Science.gov

Sample records for agent competition tac

  1. How Specialised Are Specialists? Generalisation Properties of Entries from the 2008 and 2009 TAC Market Design Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Edward; McBurney, Peter; Yao, Xin

    Unlike the classic Trading Agent competition (TAC), where participants enter trading strategies into a market, the TAC Market Design Competition (CAT) allows participants to create rules for their own double auction market and set fees for traders, which they embody in agents known as specialists. Although the generalisation properties of traders when the specialist (i.e., the market mechanism) is fixed have been assessed, generalisation properties of specialists have not. It is unclear whether and how a specialist might (intentionally or unintentionally) favour certain trading strategies. We present an empirical analysis of specialists' generalisation abilities in various trading environments. Our results show that specialists can be sensitive to a number of factors, including the other trading and specialist strategies in the environment.

  2. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  3. Exploring cooperation and competition using agent-based modeling

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Euel; Kiel, L. Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Agent-based modeling enhances our capacity to model competitive and cooperative behaviors at both the individual and group levels of analysis. Models presented in these proceedings produce consistent results regarding the relative fragility of cooperative regimes among agents operating under diverse rules. These studies also show how competition and cooperation may generate change at both the group and societal level. Agent-based simulation of competitive and cooperative behaviors may reveal the greatest payoff to social science research of all agent-based modeling efforts because of the need to better understand the dynamics of these behaviors in an increasingly interconnected world. PMID:12011396

  4. An Evolutionary Solution for Cooperative and Competitive Mobile Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiancong; Ruan, Jiuhong; Liang, Yongquan

    The cooperation and competition among mobile agents using evolutionary strategy is an important domain in Agent theory and application. With evolutionary strategy the cooperation process is achieved by training and iterating many times. From evolutionary solution of cooperative and competitive mobile agents (CCMA), a group of mobile agents are partitioned into two populations, cooperative agents group and competitive agent group. Cooperative agents are treated as several pursuers, while a competitive agent is viewed as the pursuers' competitor called evader. The cooperation actions take place among the pursuers in order to capture the evader as rapidly as possible. An agent individual (chromosome) is encoded based on a kind of two-dimensional random moving. The next moving direction is encoded as chromosome. The chromosome can be crossed over and mutated according to designed operators and fitness function. An evolutionary algorithm for cooperation and competition of mobile agents is proposed. The experiments show that the algorithm for this evolutionary solution is effective, and it has better time performances and convergence.

  5. Marginal Bidding: An Application of the Equimarginal Principle to Bidding in TAC SCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Amy; Naroditskiy, Victor; Odean, Tyler; Ramirez, Mauricio; Sodomka, Eric; Zimmerman, Joe; Cutler, Clark

    We present a fast and effective bidding strategy for the Trading Agent Competition in Supply Chain Management (TAC SCM). In TAC SCM, manufacturers compete to procure computer parts from suppliers (the procurement problem), and then sell assembled computers to customers in reverse auctions (the bidding problem). This paper is concerned only with bidding, in which an agent must decide how many computers to sell and at what prices to sell them. We propose a greedy solution, Marginal Bidding, inspired by the Equimarginal Principle, which states that revenue is maximized among possible uses of a resource when the return on the last unit of the resource is the same across all areas of use. We show experimentally that certain variations of Marginal Bidding can compute bids faster than our ILP solution, which enables Marginal Bidders to consider future demand as well as current demand, and hence achieve greater revenues when knowledge of the future is valuable.

  6. Overview of the TAC-BIO sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry; Sickenberger, Richard; De Lucia, Marla; Briles, John; Poldmae, Aime; Sickenberger, David

    2005-05-01

    In light of the current state of detection technologies designed to meet the current threat from biological agents, the need for a low-cost and lightweight sensor is clear. Such a sensor based on optical detection, with real time responses and no consumables, is possible. Devices arising from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Semiconductor UV Optical Sources (SUVOS) are the enabling technology. These sources are capable of emitting UV wavelengths known to excite fluorescence from biological agent particles while costing a few dollars apiece and consuming low power. These devices are exploited in the TAC-Bio Sensor. A unique optical design is used to collect the usable portion of the LED emission and focus it into the probing region of the sensor. To compensate for the low UV power density relative to UV lasers, the TAC-Bio utilizes a unique opposed flow configuration to increase the interaction between particles and the UV beam. The current TAC-Bio sensor testbed is capable of detecting fluorescence Bacillus globigii (BG, an anthrax simulant) spore agglomerates down to 5 microns in diameter. Ongoing work is focusing on increasing signal to noise so that smaller particles, possibly single spores, can be detected, as well as on including additional data channels, such as light scattering, to increase selectivity of the sensor.

  7. TacNet Tracker Software

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. Themore » purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.« less

  8. TacNet Tracker Software

    SciTech Connect

    WISEMAN, JAMES; & STEVENS, JAMES

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. The purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.

  9. Multistate Health Plans: Agents for Competition or Consolidation?

    PubMed

    Moffit, Robert E; Meredith, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    We discuss and evaluate the Multi-State Plan (MSP) Program, a provision of the Affordable Care Act that has not been the subject of much debate as yet. The MSP Program provides the Office of Personnel Management with new authority to negotiate and implement multistate insurance plans on all health insurance exchanges within the United States. We raise the concern that the MSP Program may lead to further consolidation of the health insurance industry despite the program's stated goal of increasing competition by means of health insurance exchanges. The MSP Program arguably gives a competitive advantage to large insurers, which already dominate health insurance markets. We also contend that the MSP Program's failure to produce increased competition may motivate a new effort for a public health insurance option. PMID:26350387

  10. Statistical mechanics of competitive resource allocation using agent-based models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Anirban; Challet, Damien; Chatterjee, Arnab; Marsili, Matteo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2015-01-01

    Demand outstrips available resources in most situations, which gives rise to competition, interaction and learning. In this article, we review a broad spectrum of multi-agent models of competition (El Farol Bar problem, Minority Game, Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem, Stable marriage problem, Parking space problem and others) and the methods used to understand them analytically. We emphasize the power of concepts and tools from statistical mechanics to understand and explain fully collective phenomena such as phase transitions and long memory, and the mapping between agent heterogeneity and physical disorder. As these methods can be applied to any large-scale model of competitive resource allocation made up of heterogeneous adaptive agent with non-linear interaction, they provide a prospective unifying paradigm for many scientific disciplines.

  11. TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study to assess methodologies and research instruments needed for including asthma as a health outcome in the National Children's Study (NCS). This was one of a series of pilot studies focusing on (a) simple, cos...

  12. A Teachable-Agent-Based Game Affording Collaboration and Competition: Evaluating Math Comprehension and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pareto, Lena; Haake, Magnus; Lindstrom, Paulina; Sjoden, Bjorn; Gulz, Agneta

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an educational game in mathematics based on an apprenticeship model using a teachable agent, as well as an evaluative study of how the game affects (1) conceptual understanding and (2) attitudes towards mathematics. In addition, we discuss how collaborative and competitive affordances of the game may affect understanding and…

  13. Overview of the TAC-BIO detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry; DeLucia, Marla; Goad, Aime; Lacis, John; Narayanan, Fiona; Sickenberger, David

    2008-10-01

    Ultra Violet (UV) induced fluorescence remains a core technique for the real time detection of biological aerosols. With this approach, the detection of an aerosolized biological event is based on the fluorescent and scattering signals observed from biological particles when exposed to one or more UV sources. In 2004, the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC) initiated an effort to develop a low cost, small, lightweight, low power biological agent detector, identified as the TAC-BIO, based on this principle. Unlike previous laser based detectors, this program has capitalized on Semiconductor UV Optical Sources (SUVOS) being developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Compared to the existing UV lasers, these SUVOS devices and their commercial counter-parts offered a means of achieving small, low cost, low power UV excitation sources. A general design philosophy of incorporating these devices with other low cost components has allowed ECBC to develop a detector that provides a credible degree of performance while maintaining the target size weight and power attributes. This paper presents an overview of the TAC-BIO and some of the findings to date.

  14. Evolving Nutritional Strategies in the Presence of Competition: A Geometric Agent-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair M.; Charleston, Michael A.; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Access to nutrients is a key factor governing development, reproduction and ultimately fitness. Within social groups, contest-competition can fundamentally affect nutrient access, potentially leading to reproductive asymmetry among individuals. Previously, agent-based models have been combined with the Geometric Framework of nutrition to provide insight into how nutrition and social interactions affect one another. Here, we expand this modelling approach by incorporating evolutionary algorithms to explore how contest-competition over nutrient acquisition might affect the evolution of animal nutritional strategies. Specifically, we model tolerance of nutrient excesses and deficits when ingesting nutritionally imbalanced foods, which we term ‘nutritional latitude’; a higher degree of nutritional latitude constitutes a higher tolerance of nutritional excess and deficit. Our results indicate that a transition between two alternative strategies occurs at moderate to high levels of competition. When competition is low, individuals display a low level of nutritional latitude and regularly switch foods in search of an optimum. When food is scarce and contest-competition is intense, high nutritional latitude appears optimal, and individuals continue to consume an imbalanced food for longer periods before attempting to switch to an alternative. However, the relative balance of nutrients within available foods also strongly influences at what levels of competition, if any, transitions between these two strategies occur. Our models imply that competition combined with reproductive skew in social groups can play a role in the evolution of diet breadth. We discuss how the integration of agent-based, nutritional and evolutionary modelling may be applied in future studies to further understand the evolution of nutritional strategies across social and ecological contexts. PMID:25815976

  15. Effects of competition and cooperation interaction between agents on networks in the presence of a market capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonubi, A.; Arcagni, A.; Stefani, S.; Ausloos, M.

    2016-08-01

    A network effect is introduced taking into account competition, cooperation, and mixed-type interaction among agents along a generalized Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra model. It is also argued that the presence of a market capacity undoubtedly enforces a definite limit on the agent's size growth. The state stability of triadic agents, i.e., the most basic network plaquette, is investigated analytically for possible scenarios, through a fixed-point analysis. It is discovered that: (i) market demand is only satisfied for full competition when one agent monopolizes the market; (ii) growth of agent size is encouraged in full cooperation; (iii) collaboration among agents to compete against one single agent may result in the disappearance of this single agent out of the market; and (iv) cooperating with two rivals may become a growth strategy for an intelligent agent.

  16. The Sznajd model with limited persuasion: competition between high-reputation and hesitant agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crokidakis, Nuno; Murilo Castro de Oliveira, Paulo

    2011-11-01

    In this work we study a modified version of the two-dimensional Sznajd sociophysics model. In particular, we consider the effects of agents' reputations in the persuasion rules. In other words, a high-reputation group with a common opinion may convince its neighbors with probability p, which induces an increase of the group's reputation. On the other hand, there is always a probability q = 1 - p of the neighbors keeping their opinions, which induces a decrease of the group's reputation. These rules describe a competition between groups with high-reputation and hesitant agents, which makes the full-consensus states (with all spins pointing in one direction) more difficult to reach. As consequences, the usual phase transition does not occur for p < pc ~ 0.69 and the system presents realistic democracy-like situations, where the majority of spins are aligned in a certain direction, for a wide range of parameters.

  17. Competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic. PMID:9270222

  18. Experimental Investigation of Human Adaptation to Change in Agent's Strategy through a Competitive Two-Player Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Kazunori; Yamada, Seiji; Ito, Akira

    We conducted an experimental investigation on human adaptation to change in an agent's strategy through a competitive two-player game. Modeling the process of human adaptation to agents is important for designing intelligent interface agents and adaptive user interfaces that learn a user's preferences and behavior strategy. However, few studies on human adaptation to such an agent have been done. We propose a human adaptation model for a two-player game. We prepared an on-line experimental system in which a participant and an agent play a repeated penny-matching game with a bonus round. We then conducted experiments in which different opponent agents (human or robot) change their strategy during the game. The experimental results indicated that, as expected, there is an adaptation phase when a human is confronted with a change in the opponent agent's strategy, and adaptation is faster when a human is competing with robot than with another human.

  19. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  20. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  1. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  2. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  3. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665.211... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  4. Competitive receptor binding radioassay for US -1 and US -2 adrenergic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, M.N.; Culbreth, W.; Dalrymple, R.; Fung, C.; Ricks, C.

    1987-05-01

    A rapid and sensitive competitive receptor bonding assay for US -1 and US -2 adrenergic binding for adrenergic agents has been developed. The steps that are critical for the success of the assay are given in detail so that the assay can be set up in any routine laboratory with relative ease. The rationale behind the use of specific reagents is discussed. The assay requires microgram quantities of test compound, a radiolabeled specific US adrenergic antagonist (TH)dihydroalprenolol (DHA), and turkey erythrocyte US -1 and rat erythrocyte US -2 receptor membranes. Serial dilutions of sample are incubated with appropriate receptor membranes and DHA for 1 hr at room temperature. After equilibrium is attained, the bound radioligand is separated by rapid filtration under vacuum through Whatman GF/B filters. The amount of bound DHA trapped on the filter is inversely proportional to the degree of US -1 and US -2 adrenergic binding of the sample. Separation of bound from free radioligand by filtration permits rapid determination of a large number of samples. This assay quantitates and differentiates US -1 and US -2 adrenergic binding of synthetic adrenergic agents.

  5. Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihan, Charles E.

    1991-03-01

    Competition is defined as a spirited, sometimes ruthless, engagement of rivals such as in a race, a match, or an effort by one person to sell goods or services to customers in the marketplace of another. Sound familiar? If you will bear with me for a few minutes, I would like to examine competitiveness on a more global basis with emphasis on the rules of the game. You may be thinking that more often than not the competitive arena is relatively small and far from global, and its consequences are singularly influential on a trivial document called the P & L. However, with the newly established freedom of a major segment of the world population and with the industrial capability formerly known as Communist moving into what has heretofore been "our" limited arena, the competition could get very brisk. Brisk, and perhaps ruthless, unless we work together to try to establish an international industrial policy that is truly based on equality of competitive opportunity for all.

  6. TAC-maker: Transit Analytical Curve maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Vladev, A.; Yotov, V.

    2013-03-01

    TAC-maker allows for rapid and interactive calculation of synthetic planet transits by numerical computations of the integrals, allowing the use of an arbitrary limb-darkening law of the host star. This advantage together with the practically arbitrary precision of the calculations makes the code a valuable tool for the continuously increasing photometric precision of ground-based and space observations.

  7. Tic Tac Toe Math. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Richard

    This instructional guide and set of three companion workbooks are intended for use in an arithmetic course based on the Tic Tac Toe method of addition and multiplication, which is an alternative means of learning to add and multiply that was developed for students whose learning disabilities (including difficulty in distinguishing left from right…

  8. Tic Tac Toe Math. Train the Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Alternative Learning, Bryn Mawr, PA.

    This report describes a project that developed a "Train the Trainer" program that would enable individuals to learn and teach the alternative instructional technique, Tic Tac Toe Math, developed by Richard Cooper for adult basic education students. The pilot workshop conducted as part of the project identified problems that traditional teachers…

  9. The Anticancer Agent Chaetocin Is a Competitive Substrate and Inhibitor of Thioredoxin Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Tibodeau, Jennifer D.; Benson, Linda M.; Isham, Crescent R.; Owen, Whyte G.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We recently reported that the antineoplastic thiodioxopiperazine natural product chaetocin potently induces cellular oxidative stress, thus selectively killing cancer cells. In pursuit of underlying molecular mechanisms, we now report that chaetocin is a competitive and selective substrate for the oxidative stress mitigation enzyme thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) with lower Km than the TrxR1 native substrate thioredoxin (Trx; chaetocin Km = 4.6 ± 0.6 μM, Trx Km = 104.7 ± 26 μM), thereby attenuating reduction of the critical downstream ROS remediation substrate Trx at achieved intracellular concentrations. Consistent with a role for TrxR1 targeting in the anticancer effects of chaetocin, overexpression of the TrxR1 downstream effector Trx in HeLa cells conferred resistance to chaetocin-induced, but not to doxorubicin-induced, cytotoxicity. As the TrxR/Trx pathway is of central importance in limiting cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)—and as chaetocin exerts its selective anticancer effects via ROS imposition—the inhibition of TrxR1 by chaetocin has potential to explain its selective anticancer effects. These observations have important implications not just with regard to the mechanism of action and clinical development of chaetocin and related thiodioxopiperazines, but also with regard to the utility of molecular targets within the thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin pathway in the development of novel candidate antineoplastic agents. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1097–1106. PMID:18999987

  10. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number “01”...

  11. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number “01”...

  12. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number “01”...

  13. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number “01”...

  14. 48 CFR 1201.301-72 - TAC or TN numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TAC or TN numbering. 1201... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 1201.301-72 TAC or TN numbering. TACs and TNs will be numbered consecutively on a fiscal year basis beginning with number “01”...

  15. Avarol derivatives as competitive AChE inhibitors, non hepatotoxic and neuroprotective agents for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; García-Font, Nuria; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Pejin, Boris; Iodice, Carmine; Cañadas, Sixta; Marco-Contelles, José; Oset-Gasque, María Jesús

    2016-10-21

    Avarol is a marine sesquiterpenoid hydroquinone, previously isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea avara Schmidt (Dictyoceratida), with antiinflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, antiplatelet, anti-HIV, and antipsoriatic effects. Recent findings indicate that some thio-avarol derivatives exhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The multiple pharmacological properties of avarol, thio-avarol and/or their derivatives prompted us to continue the in vitro screening, focusing on their AChE inhibitory and neuroprotective effects. Due to the complex nature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a renewed search for new, non hepatotoxic anticholinesterasic compounds. This paper describes the synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of avarol-3'-thiosalicylate (TAVA) and thiosalycil-prenyl-hydroquinones (TPHs), as non hepatotoxic anticholinesterasic agents, showing a good neuroprotective effect on the decreased viability of SHSY5Y human neuroblastoma cells induced by oligomycin A/rotenone and okadaic acid. A molecular modeling study was also undertaken on the most promising molecules within the series to elucidate their AChE binding modes and in particular the role played by the carboxylate group in enzyme inhibition. Among them, TPH4, bearing a geranylgeraniol substituent, is the most significant Electrophorus electricus AChE (EeAChE) inhibitor (IC50 = 6.77 ± 0.24 μM), also endowed with a moderate serum horse butyrylcholinesterase (eqBuChE) inhibitory activity, being also the least hepatotoxic and the best neuroprotective compound of the series. Thus, TPHs represents a new family of synthetic compounds, chemically related to the natural compound avarol, which has been discovered for the potential treatment of AD. Findings prove the relevance of TPHs as a new possible generation of competitive AChE inhibitors pointing out the importance of the salycilic substituents on the hydroquinone ring. Since these compounds do not belong to the class of

  16. Analogs of the antituberculous agent pyrazinamide are competitive inhibitors of NADPH binding to M. tuberculosis fatty acid synthase I.

    PubMed

    Sayahi, Halimah; Pugliese, Kaitlin M; Zimhony, Oren; Jacobs, William R; Shekhtman, Alexander; Welch, John T

    2012-11-01

    Analogs of pyrazinamide (=pyrazine-2-carboxamide; PZA), an essential component of short-course antituberculous chemotherapy, such as 5-chloropyrazinamide (5-Cl-PZA) act as competitive inhibitors of NADPH binding to purified mycobacterial fatty acid synthase I (FAS I) as shown by Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) NMR studies. In addition, pyrazinoic acid esters (POE) and 5-Cl-POE reversibly bind to FAS I with the relatively greater affinity of longer-chain esters for FAS I, clear from the STD amplification factors. The competitive binding of PZA and 5-Cl-PZA clearly illustrates that both agents bind FAS. In contrast to PZA, at low NADPH concentrations 5-Cl-PZA is a cooperative inhibitor of NADPH binding. PMID:23161636

  17. Competitive binding of plutonium and americium with bone mineral and novel chelating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, Ray A.; Hakimi, R.; Durbin, P. W.; Xu, J.; Raymond, K. N.

    2002-01-01

    Effective direct removal of actinides such as Pu and Am from bone in vivo has not been accomplished to date, even with the strong chelating agents CaNa{sub 3}DTPA or ZnNa{sub 3}DTPA. This study, using an established in vitro system, compared removal of Pu and Am bound to bone mineral by ZnNa{sub 3}DTPA and 10 chelating agents designed specifically to sequester actinides, including Pu and Am. Ligands tested were tetra-, hexa, and octadentate with linear or branched backbones containing sulfocatechol [CAM(S)], hydroxycatechol [CAM(C)], hydroxipyridinone (1,2-HOPO, Me-3,2-HOPO), or hydroxamate functional groups. The wide range of Pu and Am removal exhibited by the test ligands generally agreed with their metal coordination and chemical properties. The most effective agents for Pu (100 {micro}M concentration, 24-48 h contact) are all octadentate as follows: 3,4,3-LICAM(S) (54% unbound), 3,4,3-LICAM(C) (6.2%), 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) (3.8%), H(2,2)-(Me-3,2-HOPO) (2.2%) and DFO-(1,2-HOPO) (1.8%). The other ligands removed less than 1% of the bound Pu, and ZnNa{sub 3}DTPA removed only 0.086%. The most effective ligands for Am removal (100 {micro}M, 24-48 h contact) are as follows: octadentate H(2,2)-(Me-3,2-HOPO) (21% unbound), 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) (14.5%), and 3,4,3-LICAM(C) (5.9%), hexadentate TREN-(Me-3,2-HOPO) and TREN-(1,2-HOPO) (9.6%), and tetradentate 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO) (5.2%). Am removal by ZnNa{sub 3}DTPA was about 1.4%. Among the ligands presently considered for possible human use, only 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) removed potentially useful amounts of both Pu and Am from bone mineral.

  18. Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project: Status and Regional Importance

    SciTech Connect

    Yavas, Oe.

    2010-01-21

    The Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project was started in 1997 with support of the State Planning Organization (SPO) of Turkey under Ankara University's coordination. After completing Feasibility Report (FR, 2000) and Conceptual Design Repot (CDR, 2005), third phase of the project was started in 2006 as an inter-university project with support of SPO. Third phase of the project has two main scientific goals: to write Technical Design Report (TDR) of TAC and to establish an Infrared Free Electron Laser (IR FEL) facility as a first step. The first facility and TDR studies are planned to be completed in 2012. Construction phase of TAC will cover 2013-2023. TAC collaboration include ten Turkish Universities: Ankara, Gazi, Istanbul, Bogazici, Dogus, Uludag, Dumlupmar, Nigde, Erciyes and S. Demirel Universities. It was planned that the first facility will be an IR FEL and Bremsstrahlung laboratory based on 15-40 MeV electron linac and two optical cavities with 2.5 and 9 cm undulators to scan 2-250 microns wavelength range. Main purpose of the facility is to use IR FEL for research in material science, nonlinear optics, semiconductors, biotechnology, medicine and photochemical processes. In this study; aims, regional importance, main parts and main parameters of TAC and TAC IR FEL and Bremsstrahlung facility are explained. Road map of the TAC project is given. National and international collaborations are explained.

  19. Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project: Status and Regional Importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavaş, Ö.

    2010-01-01

    The Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project was started in 1997 with support of the State Planning Organization (SPO) of Turkey under Ankara University's coordination. After completing Feasibility Report (FR, 2000) and Conceptual Design Repot (CDR, 2005), third phase of the project was started in 2006 as an inter-university project with support of SPO. Third phase of the project has two main scientific goals: to write Technical Design Report (TDR) of TAC and to establish an Infrared Free Electron Laser (IR FEL) facility as a first step. The first facility and TDR studies are planned to be completed in 2012. Construction phase of TAC will cover 2013-2023. TAC collaboration include ten Turkish Universities: Ankara, Gazi, İstanbul, Boğaziçi, Doğuş, Uludağ, Dumlupmar, Niğde, Erciyes and S. Demirel Universities. It was planned that the first facility will be an IR FEL & Bremsstrahlung laboratory based on 15-40 MeV electron linac and two optical cavities with 2.5 and 9 cm undulators to scan 2-250 microns wavelength range. Main purpose of the facility is to use IR FEL for research in material science, nonlinear optics, semiconductors, biotechnology, medicine and photochemical processes. In this study; aims, regional importance, main parts and main parameters of TAC and TAC IR FEL & Bremsstrahlung facility are explained. Road map of the TAC project is given. National and international collaborations are explained.

  20. Present Status of the TAC Proton Accelerator Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Akkus, B.; Bilgin, P. S.; Caliskan, A.; Yilmaz, M.; Sultansoy, S.

    2007-04-23

    Recently, conceptual design of the Turkic Accelerator Center (TAC) proposal was completed. The main goal of this proposal is a charm factory that consist of a linac-ring type electron-positron collider. In addition, synchrotron radiation from the positron ring, free electron laser from the electron linac and a GeV energy proton accelerator are proposed. The Project related with this proposal has been accepted by the Turkish State Planning Committee. It is planned that the Tecnical Design Repotr of the TAC will have been written in the next three years. In this study we consider main parameters of the TAC proton accelerator, secondary beams and their applications.

  1. Modeling the competition between lung metastases and the immune system using agents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Triplex cell vaccine is a cancer cellular vaccine that can prevent almost completely the mammary tumor onset in HER-2/neu transgenic mice. In a translational perspective, the activity of the Triplex vaccine was also investigated against lung metastases showing that the vaccine is an effective treatment also for the cure of metastases. A future human application of the Triplex vaccine should take into account several aspects of biological behavior of the involved entities to improve the efficacy of therapeutic treatment and to try to predict, for example, the outcomes of longer experiments in order to move faster towards clinical phase I trials. To help to address this problem, MetastaSim, a hybrid Agent Based - ODE model for the simulation of the vaccine-elicited immune system response against lung metastases in mice is presented. The model is used as in silico wet-lab. As a first application MetastaSim is used to find protocols capable of maximizing the total number of prevented metastases, minimizing the number of vaccine administrations. Results The model shows that it is possible to obtain "in silico" a 45% reduction in the number of vaccinations. The analysis of the results further suggests that any optimal protocol for preventing lung metastases formation should be composed by an initial massive vaccine dosage followed by few vaccine recalls. Conclusions Such a reduction may represent an important result from the point of view of translational medicine to humans, since a downsizing of the number of vaccinations is usually advisable in order to minimize undesirable effects. The suggested vaccination strategy also represents a notable outcome. Even if this strategy is commonly used for many infectious diseases such as tetanus and hepatitis-B, it can be in fact considered as a relevant result in the field of cancer-vaccines immunotherapy. These results can be then used and verified in future "in vivo" experiments, and their outcome can be used to

  2. The Arabidopsis TAC Position Viewer: a high-resolution map of transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) clones aligned with the Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 genome.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yoshitsugu; Suda, Kunihiro; Liu, Yao-Guang; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yukino; Yokoyama, Koji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Hanano, Shigeru; Takita, Eiji; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Yano, Kentaro; Tabata, Satoshi; Shibata, Daisuke

    2015-09-01

    We present a high-resolution map of genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) clones extending over all Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) chromosomes. The Arabidopsis genomic TAC clones have been valuable genetic tools. Previously, we constructed an Arabidopsis genomic TAC library consisting of more than 10,000 TAC clones harboring large genomic DNA fragments extending over the whole Arabidopsis genome. Here, we determined 13,577 end sequences from 6987 Arabidopsis TAC clones and mapped 5937 TAC clones to precise locations, covering approximately 90% of the Arabidopsis chromosomes. We present the large-scale data set of TAC clones with high-resolution mapping information as a Java application tool, the Arabidopsis TAC Position Viewer, which provides ready-to-go transformable genomic DNA clones corresponding to certain loci on Arabidopsis chromosomes. The TAC clone resources will accelerate genomic DNA cloning, positional walking, complementation of mutants and DNA transformation for heterologous gene expression. PMID:26227242

  3. A Sequence Mining Method to Predict the Bidding Strategy of Trading Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaidou, Vivia; Mitkas, Pericles A.

    In this work, we describe the process used in order to predict the bidding strategy of trading agents. This was done in the context of the Reverse TAC, or CAT, game of the Trading Agent Competition. In this game, a set of trading agents, buyers or sellers, are provided by the server and they trade their goods in one of the markets operated by the competing agents. Better knowledge of the strategy of the trading agents will allow a market maker to adapt its incentives and attract more agents to its own market. Our prediction was based on the time series of the traders’ past bids, taking into account the variation of each bid compared to its history. The results proved to be of satisfactory accuracy, both in the game’s context and when compared to other existing approaches.

  4. Mevinolin: a highly potent competitive inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and a cholesterol-lowering agent.

