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Sample records for agent communication languages

  1. Learning by Communicating in Natural Language with Conversational Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur; Li, Haiying; Forsyth, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Learning is facilitated by conversational interactions both with human tutors and with computer agents that simulate human tutoring and ideal pedagogical strategies. In this article, we describe some intelligent tutoring systems (e.g., AutoTutor) in which agents interact with students in natural language while being sensitive to their cognitive…

  2. Toward a semantics for an agent communications language based on speech-acts

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, I.A.; Cohen, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    Systems based on distributed agent architectures require an agent communications language having a clearly defined semantics. This paper demonstrates that a semantics for an agent communications language can be founded on the premise that agents are building, maintaining, and disbanding teams through their performance of communicative acts. This view requires that definitions of basic communicative acts, such as requesting, be recast in terms of the formation of a joint intention - a mental state that has been suggested underlies team behavior. To illustrate these points, a semantics is developed for a number of communication actions that can form and dissolve teams. It is then demonstrated how much of the structure of popular finite-state dialogue models, such as Winograd and Flores` basic conversation for action, follows as a consequence of the logical relationships that are created by the redefined communicative actions.

  3. Interaction and Communication of Agents in Networks and Language Complexity Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smid, Jan; Obitko, Marek; Fisher, David; Truszkowski, Walt

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition and sharing are arguably the most critical activities of communicating agents. We report about our on-going project featuring knowledge acquisition and sharing among communicating agents embedded in a network. The applications we target range from hardware robots to virtual entities such as internet agents. Agent experiments can be simulated using a convenient simulation language. We analyzed the complexity of communicating agent simulations using Java and Easel. Scenarios we have studied are listed below. The communication among agents can range from declarative queries to sub-natural language queries. 1) A set of agents monitoring an object are asked to build activity profiles based on exchanging elementary observations; 2) A set of car drivers form a line, where every car is following its predecessor. An unsafe distance cm create a strong wave in the line. Individual agents are asked to incorporate and apply directions how to avoid the wave. 3) A set of micro-vehicles form a grid and are asked to propagate information and concepts to a central server.

  4. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  5. Language and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C., Ed.; Schmidt, Richard W., Ed.

    A collection of essays addresses the connection between the study of communication and its sociocultural contexts and the approach to second language teaching based on the concept of communicative competence. Essays include: "From Communicative Competence to Communicative Language Pedagogy" (Michael Canale); "The Domain of Pragmatics" (Bruce…

  6. Agent amplified communication

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A.

    1996-12-31

    We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

  7. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  8. Language and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Grayce A.

    An analysis of the relationship of language to learning, particularly as it affects "avoidance behaviors" of remedial readers in the classroom, strongly emphasized the importance of greater stress on oral language development. New concern for cognitive and personality development in children stresses the role of language as an interaction medium…

  9. Misunderstandings of Communicative Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wen

    2008-01-01

    Although Communicative Language Teaching is accepted by many English teachers in China as one of the most effective approach in English language teaching, there are still a number of misunderstandings about it. By comparing Johnstone; Sato and Kleinsasser and Thompson as well as Spada, this article focuses on four of the main misunderstandings,…

  10. Strategies of Second-Language Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmberg, Rolf

    1978-01-01

    The use of the term "strategy" in second language communication is discussed, and a typology of communication strategies is presented. Communication strategies are those systematic devices a second language learner uses in attempting to express precise meaning in the target language. Definitions of learning strategies and communication strategies…

  11. Conceptualising "Communication" in Foreign Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenchlas, Susana

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of communicative language teaching as the dominant paradigm in foreign language pedagogy cast "communication" in a central role in language acquisition, both as an aim and as a medium of instruction. Despite its centrality, the concept of "communication" is generally taken as widely understood and is seldom defined. This paper…

  12. Can Communicative Principles Enhance Classical Language Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Paul; Fields, Lee; Noonan, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Is it feasible for nonfluent instructors to teach Biblical Hebrew by communicative principles? If it is feasible, will communicative instruction enhance postsecondary learning of a classical language? To begin answering these questions, two consultants representing second language acquisition (SLA) and technology-assisted language learning led 8…

  13. Language Teaching and Acquisition of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari; Lehtonen, Jaakko

    A theoretical linguistic model is insufficient to deal with the problems of language teaching because of the complexity of the phenomena concerned and the dynamic nature of language acquisition and communication. Most linguistic models neglect the fact that, in communicative situations, language users construct the prerequisites of communicative…

  14. Communicative Language Teaching: Approach, Design and Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Xiao Qing

    This paper presents a very comprehensive overview of the communicative language teaching (CLT) approach, presenting the views of critics as well as supporters. CLT views language as a vehicle for communication, and it recognizes as its aim the teaching of communicative competence, which includes grammatical, sociolinguistic, discourse, and…

  15. Communicative Language Learning as a Motivating Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosuncuoglu, Irfan

    2011-01-01

    Language is seen as a system for communicative purposes and as such it involves more than just a structural organization. Indeed this view of language considers different kinds of competence which make communication really meaningful: linguistic, sociolinguistic discourse, and strategic. Linguistic competence is what we usually regard as the basis…

  16. Teaching Language as Communication to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Frank B.

    This book combines background information on language and communication with methods for developing specific skills needed to cope with the daily communication problems. Comments on environmental effects on language development, on differences in dialects, on reasons for teaching grammar, and on types of grammar precede a discussion of the impact…

  17. Language and Communication Development in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Price, Johanna; Malkin, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there is considerable variability, most individuals with Down syndrome have mental retardation and speech and language deficits, particularly in language production and syntax and poor speech intelligibility. This article describes research findings in the language and communication development of individuals with Down syndrome, first…

  18. Language, Communication, and Culture: Current Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting-Toomey, Stella, Ed.; Korzenny, Felipe, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Dealing with the relationships among language, communication, and culture, the 12 papers in this collection are divided into three parts. The first part deals with the critical issues related to language acquisition, context, and cognition. The second part presents an array of perspectives in analyzing the role of language in comparative…

  19. Metaphoric Competence, Second Language Learning, and Communicative Language Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlemore, Jeannette; Low, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in cognitive linguistics have highlighted the importance as well as the ubiquity of metaphor in language. Despite this, the ability of second language learners to use metaphors is often still not seen as a core ability. In this paper, we take a model of communicative competence that has been widely influential in both language…

  20. Brain basis of communicative actions in language.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Natalia; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-15

    Although language is a key tool for communication in social interaction, most studies in the neuroscience of language have focused on language structures such as words and sentences. Here, the neural correlates of speech acts, that is, the actions performed by using language, were investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were shown videos, in which the same critical utterances were used in different communicative contexts, to Name objects, or to Request them from communication partners. Understanding of critical utterances as Requests was accompanied by activation in bilateral premotor, left inferior frontal and temporo-parietal cortical areas known to support action-related and social interactive knowledge. Naming, however, activated the left angular gyrus implicated in linking information about word forms and related reference objects mentioned in critical utterances. These findings show that understanding of utterances as different communicative actions is reflected in distinct brain activation patterns, and thus suggest different neural substrates for different speech act types.

  1. Communicative Language Teaching Today. Portfolio Series #13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    2005-01-01

    This booklet examines the methodology known as Communicative Language Teaching or CLT and explores the assumptions it is based on, its origins and evolution since it was first proposed in the 1970s, and how it has influenced approaches to language teaching today. It serves to review what has been learned from CLT and what its relevance is today. A…

  2. School-Home Communication in Multiple Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Verdi N.

    2005-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires school districts to communicate with parents in an "understandable and uniform format ... in a language that parents can understand." But with a student population representing 131 countries and speaking 81 major languages, the Cobb County, Ga., Public School District was finding it difficult to meet that…

  3. Shared language:Towards more effective communication.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    The ability to communicate to others and express ourselves is a basic human need. As we develop our understanding of the world, based on our upbringing, education and so on, our perspective and the way we communicate can differ from those around us. Engaging and interacting with others is a critical part of healthy living. It is the responsibility of the individual to ensure that they are understood in the way they intended.Shared language refers to people developing understanding amongst themselves based on language (e.g. spoken, text) to help them communicate more effectively. The key to understanding language is to first notice and be mindful of your language. Developing a shared language is an ongoing process that requires intention and time, which results in better understanding.Shared language is critical to collaboration, and collaboration is critical to business and education. With whom and how many people do you connect? Your 'shared language' makes a difference in the world. So, how do we successfully do this? This paper shares several strategies.Your sphere of influence will carry forward what and how you are communicating. Developing and nurturing a shared language is an essential element to enhance communication and collaboration whether it is simply between partners or across the larger community of business and customers. Constant awareness and education is required to maintain the shared language. We are living in an increasingly smaller global community. Business is built on relationships. If you invest in developing shared language, your relationships and your business will thrive.

  4. Shared language:Towards more effective communication.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    The ability to communicate to others and express ourselves is a basic human need. As we develop our understanding of the world, based on our upbringing, education and so on, our perspective and the way we communicate can differ from those around us. Engaging and interacting with others is a critical part of healthy living. It is the responsibility of the individual to ensure that they are understood in the way they intended.Shared language refers to people developing understanding amongst themselves based on language (e.g. spoken, text) to help them communicate more effectively. The key to understanding language is to first notice and be mindful of your language. Developing a shared language is an ongoing process that requires intention and time, which results in better understanding.Shared language is critical to collaboration, and collaboration is critical to business and education. With whom and how many people do you connect? Your 'shared language' makes a difference in the world. So, how do we successfully do this? This paper shares several strategies.Your sphere of influence will carry forward what and how you are communicating. Developing and nurturing a shared language is an essential element to enhance communication and collaboration whether it is simply between partners or across the larger community of business and customers. Constant awareness and education is required to maintain the shared language. We are living in an increasingly smaller global community. Business is built on relationships. If you invest in developing shared language, your relationships and your business will thrive. PMID:23422948

  5. Nonverbal Communication and the Foreign Language Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherford, H. Jarold

    A discussion of the role of nonverbal communication in foreign language learning focuses on culturally-conditioned aspects of nonverbal behavior. Various means of nonverbal communication, including posture, gestures, facial expression, occulesics, proxemics, haptics, chronemics, and syncing are examined, and some of the cultural differences found…

  6. Communicative Language Teaching in the Chinese Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore effective ways to develop Chinese English learners' communicative competence, this study first briefly reviews the advantages of communicative language teaching (CLT) method which widely practiced in the Western countries and analyzes in details its obstacles in Chinese classroom context. Then it offers guidelines for…

  7. Communication Strategies in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Tony

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the present study is to examine the communication strategies used by learners and teachers in the foreign language classroom. The data is from introductory Spanish classrooms at the university level. The author analyzed the data for instances of communications strategies according to taxonomy developed for ESL studies. Important…

  8. Language and communication in autistic disorders.

    PubMed

    Frith, U; Happé, F

    1994-10-29

    Communication problems form one of the key diagnostic criteria for autism, but there is a wide variety of manifestations. The theory that autistic individuals are unable to represent mental states can shed light on both the nature and range of communication impairments. This theory predicts that the specific communication deficit lies in the use of language to affect other minds. Language is not special in this respect, and is important only in so far as it may be used to give evidence of a speaker's thoughts and intentions. Thus, in autism, language level would be expected to relate strongly to performance on standard tests of theory of mind. Normal language acquisition appears to build upon the ability to recognize and orient towards ostensive behaviour. For this reason, it may not be necessary to postulate additional language impairments in order to explain the almost universal prevalence of language delay in children with autism. Autism, then, provides a model for studying the important distinction between language and communication, and demonstrates the vital part which mind-reading plays in normal human verbal and non-verbal interaction.

  9. Nonverbal Communication in the Teaching of Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joanna P.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of all forms of nonverbal communication in the teaching of foreign languages, including body language, paralinguistics, cross cultural understanding, and visual aids in teaching. (AM)

  10. Agent Communication for Dynamic Belief Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Mikito; Tojo, Satoshi

    Thus far, various formalizations of rational / logical agent model have been proposed. In this paper, we include the notion of communication channel and belief modality into update logic, and introduce Belief Update Logic (BUL). First, we discuss that how we can reformalize the inform action of FIPA-ACL into communication channel, which represents a connection between agents. Thus, our agents can send a message only when they believe, and also there actually is, a channel between him / her and a receiver. Then, we present a static belief logic (BL) and show its soundness and completeness. Next, we develop the logic to BUL, which can update Kripke model by the inform action; in which we show that in the updated model the belief operator also satisfies K45. Thereafter, we show that every sentence in BUL can be translated into BL; thus, we can contend that BUL is also sound and complete. Furthermore, we discuss the features of CUL, including the case of inconsistent information, as well as channel transmission. Finally, we summarize our contribution and discuss some future issues.

  11. The languages of parasite communication.

    PubMed

    Roditi, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Although it is regarded as self-evident that parasites interact with their hosts, with the primary aim of enhancing their own survival and transmission, the extent to which unicellular parasites communicate with each has been severely underestimated. Recent publications show that information is commonly exchanged between parasites of the same species and that this can govern their decisions to divide, to differentiate or to migrate as a group. Communication can take the form of soluble secreted factors, extracellular vesicles or contact between cells. Extracellular parasites can do this directly, while intracellular parasites use the infected host cell - or components derived from it - as an intermediary. By emitting signals that can be dispersed within the host, parasites can also have long-distance effects on the course of an infection and its pathology. This article presents an overview of recent developments in this field and draws attention to some older work that merits re-examination. PMID:27211242

  12. Practical Knowledge Growth in Communicative Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Communicative language teaching (CLT) is promoted in teacher education programmes around the world, although the appropriateness of this methodology in contexts outside the English-speaking West has been questioned, often from a theoretical perspective. In fact, very little empirical research has been conducted into the practical knowledge of CLT…

  13. Some Misconceptions about Communicative Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Geoff

    1996-01-01

    Presents four misconceptions surrounding communicative language teaching (CLT) and discusses the reasons for their existence. These misconceptions are: (1) CLT means not teaching grammar; (2) CLT means teaching only speaking; (3) CLT means pair work, which means role play; and (4) CLT means expecting too much from the teacher. (13 references)…

  14. Brain basis of communicative actions in language

    PubMed Central

    Egorova, Natalia; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Although language is a key tool for communication in social interaction, most studies in the neuroscience of language have focused on language structures such as words and sentences. Here, the neural correlates of speech acts, that is, the actions performed by using language, were investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were shown videos, in which the same critical utterances were used in different communicative contexts, to Name objects, or to Request them from communication partners. Understanding of critical utterances as Requests was accompanied by activation in bilateral premotor, left inferior frontal and temporo-parietal cortical areas known to support action-related and social interactive knowledge. Naming, however, activated the left angular gyrus implicated in linking information about word forms and related reference objects mentioned in critical utterances. These findings show that understanding of utterances as different communicative actions is reflected in distinct brain activation patterns, and thus suggest different neural substrates for different speech act types. PMID:26505303

  15. Language and Communication Difficulties in Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Karen; Freer, Jackie; Furlong, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Background: Studies of the prison population suggest that the numbers of prisoners with language and communication disorders is higher than that of the overall population. However, the prison population is heterogeneous and it is important to focus on specific areas of the population. This study focuses on juvenile offenders. Aims: The study aimed…

  16. The Communicative Orientation of First-Year African language Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Antonia Folarin; Gleisner, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Examines how well first-year African language textbooks convey communicative competency issues to African language learners and provides a suitable guide for the selection of communicatively-oriented first-year textbooks. (Author/VWL)

  17. Aptitude and Language Learning of FBI Special Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Marijke; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship between aptitude, as measured by Defense Language Aptitude Battery (DLAB) scores, and oral proficiency as measured by the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) scores of 72 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Special Agents who completed basic foreign language training at the Defense Language Institute (DLI).…

  18. Cerebro, lenguaje y comunicacion (Brain, Language, and Communication).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strejilevich, Leonardo

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between the brain, language, and communication in the following sections: (1) combining words, (2) language as a system, (3) language as a function of the brain, (4) the science of communication, and (5) language as a social institution. (NCR)

  19. The Languages of Communication. A Logical and Psychological Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, George N.

    Two methods of analysis, logical and psychological (or, loosely, aesthetic and functional) are used to investigate the many kinds of languages man uses to communicate, the ways in which these languages operate, and the reasons for communication failures. Based on a discussion of the nature of symbols, since most languages of communication draw…

  20. SAL: a language for developing an agent-based architecture for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Willie Y.; Verzulli, Joe

    1993-05-01

    SAL (the SmartyCat Agent Language) is a language being developed for programming SmartyCat, our mobile robot. SmartyCat's underlying software architecture is agent-based. At the lowest level, the robot sensors and actuators are controlled by agents (viz., the sensing and acting agents, respectively). SAL provides the constructs for organizing these agents into many structures. In particular, SAL supports the subsumption architecture approach. At higher levels of abstraction, SAL can be used for writing programs based on Minsky's Society of Mind paradigm. Structurally, a SAL program is a graph, where the nodes are software modules called agents, and the arcs represent abstract communication links between agents. In SAL, an agent is a CLOS object with input and output ports. Input ports are used for presenting data from the outside world (i.e., other agents) to the agent. Data are presented to the outside world by the agent through its output ports. The main body of the SAL code for the agent specifies the computation or the action performed by the agent. This paper describes how SAL is being used for implementing the agent-based SmartyCat software architecture on a Cybermotion K2A platform.

  1. Language Development Hinges on Communication: An Emergentist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrar-Ul-Hassan, Shahid

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the human language system have brought to the fore two key aspects. First, the prime function of language is communication. Second, language exists in the social world. The language learning process takes place within the sociocultural context and the relevant macrostructures that influence language use and development. According to the…

  2. Towards an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran

    2012-09-01

    Scala and its multi-threaded model based on actors represent an excellent framework for developing purely reactive agents. This paper presents an early research on extending Scala with declarative programming constructs, which would result in a new agent-oriented programming language suitable for developing more advanced, BDI agent architectures. The main advantage the new language over many other existing solutions for programming BDI agents is a natural and straightforward integration of imperative and declarative programming constructs, fitted under a single development framework.

  3. Teaching Nonverbal Communication in the Second Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Stephen S.; Moore, Jean

    Because the nonverbal component of communication is culture-specific, effective communication in a second language requires knowledge of the body language typical of speakers of that language. For example, Americans and Hispanics have a different sense of proxemics, Hispanics favoring closeness during conversation. Instruction in nonverbal…

  4. Intercultural Communication in Foreign Language Education. Research Reports A:168.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Renko, Kaarina

    A study examined the oral language skills needed in a second language to communicate effectively with native speakers. The first part of the study is an analysis of the concept of oral intercultural communication proficiency, particularly as an objective of language instruction. The second part of the study consisted of a survey of native speakers…

  5. The Impact of Electronic Communication Technology on Written Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzah, Mohd. Sahandri Gani B.; Ghorbani, Mohd. Reza; Abdullah, Saifuddin Kumar B.

    2009-01-01

    Communication technology is changing things. Language is no exception. Some language researchers argue that language is deteriorating due to increased use in electronic communication. The present paper investigated 100 randomly selected electronic mails (e-mails) and 50 short messaging system (SMS) messages of a representative sample of…

  6. Formal Consistency Verification of Deliberative Agents with Respect to Communication Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Jaime; deAntonio, Angelica

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show a method that is able to detect inconsistencies in the reasoning carried out by a deliberative agent. The agent is supposed to be provided with a hybrid Knowledge Base expressed in a language called CCR-2, based on production rules and hierarchies of frames, which permits the representation of non-monotonic reasoning, uncertain reasoning and arithmetic constraints in the rules. The method can give a specification of the scenarios in which the agent would deduce an inconsistency. We define a scenario to be a description of the initial agent s state (in the agent life cycle), a deductive tree of rule firings, and a partially ordered set of messages and/or stimuli that the agent must receive from other agents and/or the environment. Moreover, the method will make sure that the scenarios will be valid w.r.t. the communication protocols in which the agent is involved.

  7. Brahms An Agent-Oriented Language for Work Practice Simulation and Multi-Agent Systems Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; van Hoof, Ron J. J.

    Brahms is a multi-agent modeling language for simulating human work practice that emerges from work processes in organizations. The same Brahms language can be used to implement and execute distributed multi-agent systems, based on models of work practice that were first simulated. Brahms demonstrates how a multi-agent belief-desire-intention language, symbolic cognitive modeling, traditional business process modeling, activity-and situated cognition theories are brought together in a coherent approach for analysis and design of organizations and human-centered systems.

  8. Adaptive Agent Modeling of Distributed Language: Investigations on the Effects of Cultural Variation and Internal Action Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangelosi, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the "grounded adaptive agent" computational framework for studying the emergence of communication and language. This modeling framework is based on simulations of population of cognitive agents that evolve linguistic capabilities by interacting with their social and physical environment (internal and external symbol…

  9. 49 CFR 551.37 - Language of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... communications. Communications and attachments thereto shall be in English. Any matter written in a foreign language will be considered only if accompanied by a translation into English. A translation shall bear...

  10. 49 CFR 551.37 - Language of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... communications. Communications and attachments thereto shall be in English. Any matter written in a foreign language will be considered only if accompanied by a translation into English. A translation shall bear...

  11. 49 CFR 551.37 - Language of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... communications. Communications and attachments thereto shall be in English. Any matter written in a foreign language will be considered only if accompanied by a translation into English. A translation shall bear...

  12. Cultural Diversity and Information and Communication Impacts on Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Hung; Chu, Ying-Chien

    2011-01-01

    Cultural diversity doesn't just entail differences in dress and language. It also encompasses different ways of thinking, managing, and communicating. The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one. Cultures are created through communication; that is, communication is the means of human interaction through…

  13. Language learners restructure their input to facilitate efficient communication.

    PubMed

    Fedzechkina, Maryia; Jaeger, T Florian; Newport, Elissa L

    2012-10-30

    Languages of the world display many structural similarities. We test the hypothesis that some of these structural properties may arise from biases operating during language acquisition that shape languages over time. Specifically, we investigate whether language learners are biased toward linguistic systems that strike an efficient balance between robust information transfer, on the one hand, and effort or resource demands, on the other hand, thereby increasing the communicative utility of the acquired language. In two experiments, we expose learners to miniature artificial languages designed in such a way that they do not use their formal devices (case marking) efficiently to facilitate robust information transfer. We find that learners restructure such languages in ways that facilitate efficient information transfer compared with the input language. These systematic changes introduced by the learners follow typologically frequent patterns, supporting the hypothesis that some of the structural similarities found in natural languages are shaped by biases toward communicatively efficient linguistic systems.

  14. Is Communicative Language Teaching a Thing of the Past?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Jason

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the success of communicative language teaching in the context of language acquisition theory and research findings. Argues that a fairly limited use of communicative principles has been evident in popular treatments of lesson structure, content, and syllabus design. (Author/VWL)

  15. English as the Language of International Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuiper, Alison

    2007-01-01

    In teaching business communication, instructors usually can take for granted that English is the language of business communication in a globalised world. Even in a multicultural and multilinguistic country such as Malaysia, the assumption that English is the language to use is shared by those who manage programs, those who teach, and students.…

  16. Promoting Intercultural Communicative Competence through Foreign Language Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planken, Brigitte; van Hooft, Andreu; Korzilius, Hubert

    2004-01-01

    Learning a foreign language is important in intercultural business communication (IBC) studies. Equally important is developing intercultural communicative competence, that is, a recognition of the cultural factors influencing behavior in business encounters around the globe. This article suggests how tertiary-level foreign language (FL) courses…

  17. Learning Affordances of Language and Communication National Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the learning affordances of different language and communication curricula in the world. For reasons of space, only two national education systems (Finland and Singapore) and their language and communication curricula are referred to. The accounts of national education systems consist of the identification of mechanisms…

  18. Language Education for Intercultural Communication. Multilingual Matters 96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Dennis, Ed.; And Others

    Essays address the relationship between second language education and intercultural communication in several countries. Following an introduction are the following papers: "Second Language Learning in Belgium" (Ludo Beheydt); "Foreign Language Education in Bulgaria: Present-Day Situation and Future Tendencies" (Madeleine Danova, L.…

  19. Multilingual Communication and Language Acquisition: New Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Wurr, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we outline the differences between a monolingual and multilingual orientation to language and language acquisition. The increasing contact between languages in the context of globalization motivates such a shift of paradigms. Multilingual communicative practices have remained vibrant in non-western communities for a long time. We…

  20. 49 CFR 551.37 - Language of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... language will be considered only if accompanied by a translation into English. A translation shall bear a... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Language of communications. 551.37 Section 551.37... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES Submittals in Writing § 551.37 Language...

  1. 49 CFR 551.37 - Language of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Language of communications. 551.37 Section 551.37... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES Submittals in Writing § 551.37 Language of... language will be considered only if accompanied by a translation into English. A translation shall bear...

  2. Language Magazine: The Journal of Communication & Education, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ben, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These 12 issues of the journal include articles on such topics as the following: classical languages; early literacy; ancient languages; study abroad; teacher training; dialects; computer uses in education; classroom techniques; illustrated dictionaries for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students; communication through poetry; bilingual…

  3. Language, Thinking, and Communication: A Developmental Psycholinguistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Phyllis

    There are a number of views of the relationship between language and thinking. Two prominent figures in developmental psychology, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, proposed theories of language and thinking which also involve the notion of "communication." For Piaget, thinking develops first, and language comes along as an expression of thought. For…

  4. Assessing Grammar: The Languages of LARSP. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Martin; Crystal, David; Fletcher, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This collection is a resource book for those working with language disordered clients in a range of languages. It collects together versions of the well-known Language Assessment Remediation Screening Procedure (LARSP) prepared for different languages. Starting with the original version for English, the book then presents versions in more than a…

  5. Reconfigurable networking for coordinated multi-agent sensing and communications.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Jeffrey P; Jamieson, Ian M D

    2002-12-01

    An implementation of a neurally-inspired system comprised of multiple mobile sensor-effector agents is described. Each agent has features of a complex neural network that is able to communicate and adjust its behavior depending upon a variety of parameters, including changes in the environment and the behavior of other agents. The system as a whole spatiotemporally reconfigures itself to perform coordinated behaviors not obtainable with single agents. Transient clustering of agents into functional subsystems to perform specific tasks generates a "system of systems" architecture. The interesting findings of this dynamic platform show that (a) the formation and dissolution of functional subsystems is a local phenomenon without the need for global control and (b) minimal intermittent communication among the agents can yield large-scale, coordinated, goal-driven behavior under a wide range of conditions. PMID:14983838

  6. Conversational Agents and Their Longitudinal Affordances on Communication and Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doering, Aaron; Veletsianos, George; Yerasimou, Theano

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the effects of conversational agents on communication and interaction when used to assist participants in developing an online portfolio. Data from 52 participants were gathered and analyzed through questionnaires, written reflections, transcripts of student-agent interactions, and focus groups. Data revealed that…

  7. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features-semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling-that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems-the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor's (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought. PMID:26441802

  8. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Reboul, Anne C.

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features—semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling—that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems—the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor’s (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought. PMID:26441802

  9. A Language Educator's First Sale: To Globalize Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush-Bacelis, Jean L.

    The business communication course, required in most colleges and schools of business, may be the best place for language educators to begin to help globalize the curriculum. In these courses, students are taught communication theory, business writing, oral business communication, leadership, meeting participation, and various functions used in…

  10. Language Variation and Limits to Communication. Technical Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Gary Francis

    Strategies are developed for understanding how language variation limits communication. Methods of measuring communication are discussed, including an intelligibility measure used in the Solomon Islands. The analysis of data gathered using communication measurement is discussed. The result of the analysis is a determination of the number of…

  11. Fremdsprachenunterricht als Kommunikationsprozess (Foreign Language Teaching as a Communicative Process). Language Centre News, No. 1. Focus on Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzkamm, Wolfgang

    Teaching, as a communicative process, ranges between purely message-oriented communication (the goal) and purely language-oriented communication (a means). Classroom discourse ("Close the window", etc.) is useful as a drill but is also message-oriented. Skill in message-oriented communication is acquired only through practice in this kind of…

  12. Understanding Pervasive Language Impairment in Young Children: Exploring Patterns in Narrative Language and Functional Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Anna Jeddeloh

    2013-01-01

    Research has identified language impairment as a pervasive disability (Bishop & Edmundson, 1987; Greenhalgh & Strong, 2001). Classroom communication behaviors have a role in the maintenance of special education eligibility and functional communication difficulties for young children with language impairment. This paper reviews the…

  13. Integrating language models into classifiers for BCI communication: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, W.; Arnold, C.; Pouratian, N.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. The present review systematically examines the integration of language models to improve classifier performance in brain–computer interface (BCI) communication systems. Approach. The domain of natural language has been studied extensively in linguistics and has been used in the natural language processing field in applications including information extraction, machine translation, and speech recognition. While these methods have been used for years in traditional augmentative and assistive communication devices, information about the output domain has largely been ignored in BCI communication systems. Over the last few years, BCI communication systems have started to leverage this information through the inclusion of language models. Main results. Although this movement began only recently, studies have already shown the potential of language integration in BCI communication and it has become a growing field in BCI research. BCI communication systems using language models in their classifiers have progressed down several parallel paths, including: word completion; signal classification; integration of process models; dynamic stopping; unsupervised learning; error correction; and evaluation. Significance. Each of these methods have shown significant progress, but have largely been addressed separately. Combining these methods could use the full potential of language model, yielding further performance improvements. This integration should be a priority as the field works to create a BCI system that meets the needs of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis population.

  14. Integrating language models into classifiers for BCI communication: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speier, W.; Arnold, C.; Pouratian, N.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. The present review systematically examines the integration of language models to improve classifier performance in brain-computer interface (BCI) communication systems. Approach. The domain of natural language has been studied extensively in linguistics and has been used in the natural language processing field in applications including information extraction, machine translation, and speech recognition. While these methods have been used for years in traditional augmentative and assistive communication devices, information about the output domain has largely been ignored in BCI communication systems. Over the last few years, BCI communication systems have started to leverage this information through the inclusion of language models. Main results. Although this movement began only recently, studies have already shown the potential of language integration in BCI communication and it has become a growing field in BCI research. BCI communication systems using language models in their classifiers have progressed down several parallel paths, including: word completion; signal classification; integration of process models; dynamic stopping; unsupervised learning; error correction; and evaluation. Significance. Each of these methods have shown significant progress, but have largely been addressed separately. Combining these methods could use the full potential of language model, yielding further performance improvements. This integration should be a priority as the field works to create a BCI system that meets the needs of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis population.

