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Sample records for agent container compartment

  1. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  2. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  3. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  4. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  5. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  6. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  7. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  8. 14 CFR 121.269 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... temperature. 121.269 Section 121.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....269 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to insure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures can...

  9. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  10. 14 CFR 125.167 - Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... temperature. 125.167 Section 125.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 125.167 Extinguishing agent container compartment temperature. Precautions must be taken to ensure that the extinguishing agent containers are installed in places where reasonable temperatures...

  11. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  12. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  13. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  14. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  15. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  16. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a... and the other extending to the overhead of the compartment. Powered ventilation may be used...

  17. 46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-5 Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks... drive shaft and pump engine control rods if such openings are fitted with stuffing boxes or...

  18. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural... Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline....

  19. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural... Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline....

  20. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural... Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline....

  1. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural... Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline....

  2. Trafficking of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules through intracellular compartments containing HLA-DM.

    PubMed

    Robbins, N F; Hammond, C; Denzin, L K; Pan, M; Cresswell, P

    1996-01-01

    The endosomal site(s) where MHC class II molecules become competent to bind antigenic peptide has not been completely characterized. We identified endocytic compartments through which newly synthesized MHC class II molecules move prior to their expression on the plasma membrane. The compartments co-sediment with lysosomes in the most dense regions of Percoll gradients. The appearance of proteolytic fragments of the invariant chain (I chain), namely leupeptin-induced proteins (LIPs) and class-II-associated invariant chain peptides (CLIP), in this region of the gradient suggests that the release of MHC class II molecules from I chain association occurs within these vesicles. The formation of SDS-stable alpha beta dimers indicated that MHC class II molecules contained within these compartments are receptive to peptide binding. A majority of the HLA-DM protein was found in the same region of the Percoll gradient, consistent with its established function in MHC class-II-restricted antigen presentation. Immunoelectron micrographs of dense-sedimenting compartments indicated that I chain, MHC class II, and DM molecules are contained within both multivesicular and multilamellar vesicles. The final stages of I chain dissociation from MHC class II molecules and DM-mediated peptide loading probably occur in these compartments.

  3. HLA-DM is localized to conventional and unconventional MHC class II-containing endocytic compartments.

    PubMed

    Pierre, P; Denzin, L K; Hammond, C; Drake, J R; Amigorena, S; Cresswell, P; Mellman, I

    1996-03-01

    HLA-DM molecules remove invariant (Ii) chain peptides from newly synthesized MHC class II complexes. Their localization may thus delineate compartments, e.g., MIIC, specialized for loading peptides onto class II molecules. In murine A20 B cells, however, DM is not restricted to specialized endosomal class II-containing vesicles (CIIV). Although DM was found in CIIV, it was also found throughout the endocytic pathway, principally in lysosomes devoid of class II molecules. In human lymphoblasts, HLA-DM was found in structures indistinguishable from late endosomes or lysosomes, although in these cells the lysosomes contained MHC class II molecules. Thus, the distribution of HLA-DM does not necessarily identify specialized class II compartments. Many "MIIC" may represent conventional lysosomes that accumulate MHC class II and HLA-DM in a number of cell types.

  4. An earthquake instability model based on faults containing high fluid-pressure compartments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas contain water in seal-bounded compartments. Arguments based on heat flow and stress orientation suggest that in most of the compartments, the water pressure is so high that the average shear strength of the fault is less than 20 MPa. We propose a variation of this basic model in which most of the shear stress on the fault is supported by a small number of compartments where the pore pressure is relatively low. As a result, the fault gouge in these compartments is compacted and lithified and has a high undisturbed strength. When one of these locked regions fails, the system made up of the neighboring high and low pressure compartments can become unstable. Material in the high fluid pressure compartments is initially underconsolidated since the low effective confining pressure has retarded compaction. As these compartments are deformed, fluid pressure remains nearly unchanged so that they offer little resistance to shear. The low pore pressure compartments, however, are overconsolidated and dilate as they are sheared. Decompression of the pore fluid in these compartments lowers fluid pressure, increasing effective normal stress and shear strength. While this effect tends to stabilize the fault, it can be shown that this dilatancy hardening can be more than offset by displacement weakening of the fault (i.e., the drop from peak to residual strength). If the surrounding rock mass is sufficiently compliant to produce an instability, slip will propagate along the fault until the shear fracture runs into a low-stress region. Frictional heating and the accompanying increase in fluid pressure that are suggested to occur during shearing of the fault zone will act as additional destabilizers. However, significant heating occurs only after a finite amount of slip and therefore is more likely to contribute to the energetics of rupture propagation than to the initiation of the instability. We present

  5. A multiobjective modeling approach to locate multi-compartment containers for urban-sorted waste

    SciTech Connect

    Tralhao, Lino; Coutinho-Rodrigues, Joao; Alcada-Almeida, Luis

    2010-12-15

    The location of multi-compartment sorted waste containers for recycling purposes in cities is an important problem in the context of urban waste management. The costs associated with those facilities and the impacts placed on populations are important concerns. This paper introduces a mixed-integer, multiobjective programming approach to identify the locations and capacities of such facilities. The approach incorporates an optimization model in a Geographical Information System (GIS)-based interactive decision support system that includes four objectives. The first objective minimizes the total investment cost; the second one minimizes the average distance from dwellings to the respective multi-compartment container; the last two objectives address the 'pull' and 'push' characteristics of the decision problem, one by minimizing the number of individuals too close to any container, and the other by minimizing the number of dwellings too far from the respective multi-compartment container. The model determines the number of facilities to be opened, the respective container capacities, their locations, their respective shares of the total waste of each type to be collected, and the dwellings assigned to each facility. The approach proposed was tested with a case study for the historical center of Coimbra city, Portugal, where a large urban renovation project, addressing about 800 buildings, is being undertaken. This paper demonstrates that the models and techniques incorporated in the interactive decision support system (IDSS) can be used to assist a decision maker (DM) in analyzing this complex problem in a realistically sized urban application. Ten solutions consisting of different combinations of underground containers for the disposal of four types of sorted waste in 12 candidate sites, were generated. These solutions and tradeoffs among the objectives are presented to the DM via tables, graphs, color-coded maps and other graphics. The DM can then use this

  6. Use of a Multi-compartment Dynamic Single Enzyme Phantom for Studies of Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Agents.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher M; Merritt, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Bankson, James A

    2016-04-15

    Imaging of hyperpolarized substrates by magnetic resonance shows great clinical promise for assessment of critical biochemical processes in real time. Due to fundamental constraints imposed by the hyperpolarized state, exotic imaging and reconstruction techniques are commonly used. A practical system for characterization of dynamic, multi-spectral imaging methods is critically needed. Such a system must reproducibly recapitulate the relevant chemical dynamics of normal and pathological tissues. The most widely utilized substrate to date is hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]-pyruvate for assessment of cancer metabolism. We describe an enzyme-based phantom system that mediates the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. The reaction is initiated by injection of the hyperpolarized agent into multiple chambers within the phantom, each of which contains varying concentrations of reagents that control the reaction rate. Multiple compartments are necessary to ensure that imaging sequences faithfully capture the spatial and metabolic heterogeneity of tissue. This system will aid the development and validation of advanced imaging strategies by providing chemical dynamics that are not available from conventional phantoms, as well as control and reproducibility that is not possible in vivo.

  7. 14 CFR 29.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extinguishing agent containers. 29.1199....1199 Extinguishing agent containers. (a) Each extinguishing agent container must have a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container by excessive internal pressures. (b) The discharge end of...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extinguishing agent containers. 25.1199....1199 Extinguishing agent containers. (a) Each extinguishing agent container must have a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container by excessive internal pressures. (b) The discharge end of...

  9. Synthesis of microcapsules containing different extractant agents.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Ángela; Carmona, Manuel; Borreguero, Ana M; de Lucas, Antonio; Rodríguez, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is one of the most toxic pollutants, with high capacity of accumulation in living organism, causing important human health problems. Therefore, the mercury removal from water is an important research goal. In a previous work, an extractant agent [di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid] was microencapsulated in poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) by means of suspension polymerisation using toluene as diluent. In this study, this recipe has been modified changing the toluene by heptane and extended to four additional extractants (trioctylamine, trioctylmethylammonium chloride [TOMAC], tributyl phosphate and trioctylphosphine oxide). The polluting potential of the waste liquid from the process was measured by total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand analyses. The morphology, particle size and distribution were studied by scanning electron microscopy and low angle laser light scattering. The amount of extractant agent into the microcapsules and the microencapsulation efficiency were determined by thermogravimetric analysis and the mercury removal capacity by equilibrium studies. Microcapsules containing TOMAC demonstrated to be the best material for the mercury removal and retention.

  10. 14 CFR 23.1199 - Extinguishing agent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extinguishing agent containers. 23.1199... Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1199 Extinguishing agent containers. For commuter category airplanes, the following applies: (a) Each extinguishing agent container must have a pressure relief to prevent bursting...

  11. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... supply and mechanical exhaust ventilation meeting the requirements of American Boat and Yacht Council Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline. ... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments...