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, A W; Chen, J; Kuron, G; Hunt, V; Huff, J; Hoffman, C; Rothrock, J; Lopez, M; Joshua, H; Harris, E; Patchett, A; Monaghan, R; Currie, S; Stapley, E; Albers-Schonberg, G; Hensens, O; Hirshfield, J; Hoogsteen, K; Liesch, J; Springer, J

    1980-01-01

    Mevinolin, a fungal metabolite, was isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The structure and absolute configuration of mevinolini and its open acid form, mevinolinic acid, were determined by a combination of physical techniques. Mevinolin was shown to be 1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-beta, delta-dihydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-8-(2-methyl-1-oxobutoxy)-1-naphthalene-hepatanoic acid delta-lactone. Mevinolin in the hydroxy-acid form, mevinolinic acid, is a potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase [mevalonate: NADP+ oxidoreductase (CoA-acylating), EC 1.1.1.34]; its Ki of 0.6 nM can be compared to 1.4 nM for the hydroxy acid form of the previously described related inhibitor, ML-236B (compactin, 6-demethylmevinolin). In the rat, orally administered sodium mevinolinate was an active inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis in an acute assay (50% inhibitory dose = 46 microgram/kg). Furthermore, it was shown that mevinolin was an orally active cholesterol-lowering agent in the dog. Treatment of dogs for 3 weeks with mevinolin at 8 mg/kg per day resulted in a 29.3 +/- 2.5% lowering of plasma cholesterol. PMID:6933445

  5. Using TACS functions within EMTP to teach protective relaying fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, R.W.; Johnson, B.K.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this discussion is to provide an educational tool for investigating relaying concepts by modeling digital relays using TACS functions within EMTP in a closed-loop manner. Various elements of digital protection systems are identified and organized to generate an systematic approach to modeling the actual hardware of relay systems. Discussion is limited to conventional relaying systems that monitor the vitality of the 60 Hz voltages and/or currents. TACS functions for transport delay and pulse generators are used to model dynamics associated with analog to digital conversion and sampling systems. DSP algorithms convert a sequence of sampled data into a sequence of values for magnitude and phase components. A simple example of a time overcurrent relay is developed to demonstrate the techniques to implement relay control in EMTP with TACS and illustrates the kinds of phenomena that can be studied using these techniques.

  6. Bidding Heuristics for Simultaneous Auctions: Lessons from TAC Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, Amy; Naroditskiy, Victor; Lee, Seong Jae

    We undertake an experimental study of heuristics designed for the Travel division of the Trading Agent Competition. Our primary goal is to analyze the performance of the sample average approximation (SAA) heuristic, which is approximately optimal in the decision-theoretic (DT) setting, in this game-theoretic (GT) setting. To this end, we conduct experiments in four settings, three DT and one GT. The relevant distinction between the DT and the GT settings is: in the DT settings, agents' strategies do not affect the distribution of prices. Because of this distinction, the DT experiments are easier to analyze than the GT experiments. Moreover, settings with normally distributed prices, and controlled noise, are easier to analyze than those with competitive equilibrium prices. In the studied domain, analysis of the DT settings with possibly noisy normally distributed prices informs our analysis of the richer DT and GT settings with competitive equilibrium prices. In future work, we plan to investigate whether this experimental methodology - namely, transferring knowledge gained in a DT setting with noisy signals to a GT setting - can be applied to analyze heuristics for playing other complex games.

  7. The improved code TAC maker for modeling of planet transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Vladev, A.

    We present improvements of the code TAC-maker for modeling of planet transits. While the initial version of the code calculated synthetic transits for certain values of the input parameters, the new version TAC-maker 1.1.0 gives a possibility to obtain simultaneously numerous synthetic transits corresponding to chosen ranges of values for each fitted parameter. The most valuable property of the improved version of the code is the ability to obtain the global minimum of χ^{2} in the multidimensional parametric space and to estimate the errors of the searched parameters.

  8. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  9. PILOT STUDY: THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools for children in the age range of 1-5 years old. The pilot study focused on (a) simple, cost-...

  10. Molecular cloning of Reteplase and its expression in E. coli using tac promoter

    PubMed Central

    Aghaabdollahian, Safieh; Rabbani, Mohammad; Ghaedi, Kamran; Sadeghi, Hamid Mir Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: This study aimed to clone and express the reteplase cDNA, a thrombolytic agent used for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction and stroke, in E. coli, utilizing tac promoter for its expression. Materials and Methods: Reteplase cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with designed primers. The product was then cloned into pTZ57R plasmid. The cloned cDNA was digested out and ligated into pGEX-5x-1 expression vector. The presence of the insert was confirmed by restriction digestion. By using 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mM isopropyl beta-D thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), expression of reteplase was induced in E. coli TOP10 cells and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Results: Electrophoresis of PCR product and also double digested recombinant pTZ57R plasmid, also, pGEX-5x-1 vector, showed a 1068bp band of reteplase. SDS-PAGE analysis showed a 60 KDa band of protein product induced with different concentrations of IPTG. Conclusion: In the present study, reteplase cDNA was successfully cloned and expressed using tac promoter. This vector will be used for the optimization of the expression of reteplase in E. coli. PMID:25298959

  11. Drawing strategies for generalized tic-tac-toe (p, q)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diptarama, Narisawa, Kazuyuki; Shinohara, Ayumi

    2016-02-01

    GTTT(p, q) is an achievement game for polyominoes, which is an extension of Harary's generalized tic-tac-toe. Two players alternately put p stones over a board with the exception that the first player Black puts q stones for the first move. The player who first achieves a given polyomino wins the game. Unlike the generalized tic-tac-toe, we define winner for polyomino that Black can achieve, loser that White can achieve, and draw that both players cannot achieve in each GTTT(p, q). In this paper we define three classes of polyominoes for GTTT(p, q) and show that any polyomino that satisfies some conditions for each classes is a draw.

  12. Ordering Effects in NbC and TaC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venables, J. D.; Meyerhoff, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    By means of transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, evidence has been obtained for the existence of long range carbon atom ordering in single-crystal niobium carbide that has a carbon-to-metal ratio close to the integral composition Nb6C5. The ordering, which gives rise to superlattice and domain structures similar to those observed in V6C5, appears, however, only in samples that have been cooled slowly through the order-disorder temperature of 1025 C. In TaC of similar composition, the ordering, although present, remains very imperfect even after the crystals are subjected to the same thermal treatment. The results are interpreted in terms of the electronic structure of the transition metal carbides as it is currently understood, and their relevance to the mechanical properties of NbC and TaC are discussed.

  13. 50 CFR 648.201 - Closures and TAC controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.201 Closures and TAC controls. (a) If NMFS determines that catch will reach... herring per trip and/or >2,000 lb (907.2 kg) of Atlantic herring per day in such area pursuant to... with > 2,000 lb (907.2 kg) of herring on board, provided such herring were caught in an area or...

  14. Gallium as a Therapeutic Agent: A Thermodynamic Evaluation of the Competition between Ga(3+) and Fe(3+) Ions in Metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Valia; Angelova, Silvia; Markova, Nikoleta; Dudev, Todor

    2016-03-10

    Gallium has been employed (in the form of soluble salts) to fight various forms of cancer, infectious, and inflammatory diseases. The rationale behind this lies in the ability of Ga(3+) cation to mimic closely in appearance the native ferric ion, Fe(3+), thus interfering with the biological processes requiring ferric cofactors. However, Ga(3+) ion cannot participate in redox reactions and, when substituting for the "native" Fe(3+) ion in the enzyme active site, renders it inactive. Although a significant body of information on the Ga(3+)-Fe(3+) competition in biological systems has been accumulated, the intimate mechanism of the process is still not well understood and several questions remain: What are the basic physical principles governing the competition between the two trivalent cations in proteins? What type of metal centers are the most likely targets for gallium therapy? To what extent are the Fe(3+)-binding sites in the key enzyme ribonucleotide reductase vulnerable to Ga(3+) substitution? Here, we address these questions by studying the competition between Ga(3+) and Fe(3+) ions in model metal binding sites of various compositions and charge states. The results obtained are in line with available experimental data and shed light on the intimate mechanism of the Ga(3+)/Fe(3+) selectivity in various model metal binding sites and biological systems such as serum transferrin and ribonucleotide reductase. PMID:26885684

  15. Flexible tab-assisted control concept (FlexTAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thang D.; Carpenter, Bernie F.; Hall, Jeffrey

    2001-06-01

    In late 1997 under ONR and DARPA funding members of the SAMPSON Marine Naval Team (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Lockeed Martin and General Dynamics Electric Boat) began investigating the benefits of the tab assisted control (TAC) concept for underwater control surfaces. Results of water tunnel tests conducted in 1998 indicated that the addition of a small trailing-edge tab, typically 10% of the mean chord of the entire control surface structure, vastly enhances the versatility of the control surface system. Depending on the orientation of the tab with respect to the primary control surface (flap) this tab may be used to significantly modify lift, reduce torque, and increase maneuvering capabilities. In 1999 a plan was established to actuate the tab with Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators as a first step towards development of a continuously compliant or flexible control surface similar to that demonstrated in the DARPA Smart Vortex Leveraging Tab (SVLT) program. Testing of a SMA-actuated TAC device occurred late summer 2000. This paper presents a summary of these activities as well as current plant to test and evaluate the FlexTAC (Flexible Tab Assisted Control) concept, which replaces the tab with a continuously compliant trailing edge.

  16. INTESTINAL SURVIVAL, COMPETITION AND TRANSLOCATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AGENTS UPON INTRANASAL EXPOSURE OF C3H/HEJ MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following intentional or accidental release, human exposure to biotechnology agents may occur. herefore, it is important to development, models to help identify any adverse health effects, either direct or indirect, that may be associated with the exposure. his study addresses co...

  17. Spectrophotometric assays for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in dog serum: an update.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Camila Peres; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa; Martinez-Subiela, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Ceron, José Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to study the main spectrophotometric methods used to evaluate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in serum samples of dogs. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is an analyte frequently used to assess the antioxidant status of biological samples and can evaluate the antioxidant response against the free radicals produced in a given disease. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) are different assays described to determine TAC of a sample. This review explains the basis of each assay and their application in the determination of TAC in dogs, and also provides selected information about reports in humans for comparative purposes. It is concluded that, ideally, various different assays integrated in a panel should be used for TAC evaluation, since depending on the assay performed TAC results can be markedly different. PMID:27526688

  18. Concurrent Electroencephalography Recording During Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS)

    PubMed Central

    Fehér, Kristoffer D.; Morishima, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory brain activities are considered to reflect the basis of rhythmic changes in transmission efficacy across brain networks and are assumed to integrate cognitive neural processes. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) holds the promise to elucidate the causal link between specific frequencies of oscillatory brain activity and cognitive processes. Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recording during tACS would offer an opportunity to directly explore immediate neurophysiological effects of tACS. However, it is not trivial to measure EEG signals during tACS, as tACS creates a huge artifact in EEG data. Here we explain how to set up concurrent tACS-EEG experiments. Two necessary considerations for successful EEG recording while applying tACS are highlighted. First, bridging of the tACS and EEG electrodes via leaking EEG gel immediately saturates the EEG amplifier. To avoid bridging via gel, the viscosity of the EEG gel is the most important parameter. The EEG gel must be viscous to avoid bridging, but at the same time sufficiently fluid to create contact between the tACS electrode and the scalp. Second, due to the large amplitude of the tACS artifact, it is important to consider using an EEG system with a high resolution analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. In particular, the magnitude of the tACS artifact can exceed 100 mV at the vicinity of a stimulation electrode when 1 mA tACS is applied. The resolution of the A/D converter is of importance to measure good quality EEG data from the vicinity of the stimulation site. By following these guidelines for the procedures and technical considerations, successful concurrent EEG recording during tACS will be realized. PMID:26862814

  19. Concurrent Electroencephalography Recording During Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS).

    PubMed

    Fehér, Kristoffer D; Morishima, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory brain activities are considered to reflect the basis of rhythmic changes in transmission efficacy across brain networks and are assumed to integrate cognitive neural processes. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) holds the promise to elucidate the causal link between specific frequencies of oscillatory brain activity and cognitive processes. Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recording during tACS would offer an opportunity to directly explore immediate neurophysiological effects of tACS. However, it is not trivial to measure EEG signals during tACS, as tACS creates a huge artifact in EEG data. Here we explain how to set up concurrent tACS-EEG experiments. Two necessary considerations for successful EEG recording while applying tACS are highlighted. First, bridging of the tACS and EEG electrodes via leaking EEG gel immediately saturates the EEG amplifier. To avoid bridging via gel, the viscosity of the EEG gel is the most important parameter. The EEG gel must be viscous to avoid bridging, but at the same time sufficiently fluid to create contact between the tACS electrode and the scalp. Second, due to the large amplitude of the tACS artifact, it is important to consider using an EEG system with a high resolution analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. In particular, the magnitude of the tACS artifact can exceed 100 mV at the vicinity of a stimulation electrode when 1 mA tACS is applied. The resolution of the A/D converter is of importance to measure good quality EEG data from the vicinity of the stimulation site. By following these guidelines for the procedures and technical considerations, successful concurrent EEG recording during tACS will be realized. PMID:26862814

  20. TaC Studios New Construction Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Kim, E.; Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-03-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed humid climate zone. This home will serve as a model home for the builder partner and addresses Building America energy savings targets through the planning and implementation of a design package will serve as a basis of design for the builder partner's future homes. As a BA test house, this home will be evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and HVAC and hot water efficiency.

  1. TaC Studios New Construction Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Kim, E.; Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-03-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA, in the mixed humid climate zone. This home will serve as a model home for the builder partner and addresses Building America energy savings targets through the planning and implementation of a design package will serve as a basis of design for the builder partner’s future homes. As a BA test house, this home will be evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and HVAC and hot water efficiency.

  2. TAC Proton Accelerator Facility: The Status and Road Map

    SciTech Connect

    Algin, E.; Akkus, B.; Caliskan, A.; Yilmaz, M.; Sahin, L.

    2011-06-28

    Proton Accelerator (PA) Project is at a stage of development, working towards a Technical Design Report under the roof of a larger-scale Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. The project is supported by the Turkish State Planning Organization. The PA facility will be constructed in a series of stages including a 3 MeV test stand, a 55 MeV linac which can be extended to 100+ MeV, and then a full 1-3 GeV proton synchrotron or superconducting linac. In this article, science applications, overview, and current status of the PA Project will be given.

  3. Evidence for regulatory diversity and auto-regulation at the TAC1 locus in sensory neurones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide substance-P (SP) is expressed from the TAC1 gene in sensory neurones where it acts as a key modulator of neurogenic inflammation. The promoter of TAC1 (TAC1prom) plays a central role in the regulation of the TAC1 gene but requires the presence of a second regulatory element; ECR2, to support TAC1 expression in sensory neurones and to respond appropriately to signalling pathways such as MAPkinases and noxious induction by capsaicin. We examined whether the effect of capsaicin on ECR2-TAC1prom activity in larger diameter neurones was cell autonomous or non- cell autonomous. We demonstrate that TRPV1 is not expressed in all the same cells as SP following capsaicin induction suggesting the presence of a non-cell autonomous mechanism for TAC1 up-regulation following capsaicin induction. In addition, we demonstrate that induction of SP and ECR1-TAC1prom activity in these larger diameter neurones can be induced by potassium depolarisation suggesting that, in addition to capsaicin induction, transgene activity may be modulated by voltage gated calcium channels. Furthermore, we show that NK1 is expressed in all SP- expressing cells after capsaicin induction and that an agonist of NK1 can activate both SP and the transgene in larger diameter neurones. These observations suggest the presence of an autocrine loop that controls the expression of the TAC1 promoter in sensory neurones. In contrast, induction of the TAC1 promoter by LPS was not dependent on ECR2 and did not occur in large diameter neurones. These studies demonstrate the diversity of mechanisms modulating the activity of the TAC1 promoter and provide novel directions for the development of new anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:21294877

  4. Measuring Teacher Attitudes toward Instructional Technology: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the TAC and TAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, Dominick; Corbell, Kristen A.; Osbourne, Jason W.; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Grable, Lisa Leonor

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors present a confirmatory factor analysis of the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computers (TAC) and the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Information Technology (TAT) scales by Christensen and Knezek (1996, 1998) using large samples from three states. The TAC was reduced from 98 items and nine factors to 35 items and eight factors,…

  5. A new dielectric ta-C film coating of Ag-nanoparticle hybrids to enhance TiO2 photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fanxin; Tang, Chaojun; Wang, Zhenlin; Sui, Chenghua; Ma, Hongtao

    2014-03-28

    We have demonstrated a novel method to enhance TiO₂ photocatalysis by adopting a new ultrathin tetrahedral-amorphous-carbon (ta-C) film coating on Ag nanoparticles to create strong plasmonic near-field enhancement. The result shows that the decomposition rate of methylene blue on the Ag/10 Å ta-C/TiO₂ composite photocatalyst is ten times faster than that on a TiO₂ photocatalyst and three times faster than that on a Ag/TiO₂ photocatalyst. This can be ascribed to the simultaneous realization of two competitive processes: one that excites the surface plasmons (SPs) of the ta-C-film/Ag-nanoparticle hybrid and provides a higher electric field near the ta-C/TiO₂ interface compared to Ag nanoparticles alone, while the other takes advantage of the dense diamond-like ta-C layer to help reduce the transfer of photogenerated electrons from the conduction band of TiO₂ to the metallic surface, since any electron transfer will suppress the excitation of SP modes in the metal nanoparticles. PMID:24572147

  6. Condor TAC: EO/IR tactical aerial reconnaissance photography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushevsky, Vladimir; Tsur, David

    2012-06-01

    Based on the experience gained with the Condor2 long-range oblique photography (LOROP) camera, ELOP is expanding its airborne reconnaissance product line with the Condor TAC tactical photography system. The latter was designed for overflight imaging of extended areas from a fighter or special mission aircraft, at day and night. The Condor TAC is mounted in an aerodynamically shaped pod and can operate in wide envelope of flight altitude and speed. Besides the camera, the pod contains mission management and video processing unit (MVU), solid state recorder (SSR), wide-band data link (DL) for real-time imagery transmission, and two environmental control units (ECU). Complex multi-segment optical windows were successfully developed for the system. The camera system design is modular and highly flexible. Two independent imaging payload modules are mounted inside a gimbal system. Each of the modules is equipped with a strap-down IMU, and may carry a cluster of cameras or a single large camera with gross weight up to 35 kg. The payload modules are interchangeable, with an identical interface to the gimbal. The modularity and open architecture of the system facilitate its adaptation to various operational requirements, as well as allow easy and relatively non-expensive upgrades and configuration changes. In the current configuration, both EO and IR payload modules are equipped with a combination of longer focal length cameras for bi-directional panoramic scan at medium and high flight altitudes, and shorter focal length cameras for fixed wide angle coverage at low altitudes. All the camera types are equipped with standard format, off-the-shelf area detector arrays. Precise motion compensation is achieved by calibrated back-scan mirrors.

  7. An improved high yield total synthesis and cytotoxicity study of the marine alkaloid neoamphimedine: an ATP-competitive inhibitor of topoisomerase IIα and potent anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Li, Linfeng; Abraham, Adedoyin D; Zhou, Qiong; Ali, Hadi; O'Brien, Jeremy V; Hamill, Brayden D; Arcaroli, John J; Messersmith, Wells A; LaBarbera, Daniel V

    2014-09-01

    Recently, we characterized neoamphimedine (neo) as an ATP-competitive inhibitor of the ATPase domain of human Topoisomerase IIα. Thus far, neo is the only pyridoacridine with this mechanism of action. One limiting factor in the development of neo as a therapeutic agent has been access to sufficient amounts of material for biological testing. Although there are two reported syntheses of neo, both require 12 steps with low overall yields (≤6%). In this article, we report an improved total synthesis of neo achieved in 10 steps with a 25% overall yield. In addition, we report an expanded cytotoxicity study using a panel of human cancer cell lines, including: breast, colorectal, lung, and leukemia. Neo displays potent cytotoxicity (nM IC50 values) in all, with significant potency against colorectal cancer (lowest IC50 = 6 nM). We show that neo is cytotoxic not cytostatic, and that neo exerts cytotoxicity by inducing G2-M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PMID:25244109

  8. An Improved High Yield Total Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Study of the Marine Alkaloid Neoamphimedine: An ATP-Competitive Inhibitor of Topoisomerase IIα and Potent Anticancer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linfeng; Abraham, Adedoyin D.; Zhou, Qiong; Ali, Hadi; O’Brien, Jeremy V.; Hamill, Brayden D.; Arcaroli, John J.; Messersmith, Wells A.; LaBarbera, Daniel V.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we characterized neoamphimedine (neo) as an ATP-competitive inhibitor of the ATPase domain of human Topoisomerase IIα. Thus far, neo is the only pyridoacridine with this mechanism of action. One limiting factor in the development of neo as a therapeutic agent has been access to sufficient amounts of material for biological testing. Although there are two reported syntheses of neo, both require 12 steps with low overall yields (≤6%). In this article, we report an improved total synthesis of neo achieved in 10 steps with a 25% overall yield. In addition, we report an expanded cytotoxicity study using a panel of human cancer cell lines, including: breast, colorectal, lung, and leukemia. Neo displays potent cytotoxicity (nM IC50 values) in all, with significant potency against colorectal cancer (lowest IC50 = 6 nM). We show that neo is cytotoxic not cytostatic, and that neo exerts cytotoxicity by inducing G2-M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PMID:25244109

  9. TAC102 Is a Novel Component of the Mitochondrial Genome Segregation Machinery in Trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Trikin, Roman; Doiron, Nicholas; Hoffmann, Anneliese; Haenni, Beat; Jakob, Martin; Schnaufer, Achim; Schimanski, Bernd; Zuber, Benoît; Ochsenreiter, Torsten

    2016-05-01

    Trypanosomes show an intriguing organization of their mitochondrial DNA into a catenated network, the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). While more than 30 proteins involved in kDNA replication have been described, only few components of kDNA segregation machinery are currently known. Electron microscopy studies identified a high-order structure, the tripartite attachment complex (TAC), linking the basal body of the flagellum via the mitochondrial membranes to the kDNA. Here we describe TAC102, a novel core component of the TAC, which is essential for proper kDNA segregation during cell division. Loss of TAC102 leads to mitochondrial genome missegregation but has no impact on proper organelle biogenesis and segregation. The protein is present throughout the cell cycle and is assembled into the newly developing TAC only after the pro-basal body has matured indicating a hierarchy in the assembly process. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the TAC is replicated de novo rather than using a semi-conservative mechanism. Lastly, we demonstrate that TAC102 lacks an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence and requires sequences in the C-terminal part of the protein for its proper localization. PMID:27168148

  10. The effect of 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on corticomuscular coherence

    PubMed Central

    Wach, Claudia; Krause, Vanessa; Moliadze, Vera; Paulus, Walter; Schnitzler, Alfons; Pollok, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous oscillatory activity at alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz), and gamma (30–90 Hz) frequencies is assumed to play a key role for motor control. Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) represents an established measure of the pyramidal system's integrity. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) offers the possibility to modulate ongoing oscillatory activity. Behaviorally, 20 Hz tACS in healthy subjects has been shown to result in movement slowing. However, the neurophysiological changes underlying these effects are not entirely understood yet. The present study aimed at ascertaining the effects of tACS at 10 and 20 Hz in healthy subjects on CMC and local power of the primary sensorimotor cortex. Neuromagnetic activity was recorded during isometric contraction before and at two time points (2–10 min and 30–38 min) after tACS of the left primary motor cortex (M1), using a 306 channel whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. Additionally, electromyography (EMG) of the right extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscle was measured. TACS was applied at 10 and 20 Hz, respectively, for 10 min at 1 mA. Sham stimulation served as control condition. The data suggest that 10 Hz tACS significantly reduced low gamma band CMC during isometric contraction. This implies that tACS does not necessarily cause effects at stimulation frequency. Rather, the findings suggest cross-frequency interplay between alpha and low gamma band activity modulating functional interaction between motor cortex and muscle. PMID:24009573

  11. TAC102 Is a Novel Component of the Mitochondrial Genome Segregation Machinery in Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Anneliese; Haenni, Beat; Jakob, Martin; Schnaufer, Achim; Schimanski, Bernd; Zuber, Benoît; Ochsenreiter, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomes show an intriguing organization of their mitochondrial DNA into a catenated network, the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). While more than 30 proteins involved in kDNA replication have been described, only few components of kDNA segregation machinery are currently known. Electron microscopy studies identified a high-order structure, the tripartite attachment complex (TAC), linking the basal body of the flagellum via the mitochondrial membranes to the kDNA. Here we describe TAC102, a novel core component of the TAC, which is essential for proper kDNA segregation during cell division. Loss of TAC102 leads to mitochondrial genome missegregation but has no impact on proper organelle biogenesis and segregation. The protein is present throughout the cell cycle and is assembled into the newly developing TAC only after the pro-basal body has matured indicating a hierarchy in the assembly process. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the TAC is replicated de novo rather than using a semi-conservative mechanism. Lastly, we demonstrate that TAC102 lacks an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence and requires sequences in the C-terminal part of the protein for its proper localization. PMID:27168148

  12. The effects of theta transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on fluid intelligence.

    PubMed

    Pahor, Anja; Jaušovec, Norbert

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the influence of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on resting brain activity and on measures of fluid intelligence. Theta tACS was applied to the left parietal and left frontal brain areas of healthy participants after which resting electroencephalogram (EEG) data was recorded. Following sham/active stimulation, the participants solved two tests of fluid intelligence while their EEG was recorded. The results showed that active theta tACS affected spectral power in theta and alpha frequency bands. In addition, active theta tACS improved performance on tests of fluid intelligence. This influence was more pronounced in the group of participants that received stimulation to the left parietal area than in the group of participants that received stimulation to the left frontal area. Left parietal tACS increased performance on the difficult test items of both tests (RAPM and PF&C) whereas left frontal tACS increased performance only on the easy test items of one test (RAPM). The observed behavioral tACS influences were also accompanied by changes in neuroelectric activity. The behavioral and neuroelectric data tentatively support the P-FIT neurobiological model of intelligence. PMID:24998643

  13. F/A-18 tactical reconnaissance (tac recce) capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, David; Pugh, Gregory G.; Wolters, David

    1996-11-01

    In 1995 the F/A-18 TAC RECCE Program was expanded beyond the initial electro-optic and infrared image recording capability of the Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (ATARS). The program now also includes integration of new high-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconnaissance modes and air-to-ground data link of ATARS and SAR image data. Delivery of the first reconnaissance equipment production units and fleet release is scheduled for 1998. F/A-18D two-seat aircraft will be retrofit with the RECCE equipment and designated F/A-18D(RC) (Reconnaissance Capable). This presentation describes recent F/A-18D(RC) operational assessment results, tactical reconnaissance equipment, functions, and interfaces for the 1998 fleet release. The equipment consists of the ATARS, the aircraft RECCE kit (access door, sensor windows, fairings), the upgraded APG-73 radar, and the data link pod. Functions include mission planning, automatic and manual acquisition of RECCE targets, image data recording, crew-station image review and edit, and data link. Interfaces include those with the Tactical Automated Mission Planning System, ground exploitation stations, and the aircraft carrier environment.

  14. Targeting the neurophysiology of cognitive systems with transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Flavio; Sellers, Kristin K.; Cordle, Asa L.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment represents one of the most debilitating and most difficult symptom to treat of many psychiatric illnesses. Human neurophysiology studies have suggested specific pathologies of cortical network activity correlate with cognitive impairment. However, we lack (1) demonstration of causal relationships between specific network activity patterns and cognitive capabilities and (2) treatment modalities that directly target impaired network dynamics of cognition. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation approach, may provide a crucial tool to tackle these challenges. We here propose that tACS can be used to elucidate the causal role of cortical synchronization in cognition and, eventually, to enhance pathologically weakened synchrony that may underlie cognitive deficits. To accelerate such development of tACS as a treatment for cognitive deficits, we discuss studies on tACS and cognition (all performed in healthy participants) according to the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) of the National Institute of Mental Health. PMID:25547149

  15. The transcription factor Ndt80 does not contribute to Mrr1-, Tac1-, and Upc2-mediated fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Christoph; Schillig, Rebecca; Dierolf, Franziska; Weyler, Michael; Schneider, Sabrina; Mogavero, Selene; Rogers, P David; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can develop resistance to the widely used antifungal agent fluconazole, which inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis, by the overexpression of genes encoding multidrug efflux pumps or ergosterol biosynthesis enzymes. Zinc cluster transcription factors play a central role in the transcriptional regulation of drug resistance. Mrr1 regulates the expression of the major facilitator MDR1, Tac1 controls the expression of the ABC transporters CDR1 and CDR2, and Upc2 regulates ergosterol biosynthesis (ERG) genes. Gain-of-function mutations in these transcription factors result in constitutive overexpression of their target genes and are responsible for fluconazole resistance in many clinical C. albicans isolates. The transcription factor Ndt80 contributes to the drug-induced upregulation of CDR1 and ERG genes and also binds to the MDR1 and CDR2 promoters, suggesting that it is an important component of all major transcriptional mechanisms of fluconazole resistance. However, we found that Ndt80 is not required for the induction of MDR1 and CDR2 expression by inducing chemicals. CDR2 was even partially derepressed in ndt80Δ mutants, indicating that Ndt80 is a repressor of CDR2 expression. Hyperactive forms of Mrr1, Tac1, and Upc2 promoted overexpression of MDR1, CDR1/CDR2, and ERG11, respectively, with the same efficiency in the presence and absence of Ndt80. Mrr1- and Tac1-mediated fluconazole resistance was even slightly enhanced in ndt80Δ mutants compared to wild-type cells. These results demonstrate that Ndt80 is dispensable for the constitutive overexpression of Mrr1, Tac1, and Upc2 target genes and the increased fluconazole resistance of strains that have acquired activating mutations in these transcription factors. PMID:21980509

  16. Development of X-Shape Filtered Arc Deposition Apparatus for Thick ta-C Film Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikokasa, Hiroki; Iwasaki, Yasuhiro; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Sakakibara, Tateki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Nobuhiro

    Novel X-shape filtered arc deposition (X-FAD) apparatus is specially designed and newly developed for thick hydrogen-free tetrahedral amorphous-carbon (ta-C) film coating on superhard alloy (or cemented carbide) substrate. The apparatus has a graphite cathode for deposition of hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC; ta-C and amorphous carbon: a-C) film and a chromium (Cr) cathode for deposition of Cr layer. The filter duct shapes a composed form of a T-shape filter (T-FAD) for DLC film and a crank-shape filter (Crank FAD) for Cr film. Both carbon plasma beam and Cr plasma beam finally pass through a common plasma duct and scanner part, and go forward to the substrate. It is known that the adhesion of ta-C film to the superhard alloy is not good and the employment of binding interlayer between ta-C film and superhard alloy is one of the solutions. In this paper, using X-FAD, thick ta-C film was prepared on the superhard alloy. Principal results were as follows. (1) Crank FAD remarkably worked to prepare droplet-free Cr film. (2) Cr single layer did not work as appropriate biding interlayer between superhard alloy and ta-C. (3) Multi interlayer composed of Cr, a-C, and functionally graded DLC (a-C to ta-C), worked as a good biding interlayer for ta-C film on superhard alloy with thickness of more than 1 μm.