  15. Communication Tasks Using Intelligent Agents in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishizuka, Hiroki; Kiyoshi, Akama

    2014-01-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to use Second Life (SL) as a platform for language teaching. As a result, the possibility of SL as a means to promote conversational interactions has been reported. However, research has thus far largely focused on simply using SL without further augmentations for communication between learners or between teachers…

  16. Communicative Language Teaching in China: Progress and Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Liming

    2001-01-01

    Describes progress in as well as the resistance to and constraining factors facing efforts to implement communicative language teaching (CLT) in China. Adopting CLT in China inevitably involves transforming the traditional analytic grammar-translation approach. (Author/VWL)

  17. Integrated Language Arts in a College Communications Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Nancy J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a freshman-level communications course within a business college that uses holistic instruction and that fuses the language arts to help students with college-level reading, writing, speaking, and listening. (SR)

  18. Language and Communication-Related Problems of Aviation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Steven

    A study of the problems posed by the use of natural language in various aspects of aviation is presented. The study, part of a larger investigation of the feasibility of voice input/output interfaces for communication in aviation, looks at representative real examples of accidents and near misses resulting from language confusions and omissions.…

  19. Framing Communicative Language Teaching for Better Teacher Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangubhai, Francis; Marland, Perc; Dashwood, Ann; Son, Jeong-Bae

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the use of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approaches in foreign language classrooms have frequently raised doubts about the adequacy of elementary and secondary teachers' understanding of CLT and their use of this approach in classrooms at those levels. Reasons for this alleged state of affairs are reviewed, with one potential…

  20. Indirect Language Stimulation (ILS): AAC Techniques To Promote Communication Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boose, Martha A.; Stinnett, Tessa

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that used indirect language stimulation techniques and modeling to encourage language development in a 5-year-old child with cerebral palsy. Initially, the student's communication system had very severe limitations. He used fewer than 10 spoken words which were unintelligible to most listeners. Both…

  1. Drama, Communicative Competence and Language Teaching: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Joan

    1984-01-01

    Use of dramatic activities in the foreign language classroom to provide a semantically based growth model focusing attention on the learner, to promote language acquisition, and to liberate speech is examined. The relationships between drama and communicative competence, the psychological and pedagogical advantages of dramatics, and classroom…

  2. Linguistic Analysis of Natural Language Communication with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bozena Henisz

    Interaction with computers in natural language requires a language that is flexible and suited to the task. This study of natural dialogue was undertaken to reveal those characteristics which can make computer English more natural. Experiments were made in three modes of communication: face-to-face, terminal-to-terminal, and human-to-computer,…

  3. Nonverbal Communication: How Important Is It for the Language Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1997-01-01

    Argues that nonverbal communication in the language classroom can have dramatic results for the students' appreciation for the subject and in the cognitive domain. Notes that the personality and expectations of the teachers, their gestures, tone of voice, and facial expressions have an important effect on language acquisition. (29 references)…

  4. Pronunciation Teaching Practices in Communicative Second Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Jennifer Ann; Trofimovich, Pavel; Collins, Laura; Urzúa, Fernanda Soler

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to provide longitudinal, corpus-based evidence of actual teacher behaviour with respect to the teaching of second language (L2) pronunciation in a communicative language learning context. The data involved 40 hours of videotaped lessons from three experienced teachers recorded four times at 100-hour increments…

  5. Promoting Social Communication in a Child with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Lum, John D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Social difficulties represent a major area of concern in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Social skills interventions targeting communication or language skills of children with SLI have been generally ineffective. The current study tested the efficacy of a social skills intervention consisting of multiple behavioral interventions…

  6. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  7. Cultural Isolation and Cultural Integration: A Communicative Language Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, John

    2002-01-01

    Provides a theoretical grounding to an activity that follows a communicative language teaching approach to teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. The activity, cultural isolation and cultural integration, motivates learners to relate their experiences and feelings in regard to diverse cultures. (Author/VWL)

  8. Language Use in Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Daphne Li-jung

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how Chinese-English bilinguals in Taiwan use their languages in asynchronous computer-mediated communication, specifically, via Bulletin Board System (BBS) and email. The main data includes two types: emails collected from a social network and postings collected from two BBS websites. By examining patterns of language choice…

  9. Intercultural Communicative Competence: Exploring English Language Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tony Johnstone; Sachdev, Itesh

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the beliefs and practices of experienced teachers in the USA, UK and France relating to the application of a model of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) to English language programmes. Broadly, "intercultural" approaches to language learning and teaching are strongly advocated in both the…

  10. Neoliberal Paradoxes of Language Learning: Xenophobia and International Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Ryuko

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberal ideology compels people to develop language skills as human capital. As English is considered to be the most useful language for global communication, learning, and teaching, English has been promoted in many countries. However, the belief that English connects people from diverse linguistic backgrounds in a borderless society…

  11. The Four Pillars of Communication: Language Skills of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, G. Rexlin; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2011-01-01

    Language is an effective tool of human communication system. It is the basis for social, cultural, aesthetical, spiritual and economic development and growth of every human being. It is the destiny of any professional who is hardly in need of an excellent command over English language. Every organization demands effective and excellent…

  12. Effects of alternative communication on the communicative effectiveness of an individual with a progressive language disorder.

    PubMed

    Pattee, Cynthia; Von Berg, Shelley; Ghezzi, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of two different modes of communication on the communicative output of an individual who is no longer able to communicate verbally, presenting with a primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The two treatment approaches included training the patient with a text-to-speech alternative communication device and with American sign language. An alternating treatment design was used to compare two communicative approaches (an alternative communication device and American sign language) on the subject's communicative effectiveness. Communicative effectiveness was measured in terms of number of words, correct information units and percentage correct information units, using a protocol that was adapted to quantify the output generated by the alternative communication device and American sign language. Increases across all three measures resulted for both the alternative communication device and American sign language. The clinical implications are explored, and the results add to existing studies regarding treatment possibilities using alternative communication for individuals who present with a progressive speech and language disorder, without concomitant cognitive deficits. PMID:16609327

  13. Effects of alternative communication on the communicative effectiveness of an individual with a progressive language disorder.

    PubMed

    Pattee, Cynthia; Von Berg, Shelley; Ghezzi, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of two different modes of communication on the communicative output of an individual who is no longer able to communicate verbally, presenting with a primary progressive aphasia and apraxia of speech. The two treatment approaches included training the patient with a text-to-speech alternative communication device and with American sign language. An alternating treatment design was used to compare two communicative approaches (an alternative communication device and American sign language) on the subject's communicative effectiveness. Communicative effectiveness was measured in terms of number of words, correct information units and percentage correct information units, using a protocol that was adapted to quantify the output generated by the alternative communication device and American sign language. Increases across all three measures resulted for both the alternative communication device and American sign language. The clinical implications are explored, and the results add to existing studies regarding treatment possibilities using alternative communication for individuals who present with a progressive speech and language disorder, without concomitant cognitive deficits.

  14. Augmentative and Alternative Communication and Language: Evidence-Based Practice and Language Activity Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Katya

    2004-01-01

    The goal of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) is the most effective communication possible. Speech-language pathologists are obligated to collect data, measure communication, and apply the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP). This article presents a model for EBP that represents how collecting and evaluating performance data…

  15. Communicating without a functioning language system: implications for the role of language in mentalizing.

    PubMed

    Willems, Roel M; Benn, Yael; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan; Varley, Rosemary

    2011-09-01

    A debated issue in the relationship between language and thought is how our linguistic abilities are involved in understanding the intentions of others ('mentalizing'). The results of both theoretical and empirical work have been used to argue that linguistic, and more specifically, grammatical, abilities are crucial in representing the mental states of others. Here we contribute to this debate by investigating how damage to the language system influences the generation and understanding of intentional communicative behaviors. Four patients with pervasive language difficulties (severe global or agrammatic aphasia) engaged in an experimentally controlled non-verbal communication paradigm, which required signaling and understanding a communicative message. Despite their profound language problems they were able to engage in recipient design as well as intention recognition, showing similar indicators of mentalizing as have been observed in the neurologically healthy population. Our results show that aspects of the ability to communicate remain present even when core capacities of the language system are dysfunctional.

  16. Effects of AAC interventions on communication and language for young children with complex communication needs.

    PubMed

    Drager, Kathryn; Light, Janice; McNaughton, David

    2010-01-01

    Children with complex communication needs (CCN) who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) are at considerable risk in many aspects of their development: (a) functional communication skills, (b) speech development, (c) language development, (d) cognitive/conceptual development, (e) literacy development, (f) social participation, (g) access to education, and (h) overall quality of life. Early intervention is critical to address these areas and provide successful and functional outcomes. AAC offers the potential to enhance communication, language, and learning for children with significant communication disabilities. This paper provides an overview of the effects of AAC interventions on communication, behavior, language, and speech outcomes for young children with CCN for pediatricians and other medical and rehabilitation professionals. Future research directions to maximize the communication development of young children with CCN are also discussed. PMID:21791864

  17. The Globalisation of Communication and the African Foreign Language User

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonaiya, Remi

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses, from an African perspective, the two dimensions associable with the question of the globalisation of communication: the promotion of the learning of some international languages (the quantitative dimension) and the teaching and learning of communication skills (the qualitative dimension). It suggests that the time is ripe…

  18. Language Is for Communication. Caring for Children No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Lois B.; Leeper, Ethel M.

    Discussed are ways to develop language communication skills in preschool children attending a child care center. Examples of communication without words such as animal sounds and actions are given. Babies are seen to learn to talk through the aid of a mother and child care worker who decipher the signals and encourage babbling in infants and…

  19. The Effects of Electronic Communication on American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Erin; Kozak, L. Viola; Santiago, Roberto; Stephen, Anika

    2012-01-01

    Technological and language innovation often flow in concert with one another. Casual observation by researchers has shown that electronic communication memes, in the form of abbreviations, have found their way into spoken English. This study focuses on the current use of electronic modes of communication, such as cell smartphones, and e-mail, and…

  20. Language Learning Strategies and Communication Strategies: A Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Kausar

    2006-01-01

    Since Selinker's (1972) historic invocation of language learning strategies (LLS) and communication strategies (CS) as two distinct processes involved in the development of interlanguage, it has become customary in SLA literature to distinguish the strategies of learning from the strategies of communication. It has been argued in this article that…

  1. Prosody in a communication system developed without a language model

    PubMed Central

    Applebaum, Lauren; Coppola, Marie; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Prosody, he “music” of language, is an important aspect of all natural languages, spoken and signed. We ask here whether prosody is also robust across learning conditions. If a child were not exposed to a conventional language and had to construct his own communication system, would that system contain prosodic structure? We address this question by observing a deaf child who received no sign language input and whose hearing loss prevented him from acquiring spoken language. Despite his lack of a conventional language model, this child developed his own gestural system. In this system, features known to mark phrase and utterance boundaries in established sign languages were used to consistently mark the ends of utterances, but not to mark phrase or utterance internal boundaries. A single child can thus develop the seeds of a prosodic system, but full elaboration may require more time, more users, or even more generations to blossom. PMID:25574153

  2. Communicative Competence in Oral Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Haig, Yvonne; Rochecouste, Judith

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a review of the teaching and assessment of oral language in Western Australian secondary schools. Results show that teachers have considerable difficulty in incorporating oral language tasks into their pedagogy because of a curriculum biased towards developing writing skills. Teachers also revealed that they do not have the…

  3. Beyond the Language: Native Americans' Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Linda H.

    Facing an increasingly heterogeneous society, teachers need to be communicators. Most of human communication is nonverbal, but nonverbal behaviors are largely culture-bound. Teachers' sensitivity and understanding of students' nonverbal behaviors and their competence in sending correct nonverbal messages can make a difference in classroom…

  4. Intelligent agents as a basis for natural language interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    Typical natural-language interfaces respond passively to the users's commands and queries. They cannot volunteer information, correction user misconceptions, or reject unethical requests. In order to do these things, a system must be an intelligent agent. UC (UNIX Consultant), a natural language system that helps the user solve problems in using the UNIX operating system, is such an intelligent agent. The agent component of UC in UCEgo. UCEgo provides UC with its own goals and plans. By adopting different goals in different situations, UCEgo creates and executes different plans, enabling it to interact appropriately with the user. UCEgo adopts goals from its themes, adopts subgoals during planning, and adopts metagoals for dealing with goal interactions. It also adopts goals when it notices that the user either lacks necessary knowledge, or has incorrect beliefs. In these cases, UCEgo plans to volunteer information or correct the user's misconception as appropriate. The user's knowledge and beliefs are modeled by the KNOME (KNOwledge Model of Expertise) component of UC. KNOME is a double-stereotype system which categorizes users by expertise and categorizes UNIX facts by difficulty.

  5. A Case Study of College Level Second Language Teachers' Perceptions and Implementations of Communicative Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Chiu-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research studies have indicated that some educators do not advocate Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) because of their misunderstanding of the methodology. This article explores the relationship between college-level second language (L2) educators' perceptions and their implementations of CLT. The results of this study show that the…

  6. Communicative Language Teaching: Possibilities and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreehari, Pusuluri

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the teaching of English at undergraduate colleges in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India in the backdrop of Andhra Pradesh English Lecturers' Retraining Program. The program was jointly sponsored and conducted by the Directorate of Collegiate Education, Government of AP and the US State Department English Language Fellow…

  7. Costing Children's Speech, Language and Communication Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecham, Jennifer; Law, James; Zeng, Biao; Lindsay, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are few economic evaluations of speech and language interventions. Such work requires underpinning by an accurate estimate of the costs of the intervention. This study seeks to address some of the complexities of this task by applying existing approaches of cost estimation to interventions described in published effectiveness…

  8. (Critical) Language Awareness in Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weninger, Csilla; Kan, Katy Hoi-Yi

    2013-01-01

    In the last 20 years, critical approaches to language and literacy education have established themselves as an academic field, with an abundance of empirical studies applying Critical Literacy principles in classes and curricula at schools and universities. Noticeably absent from the contexts of implementation are courses in Business English and…

  9. Cross-Language Communication in Heliodorus' "Aethiopica"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Robert William, IV

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes why Heliodorus pays so much attention to foreign languages in the Aethiopica and how his description of these linguistic phenomena colors the work. It demonstrates that Heliodorus is very careful to attribute linguistic abilities to characters in a sensible way that is in line with real-world expectations. Characters…

  10. Language and Communicative Development in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervis, Carolyn B.; Becerra, Angela M.

    2007-01-01

    Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder caused by a microdeletion of approximately 25 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, is associated with mild to moderate intellectual disability or learning difficulties. Most individuals with Williams syndrome evidence a cognitive profile including relative strengths in verbal short-term memory and language, and…

  11. An Armenian English Language Teacher's Practical Theory of Communicative Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feryok, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that teacher cognitions and practices can be inconsistent, particularly with claims about communicative teaching practices. This article describes the practical theory of a state school EFL teacher in Armenia who claimed to be using a communicative approach to language teaching by considering her stated cognitions and…

  12. Language Communication and Communicative Competence: A View from Contemporary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Constant; Lewkowicz, Jo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine some of the tenets of the current conceptualisations of communicative competence. Drawing on the empirical data collected in linguistically diverse university classrooms, we show that meaning-making in social interaction is considerably more complex and fluid than is envisaged in theoretical models of communicative…

  13. The Influence of Attitudes and Affect on Willingness to Communicate and Second Language Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yashima, Tomoko; Zenuk-Nishide, Lori; Shimizu, Kazuaki

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates results and antecedents of willingness to communicate WTC in a second language L2 through 2 separate investigations conducted with Japanese adolescent learners of English. In the first investigation, involving 160 students, a model was created based on the hypothesis that WTC results in more frequent communication in the…

  14. Developing Learners' Second Language Communicative Competence through Active Learning: Clickers or Communicative Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of clickers, the communicative approach and the lecture method on the communicative competence development of learners who were taught English a second language (ESL). Ninety nine pupils from three primary schools participated in the study. Quasi-experimental non-randomised pre-test posttest…

  15. Commercial Communication in the Spanish Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt-Childers, Ilva

    A college course in commercial Spanish is described. The course objectives are to: build a solid foundation of business and professional vocabulary, grammar, spelling, and punctuation; prepare for oral and written communication with commonly-used Spanish business phrases and terminology; expose students to the different types of written…

  16. The Communicative Function of Ambiguity in Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piantadosi, Steven T.; Tily, Harry; Gibson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    We present a general information-theoretic argument that all efficient communication systems will be ambiguous, assuming that context is informative about meaning. We also argue that ambiguity allows for greater ease of processing by permitting efficient linguistic units to be re-used. We test predictions of this theory in English, German, and…

  17. Communicating by Language: The Speech Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Arthur S., Ed.

    This document reports on a conference focused on speech problems. The main objective of these discussions was to facilitate a deeper understanding of human communication through interaction of conference participants with colleagues in other disciplines. Topics discussed included speech production, feedback, speech perception, and development of…

  18. The Language House: Building Family Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Leslie; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A four-week training program for hearing mothers of two deaf children (age five) utilized instructional videotapes using spoken and signed (Pidgin Signed English) simulated natural conversations to improve their sign communication skills. The mothers increased their use of signs by 55 percent and 44 percent, respectively, as a result of the…

  19. Effective Language for Communicating Children's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for America's Children, Washington, DC.

    Maintaining that only by integrating communications into program planning and policy can Kids Count grantees and other child advocates achieve their goals, this document presents four studies examining the ways in which the media currently frame children's issues, the consequences of those frames, and possibilities for reframing media depictions…

  20. Rethinking Communicative Language Teaching: A Focus on Access to Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Segalowitz, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Although most teachers claim to practise communicative language teaching (CLT), many do not genuinely do so. In this paper, we examine some of the reasons for teachers' resistance to CLT use. We provide a theoretical analysis that focuses on one of the greatest challenges facing CLT methodology-how to promote automatic fluency within this…

  1. A Sociocognitive Perspective on Second Language Classroom Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a multiple case study that investigated the dynamic and situated nature of learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) in second language (L2) classrooms. Framed within a sociocognitive perspective on L2 learning which draws together social, environmental, and individual factors, this study traced WTC among six learners…

  2. Introducing Plain Language Principles to Business Communication Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Rachelle R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to current federal mandates requiring selected businesses and government agencies to use plain language (PL) when reporting information to the public, this article advocates the introduction of PL principles into current business communication curricula. Despite recent PL mandates and advances, many current business textbooks and…

  3. Online Synchronous Communication in the Second-Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The study reported on in this paper used a framework of benefits, challenges and solutions to categorize data from a design experiment using synchronous online communication for learning French as a second language (FSL). Participants were 92 Grade 6, FSL students and four teachers from urban and rural areas of Newfoundland, Canada. Data…

  4. Language Training for Enhanced Horizontal Communication: A Challenge for MNCs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Mirjaliisa; Marschan-Piekkari, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    Identifies and examines the problems that staff in multinational corporations (MNCs) experience in horizontal communication with other units and discusses the implications of these problems for in-company language training. Concludes that illustrative interview data suggests that corporate training schemes should focus on the broad spectrum of…

  5. Learning and Teaching Languages for Communication: Applied Linguistics Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumfit, Christopher, Ed.

    The papers include: "Applied Linguistics and Comunicative Language Teaching" (Christopher Brumfit); "Evaluation of the East Midlands Graded Assessment Feasibility Study" (Elaine S. Freedman); "Aspects of Standardisation within a Communicative Assessment Syllabus" (Nicola Lees); "Experimenting with Interaction" (Roy Dunning); "The Evaluation of a…

  6. Intercultural Ethics: Questions of Methods in Language and Intercultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how questions of ethics and questions of method are intertwined and unavoidable in any serious study of language and intercultural communication. It argues that the focus on difference and solution orientations to intercultural conflict has been a fundamental driver for theory, data collection and methods in the field. These…

  7. Reasoning and Communicating in the Language of Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.

    2008-01-01

    Although graduate students in education are frequently required to write papers throughout their coursework, they typically have limited experience in communicating in the language of statistics, both verbally and in written form. To succeed in their future careers, students must be provided with opportunities to develop deep understandings of…

  8. Communicating Intentions: How Well Do Language-Impaired Children Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollner, Sima Gerber

    1983-01-01

    Research on pragmatics and its significance for children with language impairments is reviewed. Topics addressed include the development of speech acts (communicative intentions) and the linguistic orientation of speech acts. The value of a pragmatic orientation in clinical intervention is considered. (CL)

  9. Visuelle Kommunikation im Fremdsprachenunterricht (Visual Communication in Foreign Language Teaching)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehring, Klaus H.

    1975-01-01

    Starts with a critique of the skill-oriented, teacher-centered concept of language learning: teacher as director and explainer, giving purely verbal training. Presents then a communication-oriented, learner-centered, "all-pragmatic" concept, emphasizing "social events." Suggests, with examples, reforming practice to develop learners'"signal…

  10. Hand/Wrist Disorders among Sign Language Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan M.; Kress, Tyler A.; Hart, William M.

    2000-01-01

    A study assessed the frequency of self-reported hand/wrist problems among 184 sign-language communicators. Fifty-nine percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems, 26 percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems severe enough to limit their ability to work, and 18 percent reported a medical diagnosis of wrist tendinitis, carpal tunnel…

  11. Preparing Meaningful and Communicative Exercises for the Language Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strei, Gerry

    1980-01-01

    A workshop was given to identify and point out the limitations of mechanical language laboratory drills, and to compare them to drills which have been classified as being meaningful or communicative. Mechanical drills do not require an understanding of the meaning of the sentence; there is not consideration of context; and there is no connection…

  12. Neural correlates of second-language communication and the effect of language anxiety.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Suzuki, Wataru; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Communicative speech is a type of language use that involves goal-directed action targeted at another person based on social interactive knowledge. Previous studies regarding one's first language (L1) have treated the theory of mind system, which is associated with understanding others, and the sensorimotor system, which is associated with action simulation, as important contributors to communication. However, little is known about the neural basis of communication in a second language (L2), which is limited in terms of its use as a communication tool. In this fMRI study, we manipulated the type of speech (i.e., communication vs. description) and the type of language (L1 vs. L2) to identify the specific brain areas involved in L2 communication. We also attempted to examine how the cortical mechanisms underlying L2 speech production are influenced by oral proficiency and anxiety regarding L2. Thirty native Japanese speakers who had learned English as an L2, performed communicative and descriptive speech-production tasks in both L1 and L2 while undergoing fMRI scanning. We found that the only the L2 communication task recruited the left posterior supramarginal gyrus (pSMG), which may be associated with the action simulation or prediction involved in generating goal-directed actions. Furthermore, the neural mechanisms underlying L2 communication, but not L2 description, were sensitive to both oral proficiency and anxiety levels; (a) activation in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) increased as oral proficiency levels increased, and (b) activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), including the left insula, decreased as L2 anxiety levels increased. These results reflect the successful retrieval of lexical information in a pragmatic context and an inability to monitor social behaviors due to anxiety. Taken together, the present results suggest that L2 communication relies on social skills and is mediated by anxiety and oral proficiency.

  13. Neural correlates of second-language communication and the effect of language anxiety.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Suzuki, Wataru; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-04-01

    Communicative speech is a type of language use that involves goal-directed action targeted at another person based on social interactive knowledge. Previous studies regarding one's first language (L1) have treated the theory of mind system, which is associated with understanding others, and the sensorimotor system, which is associated with action simulation, as important contributors to communication. However, little is known about the neural basis of communication in a second language (L2), which is limited in terms of its use as a communication tool. In this fMRI study, we manipulated the type of speech (i.e., communication vs. description) and the type of language (L1 vs. L2) to identify the specific brain areas involved in L2 communication. We also attempted to examine how the cortical mechanisms underlying L2 speech production are influenced by oral proficiency and anxiety regarding L2. Thirty native Japanese speakers who had learned English as an L2, performed communicative and descriptive speech-production tasks in both L1 and L2 while undergoing fMRI scanning. We found that the only the L2 communication task recruited the left posterior supramarginal gyrus (pSMG), which may be associated with the action simulation or prediction involved in generating goal-directed actions. Furthermore, the neural mechanisms underlying L2 communication, but not L2 description, were sensitive to both oral proficiency and anxiety levels; a) activation in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) increased as oral proficiency levels increased, and b) activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), including the left insula, decreased as L2 anxiety levels increased. These results reflect the successful retrieval of lexical information in a pragmatic context and an inability to monitor social behaviors due to anxiety. Taken together, the present results suggest that L2 communication relies on social skills and is mediated by anxiety and oral proficiency. PMID:27466633

  14. On psychoanalytic listening: language and unconscious communication.

    PubMed

    Makari, G; Shapiro, T

    1993-01-01

    The authors review past and recent perspectives on psychoanalytic listening, then present a synthetic model founded on psycholinguistics and semiotics. They argue that the analytic listening process can be broken down into nonlinguistic communications and--most important--linguistic categories pertaining to narrativity, symbolic reference, form, and interactive conventions. In each of these areas of signification, the authors present the ways in which the technique of psychoanalytic listening attends to unconscious meanings, thereby differing from ordinary listening which "hears," at best, only denotative and connotative meanings.

  15. Willingness To Communicate in a Second Language: The Japanese EFL Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yashima, Tomoko

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations among second language learning (L2) and L2 communication variables in the Japanese English as a foreign language context using the Willingness to Communicate (WTC) model and the socioeducational model as a framework. (Author/VWL)

  16. Survival through Language: The Basics and Beyond; Proceedings of the Language Communications Conference (29th, University of Pittsburgh, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Rita, Ed.; And Others

    This publication includes five papers that were presented at a language communications conference that emphasized integrating the language arts at elementary and secondary school levels. Walter Loban stresses the importance of classroom language activities that involve children in genuine purposes and that link language to thinking. Charles R.…

  17. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Andre

    The following essays on communication are presented: communication as a condition of survival, communication for special purposes, the means of transmission of communication, communication within social and economic structures, the teaching of communication through the press, the teaching of modern languages, communication as a point of departure,…

  18. Communicative Language Testing: Implications for Computer Based Language Testing in French for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Laborda, Jesús; López Santiago, Mercedes; Otero de Juan, Nuria; Álvarez Álvarez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Current evolutions of language testing have led to integrating computers in FSP assessments both in oral and written communicative tasks. This paper deals with two main issues: learners' expectations about the types of questions in FSP computer based assessments and the relation with their own experience. This paper describes the experience…

  19. Balance of Language Knowledge and Communication Competence in Teaching Chinese as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wenchao

    The case studies of three college students of beginning Chinese, all native speakers of English, were undertaken to examine how second language learners find a balance between linguistic knowledge and communicative competence. Data were gathered through classroom observations, oral and written coursework, and an interview concerning Chinese…

  20. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    PubMed

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult. PMID:24408175

  1. The Multilingual CID-5: A New Tool to Study the Perception of Communicative Interactions in Different Languages.

    PubMed

    Manera, Valeria; Ianì, Francesco; Bourgeois, Jérémy; Haman, Maciej; Okruszek, Łukasz P; Rivera, Susan M; Robert, Philippe; Schilbach, Leonhard; Sievers, Emily; Verfaillie, Karl; Vogeley, Kai; von der Lühe, Tabea; Willems, Sam; Becchio, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of the ability to perceive, recognize, and judge upon social intentions, such as communicative intentions, on the basis of body motion is a growing research area. Cross-cultural differences in ability to perceive and interpret biological motion, however, have been poorly investigated so far. Progress in this domain strongly depends on the availability of suitable stimulus material. In the present method paper, we describe the multilingual CID-5, an extension of the CID-5 database, allowing for the investigation of how non-conventional communicative gestures are classified and identified by speakers of different languages. The CID-5 database contains 14 communicative interactions and 7 non-communicative actions performed by couples of agents and presented as point-light displays. For each action, the database provides movie files with the point-light animation, text files with the 3-D spatial coordinates of the point-lights, and five different response alternatives. In the multilingual CID-5 the alternatives were translated into seven languages (Chinese, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, and Polish). Preliminary data collected to assess the recognizability of the actions in the different languages suggest that, for most of the action stimuli, information presented in point-light displays is sufficient for the distinctive classification of the action as communicative vs. individual, as well as for identification of the specific communicative gesture performed by the actor in all the available languages.

  2. The Multilingual CID-5: A New Tool to Study the Perception of Communicative Interactions in Different Languages

    PubMed Central

    Manera, Valeria; Ianì, Francesco; Bourgeois, Jérémy; Haman, Maciej; Okruszek, Łukasz P.; Rivera, Susan M.; Robert, Philippe; Schilbach, Leonhard; Sievers, Emily; Verfaillie, Karl; Vogeley, Kai; von der Lühe, Tabea; Willems, Sam; Becchio, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of the ability to perceive, recognize, and judge upon social intentions, such as communicative intentions, on the basis of body motion is a growing research area. Cross-cultural differences in ability to perceive and interpret biological motion, however, have been poorly investigated so far. Progress in this domain strongly depends on the availability of suitable stimulus material. In the present method paper, we describe the multilingual CID-5, an extension of the CID-5 database, allowing for the investigation of how non-conventional communicative gestures are classified and identified by speakers of different languages. The CID-5 database contains 14 communicative interactions and 7 non-communicative actions performed by couples of agents and presented as point-light displays. For each action, the database provides movie files with the point-light animation, text files with the 3-D spatial coordinates of the point-lights, and five different response alternatives. In the multilingual CID-5 the alternatives were translated into seven languages (Chinese, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, and Polish). Preliminary data collected to assess the recognizability of the actions in the different languages suggest that, for most of the action stimuli, information presented in point-light displays is sufficient for the distinctive classification of the action as communicative vs. individual, as well as for identification of the specific communicative gesture performed by the actor in all the available languages. PMID:26635651

  3. Collaboration between Teachers and Speech and Language Therapists: Services for Primary School Children with Speech, Language and Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Anna; McCormack, Jane; Smith-Tamaray, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) are prevalent among primary school-aged children. Collaboration between speech and language therapists (SLTs) and teachers is beneficial for supporting children's communication skills. The aim of this study was to investigate the needs of both professional groups and their preferences for service…

  4. Cross Currents; Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume VIII, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Currents, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The following articles on second language teaching techniques, English as a second language, and cross cultural communication are included: (1) "'Honne' and 'Tatemae': Tools for Developing Communicative Competence in a Second Language," by Gregory J. Thompson; (2) "Using Video-Taped Movies with Advanced ESOL Students," by Steven C. Linke; (3)…

  5. Ambivalence about Communicating in a Second Language: A Qualitative Study of French Immersion Students' Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Burns, Carolyn; Jessome, Alison

    2011-01-01

    The defining feature of immersion language learning is the omnipresent pressure to communicate in the second language (L2), even as incipient skills are being acquired. This study uses the focused essay technique to investigate ambivalence about communicating among adolescent French immersion students (12-14 years of age). Students described…

  6. An Effective Role of E-Learning Technology for English Language Teaching by Using Meta Communication Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istifci, Ilknur; Lomidazde, Tamar; Demiray, Ugur

    2011-01-01

    Meta communication plays a key role in foreign language learning and teaching. Broadly speaking, meta communication is communication about communication. Meta communication is something that goes beyond communication and all language learners and teachers should be familiar with its existence. It should be stressed that meta communication which…

  7. Communication and cognition: the social beyond language, interaction and culture.

    PubMed

    Mascareño, Aldo

    2008-06-01

    Cognition theories describe the social with terms like language, interaction or culture, whose theoretical status has also been discussed in modern sociology. These concepts are not well-positioned to understand the emergence and autonomy of social orders. Sociological theory of self-referential systems can be useful to reconstruct the bottom-up process which contributes to the emergence of the social as communication as well as to describe the way in which society exerts downward causation upon cognitive phenomena. The core of this theory is the systemic category of meaning as a shared horizon for psychic and social systems.

  8. Language in young children with neurofibromatosis-1: relations to functional communication, attention, and social functioning.

    PubMed

    Brei, Natalie G; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P; Schwarz, G Nathanael; Casnar, Christina L

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the language abilities of 30 children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) aged 4-6 years were examined using a standardized measure of language. Relations of language to multiple parental report measures of functional communication, social skills, and attention problems were investigated. Difficulties in core language skills were observed, and more than 1/3 of the children struggled on at least one language index. Language abilities were significantly related to parental report of functional communication, social interaction and communication, and social skills, such that language difficulties may be a risk factor for communication and social interaction challenges and communication-related adaptive behavior in children with NF1. Though receptive language abilities were an area of particular difficulty for many children with NF1, they were not significantly related to parental ratings of social functioning and functional communication. Few significant relations were found between language and parent-reported attention problems, although some trends were noted. Hence attention difficulties in children with NF1 may contribute to, but do not appear to fully account for, language difficulties. In sum, there is an increased risk of language difficulties for young children with NF1, and lab-measured language difficulties appear to relate to everyday communication and social interaction functioning.

  9. Language Magazine: The Journal of Communication & Education, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Daniel, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    Articles are included on such issues as the following: heritage languages; the psychology of language; the Voice of America broadcasts; dual language programs; linguistic autobiography in the language classroom; pronunciation; electronic education; dialects; world languages; bilingual education; language travel; language structure; conceptual…

  10. Basis of a formal language for facilitating communication among climate modelers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Elía, Ramón

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this work is to present the basis for a formal language that aims to express in a concise way some fundamental beliefs held within the climate research community. The expression of this set of beliefs takes the form of relations, conjectures or propositions that describe characteristics of different aspects of climate modeling. Examples are constructed using topics that are much discussed within the climate modeling community. The article first introduces, as elements of this formal language, models considered a priori (the model as a code or algorithm) or a posteriori (the model as output), and then presents different relations between these elements. The most important relation is that of dominance, which helps to define the superiority of one model over another based on which model a rational agent will choose. Various kinds of dominance are considered. Also presented in a formal language are propositions and conjectures relating to model development, model calibration and climate change ensemble projections, each of which are held with diverse levels of acceptance within the climate modeling community. In addition, the relevance of defining elements—models—whose existence is improbable, such as bug-free model versions, is discussed. Although the potential value of this language is shown, there remains a need to improve the definitions presented here, as some of them remain unsatisfying. Still, we believe that this attempt may help us not only communicate more clearly but also to better distinguish different schools of thought that currently exist within the community.

