processed to achieve equivalent reduction of pathogens.

  15. Demonstration that thiazole-orange-positive platelets in the dog are less than 24 hours old.

    PubMed

    Dale, G L; Friese, P; Hynes, L A; Burstein, S A

    1995-04-01

    Approximately 6% of dog platelets are positive for staining with thiazole orange, a dye frequently used to stain ribonucleic acid. In this report, thiazole-orange positivity is shown to mark platelets that are less than 24 hours old. Dog platelets were derivatized in vivo with N-hydroxysuccinimido biotin such that greater than 95% of all platelets were biotinylated. Newly synthesized, nonbiotinylated platelets were then monitored by flow cytometry for their ability to bind thiazole orange. After biotinylation, the percentage of biotin-negative, thiazole-orange-positive platelets increased gradually from 0.72% at 30 minutes to 5.44% at 24 hours. These data indicate that thiazole-orange staining does label newly synthesized platelets.

  16. Microwave-assisted extraction and determination of citrus red 2 dye in oranges and orange juice by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Zhenou; Huang, Fuzhen; Chen, Xiangzhun; Shen, Yan

    2012-12-01

    A fast, simple, low cost, and high-throughput method has been developed for the determination of citrus red 2 dye in orange and orange juice samples. The procedure is based on microwave-assisted extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The method was optimized, and the analyte was efficiently extracted from the samples in 30 min using hexane/acetone (v/v, 3 : 1). The method was validated and showed good linearity and selectivity. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 5 μg/kg (sample size of 2 g) for both orange and orange juice samples. The average recoveries, measured at 3 concentration levels (5, 10, and 20 μg/kg), were in the range 77.5% to 87.6% for the compound tested with relative standard deviations below 7.3%. The proposed method is rapid, accurate, and could be utilized for the routine analysis of citrus red 2 dye in orange and orange juice samples.

  17. Preparation and luminescence properties of orange-red Ba3Y(PO4)3:Sm3+ phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiguang; Xu, Denghui; Sun, Jiayue

    2015-04-01

    Ba3Y(PO4)3:Sm3+ phosphors were prepared by a high temperature solid-state reaction in air. X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence spectra and temperature-dependent emission spectra were utilized to characterize the structure and luminescence properties of the as-prepared phosphor. The results show that the phosphor can be efficiently excited by ultraviolet light and emit a satisfactory orange-red performance, nicely, fitting in well with the widely used UV LED chip. Under 403 nm excitation, the 4G5/2 → 6HJ (J = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2, and 11/2) emissions of Sm3+ are obviously observed. The optimum doping concentration is 5 mol% and corresponding quenching behavior is ascribed to be electric dipole-dipole interaction according to Dexter's theory. The temperature dependent luminescence of Ba3Y(PO4)3:Sm3+ phosphor is also discussed, and the activation energy for thermal quenching is calculated as 0.34 eV. Furthermore, the chromaticity coordinates of Ba3Y(PO4)3:Sm3+ phosphor are calculated to be (0.5558, 0.4380) and the lifetime values of Ba3Y0.995(PO4)3:0.005Sm3+ was 2.45 ms.

  18. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids, flavonoids, and vitamin C from differently processed oranges and orange juices [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck].

    PubMed

    Aschoff, Julian K; Kaufmann, Sabrina; Kalkan, Onur; Neidhart, Sybille; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-01-21

    Carotenoid, flavonoid, and vitamin C concentrations were determined in fresh orange segments and a puree-like homogenate derived thereof, as well as freshly squeezed, flash-pasteurized, and pasteurized juices. Lutein and β-cryptoxanthin were slightly degraded during dejuicing, whereas β-carotene levels were retained. Vitamin C levels remained unaffected, whereas flavonoid levels decreased 8-fold upon juice extraction, most likely due to the removal of flavonoid-rich albedo and juice vesicles. Likewise, the presence of such fibrous matrix compounds during in vitro digestion was assumed to significantly lower the total bioaccessibility (BA) of all carotenoids from fresh fruit segments (12%) as compared to juices (29-30%). Mechanical disruption of orange segments prior to digestion did not alter carotenoid BA, whereas pasteurization of the freshly squeezed juice slightly increased BA by 9-11%. In addition to carotenoid BA, the stabilities of hesperidin, narirutin, and vitamin C including dehydroascorbic acid during in vitro digestion were monitored, and applied analytical methods were briefly validated.

  19. 76 FR 19373 - The 14th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The 14th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County... announcing the following conference: 14th Annual Educational Conference co-sponsored with the Orange County...: 949-608-4417; or Orange County Regulatory Affairs Discussion Group, Attention to Detail,...

  20. 75 FR 29559 - The 13th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The 13th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County...-sponsored with the Orange County Regulatory Affairs Discussion Group (OCRA). The conference is intended to...-608-4417; or Orange County Regulatory Affairs Discussion Group ] (OCRA), Attention to Detail,...

  1. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, R; Faruqi, S; Singh, K K; Varma, S; Singh, M; Karthik, V

    2008-09-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous gas chambers. Since then these have been intermittently used both in war and acts of terrorisms. Many countries have stockpiles of these agents. There has been a legislative effort worldwide to ban the use of CWA's under the chemical weapons convention which came into force in 1997. However the manufacture of these agents cannot be completely prohibited as some of them have potential industrial uses. Moreover despite the remedial measures taken so far and worldwide condemnation, the ease of manufacturing these agents and effectiveness during combat or small scale terrorist operations still make them a powerful weapon to reckon with. These agents are classified according to mechanism of toxicity in humans into blister agents, nerve agents, asphyxiants, choking agents and incapacitating/behavior altering agents. Some of these agents can be as devastating as a nuclear bomb. In addition to immediate injuries caused by chemical agents, some of them are associated with long term morbidities and psychological problems. In this review we will discuss briefly about the historical background, properties, manufacture techniques and industrial uses, mechanism of toxicity, clinical features of exposure and pharmacological management of casualties caused by chemical agents. PMID:21783898

  2. Mobile Agents Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  3. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Scarrow, Robert C.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

  4. Sex pheromone of orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Regine; Gries, G.; Khaskin, Grigori; King, Skip; Olfert, Owen; Kaminski, Lori-Ann; Lamb, Robert; Bennett, Robb

    Pheromone extract of the female orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (SM) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, DB-23 or SP-1000. These analyses revealed a single, EAD-active candidate pheromone which was identified as 2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate. In experiments in wheat fields in Saskatchewan, traps baited with (2S,7S)-2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate attracted significant numbers of male SM. The presence of other stereoisomers did not adversely affect trap captures. Facile synthesis of stereoisomeric 2,7-nonanediyl dibutyrate will facilitate the development of pheromone-based monitoring or even control of SM populations.