  17. Final report of the UMTRA independent technical review of TAC audit programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report details the findings of an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of practices and procedures for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project audit program. The audit program is conducted by Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) for the UMTRA Project. The purpose of the ITR was to ensure that the TAC audit program is effective and is conducted efficiently. The ITR was conducted from May 16-20, 1994. A review team observed audit practices in the field, reviewed the TAC audit program`s documentation, and discussed the program with TAC staff and management. The format of this report has been developed around EPA guidelines; they comprise most of the major section headings. Each section begins by identifying the criteria that the TAC program is measured against, then describing the approach used by the ITR team to measure each TAC audit program against the criteria. An assessment of each type of audit is then summarized for each component in the following order: Radiological audit summary; Health and safety audit summary; Environmental audit summary; Quality assurance audit summary.

  18. Electrophysiology of Arcuate Neurokinin B Neurons in Female Tac2-EGFP Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cholanian, Marina; Krajewski-Hall, Sally J.; Levine, Richard B.; McMullen, Nathaniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the arcuate nucleus that coexpress kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin (KNDy neurons) play an important role in the modulation of reproduction by estrogens. Here, we study the anatomical and electrophysiological properties of arcuate NKB neurons in heterozygous female transgenic mice with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the Tac2 (NKB) promoter (Tac2-EGFP mice). The onset of puberty, estrous cyclicity, and serum LH were comparable between Tac2-EGFP and wild-type mice. The location of EGFP-immunoreactive neurons was consistent with previous descriptions of Tac2 mRNA-expressing neurons in the rodent. In the arcuate nucleus, nearly 80% of EGFP neurons expressed pro-NKB-immunoreactivity. Moreover, EGFP fluorescent intensity in arcuate neurons was increased by ovariectomy and reduced by 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment. Electrophysiology of single cells in tissue slices was used to examine the effects of chronic E2 treatment on Tac2-EGFP neurons in the arcuate nucleus of ovariectomized mice. Whole-cell recordings revealed arcuate NKB neurons to be either spontaneously active or silent in both groups. E2 had no significant effect on the basic electrophysiological properties or spontaneous firing frequencies. Arcuate NKB neurons exhibited either tonic or phasic firing patterns in response to a series of square-pulse current injections. Notably, E2 reduced the number of action potentials evoked by depolarizing current injections. This study demonstrates the utility of the Tac2-EGFP mouse for electrophysiological and morphological studies of KNDy neurons in tissue slices. In parallel to E2 negative feedback on LH secretion, E2 decreased the intensity of the EGFP signal and reduced the excitability of NKB neurons in the arcuate nucleus of ovariectomized Tac2-EGFP mice. PMID:24735328

  19. Advanced order management in ERM systems: the tic-tac-toe algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badell, Mariana; Fernandez, Elena; Puigjaner, Luis

    2000-10-01

    The concept behind improved enterprise resource planning systems (ERP) systems is the overall integration of the whole enterprise functionality into the management systems through financial links. Converting current software into real management decision tools requires crucial changes in the current approach to ERP systems. This evolution must be able to incorporate the technological achievements both properly and in time. The exploitation phase of plants needs an open web-based environment for collaborative business-engineering with on-line schedulers. Today's short lifecycles of products and processes require sharp and finely tuned management actions that must be guided by scheduling tools. Additionally, such actions must be able to keep track of money movements related to supply chain events. Thus, the necessary outputs require financial-production integration at the scheduling level as proposed in the new approach of enterprise management systems (ERM). Within this framework, the economical analysis of the due date policy and its optimization become essential to manage dynamically realistic and optimal delivery dates with price-time trade-off during the marketing activities. In this work we propose a scheduling tool with web-based interface conducted by autonomous agents when precise economic information relative to plant and business actions and their effects are provided. It aims to attain a better arrangement of the marketing and production events in order to face the bid/bargain process during e-commerce. Additionally, management systems require real time execution and an efficient transaction-oriented approach capable to dynamically adopt realistic and optimal actions to support marketing management. To this end the TicTacToe algorithm provides sequence optimization with acceptable tolerances in realistic time.

  20. ImmTACs for targeted cancer therapy: Why, what, how, and which.

    PubMed

    Oates, Joanne; Hassan, Namir J; Jakobsen, Bent K

    2015-10-01

    Overcoming immunosuppression and activating a cytotoxic T cell response has the potential to halt the progression of cancer and, in some circumstances, eradicate it. Designing therapeutic interventions that achieve this goal has proven challenging, but now a greater understanding of the complexities of immune responses is beginning to produce some notable breakthroughs. ImmTACs (immune-mobilising monoclonal TCRs against cancer) are a new class of bispecific reagents, based on soluble monoclonal T cell receptors, which have been engineered to possess extremely high affinity for cognate tumour antigen. In this way, ImmTACs overcome the problem of low affinity tumour-specific T cells imposed by thymic selection and provide access to the large number of antigens presented as peptide-HLA complexes. Once bound to tumour cells the anti-CD3 effector end of the ImmTAC drives recruitment of polyclonal T cells to the tumour site, leading to a potent redirected T cell response and tumour cell destruction. Extensive in vitro testing coupled with promising early clinical data has provided an enhanced appreciation of ImmTAC function in vivo and indicates their potential therapeutic benefit in terms of a durable response and ultimately the breaking of T cell tolerance. This review introduces ImmTACs in the context of immunotherapy, and outlines their design, construction and mechanism of action, as well as examining target selection and aspects of preclinical safety testing. PMID:25708206

  1. Effect of high pressure on the formation of ordered phases in Ta-C systems

    SciTech Connect

    Markhasev, B.I.; Dzhamarov, S.S.; Geshko, E.I.; Klyugvant, V.V.; Pilipovskii, Y.L.; Shamatov, Y.M.

    1985-03-01

    This paper considers the effect of pressure on the completion of the transformations TaC /SUB x/ Ta/sub 4/C/sub 3/ and TaC /SUB x/ Ta/sub 2/C. The data show that in the samples with C/Ta = 0.68 and 0.71, the applied pressure substantially increases the diffraction peak heights of the ordered phases, Ta/sub 4/C/sub 3/ and Ta/sub 2/C. In samples with C/Ta = 0.76, high pressure does not generally increase the intensities of the diffracted peaks of Ta/sub 4/C/sub 3/ and Ta/sub 2/C, however the equilibrium between them is displaced to the side of increased Ta/sub 2/C content. In one of the samples a complete disappearance of the disordered TaC /SUB x/ is not observed. It is concluded that high pressure ( about7GPa) promotes the transition of nonstoichiometric TaC /SUB x/ into ordered Ta/sub 4/C/sub 3/ and Ta/sub 2/C as well as broadens the existence region of the latter. A complete transformation of TaC /SUB x/ into the ordered phase does not occur even at pressures up to about 9 GPa.

  2. Comparison of low-voltage field emission from TaC and tungsten fiber arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.K.; Lee, K.J.; Hill, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    Field emitter array (FEA) devices were constructed using thin-film fabrication techniques based on in situ eutectic composites containing either TaC or NbC fibers in a NiCr alloy matrix. The emission characteristics of the TaC devices were measured and compared to those of W--ZrO/sub 2/ FEA's. Both devices produced the linear Fowler--Nordheim plots common to all field emission devices; however, the array current density of the TaC FEA's was more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of the W--ZrO/sub 2/ FEA's. This was primarily due to the lower fiber density and lower field enhancement of the carbide fiber devices. If it were possible to produce cathode geometries comparable to those of the W--ZrO/sub 2/ FEA's, a theoretical analysis indicates that emission performance of the TaC devices would be superior because of the lower work function of TaC. However, post-emission observations indicated that the carbide fiber emitters failed more readily than the tungsten emitters under comparable operating conditions.

  3. Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon (ta-C) Ultra Thin Films for Slider Overcoat Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Hu, Y. H.; Hu, L.

    Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon (ta-C) thin film by using Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) technique has proven to be wear-resistive and corrosion resistant for a wide range of electrical, optical, and mechanical applications. Many investigations have shown that the ta-C film prepared by the FCVA technique can provide a superior ultra thin overcoat for the sliders and media compared to ECR-CVD and IBD coating technology. The ta-C film excels in terms of the film density, hardness, surface roughness and corrosion resistance. Nanofilm Technology International (NTI) has successfully developed and commercialized the FCVA coating system (FS series) for the slider overcoat application, which provides a good quality film with a high hardness (~50 GPa), low stress (2~3 GPa), low macro-particle density (~1/cm2 for particles > 0.3 μm), good uniformity (< 4%$ in 8 inch coating area) and high production repeatability (< 5%).

  4. Quantum tic-tac-toe: A teaching metaphor for superposition in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Allan

    2006-11-01

    Quantum tic-tac-toe was developed as a metaphor for the counterintuitive nature of superposition exhibited by quantum systems. It offers a way of introducing quantum physics without advanced mathematics, provides a conceptual foundation for understanding the meaning of quantum mechanics, and is fun to play. A single superposition rule is added to the child's game of classical tic-tac-toe. Each move consists of a pair of marks subscripted by the number of the move ("spooky" marks) that must be placed in different squares. When a measurement occurs, one spooky mark becomes real and the other disappears. Quantum tic-tac-toe illustrates a number of quantum principles including states, superposition, collapse, nonlocality, entanglement, the correspondence principle, interference, and decoherence. The game can be played on paper or on a white board. A Web-based version provides a refereed playing board to facilitate the mechanics of play, making it ideal for classrooms with a computer projector.

  5. Ultrathin ta-C films on heads depositied by twist-filteredcathodic arc carbon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Ryan, Francis W.

    2000-07-14

    It is known that filtered cathodic-arc-deposited ta-C films have outstanding properties even within the family of diamondlike materials. However, filtering of macroparticles is usually incomplete or accompanied by significant plasma losses. Ongoing research effort is directed towards the following goals: (1) complete elimination of macro- and nanoparticles from the vacuum arc plasma, (2) increase of plasma utilization in the cathodic-arc and macroparticle-filter system, (3) precise control and reproducibility of film deposition, and (4) synthesis of ultrathin films (< 5 nm) that meet requirements of the magnetic storage industry. The development of new filters, in particular the ''Twist Filter'', enables cathodic arc plasma deposition to synthesize ultrathin ta-C films of 3 nm on heads that pass corrosion and other relevant tests. We describe the Twist Filter system and report about recent ta-C tests results. In light of these results, even thinner films seem to be possible.

  6. Preparation and in vivo evaluation of linkers for 211At labeling of humanized anti-Tac.

    PubMed

    Yordanov, A T; Garmestani, K; Zhang, M; Zhang, Z; Yao, Z; Phillips, K E; Herring, B; Horak, E; Beitzel, M P; Schwarz, U P; Gansow, O A; Plascjak, P S; Eckelman, W C; Waldmann, T A; Brechbiel, M W

    2001-10-01

    The syntheses, radiolabeling, antibody conjugation, and in vivo evaluation of new linkers for 211At labeling of humanized anti-Tac (Hu-anti-Tac), an antibody to the alpha-chain of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2Ralpha) shown to be a useful target for radioimmunotherapy are described. Synthesis of the organometallic linker precursors is accomplished by reaction of the corresponding bromo- or iodoaryl esters with bis(tributyltin) in the presence of a palladium catalyst. Subsequent conversion to the corresponding N-succinimidyl ester and labeling with 211At of two new linkers, N-succinimidyl 4-[211At]astato-3-methylbenzoate and N-succinimidyl N-(4-[211At]astatophenethyl)succinamate (SAPS), together with the previously reported N-succinimidyl 4-[211At]astatobenzoate and N-succinimidyl 3-[211At]astato-4-methylbenzoate, are each conjugated to Hu-anti-Tac. The plasma survival times of these conjugates are compared to those of directly iodinated (125I) Hu-anti-Tac. The N-succinimidyl N-(4-[211At]astatophenethyl)succinamate compound (SAPS) emerged from this assay as the most viable candidate for 211At-labeling of Hu-anti-Tac. SAPS, along with the directly analogous radio-iodinated reagent, N-succinimidyl N-(4-[125I]astatophenethyl)succinamate (SIPS), are evaluated in a biodistribution study along with directly iodinated (125I) Hu-anti-Tac. Blood clearance and biological accretion results indicate that SAPS is a viable candidate for further evaluation for radioimmunotherapy of cancer. PMID:11578907

  7. High total antioxidant capacity of the porcine seminal plasma (SP-TAC) relates to sperm survival and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The study attempted to clarify the role of total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma (SP-TAC) on boar sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). SP-TAC differed (P < 0.001) among boars (n° = 15) and, to a lesser degree, among ejaculates within male (4 ejaculates/boar). SP-TAC also differed (P < 0.001) among ejaculate fractions (43 ejaculates and 3 fractions per ejaculate), of which the sperm-peak portion of the sperm rich ejaculate fraction (SRF) had the highest SP-TAC. SP-TAC was not correlated with sperm quality (motility and viability) or functionality (intracellular ROS generation and lipid peroxidation) of liquid AI-semen samples stored at 17 °C for 72 h (90 AI-samples), but the decline in sperm quality was larger (P < 0.05) in ejaculates with low, compared with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped). The SP-TAC differences among ejaculate portions agree with sperm cryosurvival rates (14 ejaculates from 7 boars), showing sperm from sperm-peak portion better (P < 0.01) post-thaw quality and functionality than those from the entire ejaculate (mainly post-SRF). Boars (n° = 18) with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped) had higher (P < 0.05) fertility outcomes (5,546 AI-sows) than those with low SP-TAC. Measurement of SP-TAC ought to be a discriminative tool to prognosis fertility in breeding boars. PMID:26688188

  8. Tic Tac TOE: Effects of Predictability and Importance on Acoustic Prominence in Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Duane G.; Arnold, Jennifer E.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Importance and predictability each have been argued to contribute to acoustic prominence. To investigate whether these factors are independent or two aspects of the same phenomenon, naive participants played a verbal variant of Tic Tac Toe. Both importance and predictability contributed independently to the acoustic prominence of a word, but in…

  9. 40Hz-Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) selectively modulates speech perception.

    PubMed

    Rufener, Katharina S; Zaehle, Tino; Oechslin, Mathias S; Meyer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the functional relevance of gamma oscillations for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic features in speech signals. For this purpose we analyzed repetition-induced perceptual learning effects in 18 healthy adult participants. The participants received either 6Hz or 40Hz tACS over the bilateral auditory cortex, while repeatedly performing a phoneme categorization task. In result, we found that 40Hz tACS led to a specific alteration in repetition-induced perceptual learning. While participants in the non-stimulated control group as well as those in the experimental group receiving 6Hz tACS considerably improved their perceptual performance, the application of 40Hz tACS selectively attenuated the repetition-induced improvement in phoneme categorization abilities. Our data provide causal evidence for a functional relevance of gamma oscillations during the perceptual learning of acoustic speech features. Moreover, we demonstrate that even less than twenty minutes of alternating current stimulation below the individual perceptual threshold is sufficient to affect speech perception. This finding is relevant in that this novel approach might have implications with respect to impaired speech processing in dyslexics and older adults. PMID:26779822

  10. Probing the causal role of prestimulus interregional synchrony for perceptual integration via tACS.

    PubMed

    Stonkus, Rolandas; Braun, Verena; Kerlin, Jess R; Volberg, Gregor; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The phase of prestimulus oscillations at 7-10 Hz has been shown to modulate perception of briefly presented visual stimuli. Specifically, a recent combined EEG-fMRI study suggested that a prestimulus oscillation at around 7 Hz represents open and closed windows for perceptual integration by modulating connectivity between lower order occipital and higher order parietal brain regions. We here utilized brief event-related transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to specifically modulate this prestimulus 7 Hz oscillation, and the synchrony between parietal and occipital brain regions. To this end we tested for a causal role of this particular prestimulus oscillation for perceptual integration. The EEG was acquired at the same time allowing us to investigate frequency specific after effects phase-locked to stimulation offset. On a behavioural level our results suggest that tACS did modulate perceptual integration, however, in an unexpected manner. On an electrophysiological level our results suggest that brief tACS does induce oscillatory entrainment, as visible in frequency specific activity phase-locked to stimulation offset. Together, our results do not strongly support a causal role of prestimulus 7 Hz oscillations for perceptual integration. However, our results suggest that brief tACS is capable of modulating oscillatory activity in a temporally sensitive manner. PMID:27616188

  11. Distinct roles of Candida albicans drug resistance transcription factors TAC1, MRR1, and UPC2 in virulence.

    PubMed

    Lohberger, Andrea; Coste, Alix T; Sanglard, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Azoles are widely used in antifungal therapy in medicine. Resistance to azoles can occur in Candida albicans principally by overexpression of multidrug transporter gene CDR1, CDR2, or MDR1 or by overexpression of ERG11, which encodes the azole target. The expression of these genes is controlled by the transcription factors (TFs) TAC1 (involved in the control of CDR1 and CDR2), MRR1 (involved in the control of MDR1), and UPC2 (involved in the control of ERG11). Several gain-of-function (GOF) mutations are present in hyperactive alleles of these TFs, resulting in the overexpression of target genes. While these mutations are beneficial to C. albicans survival in the presence of the antifungal drugs, their effects could potentially alter the fitness and virulence of C. albicans in the absence of the selective drug pressure. In this work, the effect of GOF mutations on C. albicans virulence was addressed in a systemic model of intravenous infection by mouse survival and kidney fungal burden assays. We engineered a set of strains with identical genetic backgrounds in which hyperactive alleles were reintroduced in one or two copies at their genomic loci. The results obtained showed that neither TAC1 nor MRR1 GOF mutations had a significant effect on C. albicans virulence. In contrast, the presence of two hyperactive UPC2 alleles in C. albicans resulted in a significant decrease in virulence, correlating with diminished kidney colonization compared to that by the wild type. In agreement with the effect on virulence, the decreased fitness of an isolate with UPC2 hyperactive alleles was observed in competition experiments with the wild type in vivo but not in vitro. Interestingly, UPC2 hyperactivity delayed filamentation of C. albicans after phagocytosis by murine macrophages, which may at least partially explain the virulence defects. Combining the UPC2 GOF mutation with another hyperactive TF did not compensate for the negative effect of UPC2 on virulence. In conclusion

  12. Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  13. Competition, Competitive Repulsion, and Coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Darlington, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    This manuscript is concerned with concepts rather than abstruse details or mathematics. Discussed are: competition; extended competition, proposed for competition in the strict sense, extended and modified by all related interactions including predation, parasitism, disease, and even cooperation, all of which can be “weapons of competition”; competitive repulsion, proposed for the sum of forces that determine spacings, including ecologic spacings, of individuals and populations; Darwin (biotic) equilibriums; competitive extinction, Gause's principle, limited and limiting resources, and single-resource competition; de facto coexistence of competing species, exemplified by green plants competing for sunlight; niche competition; the two concepts of competitive exclusion; devision of resources and of their utilizers; cause and effect in real situations; and niches, niche overlap, and coexistence. Stressed is the complexity of the real world, and the confusion that can and does arise from modeling it too simply. PMID:4508308

  14. TacSat-2: Path finder for a Close Space Support Asset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhopale, A.; Finley, C.

    2008-08-01

    With th e launch of TacSat-2, the Oper ationally Responsive Sp ace (O RS) commun ity had its f irst on- orbit asset and opportunity to prove or disprove the premise that small, in expensiv e, and quickly constructed spacecraf t could perform useful operation al missions when needed and for as long as need ed. All of the components of the comp lex TacSat-2 system had to work together to answer the basic questions, "In a crisis, can a lab-developed spacecraf t and ground architecture competen tly p erform th e mission of systems that cost twen ty times the price and tak e four times as long to develop? Mor eover, can th is system actu ally improve on the responsiveness of Nation al Systems to a certain set of underserv ed Oper ational customers?" When all w as said and done, TacSat-2 was a sp acecraf t that h ad to: 1) Carry th irteen tactical and scientific payloads to orbit, many of which doubled as essen tial, non-redundant subsystems; 2) Launch from an unproven launch base on a last minute "rep lacement" launch vehicle; and 3) Fulfill about 140 on-orbit mission requirements. It had tactical sensors, two unproven communication links, numerous next-gen eration single- string componen ts (e.g., h igh-efficiency propulsion system, thin-film so lar arrays, low-power versatile star camera) , and autonomous softw are to mak e the system more friendly and familiar to Tactical, rather than Spacecraf t Op erators. However, the mission was as mu ch about the implementation as it w as about the components. TacSat-2 was designed for and emp loyed with a different concept of operations ( CONOPS) than tradition al N ational Operational Assets. It w as designed to be th e fir st-ev er Clo se Space Support platform and operated in a manner more analogous to Close Air Support aircraf t than to tr aditional spacecraft. Therefore, th e primary objective of the TacSat-2 mission was to use th e TacSat-2 system to id entify those parts of the spacecr aft, ground system, and CON OPS

  15. Playing Tic-Tac-Toe with a Sugar-Based Molecular Computer.

    PubMed

    Elstner, M; Schiller, A

    2015-08-24

    Today, molecules can perform Boolean operations and circuits at a level of higher complexity. However, concatenation of logic gates and inhomogeneous inputs and outputs are still challenging tasks. Novel approaches for logic gate integration are possible when chemical programming and software programming are combined. Here it is shown that a molecular finite automaton based on the concatenated implication function (IMP) of a fluorescent two-component sugar probe via a wiring algorithm is able to play tic-tac-toe. PMID:26203667

  16. Solar Technology Acceleration Center (SolarTAC): Solar Resource & Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP); Aurora, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2011-02-11

    Located in Colorado, near Denver International Airport, SolarTAC is a private, member-based, 74-acre outdoor facility where the solar industry tests, validates, and demonstrates advanced solar technologies. SolarTAC was launched in 2008 by a public-private consortium, including Midwest Research Institute (MRI). As a supporting member of SolarTAC, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has established a high quality solar and meteorological measurement station at this location. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result is high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  17. Texture structure and ablation behavior of TaC coating on carbon/carbon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao-Ke, Chen; Xiang, Xiong; Guo-Dong, Li; Wei, Sun; Ying, Long

    2010-11-01

    TaC coatings with hybrid, (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) texture structure were prepared on carbon/carbon (C/C) composites by isothermal chemical vapor deposition with TaCl5-Ar-C3H6 system. The residual stress, hardness and ablation behaviors of the different coatings were characterized by Raman spectra, nano-indentation and oxyacetylene flame ablation machine respectively. Results shown tensile stress exists in the TaC coatings and increases when texture orientation turns from hybrid to (2 2 0) and (2 0 0), while nano-indentation hardness of the coatings also obeys the same trend. The deposited coatings could improve the ablation-resistance properties of C/C composites effectively. The texture structure also had great effects on the ablation properties and ablation morphologies of the coatings. The mass ablation rate obviously decreases when the texture structure changes from hybrid orientation to (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) orientations. The hybrid orientation and (2 0 0) texture coatings exhibit coarse oxide morphologies with crater or some breakage existed; while the (2 2 0) texture coating shows dense, molten oxide morphology. The main ablation behaviors of the hybrid, (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) texture TaC coatings are oxidation and particle denudation and block denudation, oxidation and block denudation, oxidation and mechanical erosion and block denudation, respectively.

  18. Antipsychotic-Like Effect of the Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist BuTAC in Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Dencker, Ditte; Werge, Thomas; Bymaster, Frank P.; Felder, Christian C.; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R)-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC) exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4-preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:25880220

  19. Antipsychotic-like effect of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist BuTAC in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Croy, Carrie Hughes; Dencker, Ditte; Werge, Thomas; Bymaster, Frank P; Felder, Christian C; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic, muscarinic receptor agonists exhibit functional dopamine antagonism and muscarinic receptors have been suggested as possible future targets for the treatment of schizophrenia and drug abuse. The muscarinic ligand (5R,6R)-6-(3-butylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (BuTAC) exhibits high affinity for muscarinic receptors with no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors and binding sites, including the dopamine receptors and the dopamine transporter. In the present study, we wanted to examine the possible antipsychotic-like effects of BuTAC in primates. To this end, we investigated the effects of BuTAC on d-amphetamine-induced behaviour in antipsychotic-naive Cebus paella monkeys. Possible adverse events of BuTAC, were evaluated in the same monkeys as well as in monkeys sensitized to antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. The present data suggests that, the muscarinic receptor ligand BuTAC exhibits antipsychotic-like behaviour in primates. The behavioural data of BuTAC as well as the new biochemical data further substantiate the rationale for the use of muscarinic M1/M2/M4-preferring receptor agonists as novel pharmacological tools in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:25880220

  20. tACS Phase Locking of Frontal Midline Theta Oscillations Disrupts Working Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Chander, Bankim S.; Witkowski, Matthias; Braun, Christoph; Robinson, Stephen E.; Born, Jan; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Birbaumer, Niels; Soekadar, Surjo R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Frontal midline theta (FMT) oscillations (4–8 Hz) are strongly related to cognitive and executive control during mental tasks such as memory processing, arithmetic problem solving or sustained attention. While maintenance of temporal order information during a working memory (WM) task was recently linked to FMT phase, a positive correlation between FMT power, WM demand and WM performance was shown. However, the relationship between these measures is not well understood, and it is unknown whether purposeful FMT phase manipulation during a WM task impacts FMT power and WM performance. Here we present evidence that FMT phase manipulation mediated by transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can block WM demand-related FMT power increase (FMTΔpower) and disrupt normal WM performance. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers were assigned to one of two groups (group A, group B) and performed a 2-back task across a baseline block (block 1) and an intervention block (block 2) while 275-sensor magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded. After no stimulation was applied during block 1, participants in group A received tACS oscillating at their individual FMT frequency over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) while group B received sham stimulation during block 2. After assessing and mapping phase locking values (PLV) between the tACS signal and brain oscillatory activity across the whole brain, FMT power and WM performance were assessed and compared between blocks and groups. Results: During block 2 of group A but not B, FMT oscillations showed increased PLV across task-related cortical areas underneath the frontal tACS electrode. While WM task-related FMTΔpower and WM performance were comparable across groups in block 1, tACS resulted in lower FMTΔpower and WM performance compared to sham stimulation in block 2. Conclusion: tACS-related manipulation of FMT phase can disrupt WM performance and influence WM task-related FMTΔpower. This finding may have important

  1. Investigations of the uptake of transuranic radionuclides by humic and fulvic acids chemically immobilized on silica gel and their competitive release by complexing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Bulman, R.A.; Szabo, G.; Clayton, R.F.; Clayton, C.R.

    1998-07-01

    The chemistry of the interactions of transuranic elements (TUs) with humic substances needs to be understood so that humate-mediated movement of transuranic radionuclides through the environment can be predicted. This paper reports the chemical immobilization on silica gel of humic and fulvic acids and evaluates the potential of these new materials for the retention of Pu and Am. In addition to the preparation of the foregoing immobilized humic substances, other low molecular weight metal-binding ligands have also been immobilized on silica gel to investigate the binding sites for transuranic elements (TUs) in humic substances. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) of Th(IV) complexed by humic acid and the immobilized humic acid are similar thus it appears that immobilization of humic acid does not generate any configurational changes in the Th(IV)-binding sites of the macromolecule. A variety of chelating agents partly mobilize these TUs sorbed on the solid phases. A batch method was used to determine the distribution coefficients (R{sub d}) of Pu and Am between the silica gels and aqueous solutions of phosphate and citrate. The effects of the immobilized ligands, the anions and pH in the solution on sorption were assessed. Distributed coefficients (R{sub d}) for the uptake of Pu and Am by these prepared solid phases are, in some cases, of a similar order of magnitude as those determined for soil and particles suspended in terrestrial surface waters.