  11. Using the Psychology of Language to Effectively Communicate Actionable Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The words used to articulate science can have as significant a psychological impact on public perception as the data itself. It is therefore essential to utilize language that not only accurately relates the scientific information, but also effectively conveys a message that is congruent with the presenter's motivation for expressing the data. This is especially relevant for environmental subjects that are surrounded by emotionally charged, political discourses. For example are terms like catastrophe and disaster; while these words may accurately illustrate impartial scientific data, they will likely trigger psychological responses in audiences such as fear or denial that have a detrimental impact on the human decision making process. I propose a set of 5 key principles to assist in communicating data to the general public that both support the transfer of ideas and the presenter's intended psychological impact. 1) Articulate the underlying intentions that motivate the communication of data in a transparent manner 2) Use language congruent with the presenter's stated intentions 3) Maintain a neutral, non-judgmental attitude towards the complex human psychological and emotional dynamics present in a target audience 4) Demonstrate acceptance and compassion when analyzing past and present human actions that adversely affect the environment 5) Develop a perspective of non-attachment when proposing future actions and/or consequences of current human behaviors. The application of these 5 principles provides a framework to move from our current understanding of problems and solutions to effective physical action that allows us to gracefully adapt with our ever changing planet.

  12. Causal Relationships between Communication Confidence, Beliefs about Group Work, and Willingness to Communicate in Foreign Language Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fushino, Kumiko

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the causal relationships between three factors in second language (L2) group work settings: communication confidence (i.e., confidence in one's ability to communicate), beliefs about group work, and willingness to communicate (WTC). A questionnaire was administered to 729 first-year university students in Japan. A model…

  13. "We communicated that way for a reason": language practices and language ideologies among hearing adults whose parents are deaf.

    PubMed

    Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Families with deaf parents and hearing children are often bilingual and bimodal, with both a spoken language and a signed one in regular use among family members. When interviewed, 13 American hearing adults with deaf parents reported widely varying language practices, sign language abilities, and social affiliations with Deaf and Hearing communities. Despite this variation, the interviewees' moral judgments of their own and others' communicative behavior suggest that these adults share a language ideology concerning the obligation of all family members to expend effort to overcome potential communication barriers. To our knowledge, such a language ideology is not similarly pervasive among spoken-language bilingual families, raising the question of whether there is something unique about family bimodal bilingualism that imposes different rights and responsibilities on family members than spoken-language family bilingualism does. This ideology unites an otherwise diverse group of interviewees, where each one preemptively denied being a "typical CODA [children of deaf adult]."

  14. Cognitive and Affective Benefits of an Animated Pedagogical Agent for Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sunhee; Clark, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the use of an animated pedagogical agent (agent) with an electronic arrow and voice narration (arrow and voice) in a multimedia learning environment where 74 college level English as a Second Language (ESL) students learned English relative clauses. No significant differences in learning or performance were found between the…

  15. Conversion of the agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS into JavaScript

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sredojević, Dejan; Vidaković, Milan; Okanović, Dušan; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2016-06-01

    This paper shows generation of JavaScript code from code written in agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS. ALAS is an agent-oriented domain-specific language for writing software agents that are executed within XJAF middleware. Since the agents can be executed on various platforms, they must be converted into a language of the target platform. We also try to utilize existing tools and technologies to make the whole conversion process as simple as possible, as well as faster and more efficient. We use the Xtext framework that is compatible with Java to implement ALAS infrastructure - editor and code generator. Since Xtext supports Java, generation of Java code from ALAS code is straightforward. To generate a JavaScript code that will be executed within the target JavaScript XJAF implementation, Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is used.

  16. Autism, language and communication in children with sex chromosome trisomies

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Dorothy V M; Jacobs, Patricia A; Lachlan, Katherine; Wellesley, Diana; Barnicoat, Angela; Boyd, Patricia A; Fryer, Alan; Middlemiss, Prisca; Smithson, Sarah; Metcalfe, Kay; Shears, Deborah; Leggett, Victoria; Nation, Kate; Scerif, Gaia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs) are found on amniocentesis in 2.3–3.7 per 1000 same-sex births, yet there is a limited database on which to base a prognosis. Autism has been described in postnatally diagnosed cases of Klinefelter syndrome (XXY karyotype), but the prevalence in non-referred samples, and in other trisomies, is unclear. The authors recruited the largest sample including all three SCTs to be reported to date, including children identified on prenatal screening, to clarify this issue. Design Parents of children with a SCT were recruited either via prenatal screening or via a parental support group, to give a sample of 58 XXX, 19 XXY and 58 XYY cases. Parents were interviewed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and completed questionnaires about the communicative development of children with SCTs and their siblings (42 brothers and 26 sisters). Results Rates of language and communication problems were high in all three trisomies. Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were found in 2/19 cases of XXY (11%) and 11/58 XYY (19%). After excluding those with an ASD diagnosis, communicative profiles indicative of mild autistic features were common, although there was wide individual variation. Conclusions Autistic features have not previously been remarked upon in studies of non-referred samples with SCTs, yet the rate is substantially above population levels in this sample, even when attention is restricted to early-identified cases. The authors hypothesise that X-linked and Y-linked neuroligins may play a significant role in the aetiology of communication impairments and ASD. PMID:20656736

  17. An investigation of the evolutionary origin of reciprocal communication using simulated autonomous agents.

    PubMed

    Tuci, Elio

    2009-09-01

    How does communication originates in a population of originally non-communicating individuals? Providing an answer to this question from a neo-Darwinian epistemological perspective is not a trivial task. The reason is that, for non-communicating agents, the capabilities of emitting signals and responding to them are both adaptively neutral traits if they are not simultaneously present. Research studies based on rather general and theoretically oriented evolutionary simulation models have, so far, demonstrated that at least two different processes can account for the origin of communication. On the one hand, communicative behaviour may first evolve in a non-communicative context and only subsequently acquire its adaptive function.On the other hand, communication may originate thanks to cognitive constraints; that is, communication may originate thanks to the existence of neural substrates that are common to the signalling and categorising capabilities. This article provides a proof-of-concept demonstration of the origin of communication in a novel-simulated scenario in which groups of two homogeneous (i.e. genetically identical) agents exploit reciprocal communication to develop common perceptual categories nd to perform a collective task. In particular, in circumstances in which communication is evolutionarily advantageous, simulated agents evolve from scratch social behaviour through acoustic interactions.We look into the phylogeny of successful communication protocol, and we describe the evolutionary phenomena that, in early evolutionary stages, paved the way for the subsequent development of reciprocal communication, categorisation capabilities and successful cooperative strategies.

  18. Personality organization and language behavior: the imprint of psychological differentiation on language behavior in varying communication conditions.

    PubMed

    Steingart, I; Freedman, N; Grand, S; Buchwald, C

    1975-07-01

    The language behavior of field-independent (F-D) clinically normal, verbally resourceful femal college students was examined in three different communication conditions: Dialogue, Warm (vissually supportive) monologue, and Cold (visually nonsupportive and stressful) Monologue. F-I and F-D Ss produced similar amounts of the different types of language behavior evaluated in each of the three communicative conditions. However, they differed with respect to verbal output and length of sentence "packaging" unit in Monologue conditions. F-D Ss talked considerably less but at the same time produced different types of grammatically more elaborate language behavior in Warm and Cold Monologue compared to their Dialogue language behavior. F-I Ss talked considerably more but also showed a type of language autonomy. The pattern of language behavior which characterized F-I speech in Dialogue remained the same in both Monologue conditions. PMID:1159644

  19. Medical Students Learning Communication Skills in a Second Language

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Muhammad J.; Major, Stella; Mirza, Deen M.; Prinsloo, Engela A. M.; Osman, Ossama; Amiri, Leena; McLean, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Communications skills (CS) training for medical interviewing is increasingly being conducted in English at medical schools worldwide. In this study, we sought to identify whether Arabic-speaking medical students experienced difficulty with the different components of the CS training that were conducted in English. Methods: Individual third-year preclinical medical students (N = 45) were videotaped while interviewing simulated patients. Each student assessed his/her performance on a 13-item (5-point scale) assessment form, which was also completed by the tutor and other students in the group. Results: Of the 13 components of their CS training, tutors awarded the lowest marks for students’ abilities to express empathy, ask about patients’ feelings, use transition statements, ask about functional impact, and elicit patients’ expectations (P <0.001). Conclusion: The expression of empathy and the ability to elicit patients’ feelings and expectations are difficult to develop in medical students learning CS in a second language. PMID:23573389

  20. TOEFL from a Communicative Viewpoint on Language Proficiency: A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Richard P.; And Others

    The content characteristics of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) are examined from a communicative viewpoint, based on current theory in applied linguistics and language proficiency assessment. The study employed a four-part operational framework. The first component analyzed the communicative characteristics of a language…

  1. Japan: Body Language and Etiquette as a Means of Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, James L.

    While English-speaking businesspeople may have difficulty learning Japanese, they can improve communication skills with Japanese nationals by placing more emphasis on body language and etiquette. This knowledge can supplement limited verbal skills in Japanese and promote communication in all-English conversations. Body language, or gestures, are…

  2. Intercultural Communicative Competence: Creating Awareness and Promoting Skills in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Rocha, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) needs to be incorporated in the language curriculum if educators hope to help students develop an appreciation for the language and culture studied, an awareness of their own culture, and the development of skills that will allow them to be competent, adaptable, communicators. The key question addressed…

  3. New Zealand and Chinese Managers' Reflections on Language Use in Business Settings: Implications for Intercultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yunxia

    2008-01-01

    Culture, persuasion and language are closely intertwined in intercultural business communication. Hence it is important to study language and persuasion and solicit professional members' views about how effective communication is situated in different cultural contexts. This paper aims to report findings on differences in expectations for good…

  4. Language Planning for International Scientific Communication: An Overview of Questions and Potential Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammon, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a range of improvements to international science communication. It pictures the contemporary language situation in international scientific communication as well as its recent history with the rise of English as its most notable feature and offers explanations for this development. It discusses in which sciences languages other…

  5. SiSwati Communication and Culture Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corum, Claudia W.; Kunene, E. C. L.

    The culture and communication handbook for siSwati is one of a series designed for Peace Corps volunteers using the language daily. It provides information about use of the language in everyday situations within the culture, focusing less on grammar than on appropriate communication in context. An introductory section suggests approaches and…

  6. Many-Facet Rasch Based Analysis of Communicative Language Testing Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    This highly technical, data-rich paper examines how the Many-Facet Rasch Measurement Model can be applied to communicative language test data analyses and how beneficial the model is to language teachers. The results for a 20-item conversational response test and a 15-item sociolinguistic test of oral communication ability in English for 30…

  7. Teaching Languages in College: Communicative Proficiency and Cross-Cultural Issues. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Arnulfo G., Ed.

    A collection of papers concerning college language instruction and exploring issues related to promoting communicative skills and cross-cultural understanding includes the following titles: (1) "Languages at College: The Student and the Curriculum," by W. M. Rivers; (2) "Dimensions of Communicative Proficiency," by A. Ramirez; (3) "Communicative…

  8. Willingness to Communicate in English as a Second Language: A Case Study of Pakistani Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukhari, Syeda Farzana; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Khan, Salman Ali

    2015-01-01

    Willingness to communicate (WTC) construct plays an important role in second language (L2) teaching and learning. Almost any second language learner is likely to respond to a direct question, but many will not continue or initiate communication. The present study investigates Pakistani undergraduate students' perception of their willingness to…

  9. Perceptions and Problems of English Language and Communication Abilities: A Final Check on Thai Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajprasit, Krich; Pratoomrat, Panadda; Wang, Tuntiga

    2015-01-01

    English language and communication abilities are an essential part of the global engineering community. However, non-native English speaking engineers and students tend to be unable to master these skills. This study aims to gauge the perceived levels of their general English language proficiency, to explore their English communicative problems,…

  10. Second Language Communication Strategies: Definitions, Taxonomies, Data Elicitation Methodology and Teachability Issues. A Review Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rababah, Ghaleb

    This paper examines trends in second language communication strategies (CSs), explaining that when language learners concentrate on form or accuracy, they encounter problems, and when they recognize the mismatch between their linguistic resources and communicative intentions, they try to solve these problems using CSs (e.g., appeals for help,…

  11. The Empirical Dimension of Communicative Language Tests: The Case of Selected Philippine Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, Alejandro S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the "communicativeness" of 22 English language tests designed and administered by 22 English instructors from 22 different colleges and universities in the Philippines. Its key objective was to answer the question "How communicative are the language tests used in assessing students' competence (knowledge of the…

  12. "Language," "Communication," and the Longing for the Authentic in LSP Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekje, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This commentary argues that the OET research raises inescapable contradictions in trying to separate "language" from "communication" within a weak performance test and advocates for reconceptualizing the legitimate domain of "language" more widely, reclaiming the full potential of the communicative competence…

  13. Moving beyond Communicative Language Teaching: A Situated Pedagogy for Japanese EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochland, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    This article questions the appropriateness of communicative language teaching (CLT) in classrooms teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) to Japanese students. The four main criticisms of CLT are the ambiguity of its description, the benefits of CLT for language learning, the amalgamation of CLT methods with local classroom practices, and the…

  14. Does Powerful Language Training Affect Student Participation, Impression Formation, and Gender Communication in Online Discussions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Crystal Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate whether powerful language training affected student participation, impression formation, and gender communication style in online discussions. Powerful language was defined as a lack of the use of powerless language. Participants in this study were 507 freshmen taking a first-year college…

  15. VR-Based Gamification of Communication Training and Oral Examination in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitz, Liesa; Sohny, Aline; Lochmann, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a novel way of oral language training by embedding the English as a foreign language (EFL) learning process into a generic 3D Cooperative Virtual Reality (VR) Game. Due to lack of time, resources and innovation, the language classroom is limited in its possibilities of promoting authentic communication. Therefore, the…

  16. Learner Use of Holistic Language Units in Multimodal, Task-Based Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Karina

    2009-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) researchers strive to understand the language and exchanges that learners generate in synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Doughty and Long (2003) advocate replacing open-ended SCMC with task-based language teaching (TBLT) design principles. Since most task-based SCMC (TB-SCMC) research addresses an…

  17. Grounding language in action and perception: From cognitive agents to humanoid robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cangelosi, Angelo

    2010-06-01

    In this review we concentrate on a grounded approach to the modeling of cognition through the methodologies of cognitive agents and developmental robotics. This work will focus on the modeling of the evolutionary and developmental acquisition of linguistic capabilities based on the principles of symbol grounding. We review cognitive agent and developmental robotics models of the grounding of language to demonstrate their consistency with the empirical and theoretical evidence on language grounding and embodiment, and to reveal the benefits of such an approach in the design of linguistic capabilities in cognitive robotic agents. In particular, three different models will be discussed, where the complexity of the agent's sensorimotor and cognitive system gradually increases: from a multi-agent simulation of language evolution, to a simulated robotic agent model for symbol grounding transfer, to a model of language comprehension in the humanoid robot iCub. The review also discusses the benefits of the use of humanoid robotic platform, and specifically of the open source iCub platform, for the study of embodied cognition.

  18. Agent Based Modelling of Communication Costs: Why Information Can Be Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čače, Ivana; Bryson, Joanna J.

    What purposes, other than facilitating the sharing of information, can language have served? First, it may not have evolved to serve any purpose at all. It is possible that language is just a side effect of the large human brain — a spandrel or exaptation — that only became useful later. If language is adaptive, this does not necessarily mean that it is adaptive for the purpose of communication. For example Dennett (1996) and Chomsky (1980) have stressed the utility of language in thinking. Also, there are different ways to view communication. The purpose of language according to Dunbar (1993), is to replace grooming as a social bonding process and in this way to ensure the stability of large social groups.

  19. Creating a Communicative Language Teaching Environment for Improving Students' Communicative Competence at EFL/EAP University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farooq, Muhammad U.

    2015-01-01

    The present research focuses on teachers' perceptions and practices regarding Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and its impact on communicative competency of the students. A questionnaire was used to collect the quantitative data from teachers. The results show that the EFL teachers are aware of the CLT characteristics, its implementation and…

  20. Captured by Details: Sense-Making, Language and Communication in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noens, Ilse L. J.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2005-01-01

    The communication of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by a qualitative impairment in verbal and non-verbal communication. In past decades a growing body of descriptive studies has appeared on language and communication problems in ASD. Reviews suggest that the development of formal and semantic aspects is relatively…

  1. Towards the Development of Communicative Language Approach for Adult EFL Students of the Community College, Taif University, KSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamin, Abdulamir; Ahmed, Sawsan

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the experience of the author as a teacher in general English language skills program. In this paper an attempt will be made to briefly deal with the notion of communication, communicative language teaching, and its implications for teaching English as a foreign language students through language skills post-secondary program.…

  2. Communicative Language Teaching. Selected Papers from the RELC Seminar (Singapore, April 23-27, 1984). Anthology Series 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Bikram K., Ed.

    A collection of papers presented at a seminar conducted at the Regional Language Centre (Singapore) on communicative language teaching includes: "Integrating the New and the Old in a Communicative Approach" (William T. Littlewood); "Communicative Competence and Language Teaching: Second Thoughts" (Christina Bratt Paulston); "Communicative…

  3. Communication in the second and third year of life: Relationships between nonverbal social skills and language.

    PubMed

    Cochet, Hélène; Byrne, Richard W

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate developmental continuities between a range of early social and communicative abilities (including gestural communication) and language acquisition in children aged between 11 and 41 months. Initiation of joint attention and imitation were strongly correlated to language comprehension and production. Moreover, the analysis of different communicative gestures revealed significant relationships between language development and the production of symbolic gestures, declarative pointing (declarative informative pointing in particular), and head nodding. Other gestures such as imperative pointing, showing, and head shaking were not found to correlate with language level. Our results also suggest that distinct processes are involved in the development of language comprehension and production, and highlight the importance of considering various characteristics of children's early communicative skills. PMID:27450099

  4. Consensusability of multi-agent systems via observer with limited communication data rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Mu, Xiaowu

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the consensusability of multi-agent systems via observer with limited communication data. A novel algorithm to determine the parameters of quantizer and encoder is provided. The observer-based consensusability with unlimited bandwidth and observer-based consensusability with communication data rate are discussed separately. Finally, a simulation is given to illustrate the results.

  5. Text generation from Taiwanese Sign Language using a PST-based language model for augmentative communication.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Hsien; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Guo, Chi-Shiang

    2004-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to the generation of Chinese sentences from ill-formed Taiwanese Sign Language (TSL) for people with hearing impairments. First, a sign icon-based virtual keyboard is constructed to provide a visualized interface to retrieve sign icons from a sign database. A proposed language model (LM), based on a predictive sentence template (PST) tree, integrates a statistical variable n-gram LM and linguistic constraints to deal with the translation problem from ill-formed sign sequences to grammatical written sentences. The PST tree trained by a corpus collected from the deaf schools was used to model the correspondence between signed and written Chinese. In addition, a set of phrase formation rules, based on trigger pair category, was derived for sentence pattern expansion. These approaches improved the efficiency of text generation and the accuracy of word prediction and, therefore, improved the input rate. For the assessment of practical communication aids, a reading-comprehension training program with ten profoundly deaf students was undertaken in a deaf school in Tainan, Taiwan. Evaluation results show that the literacy aptitude test and subjective satisfactory level are significantly improved.

  6. Measuring Communicative Participation: A Review of Self-Report Instruments in Speech-Language Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Eadie, Tanya L.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Deitz, Jean C.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To assess the adequacy of self-report instruments in speech-language pathology for measuring a construct called communicative participation. Method Six instruments were evaluated relative to (a) the construct measured, (b) the relevance of individual items to communicative participation, and (c) their psychometric properties. Results No instrument exclusively measured communicative participation. Twenty-six percent (n = 34) of all items (N = 132) across the reviewed instruments were consistent with communicative participation. The majority (76%) of the 34 items were associated with general communication, while the remaining 24% of the items were associated with communication at work, during leisure, or for establishing relationships. Instruments varied relative to psychometric properties. Conclusions No existing self-report instruments in speech-language pathology were found to be solely dedicated to measuring communicative participation. Developing an instrument for measuring communicative participation is essential for meeting the requirements of our scope of practice. PMID:17102143

  7. Does Field Independence Relate to Performance on Communicative Language Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2006-01-01

    Recent language testing research investigates factors other than language proficiency that may be responsible for systematic variance in language test performance. One such factor is the test takers' cognitive styles. The present study was carried out with the aim of finding the probable effects of Iranian EFL learners' cognitive styles on their…

  8. Communicatively Inhibiting Behaviors of Mothers with Language Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, W. Paul

    Four mothers and their language handicapped children (2-4 years old) were compared with four mothers and their normal language children. Mother-child interactions were tape recorded and analyzed for semantic, syntactic, and morphologic complexity. The normal language group had more sophisticated semantic, syntactic, and morphologic abilities than…

  9. Linguistics, Computers, and the Language Teacher. A Communicative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    This analysis of the state of the art of computer programs and programming for language teaching has two parts. In the first part, an overview of the theory and practice of language teaching, Noam Chomsky's view of language, and the implications and problems of generative theory are presented. The theory behind the input model of language…

  10. Field Dependence as a Factor in Second Language Communicative Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Janice; Prior, Suzanne; Artuso, Mariangela

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the hypothesis that a more field-dependent cognitive style may be adaptive for certain components of second language proficiency. Native English speakers or students of English as a Second Language (ESL) completed measures of language proficiency and field dependence-independence (FDI). Native English speakers performed better than…

  11. Computer Mediated Communication: Tools for Instructing Russian Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meskill, Carla; Anthony, Natasha

    2008-01-01

    The unique needs, goals, and constraints of heritage language learners in U.S. higher education and the multiple ways that they differ from those of second and foreign language (L2) learners have been well documented (Brisk, 2000; Chevalier, 2004; Grosjean, 1982; Kagan & Dillon, 2003). Each population uses its two languages in diverse ways, for…

  12. Neural systems supporting linguistic structure, linguistic experience, and symbolic communication in sign language and gesture.

    PubMed

    Newman, Aaron J; Supalla, Ted; Fernandez, Nina; Newport, Elissa L; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-09-15

    Sign languages used by deaf communities around the world possess the same structural and organizational properties as spoken languages: In particular, they are richly expressive and also tightly grammatically constrained. They therefore offer the opportunity to investigate the extent to which the neural organization for language is modality independent, as well as to identify ways in which modality influences this organization. The fact that sign languages share the visual-manual modality with a nonlinguistic symbolic communicative system-gesture-further allows us to investigate where the boundaries lie between language and symbolic communication more generally. In the present study, we had three goals: to investigate the neural processing of linguistic structure in American Sign Language (using verbs of motion classifier constructions, which may lie at the boundary between language and gesture); to determine whether we could dissociate the brain systems involved in deriving meaning from symbolic communication (including both language and gesture) from those specifically engaged by linguistically structured content (sign language); and to assess whether sign language experience influences the neural systems used for understanding nonlinguistic gesture. The results demonstrated that even sign language constructions that appear on the surface to be similar to gesture are processed within the left-lateralized frontal-temporal network used for spoken languages-supporting claims that these constructions are linguistically structured. Moreover, although nonsigners engage regions involved in human action perception to process communicative, symbolic gestures, signers instead engage parts of the language-processing network-demonstrating an influence of experience on the perception of nonlinguistic stimuli.

  13. Young children's communication and literacy: a qualitative study of language in the inclusive preschool.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, C

    1995-06-01

    Interactive and literacy-based language use of young children within the context of an inclusive preschool classroom was explored. An interpretivist framework and qualitative research methods, including participant observation, were used to examine and analyze language in five preschool classes that were composed of children with and without disabilities. Children's language use included spoken, written, signed, and typed. Results showed complex communicative and literacy language use on the part of young children outside conventional adult perspectives. Also, children who used expressive methods other than speech were often left out of the contexts where spoken language was richest and most complex. PMID:7623671

  14. Organizing Academic and Communication Task Components Using a Model of Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    The Cummins model of language proficiency is applied to analyzing communication tasks for hearing-impaired students. The model has been found to facilitate individualization in situations where teachers are required to modify lessons spontaneously. (DB)

  15. More Than Practicing Language: Communicative Reading and Writing for Asian Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, May

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how English-as-a-foreign-language instructors in China, Japan, and Korea can motivate their students to listen, speak, read, and write for real-life communicative purposes by using authentic texts and audiences. (Author/VWL)

  16. The Genetic Basis of Thought Disorder and Language and Communication Disturbances in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Deborah L.; Coleman, Michael J.; Sung, Heejong; Ji, Fei; Matthysse, Steven; Mendell, Nancy R.; Titone, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Thought disorder as well as language and communication disturbances are associated with schizophrenia and are over-represented in clinically unaffected relatives of schizophrenics. All three kinds of dysfunction involve some element of deviant verbalizations, most notably, semantic anomalies. Of particular importance, thought disorder characterized primarily by deviant verbalizations has a higher recurrence in relatives of schizophrenic patients than schizophrenia itself. These findings suggest that deviant verbalizations may be more penetrant expressions of schizophrenia susceptibility genes than schizophrenia. This paper reviews the evidence documenting the presence of thought, language and communication disorders in schizophrenic patients and in their first-degree relatives. This familial aggregation potentially implicates genetic factors in the etiology of thought disorder, language anomalies, and communication disturbances in schizophrenia families. We also present two examples of ways in which thought, language and communication disorders can enrich genetic studies, including those involving schizophrenia. PMID:20161689

  17. Evolutionary Intelligence and Communication in Societies of Virtually Embodied Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Binh; Skabar, Andrew

    In order to overcome the knowledge bottleneck problem, AI researchers have attempted to develop systems that are capable of automated knowledge acquisition. However, learning in these systems is hindered by context (i.e., symbol-grounding) problems, which are caused by the systems lacking the unifying structure of bodies, situations and needs that typify human learning. While the fields of Embodied Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life have come a long way towards demonstrating how artificial systems can develop knowledge of the physical and social worlds, the focus in these areas has been on low level intelligence, and it is not clear how, such systems can be extended to deal with higher-level knowledge. In this paper, we argue that we can build towards a higher level intelligence by framing the problem as one of stimulating the development of culture and language. Specifically, we identify three important limitations that face the development of culture and language in AI systems, and propose how these limitations can be overcome. We will do this through borrowing ideas from the evolutionary sciences, which have explored how interactions between embodiment and environment have shaped the development of human intelligence and knowledge.

  18. Communication et reflexion metalinguistique dans l'apprentissage du francais par les adultes (Communication and Metalinguistic Reflection in French Language Learning by Adults).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galatanu, Olga

    A discussion of the relationships between communication in a foreign language and metalinguistic thought given to that language focuses on formal French language learning by adults in their home countries. Experience with adult language learners suggests a resistance to grammatical explanations but an openness to explanations of meaning. It would…

  19. Languages Support Efficient Communication about the Environment: Words for Snow Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The claim that Eskimo languages have words for different types of snow is well-known among the public, but has been greatly exaggerated through popularization and is therefore viewed with skepticism by many scholars of language. Despite the prominence of this claim, to our knowledge the line of reasoning behind it has not been tested broadly across languages. Here, we note that this reasoning is a special case of the more general view that language is shaped by the need for efficient communication, and we empirically test a variant of it against multiple sources of data, including library reference works, Twitter, and large digital collections of linguistic and meteorological data. Consistent with the hypothesis of efficient communication, we find that languages that use the same linguistic form for snow and ice tend to be spoken in warmer climates, and that this association appears to be mediated by lower communicative need to talk about snow and ice. Our results confirm that variation in semantic categories across languages may be traceable in part to local communicative needs. They suggest moreover that despite its awkward history, the topic of “words for snow” may play a useful role as an accessible instance of the principle that language supports efficient communication. PMID:27073981

  20. Languages Support Efficient Communication about the Environment: Words for Snow Revisited.

    PubMed

    Regier, Terry; Carstensen, Alexandra; Kemp, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The claim that Eskimo languages have words for different types of snow is well-known among the public, but has been greatly exaggerated through popularization and is therefore viewed with skepticism by many scholars of language. Despite the prominence of this claim, to our knowledge the line of reasoning behind it has not been tested broadly across languages. Here, we note that this reasoning is a special case of the more general view that language is shaped by the need for efficient communication, and we empirically test a variant of it against multiple sources of data, including library reference works, Twitter, and large digital collections of linguistic and meteorological data. Consistent with the hypothesis of efficient communication, we find that languages that use the same linguistic form for snow and ice tend to be spoken in warmer climates, and that this association appears to be mediated by lower communicative need to talk about snow and ice. Our results confirm that variation in semantic categories across languages may be traceable in part to local communicative needs. They suggest moreover that despite its awkward history, the topic of "words for snow" may play a useful role as an accessible instance of the principle that language supports efficient communication.

  1. Secure communication of medical information using mobile agents.

    PubMed

    Nikooghadam, Morteza; Zakerolhosseini, Ali

    2012-12-01

    Recently several efficient schemes are proposed to provide security of e-medicine systems. Almost all of these schemes have tried to achieve the highest security level in transmission of patients' medical information to medical institutions through a heterogeneous network like Internet. In this paper, we explain the insecurity of these schemes against "man-in-the-middle" attack. Furthermore, a dynamic mobile agent system based on hybrid cryptosystem is proposed that is both secure and also efficient in computation cost. Analyzing the security criteria confirms suitability of the proposed scheme for e-medicine systems. PMID:22569875

  2. A model for Social Communication And Language Evolution and Development (SCALED).

    PubMed

    Catani, Marco; Bambini, Valentina

    2014-10-01

    In humans, brain connectivity implements a system for language and communication that spans from basic pre-linguistic social abilities shared with non-human primates to syntactic and pragmatic functions particular to our species. The arcuate fasciculus is a central connection in this architecture, linking regions devoted to formal aspects of language with regions involved in intentional and social communication. Here, we outline a new anatomical model of communication that incorporates previous neurofunctional accounts of language with recent advances in tractography and neuropragmatics. The model consists of five levels, from the representation of informative actions and communicative intentions, to lexical/semantic processing, syntactic analysis, and pragmatic integration. The structure of the model is hierarchical in relation to developmental and evolutionary trajectories and it may help interpreting clinico-anatomical correlation in communication disorders.

  3. Reticence in Class and On-Line: Two ESL Students' Experiences with Communicative Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Examines English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) undergraduate students' experiences with communicative language teaching (CLT), supported by in-class tasks and after-class newsgroup discussion. Presents students' perceptions of and their feelings about their learning experiences with this teaching approach, as well the frames of reference within which…

  4. The House of TESEP and the Communicative Approach: The Special Needs of State English Language Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    English language teachers around the world are unsure about the appropriateness of the communicative approach (CAP) to the classroom. The problem concerns the nature of technology transfer between instrumentally oriented versus institutionally influenced English language teaching. A broader, rather than narrower version of the CAP can be adapted…

  5. Practical Considerations When Supporting Transitions for Pupils with Speech, Language and Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfitt, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of transitions upon pupils aged 11-14 with speech, language and communication needs, including specific language impairment and autism. The aim is to identify stress factors, examine whether these affect any subgroups in particular and suggest practical strategies to support pupils through transitions. Stress…

  6. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume 7, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutow, Howard L., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This issue of a biannual journal devoted to teaching methods and techniques in English as a second language (ESL), with emphasis on a Japanese instructional context, consists of the following articles: (1) "The Missing Element in Foreign Language Communication: Self-Disclosure," by Gertrude Moskowitz; (2) "Seven Clocks: Their Ailments and Their…

  7. Perception of Sign Language and Its Application to Visual Communications for Deaf People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Laura J.; Richardson, Iain E. G.