  5. Diets of deepwater oreos (Oreosomatidae) and orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus.

    PubMed

    Forman, J S; Horn, P L; Stevens, D W

    2016-06-01

    The diets of black oreo Allocyttus niger, smooth oreo Pseudocyttus maculatus, spiky oreo Neocyttus rhomboidalis and orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus were determined from examination of contents of 240, 311, 76 and 415 non-empty stomachs, from fishes sampled by bottom trawl on Chatham Rise to the east of South Island, New Zealand. Hoplostethus atlanticus had an opportunistic predatory strategy with a broad diet dominated by prawns and mesopelagic teleosts, but with substantial components of mysids and cephalopods. Pseudocyttus maculatus was strongly specialized on gelatinous zooplankton (jellyfish and salps). Allocyttus niger consumed mainly salps and hyperiid amphipods, and to a lesser extent fishes, prawns, mysids and copepods. Neocyttus rhomboidalis primarily consumed salps, along with mysids, euphausiids and fishes. Only P. maculatus did not exhibit significant ontogenetic variation in diet. The diets were also influenced by year and bottom depth. Differences in the distributions and diets of the four species probably reduce conflicts in resource use. PMID:27188827

  6. Site of Fluoride Accumulation in Navel Orange Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chong W.; Thompson, C. Ray

    1966-01-01

    Fluoride-polluted navel orange leaves, Citrus sinensis (Linn.) Osbeck, were fractionated into the subcellular components in hexane/carbon tetrachloride mixtures having various densities. Fluoride was determined at each fraction. Analyses were also made for the subcellular distribution of chlorophyll, nitrogen, and DNA to assess the extent of cross-contamination of each component. The fraction containing cell wall, nuclei, and partly broken cells apparently contained a major amount of fluoride. However, if allowance was made for the cross-contamination of chloroplasts and chloroplast fragments, the fraction of chloroplasts was found to be the site of the highest fluoride accumulation. When each particulate component was washed with water after drying, the combined washings contained more than 50% of the total fluoride of the isolated fractions. The usual method of subcellular fractionation with aqueous solvent shifted the major site of fluoride accumulation from the fraction of chloroplasts to that of the supernatant. PMID:5908632

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of oxiconazole in topical lotion using methyl orange.

    PubMed

    Milano, Julie; Cardoso, Simone Gonçalves

    2005-04-01

    A spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of oxiconazole in raw material and in topical lotion. This method is based on the reaction of the oxiconazole with methyl orange in buffered aqueous solution of citric acid at pH 2.3. The chromogen, being extractable with dichloromethane, could be measured quantitatively with maximum absorption at 427 nm. The Lambert-Beer law was obeyed in the concentration range of 4.0-14.0 microg ml(-1). A prospective validation of the method showed that the method was linear (r=0.9995), precise (intra-day: CV=1.57% and inter-day: CV=1.50%) and accurate (mean recoveries: 99.69%). The results compared favourably with those of the HPLC method.

  8. VIEWPOINT – Vitiligo and alopecia areata: Apples and oranges?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments. PMID:24131336

  9. Thiazole orange: a new dye for Plasmodium species analysis.

    PubMed

    Makler, M T; Lee, L G; Recktenwald, D

    1987-11-01

    A rapid sensitive method for the determination of Plasmodium falciparum in in vitro culture is presented. The technique employs a fluorescent flow cytometer equipped with a 15-mwatt argon laser that emits light at 488 nm and a membrane-permeable fluorochrome thiazole orange (TO) that stains RNA. Parasitized red cells are stained by suspending them in 1 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 10(-5) M of TO and incubating this mixture for 15 min in the dark at room temperature. The stained cells may be analyzed fresh or after fixation with 1% paraformaldehyde/PBS or 0.25% glutaraldehyde/PBS. Alternatively the cells may be fixed first and then stained. There is excellent correspondence between the number of fluorescent-labeled parasitized red cells and Giemsa-stained cells.

  10. Fluorescent aggregates Cyan 40 and Thiazole Orange dyes in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizomov, Negmat; Kurtaliev, Eldar N.; Rahimov, Sherzod I.

    2012-12-01

    Absorption and fluorescence electronic spectra of cyanine dyes Cyan 40 and Thiazole Orange (TO) in water and in binary mixtures: water + ethanol, water + DMF, water + dioxane and chloroform + hexane were studied. It was revealed, that increase of concentration of Cyan 40 and TO dyes in water and chloroform + hexane binary mixture promotes the formation of fluorescent H-aggregates. Meanwhile, in contrary to the well-known fluorescent aggregates, electronic absorption band of aggregated molecules is shifted to the shorter wavelengths and fluorescence band is shifted to the longer wavelengths relative to the bands of the monomer molecules. Observed spectral changes are explained on the basis of Davidov's theory of molecular excitons as splitting of the electron-excited states due to the aggregation of dye molecules.

  11. A high efficiency rare earth-free orange emitting phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polikarpov, E.; Catalini, D.; Padmaperuma, A.; Das, P.; Lemmon, T.; Arey, B.; Fernandez, C. A.

    2015-08-01

    This communication provides a brief summary on rare earth (RE)-based and RE free-based nitrides and oxynitride phosphors reporting for the first time the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of a highly emissive AlN:Mn2+ obtained at relatively low temperatures. The PLQY of the AlN:Mn emitter was measured to be 82%, a value among the highest measured for non-RE phosphors. Though the AlN matrix shows an emission peak at a similar position to the emission peak observed for AlN:Mn product, the Mn-containing species generates orange emission by a different mechanism, which was supported by the emission life time studies and in accordance with previous reports on this material.

  12. The debittering of navel orange juice using polymeric films.

    PubMed

    Fayoux, Stéphane C; Hernandez, Ruben J; Holland, Robert V

    2007-05-01

    In order to better understand and optimize the sorption of limonin (the major navel orange juice bitter principle) by various plasticized polymeric films, a sorption and plasticizer migration study was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Low molecular weight (LMW) poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) plasticized with dioctyl adipate (DOA) gave the best results for both limonin sorption and low DOA migration. Thick films did not significantly sorb more limonin than thin films in the timeframe of our experiments, as the absorption involved rapid surface sorption followed by slow bulk diffusion. The debittering efficiency was a 1000-fold greater than that obtained with current polystyrene divinylbenzene resin beads, with potential for industrial scale debittering.

  13. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26805899

  14. Space Radar Image of Orange County, California (annotated version)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Orange County, Calif., shows the massive urbanization of this rapidly growing region located just south of Los Angeles. Orange County, sandwiched between rugged mountains and the Pacific Ocean, includes the communities of Anaheim, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach. Anaheim Stadium can be seen in the upper center of the image, as a small white ring to the right of a major freeway intersection. The large dark blue rectangular area in the upper left is the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station and adjacent wildlife refuge. Runways of the El Toro Marine Air Station appear as a black 'x' near the center of the image. The large purple area to the left of the the Air Station and extending to the coast is the scar left by the Laguna wildfire of October 1993. The sparse vegetation left in the wake of the fire provides a weak source of radar echoes, making the burn areas distinctively dark in the image. Another large burn area, from the Ortega fire of 1993, is seen in the mountains in the lower right of the image. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 3, 1994. The image is centered at 33.7 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The image shows an area 66.2 kilometers by 44.2 kilometers (41.0 miles by 27.4 miles). The colors are assigned todifferent frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  15. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    PubMed

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m²·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m²·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26805899

  16. Fabrication of TiO2/MoS2@zeolite photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiping; Xiao, Xinyan; Zheng, Lili; Wan, Caixia