  12. Evaluation of combustible gas concentration in a multi-compartment containment after a LOCA

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, E.F.

    1995-12-31

    The General Electric Company`s Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) is an advanced reactor and containment design relying on passive safety features. The containment is a pressure suppression type containment with heat removed from the containment by a Passive Containment Cooling System. This paper reports on an analysis using the GOTHIC code to investigate the distribution of non-condensable gases within the containment system. The goal of the analysis was to determine areas in the containment that may collect combustible mixtures following an accident. The SBWR`s Flammability Control System, using Passive Autocatalytic Recombiners, is not modeled in this analysis. The analysis is useful for demonstrating basic design requirements of the Flammability Control System.

  13. FENS-1 and DFCP1 are FYVE domain-containing proteins with distinct functions in the endosomal and Golgi compartments.

    PubMed

    Ridley, S H; Ktistakis, N; Davidson, K; Anderson, K E; Manifava, M; Ellson, C D; Lipp, P; Bootman, M; Coadwell, J; Nazarian, A; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Tempst, P; Cooper, M A; Thuring, J W; Lim, Z Y; Holmes, A B; Stephens, L R; Hawkins, P T

    2001-11-01

    FENS-1 and DFCP1 are recently discovered proteins containing one or two FYVE-domains respectively. We show that the FYVE domains in these proteins can bind PtdIns3P in vitro with high specificity over other phosphoinositides. Exogenously expressed FENS-1 localises to early endosomes: this localisation requires an intact FYVE domain and is sensitive to wortmannin inhibition. The isolated FYVE domain of FENS-1 also localises to endosomes. These results are consistent with current models of FYVE-domain function in this cellular compartment. By contrast, exogenously expressed DFCP1 displays a predominantly Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and vesicular distribution with little or no overlap with FENS-1 or other endosomal markers. Overexpression of DFCP1 was found to cause dispersal of the Golgi compartment defined by giantin and gpp130-staining. Disruption of the FYVE domains of DFCP1 causes a shift to more condensed and compact Golgi structures and overexpression of this mutant was found to confer significant protection to the Golgi against brefeldin-induced dispersal. These properties of DFCP1 are surprising, and suggest FYVE domain-localisation and function may not be exclusively endosomal. Movies available on-line

  14. Numerical Simulation of a Compartment Fire in a Nuclear Power Plant Containment Building

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Floyd

    2002-07-01

    The current trend towards the increased use of risk assessment in the regulation of nuclear power plants will inevitably result in changes in the analysis of fire protection systems and the methods of analysis. Before fire protection can be regulated on a risk basis, a consensus must be reached on a number of issues. One key issue is what types of computational tools will be allowable for analyzing fire events, and what types of scenarios those tools will be approved for use. Reaching this consensus will require an understanding of the types of computational tools available and their inherent advantages and disadvantages. To aid with this understanding, three different methods of fire simulation are applied to an oil pool fire test in the HDR (Heiss Dampf Reaktor) containment test facility. These methods are a hand calculation, the zone model code CFAST (Consolidated Model of Fire Growth and Smoke Transport), and the computational fluid dynamics code FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator). Each is applied to a steady-state portion of the test using, to the extent possible, the same set of input parameters. The results of the computation are compared to the test data. The comparisons show that each method is potentially suitable for use depending on the information required from the simulation. Each method will potentially have a role to play in risk based regulation depending on the scenario. (authors)

  15. Targeting of Salmonella typhimurium to vesicles containing lysosomal membrane glycoproteins bypasses compartments with mannose 6-phosphate receptors

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that remains enclosed in vacuoles (SCV) upon entry into the host cell. In this study we have examined the intracellular trafficking route of S. typhimurium within epithelial cells. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis showed that bacteria initiated fusion with lysosomal membrane glycoprotein (lgp)-containing compartments approximately 15 min after bacterial internalization. This process was completed approximately 75 min later and did not require microtubules. Cation-independent (CI)- or cation-dependent (CD)-mannose 6-phosphate receptors (M6PRs) were not observed at detectable levels in SCV. Lysosomal enzymes showed a different distribution in SCV: lysosomal-acid phosphatase (LAP) was incorporated into these vacuoles with the same kinetics as lgps, while cathepsin D was present in a low proportion (approximately 30%) of SCV. Uptake experiments with fluid endocytic tracers such as fluorescein- dextran sulphate (F-DX) or horseradish-peroxidase (HRP) showed that after 2 h of uptake, F-DX was present in approximately 75% of lgp- containing vesicles in uninfected cells, while only approximately 15% of SCV contained small amounts of the tracer during the same uptake period. SCV also showed only partial fusion with HRP-preloaded secondary lysosomes, with approximately 30% of SCV having detectable amounts of HRP at 6 h after infection. These results indicate that SCV show limited accessibility to fluid endocytic tracers and mature lysosomes, and are therefore functionally separated from the endocytic route. Moreover, the unusual intracellular trafficking route of S. typhimurium inside epithelial cells has allowed us to establish the existence of two different lgp-containing vesicles in Salmonella- infected cells: one population is separated from the endocytic route, fusogenic with incoming SCV and may arise from a secretory pathway, while the second involves the classical secondary or mature lysosomes. PMID

  16. Insulin stimulates actin comet tails on intracellular GLUT4-containing compartments in differentiated 3T3L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, M; Watson, R T; Khan, A H; Pessin, J E

    2001-12-28

    Incubation of isolated GLUT4-containing vesicles with Xenopus oocyte extracts resulted in a guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP gamma S) and sodium orthovanadate stimulation of actin comet tails. The in vitro actin-based GLUT4 vesicle motility was inhibited by both latrunculin B and a dominant-interfering N-WASP mutant, N-WASP/Delta VCA. Preparations of gently sheared (broken) 3T3L1 adipocytes also displayed GTP gamma S and sodium orthovanadate stimulation of actin comet tails on GLUT4 intracellular compartments. Furthermore, insulin pretreatment of intact adipocytes prior to gently shearing also resulted in a marked increase in actin polymerization and actin comet tailing on GLUT4 vesicles. In addition, the insulin stimulation of actin comet tails was completely inhibited by Clostridum difficile toxin B, demonstrating a specific role for a Rho family member small GTP-binding protein. Expression of N-WASP/Delta VCA in intact cells had little effect on adipocyte cortical actin but partially inhibited insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that insulin can induce GLUT4 vesicle actin comet tails that are necessary for the efficient translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular storage sites to the plasma membrane.

  17. Siglec-1 initiates formation of the virus-containing compartment and enhances macrophage-to-T cell transmission of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Beeman, Neal; Ding, Lingmei; Melikyan, Gregory B.

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 particles assemble and bud from the plasma membrane of infected T lymphocytes. Infected macrophages, in contrast, accumulate particles within an apparent intracellular compartment known as the virus-containing compartment or VCC. Many aspects of the formation and function of the VCC remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that VCC formation does not actually require infection of the macrophage, but can be reproduced through the exogenous addition of non-infectious virus-like particles or infectious virions to macrophage cultures. Particles were captured by Siglec-1, a prominent cell surface lectin that attaches to gangliosides on the lipid envelope of the virus. VCCs formed within infected macrophages were readily targeted by the addition of ganglioside-containing virus-like particles to the extracellular media. Depletion of Siglec-1 from the macrophage or depletion of gangliosides from viral particles prevented particle uptake into the VCC and resulted in substantial reductions of VCC volume. Furthermore, Siglec-1-mediated virion capture and subsequent VCC formation was required for efficient trans-infection of autologous T cells. Our results help to define the nature of this intracellular compartment, arguing that it is a compartment formed by particle uptake from the periphery, and that this compartment can readily transmit virus to target T lymphocytes. Inhibiting or eliminating the VCC may be an important component of strategies to reduce HIV transmission and to eradicate HIV reservoirs. PMID:28129379

  18. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  19. Novel dental adhesive containing antibacterial agents and calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Melo, Mary Anne S; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Hsia, Ru-Ching; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A; Xu, Hockin H K

    2013-05-01

    Secondary caries remains the main reason for dental restoration failure. Replacement of failed restorations accounts for 50%-70% of all restorations performed. Antibacterial adhesives could inhibit biofilm acids at tooth-restoration margins, and calcium phosphate (CaP) ions could remineralize tooth lesions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) incorporate nanoparticles of silver (NAg), quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) into bonding agent; and (2) investigate their effects on dentin bonding and microcosm biofilms. An experimental primer was made with pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). An adhesive was made with bisphenol-A-glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). NAg was incorporated into primer at 0.1 wt %. The adhesive contained 0.1% NAg and 10% QADM, and 0%-40% NACP. Incorporating NAg into primer and NAg-QADM-NACP into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength (p > 0.1). Scanning electron microscopy showed numerous resin tags, and transmission electron microscopy revealed NAg and NACP in dentinal tubules. Viability of human saliva microcosm biofilms on primer/adhesive/composite disks was substantially reduced via NAg and QADM. Metabolic activity, lactic acid, and colony-forming units of biofilms were much lower on the new bonding agents than control (p < 0.05). In conclusion, novel dental bonding agents containing NAg, QADM, and NACP were developed with the potential to kill residual bacteria in the tooth cavity and inhibit the invading bacteria along tooth-restoration margins, with NACP to remineralize tooth lesions. The novel method of combining antibacterial agents (NAg and QADM) with remineralizing agent (NACP) may have wide applicability to other adhesives for caries inhibition.