    2005-01-01

    Video communication systems for deaf people are limited in terms of quality and performance. Analysis of visual attention mechanisms for sign language may enable optimization of video coding systems for deaf users. Eye-movement tracking experiments were conducted with profoundly deaf volunteers while watching sign language video clips. Deaf people…

  8. Instruction and Development of Second Language Acquisition Pragmatics: An Investigation into Sociolinguistic Communicative Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchoutezo, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    The problem: The purpose of this study is first to explore the perceptions and attitudes of ESL instructors regarding pragmatics instruction in second language classes. Second, this study is also designed to add to the scholarly literature regarding the importance of pragmatics instruction in developing second language communicative competence.…

  9. Developmental Inventories Using Illiterate Parents as Informants: Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) Adaptation for Two Kenyan Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, K. J.; Rimba, K.; Holding, P.; Kitsao-Wekulo, P.; Abubakar, A.; Newton, C. R. J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs, parent-completed language development checklists) are a helpful tool to assess language in children who are unused to interaction with unfamiliar adults. Generally, CDIs are completed in written form, but in developing country settings parents may have insufficient literacy to complete them alone. We…

  10. Teaching Pragmatics in the Foreign Language Classroom: Grammar as a Communicative Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix-Brasdefer, J. Cesar; Cohen, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the teaching of pragmatics in the Spanish as a Foreign Language classroom and examines the role of grammar as a communicative resource. It also aims to highlight the importance of teaching pragmatics from beginning levels of language instruction, with the spotlight on speech acts at the discourse level. After the concept of…

  11. Communication Patterns between Internationally Adopted Children and Their Mothers: Implications for Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Dubois, M. E.; Kasparian K.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents findings on patterns of communication between internationally adopted children and their mothers in order to better understand the nature of these interactions and their influence on language learning. We examined maternal language use and joint attention behaviors of mothers and their children in 21 mother-child pairs: 10…

  12. Communication between Deaf Children and Their Hearing Mothers: The Role of Language, Gesture, and Vocalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederberg, Amy R.; Everhart, Victoria S.

    1998-01-01

    Deaf (N=20) and hearing (N=20) children were observed during play with their hearing mothers at 22 months and 3 years. The deaf children were severely language delayed, with deaf 3-year-olds using less language (speech or sign) than hearing 22-month-olds. Since mothers used primarily speech, deaf children received much less communication input…

  13. Chapter I Evaluation Report for the Language Enrichment Communicative Skills Project 1983-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Helen B.; Haussler, Myna

    The Chapter 1 Language Enrichment Communicative Skills Project served students in eleven Tucson Arizona elementary schools in the primary grades during the 1983-84 school year. The project provided supplementary instruction in oral language interaction and developmental reading and writing in small groups. Students were selected on the basis of…

  14. Discourse Functions and Vocabulary Use in English Language Learners' Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabab'ah, Ghaleb

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the discourse generated by English as a foreign language (EFL) learners using synchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) as an approach to help English language learners to create social interaction in the classroom. It investigates the impact of synchronous CMC mode on the quantity of total words, lexical range and…

  15. Willingness To Communicate, Social Support, and Language Learning Orientations of Immersion Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Baker, Susan C.; Clement, Richard; Conrod, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Hypothesized that orientations toward language learning (L2) as well as social support would influence students willingness to communicate (WTC) in a second language. Grade 9 L2 students of French immersion participated in the study. Results showed endorsement of all five orientations (travel, job related, friendship with Francophones, personal…

  16. Simulation/Gaming and the Acquisition of Communicative Competence in Another Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Carbonell, Amparo; Rising, Beverly; Montero, Begona; Watts, Frances

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of communicative competence in second language acquisition focuses on a theoretical and practical meshing of simulation and gaming methodology with theories of foreign language acquisition, including task-based learning, interaction, and comprehensible input. Describes experiments conducted with computer-assisted simulations in…

  17. Reflecting on Western TESOL Training and Communicative Language Teaching: Bangladeshi Teachers' Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Raqib; Ha, Phan Le

    2008-01-01

    The increasing demand for competent users of English in the era of globalisation has had a significant impact on English Language Teaching (ELT) in Bangladesh. Among a number of changes to improve the quality of ELT, teachers of English have been encouraged, even required, to adopt a communicative language teaching (CLT) approach. To facilitate…

  18. Pakistani Government Secondary Schools Students' Attitudes towards Communicative Language Teaching and Grammar Translation in Quetta, Balochistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Zeeshan

    2016-01-01

    Students' attitudes towards an English language teaching approach play an important role for its implementation success or failure. This study measured Pakistani government school students' attitudes towards Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Grammar Translation (GT). A survey instrument was used to assess students' attitudes. Data were…

  19. Public Views of Minority Languages as Communication or Symbol: The Case of Gaelic in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Lindsay; O'Hanlon, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Two social roles for language have been distinguished by Edwards--the communicative and the symbolic. Using data from a survey of public attitudes to Gaelic in Scotland, the article investigates the extent to which people's view of language may be characterised as relating to these roles. Respondents were grouped, using statistical cluster…

  20. Communicative Language Testing (CLT): Reflections on the "Issues Revisited" from the Perspective of an Examinations Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Dianne; Taylor, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    In this article we first summarise the main points raised by Morrow (1979) in the publication that formed the core of the Communicative Language Testing discussions at the original Language Testing Forum (1980). We take into consideration issues raised by the 1980 Forum participants when appropriate. We apply Morrow's ideas and issues…

  1. The Model of Forming Communicative Competence of Students in the Process of Teaching the English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahrutdinova, Rezida A.; Fahrutdinov, Rifat R.; Yusupov, Rinat N.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the topic is specified by the necessity of forming the communicative competence of students in the process of teaching of the English language in the institute of higher education. This article is intended to define interactive methods of teaching foreign language, which are based on interactive conception of interaction between…

  2. Language Choice in an Acutely Multilingual Society: Communication and Development in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Geoff P.

    Acute intercultural communication problems posed by multilingualism in Papua New Guinea are discussed, and ways in which they are being addressed are examined. An introductory section outlines the language situation in Melanesia. It is noted that the area's language diversity and colonization and missionary activity have resulted in the emergence…

  3. Communicative Competence Approaches to Language Proficiency Assessment: Research and Application. Multilingual Matters 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Charlene, Ed.

    A collection of selected papers from the March 1981 Language Proficiency Assessment Symposium, a component of the National Institute of Education's Assessment of Language Proficiency of Bilingual Persons project, are presented. Papers include: "An Overview of Communicative Competence" (Cynthia Wallat); "Some Comments on the Terminology of Language…

  4. Receta Medica: Communicating Medication Information across the Language/Literacy Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faux, Nancy R.

    2004-01-01

    Clear communication between physicians and their patients is essential for the success of any health program or intervention. In some cases, though, doctors and patients do not speak the same language. Also, patients sometimes cannot read, or they read very little in any language, including their native tongue. Occasionally, interpreters may be…

  5. Neural systems supporting linguistic structure, linguistic experience, and symbolic communication in sign language and gesture

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Aaron J.; Supalla, Ted; Fernandez, Nina; Newport, Elissa L.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Sign languages used by deaf communities around the world possess the same structural and organizational properties as spoken languages: In particular, they are richly expressive and also tightly grammatically constrained. They therefore offer the opportunity to investigate the extent to which the neural organization for language is modality independent, as well as to identify ways in which modality influences this organization. The fact that sign languages share the visual–manual modality with a nonlinguistic symbolic communicative system—gesture—further allows us to investigate where the boundaries lie between language and symbolic communication more generally. In the present study, we had three goals: to investigate the neural processing of linguistic structure in American Sign Language (using verbs of motion classifier constructions, which may lie at the boundary between language and gesture); to determine whether we could dissociate the brain systems involved in deriving meaning from symbolic communication (including both language and gesture) from those specifically engaged by linguistically structured content (sign language); and to assess whether sign language experience influences the neural systems used for understanding nonlinguistic gesture. The results demonstrated that even sign language constructions that appear on the surface to be similar to gesture are processed within the left-lateralized frontal-temporal network used for spoken languages—supporting claims that these constructions are linguistically structured. Moreover, although nonsigners engage regions involved in human action perception to process communicative, symbolic gestures, signers instead engage parts of the language-processing network—demonstrating an influence of experience on the perception of nonlinguistic stimuli. PMID:26283352

  6. Cosmopolitan Communication and the Broken Dream of a Common Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnstrom, Niclas

    2011-01-01

    Cosmopolitans share the moral assumption that we have obligations and responsibilities to other people, near or distant. Today, those obligations and responsibilities are often connected with communication, but what is considered important for cosmopolitan communication differs between different thinkers. Given the centrality of communication in…

  7. Improving English Language Competency Among ESL Second Grade Children Through a Socially Interactive Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Maureen D.

    A school situation was studied in which students of English as a Second Language (ESL) were not developing English communicative competence because ESL students were segregated from fluent English-speaking (FES) students. ESL students were having difficulties with English reading, writing, and math concepts. In response to this situation a program…

  8. Increasing Early Childhood Educators' Use of Communication-Facilitating and Language-Modelling Strategies: Brief Speech and Language Therapy Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, David; Proctor, Penny; Gill, Wendy; Heaven, Sue; Marr, Jane; Young, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Intensive Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) training courses for Early Childhood Educators (ECEs) can have a positive effect on their use of interaction strategies that support children's communication skills. The impact of brief SLT training courses is not yet clearly understood. The aims of these two studies were to assess the impact of a brief…

  9. Assessing Business Communication Assignments of English-as-Second-Language Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Stephen D.; McGrew, Linda G.; Adams, C. Nathan

    2002-01-01

    Describes a nationwide survey of business communication teachers, soliciting input on how English-as-a-second language students' written communication skills were assessed. Makes comparisons based upon teachers' gender, age, number of years of teaching experience, and geographic location where they teach. Indicates that business communication…

  10. Predicting Language Outcomes for Children Learning Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Child and Environmental Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Nancy C.; Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Fleming, Kandace; Matthews, Kris

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a model of language development for nonverbal preschool-age children learning to communicate with augmentative or alternative communication. Method: Ninety-three preschool children with intellectual disabilities were assessed at Time 1, and 82 of these children were assessed 1 year later, at Time 2. The outcome variable was…

  11. Children with Differing Developmental Trajectories of Prelinguistic Communication Skills: Language and Working Memory at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors examine the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Method: Following work outlining 6 groups of children with different trajectories of early communication development (ECD; Määttä, Laakso, Tolvanen, Ahonen, & Aro, 2012), the…

  12. Careers Communications: Middle Grades, 1999-2000. Issue 3. Language Arts. Ohio's Career Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational and Career Education.

    This packet consists of 10 learning activities related to the communications area of language arts career skills. Each activity is self-contained and provides all necessary material or information. The activities include a communication skills table; career acrostics; a questionnaire for use in an informal interview with an employed person; a…

  13. Language Development in Nonverbal Autistic Children Using a Simultaneous Communication System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creedon, Margaret Procyk

    Twenty-one nonverbal autistic children, 4- to 9-years-old, with language ages of 4- to 24-months, participated in the communication learning program from 1 to 3 years. Simultaneous verbal and manual signs were chosen as the communications mode. The children initially displayed infrequent, unrecognizable vocalizations (Screeches, or vocal…

  14. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Communicative Language Teaching in Taiwanese College English Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ming; Goswami, Jaya S.

    2011-01-01

    Foreign language teaching in many Asian-Pacific countries in recent decades has shifted toward communicative-focused instruction. However, researchers have reported a gap between policy and practice. To incorporate teachers' voices in adopting the communicative approach in the curriculum, this study explores factors that promote or hinder EFL…

  15. Preparing Adult Educators: The Need to Develop Communicative Language Teaching Skills in College-Level Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines why communicative language teaching (CLT) fails to improve student learning in certain contexts by assessing two adult educators' communicative and noncommunicative practices through qualitative case studies, interviews, and participant observations. Results show no inherent CLT problems that prevent teachers from grasping…

  16. Intercultural Communicative Competence: Beliefs and Practices of Adult English as a Second Language Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickley, Celeste; Rossiter, Marian J.; Abbott, Marilyn L.

    2014-01-01

    Effective and appropriate communication is critical for the successful integration of newcomers in Canada. In this paper, we describe the intercultural communicative competence beliefs and practices of 70 adult English as a second language (ESL) instructors. Responses to an online survey indicated a strong belief in the value of integrating…

  17. Using an agent-based model to analyze the dynamic communication network of the immune response

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The immune system behaves like a complex, dynamic network with interacting elements including leukocytes, cytokines, and chemokines. While the immune system is broadly distributed, leukocytes must communicate effectively to respond to a pathological challenge. The Basic Immune Simulator 2010 contains agents representing leukocytes and tissue cells, signals representing cytokines, chemokines, and pathogens, and virtual spaces representing organ tissue, lymphoid tissue, and blood. Agents interact dynamically in the compartments in response to infection of the virtual tissue. Agent behavior is imposed by logical rules derived from the scientific literature. The model captured the agent-to-agent contact history, and from this the network topology and the interactions resulting in successful versus failed viral clearance were identified. This model served to integrate existing knowledge and allowed us to examine the immune response from a novel perspective directed at exploiting complex dynamics, ultimately for the design of therapeutic interventions. Results Analyzing the evolution of agent-agent interactions at incremental time points from identical initial conditions revealed novel features of immune communication associated with successful and failed outcomes. There were fewer contacts between agents for simulations ending in viral elimination (win) versus persistent infection (loss), due to the removal of infected agents. However, early cellular interactions preceded successful clearance of infection. Specifically, more Dendritic Agent interactions with TCell and BCell Agents, and more BCell Agent interactions with TCell Agents early in the simulation were associated with the immune win outcome. The Dendritic Agents greatly influenced the outcome, confirming them as hub agents of the immune network. In addition, unexpectedly high frequencies of Dendritic Agent-self interactions occurred in the lymphoid compartment late in the loss outcomes. Conclusions

  18. Communicating and Teaching Languages: A Module for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koglbauer, René; Andersen, Elizabeth; Stewart, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    This case study introduces a final year undergraduate module in the School of Modern Languages at Newcastle University. The module offers a model for embedding careers in modern languages teaching into the curriculum, and thereby enhancing student employability. The case study gives an insight into the various strands of activity undertaken by the…

  19. When Do We Simulate Non-Human Agents? Dissociating Communicative and Non-Communicative Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; Brass, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    There is strong evidence that we automatically simulate observed behavior in our motor system. Previous research suggests that this simulation process depends on whether we observe a human or a non-human agent. Measuring a motor priming effect, this study investigated the question of whether agent-sensitivity of motor simulation depends on the…

  20. Parents' child-directed communication and child language development: a longitudinal study with Italian toddlers.

    PubMed

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-09-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1 ; 3 and 1 ; 9. The characteristics of the maternal and paternal child-directed language (characteristics of communicative functions and lexicon as reported in psycholinguistic norms for Italian language) were coded during free play. Child language development was assessed during free play and at ages 2 ; 6 and 3 ; 0 using the Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (2 ; 6) and the revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R) (3 ; 0). Data analysis indicated differences between mothers and fathers in the quantitative characteristics of communicative functions and language, such as the mean length of utterances (MLU), and the number of tokens and types. Mothers also produced the more frequent nouns in the child lexicon. There emerged a relation between the characteristics of parental child-directed language and child language development.

  1. A conceptual data model and modelling language for fields and agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bakker, Merijn; de Jong, Kor; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Modelling is essential in order to understand environmental systems. Environmental systems are heterogeneous because they consist of fields and agents. Fields have a value defined everywhere at all times, for example surface elevation and temperature. Agents are bounded in space and time and have a value only within their bounds, for example biomass of a tree crown or the speed of a car. Many phenomena have properties of both fields and agents. Although many systems contain both fields and agents and integration of these concepts would be required for modelling, existing modelling frameworks concentrate on either agent-based or field-based modelling and are often low-level programming frameworks. A concept is lacking that integrates fields and agents in a way that is easy to use for modelers who are not software engineers. To address this issue, we develop a conceptual data model that represents fields and agents uniformly. We then show how the data model can be used in a high-level modelling language. The data model represents fields and agents in space-time. Also relations and networks can be represented using the same concepts. Using the conceptual data model we can represent static and mobile agents that may have spatial and temporal variation within their extent. The concepts we use are phenomenon, property set, item, property, domain and value. The phenomenon is the thing that is modelled, which can be any real world thing, for example trees. A phenomenon usually consists of several items, e.g. single trees. The domain is the spatiotemporal location and/or extent for which the items in the phenomenon are defined. Multiple different domains can coexist for a given phenomenon. For example a domain describing the extent of the trees and a domain describing the stem locations. The same goes for the property, which is an attribute of the thing that is being modeled. A property has a value, which is possibly discretized, for example the biomass over the tree crown

  2. Intergenerational communication: fundamental but under-exploited theory for speech and language therapy with older people.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Linda; McKechnie, Karen

    2003-01-01

    There is a body of research literature already applied in speech and language therapy practice that is concerned with communication between children and adults and the adaptations adults make to facilitate the development of language in children. There is much less and more recent literature concerned with intergenerational communication involving older people and older people in institutional care. This has not yet impacted on speech and language therapy practice, especially in the area of training others. The aims of this paper are (1) to describe some of the main theoretical concepts associated with intergenerational communication, (2) to present the results from a study of the opinions about and experiences of intergenerational communication in which children, community- based older women and professional carers of older people were included and (3) to discuss the implications for speech and language therapy practice. A hypothesis for the study was that views on and attitudes towards communication and ageing would vary among the age groups. Some of the main concepts and models associated with intergenerational communication with older people are reviewed, including the communication predicament and enhancement models and the concept of patronizing communication. A qualitative study of three different age groups of (mainly) women was undertaken using a variety of methods of data elicitation (including written questionnaire and focus group discussion). Themes arising from the data were illuminated using content analysis. Participants' responses demonstrate some current generally positive views across the life-span on what it means to be old and the value of communication with older people. The implications for speech and language therapy practice are outlined, with the main emphasis on the potential use of intergenerational communication theory in developing a new focus for training other staff groups who care for older people and for measures of effectiveness of

  3. Context and Culture in Language Teaching and Learning. Languages for Intercultural Communication and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byram, Michael, Ed.; Grundy, Peter, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines how the contexts in which language teaching occurs impact the aims and methods of language teaching. Ten papers focus on the following: "Introduction: Context and Culture in Language Teaching and Learning" (Mike Byram and Peter Grundy); "From Practice to Theory and Back Again" (Claire Kramsch); "Carrying a Baby…

  4. The Role of Communicative Language Teaching in Secondary Schools--with Special Reference to Teaching in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, T. A.

    Singapore's grammar-based English language syllabus and the wide range of native languages and English oral ability among secondary school students make the second language teaching situation complex and the use of the communicative approach challenging but not impossible. While grammar is an essential element of second language proficiency, it is…

  5. From General Game Descriptions to a Market Specification Language for General Trading Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielscher, Michael; Zhang, Dongmo

    The idea behind General Game Playing is to build systems that, instead of being programmed for one specific task, are intelligent and flexible enough to negotiate an unknown environment solely on the basis of the rules which govern it. In this paper, we argue that this principle has the great potential to bring to a new level artificially intelligent systems in other application areas as well. Our specific interest lies in General Trading Agents, which are able to understand the rules of unknown markets and then to actively participate in them without human intervention. To this end, we extend the general Game Description Language into a language that allows to formally describe arbitrary markets in such a way that these specifications can be automatically processed by a computer. We present both syntax and a transition-based semantics for this Market Specification Language and illustrate its expressive power by presenting axiomatizations of several well-known auction types.

  6. Evaluation of language and communication skills in adult key word signing users with intellectual disability: advantages of a narrative task.

    PubMed

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; Zink, Inge

    2014-10-01

    The evaluation of language and communication skills in adults who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in general and key word signing (KWS) in particular, can be an elaborate task. Besides being time-consuming and not very similar to natural communication, standard language tests often do not take AAC or KWS into account. Therefore, we developed a narrative task specifically for adults with intellectual disability (ID) who use KWS. The task was evaluated in a group of 40 adult KWS users. Outcome measures on the narrative task correlated significantly with measures of standard language and communication tests for verbal language, but not for use of manual signs. All narrative measures, for both verbal language and manual signing, correlated highly with similar measures from a conversation sample. The developed narrative task proved useful and valid to evaluate the language and communication skills of adults with ID taking into account both their verbal language and manual sign use.

  7. Communication between Older People and Their Health Care Agents: Results of an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutheil, Irene A.; Heyman, Janna C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined an intervention to help high-functioning community-dwelling older people communicate their wishes for care at the end of life with someone they would trust to make health care decisions for them if necessary. Groups consisted of dyads of older people and their potential or designated health care agents randomly assigned to the…

  8. Oral Communication. English Language Arts Concept Paper Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robert

    Noting that current students will become citizens of the Information Age, and that much of their social and professional success will depend on their speaking and listening skills, this paper supports the call for required courses in oral communication and proposes components of successful oral communication programs. The introduction describes…

  9. Body Language and the Social Order; Communication as Behavioral Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheflen, Albert E.

    Human communication, verbal and especially nonverbal, is based upon lower and earlier primate development as well as on extensive culturally learned behavior. Kinesthetic study can discover behaviors which maintain and disrupt social orders of all types--governmental, economic, familial, and personal. Communicational behavior exerts controls and…

  10. Communication between deaf children and their hearing mothers: the role of language, gesture, and vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Lederberg, A R; Everhart, V S

    1998-08-01

    In the present longitudinal study, 20 deaf and 20 hearing children were observed during free play with their hearing mothers when the children were 22 months and 3 years of age. Compared to hearing children, deaf children were severely language delayed, with deaf 3-year-olds using less language (speech or sign) than hearing 22-month-olds. Deaf children communicated primarily through nonlinguistic vocalizations, with increasing use of gesture from 22 months to 3 years of age. Although mothers of deaf children used more visual communication than mothers of hearing children, they still primarily communicated through speech. In addition, deaf children did not visually attend to much of their mothers' communication. Therefore, deaf children received much less communication than hearing children. These results suggest that intervention efforts should be focused on increasing the quantity of perceived linguistic input by the child.

  11. Effects of Two Foreign Language Methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling, on Beginning-Level Students' Achievement, Fluency, and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Donna E.

    2009-01-01

    No empirical studies exist comparing the effectiveness of the two prevalent foreign language methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS), at helping students achieve second language acquisition. In turn, the purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to…

  12. Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL): A New Measure for Spontaneous and Expressive Language of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Communication Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Hyun; Junker, Dörte; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A new language measure, the Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL), is intended to document spontaneous use of syntax, pragmatics, and semantics in 2-12-year-old children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other communication disorders with expressive language levels comparable to typical 2-5 year olds. Because the purpose of…

  13. Communicative Competence: Theory and Classroom Practice. Texts and Contexts in Second Language Learning. The Addison-Wesley Second Language Professional Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savignon, Sandra J.

    An introduction to the theoretical bases of communicative language teaching and a guide to building a second language program consonant with those theories are presented for classroom teachers and teachers in training. After examining the issues underlying recent developments in second language teaching, an overview is presented of the research…

  14. An Approach for Autonomy: A Collaborative Communication Framework for Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren Russell, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Research done during the last three years has studied the emersion properties of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). The deployment of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques applied to remote Unmanned Aerial Vehicles has led the author to investigate applications of CAS within the field of Autonomous Multi-Agent Systems. The core objective of current research efforts is focused on the simplicity of Intelligent Agents (IA) and the modeling of these agents within complex systems. This research effort looks at the communication, interaction, and adaptability of multi-agents as applied to complex systems control. The embodiment concept applied to robotics has application possibilities within multi-agent frameworks. A new framework for agent awareness within a virtual 3D world concept is possible where the vehicle is composed of collaborative agents. This approach has many possibilities for applications to complex systems. This paper describes the development of an approach to apply this virtual framework to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) tetrahedron structure developed under the Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm (ANTS) program and the Super Miniaturized Addressable Reconfigurable Technology (SMART) architecture program. These projects represent an innovative set of novel concepts deploying adaptable, self-organizing structures composed of many tetrahedrons. This technology is pushing current applied Agents Concepts to new levels of requirements and adaptability.

  15. Foreign Language Courses for Journalism and Communication Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vines, Lois

    1989-01-01

    Describes Ohio University's course sequence designed to teach French and Spanish, through the use of print and broadcast media, to students majoring in journalism and other communication areas. Course development, funding, resources, speakers, and promotion are detailed. (CB)

  16. Approaching an upset person: body language and verbal communications.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Ronald W

    2010-01-01

    The author, a leading innovator and trainer in the field of aggressive behavior management, focuses in this article on non-verbal and verbal signals which, he says, are the most widely used forms of communications. Nevertheless, he reports, these are the most often neglected areas of training by health care workers. Development of physical presence and communications skills alone could handle up to 98% of the incidents potentially requiring force, he claims. PMID:20229938

  17. Towards a Sign Language Synthesizer: a Bridge to Communication Gap of the Hearing/Speech Impaired Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maarif, H. A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Gunawan, T. S.; Shafie, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Sign language synthesizer is a method to visualize the sign language movement from the spoken language. The sign language (SL) is one of means used by HSI people to communicate to normal people. But, unfortunately the number of people, including the HSI people, who are familiar with sign language is very limited. These cause difficulties in the communication between the normal people and the HSI people. The sign language is not only hand movement but also the face expression. Those two elements have complimentary aspect each other. The hand movement will show the meaning of each signing and the face expression will show the emotion of a person. Generally, Sign language synthesizer will recognize the spoken language by using speech recognition, the grammatical process will involve context free grammar, and 3D synthesizer will take part by involving recorded avatar. This paper will analyze and compare the existing techniques of developing a sign language synthesizer, which leads to IIUM Sign Language Synthesizer.

  18. m-LoCoS UI: A Universal Visible Language for Global Mobile Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Aaron

    The LoCoS universal visible language developed by the graphic/sign designer Yukio Ota in Japan in 1964 may serve as a usable, useful, and appealing basis for a mobile phone application that can provide capabilities for communication and storytelling among people who do not share a spoken language. User-interface design issues including display and input are discussed in conjunction with prototype screens showing the use of LoCoS for a mobile phone.

  19. Intercultural Education and Communication in Second Language Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraldi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses intercultural education outcomes produced in the setting of teaching Italian as a second language (ISL) in an Italian school. Intercultural education is produced in interactions which are based on specific cultural presuppositions, i.e. expectations regarding learning, role hierarchy and evaluation of student performances.…

  20. Communicative English Language Teaching in Japanese Universities: Teacher Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terdal, Marjorie; And Others

    A study investigated the adjustments made in classroom behavior and teaching techniques by western-trained English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers in Japanese universities. Subjects were 16 instructors at three institutions, all with native or native-like English fluency and all trained in Canadian or United States graduate programs for ESL…

  1. Early Language and Communicative Abilities of Children with Periventricular Leukomalacia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Heidi M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Ten two-year-old children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a brain injury associated with prematurity, were evaluated using language samples. The five children with delayed cognitive ability produced significantly fewer lexical tokens and spontaneous verbal utterances than did chronological age-matched nondelayed PVL children. (Author/DB)

  2. Lenguaje y communicacion humanos (Human Language and Communication)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    This essay affirms that people are not, like insects, genetically compelled to live and work collectively. Above all, language separates us from the rest of the animal world, allowing us to depart from reflex activity to consider the ambiguous and unknown and formulate new ideas. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  3. Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

    2011-01-01

    This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

  4. Inferring Speaker Affect in Spoken Natural Language Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pon-Barry, Heather Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The field of spoken language processing is concerned with creating computer programs that can understand human speech and produce human-like speech. Regarding the problem of understanding human speech, there is currently growing interest in moving beyond speech recognition (the task of transcribing the words in an audio stream) and towards…

  5. Syracuse University English Language Institute: Business Communication for Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Berly, Geraldine; McGraw, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The Syracuse University English Language Institute (ELI), housed within University College, has been offering noncredit executive English courses on a contract basis for the past 12 years. Despite its small size and limited resources, the ELI, whose main mission is to prepare international students for academic study, also manages a successful…

  6. Adopting public health approaches to communication disability: challenges for the education of speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Karen; McAllister, Lindy; Davidson, Bronwyn; Marshall, Julie; Law, James

    2014-01-01

    Public health approaches to communication disability challenge the profession of speech-language pathology (SLP) to reconsider both frames of reference for practice and models of education. This paper reviews the impetus for public health approaches to communication disability and considers how public health is, and could be, incorporated into SLP education, both now and in the future. The paper describes tensions between clinical services, which have become increasingly specialized, and public health approaches that offer a broader view of communication disability and communication disability prevention. It presents a discussion of these tensions and asserts that public health approaches to communication are themselves a specialist field, requiring specific knowledge and skills. The authors suggest the use of the term 'communication disability public health' to refer to this type of work and offer a preliminary definition in order to advance discussion. Examples from three countries are provided of how some SLP degree programmes are integrating public health into the SLP curriculum. Alternative models of training for communication disability public health that may be relevant in the future in different contexts and countries are presented, prompting the SLP profession to consider whether communication disability public health is a field of practice for speech-language pathologists or whether it has broader workforce implications. The paper concludes with some suggestions for the future which may advance thinking, research and practice in communication disability public health.

  7. The role of family planning communications--an agent of reinforcement or change.

    PubMed

    Chen, E C

    1981-12-01

    Results are presented of a multiple classification analysis of responses to a 1972 KAP survey in Taiwan of 2013 married women aged 18-34 designed to determine whether family planning communication is primarily a reinforcement agent or a change agent. 2 types of independent variables, social demographic variables including age, number of children, residence, education, employment status, and duration of marriage; and social climate variables including ever receiving family planning information from mass media and ever discussing family planning with others, were used. KAP levels, the dependent variables, were measured by 2 variables each: awareness of effective methods and awareness of government supply of contraceptives for knowledge, wish for additional children and approve of 2-child family for attitude, and never use contraception and neither want children nor use contraception for practice. Social demographic and attitudinal variables were found to be the critical ones, while social climate and knowledge variables had only negligible effects on various stages of family planning adoption, indicating that family planning communications functioned primarily as a reinforcement agent. The effects of social demographic variables were prominent in all stages of contraceptive adoption. Examination of effects of individual variables on various stages of family planning adoption still supported the argument that family planning communications played a reinforcement role. Family planning communications functioned well in diffusing family planning knowledge and accessibility, but social demographic variables and desire for additional children were the most decisive influences on use of contraception.

  8. Applied Linguistics and Second Language Teaching. Odense Working Papers in Language and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Johannes, Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on applied linguistics and second language teaching. Three of the papers discuss classroom issues, two examine new views and models in second language writing, and one describes the Koge project, which has presented the most comprehensive research on bilingual children in Denmark. The six papers include the…

  9. Rationale for Language Study. The Challenge of Communication. ACTFL Review of Foreign Language Education, Vol. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Jane N.

    Enrollment trends and factors that influence foreign language study in colleges and universities are discussed. Most college foreign language programs have emphasized the study of literature and have not been committed to the training of teachers or the teaching of civilization or culture. It appears that students' concern about the job market and…

  10. Exploring the Speech-Language Connection. Communication and Language Intervention Series, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea, Ed.

    This edited volume investigates the connections between the earliest human sounds and subsequent language development. With special attention to tracheostomies, Downs syndrome, deafness, and speech-motor impairments, the interaction between speech and language is examined in typical development as well as the effect that the interaction has on…

  11. Language: Anthropology and Communication [And] Language Pupil Text. Publications No. 45 and 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Alexandra; Sebeok, Thomas A.

    Part of the Anthropology Curriculum Project, the document introduces social studies classroom teachers and junior high school students to the study of language and emphasizes the importance of language as a part of culture. The document contains a teacher background component and a student text. The teacher background material is presented in five…

  12. Using the Rasch model to develop a measure of second language learners' willingness to communicate within a language classroom.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to use Rasch measurement to study the psychometric properties of a 34 item questionnaire designed to measure second language learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) in English inside their language class. 490 Japanese university students' responses to the questionnaire were subjected to a number of different analyses. The first involved a comparison of the category threshold estimates produced by the Rating Scale and Partial Credit models. The questionnaire's items were then evaluated according to how well they defined the willingness to communicate construct. The potential dimensionality of using items that involved different speaking and writing tasks/situations in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of students' willingness to communicate was also investigated. Next there was an examination of the questionnaire's four-point scale to ensure that it captured meaningful differences in students' WTC. Finally, the questionnaire items were compared using differential item functioning to determine if second year students were more willing than first year students in any of the different speaking and writing tasks/situations. This investigation closes with some suggestions on how the WTC questionnaire can inform second language instruction and curriculum design.