    2015-12-01

    TiO2/MoS2@zeolite composite photocatalysts with visible-light activity were fabricated via a simple ultrasonic-hydrothermal synthesis method, using TiCl4 as Ti source, MoS2 as a direct sensitizer, glycerol water solution with certain dispersion agent as hydrolytic agent, and zeolite as carrier. The structure, morphology, composition, optical properties, and specific surface area of the as-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by using XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDS, TEM, XPS, UV-vis, PL and BET analyzer, respectively. And the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous suspension has been employed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity and degradation kinetics of as-prepared photocatalysts with xenon lamp as irradiation source. The results indicate that: (1) TiO2/MoS2@zeolite composite photocatalysts exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activities for methyl orange (MO) degradation compared to Degussa P25; (2) photocatalytic degradation of MO obeys Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model (pseudo-first order reaction), and its degradation rate constant (kapp) (2.304 h-1) is higher than that of Degussa P25 (0.768 h-1); (3) the heterostructure consisted of zeolite, MoS2 and TiO2 nanostructure could provide synergistic effect for degradation of MO due to the efficient electron transfer process and better absorption property of TiO2/MoS2@zeolite composite photocatalyst.

  17. Crystal Structure of Phototoxic Orange Fluorescent Proteins with a Tryptophan-Based Chromophore

    PubMed Central

    Pletneva, Nadya V.; Pletnev, Vladimir Z.; Sarkisyan, Karen S.; Gorbachev, Dmitry A.; Egorov, Evgeny S.; Mishin, Alexander S.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Dauter, Zbigniew; Pletnev, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Phototoxic fluorescent proteins represent a sparse group of genetically encoded photosensitizers that could be used for precise light-induced inactivation of target proteins, DNA damage, and cell killing. Only two such GFP-based fluorescent proteins (FPs), KillerRed and its monomeric variant SuperNova, were described up to date. Here, we present a crystallographic study of their two orange successors, dimeric KillerOrange and monomeric mKillerOrange, at 1.81 and 1.57 Å resolution, respectively. They are the first orange-emitting protein photosensitizers with a tryptophan-based chromophore (Gln65-Trp66-Gly67). Same as their red progenitors, both orange photosensitizers have a water-filled channel connecting the chromophore to the β-barrel exterior and enabling transport of ROS. In both proteins, Trp66 of the chromophore adopts an unusual trans-cis conformation stabilized by H-bond with the nearby Gln159. This trans-cis conformation along with the water channel was shown to be a key structural feature providing bright orange emission and phototoxicity of both examined orange photosensitizers. PMID:26699366

  18. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of the Orang Asli and Iban of Malaysia based on maternal markers.

    PubMed

    Ang, K C; Leow, J W H; Yeap, W K; Hood, S; Mahani, M C; Md-Zain, B M

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia remains as a crossroad of different cultures and peoples, and it has long been recognized that studying its population history can provide crucial insight into the prehistory of Southeast Asia as a whole. The earliest inhabitants were the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the indigenous groups in Sabah and Sarawak. Although they were the earliest migrants in this region, these tribes are divided geographically by the South China Sea. We analyzed DNA sequences of 18 Orang Asli using mitochondrial DNA extracted from blood samples, each representing one sub-tribe, and from five Sarawakian Iban. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted from hair samples in order to examine relationships with the main ethnic groups in Malaysia. The D-loop region and cytochrome b genes were used as the candidate loci. Phylogenetic relationships were investigated using maximum parsimony and neighbor joining algorithms, and each tree was subjected to bootstrap analysis with 1000 replicates. Analyses of the HVS I region showed that the Iban are not a distinct group from the Orang Asli; they form a sub-clade within the Orang Asli. Based on the cytochrome b gene, the Iban clustered with the Orang Asli in the same clade. We found evidence for considerable gene flow between Orang Asli and Iban. We concluded that the Orang Asli, Iban and the main ethnic groups of Malaysia are probably derived from a common ancestor. This is in agreement with a single-route migration theory, but it does not dismiss a two-route migration theory. PMID:21491374

  20. Effects of pulsed electric fields on the quality of orange juice and comparison with heat pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Yeom, H W; Streaker, C B; Zhang, Q H; Min, D B

    2000-10-01

    Effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) at 35 kV/cm for 59 micros on the quality of orange juice were investigated and compared with those of heat pasteurization at 94.6 degrees C for 30 s. The PEF treatment prevented the growth of microorganisms at 4, 22, and 37 degrees C for 112 days and inactivated 88% of pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity. The PEF-treated orange juice retained greater amounts of vitamin C and the five representative flavor compounds than the heat-pasteurized orange juice during storage at 4 degrees C (p < 0.05). The PEF-treated orange juice had lower browning index, higher whiteness (L), and higher hue angle (theta) values than the heat-pasteurized orange juice during storage at 4 degrees C (p < 0. 05). The PEF-treated orange juice had a smaller particle size than the heat-pasteurized orange juice (p < 0.05). degrees Brix and pH values were not significantly affected by processing methods (p > 0. 05).

  1. Crystal structure of phototoxic orange fluorescent proteins with α tryptophan-based chromophore

    DOE PAGES

    Pletneva, Nadya V.; Pletnev, Vladimir Z.; Sarkisyan, Karen S.; Gorbachev, Dmitry A.; Egorov, Evgeny S.; Mishin, Alexander S.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Dauter, Zbigniew; Pletnev, Sergei

    2015-12-23

    Phototoxic fluorescent proteins represent a sparse group of genetically encoded photosensitizers that could be used for precise light-induced inactivation of target proteins, DNA damage, and cell killing. Only two such GFP-based fluorescent proteins (FPs), KillerRed and its monomeric variant SuperNova, were described up to date. We present a crystallographic study of their two orange successors, dimeric KillerOrange and monomeric mKiller-Orange, at 1.81 and 1.57 Å resolution, respectively. They are the first orange-emitting protein photosensitizers with a tryptophan-based chromophore (Gln65-Trp66-Gly67). Same as their red progenitors, both orange photosensitizers have a water-filled channel connecting the chromophore to the β-barrel exterior and enablingmore » transport of ROS. In both proteins, Trp66 of the chromophore adopts an unusual trans-cis conformation stabilized by H-bond with the nearby Gln159. This trans-cis conformation along with the water channel was shown to be a key structural feature providing bright orange emission and phototoxicity of both examined orange photosensitizers.« less

  2. Crystal structure of phototoxic orange fluorescent proteins with α tryptophan-based chromophore

    SciTech Connect

    Pletneva, Nadya V.; Pletnev, Vladimir Z.; Sarkisyan, Karen S.; Gorbachev, Dmitry A.; Egorov, Evgeny S.; Mishin, Alexander S.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Dauter, Zbigniew; Pletnev, Sergei

    2015-12-23

    Phototoxic fluorescent proteins represent a sparse group of genetically encoded photosensitizers that could be used for precise light-induced inactivation of target proteins, DNA damage, and cell killing. Only two such GFP-based fluorescent proteins (FPs), KillerRed and its monomeric variant SuperNova, were described up to date. We present a crystallographic study of their two orange successors, dimeric KillerOrange and monomeric mKiller-Orange, at 1.81 and 1.57 Å resolution, respectively. They are the first orange-emitting protein photosensitizers with a tryptophan-based chromophore (Gln65-Trp66-Gly67). Same as their red progenitors, both orange photosensitizers have a water-filled channel connecting the chromophore to the β-barrel exterior and enabling transport of ROS. In both proteins, Trp66 of the chromophore adopts an unusual trans-cis conformation stabilized by H-bond with the nearby Gln159. This trans-cis conformation along with the water channel was shown to be a key structural feature providing bright orange emission and phototoxicity of both examined orange photosensitizers.