  2. Friendly competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    Competition that is characterized by rules, often informal, agreed among mutually accepted participants, and that gives the competitors a special, advantageous status with others is called friendly competition. Dentists have engaged in it deeply and it is good for the profession. Friendly competition offers the advantages of spillover of commonly useful information and technologies, stimulation of innovation, a united and convenient face to customers and suppliers, and standards that promote growth. Friendly competition increases the size of the pie, regardless of market share. Paradoxically, this is even true for the little guy in the shadow of the giant. If carried to extremes, unfriendly competition leads to destroying competitors, the confusion of multiple rules, and encouragement of disruptive change. PMID:17477218

  3. Trypanosomal TAC40 constitutes a novel subclass of mitochondrial β-barrel proteins specialized in mitochondrial genome inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Schnarwiler, Felix; Niemann, Moritz; Doiron, Nicholas; Harsman, Anke; Käser, Sandro; Mani, Jan; Chanfon, Astrid; Dewar, Caroline E.; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Jackson, Christopher B.; Pusnik, Mascha; Schmidt, Oliver; Meisinger, Chris; Hiller, Sebastian; Warscheid, Bettina; Schnaufer, Achim C.; Ochsenreiter, Torsten; Schneider, André

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria cannot form de novo but require mechanisms allowing their inheritance to daughter cells. In contrast to most other eukaryotes Trypanosoma brucei has a single mitochondrion whose single-unit genome is physically connected to the flagellum. Here we identify a β-barrel mitochondrial outer membrane protein, termed tripartite attachment complex 40 (TAC40), that localizes to this connection. TAC40 is essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance and belongs to the mitochondrial porin protein family. However, it is not specifically related to any of the three subclasses of mitochondrial porins represented by the metabolite transporter voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), the protein translocator of the outer membrane 40 (TOM40), or the fungi-specific MDM10, a component of the endoplasmic reticulum–mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES). MDM10 and TAC40 mediate cellular architecture and participate in transmembrane complexes that are essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance. In yeast MDM10, in the context of the ERMES, is postulated to connect the mitochondrial genomes to actin filaments, whereas in trypanosomes TAC40 mediates the linkage of the mitochondrial DNA to the basal body of the flagellum. However, TAC40 does not colocalize with trypanosomal orthologs of ERMES components and, unlike MDM10, it regulates neither mitochondrial morphology nor the assembly of the protein translocase. TAC40 therefore defines a novel subclass of mitochondrial porins that is distinct from VDAC, TOM40, and MDM10. However, whereas the architecture of the TAC40-containing complex in trypanosomes and the MDM10-containing ERMES in yeast is very different, both are organized around a β-barrel protein of the mitochondrial porin family that mediates a DNA–cytoskeleton linkage that is essential for mitochondrial DNA inheritance. PMID:24821793

  4. A design study on high power RF system for the TARLA facility of TAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karslı, Özlem; Yavaş, Ömer

    2012-11-01

    The Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) is a superconducting electron linac based IR FEL and Bremsstrahlung facility and it is under construction in Ankara as the first facility of the Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) Project. TARLA will compose of two optical cavity systems to produce oscillator FEL in infrared region (2-250 μm) and also Bremsstrahlung radiation to be used in basic and applied sciences. In this study, main parameters of TARLA's high power RF and power transmission line systems are defined and a 20 kW RF solid state power amplifier is optimized.

  5. The Janus face of Darwinian competition.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Arend; Phillips, Nathaniel; Hertwig, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Without competition, organisms would not evolve any meaningful physical or cognitive abilities. Competition can thus be understood as the driving force behind Darwinian evolution. But does this imply that more competitive environments necessarily evolve organisms with more sophisticated cognitive abilities than do less competitive environments? Or is there a tipping point at which competition does more harm than good? We examine the evolution of decision strategies among virtual agents performing a repetitive sampling task in three distinct environments. The environments differ in the degree to which the actions of a competitor can affect the fitness of the sampling agent, and in the variance of the sample. Under weak competition, agents evolve decision strategies that sample often and make accurate decisions, which not only improve their own fitness, but are good for the entire population. Under extreme competition, however, the dark side of the Janus face of Darwinian competition emerges: Agents are forced to sacrifice accuracy for speed and are prevented from sampling as often as higher variance in the environment would require. Modest competition is therefore a good driver for the evolution of cognitive abilities and of the population as a whole, whereas too much competition is devastating. PMID:26354182

  6. The Janus face of Darwinian competition

    PubMed Central

    Hintze, Arend; Phillips, Nathaniel; Hertwig, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Without competition, organisms would not evolve any meaningful physical or cognitive abilities. Competition can thus be understood as the driving force behind Darwinian evolution. But does this imply that more competitive environments necessarily evolve organisms with more sophisticated cognitive abilities than do less competitive environments? Or is there a tipping point at which competition does more harm than good? We examine the evolution of decision strategies among virtual agents performing a repetitive sampling task in three distinct environments. The environments differ in the degree to which the actions of a competitor can affect the fitness of the sampling agent, and in the variance of the sample. Under weak competition, agents evolve decision strategies that sample often and make accurate decisions, which not only improve their own fitness, but are good for the entire population. Under extreme competition, however, the dark side of the Janus face of Darwinian competition emerges: Agents are forced to sacrifice accuracy for speed and are prevented from sampling as often as higher variance in the environment would require. Modest competition is therefore a good driver for the evolution of cognitive abilities and of the population as a whole, whereas too much competition is devastating. PMID:26354182

  7. Deuterium retention in TiC and TaC doped tungsten at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibrov, M.; Mayer, M.; Gao, L.; Elgeti, S.; Kurishita, H.; Gasparyan, Yu.; Pisarev, A.

    2015-08-01

    Samples made of tungsten doped either with titanium carbide (W-1.1TiC) or tantalum carbide (W-3.3TaC) were either exposed to D2 gas at a pressure of 100 kPa at 800-963 K or irradiated by 38 eV/D ions at 800 K. The deuterium (D) inventory in the samples was examined by nuclear reaction analysis and thermal desorption spectroscopy. The D bulk concentration and total retention in W-3.3TaC were comparable in all cases to that in pure polycrystalline W. The D bulk concentration in W-1.1TiC was more than one order of magnitude higher than that in pure W after exposure to D2 gas, and was also several times higher than that in W-1.1TiC after irradiation at 800 K. It is suggested that D trapping inside the carbide precipitates in W-1.1TiC becomes essential at high temperatures.

  8. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  9. Normosmic Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Due to TAC3/TACR3 Mutations: Characterization of Neuroendocrine Phenotypes and Novel Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Voican, Adela; Amazit, Larbi; Trabado, Séverine; Fagart, Jérôme; Meduri, Geri; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Chanson, Philippe; Lecomte, Pierre; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Young, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Context TAC3/TACR3 mutations have been reported in normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nCHH) (OMIM #146110). In the absence of animal models, studies of human neuroendocrine phenotypes associated with neurokinin B and NK3R receptor dysfunction can help to decipher the pathophysiology of this signaling pathway. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of TAC3/TACR3 mutations, characterize novel TACR3 mutations and to analyze neuroendocrine profiles in nCHH caused by deleterious TAC3/TACR3 biallelic mutations. Results From a cohort of 352 CHH, we selected 173 nCHH patients and identified nine patients carrying TAC3 or TACR3 variants (5.2%). We describe here 7 of these TACR3 variants (1 frameshift and 2 nonsense deleterious mutations and 4 missense variants) found in 5 subjects. Modeling and functional studies of the latter demonstrated the deleterious consequence of one missense mutation (Tyr267Asn) probably caused by the misfolding of the mutated NK3R protein. We found a statistically significant (p<0.0001) higher mean FSH/LH ratio in 11 nCHH patients with TAC3/TACR3 biallelic mutations than in 47 nCHH patients with either biallelic mutations in KISS1R, GNRHR, or with no identified mutations and than in 50 Kallmann patients with mutations in KAL1, FGFR1 or PROK2/PROKR2. Three patients with TAC3/TACR3 biallelic mutations had an apulsatile LH profile but low-frequency alpha-subunit pulses. Pulsatile GnRH administration increased alpha-subunit pulsatile frequency and reduced the FSH/LH ratio. Conclusion The gonadotropin axis dysfunction associated with nCHH due to TAC3/TACR3 mutations is related to a low GnRH pulsatile frequency leading to a low frequency of alpha-subunit pulses and to an elevated FSH/LH ratio. This ratio might be useful for pre-screening nCHH patients for TAC3/TACR3 mutations. PMID:22031817

  10. Competitive dynamics on complex networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiuhua; Liu, Qipeng; Wang, Xiaofan

    2014-01-01

    We consider a dynamical network model in which two competitors have fixed and different states, and each normal agent adjusts its state according to a distributed consensus protocol. The state of each normal agent converges to a steady value which is a convex combination of the competitors' states, and is independent of the initial states of agents. This implies that the competition result is fully determined by the network structure and positions of competitors in the network. We compute an Influence Matrix (IM) in which each element characterizing the influence of an agent on another agent in the network. We use the IM to predict the bias of each normal agent and thus predict which competitor will win. Furthermore, we compare the IM criterion with seven node centrality measures to predict the winner. We find that the competitor with higher Katz Centrality in an undirected network or higher PageRank in a directed network is most likely to be the winner. These findings may shed new light on the role of network structure in competition and to what extent could competitors adjust network structure so as to win the competition. PMID:25068622

  11. Competitive Dynamics on Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiuhua; Liu, Qipeng; Wang, Xiaofan

    2014-07-01

    We consider a dynamical network model in which two competitors have fixed and different states, and each normal agent adjusts its state according to a distributed consensus protocol. The state of each normal agent converges to a steady value which is a convex combination of the competitors' states, and is independent of the initial states of agents. This implies that the competition result is fully determined by the network structure and positions of competitors in the network. We compute an Influence Matrix (IM) in which each element characterizing the influence of an agent on another agent in the network. We use the IM to predict the bias of each normal agent and thus predict which competitor will win. Furthermore, we compare the IM criterion with seven node centrality measures to predict the winner. We find that the competitor with higher Katz Centrality in an undirected network or higher PageRank in a directed network is most likely to be the winner. These findings may shed new light on the role of network structure in competition and to what extent could competitors adjust network structure so as to win the competition.

  12. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  13. Criticality Safety Evaluation of a LLNL Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrichs, D P

    2006-06-26

    Hands-on experimental training in the physical behavior of multiplying systems is one of ten key areas of training required for practitioners to become qualified in the discipline of criticality safety as identified in DOE-STD-1135-99, ''Guidance for Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineer Training and Qualification''. This document is a criticality safety evaluation of the training activities (or operations) associated with HS-3200, ''Laboratory Class for Criticality Safety''. These activities utilize the Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS). The original intent of HS-3200 was to provide LLNL fissile material handlers with a practical hands-on experience as a supplement to the academic training they receive biennially in HS-3100, ''Fundamentals of Criticality Safety'', as required by ANSI/ANS-8.20-1991, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Training''. HS-3200 is to be enhanced to also address the training needs of nuclear criticality safety professionals under the auspices of the NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program.

  14. Electrical and Electrochemical Properties of Nitrogen-Containing Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon (ta-C) Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingyi

    Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) is a diamond-like carbon (DLC) material comprised of a mixture of sp2 (˜40%) and sp3-bonded (˜60%) carbon domains. The physicochemical structure and electrochemical properties depend strongly on the sp2/sp3 bonding ratio as well as the incorporation of impurities, such as hydrogen or nitrogen. The ability to grow ta-C films at lower temperatures (25-100 °C) on a wider variety of substrates is a potential advantage of these materials as compared with diamond films. In this project, the basic structural and electrochemical properties of nitrogen-incorporated ta-C thin films will be discussed. The major goal of this work was to determine if the ta-C:N films exhibit electrochemical properties more closely aligned with those of boron-doped diamond (sp 3 carbon) or glassy carbon (amorphous sp2 carbon). Much like diamond, ta-C:N thin-film electrodes are characterized by a low background voltammetric current, a wide working potential window, relatively rapid electron-transfer kinetics for aqueous redox systems, such as Fe(CN) 6-3/-4 and Ru(NH3)6+3/+2 , and weak adsorption of polar molecules from solution. For example, negligible adsorption of methylene blue was found on the ta-C:N films in contrast to glassy carbon; a surface on which this molecule strongly adsorbs. The film microstructure was studied with x-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), visible Raman spectroscopy and electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); all of which revealed the sp2-bonded carbon content increased with increasing nitrogen. The electrical properties of ta-C:N films were studied by four-point probe resistance measurement and conductive-probe AFM (CP-AFM). The incorporation of nitrogen into ta-C films increased the electrical conductivity primarily by increasing the sp2-bonded carbon content. CP-AFM showed the distribution of the conductive sp2-carbon on the film surface was not uniform. These films have potential to be used in field emission area. The

  15. DTL cavity design and beam dynamics for a TAC linear proton accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliskan, A.; Yılmaz, M.

    2012-02-01

    A 30 mA drift tube linac (DTL) accelerator has been designed using SUPERFISH code in the energy range of 3-55 MeV in the framework of the Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) project. Optimization criteria in cavity design are effective shunt impedance (ZTT), transit-time factor and electrical breakdown limit. In geometrical optimization we have aimed to increase the energy gain in each RF gap of the DTL cells by maximizing the effective shunt impedance (ZTT) and the transit-time factor. Beam dynamics studies of the DTL accelerator have been performed using beam dynamics simulation codes of PATH and PARMILA. The results of both codes have been compared. In the beam dynamical studies, the rms values of beam emittance have been taken into account and a low emittance growth in both x and y directions has been attempted.

  16. Measured Whole-House Performance of TaC Studios Test Home

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta-based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA, in the mixed humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post-construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowners wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  17. CONCENTRATIONS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC SPECIES MEASURED IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENTS DURING THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY ( TACS )

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was completed to assess environmental exposures for a group of asthmatic children (n = 9) under the age of six and living in Tampa, Florida. Concentrations of particulate organic species are reported from residential indoor, residential...

  18. Use of computer modeling to investigate a dynamic interaction problem in the Skylab TACS quad-valve package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesser, R. J.; Gershman, R.

    1975-01-01

    A valve opening-response problem encountered during development of a control valve for the Skylab thruster attitude control system (TACS) is described. The problem involved effects of dynamic interaction among valves in the quad-redundant valve package. Also described is a detailed computer simulation of the quad-valve package which was helpful in resolving the problem.

  19. Tic-Tac-Toe Performance as a Function of Maturational Level of Retarded Adolescents and Nonretarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitz, Herman H.; Winters, Emilia A.

    1977-01-01

    Available from: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, New Jersey 07648. Two groups (36 Ss) of educable and trainable mentally retarded adolescents in an institution were compared with two groups (38 Ss) of nonretarded children (ages 8-9 years old) on a modified tic-tac-toe game for foresight in logical problem solving. (MH)

  20. Attention competition with advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  1. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant. PMID:25314476

  2. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  3. Bismuth-212-labeled anti-Tac monoclonal antibody: alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides as modalities for radioimmunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, R.W.; Atcher, R.W.; Gansow, O.A.; Friedman, A.M.; Hines, J.J.; Waldmann, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    Anti-Tac, a monoclonal antibody directed to the human interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, has been successfully conjugated to the alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide bismuth-212 by use of a bifunctional ligand, the isobutylcarboxycarbonic anhydride of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The physical properties of 212Bi are appropriate for radioimmunotherapy in that it has a short half-life, deposits its high energy over a short distance, and can be obtained in large quantities from a radium generator. Antibody specific activities of 1-40 microCi/microgram (1 Ci = 37 GBq) were achieved. Specificity of the 212Bi-labeled anti-Tac was demonstrated for the IL-2 receptor-positive adult T-cell leukemia line HUT-102B2 by protein synthesis inhibition and clonogenic assays. Activity levels of 0.5 microCi or the equivalent of 12 rad/ml of alpha radiation targeted by anti-Tac eliminated greater than 98% the proliferative capabilities of HUT-102B2 cells with more modest effects on IL-2 receptor-negative cell lines. Specific cytotoxicity was blocked by excess unlabeled anti-Tac but not by human IgG. In addition, an irrelevant control monoclonal antibody of the same isotype labeled with 212Bi was unable to target alpha radiation to cell lines. Therefore, 212Bi-labeled anti-Tac is a potentially effective and specific immunocytotoxic reagent for the elimination of IL-2 receptor-positive cells. These experiments thus provide the scientific basis for use of alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides in immunotherapy.

  4. Malaysian competition

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1994-11-01

    Two years ago, the first tentative steps were taken to privatize the Malaysian electricity supply industry with the flotation of 25 percent of Tenaga Nasional Bhd. At the same time the terms were defined for independent power generation, and plans were drawn up for six projects. Now, with six independent power producer projects under construction adding more capacity than the partly privatized TNB, the utility`s station managers are concerned they will be at a competitive disadvantage unless they can operate under the same type of power sales agreement.

  5. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  6. Mutagenesis of Bordetella pertussis with transposon Tn5tac1: conditional expression of virulence-associated genes.

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, B T; Berg, D E; Goldman, W E

    1990-01-01

    The Tn5tac1 transposon contains a strong outward-facing promoter, Ptac, a lacI repressor gene, and a selectable Kanr gene. Transcription from Ptac is repressed by the lacI protein unless an inducer (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside [IPTG]) is present. Thus, Tn5tac1 generates insertion mutations in Escherichia coli with conditional phenotypes because it is polar on distal gene expression when IPTG is absent and directs transcription of these genes when the inducer is present. To test the usefulness of Tn5tac1 in Bordetella pertussis, a nonenteric gram-negative bacterial pathogen, we chose the bifunctional adenylate cyclase-hemolysin determinant as an easily scored marker to monitor insertional mutagenesis. Tn5tac1 delivered to B. pertussis on conjugal suicide plasmids resulted in Kanr exconjugants at a frequency of 10(-3) per donor cell, and nonhemolytic (Hly-) mutants were found among the Kanr colonies at a frequency of about 1%. Of eight independent Kanr Hly- mutants, two were conditional and exhibited an Hly+ phenotype only in the presence of IPTG. Using a new quantitative assay for adenylate cyclase based on high-pressure liquid chromatography, we found that enzymatic activity in these two strains was specifically induced at least 500-fold in a dose-dependent fashion over the range of 0 to 125 microM IPTG. These data show that Ptac serves as a promoter, lacI is expressed and is functional, and IPTG can induce Ptac transcription in B. pertussis. Adenylate cyclase expression in whole cells, culture supernatants, and cell extracts from these strains depended upon IPTG, suggesting that the insertions do not merely alter secretion of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin. Other virulence determinants under control of the vir locus are expressed normally, implying that these Tn5tac1 insertions specifically regulate adenylate cyclase-hemolysin expression. We conclude that Tn5tac1 insertion mutations permit sensitive, exogenous control over the expression of genes of

  7. Functional Identification of Cancer-Specific Methylation of CDO1, HOXA9, and TAC1 for the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wrangle, John; Machida, Emi Ota; Danilova, Ludmila; Hulbert, Alicia; Franco, Noreli; Zhang, Wei; Glöckner, Sabine C.; Tessema, Mathewos; Van Neste, Leander; Easwaran, Hariharan; Schuebel, Kornel E.; Licchesi, Julien; Hooker, Craig M.; Ahuja, Nita; Amano, Jun; Belinsky, Steven A.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Herman, James G.; Brock, Malcolm V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Novel diagnostic biomarkers may augment both existing NSCLC screening methods as well as molecular diagnostic tests of surgical specimens to more accurately stratify and stage candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy. Hypermethylation of CpG islands is a common and important alteration in the transition from normal tissue to cancer. Experimental Design Following previously validated methods for the discovery of cancer-specific hypermethylation changes we treated 8 NSCLC cell lines with the hypomethylating agent deoxyazacitidine or trichostatin A. We validated the findings using a large publically available database and two independent cohorts of primary samples. Results We identified >300 candidate genes. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and employing extensive filtering to refine our candidate genes for the greatest ability to distinguish tumor from normal, we define a three-gene panel, CDO1, HOXA9, and TAC1, which we subsequently validate in two independent cohorts of primary NSCLC samples. This 3-gene panel is 100% specific, showing no methylation in 75 TCGA normal and 7 primary normal samples and is 83–99% sensitive for NSCLC depending on the cohort. Conclusion This degree of sensitivity and specificity may be of high value to diagnose the earliest stages of NSCLC. Addition of this 3-gene panel to other previously validated methylation biomarkers holds great promise in both early diagnosis and molecular staging of NSCLC. PMID:24486589

  8. Determination of Pb(II) by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with a Solid-Phase Spectrophotometry Approach Using 2-(2-Thiazolylazo)--cresol (TAC) Coated on Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, R.; Gómez, R.; Soto, C.; Aguayo, D.; Candia, C.; Yañez, J.; Zuñiga, V.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, preliminary results obtained for Pb(II) determination by photoacoustic spectroscopy are introduced. It is based on an amplitude measurement of a photoacoustic signal obtained from a Pb(II) complex formation with2-(2-thiazolylazo)- p-cresol (TAC) retained in an anionic resin such as Dowex 1X8. The Pb(II)-TAC complex spectrum reveals an absorption band, which is assigned to a Pb(II)-TAC complex retained on the resin. The peak height of this band is proportional to the Pb(II) concentration, and it can be used to obtain quantitative information of the metal content.

  9. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  10. A novel strategy for the construction of genomic mutants of the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Maria; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Pezzella, Cinzia; Rippa, Valentina; Duilio, Angela; Marino, Gennaro; Tutino, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    The sequencing and the annotation of the marine Antarctic Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 genome has paved the way to investigate on the molecular mechanisms involved in adaptation to cold conditions. The growing interest in this unique bacterium prompted the developing of several genetic tools for studying it at the molecular level. To allow a deeper understanding of the PhTAC125 physiology a genetic system for the reverse genetics in this bacterium was developed. In the present work, we describe a practical technique for allelic exchange and/or gene inactivation by in-frame deletion and the use of a counterselectable marker in P. haloplanktis. The construction of suitable non-replicating plasmid and methods used to carry out a two-step integration-segregation strategy in this bacterium are reported in detail.Furthermore two examples, in which the developed methodology was applied to find out gene function or to construct genetically engineered bacterial strains, were described. PMID:22160901

  11. Microstructure and Scratch Resistance of TaC Dense Ceramic Layer on an Iron Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nana; Xu, Yunhua; Zhong, Lisheng; Yan, Honghua; Ovcharenko, Vladimir E.

    2016-05-01

    A tantalum carbide dense ceramic layer with a thickness of ~20 μm was produced on the surface of an iron matrix using an in situ technique. The morphology, microstructure, and phase composition of the layer were characterized by means of SEM, TEM, and XRD. The results show fairly agglomerated and uniformly sized (~200 nm) TaC particulates with a face-cantered cubic structure. The values of nano-hardness for the surface and cross section of reinforcing layer can be as high as 29.5 ± 0.6 and 26.7 ± 0.1 GPa, respectively, which were analyzed using a nano-indentation apparatus. Moreover, the scratch resistance of the layer was measured by scratch tests under a progressively increasing load of 0-100 N. A high critical load of 90.4 N is obtained. It is worthy to note that there are only cracking, slight splitting, and small flaking pits (even at the maximum load) all over the whole scratch process, namely the reinforcing layer can protect the iron matrix from serious abrasion effectively. In addition, the excellent scratch resistance and mechanism are discussed in detail.

  12. Microstructure and Scratch Resistance of TaC Dense Ceramic Layer on an Iron Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nana; Xu, Yunhua; Zhong, Lisheng; Yan, Honghua; Ovcharenko, Vladimir E.

    2016-06-01

    A tantalum carbide dense ceramic layer with a thickness of ~20 μm was produced on the surface of an iron matrix using an in situ technique. The morphology, microstructure, and phase composition of the layer were characterized by means of SEM, TEM, and XRD. The results show fairly agglomerated and uniformly sized (~200 nm) TaC particulates with a face-cantered cubic structure. The values of nano-hardness for the surface and cross section of reinforcing layer can be as high as 29.5 ± 0.6 and 26.7 ± 0.1 GPa, respectively, which were analyzed using a nano-indentation apparatus. Moreover, the scratch resistance of the layer was measured by scratch tests under a progressively increasing load of 0-100 N. A high critical load of 90.4 N is obtained. It is worthy to note that there are only cracking, slight splitting, and small flaking pits (even at the maximum load) all over the whole scratch process, namely the reinforcing layer can protect the iron matrix from serious abrasion effectively. In addition, the excellent scratch resistance and mechanism are discussed in detail.

  13. Solar Technology Acceleration Center (SolarTAC): Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-259

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, W.

    2011-10-01

    This agreement allowed NREL to serve as an advisor on SolarTAC - a collaborative effort between Xcel Energy, NREL, and the University of Colorado at Boulder. The collaboration was formed to accelerate pre-commercial and early commercial solar energy technologies to the marketplace. Through this CRADA, NREL participated in the deployment of solar energy generation technologies and related solar equipment for research, testing, validation, and demonstration purposes.

  14. Aging of oxygen and hydrogen plasma discharge treated a-C:H and ta-C coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Svenja; Schulze, Marcus; Morasch, Jan; Hesse, Sabine; Hussein, Laith; Krell, Lisa; Schnagl, Johann; Stark, Robert W.; Narayan, Suman

    2016-05-01

    Surface modification with gas plasma is an efficient and easy way to improve the surface energy and the tribological behavior of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, e.g., in biomedical implants or as protective coatings. However, the long-term performance of the plasma treated DLC coatings is not fully clear. We thus studied the long-term stability of two kinds of DLC coatings, namely (a) hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and (b) tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) treated at different radio frequency (RF) power and time of oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) plasma. Their surface properties, e.g. surface wettability, structure and tribological behavior, were studied at regular intervals for a period of two months using contact angle goniometer, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), lateral force microscopy (LFM) and ball on disc apparatus. The surface energy of both the coatings decreased upon aging. The higher the RF power and time of treatment, the higher was the hydrophobicity upon aging. XPS analysis showed that the increase in hydrophobicity could be due to adsorption of unavoidable volatile organic components in the atmosphere. The H2 plasma treated ta-C was capable of rearranging its structural bonds upon aging. The nano-friction measurements by LFM showed that the coefficient of friction of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C decreased upon aging. The results indicate that the surface properties of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C are not stable on long-term and are influenced by the environmental conditions.

  15. The Effect of TaC Reinforcement on the Oxidation Resistance of CNTs/SiC CMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qiaoyun; Wosu, Sylvanus N.

    2016-03-01

    This study focuses on a two-stage spark plasma sintering (SPS) of TaC and/or carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). The oxidation mechanism of SiC-based CMCs with CNTs reinforcement as well as the TaC additives effect on the thermal oxidation resistance of the SiC-CNTs-TaC systems are investigated. The oxidation behavior up to 1500 °C is characterized in terms of mass changes, oxide layer formation, and thickness. The results showed that more disorder occurred in the CNT network with increased oxidation temperature. TaC additives exhibited an enhanced protective effect in increasing the oxidation temperature of CNTs from 460 to 550 °C, and this protective effect was effective at 1200 °C achieved by the crystalized Ta2O5 which grew with a preferred orientation giving rise to the phase separation in the glassy protective layer. Degraded oxidation resistance was found at 1500 °C.

  16. Competitive science: is competition ruining science?

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed. PMID:25605760

  17. Competitive Science: Is Competition Ruining Science?

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed. PMID:25605760

  18. Competition in a Social Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Longjas, Anthony; Batac, Rene

    Complex adaptive agents develop strategies in the presence of competition. In modern human societies, there is an inherent sense of locality when describing inter-agent dynamics because of its network structure. One then wonders whether the traditional advertising schemes that are globally publicized and target random individuals are as effective in attracting a larger portion of the population as those that take advantage of local neighborhoods, such as "word-of-mouth" marketing schemes. Here, we demonstrate using a differential equation model that schemes targeting local cliques within the network are more successful at gaining a larger share of the population than those that target users randomly at a global scale (e.g., television commercials, print ads, etc.). This suggests that success in the competition is dependent not only on the number of individuals in the population but also on how they are connected in the network. We further show that the model is general in nature by considering examples of competition dynamics, particularly those of business competition and language death.