  13. Deciphering the language of plant communication: volatile chemotypes of sagebrush.

    PubMed

    Karban, Richard; Wetzel, William C; Shiojiri, Kaori; Ishizaki, Satomi; Ramirez, Santiago R; Blande, James D

    2014-10-01

    Volatile communication between sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) individuals has been found previously to reduce herbivory and to be more effective between individuals that are genetically identical or related relative to between strangers. The chemical nature of the cues involved in volatile communication remains unknown for this and other systems. We collected headspace volatiles from sagebrush plants in the field and analyzed these using GC-MS. Volatile profiles were highly variable among individuals, but most individuals could be characterized as belonging to one of two chemotypes, dominated by either thujone or camphor. Analyses of parents and offspring revealed that chemotypes were highly heritable. The ecological significance of chemotypes and the genetic mechanisms that control them remain poorly understood. However, we found that individuals of the same chemotype communicated more effectively and experienced less herbivory than individuals of differing chemotypes. Plants may use chemotypes to distinguish relatives from strangers.

  14. Developmental inventories using illiterate parents as informants: Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) adaptation for two Kenyan languages.

    PubMed

    Alcock, K J; Rimba, K; Holding, P; Kitsao-Wekulo, P; Abubakar, A; Newton, C R J C

    2015-07-01

    Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs, parent-completed language development checklists) are a helpful tool to assess language in children who are unused to interaction with unfamiliar adults. Generally, CDIs are completed in written form, but in developing country settings parents may have insufficient literacy to complete them alone. We designed CDIs to assess language development in children aged 0;8 to 2;4 in two languages used in Coastal communities in Kenya. Measures of vocabulary, gestures, and grammatical constructions were developed using both interviews with parents from varying backgrounds, and vocabulary as well as grammatical constructions from recordings of children's spontaneous speech. The CDIs were then administered in interview format to over 300 families. Reliability and validity ranged from acceptable to excellent, supporting the use of CDIs when direct language testing is impractical, even when children have multiple caregivers and where respondents have low literacy levels. PMID:25158859

  15. Foreign Languages: Teaching for Communication. A Compendium of Teacher-Authored Activities for Foreign Language Classes. Report of Workshops (Boca Raton, Florida, January 10, 1987-May 30, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saporita, Richard D., Ed.

    Phase 1 of a 2-phase project consisted of a series of 9 workshops designed to help teachers use the communicative approach to second language teaching in planning lessons. The workshops in turn resulted in a collection of 118 teacher-developed communicative activities and lesson plans in these categories: (1) developing communicative skills in the…

  16. Second language social networks and communication-related acculturative stress: the role of interconnectedness.

    PubMed

    Doucerain, Marina M; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N = 100) support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in CRAS but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning.

  17. Second language social networks and communication-related acculturative stress: the role of interconnectedness

    PubMed Central

    Doucerain, Marina M.; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S.; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants’ L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants’ L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N = 100) support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants’ L2 network account for unique variance in CRAS but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants’ L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning. PMID:26300809

  18. Second language social networks and communication-related acculturative stress: the role of interconnectedness.

    PubMed

    Doucerain, Marina M; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N = 100) support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in CRAS but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning. PMID:26300809

  19. Intention processing in communication: a common brain network for language and gestures.

    PubMed

    Enrici, Ivan; Adenzato, Mauro; Cappa, Stefano; Bara, Bruno G; Tettamanti, Marco

    2011-09-01

    Human communicative competence is based on the ability to process a specific class of mental states, namely, communicative intention. The present fMRI study aims to analyze whether intention processing in communication is affected by the expressive means through which a communicative intention is conveyed, that is, the linguistic or extralinguistic gestural means. Combined factorial and conjunction analyses were used to test two sets of predictions: first, that a common brain network is recruited for the comprehension of communicative intentions independently of the modality through which they are conveyed; second, that additional brain areas are specifically recruited depending on the communicative modality used, reflecting distinct sensorimotor gateways. Our results clearly showed that a common neural network is engaged in communicative intention processing independently of the modality used. This network includes the precuneus, the left and right posterior STS and TPJ, and the medial pFC. Additional brain areas outside those involved in intention processing are specifically engaged by the particular communicative modality, that is, a peri-sylvian language network for the linguistic modality and a sensorimotor network for the extralinguistic modality. Thus, common representation of communicative intention may be accessed by modality-specific gateways, which are distinct for linguistic versus extralinguistic expressive means. Taken together, our results indicate that the information acquired by different communicative modalities is equivalent from a mental processing standpoint, in particular, at the point at which the actor's communicative intention has to be reconstructed.

  20. Sociolinguistic Documentation of Endangered Ethnography of Communication in Yoruba Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaoye, Anthony Ayodele

    2013-01-01

    The ethnography of communication, particularly of greetings, among speakers of some Yoruba dialects is the major concern of this paper. The author observed that the much-cherished, rich culture of greetings, among Yoruba, which the author grew up to know, by linguistic globalization and modernization is being eroded fast. The study and…

  1. Fostering Communication about Measuring Area in a Transitional Language Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Wendy S.; Dixon, Juli K.; Martinez, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Instructional settings are developed for conceptual understanding of measurement for the fourth-grade students to engage limited English proficient (LEP) students in effectively communicating about mathematics. When naturally enticed to compare solutions, the students were motivated to explain their mathematical thinking and understand the…

  2. Language and Social Inclusion: Unexplored Aspects of Intercultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Simon; Bradshaw, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Social inclusion policy in Australia has largely ignored key issues of communication for linguistic minorities, across communities and with the mainstream community. In the (now disbanded) Social Inclusion Board's reports (e.g., Social Inclusion Unit, 2009), the emphasis is on the economic aspects of inclusion, while little attention has been…

  3. Perceived communicative intent in gesture and language modulates the superior temporal sulcus.

    PubMed

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Velnoskey, Kayla R; Rowe, Meredith L

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral evidence and theory suggest gesture and language processing may be part of a shared cognitive system for communication. While much research demonstrates both gesture and language recruit regions along perisylvian cortex, relatively less work has tested functional segregation within these regions on an individual level. Additionally, while most work has focused on a shared semantic network, less has examined shared regions for processing communicative intent. To address these questions, functional and structural MRI data were collected from 24 adult participants while viewing videos of an experimenter producing communicative, Participant-Directed Gestures (PDG) (e.g., "Hello, come here"), noncommunicative Self-adaptor Gestures (SG) (e.g., smoothing hair), and three written text conditions: (1) Participant-Directed Sentences (PDS), matched in content to PDG, (2) Third-person Sentences (3PS), describing a character's actions from a third-person perspective, and (3) meaningless sentences, Jabberwocky (JW). Surface-based conjunction and individual functional region of interest analyses identified shared neural activation between gesture (PDGvsSG) and language processing using two different language contrasts. Conjunction analyses of gesture (PDGvsSG) and Third-person Sentences versus Jabberwocky revealed overlap within left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). Conjunction analyses of gesture and Participant-Directed Sentences to Third-person Sentences revealed regions sensitive to communicative intent, including the left middle and posterior STS and left inferior frontal gyrus. Further, parametric modulation using participants' ratings of stimuli revealed sensitivity of left posterior STS to individual perceptions of communicative intent in gesture. These data highlight an important role of the STS in processing participant-directed communicative intent through gesture and language. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3444-3461, 2016. © 2016 Wiley

  4. Perceived communicative intent in gesture and language modulates the superior temporal sulcus.

    PubMed

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Velnoskey, Kayla R; Rowe, Meredith L

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral evidence and theory suggest gesture and language processing may be part of a shared cognitive system for communication. While much research demonstrates both gesture and language recruit regions along perisylvian cortex, relatively less work has tested functional segregation within these regions on an individual level. Additionally, while most work has focused on a shared semantic network, less has examined shared regions for processing communicative intent. To address these questions, functional and structural MRI data were collected from 24 adult participants while viewing videos of an experimenter producing communicative, Participant-Directed Gestures (PDG) (e.g., "Hello, come here"), noncommunicative Self-adaptor Gestures (SG) (e.g., smoothing hair), and three written text conditions: (1) Participant-Directed Sentences (PDS), matched in content to PDG, (2) Third-person Sentences (3PS), describing a character's actions from a third-person perspective, and (3) meaningless sentences, Jabberwocky (JW). Surface-based conjunction and individual functional region of interest analyses identified shared neural activation between gesture (PDGvsSG) and language processing using two different language contrasts. Conjunction analyses of gesture (PDGvsSG) and Third-person Sentences versus Jabberwocky revealed overlap within left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). Conjunction analyses of gesture and Participant-Directed Sentences to Third-person Sentences revealed regions sensitive to communicative intent, including the left middle and posterior STS and left inferior frontal gyrus. Further, parametric modulation using participants' ratings of stimuli revealed sensitivity of left posterior STS to individual perceptions of communicative intent in gesture. These data highlight an important role of the STS in processing participant-directed communicative intent through gesture and language. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3444-3461, 2016. © 2016 Wiley

  5. A Business-Spanish Program Resulting From the Synergistic Combination of Courses in Communication, Language and Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Luis F. Fernandez

    The rationale and development of a business Spanish curriculum at Western Illinois University are described. Through a synergistic combination of courses from the College of Business and the communication and foreign language departments, eight new courses were created. The historical interrelationships of communication, language, and business,…

  6. Sprachbezogene und mitteilungsbezogene Kommunikation im Englischunterricht (Language-Related and Information-Related Communication in Teaching English)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Colin; Butzkamm, Wolfgang

    1977-01-01

    "Language-related" refers mainly to teacher-guided communication, aimed at revealing the progress of language learning. "Information-related" communication, a two-way process, refers to all other speech intentions. Suggestions are given for stimulating spontaneous use of information-related materials. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  7. Distributed output regulation for linear multi-agent systems with communication delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lu; Wang, Jinzhi

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a distributed output regulation approach is presented for the cooperative control of linear multi-agent systems in the presence of communication delays. Both dynamic state and output feedback control laws are designed for achieving the property of output regulation. Sufficient conditions for the existence of these control laws are provided in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Simulation results are given to support the efficiency of the proposed distributed output regulation approach.

  8. Consensus seeking in a network of discrete-time linear agents with communication noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunpeng; Cheng, Long; Hou, Zeng-Guang; Tan, Min; Zhou, Chao; Wang, Ming

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the mean square consensus of discrete-time linear time-invariant multi-agent systems with communication noises. A distributed consensus protocol, which is composed of the agent's own state feedback and the relative states between the agent and its neighbours, is proposed. A time-varying consensus gain a[k] is applied to attenuate the effect of noises which inherits in the inaccurate measurement of relative states with neighbours. A polynomial, namely 'parameter polynomial', is constructed. And its coefficients are the parameters in the feedback gain vector of the proposed protocol. It turns out that the parameter polynomial plays an important role in guaranteeing the consensus of linear multi-agent systems. By the proposed protocol, necessary and sufficient conditions for mean square consensus are presented under different topology conditions: (1) if the communication topology graph has a spanning tree and every node in the graph has at least one parent node, then the mean square consensus can be achieved if and only if ∑∞k = 0a[k] = ∞, ∑∞k = 0a2[k] < ∞ and all roots of the parameter polynomial are in the unit circle; (2) if the communication topology graph has a spanning tree and there exits one node without any parent node (the leader-follower case), then the mean square consensus can be achieved if and only if ∑∞k = 0a[k] = ∞, limk → ∞a[k] = 0 and all roots of the parameter polynomial are in the unit circle; (3) if the communication topology graph does not have a spanning tree, then the mean square consensus can never be achieved. Finally, one simulation example on the multiple aircrafts system is provided to validate the theoretical analysis.

  9. Applying technology to visually support language and communication in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Shane, Howard C; Laubscher, Emily H; Schlosser, Ralf W; Flynn, Suzanne; Sorce, James F; Abramson, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    The burgeoning role of technology in society has provided opportunities for the development of new means of communication for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This paper offers an organizational framework for describing traditional and emerging augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technology, and highlights how tools within this framework can support a visual approach to everyday communication and improve language instruction. The growing adoption of handheld media devices along with applications acquired via a consumer-oriented delivery model suggests a potential paradigm shift in AAC for people with ASD.

  10. The Relationship between Traditional English Grammar Teaching and Communicative Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhong-guo; Song, Min-yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the functions of the traditional English grammar teaching and the communicative language teaching. Through analysis and practice, we think that they are not opposed to each other. In order to improve the students' ability and gain better teaching results, the two kinds of teaching approaches should not be used respectively.…

  11. Investigating Situational Willingness to Communicate within Second Language Classrooms from an Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian

    2011-01-01

    Previous research into willingness to communicate (WTC) in L2 has focused primarily on its trait dispositions that remain stable across contexts and its situated nature is under explored. Framed with an ecological perspective on second language learning, this multiple case study investigated the dynamic and situated nature of WTC in second…

  12. Enhancing the Speech and Language Development of Communicatively Disordered Children through Music and Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Katherine

    The paper examines the suprasegmental aspects of speech and focuses on the benefits of music and movement to facilitate language development in handicapped children. The paper discusses the current thinking of suprasegmental functions of intonation, stress, and rhythm as the foundation for the organization of speech communication. Strategies for…

  13. Can Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Help Beginning-Level Foreign Language Learners Speak?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Chao-Jung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that initial-level learners may acquire oral skills through synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Twelve Taiwanese French as a foreign language (FFL) students, divided into three groups, were required to conduct a variety of tasks in one of the three learning environments (video/audio, audio,…

  14. Procedural and Declarative Knowledge in Vocabulary Learning: Communication and the Language Learner's Lexicon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Peter J.

    A discussion of approaches for teaching foreign language vocabulary is based on the distinction between "declarative knowledge" of the meanings of words and the procedures used for achieving this declarative knowledge. These procedures form part of individuals' knowledge of how to negotiate meaning. It is proposed that a communicative view of the…

  15. Communicative Competence and Beliefs about Language among Graduate Teaching Assistants in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Cynthia A.

    1993-01-01

    Some 147 teaching assistants responded to the Survey of First Year Graduate Teaching Assistants in French, part of which focused on handling typical student questions on grammar. Analysis suggests that TAs do not conceptualize language according to the model of communicative competence proposed by Canale and Swain. (36 references) (LB)

  16. Making Intercultural Communicative Competence and Identity-Development Visible for Assessment Purposes in Foreign Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephanie Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an action research case study conducted at a university in Japan, which explored how student identity-development can be made visible in potentially assessable ways through materials design in intercultural communicative competence (ICC)-oriented foreign language education. It suggests that identity-development can be…

  17. Intercultural Communicative Competence Development during and after Language Study Abroad: Insights from Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the development and maintenance of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) among 352 American learners of Arabic who completed summer intensive language programs in five Arab countries. Data were collected through a survey that was based on the 2007 draft of the Culture Proficiency Guidelines (Lampe, 2007; later adopted by…

  18. Mutually Beneficial Foreign Language Learning: Creating Meaningful Interactions through Video-Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Fumie; Spring, Ryan; Mori, Chikako

    2016-01-01

    Providing learners of a foreign language with meaningful opportunities for interactions, specifically with native speakers, is especially challenging for instructors. One way to overcome this obstacle is through video-synchronous computer-mediated communication tools such as Skype software. This study reports quantitative and qualitative data from…

  19. Exploring the Effects of Communication Intervention for Developmental Pragmatic Language Impairments: A Signal-Generation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Catherine; Lloyd, Julian; Aldred, Catherine; Baxendale, Janet

    2006-01-01

    Background: The remediation of pragmatic problems forms a significant part of the caseload for professionals working with children with communication problems. There is little systematic evidence that demonstrates the benefits of speech and language therapy for children whose difficulties lie primarily within the pragmatic domain or which…

  20. Communicative Discourse in Second Language Classrooms: From Building Skills to Becoming Skillful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of the communicative discourse is a natural process that requires an application of a wide range of skills and strategies. In particular, linguistic discourse and the interaction process have a huge impact on promoting literacy and academic skills in all students especially English language learners (ELLs). Using interactive…

  1. Impact of Chromosome 4p- Syndrome on Communication and Expressive Language Skills: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Althea T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of Chromosome 4p- syndrome on the communication and expressive language phenotype of a large cross-cultural population of children, adolescents, and adults. Method: A large-scale survey study was conducted and a descriptive research design was used to analyze quantitative and…

  2. Language Arts in the Elementary Schools, EEL-402 Communication Skills; Revised Fall Quarter, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Zola Jiles

    In order that the teacher trainee may gain knowledge, skills, and proficiency in the communication skills instruction of elementary school children, this handbook of modules focuses on five major areas of the language arts--listening, speaking, reading, writing, and dramatizing. Eight modules are included: "Overview, Interrelationship, and…

  3. Using Webquests for Oral Communication in English as a Foreign Language for Tourism Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2009-01-01

    A long-standing debate in native and foreign language learning revolves around the use of computers to promote genuine social and professional communication. Webquests are a very common way of using Web resources to research a variety of topics, and if appropriately used can trigger the situations necessary to develop both written and oral…

  4. An Ethnographic Study of a Key-Pal Project: Learning a Foreign Language through Bilingual Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edasawa, Yasuyo; Kabata, Kaori

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a cross-cultural bilingual communication project on students' second language learning. A collaborative key-pal project was conducted between Japanese university students learning English and Canadian university students learning Japanese. Ethnographic data were collected from the students' exchanged messages…

  5. A Social Communication Intervention to Increase Validating Comments by Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie; McCleave, Chelsea P.; Anderson, Valyne W.; Chamberlain, Janet P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Four children identified with language impairment (LI) participated in a social communication intervention to increase the production of validating comments, including making positive statements, sharing information, and asking peers questions about themselves. Method: A case study design was used. Baseline measures were collected from 3…

  6. Double Mapping in Metaphorical Expressions of Thought and Communication in Catalan Sign Language (LSC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarque, Maria-Josep

    2005-01-01

    This document illustrates that mental functioning and communication in Catalan Sign Language (LSC) are conceptual through metaphorical projection of bodily experiences. The data in this document show how concepts are grasped, put on student's heads, exchanged, manipulated, and so on, constituting instantiations of the basic metaphors: ideas are…

  7. Effect of Alternative and Augmentative Communication on Language and Social Behavior of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lal, Rubina

    2010-01-01

    Teaching children with autism is a challenging task for educators and parents, as the children display marked deficits in language and social behaviors. One of the major goals of an intervention program for children with autism is to provide them a method of functional communication and ample opportunities to practice these skills. For some…

  8. Female Incarcerated Adolescents with Language Problems Talk about Their Own Communication Behaviors and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Dixie; Moore-Brown, Barbara J.; Montgomery, Judy; Rezac, Cynthia; Keller, Harold

    2003-01-01

    Qualitative methodology was used to explore communication behaviors of 13 female adolescents with language problems residing in a correctional facility. Most participants expressed feeling dumb, disliked by friends, put down in school, and having trouble understanding jokes, and problems related to understanding the vocabulary in their texts used…

  9. The Application of Natural Language Processing to Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, D. Jeffery; Lesher, Gregory W.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Roark, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the application of natural language processing (NLP) to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), particularly in the areas of interface design and word prediction. This article will survey the current state-of-the-science of NLP in AAC and discuss its future applications for the development of next…

  10. Podcasting to Provide Teaching and Learning Support for an Undergraduate Module on English Language and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edirisingha, Palitha; Rizzi, Chiara; Nie, Ming; Rothwell, Libby

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports findings from research into the benefits of integrating podcasts into a first year undergraduate module on English Language and Communication at Kingston University. As part of a Faculty teaching and learning support scheme for first year undergraduates, six podcasts were developed to improve students' learning and study skills…

  11. Music and Sign Language to Promote Infant and Toddler Communication and Enhance Parent-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Cynthia; Memmott, Jenny; Meeker-Miller, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using music and/or sign language to promote early communication in infants and toddlers (6-20 months) and to enhance parent-child interactions. Three groups used for this study were pairs of participants (care-giver(s) and child) assigned to each group: 1) Music Alone 2) Sign Language…

  12. Classroom Control through Manual Communication: The Use of Sign Language with Behaviorally Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Denise T.

    Sign language with verbal behaviorally disordered children is an alternative mode of communication for helping to maintain behavioral control. Also, fingerspelling is used to teach letter-sound association, particularly with vowels. The use of signs in the classroom reduces unnecessary conversation and expands on simple cues and signals most…

  13. Meeting the Needs of Children and Young People with Speech, Language and Communication Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie; Desforges, Martin; Law, James; Peacey, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Background: The UK government set up a review of provision for children and young people with the full range of speech, language and communication needs led by a Member of Parliament, John Bercow. A research study was commissioned to provide empirical evidence to inform the Bercow Review. Aims: To examine the efficiency and effectiveness of…

  14. Dynamic Emergence of Situational Willingness to Communicate in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Su-Ja

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study that shows how situational willingness to communicate (WTC) in a second language (L2) can dynamically emerge and fluctuate during a conversation situation. From inductive analysis of data from interviews, videotaped conversations, and stimulated recalls, it was found that situational WTC in L2 emerged…

  15. Willingness to Communicate and Language Learning Orientations in Iranian EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrinabadi, Nourollah; Abdi, Razieh

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) inside and outside the classroom and their language learning orientations. Sixty seven intermediate students (36 males and 31 females) who were majoring in English Literature and Translation at University of Isfahan during…

  16. Willingness to Communicate in the Language of the Other: Jewish and Arab Students in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Michal; Tahar, Limor

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and forty-three Jewish and Arab 6th grade children in Israel participated in this study, which explored several attitude dimensions and willingness to communicate (WTC) in the language of the other. Analysis of variance indicated differences between groups, with Arab children having in general more positive attitudes and higher WTC in…

  17. Using Narrative Language Intervention as a Tool To Increase Communicative Competence in Spanish-Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenbrodt, Lisa; Kerins, Marie; Gesell, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    Twelve Spanish-speaking school-aged children participated in an 8-week pretest/posttest design investigation targeting improvement of their communicative competence through a narrative intervention program. Also examined the efficacy of providing an intervention in the children's native language. Findings revealed that use of a narrative…

  18. Formulaic Language as a Barrier to Effective Communication with People with Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Carers recognize that the linguistic problems associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be detrimental to effective communication, but they are often not sure what they can do to help. This article examines the use of formulaic language in AD, including routines, repetitions, and fillers, through the lens of a model of how cognitive and social…

  19. The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching: The King Is Dead! Long Live the King!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to argue that though the Communicative Approach to Language teaching in its original sense has long been theoretically dead, it has for an almost equally long time at least potentially existed in a new form, and continues to thrive. By no means here for the first time is this sort of proposal made, but what remains to…

  20. Foreign Language Professional Communicative Competence as a Component of the Academic Science Teacher's Professional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeeva, Roza A.; Baykova, Olga V.; Kusainov, Askarbek K.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the problem raised in the article is explained by the increasing demand for qualified specialists who have a good command of a foreign language. The communicative competence of an academic science teacher under the conditions of international cooperation development is of great importance. The article discusses the problem of…

  1. Communication and Behavior: Collaboration between Speech-Language Pathologists and Behavioral Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylvisaker, Mark; Feeney, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents an intervention framework in which speech-language pathologists and behavioral psychologists view the challenging behaviors of individuals with traumatic brain injury from a communication perspective and address these problems in a way that is positive, integrated, functional, collaborative, and environmental. (Author/JDD)

  2. Interpretive Structural Modeling of MLearning Curriculum Implementation Model of English Language Communication Skills for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim; Siraj, Saedah; Asra; Hussin, Zaharah

    2014-01-01

    In the field of distance education, learning mediated through mobile technology or mobile learning (mLearning) has rapidly building a repertoire of influence in distance education research. This paper aims to propose an mLearning curriculum implementation model for English Language and Communication skills course among undergraduates using…

  3. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Multidimensional Scale of Willingness to Communicate in a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghaei, Purya

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to develop and validate a multidimensional scale of willingness to communicate in a foreign language. Multidimensional random coefficient multinomial logit model was employed to analyze the scale. Likelihood deviance test and information criteria showed that a three-dimensional model fits significantly better than a two-dimensional…

  4. Communication between Early Educators and Parents Who Speak English as a Second Language: A Semantic and Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ro, Yeonsun Ellie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we discuss communication between early educators speaking their native language and parents who speak English as a second language. Parents who may have a limited proficiency in the second language face challenges to understanding semantic and pragmatic aspects of English. Actual early childhood conference talk in which parents…

  5. Adult English Language Learners' Perceptions of Audience Response Systems (Clickers) as Communication Aides: A Q-Methodology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Lisa Ann; Shepard, MaryFriend

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of adult English language learners about audience response systems (clickers) as tools to facilitate communication. According to second language acquisition theory, learners' receptive capabilities in the early stages of second language acquisition surpass expressive capabilities, often rendering them silent in…

  6. Finite interval tracking algorithm for nonlinear multi-agent systems with communication delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lijing; Chai, Senchun; Zhang, Baihai; Li, Xiangshun; Kiong Nguang, Sing

    2016-11-01

    We propose an iterative learning control (ILC) tracking strategy to solve the tracking problem of multi-agent systems with nonlinear dynamics and time-varying communication delays. The distributed tracking strategy, in which each tracking agent only utilises its own and neighbours' information, enables the tracking agents successfully track a maneuvering target in a finite time interval although with presence of time delays. Compared with the existing related work, the quantitative relationship between the boundary of tracking errors and the estimation of time delays is derived. Furthermore, in many practical control problems, identical initialisation condition may not be satisfied, which is called initial-shift problem. Hence, a forgetting factor is introduced to deal with that problem. It is proved that the presented results are effective via conducting numerical examples.

  7. Microblogging for Language Learning: Using Twitter to Train Communicative and Cultural Competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borau, Kerstin; Ullrich, Carsten; Feng, Jinjin; Shen, Ruimin

    Our work analyzes the usefulness of microblogging in second language learning using the example of the social network Twitter. Most learners of English do not require even more passive input in form of texts, lectures or videos, etc. This input is readily available in numerous forms on the Internet. What learners of English need is the chance to actively produce language and the chance to use English as tool of communication. This calls for instructional methods and tools promoting ‘active’ learning that present opportunities for students to express themselves and interact in the target language. In this paper we describe how we used Twitter with students of English at the Distant College of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. We analyze the students’ messages and show how the usage of Twitter trained communicative and cultural competence.

  8. Autism, Language Disorder, and Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder: DSM-V and Differential Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Simms, Mark D; Jin, Xing Ming

    2015-08-01

    • Based on strong research evidence (1), the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased over the past decade, with a 2010 prevalence of 1:68 (1.5%) in children age 8 years. • Based on some research evidence as well as consensus (3), the most recent revision of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) identifies two core dimensions for the diagnosis of ASD: social (social communication and social interaction) and nonsocial (restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities). • Based on some research evidence as well as consensus (3) (31) (32) (33) (34), DSM-V identifies social pragmatic communication disorder (SPCD) as a dissociable dimension of language and communication ability that affects how individuals use language for social exchanges. SPCD is often found in children with language impairments and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other genetic/neurologic conditions. • Based on strong research evidence (2) (26) (27) (28), childhood language disorders affect 7.4% of kindergarteners, and 50% to 80% of these children experience persistent language, academic, and social-emotional difficulties into their adult years, despite having normal nonverbal cognitive abilities. • Based primarily on consensus due to lack of relevant clinical studies, differential diagnosis of autism and language disorders may require a multidisciplinary evaluation that takes into account a child’s overall development, including cognitive, communication, and social abilities. Monitoring the response to appropriate interventions and trajectory of development over time may improve the accuracy of diagnosis, especially in very young children.

  9. Autism, Language Disorder, and Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder: DSM-V and Differential Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Simms, Mark D; Jin, Xing Ming

    2015-08-01

    • Based on strong research evidence (1), the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased over the past decade, with a 2010 prevalence of 1:68 (1.5%) in children age 8 years. • Based on some research evidence as well as consensus (3), the most recent revision of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) identifies two core dimensions for the diagnosis of ASD: social (social communication and social interaction) and nonsocial (restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities). • Based on some research evidence as well as consensus (3) (31) (32) (33) (34), DSM-V identifies social pragmatic communication disorder (SPCD) as a dissociable dimension of language and communication ability that affects how individuals use language for social exchanges. SPCD is often found in children with language impairments and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other genetic/neurologic conditions. • Based on strong research evidence (2) (26) (27) (28), childhood language disorders affect 7.4% of kindergarteners, and 50% to 80% of these children experience persistent language, academic, and social-emotional difficulties into their adult years, despite having normal nonverbal cognitive abilities. • Based primarily on consensus due to lack of relevant clinical studies, differential diagnosis of autism and language disorders may require a multidisciplinary evaluation that takes into account a child’s overall development, including cognitive, communication, and social abilities. Monitoring the response to appropriate interventions and trajectory of development over time may improve the accuracy of diagnosis, especially in very young children. PMID:26232465

  10. Central projections of sensory systems involved in honey bee dance language communication.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Axel; Robinson, Gene E

    2007-01-01

    Honey bee dance language is a unique and complex form of animal communication used to inform nest mates in the colony about the specific location of food sources or new nest sites. Five different sensory systems have been implicated in acquiring and communicating the information necessary for dance language communication. We present results from neuronal tracer studies identifying the central projections from four of the five. Sensory neurons of the dorsal rim area of the compound eyes, involved in acquiring sun-compass based information, project to the dorsal-most part of the medulla. Sensory neurons of the neck hair plates, required to transpose sun-compass based information to gravity-based information in the dark hive, project to the dorsal labial neuromere of the subesophageal ganglion. Sensory neurons from the antennal joint hair sensilla and the Johnston's organ, which perceive information on dance direction and distance from mechanostimuli generated by abdomen waggling and wing vibration, project to the deutocerebral dorsal lobe and the subesophageal ganglion, and the posterior protocerebrum, respectively. We found no 'dance-specific' projections relative to those previously described for drone and queen honey bees and other insect species that do not exhibit dance communication. We suggest that the evolution of dance language communication was likely based on the modification of central neural pathways associated with path integration, the capability to calculate distance, and directional information during flight.

  11. Communicative competence in parents of children with autism and parents of children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Ruser, Tilla F; Arin, Deborah; Dowd, Michael; Putnam, Sara; Winklosky, Brian; Rosen-Sheidley, Beth; Piven, Joseph; Tomblin, Bruce; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan

    2007-08-01

    While the primary language deficit in autism has been thought to be pragmatic, and in specific language impairment (SLI) structural, recent research suggests phenomenological and possibly genetic overlap between the two syndromes. To compare communicative competence in parents of children with autism, SLI, and down syndrome (DS), we used a modified pragmatic rating scale (PRS-M). Videotapes of conversational interviews with 47 autism, 47 SLI, and 21 DS parents were scored blind to group membership. Autism and SLI parents had significantly lower communication abilities than DS parents. Fifteen percent of the autism and SLI parents showed severe deficits. Our results suggest that impaired communication is part of the broader autism phenotype and a broader SLI phenotype, especially among male family members.

  12. Are Languages Digital Codes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    Language use is commonly understood to involve digital signalling, which imposes certain constraints and restrictions on linguistic communication. Two papers by Ross [Ross, D., 2004. "Metalinguistic signalling for coordination amongst social agents." "Language Sciences" 26, 621-642; Ross, D., this issue. "'H. sapiens' as ecologically special: what…

  13. Early Communicative Gestures Prospectively Predict Language Development and Executive Function in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Laura J.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Wilbourn, Makeba Parramore; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Blair, Clancy B.