  3. [Study on experiment of absorption spectroscopy detection of pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice].

    PubMed

    Ji, Ren-Dong; Chen, Meng-Lan; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Xing-Yue; Wang, Le-Xin; Liu, Quan-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Absorption spectra were studied for the carbendazim, in the mixed solution of orange juice and carbendazim using spectrophotometer. The most intensive characteristic peak (285 nm) was found in the spectrum of carbendazim standard solution. Compared with the carbendazim drug solution, the peak position of absorption spectrum has the blue shift (285-280 nm) when carbendazim (0.28 mg x mL(-1))was added in the orange juice. So that we can conclude that interaction happened between the orange juice and carbendazim. Through the method of least squares fitting, the prediction models between the absorbance of orange juice and carbendazim content was obtained with a good linear relationship. The linear function model was: I = 2.41 + 9.26x, the correlation coefficient was 0.996, and the recovery was: 81%-102%. According to the regression model, we can obtain the amount of carbendazim pesticide residues in orange juice. It was verified that the method of using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra was feasible to detect the carbendazim residues in orange juice. The result proved that it is possible to detect pesticide residues of carbendazim in orange juice, and it can meet the needs of rapid analysis. This study provides a new way for the detection of pesticide residues.

  4. Sensory evaluation of mixtures of maltitol or aspartame, sucrose and an orange aroma.

    PubMed

    Nahon, D F; Roozen, J P; de Graaf, C

    1998-02-01

    The suitability of Beidler's mixture equation for mixtures of sucrose and maltitol as well as for mixtures of sucrose and aspartame was examined in the presence of an orange aroma. The mean scores for the attribute sweet remained constant for each combination of sucrose and maltitol and for each combination of sucrose and aspartame. Therefore, Beidler's mixture equation can be used to choose combinations of sucrose and maltitol and of sucrose and aspartame giving the same sweetness. Quantitative descriptive analysis of different solutions indicated that the flavour profiles of sucrose and maltitol did not differ significantly at a constant concentration of orange aroma. However, flavour profiles of solutions with increasing aspartame concentrations (but constant aroma levels) showed significantly higher scores for the attributes sour, chemical and aftertaste. Addition of orange aroma provided the different solutions with a more distinct flavour. The mean scores for the attributes orange, sour, fruity and aftertaste increased significantly for most of the sucrose-maltitol mixtures. This effect of orange aroma was even more pronounced in solutions containing combinations of sucrose and aspartame. Further comments on the attribute aftertaste showed similar terms for the different solutions, the most often mentioned being orange, sour, fruity and chemical for solutions containing the orange aroma. The aftertaste of solutions containing relatively more aspartame was mainly described as sweet and chemical.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of the Orang Asli and Iban of Malaysia based on maternal markers.

    PubMed

    Ang, K C; Leow, J W H; Yeap, W K; Hood, S; Mahani, M C; Md-Zain, B M

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia remains as a crossroad of different cultures and peoples, and it has long been recognized that studying its population history can provide crucial insight into the prehistory of Southeast Asia as a whole. The earliest inhabitants were the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the indigenous groups in Sabah and Sarawak. Although they were the earliest migrants in this region, these tribes are divided geographically by the South China Sea. We analyzed DNA sequences of 18 Orang Asli using mitochondrial DNA extracted from blood samples, each representing one sub-tribe, and from five Sarawakian Iban. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted from hair samples in order to examine relationships with the main ethnic groups in Malaysia. The D-loop region and cytochrome b genes were used as the candidate loci. Phylogenetic relationships were investigated using maximum parsimony and neighbor joining algorithms, and each tree was subjected to bootstrap analysis with 1000 replicates. Analyses of the HVS I region showed that the Iban are not a distinct group from the Orang Asli; they form a sub-clade within the Orang Asli. Based on the cytochrome b gene, the Iban clustered with the Orang Asli in the same clade. We found evidence for considerable gene flow between Orang Asli and Iban. We concluded that the Orang Asli, Iban and the main ethnic groups of Malaysia are probably derived from a common ancestor. This is in agreement with a single-route migration theory, but it does not dismiss a two-route migration theory.

  6. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  7. Spiroplasmas are the causal agents of citrus little-leaf disease.

    PubMed

    Markham, P G; Townsend, R; Bar-Joseph, M; Daniels, M J; Plaskitt, A; Meddins, B M

    1974-09-01

    A spiroplasma isolated from citrus with little-leaf disease was grown in a cell-free medium and injected into leafhoppers (Euscelis plebejus). Injected leafhoppers, but not those fed on infected plants, transmitted the spiroplasma to white clover (Trifolium repens cv. S100) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia). Infected clover plants were severely stunted; infected sweet orange plants showed typical symptoms of citrus little-leaf disease. The spiroplasma was detected in clover and sweet orange plants by electron microscopy; the helical morphology of the organisms was most easily recognizable in sections 150-200 nm thick. The organism was re-isolated in cell-free media both from infected plants and from injected E. plebejus. The original isolate and those re-isolated from experimentally infected clover and sweet orange appeared by morphological, cultural, biochemical and serological criteria to be identical to each other and to the R8-A2 (type) and C-189 strains of Spiroplasma citri. Serological tests and electrophoretic analysis of protein preparations indicated no relationship to Acholeplasma laidlawii, although this organism survived for at least 10 wk after injection into E. plebejus. Our results show that the causal agent of little-leaf disease is related to S. citri.

  8. KillerOrange, a Genetically Encoded Photosensitizer Activated by Blue and Green Light

    PubMed Central

    Bozhanova, Nina G.; Sharonov, George V.; Staroverov, Dmitriy B.; Egorov, Evgeny S.; Ryabova, Anastasia V.; Solntsev, Kyril M.; Mishin, Alexander S.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically encoded photosensitizers, proteins that produce reactive oxygen species when illuminated with visible light, are increasingly used as optogenetic tools. Their applications range from ablation of specific cell populations to precise optical inactivation of cellular proteins. Here, we report an orange mutant of red fluorescent protein KillerRed that becomes toxic when illuminated with blue or green light. This new protein, KillerOrange, carries a tryptophan-based chromophore that is novel for photosensitizers. We show that KillerOrange can be used simultaneously and independently from KillerRed in both bacterial and mammalian cells offering chromatic orthogonality for light-activated toxicity. PMID:26679300

  9. Impact of Site-Directed Mutant Luciferase on Quantitative Green and Orange/Red Emission Intensities in Firefly Bioluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Terakado, Kanako; Nakatsu, Toru

    2013-08-01

    Firefly bioluminescence has attracted great interest because of its high quantum yield and intriguing modifiable colours. Modifications to the structure of the enzyme luciferase can change the emission colour of firefly bioluminescence, and the mechanism of the colour change has been intensively studied by biochemists, structural biologists, optical physicists, and quantum-chemistry theorists. Here, we report on the quantitative spectra of firefly bioluminescence catalysed by wild-type and four site-directed mutant luciferases. While the mutation caused different emission spectra, the spectra differed only in the intensity of the green component (λmax ~ 560 nm). In contrast, the orange (λmax ~ 610 nm) and red (λmax ~ 650 nm) components present in all the spectra were almost unaffected by the modifications to the luciferases and changes in pH. Our results reveal that the intensity of the green component is the unique factor that is influenced by the luciferase structure and other reaction conditions.