  20. Novel dental adhesive containing antibacterial agents and calcium phosphate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mary Anne S.; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D.; Hsia, Ru-ching; Rodrigues, Lidiany K. A.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary caries remains the main reason for dental restoration failure. Replacement of failed restorations accounts for 50-70% of all restorations performed. Antibacterial adhesives could inhibit biofilm acids at tooth-restoration margins, and calcium phosphate (CaP) ions could remineralize tooth lesions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) incorporate nanoparticles of silver (NAg), quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) into bonding agent; and (2) investigate their effects on dentin bonding and microcosm biofilms. An experimental primer was made with pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). An adhesive was made with bisphenol-A-glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). NAg was incorporated into primer at 0.1wt%. The adhesive contained 0.1% NAg and 10% QADM, and 0-40% NACP. Incorporating NAg into primer and NAg-QADM-NACP into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength (p>0.1). SEM showed numerous resin tags, and TEM revealed NAg and NACP in dentinal tubules. Viability of human saliva microcosm biofilms on primer/adhesive/composite disks was substantially reduced via NAg and QADM. Metabolic activity, lactic acid, and colony-forming units of biofilms were much lower on the new bonding agents than control (p<0.05). In conclusion, novel dental bonding agents containing NAg, QADM and NACP were developed with the potential to kill residual bacteria in the tooth cavity and inhibit the invading bacteria along tooth-restoration margins, with NACP to remineralize tooth lesions. The novel method of combining antibacterial agents (NAg and QADM) with remineralizing agent (NACP) may have wide applicability to other adhesives for caries inhibition. PMID:23281264

  1. Adaptive containment control of nonlinear multi-agent systems with non-identical agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghshenas, Hamed; Badamchizadeh, Mohammad Ali; Baradarannia, Mahdi

    2015-08-01

    This paper addresses the containment control problem for a group of non-identical agents, where the dynamics of agents are supposed to be nonlinear with unknown parameters and parameterised by some functions. In controller design approach for each follower, adaptive control and Lyapunov theory are utilised as the main control strategies to guarantee the convergence of all non-identical followers to the dynamic convex hull formed by the leaders. The design of distributed adaptive controllers is based on the exchange of neighbourhood errors among the agents. For analysis of containment control problem, a new formulation has been developed using M-matrices. The validity of theoretical results are demonstrated through an example.

  2. Recent Development of Benzimidazole-Containing Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Di; Ma, Shutao

    2016-04-05

    Clinically significant antibiotic resistance is one of the greatest challenges of the twenty-first century. However, new antibacterial agents are currently being developed at a much slower pace than our growing need for such drugs. Given their diverse biological activities and clinical applications, many bioactive heterocyclic compounds containing a benzimidazole nucleus have been the focus of interest for many researchers. The benzimidazole nucleus is a structural isostere of naturally occurring nucleotides. This advantage allows benzimidazoles to readily interact with the various biopolymers found in living systems. In view of this situation, much attention has been given to the exploration of benzimidazole-based antibacterial agents, leading to the discovery of many new chemical entities with intriguing profiles. In this minireview we summarize novel benzimidazole derivatives active against various bacterial strains. In particular, we outline the relationship between the structures of variously modified benzimidazoles and their antibacterial activity.

  3. Whole body cleaning agent containing N-acyltaurate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentsch, Steven E. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The subject invention relates to a human cleansing agent particularly suitable for use in long duration spaceflight and to a method of bathing with the agent. The agent of the subject invention is in the form of a paste having a pH of 5.0 to 7.9 which comprises an acyltaurate, a skin conditioner, a hair conditioner, and a preservative. More specifically, it includes sodium N-coconut acid-N-methyl taurate, in combination with soybean lecithin, polyquaternium 16, and formalin. This particular combination satisfies the following objectives: (1) that it be usable with a minimum amount of water per shower (approximately 1 gallon); (2) that it be easily separated from the water for purposes of water reclamation; (3) that it be pH compatible with skin and hair; (4) that it rinse well in deionized water; (5) that it be mild to skin and eyes; (6) that it effectively clean both skin and hair; (7) that it be suitable for use in zero gravity; and (8) that it provide ease of combing of wet and dry hair. The method of the invention includes the steps of wetting the skin and hair with a small quantity of water, lathering the skin with the paste, rinsing the lather from the skin and hair with a small quantity of water to produce a rinse water containing the cleansing agent, defoaming the rinse water, and supplying the defoamed rinse water to a water reclamation unit for recycling the water. The novelty of the invention appears to lie in the particular formulation of the cleansing agent and its method of use which provide optimal results under the given constraints and objectives.

  4. Morphological analysis of protein transport from the ER to Golgi membranes in digitonin-permeabilized cells: role of the P58 containing compartment

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The glycoside digitonin was used to selectively permeabilize the plasma membrane exposing functionally and morphologically intact ER and Golgi compartments. Permeabilized cells efficiently transported vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) through sealed, membrane-bound compartments in an ATP and cytosol dependent fashion. Transport was vectorial. VSV-G protein was first transported to punctate structures which colocalized with p58 (a putative marker for peripheral punctate pre-Golgi intermediates and the cis-Golgi network) before delivery to the medial Golgi compartments containing alpha-1,2-mannosidase II and processing of VSV-G to endoglycosidase H resistant forms. Exit from the ER was inhibited by an antibody recognizing the carboxyl-terminus of VSV-G. In contrast, VSV-G protein colocalized with p58 in the absence of Ca2+ or the presence of an antibody which inhibits the transport component NSF (SEC18). These studies demonstrate that digitonin permeabilized cells can be used to efficiently reconstitute the early secretory pathway in vitro, allowing a direct comparison of the morphological and biochemical events involved in vesicular tafficking, and identifying a key role for the p58 containing compartment in ER to Golgi transport. PMID:1447290

  5. Overview on the Current Antibiotic Containing Agents Used in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are systemically and locally used extensively in endodontics. However, local antibiotic application mode is considered more effective than systemic administration. The local mode enables the dentist to target bacteria in every nook and corner of root canal system, which is otherwise beyond reach if targeted by instrumentation or conventional root canal treatment protocols. Therefore, they are an important adjunct to conventional treatment of root canal. The present study reviews the various antibiotic containing dental agents used in endodontics. A web-based research on MedLine was performed with terms Review Articles published in the last 10 year's dental journals in English for literature researching, extracting, and synthesizing data. Relevant articles were shortlisted. Important cross-reference articles were also reviewed. PMID:25210667

  6. Characterization of dentifrices containing desensitizing agents, triclosan or whitening agents: EDX and SEM analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Hilgenberg, Sérgio Paulo; Wambier, Denise Stadler; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; Santos, Fábio André

    2014-01-01

    Dentifrices with different compositions are available on the market, but there is limited information about their properties. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of 12 dentifrices divided into three categories, as containing desensitizing agents, Triclosan or whitening agents. Desiccation loss/residue analysis: 5 g of dentifrice was weighed five times for each group. pH analysis: 5 g of dentifrice were diluted in three parts of distilled water and analyzed using a digital potentiometer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM): analysis of ashes, shape and size of the particles. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX): identification of the abrasive elements. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc test (α=0.05). Desiccation loss: 38.21% to 65.83%. Dentifrices containing Triclosan and desensitizing agents showed statistically significant differences among them (p<0.05). Whitening dentifrices showed statistically significant differences between Close-Up Whitening and Sensodyne Branqueador (44.72%, 65.83%, respectively). Most dentifrices presented neutral or basic pH. Different shape and size particles were observed in the SEM analysis. Abrasive elements were identified in the EDX. These results demonstrate that the evaluated dentifrices had different properties and their composition influences directly their characteristics, thus resulting in a more or less abrasive action on tooth surface. Knowing the characteristics of the dentifrices is important to indicate the ideal product for each case.

  7. Single compartment drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cima, Michael J.; Lee, Heejin; Daniel, Karen; Tanenbaum, Laura M.; Mantzavinou, Aikaterini; Spencer, Kevin C.; Ong, Qunya; Sy, Jay C.; Santini, John; Schoellhammer, Carl M.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Drug design is built on the concept that key molecular targets of disease are isolated in the diseased tissue. Systemic drug administration would be sufficient for targeting in such a case. It is, however, common for enzymes or receptors that are integral to disease to be structurally similar or identical to those that play important biological roles in normal tissues of the body. Additionally, systemic administration may not lead to local drug concentrations high enough to yield disease modification because of rapid systemic metabolism or lack of sufficient partitioning into the diseased tissue compartment. This review focuses on drug delivery methods that physically target drugs to individual compartments of the body. Compartments such as the bladder, peritoneum, brain, eye and skin are often sites of disease and can sometimes be viewed as “privileged,” since they intrinsically hinder partitioning of systemically administered agents. These compartments have become the focus of a wide array of procedures and devices for direct administration of drugs. We discuss the rationale behind single compartment drug delivery for each of these compartments, and give an overview of examples at different development stages, from the lab bench to phase III clinical trials to clinical practice. We approach single compartment drug delivery from both a translational and a technological perspective. PMID:24798478

  8. Compartment syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... compartment will lead to increased pressure in that area. This raised pressure, presses the muscles, blood vessels, ... Decreased sensation, numbness, tingling, weakness of the affected area Paleness of skin Severe pain that doesn't ...