  19. Measured Whole-House Performance of TaC Studios Test Home

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta-based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach topotential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaCStudios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post-construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowners wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this homewas evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored todetermine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  20. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  1. Competitive spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  2. Competitive spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  3. Real-world adjuvant TAC or FEC-D for HER2-negative node-positive breast cancer in women less than 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Lupichuk, S.; Tilley, D.; Kostaras, X.; Joy, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared the efficacy, toxicity, and use of granulocyte colony–stimulating factor (g-csf) with tac (docetaxel–doxorubicin–cyclophosphamide) and fec-d (5-fluorouracil–epirubicin–cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel) in women less than 50 years of age. Methods The study included all women more than 18 years but less than 50 years of age with her2-negative, node-positive, stage ii or iii breast cancer diagnosed in Alberta between 2008 and 2012 who received tac (n = 198) or fec-d (n = 274). Results The patient groups were well-balanced, except that radiotherapy use was higher in the tac group (91.9% vs. 79.9%, p < 0.001). At a median follow-up of 49.6 months, disease-free survival was 91.4% for tac and 92.0% for fec-d (p = 0.76). Overall survival (os) was 96% with tac and 95.3% with fec-d (p = 0.86).The incidences of grades 3 and 4 toxicities were similar in the two groups (all p > 0.05). Overall, febrile neutropenia (fn) was reported in 11.6% of tac patients and 15.7% of fec-d patients (p = 0.26). However, use of g-csf was higher in the tac group than in the fec-d group (96.4% vs. 71.5%, p < 0.001). Hospitalization for fn was required in 10.5% of tac patients and 13.0% of fec-d patients (p = 0.41). In g-csf–supported and –unsupported patients receiving tac, fn occurred at rates of 11.1% and 33.3% respectively (p = 0.08); in patients receiving the fec portion of fec-d, those proportions were 2.9% and 8.1% respectively (p = 0.24); and in patients receiving docetaxel after fec, the proportions were 4.1% and 17.6% respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions In women less than 50 years of age receiving adjuvant tac or fec-d, we observed no differences in efficacy or other nonhematologic toxicities. Based on the timing and rates of fn, use of prophylactic g-csf should be routine for the docetaxel-containing portion of treatment; however, prophylactic g-csf could potentially be avoided during the fec portion of fec-d treatment. PMID:27330344

  4. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  5. Finite-Element Model Predicts Current Density Distribution for Clinical Applications of tDCS and tACS.

    PubMed

    Neuling, Toralf; Wagner, Sven; Wolters, Carsten H; Zaehle, Tino; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been applied in numerous scientific studies over the past decade. However, the possibility to apply tDCS in therapy of neuropsychiatric disorders is still debated. While transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been approved for treatment of major depression in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), tDCS is not as widely accepted. One of the criticisms against tDCS is the lack of spatial specificity. Focality is limited by the electrode size (35 cm(2) are commonly used) and the bipolar arrangement. However, a current flow through the head directly from anode to cathode is an outdated view. Finite-element (FE) models have recently been used to predict the exact current flow during tDCS. These simulations have demonstrated that the current flow depends on tissue shape and conductivity. To face the challenge to predict the location, magnitude, and direction of the current flow induced by tDCS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), we used a refined realistic FE modeling approach. With respect to the literature on clinical tDCS and tACS, we analyzed two common setups for the location of the stimulation electrodes which target the frontal lobe and the occipital lobe, respectively. We compared lateral and medial electrode configuration with regard to their usability. We were able to demonstrate that the lateral configurations yielded more focused stimulation areas as well as higher current intensities in the target areas. The high resolution of our simulation allows one to combine the modeled current flow with the knowledge of neuronal orientation to predict the consequences of tDCS and tACS. Our results not only offer a basis for a deeper understanding of the stimulation sites currently in use for clinical applications but also offer a better interpretation of observed effects. PMID:23015792

  6. Cortico-muscular coupling and motor performance are modulated by 20 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Vanessa; Wach, Claudia; Südmeyer, Martin; Ferrea, Stefano; Schnitzler, Alfons; Pollok, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with pathologically altered oscillatory activity. While synchronized oscillations between 13 and 30 Hz are increased within a cortico-subcortical network, cortico-muscular coupling (CMC) is decreased. The present study aims at investigating the effect of non-invasive transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) on motor symptoms and motor-cortical oscillations in PD. In 10 PD patients and 10 healthy control subjects, static isometric contraction, dynamic fast finger tapping, and diadochokinesia of the more severely affected hand were investigated prior to and shortly after tACS of the contralateral M1 at 10 Hz vs. 20 Hz vs. sham. During isometric contraction, neuromagnetic activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography. 20 Hz tACS attenuated beta band CMC during isometric contraction and amplitude variability during finger tapping in PD patients but not in healthy control subjects. 10 Hz tACS yielded no significant after-effects. The present data suggest that PD is associated with pathophysiological alterations which abet a higher responsiveness toward frequency-specific tACS – possibly due to pathologically altered motor-cortical oscillatory synchronization at frequencies between 13 and 30 Hz. PMID:24474912

  7. Competition in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The conceptual introduction to this issue focuses on two questions: why study competition and what is a competitive market. Four instructional units follow, beginning with "Choosing Competitors." This preschool and kindergarten unit involves students in competitive games (naming colors), role playing competitive behaviors, comparing toys, and…

  8. Competition in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin; DeVitis, Joseph L.

    This book discusses various major aspects of competition in education. It identifies competition within educational policies, programs, and practices, as well as the problems that certain forms of competition create. It also traces the influences of American competitive values on education. Chapter 1 provides an introductory overview of the…

  9. An isochromosome confers drug resistance in vivo by amplification of two genes, ERG11 and TAC1.

    PubMed

    Selmecki, Anna; Gerami-Nejad, Maryam; Paulson, Carsten; Forche, Anja; Berman, Judith

    2008-05-01

    Acquired azole resistance is a serious clinical problem that is often associated with the appearance of aneuploidy and, in particular, with the formation of an isochromosome [i(5L)] in the fungal opportunist Candida albicans. Here we exploited a series of isolates from an individual patient during the rapid acquisition of fluconazole resistance (Flu(R)). Comparative genome hybridization arrays revealed that the presence of two extra copies of Chr5L, on the isochromosome, conferred increased Flu(R) and that partial truncation of Chr5L reduced Flu(R). In vitro analysis of the strains by telomere-mediated truncations and by gene deletion assessed the contribution of all Chr5L genes and of four specific genes. Importantly, ERG11 (encoding the drug target) and a hyperactive allele of TAC1 (encoding a transcriptional regulator of drug efflux pumps) made independent, additive contributions to Flu(R) in a gene copy number-dependent manner that was not different from the contributions of the entire Chr5L arm. Thus, the major mechanism by which i(5L) formation causes increased azole resistance is by amplifying two genes: ERG11 and TAC1. PMID:18363649

  10. Combining TMS and tACS for Closed-Loop Phase-Dependent Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Raco, Valerio; Bauer, Robert; Tharsan, Srikandarajah; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The corticospinal excitability indexed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the sensorimotor cortex is characterized by large variability. The instantaneous phase of cortical oscillations at the time of the stimulation has been suggested as a possible source of this variability. To explore this hypothesis, a specific phase needs to be targeted by TMS pulses with high temporal precision. Objective: The aim of this feasibility study was to introduce a methodology capable of exploring the effects of phase-dependent stimulation by the concurrent application of alternating current stimulation (tACS) and TMS. Method: We applied online calibration and closed-loop TMS to target four specific phases (0°, 90°, 180° and 270°) of simultaneous 20 Hz tACS over the primary motor cortex (M1) of seven healthy subjects. Result: The integrated stimulation system was capable of hitting the target phase with high precision (SD ± 2.05 ms, i.e., ± 14.45°) inducing phase-dependent MEP modulation with a phase lag (CI95% = −40.37° to −99.61°) which was stable across subjects (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The combination of different neuromodulation techniques facilitates highly specific brain state-dependent stimulation, and may constitute a valuable tool for exploring the physiological and therapeutic effect of phase-dependent stimulation, e.g., in the context of neurorehabilitation. PMID:27252625

  11. Beta Band Transcranial Alternating (tACS) and Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Applied After Initial Learning Facilitate Retrieval of a Motor Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Vanessa; Meier, Anna; Dinkelbach, Lars; Pollok, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) contributes to the acquisition and early consolidation of a motor sequence. Although the relevance of M1 excitability for motor learning has been supported, the significance of M1 oscillations remains an open issue. This study aims at investigating to what extent retrieval of a newly learned motor sequence can be differentially affected by motor-cortical transcranial alternating (tACS) and direct current stimulation (tDCS). Alpha (10 Hz), beta (20 Hz) or sham tACS was applied in 36 right-handers. Anodal or cathodal tDCS was applied in 30 right-handers. Participants learned an eight-digit serial reaction time task (SRTT; sequential vs. random) with the right hand. Stimulation was applied to the left M1 after SRTT acquisition at rest for 10 min. Reaction times were analyzed at baseline, end of acquisition, retrieval immediately after stimulation and reacquisition after eight further sequence repetitions. Reaction times during retrieval were significantly faster following 20 Hz tACS as compared to 10 Hz and sham tACS indicating a facilitation of early consolidation. tDCS yielded faster reaction times, too, independent of polarity. No significant differences between 20 Hz tACS and tDCS effects on retrieval were found suggesting that 20 Hz effects might be associated with altered motor-cortical excitability. Based on the behavioral modulation yielded by tACS and tDCS one might speculate that altered motor-cortical beta oscillations support early motor consolidation possibly associated with neuroplastic reorganization. PMID:26834593

  12. A study on in situ growth of TaC whiskers in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder for ceramic cutting tools

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Guolong; Huang, Chuanzhen; Liu, Hanlian; Xu, Liang; Chong, Xuewen; Zou, Bin; Zhu, Hongtao

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: In situ growth of TaC whiskers (TaC{sub w}) was synthesized in an α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder via a carbothermal reduction technique. The whiskers were 0.2–0.5 μm in diameter and 5–15 μm in length; they were straight and had smooth surfaces. Highlights: ► In situ growth of TaC whiskers was synthesized in an α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder. ► The wet mixing method and 1450 °C were suitable for whiskers growth. ► The growth of TaC whiskers is not influenced by the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. ► The major impurities were TaC particles, nickel and unreacted carbon. -- Abstract: In situ growth of tantalum carbide (TaC) whiskers was synthesized in an α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder via a carbothermal reduction technique within a temperature range of 1350–1500 °C in an argon atmosphere. The starting materials consisted of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, C, Ni and NaCl powders. Different mixing methods and various reaction temperatures were employed. Most of the prepared whiskers were 0.2–0.5 μm in diameter and 5–15 μm in length. The reaction temperature of 1400–1450 °C was suitable for the growth of TaC whiskers and a wet mixing method was beneficial to increase the whisker yield. Some of the whiskers exhibited the needle shape while others exhibited the screw shape. The growth mechanism of the whiskers was a complex mechanism involving a helical screw dislocation mechanism and a vapor–liquid–solid process. No obvious influences of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix powder on the growth of TaC whiskers were found and the major impurities in the obtained powder were TaC particles, nickel and unreacted carbon.

  13. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  14. Strategizing for Intense Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, William; Bourgeois, Ernest J., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Examines trend toward more aggressive student recruiting strategies by colleges and universities, applying a model that assesses five competitive forces-cause and effect of competition, the expanding marketplace, substitute products, buyer power, and supplier power, and examines various strategies for dealing with these competitive forces, such as…

  15. In Defence of Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prvulovich, Zika Rad

    1982-01-01

    Examines objections to competition as presented by educational philosopher Michael Fielding and others. The two major types of criticism of competition are that it is unfair and divisive and that it is selfish and immoral. The author advocates educational experiences which combine self-competition with cooperation. (AM)

  16. Competitive Anxiety in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rainer; And Others

    This book is a comprehensive review of competitive anxiety research that has used the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, or SCAT (a trait scale), and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). The book describes the theoretical basis and development procedures for both scales, including detailed information on reliability and validity. In…

  17. TAC BRAWLER - An application of engagement simulation modeling to simulator visual system display requirements for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerchner, R. M.; Hughes, R. G.; Lee, A.

    1984-01-01

    The TAC BRAWLER air combat simulation models both the acquisition and use of visual information by the pilot. It was used to provide the designers of manned simulators for air-to-air combat with information regarding the training implications of display system resolution, inherent target contrast, field of view, and transport delay. Various display designs were simulated, and the resulting quantitative and qualitative differences in engagements were considered indicators of possible mistraining. Display resolution was found to alter combats primarily through its effect on detection ranges; the 'pixel averaging' contrast management technique was shown to largely compensate for this problem. Transport delay significantly degrades pilot tracking ability, but the training impact of the effect is unclear.

  18. The balance between adaptation to catalysts and competition radius shapes the total wealth, time variability and inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidovich, Hadar; Louzoun, Yoram

    2013-05-01

    The globalization of modern markets has led to the emergence of competition between producers in ever growing distances. This opens the interesting question in population dynamics of the effect of long-range competition. We here study a model of non-local competition to test the effect of the competition radius on the wealth distribution, using the framework of a stochastic birth-death process, with non-local interactions. We show that this model leads to non-trivial dynamics that can have implications in other domains of physics. Competition is studied in the context of the catalyst induced growth of autocatalytic agents, representing the growth of capital in the presence of investment opportunities. These agents are competing with all other agents in a given radius on growth possibilities. We show that a large scale competition leads to an extreme localization of the agents, where typically a single aggregate of agents can survive within a given competition radius. The survival of these aggregates is determined by the diffusion rates of the agents and the catalysts. For high and low agent diffusion rates, the agent population is always annihilated, while for intermediate diffusion rates, a finite agent population persists. Increasing the catalyst diffusion rate always leads to a decrease in the average agent population density. The extreme localization of the agents leads to the emergence of intermittent fluctuations, when a large aggregate of agents disappear. As the competition radius increases, so does the average agent density and its spatial variance as well as the volatility.

  19. Mixed Strategies in cyclic competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intoy, Ben; Pleimling, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Physicists have been using evolutionary game theory to model and simulate cyclically competing species, with applications to lizard mating strategies and competing bacterial strains. However these models assume that each agent plays the same strategy, which is called a pure strategy in game theory, until they are beaten by a better strategy which they immediately adopt. We relax this constraint of an agent playing a single strategy by instead letting the agent pick its strategy randomly from a probability distribution, which is called a mixed strategy in game theory. This scheme is very similar to multiple occupancy models seen in the literature, the major difference being that interactions happen between sites rather than within them. Choosing strategies out of a distribution also has applications to economic/social systems such as the public goods game. We simulate a model of mixed strategy and cylic competition on a one-dimensional lattice with three and four strategies and find interesting spatial and stability properties depending on how discretized the choice of strategy is for the agents. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grant DMR-1205309.

  20. Influence of the incident angle of energetic carbon ions on the properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongping; Benstetter, Günther; Lodermeier, Edgar; Vancea, Johann

    2003-09-01

    Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films have been grown on Ar+-beam-cleaned silicon substrates by changing the incident angle of energetic carbon ions produced in the plasma of pulsed cathodic vacuum arc discharge. Their surface roughness, deposition rate, composition, and mechanical and frictional properties as a function of the incident angle of energetic carbon ions were reported. The substrate holder can be rotated, and so an angle of deposition was defined as the angle of ion flux with respect to the substrate surface. While the deposition angle is varied from 20° to 59°, the root-mean-square (rms) roughness decreases from 0.5 to 0.1 nm, then it turns to increase at a slow rate when the deposition angle is over 77°. The variation correlates well with the one of hardness with the deposition angle and the films with lower rms roughness exhibit the higher hardness. The soft graphite-like surface layers existing at the surfaces of these films were revealed by atomic force microscopy-based nanowear tests and their thickness increases from 0.35 to 2.9 nm with the deposition angle decreasing from 90° to 30°. The soft surface layer thickness can have a great effect on the sp3 contents measured by x-ray photoelectron spectra. Nanoscale friction coefficient measurements were performed from lateral force microscopy by using a V-shaped Si3N4 cantilever. The low friction coefficients (0.076-0.093) of ta-C films can be attributed to their graphite-like surface structure. The implications of these results on the mechanisms proposed for the film formation were discussed.

  1. ELR-Negative CXC Chemokine CXCL11 (IP-9/I-TAC) Facilitates Dermal and Epidermal Maturation during Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Cecelia C.; Whaley, Diana; Y-Chen, Amy; Kulesekaran, Priya; Hebda, Patricia A.; Wells, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In skin wounds, the chemokine CXCR3 receptor appears to play a key role in coordinating the switch from regeneration of the ontogenically distinct mesenchymal and epithelial compartments toward maturation. However, because CXCR3 equivalently binds four different ELR-devoid CXC chemokines (ie, PF4/CXCL4, IP-10/CXCL10, MIG/CXCL9, and IP-9/CXCL11), we sought to identify the ligand that coordinates epidermal coverage with the maturation of the underlying superficial dermis. Because CXCL11 (IP-9 or I-TAC) is produced by redifferentiating keratinocytes late in the regenerative phase when re-epithelialization is completed and matrix maturation ensues, we generated mice in which an antisense construct (IP-9AS) eliminated IP-9 expression during the wound-healing process. Both full and partial thickness excisional wounds were created and analyzed histologically throughout a 2-month period. Wound healing was impaired in the IP-9AS mice, with a hypercellular and immature dermis noted even after 60 days. Re-epithelialization was delayed with a deficient delineating basement membrane persisting in mice expressing the IP-9AS construct. Provisional matrix components persisted in the dermis, and the mature basement membrane components laminin V and collagen IV were severely diminished. Interestingly, the inflammatory response was not diminished despite IP-9/I-TAC being chemotactic for such cells. We conclude that IP-9 is a key ligand in the CXCR3 signaling system for wound repair, promoting re-epithelialization and modulating the maturation of the superficial dermis. PMID:18669615

  2. Tic-Tac-Toe Binary Lattices from the Interfacial Self-Assembly of Branched and Spherical Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Andrea; de Graaf, Joost; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato; Arciniegas, Milena P

    2016-04-26

    The self-organization of nanocrystals has proven to be a versatile route to achieve increasingly sophisticated structures of materials, where the shape and properties of individual particles impact the final functionalities. Recent works have addressed this topic by combining various shapes to achieve more complex arrangements of particles than are possible in single-component samples. However, the ability to create intricate architectures over large regions by exploiting the shape of multiply branched nanocrystals to host a second component remains unexplored. Here, we show how the concave shape of a branched nanocrystal, the so-called octapod, is able to anchor a sphere. The two components self-assemble into a locally ordered monolayer consisting of an intercalated square lattice of octapods and spheres, which is reminiscent of the "tic-tac-toe" game. These tic-tac-toe domains form through an interfacial self-assembly that occurs by the dewetting of a hexane layer containing both particle types. By varying the experimental conditions and performing molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the ligands coating the octapods are crucial to the formation of this structure. We find that the tendency of an octapod to form an interlocking-type structure with a second octapod strongly depends on the ligand shell of the pods. Breaking this tendency by ligand exchange allows the octapods to assemble into a more relaxed configuration, which is able to form a lock-and-key-type structure with a sphere, when they have a suitable size ratio. Our findings provide an example of a more versatile use of branched nanocrystals in self-assembled functional materials. PMID:27027973

  3. [XPS and Raman spectral analysis of nitrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C : N) films with different nitrogen content].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wang-Shou; Zhu, Jia-Qi; Han, Jie-Cai; Tian, Gui; Tan, Man-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C : N) films were prepared on the polished C--Si substrates by introducing highly pure nitrogen gas into the cathode region and the depositing chamber synchronously using filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technology. The nitrogen content in the films was controlled by changing the flow rate of nitrogen gas. The configuration of ta-C : N films was investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and visible Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the nitrogen content in the films increased from 0.84 at% to 5.37 at% monotonously when the nitrogen flow rate was varied from 2 seem to 20 sccm. The peak position of C (1s) core level moved towards higher binding energy with the increase in nitrogen content. The shift of C (1s) peak position could be ascribed to the chemical bonding between carbon and nitrogen atoms even though more three-fold coordinated sp2 configuration as in graphite was formed when the films were doped with more nitrogen atoms. Additionally, the half width of C(1s) peak gradually was also broadened with increasing nitrogen content. In order to discover clearly the changing regularities of the microstructure of the films, the XPS C(1s) spectra and Raman spectra were deconvoluted using a Gaussian-Lorentzian mixed lineshape. It was shown that the tetrahedral hybridization component was still dominant even though the ratio of sp2/sp3 obtained from C(1s) spectra rose with the increase in nitrogen content. The Raman measurements demonstrated that the G peak position shifted towards higher frequency from 1,561 to 1,578 cm(-1) and the ratio of ID/IG also rose with the increase in nitrogen content. Both results indicated that the graphitizing tendency could occur with the increase in nitrogen content in the films. PMID:19385255

  4. Building America Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed-humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowner's wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  5. Using Tic-Tac Software to Reduce Anxiety-Related Behaviour in Adults with Autism and Learning Difficulties during Waiting Periods: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campillo, Cristina; Herrera, Gerardo; Remírez de Ganuza, Conchi; Cuesta, José L.; Abellán, Raquel; Campos, Arturo; Navarro, Ignacio; Sevilla, Javier; Pardo, Carlos; Amati, Fabián

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in the perception of time and processing of changes across time are commonly observed in individuals with autism. This pilot study evaluated the efficacy of the use of the software tool Tic-Tac, designed to make time visual, in three adults with autism and learning difficulties. This research focused on applying the tool in waiting…

  6. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  7. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. PMID:25528318

  8. Four paths of competition

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    The financial community`s focus on utility competition has been riveted on the proceedings now in progress at state regulatory commissions. The fear that something immediately damaging will come out of these proceedings seems to have diminished in recent months, and the stock market has reacted favorably. However, regulatory developments are only one of four paths leading to competition; the others are the marketplace, the legislatures, and the courts. Each could play a critical role in the emergence of competition.

  9. Intramural Gymnastics Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, William L.

    1981-01-01

    An intramural gymnastic competition, if properly organized, can foster student and community interest in gymnastics. Aspects of organization and essential preplanning include: directing, judging, scoring, and managing. (JN)

  10. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  11. A new automated method for the determination of the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) of human plasma, based on the crocin bleaching assay

    PubMed Central

    Kampa, Marilena; Nistikaki, Anastasia; Tsaousis, Vassilios; Maliaraki, Niki; Notas, George; Castanas, Elias

    2002-01-01

    Background Antioxidant molecules, which scavenge free radical species to prevent or delay oxidative damage of important macromolecules, membrane lipids and lipoproteins, are prevalent in plasma and other biological fluids. Among them, bilirubin, uric acid and protein thiols are the major endogenous antioxidants, while vitamins C and E, as well as a number of food-derived (poly)aromatic substances, belonging to stilbens, flavonoids and phenolic acids, are the main classes of nutritional antioxidants. Assays for total antioxidant capacity in plasma differ in their type of oxidation source, target and measurement used to detect the oxidized product. Methods In the present work we present an automated assay for the estimation of blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC assay), based on the crocin bleaching (oxidation) method. This method was adapted on a modern autoanalyzer, was linear over a wide range of values (0–3 mmol/L), and performed using an end point measurement. Results The TAC method presented a linear correlation with another automated commercial Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) test. Detection of the interference of different metabolites revealed a significant participation of TAC from uric acid, bilirubin, albumin, a minor interference from ascorbic acid, and no interference from hemoglobin. TAC was not modified by two freeze/thawing cycles, and was stable in samples stored at room temperature for 4 hours. K-EDTA and heparin were the best anticoagulants, while citrate decreased TAC by 20%. Reference values derived from samples of normal blood donors was 1.175 ± 0.007 mmol/L (mean ± SEM), while a diet rich in antioxidants more than doubled this value. Conclusions The proposed TAC assay, is fully automated, stable and reliable, and could be of value in the estimation of the AC of plasma. It is further proposed to calculate the antioxidant capacity of plasma after a subtraction of all interference deriving from endogenous and/or exogenous metabolites. The

  12. Utah Mock Trial Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Linda, Comp.

    Background materials and guidelines for secondary students and educators in Utah who wish to participate in the state-wide mock trial competition are provided. Many parts of the publication can be used by educators in other states who are using mock trials in their classrooms or who are developing a state-wide mock trial competition. The manual…

  13. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  14. Competitiveness, Technology and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lall, Sanjaya

    This document examines competitiveness in the developing world. Chapters 1 through 3, which are largely conceptual, examine the following topics: the concept of competitiveness and why it is important; market-stimulating technology policies in developing countries, and the relationship between import liberalization and industrial performance.…

  15. PhAP protease from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125: Gene cloning, recombinant production in E. coli and enzyme characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pascale, D.; Giuliani, M.; De Santi, C.; Bergamasco, N.; Amoresano, A.; Carpentieri, A.; Parrilli, E.; Tutino, M. L.

    2010-08-01

    Cold-adapted proteases have been found to be the dominant activity throughout the cold marine environment, indicating their importance in bacterial acquisition of nitrogen-rich complex organic compounds. However, few extracellular proteases from marine organisms have been characterized so far, and the mechanisms that enable their activity in situ are still largely unknown. Aside from their ecological importance and use as model enzyme for structure/function investigations, cold-active proteolytic enzymes offer great potential for biotechnological applications. Our studies on cold adapted proteases were performed on exo-enzyme produced by the Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125. By applying a proteomic approach, we identified several proteolytic activities from its culture supernatant. PhAP protease was selected for further investigations. The encoding gene was cloned and the protein was recombinantly produced in E. coli cells. The homogeneous product was biochemically characterised and it turned out that the enzyme is a Zn-dependent aminopeptidase, with an activity dependence from assay temperature typical of psychrophilic enzymes.

  16. A novel chemokine receptor for SDF-1 and I-TAC involved in cell survival, cell adhesion, and tumor development

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jennifer M.; Summers, Bretton C.; Wang, Yu; Melikian, Anita; Berahovich, Rob; Miao, Zhenhua; Penfold, Mark E. T.; Sunshine, Mary Jean; Littman, Dan R.; Kuo, Calvin J.; Wei, Kevin; McMaster, Brian E.; Wright, Kim; Howard, Maureen C.; Schall, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    The chemokine stromal cell–derived factor (SDF-1; also known as chemokine ligand 12 [CXCL12]) regulates many essential biological processes, including cardiac and neuronal development, stem cell motility, neovascularization, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. It is generally believed that SDF-1 mediates these many disparate processes via a single cell surface receptor known as chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). This paper characterizes an alternate receptor, CXCR7, which binds with high affinity to SDF-1 and to a second chemokine, interferon-inducible T cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC; also known as CXCL11). Membrane-associated CXCR7 is expressed on many tumor cell lines, on activated endothelial cells, and on fetal liver cells, but on few other cell types. Unlike many other chemokine receptors, ligand activation of CXCR7 does not cause Ca2+ mobilization or cell migration. However, expression of CXCR7 provides cells with a growth and survival advantage and increased adhesion properties. Consistent with a role for CXCR7 in cell survival and adhesion, a specific, high affinity small molecule antagonist to CXCR7 impedes in vivo tumor growth in animal models, validating this new receptor as a target for development of novel cancer therapeutics. PMID:16940167

  17. Endocrine MPA enhances the effects of TAC chemotherapy on improvement of prognosis and increase in long-term survival rates for patients with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, XIUHONG; WANG, LU; XUE, JUAN; LI, LI; ZHANG, JING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of taxol, adriamycin and carboplatin (TAC) chemotherapy combined with endocrine medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) therapy for the treatment of patients with endometrial cancer. A retrospective analysis of 124 patients with endometrial cancer was performed by dividing the cohort into an experimental and control group. The 64 patients in the experimental group received TAC and MPA chemotherapy, whereas the 60 patients in the control group were treated with TAC chemotherapy only. Tissue samples scraped from the uterus were used to extract the total proteins and RNAs for the western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses, respectively. All the patients were followed up for 20–45 months, during which time prognostic data, and one- to three-year survival rates were recorded and compared. The rate of recurrence or metastasis was significantly lower in the experimental group compared with that in the control group (P<0.05) and the three-year survival rate of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the mean metastasis-associated 1 (MTA1) protein and RNA expression levels were significantly lower in the experimental group compared with the control group (P<0.05), exhibiting ~30 and ~15% of the levels in the control group, respectively. Therefore, a treatment strategy of TAC chemotherapy combined with endocrine MPA therapy appears to effectively improve the prognosis and increase the long-term survival rates of patients with endometrial cancer. Such an enhancing effect may be mediated by the transcriptional downregulation of MTA1 expression. PMID:26622772

  18. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E

    1999-11-01

    Several important developments have occurred in recent years in the chemotherapy for and prophylaxis of parasitic infections. Although mefloquine is clearly the most effective agent for prevention of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria, its use has been compromised by side effects, both real and imagined. Well-designed studies have shown that side effects occur no more frequently with low-dose mefloquine than with chloroquine. Use of mefloquine in pregnant women has not been associated with birth defects, but the incidence of stillbirths may be increased. Malarone is a new agent that combines atovaquone and proguanil, and it may be as effective as mefloquine; however, it is not yet available in the United States. Several newer agents have appeared in response to the development of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum, especially in Southeast Asia. Halofantrine is available for the treatment of mild to moderate malaria due to P. falciparum and for P. vivax infections. Because of severe toxic effects, use of halofantrine should be restricted to only those unusual and rare situations in which other agents cannot be used. Artemisinin (an extract of the Chinese herbal remedy qinghaosu) and two derivatives, artesunate and artemether, are active against multidrug resistant P. falciparum and are widely used in Asia in oral, parenteral, and rectal forms. The antibacterial azithromycin in combination with atovaquone or quinine has now been reported to treat babesiosis effectively in experimental animals and in a few patients. Azithromycin in combination with paromomycin has also shown promise in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis (and toxoplasmosis when combined with pyrimethamine) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Albendazole is currently the only systemic agent available for treatment of microsporidiosis, an infection primarily of patients with AIDS. In addition, albendazole and ivermectin have emerged as effective broad

  19. A Demand-Driven Approach for a Multi-Agent System in Supply Chain Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, Yevgeniya; Fasli, Maria

    This paper presents the architecture of a multi-agent decision support system for Supply Chain Management (SCM) which has been designed to compete in the TAC SCM game. The behaviour of the system is demand-driven and the agents plan, predict, and react dynamically to changes in the market. The main strength of the system lies in the ability of the Demand agent to predict customer winning bid prices - the highest prices the agent can offer customers and still obtain their orders. This paper investigates the effect of the ability to predict customer order prices on the overall performance of the system. Four strategies are proposed and compared for predicting such prices. The experimental results reveal which strategies are better and show that there is a correlation between the accuracy of the models' predictions and the overall system performance: the more accurate the prediction of customer order prices, the higher the profit.