  10. Impact of site-directed mutant luciferase on quantitative green and orange/red emission intensities in firefly bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Terakado, Kanako; Nakatsu, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Firefly bioluminescence has attracted great interest because of its high quantum yield and intriguing modifiable colours. Modifications to the structure of the enzyme luciferase can change the emission colour of firefly bioluminescence, and the mechanism of the colour change has been intensively studied by biochemists, structural biologists, optical physicists, and quantum-chemistry theorists. Here, we report on the quantitative spectra of firefly bioluminescence catalysed by wild-type and four site-directed mutant luciferases. While the mutation caused different emission spectra, the spectra differed only in the intensity of the green component (λmax ~ 560 nm). In contrast, the orange (λmax ~ 610 nm) and red (λmax ~ 650 nm) components present in all the spectra were almost unaffected by the modifications to the luciferases and changes in pH. Our results reveal that the intensity of the green component is the unique factor that is influenced by the luciferase structure and other reaction conditions.

  11. Differential effects of depleting agents on cytoplasmic and nuclear non-protein sulphydryls: a fluorescence image cytometry study.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, M.; Nicklee, T.; Hedley, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    The intracellular distribution of glutathione (GSH) was measured by a quantitative image cytometry method, using the sulphydryl-reactive agent mercury orange. This readily forms fluorescent adducts with GSH and other non-protein sulphydryls (NPSH), but reacts much more slowly with protein sulphydryls. Under optimum staining conditions mean integrated mercury orange fluorescence per cell was closely correlated with a standard biochemical assay for GSH. Use of the DNA dye DAPI as a counterstain allowed measurement of nuclear NPSH. The mean nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio was 0.57 +/- 0.05. Isolation of nuclei under aqueous conditions resulted in the loss of approximately 90% of mercury orange fluorescence, compared with nuclear fluorescence from intact cells, suggesting that background labelling of protein sulphydryls or other macromolecules is low. Depletion of GSH with N-ethylmaleimide or diethylmaleate decreased mercury orange fluorescence in the nucleus and cytoplasm to a similar extent. In contrast, mercury orange fluorescence in the nucleus was much more resistant to DL-buthionine-S,R-sulphoximine (BSO) depletion than that in the cytoplasm. This finding is compatible with a distinct pool of GSH in the nucleus that is comparatively resistant to BSO depletion. Alternatively, the retention of fluorescence in the nucleus following GSH depletion by BSO treatment might be due to accumulation of cysteine. These findings have implications for cancer treatment since the level of NPSH in the nucleus might be a more important determinant of resistance to DNA-damaging agents than that in cytoplasm. The image cytometry method described here is quantitative, allows a measure of tumour cell heterogeneity and can be applied to small biopsy samples obtained by fine-needle aspiration. Thus it appears suitable for prospective clinical studies in cancer patients, and for monitoring the effects of GSH-depleting agents used as adjuncts to cancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Images Figure

  12. Effect of foliar application of micronutrients on the yield and quality of sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Tariq, M; Sharif, M; Shah, Z; Khan, R

    2007-06-01

    An experiment was designed to study the effect of foliar application of micronutrients on the yield, quality and leaf composition of sweet orange, Blood red variety at Shabazgari, Mardan. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in 2) factorial arrangement. Zinc, manganese and boron were applied as foliar spray at the rate of 0.4, 0.2 and 0.04 kg ha(-1), respectively in the presence of 1.56 kg N ha(-1) as urea and 0.4 kg surfactance ha(-1) (as wetting agent) in 400 L of water. The maximum fruit yield was obtained, when 0.4 kg Zn ha(-1) and 0.2 kg Mn ha(-1) was sprayed along with 1.56 kg N ha(-1) and 0.4 kg surfactance ha(-1) in 400 L of water. The minimum % peel was obtained with B alone and minimum % rag with Zn + Mn, maximum fruit size with Zn + B and maximum fruit volume with Zn + Mn. Similarly, % juice in sweet oranges was increased significantly by B alone, reducing sugar by Mn alone and vitamin C contents by Zn + B through foliar spray, suggested that each micronutrient had different role on the quality of citrus fruit. Foliar spray of Zn, Mn and B along with urea significantly increased the concentration of Zn and Mn in citrus leaves, while the concentration of B was not affected with foliar spray, perhaps due to dilution within the citrus tissues. Therefore, it is suggested that either Zn+Mn or Zn+B may be applied as foliar spray in combination with urea and surfactance for getting the maximum yield and improved quality of citrus fruit under prevailing conditions.

  13. A beta-galactosidase gene is expressed during mature fruit abscission of 'Valencia' orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhencai; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2004-07-01

    beta-galactosidases have been detected in a wide range of plants and are characterized by their ability to hydrolyse terminal non-reducing beta-D-galactosyl residues from beta-D-galactosides. These enzymes have been detected in a wide range of plant organs and tissues. In a search for differentially expressed genes during the abscission process in citrus, sequences encoding beta-galactosidase were identified. Three cDNA fragments of a beta-galactosidase gene were isolated from a cDNA subtraction library constructed from mature fruit abscission zones 48 h after the application of a mature fruit-specific abscission agent, 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMN-pyrazole). Based on sequence information derived from these fragments, a full-length cDNA of 2847 nucleotides (GenBank accession number AY029198) encoding beta-galactosidase was isolated from mature fruit abscission zones by 5'- and 3'-RACE approaches. The beta-galactosidase cDNA encoded a protein of 737 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 82 kDa. The deduced protein was highly homologous to plant beta-galactosidases expressed in fruit ripening. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that at least two closely related beta-galactosidase genes were present in 'Valencia' orange. Temporal expression patterns in mature fruit abscission zones indicated beta-galactosidase mRNA was detected 48 h after treatment of CMN-pyrazole and ethephon in mature fruit abscission zones. beta-galactosidase transcripts were detected in leaf abscission zones only after ethephon application. The citrus beta-galactosidase was expressed in stamens and petals of fully opened flowers and young fruitlets. The results suggest that this beta-galactosidase may play a role during abscission as well as early growth and development processes in flowers and fruitlets.