  9. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  10. Color Managing for Papers Containing Optical Brightening Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, R. Scott

    The role of a color-managed inkjet proof is to predict and simulate the visual appearance of printed color. The proof-to-print visual match works well under different viewing conditions when the input ICC profile and the output ICC profile, built from characterization datasets, do not contain optical brightening agents (OBA). OBAs influence printed color when measured for characterization and viewed. These brightening agents absorb UV wavelengths in the illuminant and fluoresce in the blue wavelengths. As more and more OBAs are used in printing paper production, the role of color proofing becomes more difficult. The difference in the amount of the UV component of the measuring and viewing light sources cause a problem where the OBA effect, as measured, may not be the same amount of OBA effect that should be proofed under the viewing illuminant. There are two objectives in this research project. The first objective is to show how printed colors, under identical printing conditions on OBA and non-OBA substrates, look different than when they are proofed using current characterization for proofing practices. Both M0 (UV-included) and M2 (UV-cut) measurement data are collected from color patches with selected tonal values and input ICC profiles created from this data are used to proof the brightened reference print. The results show that the UV-cut characterization treatment produces a very poor proof to the reference, while the UV-included proof was ranked as a fairly high match. A third commercially available software designed to improve upon the UV-included treatment, the X-Rite Optical Brightened Compensation module, was also tested and found to be a good match to the reference as well. The second objective is to propose different ways the characterization data can be adjusted for the OBAs in a reference print on brightened paper, by accounting for the influence of UV in the measurement illuminant, and the influence of UV in the viewing illuminant. By means of

  11. Stability of apomorphine in solutions containing selected antioxidant agents.

    PubMed

    Ang, Zen Yang; Boddy, Michael; Liu, Yandi; Sunderland, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Apomorphine in solution undergoes rapid autoxidation, producing greenish colored solutions, making it difficult to formulate as a stable pharmaceutical solution. To identify the optimum antioxidant agent/combination for apomorphine solution, a high performance liquid chromatography assay was used to study the stability of 50 μg/mL apomorphine HCI in 0.1% L-ascorbic acid (AA), 0.1% sodium metabisulfite (SMB), 0.1% EDTA, and in selected combinations at 25°C, 32°C, and 37°C over a period of 14 days. The stability of apomorphine HCl (10 mg/mL) in 0.1% AA solution and in 0.1% EDTA solution at 25°C and 37°C was also evaluated. Apomorphine HCI solution (50 μg/mL) in 0.1% AA plus 0.1% SMB solution retained 99.7% (at 25°C) and 95.9% (at 37°C) of the initial concentration, as 0.1% AA plus SMB solution minimized the reactive oxygen content in solution which, in turn, reduced the oxidation rate of apomorphine HCl, and there was no green coloration perceptible. Conversely, apomorphine HCl solution (50 μg/mL) in 0.1% SMB solution was unstable as only 0.53% (at 25°C) and 0.06% (at 37°C) of the initial concentration was retained after 14 days. All 10 mg/mL apomorphine HCl samples were stable in both studies. The initial concentration of apomorphine HCl solution markedly affected its rate of oxidation and discoloration. The addition of 0.1% AA to a current formulation of apomorphine HCl injection (Apomine(®)), which contains SMB as an antioxidant, was recommended as providing the most stable solution.

  12. Stability of apomorphine in solutions containing selected antioxidant agents

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Zen Yang; Boddy, Michael; Liu, Yandi; Sunderland, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Apomorphine in solution undergoes rapid autoxidation, producing greenish colored solutions, making it difficult to formulate as a stable pharmaceutical solution. To identify the optimum antioxidant agent/combination for apomorphine solution, a high performance liquid chromatography assay was used to study the stability of 50 μg/mL apomorphine HCI in 0.1% L-ascorbic acid (AA), 0.1% sodium metabisulfite (SMB), 0.1% EDTA, and in selected combinations at 25°C, 32°C, and 37°C over a period of 14 days. The stability of apomorphine HCl (10 mg/mL) in 0.1% AA solution and in 0.1% EDTA solution at 25°C and 37°C was also evaluated. Apomorphine HCI solution (50 μg/mL) in 0.1% AA plus 0.1% SMB solution retained 99.7% (at 25°C) and 95.9% (at 37°C) of the initial concentration, as 0.1% AA plus SMB solution minimized the reactive oxygen content in solution which, in turn, reduced the oxidation rate of apomorphine HCl, and there was no green coloration perceptible. Conversely, apomorphine HCl solution (50 μg/mL) in 0.1% SMB solution was unstable as only 0.53% (at 25°C) and 0.06% (at 37°C) of the initial concentration was retained after 14 days. All 10 mg/mL apomorphine HCl samples were stable in both studies. The initial concentration of apomorphine HCl solution markedly affected its rate of oxidation and discoloration. The addition of 0.1% AA to a current formulation of apomorphine HCl injection (Apomine®), which contains SMB as an antioxidant, was recommended as providing the most stable solution. PMID:27757015

  13. Color measurements on prints containing fluorescent whitening agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Mattias; Norberg, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Papers with a slightly blue shade are, at least among a majority of observers being perceived as whiter than papers having a more neutral color1. Therefore, practically all commercially available printing papers contain bluish dyes and fluorescent whitening agents (FWA) to give the paper a whiter appearance. Furthermore, in the paper industry, the most frequently used measure for paper whiteness is the CIE-whiteness. The CIE Whiteness formula, does in turn, also favor slightly bluish papers. Excessive examples of high CIE-whiteness values can be observed in the office-paper segment where a high CIE-whiteness value is an important sales argument. As an effect of the FWA, spectrophotometer measurements of optical properties such as paper whiteness are sensitive to the ultraviolet (UV) content of the light source used in the instrument. To address this, the standard spectrophotometers used in the paper industry are equipped with an adjustable filter for calibrating the UV-content of the illumination. In the paper industry, spectrophotometers with d/0 measurement geometry and a light source of type C are used. The graphical arts industry on the other hand, typically measures with spectrophotometers having 45/0 geometry and a light source of type A. Moreover, these instruments have only limited possibilities to adjust the UV-content by the use of different weighting filters. The standard for color measurements in the paper industry governs that measurements should be carried out using D65 standard illumination and the 10 ° standard observer. The corresponding standard for the graphic arts industry specify D50 standard illumination and the 2 ° standard observer. In both cases, the standard illuminants are simulated from the original light source by spectral weighting functions. However, the activation of FWA, which will impact the measured spectral reflectance, depends on the actual UV-content of the illumination used. Therefore, comparisons between measurements on

  14. Psoas compartment block.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D M

    2000-05-01

    The psoas compartment acts as a conduit for the nerve roots of the lumbar plexus. Originating at approximately the 12th thoracic vertebrae, this potential compartment continues on caudally, bordered posterolaterally by fascia of the quadratus lumborum and iliacus muscles, medially by the fascia of the psoas major muscle, and anteriorly by the transversalis fascia. This natural "gutter" acts as a repository for local anesthetic agents and provides an excellent method of unilateral anterior lower extremity anesthesia. After elicitation of a motor evoked response in the muscles of the anterior thigh, 30 to 40 milliliters of local anesthetic is incrementally injected into the compartment. Spread of the anesthetic to all roots of the plexus occurs in 15 to 20 minutes. Profound sensory and motor blockade can be achieved providing surgical anesthesia as well as long duration postoperative pain relief.

  15. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive...

  16. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive...

  17. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive internal...

  18. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive...

  19. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive internal...

  20. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive internal...

  1. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive internal...

  2. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive...

  3. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive internal...

  4. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS... provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive...

  5. Colloidal particles containing labeling agents and cyclodextrins for theranostic applications.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2014-09-10

    This review aims to give to the reader some new light on cyclodextrin (CD)-based theranostic agents in order to complete our recently published review dedicated to CD-particles conjugates in drug delivery systems (Zafar et al., 2014). CDs are biocompatible sugar-based macrocycles used in a wide range of biomedical applications. Here, we mainly focus on fundamental theranostic approaches combining the use of cyclodextrin molecules and colloidal particles as theranostic agents. The system's key features are discussed and a few recent pertinent applications are presented. CDs are used in order to enhance theranostic properties by providing apolar cavities for the encapsulation of hydrophobic moieties. Thus, CD molecules are used to enhance the loading capacity of particles by hosting active molecules. The relevance of CDs in enhancing the labeling properties of particles and the preparation of controlled drug release particles is also highlighted.