  20. Antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Ryder, N S

    1999-12-01

    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  1. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  2. 2000 FIRST Robotics Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2000 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  3. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  4. Cationic starch (Q-TAC) pre-treatment of cotton fabric: influence on dyeing with reactive dye.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shamshad; Mughal, Mohsin Ali; Shoukat, Umair; Baloch, Mansoor Ali; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Reactive dyes require high concentrations of an electrolyte to improve dye-fiber interaction, leading to the discharge of harmful effluent. One approach to reduce this unsafe release is treatment of the cotton fabric with cationic chemical reagents. This paper reports on the treatment of cotton fabric with cationic starch (Q-TAC), a commercial product, by batchwise method and pad batch method for the first time prior to reactive dyeing process. Furthermore,three commercial reactive dyes, based on monochloro triazine, vinyl sulfone and monochlorotriazine + vinyl sulfonechemistry, was applied on the cotton fabrics by continuous (pad-dry-cure) method. The treated cotton fabric by batchwise method produced 70% higher color yield (K/S) and 20% enhanced dye fixation (%F) than the untreated cotton fabric. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of N1s peaks in the treated cotton fabrics. The crystallinity of treated cotton fabrics was reduced in comparison to untreated cotton fabric as revealed by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) showed that the surface of treated cotton fabrics was rougher than untreated cotton fabric due to the deposition of cationic starch. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum confirmed the existence of quaternary ammonium groups, N(+)(CH3)3, in the treated cotton fabrics. The analysis of color fastness tests demonstrated good to excellent ratings for treated cotton fabrics. In this way, cationic starch treatment of cotton fabric before reactive dyeing process has been proven potentially a more environmentally sustainable method than conventional dyeing method. PMID:25498635

  5. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  6. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  7. Agent Building Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

  8. Advancing Manufacturing Research Through Competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Balakirsky, Stephen; Madhavan, Raj

    2009-01-01

    Competitions provide a technique for building interest and collaboration in targeted research areas. This paper will present a new competition that aims to increase collaboration amongst Universities, automation end-users, and automation manufacturers through a virtual competition. The virtual nature of the competition allows for reduced infrastructure requirements while maintaining realism in both the robotic equipment deployed and the scenarios. Details of the virtual environment as well as the competitions objectives, rules, and scoring metrics will be presented.

  9. Utility competition and residential customers

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    Residential customers have found themselves either ignored or ill-used by the major participants in the struggle over utility competition. No group is seeking to secure them the benefits of competition, and those who oppose competition have curried their favor by conjuring up misleading horror stories about how competition would harm them. Yet residential customers ultimately stand to gain as much from competition as larger customers.

  10. Competitive strategy for providers.

    PubMed

    Hackett, M C

    1996-01-01

    National Health Service (NHS) Trusts are struggling to determine a long-term strategic direction for their organizations in response to the competitive pressures generated by the NHS reforms. The development of long-term strategic direction and the methods to implement this are presenting real challenges to the Trusts which have inherited service configurations based on bureaucratic planning frameworks rather than service configurations suited to a more competitive environment. Examines the strategic choices available to these organizations; explores the importance of identifying positive strategic choices; and discusses the advantages and disadvantages in the context of the NHS internal market. PMID:10164226

  11. Demography and language competition.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Anne

    2009-04-01

    Attempts to describe language competition and extinction in a mathematical way have enjoyed increased popularity recently. In this paper I review recent modeling approaches and, based on these findings, propose a model of reaction-diffusion type. I analyze the dynamics of interactions of a population with two monolingual groups and a group that is bilingual in these two languages. The results show that demographic factors, such as population growth or population dispersal, play an important role in the competition dynamic. Furthermore, I consider the impact of two strategies for language maintenance: adjusting the status of the endangered language and adjusting the availability of monolingual and bilingual educational resources. PMID:19943743

  12. a Model for Brand Competition Within a Social Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Quintanilla, R.; Canto-Lugo, E.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.

    An agent-based model was built representing an economic environment in which m brands are competing for a product market. These agents represent companies that interact within a social network in which a certain agent persuades others to update or shift their brands; the brands of the products they are using. Decision rules were established that caused each agent to react according to the economic benefits it would receive; they updated/shifted only if it was beneficial. Each agent can have only one of the m possible brands, and she can interact with its two nearest neighbors and another set of agents which are chosen according to a particular set of rules in the network topology. An absorbing state was always reached in which a single brand monopolized the network (known as condensation). The condensation time varied as a function of model parameters is studied including an analysis of brand competition using different networks.

  13. Competition in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

  14. Human Resources Competitiveness Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    This report distills hundreds of indicators from both domestic and international sources to determine how the United States compares to other countries and to its own past performance in competitiveness. It attempts to establish a baseline of some key education and training indicators that, taken together, show where the nation stands and where it…

  15. Cost and competition

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.

    1994-11-01

    The growth of private power is part of the movement away from administrative regulation and toward competitive control of prices for electricity. Despite the substantial success of the private power industry, this process is far from complete. Utility regulators, who preside over the power purchase contracting process, are responsible for assuring that the prices which are presented to them for approval are reasonable.

  16. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  17. Building Camaraderie from Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Educational institutions have adopted athletics programs to promote character building. Sports help people feel comfortable in their skins and provide unique opportunities to develop qualities such as cooperation, perseverance, and the ability to cope with fear. But the arena can be a hothouse for more primal feelings that emerge in competition.…

  18. Television and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Roger G.

    The television industry is characterized by numerous imperfections in market competition. The spectrum allocation policy of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assures that there will be only three national television networks; consequently in nearly all markets these stations account for 75% to 100% of revenues. These networks in turn…

  19. Competitiveness and Campaign '88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan-Schloss, Adam, Ed.; And Others

    This report profiles the positions of the six Democratic and six Republican 1988 presidential candidates on policy issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in the global economy. Candidate profiles are provided for: Bruce Babbitt, Michael Dukakis, Richard Gephardt, Albert Gore, Jr., Jesse Jackson, and Paul Simon (Democrats); and George Bush, Robert…

  20. Competitiveness Index 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    The United States' economic performance in the world economy is compared with that of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom (the Summit 7 countries). Competitiveness is assessed by four economic indicators: standard of living, trade, manufacturing productivity, and investment. The United States continues to outinvest the…

  1. Competition in Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Discusses five ways (high school newspaper and yearbook advertising, summer jobs, internships, contests, and student-run advertising agencies) students can start to prepare for a career in the competitive field of advertising while still in high school and college. (SR)

  2. A Winning Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kim; Franchini, Elease

    2012-01-01

    As a high school physics teacher, Kim Geddes is constantly searching for new experiences to challenge, motivate, and engage students. Last year, she incorporated ExploraVision into the energy unit of her school's physics curriculum with the help of their media specialist (Elease Franchini). ExploraVision is a competition offered through a…

  3. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  4. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition. PMID:24166062

  5. How does competition structure affect industry merger waves? A network analysis perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Rui; Yang, Jianmei; Yao, Canzhong; McKelvey, Bill

    2015-07-01

    By taking China's beer industry as an example, this paper establishes a series of industrial competition-pressure networks and examines the correlation between competition structure and merger actions. We present a cascade dynamic-merger agent-based computational model driven by competition pressure diffusion to describe the forming process of industry merger wave. The empirical analyses and agent-based computational simulation results show that the competition structure among rivals has a strong effect on the scale, the duration time, and the stability of industry merger wave. We also give explanations on why there are different simulation results between in single market competition environment and in multi-market competition environment, as well as discuss the management implications for the industry-merger policy makers and the merger-tactics decision makers that are involved in merger wave.

  6. Neurokinin B-related Peptide Suppresses the Expression of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 in the Brain of Mature Female Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ye Hwa; Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kwon, Joon Yeong

    2016-01-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) and neurokinin B related peptide (NKBRP) belong to tachykinin peptide family. Theyact as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator. Mutation of NKB and/or its cognate receptor, NK3R resulted in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in mammals, implying a strong involvement of NKB/NK3R system in controlling mammalian reproduction. Teleosts possess NKBRP as well as NKB, but their roles in fish reproduction need to be clarified. In this study, NKB and NKBRP coding gene (tac3) was cloned from Nile tilapia and sequenced. Based on the sequence, Nile tilapia NKB and NKBRP peptide were synthesized and their biological potencies were tested in vitro pituitary culture. The synthetic NKBRP showed direct inhibitory effect on the expression of GTH subunits at the pituitary level. This inhibitory effect was confirmed in vivo by means of intraperitoneal (ip) injection of synthetic NKB and NKBRP to mature female tilapia (20 pmol/g body weight [BW]). Both NKB and NKBRP had no effect on the plasma level of sex steroids, E2 and 11-KT. However, NKBRP caused declines of expression level of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 mRNAs in the brain while NKB seemed to have no distinct effect. These results indicate some inhibitory roles of NKBRP in reproduction of mature female Nile tilapia, although their exact functions are not clear at the moment. PMID:27294210

  7. Neurokinin B-related Peptide Suppresses the Expression of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 in the Brain of Mature Female Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ye Hwa; Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kwon, Joon Yeong

    2016-03-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) and neurokinin B related peptide (NKBRP) belong to tachykinin peptide family. Theyact as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator. Mutation of NKB and/or its cognate receptor, NK3R resulted in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in mammals, implying a strong involvement of NKB/NK3R system in controlling mammalian reproduction. Teleosts possess NKBRP as well as NKB, but their roles in fish reproduction need to be clarified. In this study, NKB and NKBRP coding gene (tac3) was cloned from Nile tilapia and sequenced. Based on the sequence, Nile tilapia NKB and NKBRP peptide were synthesized and their biological potencies were tested in vitro pituitary culture. The synthetic NKBRP showed direct inhibitory effect on the expression of GTH subunits at the pituitary level. This inhibitory effect was confirmed in vivo by means of intraperitoneal (ip) injection of synthetic NKB and NKBRP to mature female tilapia (20 pmol/g body weight [BW]). Both NKB and NKBRP had no effect on the plasma level of sex steroids, E2 and 11-KT. However, NKBRP caused declines of expression level of GnRH I, Kiss2 and tac3 mRNAs in the brain while NKB seemed to have no distinct effect. These results indicate some inhibitory roles of NKBRP in reproduction of mature female Nile tilapia, although their exact functions are not clear at the moment. PMID:27294210

  8. Competition among memes in a world with limited attention.

    PubMed

    Weng, L; Flammini, A; Vespignani, A; Menczer, F

    2012-01-01

    The wide adoption of social media has increased the competition among ideas for our finite attention. We employ a parsimonious agent-based model to study whether such a competition may affect the popularity of different memes, the diversity of information we are exposed to, and the fading of our collective interests for specific topics. Agents share messages on a social network but can only pay attention to a portion of the information they receive. In the emerging dynamics of information diffusion, a few memes go viral while most do not. The predictions of our model are consistent with empirical data from Twitter, a popular microblogging platform. Surprisingly, we can explain the massive heterogeneity in the popularity and persistence of memes as deriving from a combination of the competition for our limited attention and the structure of the social network, without the need to assume different intrinsic values among ideas. PMID:22461971

  9. Competition among memes in a world with limited attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, L.; Flammini, A.; Vespignani, A.; Menczer, F.

    2012-03-01

    The wide adoption of social media has increased the competition among ideas for our finite attention. We employ a parsimonious agent-based model to study whether such a competition may affect the popularity of different memes, the diversity of information we are exposed to, and the fading of our collective interests for specific topics. Agents share messages on a social network but can only pay attention to a portion of the information they receive. In the emerging dynamics of information diffusion, a few memes go viral while most do not. The predictions of our model are consistent with empirical data from Twitter, a popular microblogging platform. Surprisingly, we can explain the massive heterogeneity in the popularity and persistence of memes as deriving from a combination of the competition for our limited attention and the structure of the social network, without the need to assume different intrinsic values among ideas.

  10. Demolishing the competition: the longitudinal link between competitive video games, competitive gambling, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship between video game competition and aggression. In addition, if competition in video games is a significant reason for the link between video game play and aggression, then other competitive activities, such as competitive gambling, also may predict aggression over time. In the current study, we directly assessed the socialization (competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8 % female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play, gambling, and aggressive behaviors. Greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. The selection hypothesis also was supported, as aggression predicted greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time, after controlling for previous competitive video game play and competitive gambling. Our findings, taken together with the fact that millions of adolescents play competitive video games every day and that competitive gambling may increase as adolescents transition into adulthood, highlight the need for a greater understanding of the relationship between competition and aggression. PMID:23595418

  11. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  12. Single elimination competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, T. M. A.; Coe, J. B.; Ahnert, S. E.

    2008-09-01

    We study a simple model of competition in which each player has a fixed strength: randomly selected pairs of players compete, the stronger one wins and the loser is eliminated. We show that the best indicator of future success is not the number of wins but a player's wealth: the accumulated wealth of all defeated players. We calculate the distributions of strength and wealth for two versions of the problem: in the first, the loser is replaced; in the second, the loser is not. The probability of attaining a given wealth is shown to be path-independent. We illustrate our model with the popular game of conkers and discuss an extension to round-robin sports competition.

  13. Designing Competitive Service Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Veronica; Turner, Trevor

    The explosives developed in Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth ­century by the famous Swede and patron of the world peace prize, Alfred Nobel, were extremely durable and, apart from the introduction of the electric detonator, have remained in use with minor modifications for almost a century (Fig. 5.1a). In the 1970s a new invention started a process of change that has transformed the explosives business from being a supplier of products to a provider of a service. Survival very much depended on the agility of ICI Explosives UK, hereinafter referred to as "ICI Explosives," in adapting to the new competitive environment. Manufacturing excellence was not a solution. Innovative thinking was required to sustain the ­business as changes in technology reduced the complexity that had ­protected the business from serious competition for over a century.

  14. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  15. Competition for finite resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, L. Jonathan; Zia, R. K. P.

    2012-05-01

    The resources in a cell are finite, which implies that the various components of the cell must compete for resources. One such resource is the ribosomes used during translation to create proteins. Motivated by this example, we explore this competition by connecting two totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) to a finite pool of particles. Expanding on our previous work, we focus on the effects on the density and current of having different entry and exit rates.

  16. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  17. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  18. Competing intelligent search agents in global optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Streltsov, S.; Vakili, P.; Muchnik, I.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a new search methodology that we view as a development of intelligent agent approach to the analysis of complex system. The main idea is to consider search process as a competition mechanism between concurrent adaptive intelligent agents. Agents cooperate in achieving a common search goal and at the same time compete with each other for computational resources. We propose a statistical selection approach to resource allocation between agents that leads to simple and efficient on average index allocation policies. We use global optimization as the most general setting that encompasses many types of search problems, and show how proposed selection policies can be used to improve and combine various global optimization methods.

  19. Rowing competitions and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Alfinio; Bernhardt, Stephen A.; Shipman, Henry L.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is about integrating the use of graphing technology (specifically, GeoGebra) with principles of motion, principles of perspective, and the concept of vanishing points to model a dynamic event. Students were asked to analyse video images of a rowing competition filmed with a single camera positioned perpendicular to the race. The fixed position of the camera in such races makes it difficult to determine whether a scull closer to the camera is actually overtaking another, more distant scull. The paper illustrates how students in their first year at the university can integrate the use of technology, science, mathematics, and writing to solve a real world problem involving motion.

  20. The effects of competition and competitiveness on cardiovascular activity.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L K; Denning, S; Easton, H L; Hall, J C; Burns, V E; Ring, C; Carroll, D

    2001-07-01

    Cardiovascular activity was measured at resting baseline and in response to a car racing game, undertaken in competition or in cooperation with an experimenter, or individually. Competitiveness and win and goal orientations were assessed by questionnaire. Competition provoked increases in blood pressure and heart rate, and a significant shortening of the preejection period, an index of enhanced beta-adrenergic influences on the heart. The cooperation task was largely without effect, and although the solo task affected cardiovascular activity, it did so to a lesser extent and much less consistently than did the competition task. The three task conditions, then, were largely distinguishable by their capacity to activate beta-adrenergic processes. Participants high in competitiveness and desire to win showed higher blood pressure reactions and greater shortening of the preejection period to competition than those low in these characteristics. PMID:11446573

  1. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  2. Acute phase cytokines, TAC1, and toll-like receptor4 mRNA expression and health associated with group size in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, E M; Karousa, M M; Schutz, M M; Lay, D C; Marchant-Forde, J N; Eicher, S D

    2015-04-15

    Chronic stressors are a major health and well-being issue in animals. Immune status of animals under chronic stress is compromised, thus reducing disease resistance and compromising well-being of the animal. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of group size of veal calves on immune status and leukocyte mRNA expression of acute phase cytokines, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tachykinin 1 (TAC1) over a five-month finishing period. Holstein bull calves (n=168), 44±3 days of age were assigned to one of three treatments; 2, 4, or 8 calves/pen (pen space allowance of 1.82m(2)/calf). Jugular blood samples were collected at the day of grouping and then monthly for 4 months. The differential leukocyte counts were determined and mRNA was extracted from the leukocytes. Reverse transcription-qPCR was used to measure the gene expression of interleukin-1 (IL-1β), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), TLR4, and TAC1 in leukocytes. Health was evaluated before grouping and monthly for 4 months. On the 1st month after grouping, veal calves that were housed in groups of 8 have greater expression of IL-1β mRNA than calves housed in groups of 4 or 2 (treatment×month, P=0.04). Also at 1 month, groups of 8 had greater TAC1 expression (P<0.05) than calves housed in groups of 4 or 2. However, the expression of IL-1Ra, TNF-α, and TLR4 were not influenced by group size. In the first month of the trial, calves in groups of 8 coughed more (P<0.05) than calves in groups of 2 and coughed more than calves in groups of 4 and 2 during the 2nd month (treatment×month, P=0.03). Calves housed in groups of 8 tended to have greater neutrophil percentage (P=0.09), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (P=0.06), and had lower lymphocyte percentage (P=0.06) than those housed in groups of 4 or 2. In conclusion, the number of veal calves in a group, given the same space during the finishing period did not alter IL-1Ra, TNF-α, and TLR4 mRNA expression

  3. Hb Sallanches [alpha104(G11)Cys-->Tyr, TGC-->TAC (alpha2)]: an unstable hemoglobin variant found in an Indian child.

    PubMed

    Dash, Sumitra; Harano, Keiko; Menon, Santosh

    2006-01-01

    We report the fourth observation of Hb Sallanches [alpha104(G11)Cys-->Tyr, TGC-->TAC (alpha2)], an unstable alpha chain variant of intermediate severity in the homozygous state. Heterozygosity occasionally produces mild hypochromia and microcytosis in some patients. A balanced beta/alpha ratio, found in previously reported cases, points to unstable alphabeta dimers formed as a result of the Cys-->Tyr substitution at the alpha1beta1 contact site in this hemoglobin (Hb) variant. Our patient, and the previous two of the three cases reported in patients of Pakistani origin, points to a common population stock, separated by the mass population migration which occurred during the partition of Pakistan and India in 1947. PMID:16840231

  4. TAC3 and TACR3 Mutations in Familial Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Reveal a Key Role for Neurokinin B in the Central Control of Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Guclu, Metin; Yalin, Ayse Serap; Kotan, L. Damla; Porter, Keith M; Serin, Ayse; Mungan, Neslihan O; Cook, Joshua R; Imamoglu, Sazi; Akalin, N. Sema; Yuksel, Bilgin; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Semple, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The timely secretion of gonadal sex steroids is essential for the initiation of puberty, the post-pubertal maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics and the normal perinatal development of male external genitalia. Normal gonadal steroid production requires the actions of the pituitary-derived gonatrophins, LH and FSH. We report four human pedigrees with severe congenital gonadotrophin deficiency and pubertal failure in which all affected individuals are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in TAC3 (encoding Neurokinin B) or its receptor TACR3 (encoding NK3R). Neurokinin B, a member of the substance P-related tachykinin family, is known to be highly expressed in hypothalamic neurons that also express kisspeptin1, a recently identified regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion2. These findings implicate Neurokinin B as a critical central regulator of human gonadal function and suggest novel approaches to the pharmacological control of human reproduction and sex hormone-related diseases. PMID:19079066

  5. Self-organized networks of competing boolean agents

    PubMed

    Paczuski; Bassler; Corral

    2000-04-01

    A model of Boolean agents competing in a market is presented where each agent bases his action on information obtained from a small group of other agents. The agents play a competitive game that rewards those in the minority. After a long time interval, the poorest player's strategy is changed randomly, and the process is repeated. Eventually the network evolves to a stationary but intermittent state where random mutation of the worst strategy can change the behavior of the entire network, often causing a switch in the dynamics between attractors of vastly different lengths. PMID:11019043

  6. Persistent agents in Axelrod's social dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reia, Sandro M.; Neves, Ubiraci P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Axelrod's model of social dynamics has been studied under the effect of external media. Here we study the formation of cultural domains in the model by introducing persistent agents. These are agents whose cultural traits are not allowed to change but may be spread through local neighborhood. In the absence of persistent agents, the system is known to present a transition from a monocultural to a multicultural regime at some critical Q (number of traits). Our results reveal a dependence of critical Q on the occupation probability p of persistent agents and we obtain the phase diagram of the model in the (p,Q) -plane. The critical locus is explained by the competition of two opposite forces named here barrier and bonding effects. Such forces are verified to be caused by non-persistent agents which adhere (adherent agents) to the set of traits of persistent ones. The adherence (concentration of adherent agents) as a function of p is found to decay for constant Q. Furthermore, adherence as a function of Q is found to decay as a power law with constant p.

  7. Process for Considering Special Exit Criteria from Bilingual/English as a Second Language (ESL) Services under 19 TAC §89.1225(k). School Year: 2013-2014, Grades 1-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Under Texas Administrative Code (TAC) §89.1225(h), districts are required to use the exit criteria represented in the chart titled "2013-2014 English Proficiency Exit Criteria Chart" found at (http://www.tea.state.tx.us/index2.aspx?id=4098) to exit English language learners (ELLs) from bilingual/ESL programs. The exit criteria under TAC…

  8. Increased Neurokinin B (Tac2) Expression in the Mouse Arcuate Nucleus Is an Early Marker of Pubertal Onset with Differential Sensitivity to Sex Steroid-Negative Feedback than Kiss1

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Víctor M.; Kwong, Cecilia; Noel, Sekoni D.; Martin, Cecilia; Xu, Shuyun; Clifton, Donald K.; Carroll, Rona S.; Steiner, Robert A.; Kaiser, Ursula B.

    2012-01-01

    At puberty, neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin (Kiss1) may help to amplify GnRH secretion, but their precise roles remain ambiguous. We tested the hypothesis that NKB and Kiss1 are induced as a function of pubertal development, independently of the prevailing sex steroid milieu. We found that levels of Kiss1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are increased prior to the age of puberty in GnRH/sex steroid-deficient hpg mice, yet levels of Kiss1 mRNA in wild-type mice remained constant, suggesting that sex steroids exert a negative feedback effect on Kiss1 expression early in development and across puberty. In contrast, levels of Tac2 mRNA, encoding NKB, and its receptor (NK3R; encoded by Tacr3) increased as a function of puberty in both wild-type and hpg mice, suggesting that during development Tac2 is less sensitive to sex steroid-dependent negative feedback than Kiss1. To compare the relative responsiveness of Tac2 and Kiss1 to the negative feedback effects of gonadal steroids, we examined the effect of estradiol (E2) on Tac2 and Kiss1 mRNA and found that Kiss1 gene expression was more sensitive than Tac2 to E2-induced inhibition at both juvenile and adult ages. This differential estrogen sensitivity was tested in vivo by the administration of E2. Low levels of E2 significantly suppressed Kiss1 expression in the ARC, whereas Tac2 suppression required higher E2 levels, supporting differential sensitivity to E2. Finally, to determine whether inhibition of NKB/NK3R signaling would block the onset of puberty, we administered an NK3R antagonist to prepubertal (before postnatal d 30) females and found no effect on markers of pubertal onset in either WT or hpg mice. These results indicate that the expression of Tac2 and Tacr3 in the ARC are markers of pubertal activation but that increased NKB/NK3R signaling alone is insufficient to trigger the onset of puberty in the mouse. PMID:22893725

  9. Managed competition in health care and the unfinished agenda

    PubMed Central

    Enthoven, Alain C.

    1986-01-01

    A market made up of health care financing and delivery plans and individual consumers, without a carefully drawn set of rules to mitigate market failures, and without mediation by collective action on the demand side, cannot produce efficiency and equity. The concept of competition that can achieve these goals, at least to a satisfactory approximation, is managed competition, with intelligent active agents on the demand side, called sponsors, that contract with the competing health care plans and continuously structure and adjust the market to overcome its tendencies to failure. A great deal remains to be done to achieve the goals envisioned by the “procompetition reformers.” PMID:10311922

  10. Making geothermal power competitive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassbender, L. L.; Bloomster, C. H.

    The near-term supply curve for the electrical applications of geothermal energy is presented, and the impacts of technological improvements are illustrated. The curve is derived using the subsurface temperature, reservoir thickness, and heat content estimates made by the U.S. Geological Survey for the identified high-temperature and intermediate-temperature hydrothermal resources of the western U.S. Each step in the curve is composed of one or more geothermal resources identified by the USGS. Both high- and intermediate-temperature resources were included up to an arbitrary cost ceiling of 100 mills/kWh. Curves are drawn to show the impacts of combinations of technological advances expected to be achieved by 1982 and 1985. It is shown that most of the identified hydrothermal resources could become competitive with conventional energy sources for electrical power production by 1985.

  11. Effect of pre-treatment of the substrate surface by energetic C+ ion bombardment on structure and nano-tribological characteristics of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rismani, E.; Sinha, S. K.; Tripathy, S.; Yang, H.; Bhatia, C. S.

    2011-03-01

    Depositing an ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) protective coating on the surface of the recording heads in magnetic tape drives can improve the tribological problems at the head/tape interface. In this work the effect of pre-treatment of the surface of AlTiC substrate (main bearing surface of head in contact with tape) by C+ ions of moderate energy (smaller than 400 eV) on the structural and tribo-mechanical behaviours of the coated surfaces is studied. Sample preparation consisted of two separate stages of surface pre-treatment and deposition of the protective film, and was done by means of filtered cathodic vacuum arc. Structure of the ta-C film and its interface with the substrate were studied by transmission electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling. The results revealed the formation of a broader, dense atomically mixed layer at the ta-C film-substrate interface of the pre-treated samples comparing with that of the samples without pre-treatment. Chemical characterization of thin diamond-like carbon coatings was conducted by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface pre-treatment was found to have a remarkable effect on increasing the sp3 hybridization fraction in the ta-C overcoat. Nano-tribological properties of the treated surfaces were examined using ball-on-flat wear test at very low load (20 mN). There was a good correlation between the surface and structure characteristics of the film, and the tribological results and the pre-treated surfaces presented a very low coefficient of friction and higher wear life. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of bombardment of the surface with C+ ions of moderate ion energy to improve the structural and tribo-mechanical properties of the protective ta-C films on the magnetic head substrate material.

  12. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G PMID:18159791

  13. Spatial Aspects of Interspecific Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrett, Rick; Levin, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Using several variants of a stochastic spatial model introduced by Silvertown et al., we investigate the effect of spatial distribution of individuals on the outcome of competition. First, we prove rigorously that if one species has a competitive advantage over each of the others, then eventually it takes over all the sites in the system. Second, we examine tradeoffs between competition and dispersal distance in a two-species system. Third, we consider a cyclic competitive relationship between three types. In this case, a nonspatial treatment leads to densities that follow neutrally stable cycles or even unstable spiral solutions, while a spatial model yields a stationary distribution with an interesting spatial structure.