  14. Antiviral effects of β-defensin derived from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei

    2012-05-01

    Defensins are a group of small antimicrobial peptides playing an important role in innate host defense. In this study, a β-defensin cloned from liver of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, EcDefensin, showed a key role in inhibiting the infection and replication of two kinds of newly emerging marine fish viruses, an enveloped DNA virus of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), and a non-enveloped RNA virus of viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV). The expression profiles of EcDefensin were significantly (P < 0.001) up-regulated after challenging with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), SGIV and Polyriboinosinic Polyribocytidylic Acid (polyI:C) in vivo. Immunofluorescence staining observed its intracellular innate immune response to viral infection of SGIV and VNNV. EcDefensin was found to possess dual antiviral activity, inhibiting the infection and replication of SGIV and VNNV and inducting a type I interferon-related response in vitro. Synthetic peptide of EcDefensin (Ec-defensin) incubated with virus or cells before infection reduced the viral infectivity. Ec-defensin drastically decreased SGIV and VNNV titers, viral gene expression and structural protein accumulation. Grouper spleen cells over-expressing EcDefensin (GS/pcDNA-EcDefensin) support the inhibition of viral infection and the upregulation of the expression of host immune-related genes, such as antiviral protein Mx and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. EcDefensin activated type I IFN and Interferon-sensitive response element (ISRE) in vitro. Reporter genes of IFN-Luc and ISRE-Luc were significantly up-regulated in cells transfected with pcDNA-EcDefenisn after infection with SGIV and VNNV. These results suggest that EcDefensin is importantly involved in host immune responses to invasion of viral pathogens, and open the new avenues for design of antiviral agents in fisheries industry.

  15. Development of PMA real-time PCR method to quantify viable cells of Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2, an antagonist to control the major postharvest diseases on oranges.

    PubMed

    Soto-Muñoz, Lourdes; Teixidó, Neus; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada; Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Torres, Rosario

    2014-06-16

    Dilution plating is the quantification method commonly used to estimate the population level of postharvest biocontrol agents, but this method does not permit a distinction among introduced and indigenous strains. Recently, molecular techniques based on DNA amplification such as quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been successfully applied for their high strain-specific detection level. However, the ability of qPCR to distinguish viable and nonviable cells is limited. A promising strategy to avoid this issue relies on the use of nucleic acid intercalating dyes, such as propidium monoazide (PMA), as a sample pretreatment prior to the qPCR. The objective of this study was to optimize a protocol based on PMA pre-treatment samples combined with qPCR to distinguish and quantify viable cells of the biocontrol agent P. agglomerans CPA-2 applied as a postharvest treatment on orange. The efficiency of PMA-qPCR method under the established conditions (30μM PMA for 20min of incubation followed by 30min of LED light exposure) was evaluated on an orange matrix. Results showed no difference in CFU or cells counts of viable cells between PMA-qPCR and dilution plating. Samples of orange matrix inoculated with a mixture of viable/dead cells showed 5.59log10 CFU/ml by dilution plating, 8.25log10 cells/ml by qPCR, and 5.93log10 cells/ml by PMA-qPCR. Furthermore, samples inoculated with heat-killed cells were not detected by dilution plating and PMA-qPCR, while by qPCR was of 8.16log10 cells/ml. The difference in quantification cycles (Cq) among qPCR and PMA-qPCR was approximately 16cycles, which means a reduction of 65,536 fold of the dead cells detected. In conclusion, PMA-qPCR method is a suitable tool for quantify viable CPA-2 cells, which could be useful to estimate the ability of this antagonist to colonize the orange surface.

  16. Tracking the degradation of fresh orange juice and discrimination of orange varieties: an example of NMR in coordination with chemometrics analyses.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Clayton R; Carneiro, Renato L; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is currently the largest exporter of concentrated orange juice and, unlike the other exporter countries, the domestic consumption is mainly based on the fresh orange juice. The quality control by evaluating the major chemical constituents under the influence of the most important factors, such as temperature and storage time of the product, is very important in this context. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of temperature and time on the degradation of fresh orange juice for 24h, by using (1)H NMR technique and chemometric tools for data mining. The storage conditions at 24h led to the production of the formic, fumaric and acetic acids; and an increase of succinic and lactic acids and ethanol, which were observed at low concentration at the initial time. Furthermore, analysis by PCA has successfully distinguished the juice of different species/varieties as well as the metabolites responsible for their separation.

  17. Oxygen isotope ratios of juice water in Australian oranges and concentrates.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, W A; Patel, G; Collins, P; Harrison, M; Goldberg, D

    1999-07-01

    Australian orange juices from major growing regions have been surveyed over a 5 year period with a view to establishing a database of (18)O/(16)O isotope ratios against which retail samples can be tested for authenticity. The (18)O/(16)O ratios were found to follow a consistent pattern that had both a cyclic seasonal and a regional influence. Oxygen delta values ranged from a summer maximum of >+15 per thousand for oranges from inland regions to a winter minimum of approximately +1 per thousand for oranges grown in coastal areas. However, over a shorter time period, the range of values was markedly less than this. Concentrated orange juices, pulpwashes, and peel extracts, as well as other citrus types, were also tested. The effect of some industry practices that have an effect on (18)O/(16)O ratios was also investigated.

  18. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l-1. The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters. PMID:25253925

  19. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    PubMed

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement.

  20. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-05-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l(-1). The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters.

  1. Demonstration of InGaN-based orange LEDs with hybrid multiple-quantum-wells structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Daisuke; Niwa, Kazumasa; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of a hybrid multiple-quantum-wells (MQWs) structure in InGaN-based orange light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The hybrid MQWs-LED is composed of orange InGaN double QWs and a blue-green InGaN single QW. Using the hybrid MQWs structure, the orange LEDs exhibited electroluminescence spectra with narrow full widths at half maximum of 51 nm at 20 mA. The light output power and external quantum efficiency of the InGaN-based orange LEDs were 0.23 mW and 0.6%, respectively, at 20 mA.

  2. Meat-eating by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Buckley, Benjamin J W; Dench, Rosalie J; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C; Bustani, Unyil; Chivers, David J

    2015-10-01

    We present the first evidence for consumption of meat by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus). Meat-eating has been reported in Sumatran orang-utans, specifically the hunting and consumption of slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang), but loris-hunting behaviour has not been observed in the Bornean species and meat of any species is essentially absent from their diet, with only two anecdotal reports of vertebrate meat consumption prior to this current finding in over 40 years of study. In August 2012 an unhabituated adult flanged male orang-utan was observed eating an adult horse-tailed squirrel (Sundasciurus hippurus) carcass in the Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. We suspect this to be a case of scavenging, never reported previously in a Bornean orang-utan.

  3. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    PubMed

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

  4. Emission of linalool from Valencia orange blossoms and its observation in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arey, Janet; Corchnoy, Stephanie B.; Atkinson, Roger

    Emission measurements made over a 5-month period of a Valencia orange tree showed the significant emission of the terpenoid linalool (C 10H 18O) from Valencia orange blossoms. The average annual emission rate of this Olinda Valencia orange, derived from emission measurements which include the blossoming season, is a factor of ˜10 higher than the average annual emission rate derived from measurements taken outside of the blossom season. Ambient monoterpene and linalool concentrations were measured in Riverside, California, in the spring and supported the chamber plant emissions data, with linalool concentrations as high as 17 μg m -3 being observed in an orange grove. These results show that current biogenic emission inventories which are formulated from limited survey data, generally not including seasonal variations in the vegetative emissions, can be subject to large uncertainties.