  6. [Chemical treatment and decomposition technique of the chemical warfare agents containing arsenicals].

    PubMed

    Kaise, Toshikazu; Kinoshita, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The old Japanese army developed several chemical warfare agents on Ohkuno Island in Seto inland sea, Hiroshima Japan, during the period between 1919 and 1944. These chemical agents including yperite (mustard; irritating agent), lewisite (irritating agent), diphenylchloroarsine (DA; vomiting agent), diphenylcyanoarsine (DC; vomiting agent) and other poisonous gases were manufactured to be used in China. After World War II, the old Japanese army abandoned or dumped these agents into seas inside or outside of Japan and interior of China. Rather than being used for terrorism, these chemical warfare agents containing arsenicals may cause injury to some workers at the digging site of abandoned chemical weapons. Moreover, the leakage of chemical agents or an explosion of the bomb may result in environmental pollution, as a result, it is highly possible to cause serious health damage to the residents. There are still many abandoned or dumped warfare agents in Japan and China, therefore chemical agents containing arsenic are needed to be treated with alkaline for decomposition or to decompose with oxidizing agent. Presently, a large quantity of chemical agents and the contaminated soil are processed by combustion, and industrial waste is treated with sulfur compounds as the insoluble sulfur arsenic complex. This report describes the methods for the disposal of these organic arsenic agents that have been implemented until present and examines the future prospects.

  7. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  8. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  9. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  10. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  11. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  12. [Experience with vaginal suppositories containing chemotherapeutic agents (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Török, J; Kószó, E; Altmayer, P; Mezey, G

    1981-01-01

    The authors determined the release of chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, neomycin and sulphadimidine from different bases (polyoxethene mass, solid fat, 95% solid fat +5% Span 20). The diffusion of chloramphenicol and sulphadimidine was best from hydrophilic bases; that of oxytetracycline and neomycin, from emulsifier-containing lipophil bases. This may be explained by the solubilities of the pharmaca and by interactions between base and active substance.

  13. Cleanout and Decontamination of a Mustard Agent Ton Container.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    HD TCs using pressurized hot water and steam. ERDEC has successfully decontaminated two HD TCs in an ERDEC Toxic Test Chamber to a 3X condition using...this process. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Ton Containers HD Decontamination Alternative Technology Program 143 3X Condition Heel Hot Water ...the interior of the TC with pressurized hot water . The demonstration was designed to confirm the results of the first HD TC Cleanout Demonstration, and

  14. Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shengping; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2006-10-21

    The existing models of the dynamics of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have largely been focused on an UCA surrounded by an infinite liquid. Preliminary investigations of a microbubble's oscillation in a rigid tube have been performed using linear perturbation, under the assumption that the tube diameter is significantly larger than the UCA diameter. In the potential application of drug and gene delivery, it may be desirable to fragment the agent shell within small blood vessels and in some cases to rupture the vessel wall, releasing drugs and genes at the site. The effect of a compliant small blood vessel on the UCA's oscillation and the microvessel's acoustic response are unknown. The aim of this work is to propose a lumped-parameter model to study the interaction of a microbubble oscillation and compliable microvessels. Numerical results demonstrate that in the presence of UCAs, the transmural pressure through the blood vessel substantially increases and thus the vascular permeability is predicted to be enhanced. For a microbubble within an 8 to 40 microm vessel with a peak negative pressure of 0.1 MPa and a centre frequency of 1 MHz, small changes in the microbubble oscillation frequency and maximum diameter are observed. When the ultrasound pressure increases, strong nonlinear oscillation occurs, with an increased circumferential stress on the vessel. For a compliable vessel with a diameter equal to or greater than 8 microm, 0.2 MPa PNP at 1 MHz is predicted to be sufficient for microbubble fragmentation regardless of the vessel diameter; however, for a rigid vessel 0.5 MPa PNP at 1 MHz may not be sufficient to fragment the bubbles. For a centre frequency of 1 MHz, a peak negative pressure of 0.5 MPa is predicted to be sufficient to exceed the stress threshold for vascular rupture in a small (diameter less than 15 microm) compliant vessel. As the vessel or surrounding tissue becomes more rigid, the UCA oscillation and vessel dilation decrease; however the

  15. Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shengping; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2006-10-01

    The existing models of the dynamics of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have largely been focused on an UCA surrounded by an infinite liquid. Preliminary investigations of a microbubble's oscillation in a rigid tube have been performed using linear perturbation, under the assumption that the tube diameter is significantly larger than the UCA diameter. In the potential application of drug and gene delivery, it may be desirable to fragment the agent shell within small blood vessels and in some cases to rupture the vessel wall, releasing drugs and genes at the site. The effect of a compliant small blood vessel on the UCA's oscillation and the microvessel's acoustic response are unknown. The aim of this work is to propose a lumped-parameter model to study the interaction of a microbubble oscillation and compliable microvessels. Numerical results demonstrate that in the presence of UCAs, the transmural pressure through the blood vessel substantially increases and thus the vascular permeability is predicted to be enhanced. For a microbubble within an 8 to 40 µm vessel with a peak negative pressure of 0.1 MPa and a centre frequency of 1 MHz, small changes in the microbubble oscillation frequency and maximum diameter are observed. When the ultrasound pressure increases, strong nonlinear oscillation occurs, with an increased circumferential stress on the vessel. For a compliable vessel with a diameter equal to or greater than 8 µm, 0.2 MPa PNP at 1 MHz is predicted to be sufficient for microbubble fragmentation regardless of the vessel diameter; however, for a rigid vessel 0.5 MPa PNP at 1 MHz may not be sufficient to fragment the bubbles. For a centre frequency of 1 MHz, a peak negative pressure of 0.5 MPa is predicted to be sufficient to exceed the stress threshold for vascular rupture in a small (diameter less than 15 µm) compliant vessel. As the vessel or surrounding tissue becomes more rigid, the UCA oscillation and vessel dilation decrease; however the

  16. Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shengping; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2010-01-01

    The existing models of the dynamics of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have largely been focused on an UCA surrounded by an infinite liquid. Preliminary investigations of a microbubble’s oscillation in a rigid tube have been performed using linear perturbation, under the assumption that the tube diameter is significantly larger than UCA size. In the potential application of drug and gene delivery, it may be desirable to fragment the agent shell within small blood vessels and in some cases to rupture the vessel wall, releasing drugs and genes at the site. The effect of a compliant small blood vessel on the UCA’s oscillation and the microvessel’s acoustic response are unknown. The aim of this work is to propose a lumped-parameter model to study the interaction of a microbubble oscillation and compliable microvessels. Numerical results demonstrate that in the presence of UCAs, the transmural pressure through the blood vessel substantially increases and thus the vascular permeability is predicted to be enhanced. For a microbubble within an 8 to 40 micron vessel with a peak negative pressure of 0.1MPa and a center frequency of 1MHz, small changes in the microbubble oscillation frequency and maximum diameter are observed. When the ultrasound pressure increases, strong nonlinear oscillation occurs, with an increased circumferential stress on the vessel. For a compliable vessel with the range of diameters considered in this work, 0.2 MPa PNP at 1 MHz is predicted to be sufficient for microbubble fragmentation regardless the vessel diameter, however, for a rigid vessel 0.5 MPa PNP at 1 MHz may not be sufficient to fragment the bubbles. For a center frequency of 1MHz, a peak negative pressure of 0.5 MPa is predicted to be sufficient to exceed the stress threshold for vascular rupture in a small (diameter less than 15 μm) compliant vessel. As the vessel or surrounding tissue becomes more rigid, the UCA oscillation and vessel dilation decrease, however the

  17. Porosity of temporary denture soft liners containing antifungal agents

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Jozely Francisca Mello; Maciel, Janaína Gomes; Hotta, Juliana; Vizoto, Ana Carolina Pero; Honório, Heitor Marques; Urban, Vanessa Migliorini; Neppelenbroek, Karin Hermana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Incorporation of antifungals in temporary denture soft liners has been recommended for denture stomatitis treatment; however, it may affect their properties. Objective: To evaluate the porosity of a tissue conditioner (Softone) and a temporary resilient liner (Trusoft) modified by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents for Candida albicans biofilm. Material and Methods: The porosity was measured by water absorption, based on exclusion of the plasticizer effect. Initially, it was determined by sorption isotherms that the adequate storage solution for specimens (65×10×3.3 mm) of both materials was 50% anhydrous calcium chloride (S50). Then, the porosity factor (PF) was calculated for the study groups (n=10) formed by specimens without (control) or with drug incorporation at MICs (nystatin: Ny-0.032 g, chlorhexidine diacetate: Chx-0.064 g, or ketoconazole: Ke-0.128 g each per gram of soft liner powder) after storage in distilled water or S50 for 24 h, seven and 14 d. Data were statistically analyzed by 4-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=.05). Results: Ke resulted in no significant changes in PF for both liners in water over 14 days (p>0.05). Compared with the controls, Softone and Trusoft PFs were increased at 14-day water immersion only after addition of Ny and Chx, and Chx, respectively (p<0.05). Both materials showed no significant changes in PF in up to 14 days of S50 immersion, compared with the controls (p>0.05). In all experimental conditions, Softone and Trusoft PFs were significantly lower when immersed in S50 compared with distilled water (p<0.05). Conclusions: The addition of antifungals at MICs resulted in no harmful effects for the porosity of both temporary soft liners in different periods of water immersion, except for Chx and Ny in Softone and Chx in Trusoft at 14 days. No deleterious effect was observed for the porosity of both soft liners modified by the drugs at MICs over 14 days of S50 immersion