    2014-01-01

    Using an epidemiological sample (N =1117) and a prospective longitudinal design, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of preverbal and verbal communication (15 months to 3 years) on EF at age 4 years. Results indicated that whereas gestures (15 months), as well as language (2 and 3 years) were correlated with later EF (φs >= .44), the effect was entirely mediated through later language. In contrast, language had significant direct and indirect effects on later EF. Exploratory analyses indicated that the pattern of results was comparable for low and not-low income families. The results were consistent with theoretical accounts of language as a precursor of EF ability, and highlighted gesture as an early indicator of EF. PMID:24773289

  14. Communicating about quantity without a language model: Number devices in homesign grammar

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Marie; Spaepen, Elizabet; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    All natural languages have formal devices for communicating about number, be they lexical (e.g., two, many) or grammatical (e.g., plural markings on nouns and/or verbs). Here we ask whether linguistic devices for number arise in communication systems that have not been handed down from generation to generation. We examined deaf individuals who had not been exposed to a usable model of conventional language (signed or spoken), but had nevertheless developed their own gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. Study 1 examined four adult homesigners and a hearing communication partner for each homesigner. The adult homesigners produced two main types of number gestures: gestures that enumerated sets (cardinal number marking), and gestures that signaled one vs. more than one (non-cardinal number marking). Both types of gestures resembled, in form and function, number signs in established sign languages and, as such, were fully integrated into each homesigner's gesture system and, in this sense, linguistic. The number gestures produced by the homesigners’ hearing communication partners displayed some, but not all, of the homesigners’ linguistic patterns. To better understand the origins of the patterns displayed by the adult homesigners, Study 2 examined a child homesigner and his hearing mother, and found that the child's number gestures displayed all of the properties found in the adult homesigners’ gestures, but his mother's gestures did not. The findings suggest that number gestures and their linguistic use can appear relatively early in homesign development, and that hearing communication partners are not likely to be the source of homesigners’ linguistic expressions of non-cardinal number. Linguistic devices for number thus appear to be so fundamental to language that they can arise in the absence of conventional linguistic input. PMID:23872365

  15. Communicating about quantity without a language model: number devices in homesign grammar.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Marie; Spaepen, Elizabet; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    All natural languages have formal devices for communicating about number, be they lexical (e.g., two, many) or grammatical (e.g., plural markings on nouns and/or verbs). Here we ask whether linguistic devices for number arise in communication systems that have not been handed down from generation to generation. We examined deaf individuals who had not been exposed to a usable model of conventional language (signed or spoken), but had nevertheless developed their own gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. Study 1 examined four adult homesigners and a hearing communication partner for each homesigner. The adult homesigners produced two main types of number gestures: gestures that enumerated sets (cardinal number marking), and gestures that signaled one vs. more than one (non-cardinal number marking). Both types of gestures resembled, in form and function, number signs in established sign languages and, as such, were fully integrated into each homesigner's gesture system and, in this sense, linguistic. The number gestures produced by the homesigners' hearing communication partners displayed some, but not all, of the homesigners' linguistic patterns. To better understand the origins of the patterns displayed by the adult homesigners, Study 2 examined a child homesigner and his hearing mother, and found that the child's number gestures displayed all of the properties found in the adult homesigners' gestures, but his mother's gestures did not. The findings suggest that number gestures and their linguistic use can appear relatively early in homesign development, and that hearing communication partners are not likely to be the source of homesigners' linguistic expressions of non-cardinal number. Linguistic devices for number thus appear to be so fundamental to language that they can arise in the absence of conventional linguistic input.

  16. Developmental pathways of language and social communication problems in 9-11 year olds: unpicking the heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Roy, P; Chiat, S

    2014-10-01

    This paper addressed relations between language, social communication and behaviour, and their trajectories, in a sample of 9-11-year-olds (n=91) who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language as pre-schoolers. Children were first assessed at 2½-4 years, and again 18 months later. Results revealed increasing differentiation of profiles across time. By 9-11 years, 11% of the sample had social communication deficits, 27% language impairment, 20% both, and 42% neither. The size of group differences on key language and social communication measures was striking (2-3 standard deviations). Social communication deficits included autistic mannerisms and were associated with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs); in contrast, language impairment was associated with hyperactivity only. Children with both language and social communication problems had the most severe difficulties on all measures. These distinct school-age profiles emerged gradually. Investigation of developmental trajectories revealed that the three impaired groups did not differ significantly on language or SEBD measures when the children were first seen. Only low performance on the Early Sociocognitive Battery, a new measure of social responsiveness, joint attention and symbolic understanding, differentiated the children with and without social communication problems at 9-11 years. These findings suggest that some children who first present with language delay or difficulties have undetected Autism Spectrum Disorders which may or may not be accompanied by language impairment in the longer term. This new evidence of developmental trajectories starting in the preschool years throws further light on the nature of social communication and language problems in school-age children, relations between language impairment and SEBDs, and on the nature of early language development.

  17. Gossip-Based Solutions for Discrete Rendezvous in Populations of Communicating Agents

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Christopher D.; Wu, Annie S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the rendezvous problem is to construct a method that enables a population of agents to agree on a spatial (and possibly temporal) meeting location. We introduce the buffered gossip algorithm as a general solution to the rendezvous problem in a discrete domain with direct communication between decentralized agents. We compare the performance of the buffered gossip algorithm against the well known uniform gossip algorithm. We believe that a buffered solution is preferable to an unbuffered solution, such as the uniform gossip algorithm, because the use of a buffer allows an agent to use multiple information sources when determining its desired rendezvous point, and that access to multiple information sources may improve agent decision making by reinforcing or contradicting an initial choice. To show that the buffered gossip algorithm is an actual solution for the rendezvous problem, we construct a theoretical proof of convergence and derive the conditions under which the buffered gossip algorithm is guaranteed to produce a consensus on rendezvous location. We use these results to verify that the uniform gossip algorithm also solves the rendezvous problem. We then use a multi-agent simulation to conduct a series of simulation experiments to compare the performance between the buffered and uniform gossip algorithms. Our results suggest that the buffered gossip algorithm can solve the rendezvous problem faster than the uniform gossip algorithm; however, the relative performance between these two solutions depends on the specific constraints of the problem and the parameters of the buffered gossip algorithm. PMID:25397882

  18. Neural Systems Language: A Formal Modeling Language for the Systematic Description, Unambiguous Communication, and Automated Digital Curation of Neural Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ramsay A.; Swanson, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL’s development. We explore NSyL’s potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases. PMID:23787962

  19. Neural systems language: a formal modeling language for the systematic description, unambiguous communication, and automated digital curation of neural connectivity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W

    2013-09-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL's development. We explore NSyL's potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases.

  20. Language in the Academy: Cultural Reflexivity and Intercultural Dynamics. Languages for Intercultural Communication and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joan

    2010-01-01

    This book takes a critical look at why issues of language in higher education are routinely marginalised, despite the growing internationalisation of universities. Through analyses of a variety of intercultural encounters, the book highlights the range of interpretative possibilities available for understanding these encounters, and suggests the…

  1. Sign Language as a Communication Prosthesis with Language-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantareas, M. Mary

    1984-01-01

    Results of a study involving 14 three- to 11-year-olds with language impairments revealed that, for both functor acquisition and functor recall, speech and sign training was superior to speech training. Type of functor trained was also important, with prepositions faring better than pronouns. (Author/CL)

  2. Papers in First Language Acquisition. Odense Working Papers in Language and Communication No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe, Ed.; Wagner, Johannes, Ed.

    This collection of papers is from a conference held at Odense University, Denmark on recent research in language acquisition in children. Following an introduction by the editors, it contains the following papers: "Development in a Connectionist Framework: Rethinking the Nature-Nurture Debate" (Kim Plunkett); "Experimental Evidence on the…

  3. Theoretical Tools in Modeling Communication and Language Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreto, Vittorio

    Statistical physics has proven to be a very fruitful framework to describe phenomena outside the realm of traditional physics. In social phenomena, the basic constituents are not particles but humans and every individual interacts with a limited number of peers, usually negligible compared to the total number of people in the system. In spite of that, human societies are characterized by stunning global regularities that naturally call for a statistical physics approach to social behavior, i.e., the attempt to understand regularities at large scale as collective effects of the interaction among single individuals, considered as relatively simple entities. This is the paradigm of Complex Systems: an assembly of many interacting (and simple) units whose collective behavior is not trivially deducible from the knowledge of the rules governing their mutual interactions. In this chapter we review the main theoretical concepts and tools that physics can borrow to socially-motivated problems. Despite their apparent diversity, most research lines in social dynamics are actually closely connected from the point of view of both the methodologies employed and, more importantly, of the general phenomenological questions, e.g., what are the fundamental interaction mechanisms leading to the emergence of consensus on an issue, a shared culture, a common language or a collective motion?

  4. Use of Communication Strategies by Tourism-Oriented EFL Learners in Relation to Gender and Perceived Language Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Tao; Intaraprasert, Channarong

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the relationship of gender, perceived language ability with communication strategy use by tourism-oriented EFL learners studying at the universities in the Southwest China to improve and maintain their oral communication in English. The Communication Strategy Questionnaire was used for data collection, and the…

  5. Peer Acceptance of Children with Language and Communication Impairments in a Mainstream Primary School: Associations with Type of Language Difficulty, Problem Behaviours and a Change in Placement Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Glynis; Bates, Geraldine; Feuerstein, Maike; Mason-Apps, Emily; White, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated peer acceptance of children with language and communication impairments attending a language resource base attached to a mainstream school. Compared to other children in their mainstream peer groups, peer acceptance was poor. Peer rejection was more common for children with profiles consistent with an autistic spectrum…

  6. An international perspective: supporting adolescents with speech, language, and communication needs in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Victoria

    2015-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the education system in the United Kingdom, with a particular focus on the secondary school context and supporting older children and young people with speech, language, and communication needs (SLCNs). Despite the pervasive nature of speech, language, and communication difficulties and their long-term impact on academic performance, mental health, and well-being, evidence suggests that there is limited support to older children and young people with SLCNs in the United Kingdom, relative to what is available in the early years. Focus in secondary schools is predominantly on literacy, with little attention to supporting oral language. The article provides a synopsis of the working practices of pediatric speech and language therapists working with adolescents in the United Kingdom and the type and level of speech and language therapy support provided for older children and young people with SLCNs in secondary and further education. Implications for the nature and type of specialist support to adolescents and adults with SLCNs are discussed.

  7. An international perspective: supporting adolescents with speech, language, and communication needs in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Victoria

    2015-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the education system in the United Kingdom, with a particular focus on the secondary school context and supporting older children and young people with speech, language, and communication needs (SLCNs). Despite the pervasive nature of speech, language, and communication difficulties and their long-term impact on academic performance, mental health, and well-being, evidence suggests that there is limited support to older children and young people with SLCNs in the United Kingdom, relative to what is available in the early years. Focus in secondary schools is predominantly on literacy, with little attention to supporting oral language. The article provides a synopsis of the working practices of pediatric speech and language therapists working with adolescents in the United Kingdom and the type and level of speech and language therapy support provided for older children and young people with SLCNs in secondary and further education. Implications for the nature and type of specialist support to adolescents and adults with SLCNs are discussed. PMID:25633146

  8. Comparison of language used and patterns of communication in interprofessional and multidisciplinary teams.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, D; Robertson, L; Ormond, T

    2007-02-01

    Can the language used and the patterns of communication differentiate a multidisciplinary team from an interprofessional team? This research question arose from an unexpected outcome of a study that investigated clinical reasoning of health professional team members in the elder care wards of two different hospitals. The issue at stake was the apparent disparity in the way in which the two teams communicated. To further explore this, the original transcribed interview data was analysed from a symbolic interactionist perspective in order that the language and communication patterns between the two teams could be identified and compared. Differences appeared to parallel the distinctions between multidisciplinary and interprofessional teams as reported in the literature. Our observations were that an interprofessional team was characterized by its use of inclusive language, continual sharing of information between team members and a collaborative working approach. In the multidisciplinary team, the members worked in parallel, drawing information from one another but did not have a common understanding of issues that could influence intervention. The implications of these communication differences for team members, team leaders and future research are then discussed.

  9. Containment control of multi-agent systems with unbounded communication delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Lam, James

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we address the containment control problem for multi-agent systems under heterogeneous unbounded communication delays with emphasis on the convergence rate analysis. Different from most works on multi-agent systems, we resort to a viewpoint from the area of positive delay systems. We first cast the containment control problem into the stability analysis of an associated error system. In order to capture the convergence rate, we introduce a nondecreasing positive function whose reciprocal represents the decay rate of the associated error system. Under the assumption that each follower has access to at least one leader and some mild hypotheses on the communication delays, an explicit condition is given to characterise the decay rate of the associated error system in terms of linear programming. In addition, we provide several special cases when the communication delays are restricted by linear, sublinear and logarithmic growth rates, respectively. Finally, through numerical examples, it is shown that the convergence rate is dominated by the delays being the highest order infinitely large quantity.

  10. Reducing Foreign Language Communication Apprehension with Computer-Mediated Communication: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Nike

    2007-01-01

    Many studies (e.g., [Beauvois, M.H., 1998. "E-talk: Computer-assisted classroom discussion--attitudes and motivation." In: Swaffar, J., Romano, S., Markley, P., Arens, K. (Eds.), "Language learning online: Theory and practice in the ESL and L2 computer classroom." Labyrinth Publications, Austin, TX, pp. 99-120; Bump, J., 1990. "Radical changes in…

  11. Anxiety about speaking a foreign language as a mediator of the relation between motivation and willingness to communicate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Pei; Lin, Huey-Ju

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether anxiety about speaking a foreign language mediated the relation between motivation and a willingness to communicate among 107 Taiwanese students sampled from two public universities and one private university. A regression analysis indicated that motivation was negatively related to university students' anxiety about speaking a foreign language and positively related to willingness to communicate. Furthermore, anxiety about speaking a foreign language was negatively related to university students' willingness to communicate, and also partially mediated the relationship between motivation and willingness to communicate. The findings suggest that high motivation and low anxiety about speaking a foreign language are needed for Taiwanese students to demonstrate a stronger willingness to communicate.

  12. Nurse-patient communication: language mastery and concept possession.

    PubMed

    Nordby, Halvor

    2006-03-01

    Influential holistic analyses of patient perspectives assume that the concepts that patients associate with medical terms are formed by their total social and cultural contexts. Holistic analyses presuppose conceptual role semantics in the sense that they imply that a medical term must have the same role for a nurse and a patient in order for them to associate the same concept with the term. In recent philosophy of mind, social externalism has emerged as a non-holistic alternative to conceptual role theories. According to social externalism, a nurse and a patient express the same concept by a term if they both have a minimal or better understanding of the term. Three arguments in favour of social externalism are presented in connection with nurse-patient interaction. The first concerns successful communication, the second focuses on belief reports made by patients and the third centres on the need for including medical terms in medical discourse. Finally, the practical implications of the arguments are clarified. The most important of these is that, in cases of misunderstanding, a nurse should not conform to a patient's idiosyncratic understanding, but instead correct the mistaken applications of the term in question.

  13. A Cognitive Neural Architecture Able to Learn and Communicate through Natural Language

    PubMed Central

    Golosio, Bruno; Cangelosi, Angelo; Gamotina, Olesya; Masala, Giovanni Luca

    2015-01-01

    Communicative interactions involve a kind of procedural knowledge that is used by the human brain for processing verbal and nonverbal inputs and for language production. Although considerable work has been done on modeling human language abilities, it has been difficult to bring them together to a comprehensive tabula rasa system compatible with current knowledge of how verbal information is processed in the brain. This work presents a cognitive system, entirely based on a large-scale neural architecture, which was developed to shed light on the procedural knowledge involved in language elaboration. The main component of this system is the central executive, which is a supervising system that coordinates the other components of the working memory. In our model, the central executive is a neural network that takes as input the neural activation states of the short-term memory and yields as output mental actions, which control the flow of information among the working memory components through neural gating mechanisms. The proposed system is capable of learning to communicate through natural language starting from tabula rasa, without any a priori knowledge of the structure of phrases, meaning of words, role of the different classes of words, only by interacting with a human through a text-based interface, using an open-ended incremental learning process. It is able to learn nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns and other word classes, and to use them in expressive language. The model was validated on a corpus of 1587 input sentences, based on literature on early language assessment, at the level of about 4-years old child, and produced 521 output sentences, expressing a broad range of language processing functionalities. PMID:26560154

  14. Speech Acts across Cultures: Challenges to Communication in a Second Language. Studies on Language Acquisition, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Neu, Joyce, Ed.

    Articles on speech acts and intercultural communication include: "Investigating the Production of Speech Act Sets" (Andrew Cohen); "Non-Native Refusals: A Methodological Perspective" (Noel Houck, Susan M. Gass); "Natural Speech Act Data versus Written Questionnaire Data: How Data Collection Method Affects Speech Act Performance" (Leslie M. Beebe,…

  15. Social Communication Disorder outside Autism? A Diagnostic Classification Approach to Delineating Pragmatic Language Impairment, High Functioning Autism and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Green, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental disorders of language and communication present considerable diagnostic challenges due to overlapping of symptomatology and uncertain aetiology. We aimed to further elucidate the behavioural and linguistic profile associated with impairments of social communication occurring outside of an autism diagnosis. Methods: Six to…

  16. Toward Free Conversation and Communication in the Foreign Language Classroom: Supplement to Video-Tape Inservice Program on Teaching Second Languages. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knop, Constance K.

    This supplement contains an additional audiotape lesson aimed mainly at teachers of English as a second language (ESL) working with Indochinese refugee children. The goal of free conversation and communication in the classroom is explicated under the following headings: (1) making drills more meaningful and communicative, (2) using large-group…

  17. Learning To Communicate About Science In Everyday Language Through Informal Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, Laurel M.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2009-11-01

    The University of Colorado's Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC) program, in which university students participate in classroom and after school science activities with local precollege children, seeks to develop children's interest, identity and abilities in science, while simultaneously developing university participant's interest and understanding in education and their abilities to communicate about science. The Communication in Everyday Language Assessment (CELA) component of our assessment suite has been used to evaluate university student teaching in these informal educational settings. We find significant positive gains a result of participating in the PISEC program.

  18. Selecting a response form for nonverbal persons: Facilitated communication, pointing systems, or sign language?

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    1993-01-01

    The three major types of augmentative communication for nonverbal persons consist of writing (or typing), pointing, and signing. These alternative response forms are examined in terms of their advantages and disadvantages for establishing effective verbal behavior. In addition, these systems are examined using the concepts from Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior (i.e., mand, tact, intraverbal, and autoclitic). The results of this analysis show that sign language has the most advantages and the fewest disadvantages, and more closely parallels speech in terms of the verbal operants. Although, the current trend is to favor facilitated communication (typing) and pointing systems, both of these response forms have several disadvantages that impede the development of the verbal operants. It is suggested that for many nonverbal individuals sign language is a better alternative response form, and has a better chance of improving speech. PMID:22477084

  19. Expression dramaturgique: "Quand le prof' de langue devient animateur en expression et en communication!" (Dramatic Expression: "When the Language Prof Becomes the Inspiration for Expression and Communication!")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhendler, Daniel

    1983-01-01

    Techniques of classroom role playing that promote student involvement and bring language to life are outlined and discussed, including principles of drama and communication, techniques of theatrical production, and group dynamics. Use is recommended in conventional introductory courses, advanced courses where communication is emphasized, and…

  20. Contrast of Hand Preferences between Communicative Gestures and Non-Communicative Actions in Baboons: Implications for the Origins of Hemispheric Specialization for Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meguerditchian, Adrien; Vauclair, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Gestural communication is a modality considered in the literature as a candidate for determining the ancestral prerequisites of the emergence of human language. As reported in captive chimpanzees and human children, a study in captive baboons revealed that a communicative gesture elicits stronger degree of right-hand bias than non-communicative…

  1. Early Communicative Gestures Prospectively Predict Language Development and Executive Function in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Laura J.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Wilbourn, Makeba Parramore; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Blair, Clancy B.

    2014-01-01

    Using an epidemiological sample (N = 1,117) and a prospective longitudinal design, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of preverbal and verbal communication (15 months to 3 years) on executive function (EF) at age 4 years. Results indicated that whereas gestures (15 months), as well as language (2 and 3 years), were correlated with…

  2. Emotional and Interactional Prosody across Animal Communication Systems: A Comparative Approach to the Emergence of Language

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, Piera

    2016-01-01

    Across a wide range of animal taxa, prosodic modulation of the voice can express emotional information and is used to coordinate vocal interactions between multiple individuals. Within a comparative approach to animal communication systems, I hypothesize that the ability for emotional and interactional prosody (EIP) paved the way for the evolution of linguistic prosody – and perhaps also of music, continuing to play a vital role in the acquisition of language. In support of this hypothesis, I review three research fields: (i) empirical studies on the adaptive value of EIP in non-human primates, mammals, songbirds, anurans, and insects; (ii) the beneficial effects of EIP in scaffolding language learning and social development in human infants; (iii) the cognitive relationship between linguistic prosody and the ability for music, which has often been identified as the evolutionary precursor of language. PMID:27733835

  3. Le langage dans les communications sociales quotidiennes: quelques perspectives actuelles (Language Use in Daily Social Communications: Some Current Perspectives).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachmann, Christian

    1980-01-01

    Common language usage is considered from four perspectives: "situational" linguistics and language, "natural language," linguistic interdisciplinarity with the social sciences, and common language as a "social technology," or subject of pedagogy. (MSE)

  4. Perceptions of Gender and Femininity Based on Language: Implications for Transgender Communication Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Stutts, Holly Wilder; Bass, Annie

    2015-09-01

    Recent research presents a picture of diminishing gender differences in language. Two experiments examined whether language use can predict perceptions of gender and femininity; one included male and female speakers telling a personal narrative, the other also included male-to-female transgender speakers and analyzed an oral picture description. In each experiment, raters read transcribed samples before judging the gender and rating the femininity of the speaker. Only number of T-units, words per T-unit, dependent clauses per T-unit, and personal pronouns per T-unit emerged as different between gender groups. As none of the variables were strongly correlated with perceptual judgments, regression analysis was used to determine how combinations of linguistic variables predict female/feminine ratings. Results from these two studies demonstrate that gender-related differences in language use for these two contexts are limited, and that any relationship of language to perceptions of gender and femininity is complex and multivariate. This information calls into question the utility of training key language features in transgender communication therapy. PMID:26529899

  5. Perceptions of Gender and Femininity Based on Language: Implications for Transgender Communication Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Stutts, Holly Wilder; Bass, Annie

    2015-09-01

    Recent research presents a picture of diminishing gender differences in language. Two experiments examined whether language use can predict perceptions of gender and femininity; one included male and female speakers telling a personal narrative, the other also included male-to-female transgender speakers and analyzed an oral picture description. In each experiment, raters read transcribed samples before judging the gender and rating the femininity of the speaker. Only number of T-units, words per T-unit, dependent clauses per T-unit, and personal pronouns per T-unit emerged as different between gender groups. As none of the variables were strongly correlated with perceptual judgments, regression analysis was used to determine how combinations of linguistic variables predict female/feminine ratings. Results from these two studies demonstrate that gender-related differences in language use for these two contexts are limited, and that any relationship of language to perceptions of gender and femininity is complex and multivariate. This information calls into question the utility of training key language features in transgender communication therapy.

  6. The Interplay of the Global and the Local in English Language Learning and Electronic Communication Discourses and Practices in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsikopoulou, Bessie

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes dominant discourses and practices which permeate English language learning and information and communication technologies (ICT). Through the adoption of a critical discourse analytic perspective, and drawing on New Literacy Studies research, it discusses how English language learning and ICT practices have come to take…

  7. National Literacy Trust Survey in Partnership with Nursery World: Investigating Communication, Language and Literacy Development in the Early Years Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halden, Amanda; Clark, Christina; Lewis, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    In May 2011 "Nursery World" and the National Literacy Trust launched its language development survey to celebrate Hello; the national year of communication. The National Literacy Trust teamed up with "Nursery World" to carry out research into the sector's support for children's language and literacy development. Two hundred twenty one early years…

  8. Mind and Material: The Interplay between Computer-Related and Second Language Factors in Online Communication Dialogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pin-hsiang Natalie; Kawamura, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    With a growing demand for learning English and a trend of utilizing computers in education, methods that can achieve the effectiveness of computer-mediated communication (CMC) to support language learning in higher education have been examined. However, second language factors manipulate both the process and production of CMC and, therefore,…

  9. Identifying the Challenges and Opportunities to Meet the Needs of Children with Speech, Language and Communication Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockrell, Julie E.; Howell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The views of experienced educational practitioners were examined with respect to the terminology used to describe children with speech, language and communication needs (SLCN), associated problems and the impact of speech and language difficulties in the classroom. Results showed that education staff continue to experience challenges with the…

  10. Using Information and Communication Technologies to Motivate Young Learners to Practice English as a Foreign Language in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diakou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are continuously evolving and when integrated appropriately these can facilitate foreign language learning classes. Connecting the curriculum to real world tasks in this way prepares "learners for the challenge of coping with the language they hear and read in the real world outside the…

  11. Pragmatic Aspects of Communication and Language Comprehension in Groups of Children Differentiated by Teacher Ratings of Inattention and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bignell, Simon; Cain, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience pragmatic language deficits, but it is not known whether these difficulties are primarily associated with high levels of inattention, hyperactivity, or both. We investigated pragmatic aspects of communication and language comprehension in relation to poor attention and/or…

  12. Project Activities as a Form of English Language Teaching Based on the Interdisciplinary Approach to Form Intercultural Communicative Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redchenko, Nadezhda N.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article suggest a thesis about the purpose of teaching a foreign language--it is student's communicative activities, i.e. learning a foreign language in practice. The teacher's task is to encourage activities of every student and to create situations to develop their creative activities in a learning process. New information…

  13. Communication, Listening, Cognitive and Speech Perception Skills in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Riley, Alison; Moore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Parental reports of communication, listening, and behavior in children receiving a clinical diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) or auditory processing disorder (APD) were compared with direct tests of intelligence, memory, language, phonology, literacy, and speech intelligibility. The primary aim was to identify whether there…

  14. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  15. Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL): A New Measure for Spontaneous and Expressive Language of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Communication Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Hyun; Junker, Dörte; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A new language measure, the Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL), is intended to document spontaneous use of syntax, pragmatics, and semantics in 2-12-year-old children with ASD and other communication disorders with expressive language levels comparable to typical 2-5 year olds. Because the purpose of the OSEL is to provide developmental norms for use of language, the first step involves assessment of the scale’s feasibility, validity, and reliability using a sample of 180 2-5 year-old typically developing children. Pilot data from the OSEL shows strong internal consistency, high reliabilities and validity. Once replicated with a large population-based sample and in special populations, the scale should be helpful in designing appropriate interventions for children with ASD and other communication disorders. PMID:25022249

  16. Bridge of Signs: Can Sign Language Empower Non-Deaf Children to Triumph over Their Communication Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This pilot research project examined the use of sign language as a communication bridge for non-Deaf children between the ages of 0-6 years who had been diagnosed with, or whose communication difficulties suggested, the presence of such disorders as Autism, Down Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), and/or learning disabilities.…

  17. Integrating the Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) in a Foreign Language Program: Faculty Considerations upon Leaving the Haven of Native Speakership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimas, Héctor Manuel Serna

    2016-01-01

    This action research study presents the perspectives of two language faculty who integrated the principles of the Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) model in their teaching. The professors shared their understanding of intercultural communicative competence through a learning log. These reflections were mainly about the challenged notion…

  18. Differential Associations between Sensory Response Patterns and Language, Social, and Communication Measures in Children with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Linda R.; Patten, Elena; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele; Boyd, Brian A.; Freuler, Ashley; Lorenzi, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine patterns of sensory responsiveness (i.e., hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and sensory seeking) as factors that may account for variability in social-communicative symptoms of autism and variability in language, social, and communication skill development in children with autism or other developmental disabilities…

  19. Language and Communication Research Problems. Proceedings of the Second Gallaudet Symposium on Research in Deafness. (October 30-31, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC.

    Presented are 22 papers given at a 1975 symposium on language and communication research problems with the deaf. Major papers have the following titles and authors: "Manual English--What We Know and What We'd Like to Know" (G. Gustason); "Communication with Foreign Deaf Signers--Attitudes, Experiences, and Observations" (R. Battison and K.…

  20. Speech and Language Therapists' Approaches to Communication Intervention with Children and Adults with Profound and Multiple Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbart, Juliet; Chadwick, Darren; Buell, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PMLD) have communication impairments as one defining characteristic. Aims: To explore speech and language therapists' (SLTs) decision making in communication interventions for people with PMLD, in terms of the intervention approaches used, the factors informing the…

  1. Hedges Used in Business Emails: A Corpus Study on the Language Strategy of International Business Communication Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Siwei; Wang, Xuefei

    2014-01-01

    Based on a corpus of 296 authentic business emails produced in computer-mediated business communication from 7 Chinese international trade enterprises, this paper addresses the language strategy applied in CMC (Computer-mediated Communication) by examining the use of hedges. With the emergence of internet, a wider range of hedges are applied…

  2. A Linguistic Perspective on Communication with Parents Who Speak English as a Second Language: Phonology, Morphology and Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ro, Yeonsun Ellie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we take a linguistic perspective to support effective communication between early educators and parents who speak English as a second language and may have limited English proficiency. Positive communication and partnerships are recognised as important for the education of young children. Because early educators may be unaware of…

  3. A Bioecological Framework to Evaluate Communicative Participation Outcomes for Preschoolers Receiving Speech-Language Therapy Interventions in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Barbara J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Preschool Speech and Language Program (PSLP) in Ontario, Canada, is a publicly funded intervention service for children from birth to 5 years with communication disorders. It has begun a population-level programme evaluation of children's communicative participation outcomes following therapy. Data are currently being collected for…

  4. Agent-patient similarity affects sentence structure in language production: evidence from subject omissions in Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yaling; Gao, Yannan; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2014-01-01

    Interference effects from semantically similar items are well-known in studies of single word production, where the presence of semantically similar distractor words slows picture naming. This article examines the consequences of this interference in sentence production and tests the hypothesis that in situations of high similarity-based interference, producers are more likely to omit one of the interfering elements than when there is low semantic similarity and thus low interference. This work investigated language production in Mandarin, which allows subject noun phrases to be omitted in discourse contexts in which the subject entity has been previously mentioned in the discourse. We hypothesize that Mandarin speakers omit the subject more often when the subject and the object entities are conceptually similar. A corpus analysis of simple transitive sentences found higher rates of subject omission when both the subject and object were animate (potentially yielding similarity-based interference) than when the subject was animate and object was inanimate. A second study manipulated subject-object animacy in a picture description task and replicated this result: participants omitted the animate subject more often when the object was also animate than when it was inanimate. These results suggest that similarity-based interference affects sentence forms, particularly when the agent of the action is mentioned in the sentence. Alternatives and mechanisms for this effect are discussed.