  5. Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertotti, Mauro; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to determine ascorbic acid concentrations in natural orange juice. The experiment is used with undergraduate pharmacy students to allow understanding of the principles of operation of the coulometer and polarograph. (DDR)

  6. HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Anita, S; Zahir, W M; Sa'iah, A; Rahimah, M A; Sha'ari, B N

    2007-08-01

    Orang Asli, the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia comprises only 0.5% of total Malaysia population but contribute to 0.06% of total notified HIV cases in the country. Their current knowledge, attitude and practice related to HIV was not known. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out involving 2706 Orang Asli from 33 remote and 47 fringe villages. Generally, the level of knowledge was fair (30%-50%) with mean scores of 55.7% (SD 31.7) while attitudes were negative. There was gender bias towards misconception on HIV transmission and sources of information. HIV seroprevalence of 0.3% was detected while risk behaviors were low. This study provides baseline information for HIV/AIDS preventive programs to the Orang Asli communities.

  7. 78 FR 23208 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... phytosanitary measures listed in paragraph (b) of that section. Oranges (Citrus sinensis) from Egypt were... the establishment of peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata), which is also a pest of citrus in...

  8. Meat-eating by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Buckley, Benjamin J W; Dench, Rosalie J; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C; Bustani, Unyil; Chivers, David J

    2015-10-01

    We present the first evidence for consumption of meat by a wild Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus). Meat-eating has been reported in Sumatran orang-utans, specifically the hunting and consumption of slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang), but loris-hunting behaviour has not been observed in the Bornean species and meat of any species is essentially absent from their diet, with only two anecdotal reports of vertebrate meat consumption prior to this current finding in over 40 years of study. In August 2012 an unhabituated adult flanged male orang-utan was observed eating an adult horse-tailed squirrel (Sundasciurus hippurus) carcass in the Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. We suspect this to be a case of scavenging, never reported previously in a Bornean orang-utan. PMID:26298471

  9. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  10. Yellow-orange light generation by self-sum-frequency mixing Nd:YCOB laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X. H.; Che, Y.; Li, Y. L.; Jiang, H. L.

    2011-08-01

    We report for the first time a coherent yellow-orange radiation at 590 nm by self-sum-frequency generation of the 1060 and 1332 nm laser-lines of the Nd:YCOB crystal. With a diode pump power of 14.3 W, the maximum yellow-orange output power of 286 mW is obtained. The power stability is better than 3.6%. The beam quality M2 value is about 1.32.

  11. Citric Acid Production from Orange Peel Wastes by Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Torrado, Ana María; Cortés, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, José; Max, Belén; Rodríguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P.; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Domínguez, José

    2011-01-01

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·103 to 0.7·108 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·106 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications. PMID:24031646

  12. Citric Acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Torrado, Ana María; Cortés, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, José; Max, Belén; Rodríguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Domínguez, José

    2011-01-01

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10(3) to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6) spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications. PMID:24031646

  13. Photoconvertible Behavior of LSSmOrange Applicable for Single Emission Band Optical Highlighting.

    PubMed

    De Keersmaecker, Herlinde; Fron, Eduard; Rocha, Susana; Kogure, Takako; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Hofkens, Johan; Mizuno, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent proteins are capable of changing their spectral properties upon light irradiation, thus allowing one to follow a chosen subpopulation of molecules in a biological system. Recently, we revealed a photoinduced absorption band shift of LSSmOrange, which was originally engineered to have a large energy gap between excitation and emission bands. Here, we evaluated the performance of LSSmOrange as a fluorescent tracer in living cells. The absorption maximum of LSSmOrange in HeLa cells shifted from 437 nm to 553 nm upon illumination with a 405-, 445-, 458-, or 488-nm laser on a laser-scanning microscope, whereas the emission band remained same (∼570 nm). LSSmOrange behaves as a freely diffusing protein in living cells, enabling the use of the protein as a fluorescence tag for studies of protein dynamics. By targeting LSSmOrange in mitochondria, we observed an exchange of soluble molecules between the matrices upon mitochondrial fusion. Since converted and unconverted LSSmOrange proteins have similar emission spectra, this tracer offers unique possibilities for multicolor imaging. The fluorescence emission from LSSmOrange was spectrally distinguishable from that of eYFP and mRFP, and could be separated completely by applying linear unmixing. Furthermore, by using a femtosecond laser at 850 nm, we showed that a two-photon process could evoke a light-induced red shift of the absorption band of LSSmOrange, providing a strict confinement of the conversion volume in a three-dimensional space.

  14. Changes of colour and carotenoids contents during high intensity pulsed electric field treatment in orange juices.

    PubMed

    Cortés, C; Esteve, M J; Rodrigo, D; Torregrosa, F; Frígola, A

    2006-11-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) was the method chosen to evaluate the effects of high intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF), with different electric field intensities (25, 30, 35 and 40 kV/cm) and different treatment times (30-340 micros), on orange juice cis/trans carotenoid contents. In parallel, a conventional heat treatment (90 degrees C, 20 s) was applied to the orange juice in order to compare the effect on the carotenoid contents. HIPEF processing of orange juice is an alternative to the thermal treatment of pasteurization, provided that it is kept refrigerated, because, when the most extreme conditions of this kind of treatment are applied, the decrease in the concentration of carotenoids with vitamin A activity is very small, and also most of the carotenoids identified have a slightly increased concentration after application of the most intense treatments, although always less than in untreated fresh juice. In any case, pasteurization treatment causes a greater decrease in the concentration of most of the carotenoids identified and the carotenoids with vitamin A activity. The total carotenoid concentration decreased by 12.6% in pasteurized orange juice with respect to untreated fresh orange juice, as opposed to decreases of 9.6%, 6.3% or 7.8% when fields of 25, 30 or 40 kV/cm were applied. Orange juice treated with HIPEF shows a greater tendency towards the colour yellow and a lesser tendency towards red with respect to untreated orange juice, while the luminance of the juice remains practically invariable. This tendency is less than in pasteurized orange juice.