  18. Synthesis and characterization of ethosomal contrast agents containing iodine for computed tomography (CT) imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hanjin; Cho, Young-Min; Lee, Kangtaek; Lee, Chang-Ha; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Bumsang

    2014-06-01

    As a first step in the development of novel liver-specific contrast agents using ethosomes for computed tomography (CT) imaging applications, we entrapped iodine within ethosomes, which are phospholipid vesicular carriers containing relatively high alcohol concentrations, synthesized using several types of alcohol, such as methanol, ethanol, and propanol. The iodine containing ethosomes that were prepared using methanol showed the smallest vesicle size (392 nm) and the highest CT density (1107 HU). The incorporation of cholesterol into the ethosomal contrast agents improved the stability of the ethosomes but made the vesicle size large. The ethosomal contrast agents were taken up well by macrophage cells and showed no cellular toxicity. The results demonstrated that ethosomes containing iodine, as prepared in this study, have potential as contrast agents for applications in CT imaging.

  19. Effect of chlorine-containing bleaching agents on diffuse reflection of light by cellulose pulp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. P.; Pokoptseva, O. K.; Sherstobitova, A. S.; Yas'kov, A. D.

    2010-07-01

    We have studied diffuse reflectance in the spectral range λ = 380-760 nm of sulfate cellulose pulp with initial hardness G = 30-70 after it was treated with a chlorine-containing bleaching agent with active chlorine concentration C = 0%-10% for different time intervals. We determined the general behavior and basic features of the concentration and time dependences of the brightness B and the diffuse reflectance spectral ratio ( R 437/ R 650)ṡ100% at λ = 457 nm and 650 nm. Based on the data obtained, we propose an optimal algorithm for using optical spectral technologies for metered addition of chlorine-containing bleaching agents.

  20. Distributed exponential finite-time coordination of multi-agent systems: containment control and consensus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyang; Cheng, Long; Tan, Min; Hou, Zengguang; Wang, Yunpeng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, exponential finite-time coordination problems of multi-agent systems are investigated, including containment control and consensus. The theoretical basis is that a class of nonlinear systems has favourable finite-time convergence characteristic. For the objective of containment control, the proposed protocol ensures that the boundary agents in the same strong component exponentially reach a consensus and the internal agents exponentially converge to the convex hull spanned by the boundary agents in a finite time. For the objective of consensus, a pinning control strategy is designed for a fraction of agents such that all the agents exponentially reach a consensus with the leader in a finite time. The distinguished features of this paper lie in the following two points: (1) a smaller settling time of the Lyapunov function is obtained, which manifests in a faster convergence rate than the traditional one and (2) the weakly connected topology considered in this paper is more general than the ones (a spanning tree, a spanning forest, and so on) in other coordination problems. All the results are illustrated by some simulations.

  1. 14 CFR 25.857 - Cargo compartment classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... means to control ventilation and drafts within the compartment so that the extinguishing agent used...

  2. Robust H∞ containment control for uncertain multi-agent systems with inherent nonlinear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Jia, Yingmin

    2016-04-01

    This article considers the distributed containment control problem of nonlinear multi-agent systems subject to parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. An appropriate controlled output function is defined to quantitatively analyse the effect of external disturbances on the containment control problem. By employing robust H∞ control approach, sufficient conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) are derived to ensure that all followers asymptotically converge to the convex hull spanned by the leaders with the prescribed H∞ performance under fixed topology. Moreover, the unknown feedback matrix of the proposed protocol is determined by solving only two LMIs with the same dimensions as a single agent. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  3. Calcium release rates from tooth enamel treated with dentifrices containing whitening agents and abrasives.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Danilo Barral; Silva, Luciana Rodrigues; de Araujo, Roberto Paulo Correia

    2010-01-01

    Tooth whitening agents containing hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide are used frequently in esthetic dental procedures. However, lesions on the enamel surface have been attributed to the action of these products. Using conventional procedures for separating and isolating biological structures, powdered enamel was obtained and treated with hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide, and sodium bicarbonate, ingredients typically found in dentifrices. The enamel was exposed to different pH levels, and atomic emission spectrometry was used to determine calcium release rates. As the pH level increased, the rate of calcium release from enamel treated with dentifrices containing whitening agents decreased. Carbamide peroxide produced the lowest amount of decalcification, while sodium bicarbonate produced the highest release rates at all pH levels.

  4. Antibacterial activity and ion release of bonding agent containing amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Weir, Michael D.; Cheng, Lei; Lin, Nancy; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Chow, Laurence C.; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Recurrent caries at the margins is a primary reason for restoration failure. The objectives of this study were to develop bonding agent with the double benefits of antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities, to investigate the effects of NACP filler level and solution pH on Ca and P ion release from adhesive, and to examine the antibacterial and dentin bond properties. Methods Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and a quaternary ammonium monomer (dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate, DMADDM) were synthesized. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) primer and adhesive served as control. DMADDM was incorporated into primer and adhesive at 5% by mass. NACP was incorporated into adhesive at filler mass fractions of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to test the antibacterial bonding agents. Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion releases from the cured adhesive samples were measured vs. filler level and solution pH of 7, 5.5 and 4. Results Adding 5% DMADDM and 10–40% NACP into bonding agent, and water-aging for 28 days, did not affect dentin bond strength, compared to SBMP control at 1 day (p > 0.1). Adding DMADDM into bonding agent substantially decreased the biofilm metabolic activity and lactic acid production. Total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci were greatly reduced for bonding agents containing DMADDM. Increasing NACP filler level from 10% to 40% in adhesive increased the Ca and P ion release by an order of magnitude. Decreasing solution pH from 7 to 4 increased the ion release from adhesive by 6–10 folds. Significance Bonding agents containing antibacterial DMADDM and remineralizer NACP were formulated to have Ca and P ion release, which increased with NACP filler level from 10% to 40% in adhesive. NACP adhesive was “smart” and dramatically increased the ion release at cariogenic pH 4, when these ions would be most-needed to inhibit caries. Therefore, bonding agent

  5. Isolation of Inositol Hexaphosphate (IHP)-Degrading Bacteria from Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphal Compartments Using a Modified Baiting Method Involving Alginate Beads Containing IHP

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Shintaro; Saito, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Phytate (inositol hexaphosphate; IHP)-degrading microbes have been suggested to contribute to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)-mediated P transfer from IHP to plants; however, no IHP degrader involved in AMF-mediated P transfer has been isolated to date. We herein report the isolation of IHP-degrading bacteria using a modified baiting method. We applied alginate beads as carriers of IHP powder, and used them as recoverable IHP in the AM fungal compartment of plant cultivation experiments. P transfer from IHP in alginate beads via AMF was confirmed, and extracted DNA from alginate beads was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis targeting the 16S rRNA gene and a clone library method for the beta-propeller phytase (BPP) gene. The diversities of the 16S rRNA and BPP genes of microbes growing on IHP beads were simple and those of Sphingomonas spp. and Caulobacter spp. dominated. A total of 187 IHP-utilizing bacteria were isolated and identified, and they were consistent with the results of DNA analysis. Furthermore, some isolated Sphingomonas spp. and Caulobacter sp. showed IHP-degrading activity. Therefore, we successfully isolated dominant IHP-degrading bacteria from IHP in an AMF hyphal compartment. These strains may contribute to P transfer from IHP via AMF. PMID:27383681

  6. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  7. Toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents: efficacy in reducing extrinsic dental staining.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cristina Neves Girao Salgado; Amaral, Flavia Lucisano Botelho do; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Franca, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of toothpastes containing abrasive and chemical whitening agents in reducing the extrinsic discoloration of dental enamel. Sixty slabs of dentin from human teeth were sealed so that only the enamel surface was exposed. The enamel surfaces were photographed for initial color assessment. Staining was performed by immersing the dental slabs in 0.2% chlorhexidine solution for 2 minutes and then in black tea for 60 minutes. This process was repeated 15 times. Photographs were taken at the end of the staining process, and the slabs were divided into 5 groups (n = 12), 3 to be brushed with toothpastes containing chemical whitening agents (2 containing phosphate salts and 1 containing phosphate salts plus hydrogen peroxide) and 2 to represent control groups (ordinary/nonwhitening toothpaste and distilled water). The dental slabs were subjected to mechanical toothbrushing with toothpaste slurry or distilled water, according to each group's specifications. After brushing, more photographs were taken for color analysis. The results showed a significant reduction in luminosity after the staining process in addition to an increase in the colors red and yellow (P < 0.001). After brushing, there was a significant increase in luminosity and a reduction in both red and yellow (P < 0.001). However, there was no observed difference between the changes in color values in dental enamel slabs brushed with whitening toothpastes and the changes found in slabs brushed with ordinary toothpaste. The whitening toothpastes did not outperform an ordinary toothpaste in the removal of extrinsic staining.