  5. Use of Relational Agents to Improve Family Communication in Type 1 Diabetes: Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Karen W; Redondo, Maria J; Anderson, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Physiological and environmental risk factors interact to undermine blood glucose control during early adolescence. This has been documented to be associated with family conflict and poor adherence to diabetes management tasks. Family Teamwork is an efficacious program demonstrated to enhance family communication and reduce conflict during this vulnerable period. It was designed to be delivered to families in-person, which limited reach and potential impact. Objective The purpose of this paper is to present the protocol for adapting Family Teamwork for Web-based delivery. Methods Formative research with health care providers, parents, and adolescents will help modify Family Teamwork for Web-based delivery by a relational agent (ie, a computerized character with human-like features and actions). Sessions will be interactive, requiring both parent and adolescent participation, with the relational agent serving as a health coach. After programming, usability testing will be conducted to help ensure the program is easy to use. Video and instructional materials will be developed to facilitate use, and a small pilot study will be conducted to assess feasibility. Families will provide written informed consent prior to participation in any phase of the study. The Institutional Review Board at Baylor College of Medicine reviewed and approved the protocol (H-37245). Results Formative research is underway. No results are available at this time. Conclusions This research has the potential to make an important contribution to diabetes management by using technology to enhance the reach of an efficacious program. PMID:27468762

  6. Language.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Noninvasive focal brain stimulation by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used extensively in the past 20 years to investigate normal language functions. The picture emerging from this collection of empirical works is that of several independent modular functions mapped on left-lateralized temporofrontal circuits originating dorsally or ventrally to the auditory cortex. The identification of sounds as language (i.e., phonological transformations) is modulated by TMS applied over the posterior-superior temporal cortex and over the caudal inferior frontal gyrus/ventral premotor cortex complex. Conversely, attribution of semantics to words is modulated successfully by applying TMS to the rostral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. Speech production is typically interfered with by TMS applied to the left inferior frontal gyrus, onto the same cortical areas that also contain phonological representations. The cortical mapping of grammatical functions has been investigated with TMS mainly regarding the category of verbs, which seem to be represented in the left middle frontal gyrus. Most TMS studies have investigated the cortical processing of single words or sublexical elements. Conversely, complex elements of language such as syntax have not been investigated extensively, although a few studies have indicated a left temporal, frontal, and parietal system also involving the neocerebellar cortex. Finally, both the perception and production of nonlinguistic communicative properties of speech, such as prosody, have been mapped by TMS in the peri-Silvian region of the right hemisphere. PMID:24112933

  7. Language Development of Individuals Who Require Aided Communication: Reflections on State of the Science and Future Research Directions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martine M

    2015-01-01

    Language acquisition theories differ in the importance they assign to production as a learning mechanism. This review summarizes some of the theoretical issues linked to this debate and considers their implications for children with severe speech and physical impairments. The unique aspects of the language-learning contexts of these children are explored. Drawing largely on papers published within the journal Augmentative and Alternative Communication, this review summarizes features of language development that have been described over the past 3 decades and considers how these findings might illuminate our understanding of language development across both spoken and aided modalities. Implications for assessment, intervention and for further research are suggested.

  8. SSBRP Communication & Data System Development using the Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the standard method for specifying, visualizing, and documenting the artifacts of an object-oriented system under development. UML is the unification of the object-oriented methods developed by Grady Booch and James Rumbaugh, and of the Use Case Model developed by Ivar Jacobson. This paper discusses the application of UML by the Communications and Data Systems (CDS) team to model the ground control and command of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) User Operations Facility (UOF). UML is used to define the context of the system, the logical static structure, the life history of objects, and the interactions among objects.

  9. On Interpretative Experiences: Unconcious-to-Unconcious Communication Through Reverie, Language, and the Setting.

    PubMed

    Quagelli, Luca; Solano, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Interpretation has been looked upon for decades as the analyst's central tool to promote transformation, and it was intended as a synonym for making the unconscious conscious. Nowadays, work with patients with unrepresented mental areas has become more common and the classical conceptualizations require broadening. Reflecting and retrieving the original acceptations of Freud's word Deutung, we suggest the existence of "unconscious-to-unconscious" communications that we shall call "interpretative experiences," which can promote transformation through nonverbal communicative modes, thus getting in touch with more primitive mental functioning. Drawing on case material, we discuss the transformative function of reverie, language, and the setting within the framework of the post-Kleinian and French psychoanalytic model. PMID:27042980

  10. Roles of publishers, subscription agents, and institutional subscribers in the academic journal business : Opinions after reading the “Series: Perspectives on serials crisis and scholarly communication practice”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Nobuyuki

    Roles of publishers, subscription agents, and institutional subscribers in the academic journal business : Opinions after reading the “Series: Perspectives on serials crisis and scholarly communication practice”

  11. Languaging as Agent and Constituent of Cognitive Change in an Older Adult: An Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Vygotsky's writings have established the critical importance of language in the development of higher mental functions, including memory and attention. One of the processes involved in this development is languaging, the activity of mediating cognitively complex ideas using language (Swain, 2006). The present study of an older adult with mild…

  12. Reducing interferences in wireless communication systems by mobile agents with recurrent neural networks-based adaptive channel equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beritelli, Francesco; Capizzi, Giacomo; Lo Sciuto, Grazia; Napoli, Christian; Tramontana, Emiliano; Woźniak, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    Solving channel equalization problem in communication systems is based on adaptive filtering algorithms. Today, Mobile Agents (MAs) with Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) can be also adopted for effective interference reduction in modern wireless communication systems (WCSs). In this paper MAs with RNNs are proposed as novel computing algorithms for reducing interferences in WCSs performing an adaptive channel equalization. The method to provide it is so called MAs-RNNs. We perform the implementation of this new paradigm for interferences reduction. Simulations results and evaluations demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach and as better transmission performance in wireless communication network can be achieved by using the MAs-RNNs based adaptive filtering algorithm.

  13. Communication and Language in Learners Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing With Disabilities: Theories, Research, and Practice.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Susan M; Borders, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Findings are presented from communication intervention research in three areas related to deafness with disability (DWD): D/deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) with (a) intellectual disability, (b) autism spectrum disorders, (c) deafblindness. Early identification, prevalence, theoretical perspectives, and evidence-based practices are discussed. Developmental theory, behavioral theory, and social-interactionism theory undergird many assessment and intervention practices in communication. The tri-focus framework and the four aspects of communication are useful frameworks. While communication research is a relative strength in the deafblindness field, a dire need exists for research in the other two DWD areas. Across all DWD areas there is a need for interventions addressing receptive language. Effective communication and language intervention can only occur when children who are DWD are identified early, placed in individually suitable classrooms with appropriately prepared professionals, and provided with services that build on their strengths and meet their needs.

  14. Communication and Language in Learners Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing With Disabilities: Theories, Research, and Practice.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Susan M; Borders, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Findings are presented from communication intervention research in three areas related to deafness with disability (DWD): D/deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) with (a) intellectual disability, (b) autism spectrum disorders, (c) deafblindness. Early identification, prevalence, theoretical perspectives, and evidence-based practices are discussed. Developmental theory, behavioral theory, and social-interactionism theory undergird many assessment and intervention practices in communication. The tri-focus framework and the four aspects of communication are useful frameworks. While communication research is a relative strength in the deafblindness field, a dire need exists for research in the other two DWD areas. Across all DWD areas there is a need for interventions addressing receptive language. Effective communication and language intervention can only occur when children who are DWD are identified early, placed in individually suitable classrooms with appropriately prepared professionals, and provided with services that build on their strengths and meet their needs. PMID:26497075

  15. A language based on analogy to communicate cultural concepts in SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musso, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is a synthesis of three presentation given by myself at the Toulouse IAC 2001 ( Analogy as a tool to communicate abstract concepts in SETI), the Bremen IAC 2003 ( From maths to culture: towards an effective message), and the Vancouver IAC 2004 ( Philosophical and religious implications of extraterrestrial intelligent life). Its aim is to find a way to make our cultural concepts understandable to hypothetical extraterrestrials (ETs) in a SETI communication. First of all, I expose the reasons why I think that analogy could be a good tool for this purpose. Then, I try to show that this is possible only in the context of an integrated language, using both abstract symbols and pictures, also sketching two practical examples about some basic concepts of our moral and religious tradition. Further studies are required to determine whether this method could be extended to the higher-level abstract concepts in the other fields of our culture. Finally, I discuss the possible role of mathematics, logic and natural science in the construction of an analogy-based language for interstellar messages with a cultural content and a possible way of managing this matter from a social point of view.

  16. Investigation of the Application of Communicative Language Teaching in the English Language Classroom -- A Case Study on Teachers' Attitudes in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to reveal whether teachers' classroom practices overlap with their attitudes towards certain features of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) such as pair and group-work activities, fluency and accuracy, error correction and the role of the teacher. Before conducting an open-ended questionnaire with two teachers of…

  17. Strategies for Foreign Language Teaching: Communication, Technology, Culture. Report of the Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (Chicago, Illinois, April 26-28, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Patricia B., Ed.; And Others

    The 13 selected papers included in this conference report are: "Achieving Curriculum Fit for That 'Horrible' Second Year" (Lorraine A. Strasheim); "Project Partnership: French Culture and Language in the Elementary School" (Susan Turner); "A Middle School Exploratory Course" (Kay Thorp); "Creative and Communicative Achievement Testing" (Barbara…

  18. Professional Roles and Responsibilities in Meeting the Needs of Children with Speech, Language and Communication Needs: Joint Working between Educational Psychologists and Speech and Language Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnellogue, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    There is a large population of children with speech, language and communication needs who have additional special educational needs (SEN). Whilst professional collaboration between education and health professionals is recommended to ensure an integrated delivery of statutory services for this population of children, formal frameworks should be…

  19. Language development at 18 months is related to multimodal communicative strategies at 12 months.

    PubMed

    Igualada, Alfonso; Bosch, Laura; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-05-01

    The present study investigated the degree to which an infants' use of simultaneous gesture-speech combinations during controlled social interactions predicts later language development. Nineteen infants participated in a declarative pointing task involving three different social conditions: two experimental conditions (a) available, when the adult was visually attending to the infant but did not attend to the object of reference jointly with the child, and (b) unavailable, when the adult was not visually attending to neither the infant nor the object; and (c) a baseline condition, when the adult jointly engaged with the infant's object of reference. At 12 months of age measures related to infants' speech-only productions, pointing-only gestures, and simultaneous pointing-speech combinations were obtained in each of the three social conditions. Each child's lexical and grammatical output was assessed at 18 months of age through parental report. Results revealed a significant interaction between social condition and type of communicative production. Specifically, only simultaneous pointing-speech combinations increased in frequency during the available condition compared to baseline, while no differences were found for speech-only and pointing-only productions. Moreover, simultaneous pointing-speech combinations in the available condition at 12 months positively correlated with lexical and grammatical development at 18 months of age. The ability to selectively use this multimodal communicative strategy to engage the adult in joint attention by drawing his attention toward an unseen event or object reveals 12-month-olds' clear understanding of referential cues that are relevant for language development. This strategy to successfully initiate and maintain joint attention is related to language development as it increases learning opportunities from social interactions.

  20. Psychometrics of shared decision making and communication as patient centered measures for two language groups.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Kiara; Wang, Ye; Alegria, Margarita; Ault-Brutus, Andrea; Ramanayake, Natasha; Yeh, Yi-Hui; Jeffries, Julia R; Shrout, Patrick E

    2016-09-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) and effective patient-provider communication are key and interrelated elements of patient-centered care that impact health and behavioral health outcomes. Measurement of SDM and communication from the patient's perspective is necessary in order to ensure that health care systems and individual providers are responsive to patient views. However, there is a void of research addressing the psychometric properties of these measures with diverse patients, including non-English speakers, and in the context of behavioral health encounters. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of 2 patient-centered outcome measures, the Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire-9 (SDM-Q) and the Kim Alliance Scale-Communication subscale (KAS-CM), in a sample of 239 English and Spanish-speaking behavioral health patients. One dominant factor was found for each scale and this structure was used to examine whether there was measurement invariance across the 2 language groups. One SDM-Q item was inconsistent with the configural invariance comparison and was removed. The remaining SDM-Q items exhibited strong invariance, meaning that item loadings and item means were similar across the 2 groups. The KAS-CM items had limited variability, with most respondents indicating high communication levels, and the invariance analysis was done on binary versions of the items. These had metric invariance (loadings the same over groups) but several items violated the strong invariance test. In both groups, the SDM-Q had high internal consistency, whereas the KAS-CM was only adequate. These findings help interpret results for individual patients, taking into account cultural and linguistic differences in how patients perceive SDM and patient-provider communication. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537002

  1. Early communicative gestures and play as predictors of language development in children born with and without family risk for dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Unhjem, Astrid; Eklund, Kenneth; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated early communicative gestures, play, and language skills in children born with family risk for dyslexia (FR) and a control group of children without this inheritable risk at ages 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Participants were drawn from the Tromsø Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (TLD) which follows children's cognitive and language development from age 12 months through Grade 2 in order to identify early markers of developmental dyslexia. Results showed that symbolic play and parent reported play at age 12 months and communicative gestures at age 15 months explained 61% of the variance in productive language at 24 months in the FR group. These early nonlinguistic measures seem to be potentially interesting markers of later language development in children born at risk for dyslexia.

  2. Early communicative gestures and play as predictors of language development in children born with and without family risk for dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Unhjem, Astrid; Eklund, Kenneth; Nergård-Nilssen, Trude

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated early communicative gestures, play, and language skills in children born with family risk for dyslexia (FR) and a control group of children without this inheritable risk at ages 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Participants were drawn from the Tromsø Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (TLD) which follows children's cognitive and language development from age 12 months through Grade 2 in order to identify early markers of developmental dyslexia. Results showed that symbolic play and parent reported play at age 12 months and communicative gestures at age 15 months explained 61% of the variance in productive language at 24 months in the FR group. These early nonlinguistic measures seem to be potentially interesting markers of later language development in children born at risk for dyslexia. PMID:24773268

  3. Motor development and motor resonance difficulties in autism: relevance to early intervention for language and communication skills.

    PubMed

    McCleery, Joseph P; Elliott, Natasha A; Sampanis, Dimitrios S; Stefanidou, Chrysi A

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural "mirroring" mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others) deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective. PMID:23630476

  4. Motor development and motor resonance difficulties in autism: relevance to early intervention for language and communication skills

    PubMed Central

    McCleery, Joseph P.; Elliott, Natasha A.; Sampanis, Dimitrios S.; Stefanidou, Chrysi A.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural “mirroring” mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others) deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective. PMID:23630476

  5. Understanding Neuropsychiatric Diseases, Analyzing the Peptide Sharing between Infectious Agents and the Language-Associated NMDA 2A Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lucchese, Guglielmo

    2016-01-01

    Language disorders and infections may occur together and often concur, to a different extent and via different modalities, in characterizing brain pathologies, such as schizophrenia, autism, epilepsies, bipolar disorders, frontotemporal neurodegeneration, and encephalitis, inter alia. The biological mechanism(s) that might channel language dysfunctions and infections into etiological pathways connected to neuropathologic sequelae are unclear. Searching for molecular link(s) between language disorders and infections, the present study explores the language-associated NMDA 2A subunit for peptide sharing with pathogens that have been described in concomitance with neuropsychiatric diseases. It was found that a vast peptide commonality links the human glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA 2A subunit to infectious agents. Such a link expands to and interfaces with neuropsychiatric disorders in light of the specific allocation of NMDA 2A gene expression in brain areas related to language functions. The data hint at a possible pathologic scenario based on anti-pathogen immune responses cross-reacting with NMDA 2A in the brain. PMID:27148089

  6. Neural associative memories for the integration of language, vision and action in an autonomous agent.

    PubMed

    Markert, H; Kaufmann, U; Kara Kayikci, Z; Palm, G

    2009-03-01

    Language understanding is a long-standing problem in computer science. However, the human brain is capable of processing complex languages with seemingly no difficulties. This paper shows a model for language understanding using biologically plausible neural networks composed of associative memories. The model is able to deal with ambiguities on the single word and grammatical level. The language system is embedded into a robot in order to demonstrate the correct semantical understanding of the input sentences by letting the robot perform corresponding actions. For that purpose, a simple neural action planning system has been combined with neural networks for visual object recognition and visual attention control mechanisms. PMID:19203859

  7. Neural associative memories for the integration of language, vision and action in an autonomous agent.

    PubMed

    Markert, H; Kaufmann, U; Kara Kayikci, Z; Palm, G

    2009-03-01

    Language understanding is a long-standing problem in computer science. However, the human brain is capable of processing complex languages with seemingly no difficulties. This paper shows a model for language understanding using biologically plausible neural networks composed of associative memories. The model is able to deal with ambiguities on the single word and grammatical level. The language system is embedded into a robot in order to demonstrate the correct semantical understanding of the input sentences by letting the robot perform corresponding actions. For that purpose, a simple neural action planning system has been combined with neural networks for visual object recognition and visual attention control mechanisms.

  8. Development and evaluation of the environment and communication assessment toolkit with speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Carrie; Brush, Jennifer A; Sanford, Jon A; Calkins, Margaret P

    2013-04-01

    Communication dysfunction that results from dementia can be exacerbated by environmental barriers such as inadequate lighting, noisy conditions, poor or absent environmental cues, and visual clutter. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) should address these environmental barriers as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for clients with dementia. The Environment and Communication Assessment Toolkit for Dementia Care (ECAT) was evaluated by SLPs to determine: (1) changes in awareness of environmental factors prior to and after training; (2) impact of the ECAT on practice as measured by changes in the number of environmental modifications recommended and made prior to and after training; (3) utility of the information as measured by the helpfulness, amount of new information, and usefulness of the ECAT; and (4) usability of the ECAT materials based on ease of use. The SLPs used the ECAT with clients with dementia who had functional limitations and required substantial assistance with daily activities. Results indicate that the ECAT is an effective tool for SLPs, providing information about the impact of the environment on communication and supplying sufficient resources to make recommendations and implement effective interventions. The ECAT successfully increased awareness of environmental modifications, influenced the practice of recommending environmental modifications, and had utility in diverse aspects of clinical practice.

  9. Chemopreventive Agents Attenuate Rapid Inhibition of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Induced by Environmental Toxicants.

    PubMed

    Babica, Pavel; Čtveráčková, Lucie; Lenčešová, Zuzana; Trosko, James E; Upham, Brad L

    2016-07-01

    Altered gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been associated with chemical carcinogenesis, where both chemical tumor promoters and chemopreventive agents (CPAs) are known to conversely modulate GJIC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether attenuation of chemically inhibited GJIC represents a common outcome induced by different CPAs, which could be effectively evaluated using in vitro methods. Rat liver epithelial cells WB-F344 were pretreated with a CPA for either 30 min or 24 h, and then exposed to GJIC-inhibiting concentration of a selected tumor promoter or environmental toxicant [12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), lindane, fluoranthene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), or pentachlorophenol]. Out of nine CPAs tested, quercetin and silibinin elicited the most pronounced effects, preventing the dysregulation of GJIC by all the GJIC inhibitors, but DDT. Metformin and curcumin attenuated the effects of three GJIC inhibitors, whereas the other CPAs prevented the effects of two (diallyl sulfide, emodin) or one (indole-3-carbinol, thymoquinone) GJIC inhibitor. Significant attenuation of chemically induced inhibition of GJIC was observed in 27 (50%) out of 54 possible combinations of nine CPAs and six GJIC inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that in vitro evaluation of GJIC can be used as an effective screening tool for identification of chemicals with potential chemopreventive activity. PMID:27266532

  10. Chemopreventive Agents Attenuate Rapid Inhibition of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Induced by Environmental Toxicants.

    PubMed

    Babica, Pavel; Čtveráčková, Lucie; Lenčešová, Zuzana; Trosko, James E; Upham, Brad L

    2016-07-01

    Altered gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been associated with chemical carcinogenesis, where both chemical tumor promoters and chemopreventive agents (CPAs) are known to conversely modulate GJIC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether attenuation of chemically inhibited GJIC represents a common outcome induced by different CPAs, which could be effectively evaluated using in vitro methods. Rat liver epithelial cells WB-F344 were pretreated with a CPA for either 30 min or 24 h, and then exposed to GJIC-inhibiting concentration of a selected tumor promoter or environmental toxicant [12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), lindane, fluoranthene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), or pentachlorophenol]. Out of nine CPAs tested, quercetin and silibinin elicited the most pronounced effects, preventing the dysregulation of GJIC by all the GJIC inhibitors, but DDT. Metformin and curcumin attenuated the effects of three GJIC inhibitors, whereas the other CPAs prevented the effects of two (diallyl sulfide, emodin) or one (indole-3-carbinol, thymoquinone) GJIC inhibitor. Significant attenuation of chemically induced inhibition of GJIC was observed in 27 (50%) out of 54 possible combinations of nine CPAs and six GJIC inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that in vitro evaluation of GJIC can be used as an effective screening tool for identification of chemicals with potential chemopreventive activity.

  11. "We Communicated That Way for a Reason": Language Practices and Language Ideologies among Hearing Adults Whose Parents Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Families with deaf parents and hearing children are often bilingual and bimodal, with both a spoken language and a signed one in regular use among family members. When interviewed, 13 American hearing adults with deaf parents reported widely varying language practices, sign language abilities, and social affiliations with Deaf and Hearing…

  12. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language.

  13. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language. PMID:26544876

  14. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  15. Integrating Music Therapy Services and Speech-Language Therapy Services for Children with Severe Communication Impairments: A Co-Treatment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Kamile; McCarthy, John; Rodgers-Smith, Amy; Porter, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Documenting how music therapy can be integrated with speech-language therapy services for children with communication delay is not evident in the literature. In this article, a collaborative model with procedures, experiences, and communication outcomes of integrating music therapy with the existing speech-language services is given. Using…

  16. Developing a Multidimensional Checklist for Evaluating Language-Learning Websites Coherent with the Communicative Approach: A Path for the Knowing-How-to-Do Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moncada Linares, Sthephanny; Díaz Romero, Andrea Carolina

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the rapid development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the growing interest in Internet-based tools for language classroom, it has become a pressing need for educators to locate, evaluate and select the most appropriate language-learning digital resources that foster more communicative and meaningful learning…

  17. Teachers' Use of English in Communicative German Language Classrooms: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, Angelika

    2006-01-01

    The use of English by foreign language teacher is a matter of much controversy. Whereas language switching by English-speaking foreign language teachers has been the focus of previous research, relatively little is known about the amount of teachers' language used in the classroom when comparing native speakers of the foreign language with…

  18. A Preliminary Study of Taiwanese NNETs' Self-Assessment of Intercultural Communicative Competence in English Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Tzu-Chia

    2016-01-01

    In the context of globalisation, intercultural teaching has been suggested as an objective in English as lingua franca (ELF) education, which has challenged English teachers in acquiring the intercultural communicative competence (ICC) in English language teaching (ELT). However, empirical research exploring the intercultural capabilities and…

  19. The Link between Pronunciation Anxiety and Willingness to Communicate in the Foreign-Language Classroom: The Polish EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran-Lucarz, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety and L2 self-confidence have been suggested as vital determinants of willingness to communicate (WTC) in a foreign-language (FL) learning environment. Studies also demonstrate that it is a concern over pronunciation mistakes that is particularly likely to cause embarrassment and apprehension in FL students. Linking these two facts may lead…

  20. Cross Currents: A Journal of Language Teaching and Cross-Cultural Communication. Volume XI, Number 2, Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Currents, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This issue of a biannual journal for interdisciplinary exchange of ideas within the areas of communication, language skills acquisition and instruction, and cross-cultural training and learning includes these articles: "Oral Interactive Testing at a Japanese University" (Eloise Pearson); "Classroom Organisation and the Teacher" (Armand…

  1. "Leveling the Playing Field:" The Effects of Online Second Language Instruction on Student Willingness to Communicate in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott; McCullough, Heather; Pyke, J. Garvey

    2010-01-01

    Second language (L2) instruction in the United States has in recent history experienced significant change. Instead of emphasizing grammatical accuracy, L2 teachers are now asked to focus on developing student communication skills. Furthermore, L2 classrooms are being transformed via the growth of computer-mediated instruction. Traditional,…

  2. Teaching a Child with Autism and Severe Language Delays to Reject: Direct and Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Christian A.; Drasgow, Erik; Halle, James W.; Brucker, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01

    We used functional communication training to teach Bob, a 10-year-old student with autism and severe language delays, to reject items by touching an icon. Our initial assessment revealed that Bob's behaviours serving a rejecting function consisted of pushing away, yelling, bear hugging-grabbing, and leaving. We used prompting, differential…

  3. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  4. Effects of Home Environment and Center-Based Child Care Quality on Children's Language, Communication, and Literacy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Pessanha, Manuela; Aguiar, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the joint effects of home environment and center-based child care quality on children's language, communication, and early literacy development, while also considering prior developmental level. Participants were 95 children (46 boys), assessed as toddlers (mean age = 26.33 months; Time 1) and preschoolers (mean age = 68.71…

  5. The Spoken Language of Disadvantaged Children in Israel--A Look at Some Pragmatic Strategies of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheintuch, Gloria

    1981-01-01

    The spoken language of Israeli children from various socioeconomic and ethnic groups was compared in terms of pragmatic strategies of communication in order to evaluate whether disadvantaged children were linguistically deficient. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 11- and 12-year-old children from privileged and disadvantaged backgrounds.…

  6. Understanding Why Speech-Language Pathologists Rarely Pursue a PhD in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myotte, Theodore; Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Belin, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Masters-level speech-language pathologists in communication sciences and disorders (n = 122) completed a survey soliciting their reasons for not pursuing doctoral study. Factor analysis revealed a four-factor solution including one reflecting a lack of interest in doctoral study (Factor 2) and one reflecting practical financial concerns (Factor…

  7. "Tramites" and "Transportes": The Acquisition of Second Language Communicative Competence for One Speech Event in Puno, Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes ethnographic data regarding one prolonged speech event, the negotiation of a driver's license at the Ministry of Transportation in Puno, Peru, from the perspective of Hymes' redefinition of linguistic competence. Implications for the acquisition of second language communicative competence are also discussed. (Author/CB)

  8. Parent and Teacher Perceptions of Participation and Outcomes in an Intensive Communication Intervention for Children with Pragmatic Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxendale, Janet; Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Background: Treatment trials that enquire into parents' and teachers' views on speech-language interventions and outcomes for primary school-age children are relatively rare. The current study sought perceptions of the process of intervention and value placed on outcomes resulting from a trial of intervention, the Social Communication Intervention…

  9. A Preliminary Evaluation of Functional Communication Training Effectiveness and Language Preference when Spanish and English Are Manipulated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Schieltz, Kelly M.; Lee, John F.; Breznican, Gregory P.; Kramer, Abigail R.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated whether differences in treatment effectiveness or preference between languages emerged across Spanish and English during functional communication training (FCT) for young children with developmental disabilities exposed to Spanish and English in the home environment. Participants were 2 young children with developmental disabilities…

  10. The Impact of Content and Context on International Teaching Assistants' Willingness to Communicate in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Lily K. L.

    2007-01-01

    Past studies have identified the impact of situational and enduring variables on second language (L2) learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) in the L2. This qualitative study triangulates data from two classroom observations, semi-structured interviews with four students and class instructor, and personal experiences including communication…

  11. Effects of Synchronous and Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Oral Conversations on English Language Learners' Discourse Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AbuSeileek, Ali Farhan; Qatawneh, Khaleel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of synchronous and asynchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) oral discussions on question types and strategies used by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. The participants were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions/groups; the first group used synchronous CMC, while the second…

  12. Enhancing the Communication Abilities of Preschoolers at Risk for Behavior Problems: Effectiveness of a Parent-Implemented Language Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassart, Elise; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Communication deficits are frequently associated with externalizing behavior problems in preschoolers but, in most cases, unsuspected in clinical practice. This exploratory study evaluated the effectiveness of a relatively brief parent-implemented language intervention on preschoolers at risk for behavior problems. Participants were randomly…

  13. Gesture and Language in Narratives and Explanations: The Effects of Age and Communicative Activity on Late Multimodal Discourse Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamillo, Asela Reig; Colletta, Jean-Marc; Guidetti, Michele

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the effect of communicative activity on the use of language and gesture by school-age children. The present study examined oral narratives and explanations produced by children aged six and ten years on the basis of several linguistic and gestural measures. Results showed that age affects both gestural and linguistic…

  14. Cinderella's Coach or Just Another Pumpkin? Information Communication Technologies and the Continuing Marginalisation of Languages in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Lindy; Coutas, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    The rhetoric around global connectedness and advances in information communication technologies (ICTs) suggests that: Professional life for the marginalised and isolated language teacher should be easier; the experience of language learners in Australian schools should be more meaningful and bring them closer to the languages and communities that…

  15. The Impact of Open Discussion Sessions on Enhancing the Oral Communicative Abilities of Saudi English Language Majors at Buraydah Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daif-Allah, Ayman Sabry; Khan, Mohammad Imran

    2016-01-01

    The importance of developing the communicative needs of English language majors has been found a fundamental concern of Buraydah Community college in Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study has been to identify English language speaking skill needs of English language majors and investigate the impact of using Open Discussion…

  16. Towards a Transcription System of Sign Language for 3D Virtual Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Amaral, Wanessa Machado; de Martino, José Mario

    Accessibility is a growing concern in computer science. Since virtual information is mostly presented visually, it may seem that access for deaf people is not an issue. However, for prelingually deaf individuals, those who were deaf since before acquiring and formally learn a language, written information is often of limited accessibility than if presented in signing. Further, for this community, signing is their language of choice, and reading text in a spoken language is akin to using a foreign language. Sign language uses gestures and facial expressions and is widely used by deaf communities. To enabling efficient production of signed content on virtual environment, it is necessary to make written records of signs. Transcription systems have been developed to describe sign languages in written form, but these systems have limitations. Since they were not originally designed with computer animation in mind, in general, the recognition and reproduction of signs in these systems is an easy task only to those who deeply know the system. The aim of this work is to develop a transcription system to provide signed content in virtual environment. To animate a virtual avatar, a transcription system requires explicit enough information, such as movement speed, signs concatenation, sequence of each hold-and-movement and facial expressions, trying to articulate close to reality. Although many important studies in sign languages have been published, the transcription problem remains a challenge. Thus, a notation to describe, store and play signed content in virtual environments offers a multidisciplinary study and research tool, which may help linguistic studies to understand the sign languages structure and grammar.

  17. Why is combinatorial communication rare in the natural world, and why is language an exception to this trend?

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Blythe, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    In a combinatorial communication system, some signals consist of the combinations of other signals. Such systems are more efficient than equivalent, non-combinatorial systems, yet despite this they are rare in nature. Why? Previous explanations have focused on the adaptive limits of combinatorial communication, or on its purported cognitive difficulties, but neither of these explains the full distribution of combinatorial communication in the natural world. Here, we present a nonlinear dynamical model of the emergence of combinatorial communication that, unlike previous models, considers how initially non-communicative behaviour evolves to take on a communicative function. We derive three basic principles about the emergence of combinatorial communication. We hence show that the interdependence of signals and responses places significant constraints on the historical pathways by which combinatorial signals might emerge, to the extent that anything other than the most simple form of combinatorial communication is extremely unlikely. We also argue that these constraints can be bypassed if individuals have the socio-cognitive capacity to engage in ostensive communication. Humans, but probably no other species, have this ability. This may explain why language, which is massively combinatorial, is such an extreme exception to nature's general trend for non-combinatorial communication. PMID:24047871

  18. Why is combinatorial communication rare in the natural world, and why is language an exception to this trend?

    PubMed

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C; Blythe, Richard A

    2013-11-01

    In a combinatorial communication system, some signals consist of the combinations of other signals. Such systems are more efficient than equivalent, non-combinatorial systems, yet despite this they are rare in nature. Why? Previous explanations have focused on the adaptive limits of combinatorial communication, or on its purported cognitive difficulties, but neither of these explains the full distribution of combinatorial communication in the natural world. Here, we present a nonlinear dynamical model of the emergence of combinatorial communication that, unlike previous models, considers how initially non-communicative behaviour evolves to take on a communicative function. We derive three basic principles about the emergence of combinatorial communication. We hence show that the interdependence of signals and responses places significant constraints on the historical pathways by which combinatorial signals might emerge, to the extent that anything other than the most simple form of combinatorial communication is extremely unlikely. We also argue that these constraints can be bypassed if individuals have the socio-cognitive capacity to engage in ostensive communication. Humans, but probably no other species, have this ability. This may explain why language, which is massively combinatorial, is such an extreme exception to nature's general trend for non-combinatorial communication.

  19. Ethnic differences in mother-infant language and gestural communications are associated with specific skills in infants.

    PubMed

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S; Song, Lulu; Leavell, Ashley Smith; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2012-05-01

    We examined gestural and verbal interactions in 226 mother-infant pairs from Mexican, Dominican, and African American backgrounds when infants were 14 months and 2 years of age, and related these interactions to infants' emerging skills. At both ages, dyads were video-recorded as they shared a wordless number book, a wordless emotion book, and beads and string. We coded mothers' and infants' gestures and language/vocalizations. Each maternal utterance was coded as referential (e.g. 'That's a bead') or regulatory (e.g. 'Put it there'). Mothers reported on infants' gestural, receptive, and productive vocabularies at 14 months, and infants were assessed on receptive language, expressive language, and action sequencing and imitation at 2 years of age. Mothers of the three ethnicities differed in their gesturing, distributions of the two types of language, and coupling of language and gestures. Mothers' ethnicity, language, and gestures were differentially associated with infants' 2-year skills. Mother-infant communicative interactions are foundational to infant learning and development, and ethnic differences in modes of early communication portend divergent pathways in the development of specific skills.