  14. The contribution of competition to tree mortality in old-growth coniferous forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, A.; Battles, J.; Stephenson, N.L.; van Mantgem, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Competition is a well-documented contributor to tree mortality in temperate forests, with numerous studies documenting a relationship between tree death and the competitive environment. Models frequently rely on competition as the only non-random mechanism affecting tree mortality. However, for mature forests, competition may cease to be the primary driver of mortality.We use a large, long-term dataset to study the importance of competition in determining tree mortality in old-growth forests on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada of California, U.S.A. We make use of the comparative spatial configuration of dead and live trees, changes in tree spatial pattern through time, and field assessments of contributors to an individual tree's death to quantify competitive effects.Competition was apparently a significant contributor to tree mortality in these forests. Trees that died tended to be in more competitive environments than trees that survived, and suppression frequently appeared as a factor contributing to mortality. On the other hand, based on spatial pattern analyses, only three of 14 plots demonstrated compelling evidence that competition was dominating mortality. Most of the rest of the plots fell within the expectation for random mortality, and three fit neither the random nor the competition model. These results suggest that while competition is often playing a significant role in tree mortality processes in these forests it only infrequently governs those processes. In addition, the field assessments indicated a substantial presence of biotic mortality agents in trees that died.While competition is almost certainly important, demographics in these forests cannot accurately be characterized without a better grasp of other mortality processes. In particular, we likely need a better understanding of biotic agents and their interactions with one another and with competition. ?? 2011.

  15. Project X: competitive intelligence data mining and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Competitive Intelligence (CI) is a systematic and ethical program for gathering and analyzing information about your competitors' activities and general business trends to further your own company's goals. CI allows companies to gather extensive information on their competitors and to analyze what the competition is doing in order to maintain or gain a competitive edge. In commercial business this potentially translates into millions of dollars in annual savings or losses. The Internet provides an overwhelming portal of information for CI analysis. The problem is how a company can automate the translation of voluminous information into valuable and actionable knowledge. This paper describes Project X, an agent-based data mining system specifically developed for extracting and analyzing competitive information from the Internet. Project X gathers CI information from a variety of sources including online newspapers, corporate websites, industry sector reporting sites, speech archiving sites, video news casts, stock news sites, weather sites, and rumor sites. It uses individual industry specific (e.g., pharmaceutical, financial, aerospace, etc.) commercial sector ontologies to form the knowledge filtering and discovery structures/content required to filter and identify valuable competitive knowledge. Project X is described in detail and an example competitive intelligence case is shown demonstrating the system's performance and utility for business intelligence.

  16. Feature Discovery by Competitive Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; Zipser, David

    1985-01-01

    Reports results of studies with an unsupervised learning paradigm called competitive learning which is examined using computer simulation and formal analysis. When competitive learning is applied to parallel networks of neuron-like elements, many potentially useful learning tasks can be accomplished. (Author)

  17. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  18. An Approach to Competitive Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Petrina M.

    1994-01-01

    Offers a detailed discussion of competitive assessment, an efficient and cost-effective method to evaluate competitive products. Describes its three phases: numerical scoring, building a best-of-breed model, and determining the gap between the best-of-breed model and another product. (SR)

  19. A Learning Software Design Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Simon; Hokanson, Brad; Bernhardt, Paul; Johnson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the University of Minnesota Learning Software Design Competition, focusing on its goals and emphasis on innovation. Describes the review process to evaluate and judge the software, lists the winners, identifies a new class of educational software, and outlines plans for future competitions. (Author/LRW)

  20. Neurocognitive Performance: Returning to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; McIntire, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Athletes who suffer from concussions under report their symptoms in order to expedite their return to competition. Athletic trainers and coaches must be aware of what is going on with athletes, even if it means requiring them to refrain from competition. Ninety percent of concussions are minor and can be difficult to diagnosis. There is a lack of…

  1. Competitive Grading Sabotages Good Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumboltz, John D.; Yeh, Christine J.

    1996-01-01

    Competitive grading stresses judging over learning. Assigning competitive grades adversely affects teachers by turning them into students' opponents, justifying inadequate teaching methods, trivializing course content, encouraging evaluation methods that misdirect and inhibit student learning, and rewarding teachers for punishing students. High…

  2. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  3. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  4. Mathematics + Competitions = A Winning Formula!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracy L.; Karnes, Frances A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how teachers of the gifted can make the study of mathematics dynamic, innovative, and creative through the exploration of problem-solving skills and real-life applications. Math competitions and general academic competitions that include mathematics for elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools are highlighted. (CR)

  5. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  6. The need for competitive intelligence.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-01-01

    Often associated with marketing warfare, competitive intelligence has become an essential part of health-care organizations' strategic planning efforts. Without overstepping ethical boundaries, providers can gather a vast array of "intelligence" about their competition from public sources, from the marketplace and from competitors themselves. PMID:10303102

  7. How to use competitive intelligence.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-02-01

    Keeping tabs on the competition is a necessity, not a luxury, for organizations operating in today's health-care marketplace. This article, the second of two, explores various strategies for using competitive intelligence and suggests ways to ensure organization-wide commitment to gathering and using this information as part of an overall strategic plan. PMID:10291747

  8. Competitive strategy a new era.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Alan M

    2007-11-01

    By adopting five basic practices, your organization will be ready to advance to the next level of competitive fitness: Develop a reliable financial baseline. Insist on development of a competitive intelligence database system. Employ rigorous business planning. Advocate for focus and discipline. Really commit to competing. PMID:18018789

  9. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Scarrow, Robert C.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

  10. Mobile Agents Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  11. How competition affects evolutionary rescue

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, Matthew Miles; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Populations facing novel environments can persist by adapting. In nature, the ability to adapt and persist will depend on interactions between coexisting individuals. Here we use an adaptive dynamic model to assess how the potential for evolutionary rescue is affected by intra- and interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition (negative density-dependence) lowers abundance, which decreases the supply rate of beneficial mutations, hindering evolutionary rescue. On the other hand, interspecific competition can aid evolutionary rescue when it speeds adaptation by increasing the strength of selection. Our results clarify this point and give an additional requirement: competition must increase selection pressure enough to overcome the negative effect of reduced abundance. We therefore expect evolutionary rescue to be most likely in communities which facilitate rapid niche displacement. Our model, which aligns to previous quantitative and population genetic models in the absence of competition, provides a first analysis of when competitors should help or hinder evolutionary rescue. PMID:23209167

  12. Randomness in Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Redner, S.; Vazquez, F.

    2013-05-01

    We study the effects of randomness on competitions based on an elementary random process in which there is a finite probability that a weaker team upsets a stronger team. We apply this model to sports leagues and sports tournaments, and compare the theoretical results with empirical data. Our model shows that single-elimination tournaments are efficient but unfair: the number of games is proportional to the number of teams N, but the probability that the weakest team wins decays only algebraically with N. In contrast, leagues, where every team plays every other team, are fair but inefficient: the top √{N} of teams remain in contention for the championship, while the probability that the weakest team becomes champion is exponentially small. We also propose a gradual elimination schedule that consists of a preliminary round and a championship round. Initially, teams play a small number of preliminary games, and subsequently, a few teams qualify for the championship round. This algorithm is fair and efficient: the best team wins with a high probability and the number of games scales as N 9/5, whereas traditional leagues require N 3 games to fairly determine a champion.

  13. Female competition in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  14. Foreign launch competition growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.; Pryke, I. W.

    1986-07-01

    A survey is given of progress made by other nations in providing or preparing to provide satellite launch services. The European Space Agency has four generations of Ariane vehicles, with a fifth recently approved; a second launch facility in French Guiana that has become operational has raised the possible Ariane launch rate to 10 per year, although a May failure of an Ariane 2 put launches on hold. The French Hermes spaceplane and the British HOTOL are discussed. Under the auspices of the Italian National Space Plane, the Iris orbital transfer vehicle is developed and China's Long March vehicles and the Soviet Protons and SL-4 vehicles are discussed; the Soviets moreover are apparently developing not only a Saturn V-class heavy lift vehicle with a 150,000-kg capacity (about five times the largest U.S. capacity) but also a space shuttle and a spaceplane. Four Japanese launch vehicles and some vehicles in an Indian program are also ready to provide launch services. In this new, tough market for launch services, the customers barely outnumber the suppliers. The competition develops just as the Challenger and Titan disasters place the U.S. at a disadvantage and underline the hard work ahead to recoup its heretofore leading position in launch services.

  15. Female competition in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Pusey, Anne E.; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission–fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  16. Diffusion of two brands in competition: Cross-brand effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laciana, C. E.; Gual, G.; Kalmus, D.; Oteiza-Aguirre, N.; Rovere, S. L.

    2014-11-01

    We study the equilibrium points of a system of equations corresponding to a Bass based model that describes the diffusion of two brands in competition. To increase the understanding of the effects of the cross-brand parameters, we perform a sensitivity analysis. Finally, we show a comparison with an agent-based model inspired in the Potts model. Conclusions include that both models give the same diffusion curves only when the cross coefficients are not null.

  17. Consumer Search, Rationing Rules, and the Consequence for Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruebeck, Christopher S.

    Firms' conjectures about demand are consequential in oligopoly games. Through agent-based modeling of consumers' search for products, we can study the rationing of demand between capacity-constrained firms offering homogeneous products and explore the robustness of analytically solvable models' results. After algorithmically formalizing short-run search behavior rather than assuming a long-run average, this study predicts stronger competition in a two-stage capacity-price game.

  18. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  19. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive level. 351.403 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive levels consisting of all positions in a competitive area which are in the same grade (or...

  20. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research. PMID:27103058

  1. FIRST 2002, 2003, 2004 Robotics Competition(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2002, 2003, and 2004 FIRST Robotics Competitions. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  2. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior☆

    PubMed Central

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition. PMID:23576829

  3. Gender and competitive preferences: The role of competition size.

    PubMed

    Hanek, Kathrin J; Garcia, Stephen M; Tor, Avishalom

    2016-08-01

    In a series of 8 studies, we examine whether gender differences in competition entry preferences are moderated by the size of the competition. Drawing on theories of gender roles and stereotypes, we show that women, relative to men, prefer to enter smaller compared with larger competitions. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrate this effect in observational data on preferences for working in differently sized firms and applying to differently sized colleges. Studies 2a and 2b replicate the effect with real behavioral decisions in different domains. We also find empirical evidence that prescriptive gender norms and stereotypes underlie this effect. In Study 3, we find experimental evidence that women and men differ in their preferences for differently sized groups under competition, but not in noncompetitive settings. Three additional experimental studies (Studies 4, 5a, and 5b) show that perceptions of comfort in small versus larger competitions underlie women's preferences. These findings suggest that women's preferences for smaller competitions may be driven by an adherence to prescriptive gender norms. We discuss the implications of the current findings for gender inequalities in organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27176148

  4. Chinese Education Agent Views of American Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yi; Serra Hagedorn, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In an era of increasing global competition in education related markets, many higher education institutions in the United States have come to realize the need to market better for international students. Community colleges are no exception and have become increasingly active in recruiting international students using education agents. Using…

  5. Agents of Internationalisation? Danish Universities' Practices for Attracting International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosneaga, Ana; Agergaard, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    Universities are increasingly urged to take new responsibilities as agents of internationalisation as the globalisation of higher education intensifies the competition for international students and leads to transformation of national and European policy landscapes. Drawing on the case study of two leading universities in Denmark, this paper…

  6. Competitive hybridization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepinsky, Vera; Hashmi, Ghazala; Mishra, Bud

    2010-11-01

    Microarray technology, in its simplest form, allows one to gather abundance data for target DNA molecules, associated with genomes or gene-expressions, and relies on hybridizing the target to many short probe oligonucleotides arrayed on a surface. While for such multiplexed reactions conditions are optimized to make the most of each individual probe-target interaction, subsequent analysis of these experiments is based on the implicit assumption that a given experiment yields the same result regardless of whether it was conducted in isolation or in parallel with many others. It has been discussed in the literature that this assumption is frequently false, and its validity depends on the types of probes and their interactions with each other. We present a detailed physical model of hybridization as a means of understanding probe interactions in a multiplexed reaction. Ultimately, the model can be derived from a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE’s) describing kinetic mass action with conservation-of-mass equations completing the system. We examine pairwise probe interactions in detail and present a model of “competition” between the probes for the target—especially, when the target is effectively in short supply. These effects are shown to be predictable from the affinity constants for each of the four probe sequences involved, namely, the match and mismatch sequences for both probes. These affinity constants are calculated from the thermodynamic parameters such as the free energy of hybridization, which are in turn computed according to the nearest neighbor (NN) model for each probe and target sequence. Simulations based on the competitive hybridization model explain the observed variability in the signal of a given probe when measured in parallel with different groupings of other probes or individually. The results of the simulations can be used for experiment design and pooling strategies, based on which probes have been shown to have a strong

  7. Factors and motivations associated with use of e-cigarette among primary care patients in a prospective cohort study: e-TAC study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Castéra, Philippe; Laporte, Catherine; Pétrègne, François; Gay, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While the relationship between electronic cigarette use and smoking has often been studied, the association between electronic cigarette use and socioeconomic factors has received less attention. This is a study protocol aiming to describe the relationship between the consumption of psychoactive products (in particular: smoking) or some socioeconomic factors and the evolution of the use of electronic cigarette in primary healthcare over 1 year. Methods and analysis Electronic cigarette, Tobacco, Alcohol and Cannabis (e-TAC) is a prospective multisite cohort study, including 473 patients at baseline and carrying out in general practices in the Aquitaine area (France). The volunteer patients participated in the study regardless of their initial reason for consultation. They filled out a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and will also do so after 12 months by phone, email or letter. The study will focus on the factors that explain the experimentation with or the current use of the electronic cigarette, as well as factors associated with their evolutions over time using multivariate logistic regression modelling or Cox regression modelling. Ethics and dissemination This study received ethical approval from the University of Bordeaux Committee for the protection of persons. It was also approved by the National Commission for Data Processing and Freedoms. Findings will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and we will disseminate them by presentations at national or international conferences. Trial registration number RCB: 2015-A00778-41; Pre-results. PMID:27311913

  8. Fabrication and characterization of 4H-SiC P-N junction diodes by selective-epitaxial growth using TaC as the mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Losee, P.; Seiler, J.; Bhat, I.; Chow, T. P.

    2005-04-01

    Selective nitrogen doping of 4H-SiC by epitaxial growth using TaC as the high-temperature mask has been demonstrated. Nomarski optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize selective growth of SiC. In addition, 250-µm, square-shaped, p-n junction diodes by selective n-type epitaxial growth on a p-type epilayer were fabricated. The refilled fingers with different width were designed to vary the periphery/area (P/A) ratio. The effects of P/A ratio on the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics have been investigated. The ideality factor extracted from J-V characteristics is ≈2 at a temperature range of 25-275°C, which indicates that the Shockley-Read-Hall recombination is the dominant mechanism in the conduction region. The reverse leakage current does not show dependence on P/A ratio for trench-refilled diodes. The room-temperature reverse leakage-current density at 100 V is less than 3.5×10-7 A/cm2 for all diodes. Also, the reverse leakage current does not increase significantly with temperature up to 275°C. The breakdown voltages measured at room temperature are about 450 V and 400 V for diodes without and with fingers, respectively.

  9. Multifaceted Interfaces of Bacterial Competition.

    PubMed

    Stubbendieck, Reed M; Straight, Paul D

    2016-08-15

    Microbial communities span many orders of magnitude, ranging in scale from hundreds of cells on a single particle of soil to billions of cells within the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. Bacterial cells in all habitats are members of densely populated local environments that facilitate competition between neighboring cells. Accordingly, bacteria require dynamic systems to respond to the competitive challenges and the fluctuations in environmental circumstances that tax their fitness. The assemblage of bacteria into communities provides an environment where competitive mechanisms are developed into new strategies for survival. In this minireview, we highlight a number of mechanisms used by bacteria to compete between species. We focus on recent discoveries that illustrate the dynamic and multifaceted functions used in bacterial competition and discuss how specific mechanisms provide a foundation for understanding bacterial community development and function. PMID:27246570

  10. 1986 Honeywell Futurist Awards Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Bryan J.

    1986-01-01

    Consists of three essays from the 1986 Honeywell Futurist Award competition. Discusses the use of the Molecular Matrix Chip to make computer communication more accessible, and thus to promote citizenship. (CH)

  11. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  12. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  13. Understanding Competition in Spine Care.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-04-01

    The changing landscape from volume to value represents a natural transformation in the health care industry. Increasingly provider groups are finding themselves responding to unfamiliar market forces. Whether explicit or implicit, competition is playing a larger role for the sustainability of providers. For spine care providers who are attempting to navigate the transition from volume to value, understanding the forces that shape competition in health care can help achieve success. PMID:26925860

  14. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobarak, H. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mohamad, E. Niza; Kalam, M. A.; Rashedul, H. K.; Rashed, M. M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-10-01

    The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC.

  15. Chemical crowd control agents.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  16. Effects of competitive reward distribution on auditing and competitive responding.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, D R

    2000-01-01

    This study allowed subjects to audit each other's responding during a series of competitive contests. Six pairs of female college students competed in 3-min contests in which the competitive response was a knob pull. A sum of money was divided using a proportional distribution or a 100%/0% reward distribution. In the proportional distribution, a subject's proportion of the sum was her proportion of the total number of responses. Also, in every contest either subject could make a response that would end the contest prematurely and give both subjects the same amount: a sum equal to 33% of the competitive total. Each subject could press either or both of two audit buttons that displayed her own and the other's response total for 10 s. Results replicated earlier findings in showing the superiority of the proportional distribution in total number of competitive responses made. No subject audited continuously, and only 1 audited most of the time. Most audits were interpersonal, including both own and other's scores. Auditing typically was more frequent in 100%/0% contests in which subjects were more likely to stop the contest when they were far behind. Winners were more likely to audit than were losers. Competitive response rates increased when the differences revealed by audits were small and decreased when they were large. Overall audit patterns were consistent with the view that feedback as "news" is more often sought when it can lead to improved outcomes. PMID:10966099

  17. Adaptation and Learning of Agents in Market Oriented Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishinishi, Masayuki; Namatame, Akira; Kita, Hajime

    Market Oriented Programming (MOP) proposed by Wellman is a decentralized control method using auction machanism inspired by the market economy. It is applied to many problems such as network and computation resource allocation. Conventional MOP models are formulated based on the concept of ‘competitive market’ of economics which assumes that the market consists of sufficiently many and small agents. However, in realistic applications of MOP, number of agents is limited and their interdependency is not negligible. In this paper, MOP for interdependent agents is discussed. An oligopoly market model for MOP is introduced, and adaptation process of interdependent agents and its stability are discussed. Further, it is also demonstrated that selfish learning of adaptation coefficiency by each agent achieves stability of market through computer simulation.

  18. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico; Vicanova, Jana; Pavel, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes. PMID:20054473

  19. Interference competition and species coexistence.

    PubMed Central

    Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2002-01-01

    Interference competition is ubiquitous in nature. Yet its effects on resource exploitation remain largely unexplored for species that compete for dynamic resources. Here, I present a model of exploitative and interference competition with explicit resource dynamics. The model incorporates both biotic and abiotic resources. It considers interference competition both in the classical sense (i.e. each species suffers a net reduction in per capita growth rate via interference from, and interference on, the other species) and in the broad sense (i.e. each species suffers a net reduction in per capita growth rate via interference from, but can experience an increase in growth rate via interference on, the other species). Coexistence cannot occur under classical interference competition even when the species inferior at resource exploitation is superior at interference. Such a trade-off can, however, change the mechanism of competitive exclusion from dominance by the superior resource exploiter to a priority effect. Now the inferior resource exploiter can exclude the superior resource exploiter provided it has a higher initial abundance. By contrast, when interference is beneficial to the interacting species, coexistence is possible via a trade-off between exploitation and interference. These results hold regardless of whether the resource is biotic or abiotic, indicating that the outcome of exploitative and interference competition does not depend on the exact nature of resource dynamics. The model makes two key predictions. First, species that engage in costly interference mechanisms (e.g. territoriality, overgrowth or undercutting, allelopathy and other forms of chemical competition) should not be able to coexist unless they also engage in beneficial interference mechanisms (e.g. predation or parasitism). Second, exotic invasive species that displace native biota should be superior resource exploiters that have strong interference effects on native species with little

  20. Change Agent Survival Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  1. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  2. Pediatric Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525

  3. How do agents represent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  4. Standard Agent Framework 1

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4)more » Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.« less

  5. Industry Cluster's Adaptive Co-competition Behavior Modeling Inspired by Swarm Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Wei; Ye, Feifan

    Adaptation helps the individual enterprise to adjust its behavior to uncertainties in environment and hence determines a healthy growth of both the individuals and the whole industry cluster as well. This paper is focused on the study on co-competition adaptation behavior of industry cluster, which is inspired by swarm intelligence mechanisms. By referencing to ant cooperative transportation and ant foraging behavior and their related swarm intelligence approaches, the cooperative adaptation and competitive adaptation behavior are studied and relevant models are proposed. Those adaptive co-competition behaviors model can be integrated to the multi-agent system of industry cluster to make the industry cluster model more realistic.

  6. Competitive helping in online giving.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Smith, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    Unconditional generosity in humans is a puzzle. One possibility is that individuals benefit from being seen as generous if there is competition for access to partners and if generosity is a costly-and therefore reliable-signal of partner quality [1-3]. The "competitive helping" hypothesis predicts that people will compete to be the most generous, particularly in the presence of attractive potential partners [1]. However, this key prediction has not been directly tested. Using data from online fundraising pages, we demonstrate competitive helping in the real world. Donations to fundraising pages are public and made sequentially. Donors can therefore respond to the behavior of previous donors, creating a potential generosity tournament. Our test of the competitive helping hypothesis focuses on the response to large, visible donations. We show that male donors show significantly stronger responses (by donating more) when they are donating to an attractive female fundraiser and responding to a large donation made by another male donor. The responses for this condition are around four times greater than when males give to less-attractive female (or male) fundraisers or when they respond to a large donation made by a female donor. Unlike males, females do not compete in donations when giving to attractive male fundraisers. These data suggest that males use competitive helping displays in the presence of attractive females and suggest a role for sexual selection in explaining unconditional generosity. PMID:25891407

  7. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    PubMed Central

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation—that is, the competitiveness of its research system—and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of “markers” of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most “sophisticated” needs of the society. PMID:25493626

  8. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    PubMed

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society. PMID:25493626

  9. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive... document the employee's actual duties and responsibilities. (3) Sex may not be the basis for a competitive level determination, except for a position OPM designates that certification of eligibles by sex...

  10. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive... document the employee's actual duties and responsibilities. (3) Sex may not be the basis for a competitive level determination, except for a position OPM designates that certification of eligibles by sex...

  11. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competitive level. 351.403 Section 351.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive levels consisting of all positions in...

  12. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive... document the employee's actual duties and responsibilities. (3) Sex may not be the basis for a competitive level determination, except for a position OPM designates that certification of eligibles by sex...

  13. Business Plan Competitions: An Overview. CELCEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Nicole

    This document describes business plan competitions sponsored by universities. The idea began in the early 1980s at the University of Texas when Masters in Business Administration (MBA) students created a friendly competitive activity along the lines of the law schools Moot Court competition. Later the competition became national, and then…

  14. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  15. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  16. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  17. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  18. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  19. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except... agreements, unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The CSREES ADO and...

  20. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except..., unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The NIFA ADO and the...

  1. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except..., unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The NIFA ADO and the...

  2. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) Solicit at least three sources to promote competition to the maximum extent..., document the file to explain the lack of competition....

  3. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except..., unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The NIFA ADO and the...

  4. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  5. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  6. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  7. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  8. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  9. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  10. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  11. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  12. America's Competitive Crisis: Confronting the New Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    Efforts to restore America's competitive position must proceed from an accurate definition of what competitiveness is. The U.S. competitiveness problem has three dimensions: long-standing structural problems, macroeconomic policies, and the trade and economic policies of foreign countries. The long-term erosion of U.S. competitiveness is suggested…

  13. Alternatives to Diesel Fuel in California - Fuel Cycle Energy and Emission Effects of Possible Replacements Due to the TAC Diesel Particulate Decision

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher L. Saraicks; Donald M. Rote; Frank Stodolsky; James J. Eberhardt

    2000-05-01

    Limitations on petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel, per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible ''mid-course'' strategies, each of which results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, with substantial displacement of compression ignition by spark ignition engines, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles. Gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters (8.5 million gallons) per day overall, about 21 percent above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter (3.6 million gallon) equivalents per day, about 7 percent above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, ressionignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case we estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Fuel replacement by di-methyl ether yields the greatest overall reduction in NOx emissions, though all scenarios bring about PM10 reductions relative to the 2010 baseline, with greatest reductions from the first case described above and the least from fuel replacement by Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not formally evaluated.

  14. Alternatives to diesel fuel in California - fuel cycle energy and emission effects of possible replacements due to the TAC diesel particulate decision.

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C. L.; Rote, D. M.; Stodolsky, F.; Eberhardt, J. J.

    1999-12-03

    Limitations on petroleum-based diesel fuel in California could occur pursuant to the 1998 declaration by California's Air Resources Board (CARB) that the particulate matter component of diesel exhaust is a carcinogen, therefore a toxic air contaminant (TAC) subject to the state's Proposition 65. It is the declared intention of CARB not to ban or restrict diesel fuel per se, at this time. Assuming no total ban, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) explored two feasible mid-course strategies, each of which results in some degree of (conventional) diesel displacement. In the first case, with substantial displacement of compression-ignition by spark-ignition engines, diesel fuel is assumed admissible for ignition assistance as a pilot fuel in natural gas (NG)-powered heavy-duty vehicles. Gasoline demand in California increases by 32.2 million liters (8.5 million gallons) per day overall, about 21% above projected 2010 baseline demand. Natural gas demand increases by 13.6 million diesel liter (3.6 million gallon) equivalents per day, about 7% above projected (total) consumption level. In the second case, compression-ignition engines utilize substitutes for petroleum-based diesel having similar ignition and performance properties. For each case the authors estimated localized air emission plus generalized greenhouse gas and energy changes. Fuel replacement by di-methyl ether yields the greatest overall reduction in NOX emissions, though all scenarios bring about PM{sub 10} reductions relative to the 2010 baseline, with greatest reductions from the first case described above and the least from fuel replacement by Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel. Economic implications of vehicle and engine replacement were not formally evaluated.

  15. Line competition in gas lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pikulev, A A

    2000-08-31

    Simultaneous lasing on two lines having a common upper level is analysed. Within the framework of the two-level model, a formula for the gain in each line is obtained. Two possible types of line competition are found: symbiosis and quenching. It is shown that competition in the quenching regime can be used to study the rates of population of the lower levels. The results are illustrated by competition diagrams for the 2.65-{mu}m and 2.03-{mu}m of the Xe atom in the Ar-Xe mixture and the 703.2-nm and 724.5-nm lines of the Ne atom in the Ne-Ar mixture. (active media)

  16. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  17. Belowground competition among invading detritivores.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Han; Szlavecz, Katalin; Filley, Timothy; Buyer, Jeffrey S; Bernard, Michael J; Pitz, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    The factors regulating soil animal communities are poorly understood. Current theory favors niche complementarity and facilitation over competition as the primary forms of non-trophic interspecific interaction in soil fauna; however, competition has frequently been suggested as an important community-structuring factor in earthworms, ecosystem engineers that influence belowground processes. To date, direct evidence of competition in earthworms is lacking due to the difficulty inherent in identifying a limiting resource for saprophagous animals. In the present study, we offer the first direct evidence of interspecific competition for food in this dominant soil detritivore group by combining field observations with laboratory mesocosm experiments using 13C and 15N double-enriched leaf litter to track consumption patterns. In our experiments, the Asian invasive species Amynthas hilgendorfi was a dominant competitor for leaf litter against two European species currently invading the temperate deciduous forests in North America. This competitive advantage may account for recent invasion success of A. hilgendorfi in forests with established populations of European species, and we hypothesize that specific phenological differences play an important role in determining the outcome of the belowground competition. In contrast, Eisenoides lonnbergi, a common native species in the Eastern United States, occupied a unique trophic position with limited interactions with other species, which may contribute to its persistence in habitats dominated by invasive species. Furthermore, our results supported neither the hypothesis that facilitation occurs between species of different functional groups nor the hypothesis that species in the same group exhibit functional equivalency in C and N translocation in the soil. We propose that species identity is a more powerful approach to understand earthworm invasion and its impacts on belowground processes. PMID:27008785

  18. Can NCLB Survive the Competitiveness Competition? Education Outlook. Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Some see the George W. Bush administration's American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) as the perfect complement to the No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) equity focus. The authors believe, however, that the prospects for synergy of these two agendas are not bright. In this essay, the authors discuss the history behind NCLB and the ACI, and argue…

  19. Dioxin, agent orange

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: dioxin, a prevalent problem; nobody wanted dioxin; agent organe and Vietnam; what we know about and may learn about agent orange and Veterans' health; agent organe and birth defects; dioxin in Missouri; 2, 4, 5-T: the U.S.' disappearing herbicide; Seveso: high-level environmental exposure; the nitro explosion; industrial exposures to dioxin; company behavior in the face of dioxin exposures; dioxin and specific cancers; animal tests of dioxin toxicity; dioxin decions; the present and the future.