  8. Nanoscaled boron-containing delivery systems and therapeutic agents for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Xiqun

    2015-01-01

    Significant efforts have recently been made to develop nanoscaled boron-containing delivery systems for improving drug delivery in cancer therapy. On one hand, borate ester chemistry has shown importance in ligand-mediated tumor targeting owing to the recognition ability of boronic acid to polyol residues in cell membranes. In particular, the phenylboronic acid-functionalized nanocarriers for specific targeting to sialic acid groups which are overexpressed on tumor cells have made great achievements. On the other hand, nanoscaled boron neutron capture therapy agents show growing potential in efficiently transporting boron to tumor. The current review outlines the recent developments in the application of borate ester chemistry in tumor targeting by nanoparticles, then summarizes recent work on the development of boron-based nanomaterials as boron neutron capture therapy agents.

  9. Role of pH in metal adsorption from aqueous solutions containing chelating agents on chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, F.C.; Tseng, R.L.; Juang, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    The role of pH in adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions containing chelating agents on chitosan was emphasized. Four chelating agents including ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, tartaric acid, and sodium gluconate were used. It was shown that the adsorption ability of Cu(II) on chitosan from its chelated solutions varied significantly with pH variations. The competition between coordination of Cu(II) with unprotonated chitosan and electrostatic interaction of the Cu(II) chelates with protonated chitosan took place because of the change in solution pH during adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity was obtained within each optimal pH range determined from titration curves of the chelated solutions. Coordination of Cu(II) with the unprotonated chitosan was found to dominate at pH below such an optimal pH value.

  10. Novel, Broad Spectrum Anticancer Agents Containing the Tricyclic 5:7:5-Fused Diimidazodiazepine Ring System

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of a series of novel, broad spectrum anticancer agents containing the tricyclic 5:7:5-fused diimidazo[4,5-d:4′,5′-f][1,3]diazepine ring system is reported. Compounds 1, 2, 8, 11, and 12 in the series show promising in vitro antitumor activity with low micromolar IC50 values against prostate, lung, breast, and ovarian cancer cell lines. Some notions about structure−activity relationships and a possible mechanism of biological activity are presented. Also presented are preliminary in vivo toxicity studies of 1 using SCID mice. PMID:21572541

  11. Robust containment tracking of uncertain linear multi-agent systems: a non-smooth control approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Guanghui; Duan, Zhisheng; Zhao, Yu; Yu, Wenwu; Cao, Jinde

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the distributed robust containment tracking problem of networked systems with uncertain linear dynamics and multiple controlled leaders. The uncertainty class considered in this paper satisfies some matched conditions. To achieve containment tracking in such a multi-agent system, some distributed controllers consisting of using relative state-based continuous feedback and a non-smooth manoeuvre are developed. By transforming the containment tracking problem into the global robust stabilisation problem of interconnected systems, it is shown that the states of followers will asymptotically converge to a convex hull formed by those of the leaders if the control parameters in the proposed controllers are appropriately selected. It is clearly pointed out that the involved control parameters can be successfully found for solving the containment tracking problem if each follower can be directly or indirectly influenced by at least one leader, and the nominal dynamics of followers are stabilisable. The important issue of how fast containment can be achieved is also addressed. Finally, some numerical simulations are given for illustration.

  12. Antibacterial Effect and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Temporary Restorative Material Containing Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Mushashe, Amanda Mahammad; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Tomazinho, Paulo Henrique; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; Pissaia, Janes Francio; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. For the maintenance of the aseptic chain created during the treatment the coronal sealing becomes paramount. Aim. Evaluating the antibacterial effect and the physical-mechanical properties of a temporary restorative material containing different antibacterial agents. Material and Methods. Two antibacterial agents (triclosan and chloramine T) were manually added to a temporary restorative material used as base (Coltosol). The antibacterial action of the material was analyzed using the agar diffusion method, in pure cultures of Escherichia coli (ATCC BAA-2336) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11632) and mixed culture of saliva collection. The microleakage rate was analyzed using bovine teeth, previously restored with the materials, and submitted to thermocycling, in a solution of 0.5% methylene blue, for a period of 24 hours. The physical and mechanical properties of the materials analyzed were setting time, water sorption, solubility, and compression strength. Results. No marginal leakage was observed for all groups. There was no statistical significant difference in antimicrobial activity, setting time, water sorption, solubility, and compression strength among the materials. Conclusion. The addition of antibacterial agents on a temporary restorative material did not optimize the antibacterial ability of the material and also did not change its physical-mechanical properties.

  13. Antibacterial Effect and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Temporary Restorative Material Containing Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mushashe, Amanda Mahammad; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Tomazinho, Paulo Henrique; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; Pissaia, Janes Francio; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. For the maintenance of the aseptic chain created during the treatment the coronal sealing becomes paramount. Aim. Evaluating the antibacterial effect and the physical-mechanical properties of a temporary restorative material containing different antibacterial agents. Material and Methods. Two antibacterial agents (triclosan and chloramine T) were manually added to a temporary restorative material used as base (Coltosol). The antibacterial action of the material was analyzed using the agar diffusion method, in pure cultures of Escherichia coli (ATCC BAA-2336) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11632) and mixed culture of saliva collection. The microleakage rate was analyzed using bovine teeth, previously restored with the materials, and submitted to thermocycling, in a solution of 0.5% methylene blue, for a period of 24 hours. The physical and mechanical properties of the materials analyzed were setting time, water sorption, solubility, and compression strength. Results. No marginal leakage was observed for all groups. There was no statistical significant difference in antimicrobial activity, setting time, water sorption, solubility, and compression strength among the materials. Conclusion. The addition of antibacterial agents on a temporary restorative material did not optimize the antibacterial ability of the material and also did not change its physical-mechanical properties. PMID:27347539

  14. Metal-oxo containing polymer nanobeads as potential contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablico, Michele Huelar

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has greatly revolutionized the way diseases are detected and treated, as it is a non-invasive imaging modality solely based on the interaction of radiowaves and hydrogen nuclei in the presence of an external magnetic field. It is widely used today for the diagnosis of diseases as it offers an efficient method of mapping structure and function of soft tissues in the body. Most MRI examinations utilize paramagnetic materials known as contrast agents, which enhance the MR signal by decreasing the longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times of the surrounding water protons in biological systems. This results into increased signal intensity differences thereby allowing better interpretation and analysis of pathological tissues. Contrast agents function by lowering the T1 or lowering the T2, resulting into bright and dark contrasts, respectively. The most common MRI contrast agents that are in clinical use today are gadolinium chelates and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, both of which have their own advantages in terms of contrast enhancement properties. In the past few years, however, there has been interest in utilizing metal-containing clusters for MRI contrast enhancement as these materials bridge the gap between the constrained structure and magnetic properties of the gadolinium chelates with the superparamagnetic behavior of the iron oxide nanoparticles. Recently, metallic clusters containing Mn and Fe metal centers have received increased attention mainly because of their potential for high spin states and benign nature. In the quest to further develop novel imaging agents, this research has focused on investigating the use of metal-oxo clusters as potential contrast agents for MRI. The primary goal of this project is to identify clusters that meet the following criteria: high paramagnetic susceptibility, water-soluble, stable, cheap, contain environmentally benign metals, and easily derivatized. This work is

  15. Containment control of multi-agent systems with unbounded communication delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Lam, James

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we address the containment control problem for multi-agent systems under heterogeneous unbounded communication delays with emphasis on the convergence rate analysis. Different from most works on multi-agent systems, we resort to a viewpoint from the area of positive delay systems. We first cast the containment control problem into the stability analysis of an associated error system. In order to capture the convergence rate, we introduce a nondecreasing positive function whose reciprocal represents the decay rate of the associated error system. Under the assumption that each follower has access to at least one leader and some mild hypotheses on the communication delays, an explicit condition is given to characterise the decay rate of the associated error system in terms of linear programming. In addition, we provide several special cases when the communication delays are restricted by linear, sublinear and logarithmic growth rates, respectively. Finally, through numerical examples, it is shown that the convergence rate is dominated by the delays being the highest order infinitely large quantity.

  16. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  17. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  18. Development of aircraft lavatory compartments with improved fire resistance characteristics, phase 1: Fire containment test of a wide body aircraft lavatory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. A.; Arnold, D. B.; Johnson, G. A.; Tustin, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    A test was conducted to evaluate the fire containment characteristics of a Boeing 747 lavatory module. Results showed that the fire was contained within the lavatory during the 30-minute test period with the door closed. The resistance of the lavatory wall and ceiling panels and general lavatory construction to burn-through under the test conditions was demonstrated.