  20. Cognitive and Language Acquisition in Typical and Aided Language Learning: A Review of Recent Evidence from an Aided Communication Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Janice; Goldbart, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) is a discipline that has seen recent developments as a consequence of the worldwide technological revolution. Children with complex communication needs, who benefit from such systems, are now afforded an opportunity to develop independent communication skills. The aim of this paper is to review…

  1. An architecture and protocol for communications satellite constellations regarded as multi-agent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for satellites regarded as intercommunicating agents. The architecture is based upon a postmodern paradigm of artificial intelligence in which represented knowledge is regarded as text, inference procedures are regarded as social discourse and decision making conventions and the semantics of representations are grounded in the situated behaviour and activity of agents. A particular protocol is described for agent participation in distributed search and retrieval operations conducted as joint activities.

  2. Mauritanian Arabic. Communication and Culture Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanchey, Stephen; Francis, Timothy P.

    A set of instructional materials for Mauritanian Arabic is designed for Peace Corps volunteer language instruction and geared to the daily language needs of volunteers. It consists of introductory sections on language learning in general, the languages of Mauritania, pronunciation of the Hassaniya dialect, and the textbook itself, and 30 lessons…

  3. Activities for Improving Language and Communication Skills in Young Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Joann

    Presented are 29 activities for teachers to use in helping young mentally retarded children increase language skills, and included is a language assessment chart. The goal for language development is given to be increase in effectiveness and accuracy in handling both receptive and expressive language. Activities are presented by name or purpose,…

  4. The Language Development Project and Oral Communication in School Years 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Frances

    The national Language Development Project in Australia, an undertaking concerned with informing teachers on matters to do with language, language development, and language and learning, is described in this report. The various sections of the report establish the project's purposes; offer discussions of developments in thinking and research of the…

  5. Le Jeu des Colis--An Exercise in Foreign Language Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Barry

    1979-01-01

    Teacher prepared taped exchanges of realia between foreign language classes and classes of speakers of the target language provide language lessons through personal contact similar to those gained through a trip to the country of the target language. Sample lessons offer linguistic, cultural, and practical guidelines for implementing such a…

  6. Language choice and sexual communication among Xhosa speakers in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention message development

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Demetria; Schensul, Stephen; Mlobeli, Regina

    2011-01-01

    Communicating about sex is a vital component of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and influences how HIV educators convey messages to communities and how couples negotiate safer sex practices. However, sexual communication inevitably confronts culturally based behavioral guidelines and linguistic taboos unique to diverse social contexts. The HIV interventionist needs to identify the appropriate language for sexual communication given the participants and the message. Ethnographic research can help facilitate the exploration of how sex terminology is chosen. A theoretical framework, developed to guide HIV interventionists, suggests that an individual's language choice for sexual communication is influenced by gender roles and power differentials. In-depth interviews, free listing and triadic comparisons were conducted with Xhosa men and women in Cape Town, South Africa, to determine the terms for male genitalia, female genitalia and sexual intercourse that are most appropriate for sexual communication. Results showed that sexual terms express cultural norms and role expectations where men should be powerful and resilient and women should be passive and virginal. For HIV prevention education, non-mother tongue (English and Zulu) terms were recommended as most appropriate because they are descriptive, but allow the speaker to communicate outside the restrictive limits of their mother tongue by reducing emotive cultural connotations. PMID:21059802

  7. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child with a Developmental Social Communication Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of…

  8. Improving clinical communication of students with English as a second language (ESL) using online technology: a small scale evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Fran; San Miguel, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    Increasingly, students with English as a second language (ESL) are enrolled in nursing degrees in English speaking countries (Wang et al., 2008). However, they may be at risk of clinical practice failure due to communication difficulties associated with unfamiliar linguistic and cultural factors (Guhde, 2003). This paper describes and evaluates an innovation to assist ESL nursing students at an Australian university develop their clinical communication skills and practice readiness by providing online learning resources, using podcast and vodcast technology, that blend with classroom activities and facilitate flexible and independent learning. The innovation builds on an intensive clinical language workshop program called 'Clinically Speaking' which has evolved through a cyclical process of ongoing research to produce resources in response to students' learning needs. Whilst uptake of the resources was modest, students of ESL as well as English speaking backgrounds (ESB) found the resources improved their clinical preparation and confidence by increasing their understanding of expectations, clinical language and communication skills. The innovation, developed with a modest budget, shows potential in developing ESL and ESB students' readiness for clinical communication, enabling them to engage in clinical practice to develop competency standards required of nursing graduates and registration authorities.

  9. The development of communication and language in deaf and severely hard of hearing children: implications for the future.

    PubMed

    Preisler, G

    1999-10-01

    Severe hearing impairment is seldom detected in children before the age of 6-12 months as parent-infant interaction is similar to that of a normal parent-child interaction. This is probably due to an innate capacity of infants to take information in one sensory modality and translate it into another, called amodal perception. The roots of language are traced to early proto-conversations, as well as to early pretend play. Relationships are viewed as the context in which socialisation takes place, basic competences emerge, regulations of emotions develop and communication skills are acquired. If habilitation after diagnosis of a severe hearing impairment primarily is focused on an oral-aural approach, natural patterns of communication between parent and child will gradually disappear, which will have negative implications on the development of these children. If, instead, they are allowed to develop those means of communication that are easy for them to produce and to perceive, positive consequences have been registered on the development of communication and language, as well as on their socio-emotional and cognitive development. When these children have been given opportunities to become bilingual with a signed and a written and/or spoken language, it has enabled them to attend higher education, to have a qualified job and thereby a good life in the future.

  10. The development of communication and language in deaf and severely hard of hearing children: implications for the future.

    PubMed

    Preisler, G

    1999-10-01

    Severe hearing impairment is seldom detected in children before the age of 6-12 months as parent-infant interaction is similar to that of a normal parent-child interaction. This is probably due to an innate capacity of infants to take information in one sensory modality and translate it into another, called amodal perception. The roots of language are traced to early proto-conversations, as well as to early pretend play. Relationships are viewed as the context in which socialisation takes place, basic competences emerge, regulations of emotions develop and communication skills are acquired. If habilitation after diagnosis of a severe hearing impairment primarily is focused on an oral-aural approach, natural patterns of communication between parent and child will gradually disappear, which will have negative implications on the development of these children. If, instead, they are allowed to develop those means of communication that are easy for them to produce and to perceive, positive consequences have been registered on the development of communication and language, as well as on their socio-emotional and cognitive development. When these children have been given opportunities to become bilingual with a signed and a written and/or spoken language, it has enabled them to attend higher education, to have a qualified job and thereby a good life in the future. PMID:10577773

  11. Communicative Competence: An Experiment in Foreign-Language Teaching. Language and the Teacher: A Series in Applied Linguistics, Volume 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savignon, Sandra J.

    Communicative competence can be defined as the ability to function in a truly communicative setting, that is, in a dynamic exchange in which linguistic competence must adapt itself to the total informational input, both linguistic and paralinguistic, of one or more interlocutors. The research described in this book focuses on the development of…

  12. An exploration of the communication patterns and language used between clinical geneticists and parents of children with dysmorphic features.

    PubMed

    Steel, Emma J; Hodgson, Jan; Stirling, Lesley; White, Susan M

    2014-11-01

    The present study aims to provide insight into the interactions between clinical geneticists and parents of children with dysmorphic features during syndrome assessment. Seven families attending a dysmorphology clinic for syndrome assessment consented to have their consultation recorded and transcribed verbatim. Content and discourse analyses were used to study the language and communication patterns of problematic and challenging sections of the consultations, primarily sections concerning the child's appearance and diagnosis which were marked by dysfluency and hesitation, indicators of problematic communication. Findings revealed that the clinical geneticists used a range of communicative strategies when discussing a child's appearance, such as comparing the child's features with those of parents or other individuals and minimizing differences. In doing so they displayed an orientation to the "face-threatening" nature of this communicative task. While geneticists discussed the child's appearance in an extremely sensitive manner, parents tended to describe their child's appearance using direct and objective language. These findings provide novel insight into the complexity of syndrome assessment consultations in a dysmorphology clinic. We suggest that parents may be seeking a more open discussion of their child's appearance, and clinician engagement with this may prove a more effective communication strategy than those currently employed, while remaining sensitive to parents' responses to such a discussion. At the start of the consultation it is important to give parents the opportunity to voice their concerns and expectations, and to explain to parents that a diagnosis may not be reached. PMID:25250868

  13. The Relationship between Cross-Culture Communication Activities and Student Motivation in Studying Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Hussein Zanaty Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the positive impact of second language learners' cross-cultural awareness in the target language. More specifically, the pedagogical desired outcomes include: (1) exploring how students can increase their motivation in learning a foreign language by engaging in the cross-cultural activity "Sister School…

  14. Language Use in the Classroom: Understanding the Relationship between Perceptions, Beliefs, and Verbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory L.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between instructors' and students' perceptions and beliefs about first language (Ll) and target language (TL) use in the Spanish foreign language classroom and actual classroom use. Given the lack of research correlating perceptions and beliefs of both students and their teachers to their classroom language…

  15. Does Field Independence Relate to Performance on Communicative Language Tests? Research Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2006-01-01

    Recent language testing research investigates factors other than language proficiency that may be responsible for systematic variance in language test performance. One such factor is the test takers' cognitive styles. The present study was carried out with the aim of finding the probable effects of Iranian EFL learners' cognitive styles on their…

  16. From International to Local English--And Back Again: Studies in Language and Communication Vol. 95

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facchinetti, Roberta, Ed.; Crystal, David, Ed.; Seidlhofer, Barbara, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    All languages encode aspects of culture and every culture has its own specificities to be proud of and to be transmitted. The papers in this book explore aspects of this relationship between language and culture, considering issues related to the processes of internationalization and localization of the English language. The volume is divided into…

  17. Using the Concept of Perspective to Integrate Cultural, Communicative, and Form-Focused Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byram, Katra A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Modern Language Association Ad Hoc Committee on Foreign Languages advocated for revising postsecondary second language programs to cultivate students' "translingual and transcultural competence." Since then, the meaning, merits, and difficulties of these goals have been much discussed. This article presents the concept of linguistic…

  18. Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Sign Language Test Development: Results of an International Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Sign language test development is a relatively new field within sign linguistics, motivated by the practical need for assessment instruments to evaluate language development in different groups of learners (L1, L2). Due to the lack of research on the structure and acquisition of many sign languages, developing an assessment instrument poses…

  19. English Language Teaching: The Reflective Practices of an Oral Communication Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhary, Jowati

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has come to a point where second and third languages become part of the requirements to be employed especially in the multinational and international companies. After gaining its Independence, English becomes the second language in Malaysia, and Bahasa Melayu is recognised as the official language of the country. This move has greatly…

  20. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume X, Number 2. Tenth Anniversary Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasky, Andrew, Ed.; Brooks, Lori B., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    A tenth anniversary issue of the biannual journal of the Language Institute of Japan contains articles on teaching the four language skills, reading, and writing, speaking, listening, as well as cultural training. The articles include: "Rod City: Context and Focus for Student-Generated Language" (Robert Ruud); "Prediction as a Listening Strategy"…

  1. Incorporating Language Structure in a Communicative Task: An Analysis of the Language Component of a Communicative Task in the LINC Home Study Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenchuk, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze a task included in the LINC Home Study (LHS) program. LHS is a federally funded distance education program offered to newcomers to Canada who are unable to attend regular LINC classes. A task, in which a language structure (a gerund) is chosen and analyzed, was selected from one instructional module of LHS…

  2. Cooperative Learning and Second Language Acquisition in First-Year Composition: Opportunities for Authentic Communication among English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    In an environment, in which English is a second or other language for every student, fear and anxiety affect students' learning and engagement. Yet, in spite of these concerns, students welcomed the chance to practice their spoken English in cooperative structures while learning about and engaging in their composing processes. English language…

  3. Tailoring Language Instruction to Student Needs. The Challenge of Communication. ACTFL Review of Foreign Language Education, Vol. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Elizabeth G.

    The interaction of teacher, students, and materials in foreign language study is considered. In the student-centered classroom, the teacher must adapt materials to a particular client or clientele. Student needs and characteristics need to be determined, using diagnostic tools such as aptitude, intelligence and creativity tests, and attitudinal…

  4. English Language Teaching at Secondary School Level in Bangladesh: An Overview of the Implementation of Communicative Language Teaching Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Sofe

    2012-01-01

    The concept of globalization has brought dynamism in each aspect of the world. The changes have also touched the field of English language teaching (ELT) throughout the world. Bangladesh is no more far from that transformation. It has already attempted to the innovation of ELT. The country has moved from long term-practiced Grammar Translation…

  5. Developing Competencies for Using the Interactive Whiteboard to Implement Communicative Language Teaching in the English as a Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutrin Schmid, Euline

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a case study conducted with an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher at a German secondary school. This case study is part of a research project that investigates the new competencies that EFL teachers need to acquire in order to be able to use the interactive whiteboard (IWB) to develop their practice,…

  6. Talking in Order To Learn: Willingness To Communicate and Intensive Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Baker, Susan C.; Clement, Richard; Donovan, Leslie A.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates differences between immersion and non-immersion university-level students' willingness to communicate, communication apprehension, perceived competence, and frequency of communicating . Also examines elements of integrative motivation. Differences between immersion and non-immersion groups are observed in the communication-related…

  7. The Role of Gender and Immersion in Communication and Second Language Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan C.; MacIntyre, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the nonlinguistic outcomes of an immersion versus a nonimmersion program in Cape Breton. Dependent variables included attitudes toward learning French, orientations for learning, willingness to communicate, communication anxiety, perceived communicative competence, and self-reported frequency of communication in both English a a first…

  8. Short communication: Reducing agents attenuate methylglyoxal-based browning in Parmesan cheese.

    PubMed

    Divine, R D; Rankin, S A

    2013-10-01

    The microbial production of methylglyoxal in cheese has been linked to the formation of brown pigmentation and distinctive volatiles. This study investigated methods for preventing methylglyoxal-induced browning in Parmesan cheese through the addition of reducing agents. Cheeses were treated with the reducing agents sodium bisulfite, glutathione, and erythorbate at 2:1 and 4:1 molar ratios with added methylglyoxal, and then incubated at 10 °C. Colorimetric methods were used to determine degree of browning at 0, 3, and 6 d. Sodium bisulfite and glutathione inhibited the browning reactions of methylglyoxal compared with the control. Erythorbate was much less effective than the other compounds at inhibiting browning, yet was significantly less browned than the control. These reducing agents are thought to act as strong nucleophiles that can form thiohemiketals and thioketals at the carbonyl carbons of methylglyoxal. PMID:23957999

  9. Short communication: Reducing agents attenuate methylglyoxal-based browning in Parmesan cheese.

    PubMed

    Divine, R D; Rankin, S A

    2013-10-01

    The microbial production of methylglyoxal in cheese has been linked to the formation of brown pigmentation and distinctive volatiles. This study investigated methods for preventing methylglyoxal-induced browning in Parmesan cheese through the addition of reducing agents. Cheeses were treated with the reducing agents sodium bisulfite, glutathione, and erythorbate at 2:1 and 4:1 molar ratios with added methylglyoxal, and then incubated at 10 °C. Colorimetric methods were used to determine degree of browning at 0, 3, and 6 d. Sodium bisulfite and glutathione inhibited the browning reactions of methylglyoxal compared with the control. Erythorbate was much less effective than the other compounds at inhibiting browning, yet was significantly less browned than the control. These reducing agents are thought to act as strong nucleophiles that can form thiohemiketals and thioketals at the carbonyl carbons of methylglyoxal.

  10. Reliability and validity of the C-BiLLT: a new instrument to assess comprehension of spoken language in young children with cerebral palsy and complex communication needs.

    PubMed

    Geytenbeek, Joke J; Mokkink, Lidwine B; Knol, Dirk L; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Oostrom, Kim J

    2014-09-01

    In clinical practice, a variety of diagnostic tests are available to assess a child's comprehension of spoken language. However, none of these tests have been designed specifically for use with children who have severe motor impairments and who experience severe difficulty when using speech to communicate. This article describes the process of investigating the reliability and validity of the Computer-Based Instrument for Low Motor Language Testing (C-BiLLT), which was specifically developed to assess spoken Dutch language comprehension in children with cerebral palsy and complex communication needs. The study included 806 children with typical development, and 87 nonspeaking children with cerebral palsy and complex communication needs, and was designed to provide information on the psychometric qualities of the C-BiLLT. The potential utility of the C-BiLLT as a measure of spoken Dutch language comprehension abilities for children with cerebral palsy and complex communication needs is discussed.

  11. Impulsive consensus seeking in directed networks of multi-agent systems with communication time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Quanjun; Zhou, Jin; Xiang, Lan

    2012-08-01

    In this article, we consider average consensus problem in directed delayed networked multi-agent systems having impulsive effects with fixed topology and stochastic switching topology. A simple impulsive consensus protocol for such networks is proposed, and some generic criteria for solving the average consensus problem are analytically derived. It is shown that a directed delayed networked multi-agent system can achieve average consensus globally exponentially with suitable impulsive gain and impulsive interval. Subsequently, two typical illustrative examples, along with computer simulation results, are provided to visualise the effectiveness and feasibility of our theoretical results.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 25: The impact of language and culture on technical communication in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, John R.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most significant developments in the field of technical communication during the 1980's and 1990's has been a growing interest in international technical communication, including technical communication in Japan. This article provides insights into aspects of the Japanese language and culture that affect Japanese technical communication practices. These insights are then used to interpret and report the results of a survey of Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists concerning the kinds of communication products they produce, the kinds they use, and the specific recommendation they would offer to designers of academic programs in technical communication.

  13. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXV - The impact of language and culture on technical communication in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, John R.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most significant developments in the field of technical communication during the 1980s and 1990s has been a growing interest in international technical communication, including technical communication in Japan. This article provides insights into aspects of the Japanese language and culture that affect Japanese technical communication practices. The authors then use these insights to interpret and report the results of a survey of Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists concerning the kinds of communication products they produce, the kinds they use, and the specific recommendations they would offer to designers of academic programs in technical communication.

  14. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  15. Research in knowledge representation for natural language communication and planning assistance. Final report, 18 March 1985-30 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, B.A.; Grosz, B.; Haas, A.; Litman, D.; Reinhardt, T.

    1988-11-01

    BBN's DARPA project in Knowledge Representation for Natural Language Communication and Planning Assistance has two primary objectives: 1) To perform research on aspects of the interaction between users who are making complex decisions and systems that are assisting them with their task. In particular, this research is focused on communication and the reasoning required for performing its underlying task of discourse processing, planning, and plan recognition and communication repair. 2) Based on the research objectives to build tools for communication, plan recognition, and planning assistance and for the representation of knowledge and reasoning that underlie all of these processes. This final report summarizes BBN's research activities performed under this contract in the areas of knowledge representation and speech and natural language. In particular, the report discusses the work in the areas of knowledge representation, planning, and discourse modeling. We describe a parallel truth maintenance system. We provide an extension to the sentential theory of propositional attitudes by adding a sentential semantics. The report also contains a description of our research in discourse modelling in the areas of planning and plan recognition.

  16. Agent Technologies Designed to Facilitate Interactive Knowledge Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; Jeon, Moongee; Dufty, David

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade, interdisciplinary researchers have developed technologies with animated pedagogical agents that interact with the student in language and other communication channels (such as facial expressions and gestures). These pedagogical agents model good learning strategies and coach the students in actively constructing knowledge…

  17. Change Agent Research: Phase I-Organizational Audit and Communication Feedback Applied to Windsor Minor Lacrosse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Jones, Patti

    This study reports the results of a pilot Change Agent Research (CAR) project initiated in the summer of 1975 by the Sports Institute for Research (SIR) for the Windsor Minor Lacrosse Association. The purpose of the project was to audit the association to diagnose the nature of its organizational problems and assist in initiating change in order…

  18. The Social Communication Intervention Project: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of Speech and Language Therapy for School-Age Children Who Have Pragmatic and Social Communication Problems with or without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny; Gaile, Jacqueline; Earl, Gillian; McBean, Kirsty; Nash, Marysia; Green, Jonathan; Vail, Andy; Law, James

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children who show disproportionate difficulty with the pragmatic as compared with the structural aspects of language are described as having pragmatic language impairment (PLI) or social communication disorder (SCD). Some children who have PLI also show mild social impairments associated with high-functioning autism or autism spectrum…

  19. Adaptive Communication: Languages with More Non-Native Speakers Tend to Have Fewer Word Forms

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, Christian; Verkerk, Annemarie; Kiela, Douwe; Hill, Felix; Buttery, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the diversity of languages across the world is one of the central aims of typological, historical, and evolutionary linguistics. We consider the effect of language contact-the number of non-native speakers a language has-on the way languages change and evolve. By analysing hundreds of languages within and across language families, regions, and text types, we show that languages with greater levels of contact typically employ fewer word forms to encode the same information content (a property we refer to as lexical diversity). Based on three types of statistical analyses, we demonstrate that this variance can in part be explained by the impact of non-native speakers on information encoding strategies. Finally, we argue that languages are information encoding systems shaped by the varying needs of their speakers. Language evolution and change should be modeled as the co-evolution of multiple intertwined adaptive systems: On one hand, the structure of human societies and human learning capabilities, and on the other, the structure of language. PMID:26083380

  20. Communication Training/Consulting: A Case Study in Training Real Estate Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Ethel C.; Pood, Elliott A.

    The new emphasis on oral communication effectiveness and interpersonal competence in the business world challenges educators to design courses that meet the needs of people who need this kind of training but cannot register for routine college courses due to time constraints. The University of North Carolina (Greensboro) department of…

  1. Examining How Teachers' Beliefs about Communicative Language Teaching Affect Their Instructional and Assessment Practices: A Qualitative Study of EFL University Instructors in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ah-Young Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been a plethora of research on how Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) has been implemented in instruction, few have examined how teacher's beliefs about CLT affects assessment of their students and peers. Thus, this study examined how English as a foreign language (EFL) instructors' teaching beliefs affected not…

  2. The Role of Supported Joint Engagement and Parent Utterances in Language and Social Communication Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Yoder, Paul J.; Hochman, Julia M.; Watson, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between three parent-child engagement states and social communication, expressive language, and receptive language at 8 month follow-up, in 63 preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder. We extend the literature on supported joint engagement by dividing this state into higher order (HSJE) and lower order…

  3. Exploring Taiwanese College Students' Perceptions of Text-Based, Computer-Mediated Communication Technology in Learning Japanese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    The use of computers as an educational tool has become very popular in the context of language teaching and learning. Research into computer mediated communication (CMC) in a Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) learning and teaching context can take advantage of various pedagogical possibilities, just as in the English classroom. This study…

  4. Supporting the communication, language, and literacy development of children with complex communication needs: state of the science and future research priorities.

    PubMed

    Light, Janice; McNaughton, David

    2011-01-01

    Children with complex communication needs (CCN) resulting from autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and other disabilities are severely restricted in their participation in educational, vocational, family, and community environments. There is a substantial body of research that demonstrates convincingly that children with CCN derive substantial benefits from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in their development of communication, language and literacy skills, with no risk to their speech development. Future research must address two significant challenges in order to maximize outcomes for children with CCN: (1) investigating how to improve the design of AAC apps/technologies so as to better meet the breadth of communication needs for the diverse population of children with CCN; and (2) ensuring the effective translation of these evidence-based AAC interventions to the everyday lives of children with CCN so that the possible becomes the probable. This article considers each of these challenges in turn, summarizing the state of the science as well as directions for future research and development. PMID:22590798

  5. Supporting the communication, language, and literacy development of children with complex communication needs: state of the science and future research priorities.

    PubMed

    Light, Janice; McNaughton, David

    2011-01-01

    Children with complex communication needs (CCN) resulting from autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and other disabilities are severely restricted in their participation in educational, vocational, family, and community environments. There is a substantial body of research that demonstrates convincingly that children with CCN derive substantial benefits from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in their development of communication, language and literacy skills, with no risk to their speech development. Future research must address two significant challenges in order to maximize outcomes for children with CCN: (1) investigating how to improve the design of AAC apps/technologies so as to better meet the breadth of communication needs for the diverse population of children with CCN; and (2) ensuring the effective translation of these evidence-based AAC interventions to the everyday lives of children with CCN so that the possible becomes the probable. This article considers each of these challenges in turn, summarizing the state of the science as well as directions for future research and development.

  6. Language and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  7. Social communication with virtual agents: The effects of body and gaze direction on attention and emotional responding in human observers.

    PubMed

    Marschner, Linda; Pannasch, Sebastian; Schulz, Johannes; Graupner, Sven-Thomas

    2015-08-01

    In social communication, the gaze direction of other persons provides important information to perceive and interpret their emotional response. Previous research investigated the influence of gaze by manipulating mutual eye contact. Therefore, gaze and body direction have been changed as a whole, resulting in only congruent gaze and body directions (averted or directed) of another person. Here, we aimed to disentangle these effects by using short animated sequences of virtual agents posing with either direct or averted body or gaze. Attention allocation by means of eye movements, facial muscle response, and emotional experience to agents of different gender and facial expressions were investigated. Eye movement data revealed longer fixation durations, i.e., a stronger allocation of attention, when gaze and body direction were not congruent with each other or when both were directed towards the observer. This suggests that direct interaction as well as incongruous signals increase the demands of attentional resources in the observer. For the facial muscle response, only the reaction of muscle zygomaticus major revealed an effect of body direction, expressed by stronger activity in response to happy expressions for direct compared to averted gaze when the virtual character's body was directed towards the observer. Finally, body direction also influenced the emotional experience ratings towards happy expressions. While earlier findings suggested that mutual eye contact is the main source for increased emotional responding and attentional allocation, the present results indicate that direction of the virtual agent's body and head also plays a minor but significant role. PMID:26004021

  8. Animated pedagogical agents: How the presence and nonverbal communication of a virtual instructor affect perceptions and learning outcomes in a computer-based environment about basic physics concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, M. Casey

    One important but under-researched area of instructional technology concerns the effects of animated pedagogical agents (APAs), or lifelike characters designed to enhance learning in computer-based environments. This research sought to broaden what is currently known about APAs' instructional value by investigating the effects of agents' visual presence and nonverbal communication. A theoretical framework based on APA literature published in the past decade guided the design of the study. This framework sets forth that APAs impact learning through their presence and communication. The communication displayed by an APA involves two distinct kinds of nonverbal cues: cognitive (hand and arm gestures) and affective (facial expressions). It was predicted that the presence of an agent would enhance learning and that nonverbal communication would amplify these effects. The research utilized a between-subjects experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment conditions in a controlled lab setting, and group means were compared with a MANCOVA. Participants received (1) a non-animated agent, (2) an agent with hand and arm gestures, (3) an agent with facial expressions, or (4) a fully animated agent. The agent appeared in a virtual learning environment focused on Kepler's laws of planetary motion. A control group did not receive the visual presence of an agent. Two effects were studied: participants' perceptions and their learning outcomes. Perceptions were measured with an attitudinal survey with five subscales. Learning outcomes were measured with an open-ended recall test, a multiple choice comprehension test, and an open-ended transfer test. Learners presented with an agent with affective nonverbal communication comprehended less than learners exposed to a non-animated agent. No significant differences were observed when a group exposed to a fully animated agent was compared to a group with a non-animated agent. Adding both nonverbal communication

  9. Nonlinear multi-agent path search method based on OFDM communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masatoshi; Igarashi, Yusuke; Tanaka, Mamoru

    This paper presents novel shortest paths searching system based on analog circuit analysis which is called sequential local current comparison method on alternating-current (AC) circuit (AC-SLCC). Local current comparison (LCC) method is a path searching method where path is selected in the direction of the maximum current in a direct-current (DC) resistive circuit. Since a plurality of shortest paths searching by LCC method can be done by solving the current distribution on the resistive circuit analysis, the shortest path problem can be solved at supersonic speed. AC-SLCC method is a novel LCC method with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communication on AC circuit. It is able to send data with the shortest path and without major data loss, and this suggest the possibility of application to various things (especially OFDM communication techniques).

  10. Communication Challenges Learners Face Online: Why Addressing CMC and Language Proficiency Will Not Solve Learners' Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung-Ivannikova, Liubov

    2016-01-01

    Computer-mediated communication (CMC) has been argued to cause (mis)communication issues. Research and practice suggest a range of tactics and strategies for educators focused on how to encourage and foster communication in a virtual learning environment (VLE) (eg, Salmon). However, while frameworks such as Salmon's support the effective…

  11. Cultural Codes and Language Strategies in Business Communication: Interactions between Israeli and Indian Businesspeople.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman, Nurit

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes differences and conflicts in intercultural business communication between Israeli and Indian businesspeople, also analyzing their communication sources and strategies. Finds that communication problems between international managers are better explained by focusing on differences between their discourse systems rather than global…

  12. A Review of Preservice Training in Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Speech-Language Pathologists, Special Education Teachers, and Occupational Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costigan, F. Aileen; Light, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists, special education teachers, and occupational therapists are all likely to encounter individuals with complex communication needs who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in clinical and educational practice. The research on preservice AAC training for these professionals was thus reviewed to…

  13. Can Severely Language Delayed 3-Year-Olds Be Identified at 18 Months? Evaluation of a Screening Version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Monica; Berglund, Eva; Eriksson, Marten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a screening instrument (the Swedish Communication Screening at 18 months of age; SCS18), derived from the Swedish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, in identification of 18-month-old children who will be severely language disabled by 3 years of age, the authors (a) analyzed which SCS18's…

  14. The Effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on Performance in the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) Listening Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Han, Nguyen; van Rensburg, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    Many companies and organizations have been using the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) for business and commercial communication purpose in Vietnam and around the world. The present study investigated the effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on performance in the Test of English for International Communication…

  15. Cultura, communicacion e interaccion: hacia el contexto total del lenguaje y el hombre hispanicos (Culture, Communication and Interaction: Toward the Total Context of Hispanic Man and his Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyatos, Fernando

    1975-01-01

    This fourth and final of a series of papers on communication in the Spanish-speaking world deals with body language and other nonverbal communication. The use of nonverbal sounds, the visual and olfactory senses, and behavior patterns are noted. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  16. Language at a Distance: Sharpening a Communication Tool in the Online Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Annika

    2009-01-01

    Both immensely powerful and entirely fickle, language in online instruction is a double-edged sword. A potent intermediary between instructor and students, and among students themselves, language is a key tool in online learning. It carries and cultivates information. It builds knowledge and self-awareness. It brings learners together in a…

  17. Photo-Booklets for English Language Learning: Incorporating Visual Communication into Early Childhood Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britsch, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Teachers can integrate discussion and writing about photographs into the early childhood curriculum to build speaking, reading, and writing skills in any language. Although little available research focuses on photography and early childhood education as related specifically to English Language Learners, several current teacher resources do focus…

  18. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills. Volume 5, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutow, Howard, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This issue of "Cross Currents" includes the following articles: "The Japanese Concept of Hanashi-Kata and Its Potential Influence on Foreign Language Acquisition" by James R. Bowers; "Linguistic Relativity and Foreign Language Learning" by Ronald Taubitz; "On Being a Sansei English Teacher in Japan" by Ruth Sasaki; "Cross-Cultural Barriers to…

  19. Language Planning Confronted by Everyday Communication in the International University: The Norwegian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljosland, Ragnhild

    2014-01-01

    Having been the scene of language planning for more than a century in relation to the two competing written standards of Norwegian, Norwegian language planners are now facing a new challenge: how to deal with what has been termed "domain loss" where Norwegian is perceived as losing out to English in important sectors of society,…

  20. Solomon Islands Pijin: Culture and Communication Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thom; Horoi, Stephen Rex

    This handbook of the Pijin language is divided into four parts: (1) survival language skills, (2) situations in which the Peace Corps volunteer is likely to be involved, (3) getting the job done, and (4) information on the culture of the Solomon Islands. It establishes classroom activities that require the students to exchange messages in a way…