  20. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  1. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  2. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  3. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  4. Rational discovery of dengue type 2 non-competitive inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Heh, Choon H; Othman, Rozana; Buckle, Michael J C; Sharifuddin, Yusrizam; Yusof, Rohana; Rahman, Noorsaadah A

    2013-07-01

    Various works have been carried out in developing therapeutics against dengue. However, to date, no effective vaccine or anti-dengue agent has yet been discovered. The development of protease inhibitors is considered as a promising option, but most previous works have involved competitive inhibition. In this study, we focused on rational discovery of potential anti-dengue agents based on non-competitive inhibition of DEN-2 NS2B/NS3 protease. A homology model of the DEN-2 NS2B/NS3 protease (using West Nile Virus NS2B/NS3 protease complex, 2FP7, as the template) was used as the target, and pinostrobin, a flavanone, was used as the standard ligand. Virtual screening was performed involving a total of 13 341 small compounds, with the backbone structures of chalcone, flavanone, and flavone, available in the ZINC database. Ranking of the resulting compounds yielded compounds with higher binding affinities compared with the standard ligand. Inhibition assay of the selected top-ranking compounds against DEN-2 NS2B/NS3 proteolytic activity resulted in significantly better inhibition compared with the standard and correlated well with in silico results. In conclusion, via this rational discovery technique, better inhibitors were identified. This method can be used in further work to discover lead compounds for anti-dengue agents. PMID:23421589

  5. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  6. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  7. Riot Control Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly ... agent from your skin with large amounts of soap and water. Washing with soap and water will ...

  8. Agent amplified communication

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A.

    1996-12-31

    We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

  9. Geographic Proximity and Enrollment Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zammuto, Raymond F.

    The use of a measure of geographic proximity to help explain enrollment competition among postsecondary institutions was investigated. The measure, the number of miles between institutions, was obtained by determining the longitude and latitude coordinates for about 99% of the schools in the Higher Education General Information System universe.…

  10. Economic Competitiveness: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    With the dollar's continued swoon and grim news on the job front, American economic competitiveness has become a central theme in the presidential election. Stumping in Ohio and Pennsylvania, old-line industrial states hit hard by the flight of manufacturing jobs, Democrats Hillary Rodham Clinton and Barack Obama have called for renegotiating the…

  11. Competitions: Developing and Nurturing Talents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Frances A.; Riley, Tracy L.

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the need for competitions and contests in schools to develop and enhance talents in academics, fine and performing arts, leadership, and service learning. An academic contest school assessment checklist is included. Information on several national contests for children and youth is presented. (CR)

  12. Competitive economics of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, R.

    1981-03-02

    Some 12 components of a valid study of the competitive economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant are identified and explicated. These are then used to adjust the original cost projections of four authoritative studies of nuclear and coal power economics.

  13. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  14. Teaching the Values of Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper first learned about the values of competition as a member of the 1989 Star of Indiana Drum and Bugle Corps. Because they played more than thirty shows that summer, it was common to compete two nights in a row. He vividly remembers one such occasion. Their first show was outstanding, and they finished second. Everyone was…

  15. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    ScienceCinema

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv;

    2013-05-29

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  16. "Project Psychology": A Classroom Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, Bethany K. B.; Hussey, Heather D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an original and unique series of classroom group-work activities organized as a competitive game called "Project Psychology," which was implemented in an Introduction to Psychology course. The project goals included increasing student participation, interest, content comprehension, and motivation. Fostering connections to…

  17. Competitive Cooperation: The Iceberg Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    Competitive athletes' scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test create an iceberg-like pattern known as the "Iceberg Profile." Their scores for tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion are low while their scores on vigor juts upward creating the "Iceberg Profile." Persons in a cooperative relationship are often competing against…

  18. Raising Economic Competitiveness with Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    The current school reform movement has been plagued by three false assumptions. The first of these postulates that more academic requirements will strengthen the minds of students, improve their reasoning, prepare them for a rapidly changing economy, and make the U.S. economy more competitive. Although it is true that the workers of the future…

  19. A Sinking Feeling about Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirasuolo, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    A competitive school ambience will further distinguish winners from losers in an increasingly fractured and stratified society. Disadvantaged students have little chance to win the standards game. Educators should examine the gilded age's hypocrisy; what gallantry existed the night the Titanic sank applied only to first-class female passengers.…

  20. Competition with Charters Motivates Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

  1. Competitive strategies in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Coad, H; Kennedy, B

    1992-04-01

    The NHS has, of necessity since implementation of the NHS and Community Care Act 1990, strengthened its skills in business, marketing and other functions borrowed from industry and commerce. One area where, however, the NHS is currently weak is in competitive intelligence. Hazel Coad and Barbara Kennedy explain what this strategically important function is and how it can help financial viability. PMID:10118487

  2. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  3. Can CA describe collective effects of polluting agents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troisi, A.

    2015-03-01

    Pollution represents one of the most relevant issues of our time. Several studies are on stage but, generally, they do not consider competitive effects, paying attention only to specific agents and their impact. In this paper, it is suggested a different scheme. At first, it is proposed a formal model of competitive noxious effects. Second, by generalizing a previous algorithm capable of describing urban growth, it is developed a cellular automata (CA) model that provides the effective impact of a variety of pollutants. The final achievement is a simulation tool that can model pollution combined effects and their dynamical evolution in relation to anthropized environments.

  4. The second will be first: competition on directed networks.

    PubMed

    Cencetti, Giulia; Bagnoli, Franco; Di Patti, Francesca; Fanelli, Duccio

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sinks competition is investigated for a walker diffusing on directed complex networks. The asymmetry of the imposed spatial support makes the system non transitive. As a consequence, it is always possible to identify a suitable location for the second absorbing sink that screens at most the flux of agents directed against the first trap, whose position has been preliminarily assigned. The degree of mutual competition between pairs of nodes is analytically quantified through apt indicators that build on the topological characteristics of the hosting graph. Moreover, the positioning of the second trap can be chosen so as to minimize, at the same time, the probability of being in turn shaded by a thirdly added trap. Supervised placing of absorbing traps on a asymmetric disordered and complex graph is hence possible, as follows a robust optimization protocol. This latter is here discussed and successfully tested against synthetic data. PMID:27271996

  5. The second will be first: competition on directed networks

    PubMed Central

    Cencetti, Giulia; Bagnoli, Franco; Di Patti, Francesca; Fanelli, Duccio

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sinks competition is investigated for a walker diffusing on directed complex networks. The asymmetry of the imposed spatial support makes the system non transitive. As a consequence, it is always possible to identify a suitable location for the second absorbing sink that screens at most the flux of agents directed against the first trap, whose position has been preliminarily assigned. The degree of mutual competition between pairs of nodes is analytically quantified through apt indicators that build on the topological characteristics of the hosting graph. Moreover, the positioning of the second trap can be chosen so as to minimize, at the same time, the probability of being in turn shaded by a thirdly added trap. Supervised placing of absorbing traps on a asymmetric disordered and complex graph is hence possible, as follows a robust optimization protocol. This latter is here discussed and successfully tested against synthetic data. PMID:27271996

  6. The second will be first: competition on directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cencetti, Giulia; Bagnoli, Franco; di Patti, Francesca; Fanelli, Duccio

    2016-06-01

    Multiple sinks competition is investigated for a walker diffusing on directed complex networks. The asymmetry of the imposed spatial support makes the system non transitive. As a consequence, it is always possible to identify a suitable location for the second absorbing sink that screens at most the flux of agents directed against the first trap, whose position has been preliminarily assigned. The degree of mutual competition between pairs of nodes is analytically quantified through apt indicators that build on the topological characteristics of the hosting graph. Moreover, the positioning of the second trap can be chosen so as to minimize, at the same time, the probability of being in turn shaded by a thirdly added trap. Supervised placing of absorbing traps on a asymmetric disordered and complex graph is hence possible, as follows a robust optimization protocol. This latter is here discussed and successfully tested against synthetic data.

  7. Nonaflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus TX9-8 Competitively Prevents Aflatoxin Production by A. flavus Isolates of Large and Small Sclerotial Morphotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxigenic Aspergillus flavus is the main etiological agent for aflatoxin contamination of crops. Using nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates to competitively exclude toxigenic A. flavus isolates in agricultural fields has become an adopted approach to reduce aflatoxin contamination. We determined th...

  8. Review of TAC superferric magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Humphries, D.

    1985-09-03

    The studies reported here include conductor current level optimizations at 0.15 T, 2.0 T, 3.0 T, and 3.25 T, maximum conductor fields at 3.25 T, sensitivity of field quality to variations in the magnetic shunt, and effects of up-down asymmetries. This design is characterized by a magnetic shunt which separates the aperture from the primary coils. The current in the three coils, labeled I/sub c'/ I/sub in'/ and I/sub out'/ may be individually controlled. Two configurations of the trim coil, labeled I/sub c'/ were investigated. The three currents are to be used as parameters to control the dipole field value, and to zero the first two allowed harmonic components, the sextupole and decapole.

  9. The Emergence of Embedded Relations and Group Formation in Networks of Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thye, Shane R.; Lawler, Edward J.; Yoon, Jeongkoo

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how and when small networks of self-interested agents generate a group tie or affiliation at the network level. A group affiliation is formed when actors (a) perceive themselves as members of a group and (b) share resources with each other despite an underlying competitive structure. We apply a concept of structural cohesion to…

  10. Mutual and asynchronous anticipation and action in sports as globally competitive and locally coordinative dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Keisuke; Isaka, Tadao; Kouzaki, Motoki; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Humans interact by changing their actions, perceiving other’s actions and executing solutions in conflicting situations. Using oscillator models, nonlinear dynamics have been considered for describing these complex human movements as an emergence of self-organisation. However, these frameworks cannot explain the hierarchical structures of complex behaviours between conflicting inter-agent and adapting intra-agent systems, especially in sport competitions wherein mutually quick decision making and execution are required. Here we adopt a hybrid multiscale approach to model an attack-and-defend game during which both players predict the opponent’s movement and move with a delay. From both simulated and measured data, one synchronous outcome between two-agent (i.e. successful defence) can be described as one attractor. In contrast, the other coordination-breaking outcome (i.e. successful attack) cannot be explained using gradient dynamics because the asymmetric interaction cannot always assume a conserved physical quantity. Instead, we provide the asymmetric and asynchronous hierarchical dynamical models to discuss two-agent competition. Our framework suggests that possessing information about an opponent and oneself in local-coordinative and global-competitive scale enables us to gain a deeper understanding of sports competitions. We anticipate developments in the scientific fields of complex movement adapting to such uncontrolled environments. PMID:26538452

  11. Mutual and asynchronous anticipation and action in sports as globally competitive and locally coordinative dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Isaka, Tadao; Kouzaki, Motoki; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2015-11-01

    Humans interact by changing their actions, perceiving other’s actions and executing solutions in conflicting situations. Using oscillator models, nonlinear dynamics have been considered for describing these complex human movements as an emergence of self-organisation. However, these frameworks cannot explain the hierarchical structures of complex behaviours between conflicting inter-agent and adapting intra-agent systems, especially in sport competitions wherein mutually quick decision making and execution are required. Here we adopt a hybrid multiscale approach to model an attack-and-defend game during which both players predict the opponent’s movement and move with a delay. From both simulated and measured data, one synchronous outcome between two-agent (i.e. successful defence) can be described as one attractor. In contrast, the other coordination-breaking outcome (i.e. successful attack) cannot be explained using gradient dynamics because the asymmetric interaction cannot always assume a conserved physical quantity. Instead, we provide the asymmetric and asynchronous hierarchical dynamical models to discuss two-agent competition. Our framework suggests that possessing information about an opponent and oneself in local-coordinative and global-competitive scale enables us to gain a deeper understanding of sports competitions. We anticipate developments in the scientific fields of complex movement adapting to such uncontrolled environments.

  12. Demolishing the Competition: The Longitudinal Link between Competitive Video Games, Competitive Gambling, and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship…

  13. Spontaneous Post-Transplant Disorders in NOD.Cg- Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Sug/JicTac (NOG) Mice Engrafted with Patient-Derived Metastatic Melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Omodho, Lorna; Francis, Annick; Vander Borght, Sara; Marine, Jean-Christophe; van den Oord, Joost; Amant, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) approach is nowadays considered a reliable preclinical model to study in vivo cancer biology and therapeutic response. NOD scid and Il2rg-deficient mice represent the “gold standard” host for the generation of PDTXs. Compared to other immunocompromised murine lines, these mice offers several advantages including higher engraftment rate, longer lifespan and improved morphological and molecular preservation of patient-derived neoplasms. Here we describe a spectrum of previously uncharacterized post-transplant disorders affecting 14/116 (12%) NOD.Cg- Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Sug/JicTac (NOG) mice subcutaneously engrafted with patient-derived metastatic melanomas. Affected mice exhibited extensive scaling/crusting dermatitis (13/14) associated with emaciation (13/14) and poor/unsuccessful tumor engraftment (14/14). In this context, the following pathological conditions have been recognized and characterized in details: (i) immunoinflammatory disorders with features of graft versus host disease (14/14); (ii) reactive lymphoid infiltrates effacing xenografted tumors (8/14); (iii) post-transplant B cell lymphomas associated with Epstein-Barr virus reactivation (2/14). We demonstrate that all these entities are driven by co-transplanted human immune cells populating patient-derived tumor samples. Since the exploding interest in the utilization of NOD scid and Il2rg-deficient mice for the establishment of PDTX platforms, it is of uppermost importance to raise the awareness of the limitations associated with this model. The disorders here described adversely impact tumor engraftment rate and animal lifespan, potentially representing a major confounding factor in the context of efficacy and personalized therapy studies. The occurrence of these conditions in the NOG model reflects the ability of this mouse line to promote efficient engraftment of human immune cells. Co-transplanted human lymphoid cells have indeed the potential to colonize

  14. Competition-Driven Network Dynamics: Emergence of a Scale-Free Leadership Structure and Collective Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, M.; Toroczkai, Zoltán; Bassler, Kevin E.; Korniss, G.

    2004-02-01

    Using the minority game as a model for competition dynamics, we investigate the effects of interagent communications across a network on the global evolution of the game. Agent communication across this network leads to the formation of an influence network, which is dynamically coupled to the evolution of the game, and it is responsible for the information flow driving the agents' actions. We show that the influence network spontaneously develops hubs with a broad distribution of in-degrees, defining a scale-free robust leadership structure. Furthermore, in realistic parameter ranges, facilitated by information exchange on the network, agents can generate a high degree of cooperation making the collective almost maximally efficient.

  15. Agent independent task planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  16. A Computational Approach to Competitive Range Expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Markus F.; Poxleitner, Gabriele; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial communities represent complex and dynamic ecological systems. Environmental conditions and microbial interactions determine whether a bacterial strain survives an expansion to new territory. In our work, we studied competitive range expansions in a model system of three Escherichia coli strains. In this system, a colicin producing strain competed with a colicin resistant, and with a colicin sensitive strain for new territory. Genetic engineering allowed us to tune the strains' growth rates and to study their expansion in distinct ecological scenarios (with either cyclic or hierarchical dominance). The control over growth rates also enabled us to construct and to validate a predictive computational model of the bacterial dynamics. The model rested on an agent-based, coarse-grained description of the expansion process and we conducted independent experiments on the growth of single-strain colonies for its parametrization. Furthermore, the model considered the long-range nature of the toxin interaction between strains. The integration of experimental analysis with computational modeling made it possible to quantify how the level of biodiversity depends on the interplay between bacterial growth rates, the initial composition of the inoculum, and the toxin range.

  17. Competitive game theoretic optimal routing in optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassine, Abdulsalam; Kabranov, Ognian; Makrakis, Dimitrios

    2002-09-01

    Optical transport service providers need control and optimization strategies for wavelength management, network provisioning, restoration and protection, allowing them to define and deploy new services and maintain competitiveness. In this paper, we investigate a game theory based model for wavelength and flow assignment in multi wavelength optical networks, consisting of several backbone long-haul optical network transport service providers (TSPs) who are offering their services -in terms of bandwidth- to Internet service providers (ISPs). The ISPs act as brokers or agents between the TSP and end user. The agent (ISP) buys services (bandwidth) from the TSP. The TSPs compete among themselves to sell their services and maintain profitability. We present a case study, demonstrating the impact of different bandwidth broker demands on the supplier's profit and the price paid by the network broker.

  18. Impact of Bursty Communication Patterns on Naming Game Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Casey; Korniss, Gyorgy; Szymanski, Boleslaw

    The currently dominant model of opinion spread dynamics chooses speakers randomly, giving rise to an exponentially distributed wait time between speaking events. Many studies, however, suggest that a more appropriate distribution would be a power law since it captures the bursty nature of communication. Here we study how adjusting the wait times for agents to speak to fit various distributions affects the dynamics of the naming game. Specifically, we show that by creating a system with competition between two groups (each with a different wait time distribution but the same mean), the symmetry of the system is broken and in the infinite system the 'burstier' community always wins. In contrast, when this burstiness is studied in the voter model, the symmetry breaking does not occur. Lastly, we show that burstiness in the naming game with committed agents shifts downwards the critical population required for consensus. Supported in part by ARO, ARL NS-CTA, and ONR.

  19. Neanderthal Extinction by Competitive Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Banks, William E.; d'Errico, Francesco; Peterson, A. Townsend; Kageyama, Masa; Sima, Adriana; Sánchez-Goñi, Maria-Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite a long history of investigation, considerable debate revolves around whether Neanderthals became extinct because of climate change or competition with anatomically modern humans (AMH). Methodology/Principal Findings We apply a new methodology integrating archaeological and chronological data with high-resolution paleoclimatic simulations to define eco-cultural niches associated with Neanderthal and AMH adaptive systems during alternating cold and mild phases of Marine Isotope Stage 3. Our results indicate that Neanderthals and AMH exploited similar niches, and may have continued to do so in the absence of contact. Conclusions/Significance The southerly contraction of Neanderthal range in southwestern Europe during Greenland Interstadial 8 was not due to climate change or a change in adaptation, but rather concurrent AMH geographic expansion appears to have produced competition that led to Neanderthal extinction. PMID:19107186

  20. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  1. Competitive coexistence in antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Arnaout, R A; Nowak, M A

    2000-06-01

    Adaptive immunity to viruses in vertebrates is mediated by two distinct but complementary branches of the immune system: the cellular response, which eliminates infected cells, and the humoral response, which eliminates infectious virus. This leads to an interesting contest, since the two responses compete, albeit indirectly, for proliferative stimuli. How can a host mount a coordinated antiviral campaign? Here we show that competition may lead to a state of "competitive coexistence" in which, counterintuitively, each branch complements the other, with clinical benefit to the host. The principle is similar to free-market economics, in which firms compete, but the consumer benefits. Experimental evidence suggests this is a useful paradigm in antiviral immunity. PMID:10816366

  2. Competitiveness assessment of engineering products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharisova, A. R.; Puryaev, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    This article discusses the problem of increasing the competitiveness of the engineering industry through the implementation of innovative projects. Based on the analysis of the features of innovative projects formulated a conclusion according to which the innovative projects effectiveness evaluation should take into account non-economic indicators such as social, ecological, resource, scientific and technological. We formulate the process and provide a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of innovative projects based on noneconomic indicators. This technique is aimed at assessing the projects increase the competitiveness of products, which is understood as a comprehensive line of products a whole range of different physical limitations of the essence, allowing the long run to get sustainable income.

  3. FIRST teams watch the competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST teams watch robots in action during the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  4. BDS thin film damage competition

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  5. Modeling competition between yeast strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Hilda; de Visser, Arjan; Molenaar, Jaap

    2016-04-01

    We investigate toxin interference competition between S. cerevisiae colonies grown on a solid medium. In vivo experiments show that the outcome of this competition depends strongly on nutrient availability and cell densities. Here we present a new model for S. cerevisiae colonies, calculating the local height and composition of the colonies. The model simulates yeast colonies that show a good fit to experimental data. Simulations of colonies that start out with a homogeneous mixture of toxin producing and toxin sensitive cells can display remarkable pattern formation, depending on the initial ratio of the strains. Simulations in which the toxin producing and toxin sensitive species start at nearby positions clearly show that toxin production is advantageous.

  6. 48 CFR 245.7302 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7302 Competitive sales....

  7. Students + Chemistry + Competition = An Energizing Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pax, Julianna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a high school chemistry competition at the University of Maryland (College Park). Basic guidelines, organization, events, and evaluation of the competition are provided. A list of events is presented. (YP)

  8. EVALUATING MULTICOMPONENT COMPETITIVE ADSORPTION IN FIXED BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An equilibrium column model (ECM) was developed to evaluate multicomponent competition in fixed-bed adsorption columns. The model ignores mass transfer resistances and uses ideal adsorbed solution theory to predict the competitive effects in multicomponent mixtures. The bed capac...

  9. Developing Information Systems for Competitive Intelligence Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhof, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues connected with developing information systems for competitive intelligence support; defines the elements of an effective competitive information system; and summarizes issues affecting system design and implementation. Highlights include intelligence information; information needs; information sources; decision making; and…

  10. Microscale Titration in Schools Titration Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the requirements of the National Titration Competition and describes how a team in a local competition used the technique. Compares microscale titration to conventional titration. Outlines the benefits of employing microscale techniques. (DDR)

  11. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some.... An example would be a program to enhance U.S. capabilities for academic research and...

  12. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some.... An example would be a program to enhance U.S. capabilities for academic research and...

  13. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some.... An example would be a program to enhance U.S. capabilities for academic research and...

  14. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some.... An example would be a program to enhance U.S. capabilities for academic research and...

  15. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some.... An example would be a program to enhance U.S. capabilities for academic research and...

  16. Competitive Intelligence and the Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, H. Frances

    1988-01-01

    Examines the competitive intelligence approach to corporate information gathering, and discusses how it differs from the traditional library information center approach. Steps for developing a competitive intelligence system in the library information center are suggested. (33 references) (MES)

  17. Connective stability of competitive equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the connective stability of nonlinear matrix systems described by the equation x-dot = A(t, x) x, where the matrix A(t, x) has time-varying nonlinear elements. The results obtained can be used to study the stability of competitive equilibrium in fields as diverse as economics and engineering, model ecosystems, and the arms race.-

  18. Physiological demands of competitive surfing.

    PubMed

    Farley, Oliver R L; Harris, Nigel K; Kilding, Andrew E

    2012-07-01

    This study was a performance analysis of surfing athletes during competitive surfing events in an attempt to inform the development of surfing-specific conditioning. Twelve nationally ranked surfers were fitted with heart rate (HR) monitors and global positioning system (GPS) units and videoed during the heats of 2 sanctioned competitions. Means and SDs represented the centrality and spread of analyzed data. From the 32 videos analyzed, the greatest amount of time spent during surfing was paddling (54 ± 6.3% of the total time) (% TT). The remaining stationary represented 28 ± 6.9% TT, wave riding, and paddling for a wave represented only 8 ± 2% TT and 4 ± 1.5% TT, respectively. Surfers spent 61 ± 7% of the total paddling bouts and 64 ± 6.8% of total stationary bouts between 1 and 10 seconds. The average speed recorded via the GPS for all the subjects was 3.7 ± 0.6 km·h(-1), with an average maximum speed of 33.4 ± 6.5 km·h(-1) (45 km·h(-1) was the highest speed recorded). The average distance covered was 1,605 ± 313 m. The mean HR during the surf competitions was 139 ± 11 b·min(-1) (64% HRmax), with a (mean) peak of 190 ± 12 b·min(-1) (87% HRmax). Sixty percent TT was spent between 56 and 74% of the age-predicted HR maximum (HRmax), 19% TT >46% HRmax, and approximately 3% TT >83% HRmax. Competitive surfing therefore involves intermittent high-intensity bouts of all out paddling intercalated with relatively short recovery periods and repeated bouts of low-intensity paddling, incorporating intermittent breath holding. Surfing-specific conditioning sessions should attempt to replicate such a profile. PMID:21986691

  19. MpcAgent

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James

    2013-11-29

    MpcAgent software is a module for the VolltronLite platform from PNNL that regulates the operation of rooftop air conditioning units in small to medium commercial buildings for the purpose of reducing peak power consumption. The MpcAgent accomplishes this by restricting the number of units that may operate simultaneously and using a model predictive control strategy to select which units to operate in each control period. The outcome of this control is effective control of the building air temperature at the user specified set point while avoiding expensive peak demand charges that result from running all HVAC units simultaneously.

  20. MpcAgent

    2013-11-29

    MpcAgent software is a module for the VolltronLite platform from PNNL that regulates the operation of rooftop air conditioning units in small to medium commercial buildings for the purpose of reducing peak power consumption. The MpcAgent accomplishes this by restricting the number of units that may operate simultaneously and using a model predictive control strategy to select which units to operate in each control period. The outcome of this control is effective control of themore » building air temperature at the user specified set point while avoiding expensive peak demand charges that result from running all HVAC units simultaneously.« less

  1. Gadofullerene MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bolskar, Robert D

    2008-04-01

    A promising new class of MRI contrast-enhancing agents with high relaxivities is based on gadolinium-containing metallofullerenes, which are also termed gadofullerenes. Detailed study of the water-proton relaxivity properties and intermolecular nanoclustering behavior of gadofullerene derivatives has revealed valuable information about their relaxivity mechanisms and given a deeper understanding of this new class of paramagnetic contrast agent. Here, the latest findings on water-solubilized gadofullerene materials and how these findings relate to their future applications in MRI are reviewed and discussed. PMID:18373426

  2. Kit for detecting nucleic acid sequences using competitive hybridization probes

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2001-01-01

    A kit is provided for detecting a target nucleic acid sequence in a sample, the kit comprising: a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a first portion of the target sequence, the first hybridization probe including a first complexing agent for forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent; and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a second portion of the target sequence to which the first hybridization probe does not selectively hybridize, the second hybridization probe including a detectable marker; a third hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a first portion of the target sequence, the third hybridization probe including the same detectable marker as the second hybridization probe; and a fourth hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is sufficiently complementary to selectively hybridize to a second portion of the target sequence to which the third hybridization probe does not selectively hybridize, the fourth hybridization probe including the first complexing agent for forming a binding pair with the second complexing agent; wherein the first and second hybridization probes are capable of simultaneously hybridizing to the target sequence and the third and fourth hybridization probes are capable of simultaneously hybridizing to the target sequence, the detectable marker is not present on the first or fourth hybridization probes and the first, second, third, and fourth hybridization probes each include a competitive nucleic acid sequence which is sufficiently complementary to a third portion of the target sequence that the competitive sequences of the first, second, third, and fourth hybridization probes compete with each other to hybridize to the third portion of the

  3. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  4. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 107.1620 Section 107.1620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance...

  5. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 108.1620 Section 108.1620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA...

  6. Report on the 2006 AAPT Apparatus Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flarend, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Each year at the AAPT summer meeting there is an apparatus competition in which members of the physics community can share ideas for new or improved apparatus to aid in the teaching of physics. The 2006 competition at the summer meeting in Syracuse, NY, was the largest competition in quite a while and continued an upward trend in the number of…

  7. 78 FR 20697 - New Competitive Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... New Competitive Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an addition to the competitive product list... 57 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ It asserts that Priority Mail Contract 57 is a...

  8. 78 FR 26404 - New Competitive Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... New Competitive Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission... 4 to the competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public... Return Service Contract 4 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that...

  9. 78 FR 20360 - New Competitive Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... New Competitive Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission... the competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public comment... Priority Mail Contract 56 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Priority...

  10. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  11. 14 CFR § 1260.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. § 1260.143 Section § 1260... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  12. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  13. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  14. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  15. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  16. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  17. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  18. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition...

  19. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  20. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  1. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  2. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition...

  3. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  4. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  5. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  6. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  7. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  8. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  9. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  10. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  11. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  12. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  13. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  14. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  15. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  16. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  17. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  18. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  19. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  20. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  1. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  2. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  3. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  4. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  5. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  6. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  7. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  8. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  9. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  10. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  11. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  12. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  13. 7 CFR 2500.011 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with regulations established in 7 CFR 3015.158(d). ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 2500.011 Section 2500.011 Agriculture...: Solicitation and Proposals § 2500.011 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except as provided...

  14. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  15. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  16. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  17. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  18. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  19. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  20. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  1. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  2. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  3. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  4. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  5. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  6. 14 CFR 1260.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 1260.143 Section 1260.143..., Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.143 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  7. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  8. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  9. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  10. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  11. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  12. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  13. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  14. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  15. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  16. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  17. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  18. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  19. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  20. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition...

  1. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  2. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  3. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  4. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  5. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  6. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  7. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  8. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  9. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  10. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  11. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  12. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  13. 14 CFR 1260.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Competition. 1260.143 Section 1260.143..., Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.143 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  14. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  15. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  16. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  17. 7 CFR 2500.011 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with regulations established in 7 CFR 3015.158(d). ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 2500.011 Section 2500.011 Agriculture...: Solicitation and Proposals § 2500.011 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except as provided...

  18. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  19. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  20. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  1. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  2. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  3. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  4. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  5. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  6. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  7. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition...

  8. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  9. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  10. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  11. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  12. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  13. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  14. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  15. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  16. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  17. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  18. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  19. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  20. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...