  15. Photoconvertible Behavior of LSSmOrange Applicable for Single Emission Band Optical Highlighting.

    PubMed

    De Keersmaecker, Herlinde; Fron, Eduard; Rocha, Susana; Kogure, Takako; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Hofkens, Johan; Mizuno, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent proteins are capable of changing their spectral properties upon light irradiation, thus allowing one to follow a chosen subpopulation of molecules in a biological system. Recently, we revealed a photoinduced absorption band shift of LSSmOrange, which was originally engineered to have a large energy gap between excitation and emission bands. Here, we evaluated the performance of LSSmOrange as a fluorescent tracer in living cells. The absorption maximum of LSSmOrange in HeLa cells shifted from 437 nm to 553 nm upon illumination with a 405-, 445-, 458-, or 488-nm laser on a laser-scanning microscope, whereas the emission band remained same (∼570 nm). LSSmOrange behaves as a freely diffusing protein in living cells, enabling the use of the protein as a fluorescence tag for studies of protein dynamics. By targeting LSSmOrange in mitochondria, we observed an exchange of soluble molecules between the matrices upon mitochondrial fusion. Since converted and unconverted LSSmOrange proteins have similar emission spectra, this tracer offers unique possibilities for multicolor imaging. The fluorescence emission from LSSmOrange was spectrally distinguishable from that of eYFP and mRFP, and could be separated completely by applying linear unmixing. Furthermore, by using a femtosecond laser at 850 nm, we showed that a two-photon process could evoke a light-induced red shift of the absorption band of LSSmOrange, providing a strict confinement of the conversion volume in a three-dimensional space. PMID:27602729

  16. Influence of immigration on epiphytic bacterial populations on navel orange leaves.

    PubMed

    Lindow, S E; Andersen, G L

    1996-08-01

    Factors that influenced the increase in epiphytic bacterial population size on navel orange leaves during winter months were investigated to test the assumption that such populations were the result of multiplication on orange leaves. The population sizes of bacteria of different kinds, including ice nucleation-active (Ice(sup+)) bacteria, were from 6- to 30-fold larger on leaves of navel orange trees adjacent to other plant species than on trees growing near other citrus species. Total and Ice(sup+) bacterial population sizes on other plant species growing near navel orange trees were from 18- to 60-fold and 2- to 18,000-fold larger, respectively, than on navel orange trees. About twice the number of bacterial cells of a given type were deposited onto petri dishes opened simultaneously in navel orange orchards with other plant species nearby as in orchards surrounded by citrus trees. Epiphytic bacteria and airborne bacteria were more numerous near the upwind edge of orchards bordering on other plant species, but not in orchards adjacent to other citrus trees, and decreased with distance from other plant species. Navel orange leaves also exhibited progressive increases in the ability to supercool as a function of increasing distance from the upwind edge of orchards adjacent to other plant species but not in orchards adjacent to other citrus trees. While the population size of three different bacterial strains remained nearly constant for 60 days after inoculation, total bacterial populations increased more than 50-fold during this period. These results suggest that immigration of bacteria from plants having high epiphytic bacterial populations could account for most, if not all, of the seasonal increase in bacterial populations on navel orange leaves and have important implications for procedures to modify bacterial communities on leaves. PMID:16535384

  17. Intestinal parasitic infections amongst Orang Asli (indigenous) in Malaysia: has socioeconomic development alleviated the problem?

    PubMed

    Lim, Y A L; Romano, N; Colin, N; Chow, S C; Smith, H V

    2009-08-01

    Orang Asli are the indigenous minority peoples of peninsular Malaysia. Despite proactive socioeconomic development initiated by the Malaysian Government in upgrading the quality of life of the Orang Asli communities since 1978, they still remained poor with a current poverty rate of 76.9%. Poverty exacerbates the health problems faced by these communities which include malnourishment, high incidences of infectious diseases (eg. tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria) and the perpetual problem with intestinal parasitic infections. Studies reported that the mean infection rate of intestinal parasitic infections in Orang Asli communities has reduced from 91.1% in 1978, to 64.1% in the subsequent years. Although the results was encouraging, it has to be interpreted with caution because nearly 80% of studies carried out after 1978 still reported high prevalence (i.e. >50%) of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) among Orang Asli communities. Prior to 1978, hookworm infection is the most predominant STH but today, trichuriasis is the most common STH infections. The risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections remained unchanged and studies conducted in recent years suggested that severe STH infections contributed to malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia and low serum retinol in Orang Asli communities. In addition, STH may also contribute to poor cognitive functions and learning ability. Improvements in socioeconomic status in Malaysia have shown positive impact on the reduction of intestinal parasitic infections in other communities however, this positive impact is less significant in the Orang Asli communities. In view of this, a national parasitic infections baseline data on morbidity and mortality in the 18 subgroups of Orang Asli, will assist in identifying intervention programmes required by these communities. It is hope that the adoption of strategies highlighted in the World Health Organisation- Healthy Village Initiatives (WHO-HVI) into Orang Asli communities will

  18. Intestinal parasitic infections amongst Orang Asli (indigenous) in Malaysia: has socioeconomic development alleviated the problem?

    PubMed

    Lim, Y A L; Romano, N; Colin, N; Chow, S C; Smith, H V

    2009-08-01

    Orang Asli are the indigenous minority peoples of peninsular Malaysia. Despite proactive socioeconomic development initiated by the Malaysian Government in upgrading the quality of life of the Orang Asli communities since 1978, they still remained poor with a current poverty rate of 76.9%. Poverty exacerbates the health problems faced by these communities which include malnourishment, high incidences of infectious diseases (eg. tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria) and the perpetual problem with intestinal parasitic infections. Studies reported that the mean infection rate of intestinal parasitic infections in Orang Asli communities has reduced from 91.1% in 1978, to 64.1% in the subsequent years. Although the results was encouraging, it has to be interpreted with caution because nearly 80% of studies carried out after 1978 still reported high prevalence (i.e. >50%) of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) among Orang Asli communities. Prior to 1978, hookworm infection is the most predominant STH but today, trichuriasis is the most common STH infections. The risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections remained unchanged and studies conducted in recent years suggested that severe STH infections contributed to malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia and low serum retinol in Orang Asli communities. In addition, STH may also contribute to poor cognitive functions and learning ability. Improvements in socioeconomic status in Malaysia have shown positive impact on the reduction of intestinal parasitic infections in other communities however, this positive impact is less significant in the Orang Asli communities. In view of this, a national parasitic infections baseline data on morbidity and mortality in the 18 subgroups of Orang Asli, will assist in identifying intervention programmes required by these communities. It is hope that the adoption of strategies highlighted in the World Health Organisation- Healthy Village Initiatives (WHO-HVI) into Orang Asli communities will

  19. Promoting consumption of fruit in elementary school cafeterias. The effects of slicing apples and oranges.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Mark; Branscum, Adam; Nakayima, Peace Julie

    2009-10-01

    We examined how slicing apples and oranges affected elementary students' selection and consumption of fruit. Slicing increased the percentage of children selecting and consuming oranges, while a similar effect was not found for apples. The impact of slicing fruit was greatest among younger students. These findings suggest that school cafeterias can increase accessibility and consumption of foods through simple, inexpensive food preparation techniques, with the impact of such measures varying by foods and student characteristics. PMID:19635513

  20. Deep sequencing and analysis of small RNAs in sweet orange grafted on sour orange infected with two citrus tristeza virus isolates prevalent in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Licciardello, Grazia; Scuderi, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Rosario; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Russo, Marcella; Lombardo, Alessandro; Raspagliesi, Domenico; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Catara, Antonino

    2015-10-01

    Two representative isolates of a citrus tristeza virus population in Sicily, SG29 (aggressive) and Bau282 (mild), were sequenced via viral small RNAs (vsRNA) produced in budlings of sweet orange grafted on sour orange. Phylogenetic relationships with Mediterranean and exotic isolates revealed that SG29 clustered within the "VT-Asian" subtype, whereas Bau282 belonged to the cluster T30. The study confirms that molecular data need to be integrated with bio-indexing in order to obtain adequate information for risk assessment.