  19. Comparison of hydrazone heterobifunctional cross-linking agents for reversible conjugation of thiol-containing chemistry.

    PubMed

    Christie, R James; Anderson, Diana J; Grainger, David W

    2010-10-20

    Reversible covalent conjugation chemistries that allow site- and condition-specific coupling and uncoupling reactions are attractive components in nanotechnologies, bioconjugation methods, imaging, and drug delivery systems. Here, we compare three heterobifunctional cross-linkers, containing both thiol- and amine-reactive chemistries, to form pH-labile hydrazones with hydrazide derivatives of the known and often published water-soluble polymer, poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide)] (pHPMA), while subsequently coupling thiol-containing molecules to the cross-linker via maleimide addition. Two novel cross-linkers were prepared from the popular heterobifunctional cross-linking agent, succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC), modified to contain either terminal aldehyde groups (i.e., 1-(N-3-propanal)-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane carboxamide, PMCA) or methylketone groups (i.e., 1-(N-3-butanone)-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane carboxamide, BMCA). A third cross-linking agent was the commercially available N-4-acetylphenyl maleimide (APM). PMCA and BMCA exhibited excellent reactivity toward hydrazide-derivatized pHPMA with essentially complete hydrazone conjugation to polymer reactive sites, while APM coupled only ∼60% of available reactive sites on the polymer despite a 3-fold molar excess relative to polymer hydrazide groups. All polymer hydrazone conjugates bearing these bifunctional agents were then further reacted with thiol-modified tetramethylrhodamine dye, confirming cross-linker maleimide reactivity after initial hydrazone polymer conjugation. Incubation of dye-labeled polymer conjugates in phosphate buffered saline at 37 °C showed that hydrazone coupling resulting from APM exhibited the greatest difference in stability between pH 7.4 and 5.0, with hydrolysis and dye release increased at pH 5.0 over a 24 h incubation period. Polymer conjugates bearing hydrazones formed from cross-linker BMCA exhibited intermediate stability

  20. Output Containment Control of Linear Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Systems Using Internal Model Principle.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shan; Song, Yongduan; Lewis, Frank L; Davoudi, Ali

    2017-01-04

    This paper studies the output containment control of linear heterogeneous multi-agent systems, where the system dynamics and even the state dimensions can generally be different. Since the states can have different dimensions, standard results from state containment control do not apply. Therefore, the control objective is to guarantee the convergence of the output of each follower to the dynamic convex hull spanned by the outputs of leaders. This can be achieved by making certain output containment errors go to zero asymptotically. Based on this formulation, two different control protocols, namely, full-state feedback and static output-feedback, are designed based on internal model principles. Sufficient local conditions for the existence of the proposed control protocols are developed in terms of stabilizing the local followers' dynamics and satisfying a certain H∞ criterion. Unified design procedures to solve the proposed two control protocols are presented by formulation and solution of certain local state-feedback and static output-feedback problems, respectively. Numerical simulations are given to validate the proposed control protocols.

  1. "On-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing salicylic acid applied to maize seeds for chilling tolerance.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yajing; Li, Zhan; He, Fei; Huang, Yutao; Song, Wenjian; Hu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seed establishment in the field. In this study, a type of "on-off" thermoresponsive coating agent containing poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylmethacrylate) (Abbr. P(NIPAm-co-BMA)) hydrogel was developed to improve the chilling tolerance of coated maize seed. The P(NIPAm-co-BMA) hydrogel was synthesized by free-radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and butylmethacrylate (BMA). Salicylic acid (SA) was loaded in the hydrogel as the chilling resistance agent. SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA) was used for seed film-coating of two maize varieties, Huang C (HC, chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive), to investigate the coated seed germination and seedling growth status under chilling stress. The results showed that the hydrogel obtained a phase transition temperature near 12°C with a NIPAM to MBA weight ratio of 1: 0.1988 (w/w). The temperature of 12°C was considered the "on-off" temperature for chilling-resistant agent release; the SA was released from the hydrogel more rapidly at external temperatures below 12°C than above 12°C. In addition, when seedlings of both maize varieties suffered a short chilling stress (5°C), higher concentrations of SA-loaded hydrogel resulted in increased germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, root length, shoot height, dry weight of roots and shoots and protective enzyme activities and a decreased malondialdehyde content in coated maize seeds compared to single SA treatments. The majority of these physiological and biochemical parameters achieved significant levels compared with the control. Therefore, SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA), a nontoxic thermoresponsive hydrogel, can be used as an effective material for chilling tolerance in film-coated maize seeds.

  2. Water compartments in cells.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Gary D; Cameron, Ivan L

    2007-01-01

    Human experience in the macrobiological world leads scientists to visualize water compartments in cells analogous to the bladder in the human pelvis or ventricles in the brain. While such water-filled cellular compartments likely exist, the volume contributions are insignificant relative to those of biomolecular hydration compartments. The purpose of this chapter is to identify and categorize the molecular water compartments caused by proteins, the primary macromolecular components of cells. The categorical changes in free energy of water molecules on proteins cause these compartments to play dominant roles in osmoregulation and provide important adjuncts to fundamental understanding of osmosensing and osmosignaling mechanisms. Water compartments possess differences in molecular motion, enthalpy, entropy, freezing point depression, and other properties because of electrostatic interaction of polar water molecules with electric fields generated by covalently bound pairs of opposite charge caused by electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the protein. Macromolecules, including polypeptides, polynucleotides, and polysaccharides, are stiff molecular chains with restricted folding capacities due to inclusion of rigid ring structures or double amide bonds in the backbone sequence. This creates "irreducible spatial charge separation" between positive and negative partial charges, causing elevated electrostatic energy. In the fully hydrated in vivo state of living cells the high dielectric coefficient of water reduces protein electrostatic free energy by providing polar "water bridge networks" between charges, thereby creating four measurably different compartments of bound water with distinct free energy differences.

  3. Ultrasound contrast agent fabricated from microbubbles containing instant adhesives, and its ultrasound imaging ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makuta, T.; Tamakawa, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Non-invasive surgery techniques and drug delivery system with acoustic characteristics of ultrasound contrast agent have been studied intensively in recent years. Ultrasound contrast agent collapses easily under the blood circulating and the ultrasound irradiating because it is just a stabilized bubble without solid-shell by surface adsorption of surfactant or lipid. For improving the imaging stability, we proposed the fabrication method of the hollow microcapsule with polymer shell, which can be fabricated just blowing vapor of commonly-used instant adhesive (Cyanoacrylate monomer) into water as microbubbles. Therefore, the cyanoacrylate vapor contained inside microbubble initiates polymerization on the gasliquid interface soon after microbubbles are generated in water. Consequently, hollow microspheres coated by cyanoacrylate thin film are generated. In this report, we revealed that diameter distributions of microbubbles and microcapsules were approximately same and most of them were less than 10 μm, that is, smaller than blood capillary. In addition, we also revealed that hollow microcapsules enhanced the acoustic signal especially in the harmonic contrast imaging and were broken or agglomerated under the ultrasound field. As for the yield of hollow microcapsules, we revealed that sodium dodecyl sulfate addition to water phase instead of deoxycolic acid made the fabrication yield increased.

  4. Effects of the methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on phenolic and miscanthus composites containing calcium sulfite scrubber material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sean

    The purpose of this research is to test the effects of methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on composite material containing calcium sulfite obtained from the Southern Illinois Power Co-operative. This scrubber material and the miscanthus plant are of interest due to their use in coal burning power plants to reduce toxic emission. When calcium sulfate is passed through coal fire gas emissions it absorbs mercury and sulfur. In these composites it is used as filler to reduce cost. Miscanthus is a source of both cellulose reinforcement and some natural resin. This plant has low care requirements, little mineral content, useful energy return, and positive environmental effects. Under investigation is whether a post-cure procedure or a silane coupling agent will positively impact the composite. Hot pressing alone may not be enough to fully cure the phenolic. It is hoped that the silane will increase the strength characteristics of the composite by enhancing adhesion between the calcium sulfite and phenolic resin. Possible effects on the miscanthus by the silane will also be tested. Phenolic is being utilized because of its recycling and biodegradable properties along with cost effectiveness in mass production. Composite mechanical performance was measured through 3-point bending to measure flexural strength and strain at breakage. A dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to find thermomechanical properties. The post-cure was found to be effective, particularly on the final composite containing silane. When methyltrimethoxysilane was added to the miscanthus prior to fabrication, it was found to reduce flexural strength and density. However the addition of methyltrimethoxysilane to the calcium sulfite altered thermo-mechanical properties to a state more like pure phenolic, with added flexibility and thermal stability.

  5. Dielectric relaxations of polyether-based polyurethanes containing ionic liquids as antistatic agents.

    PubMed

    Tsurumaki, Akiko; Bertasi, Federico; Vezzù, Keti; Negro, Enrico; Di Noto, Vito; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-28

    Dielectric properties of polyurethanes containing poly(propylene oxide) (PO) and poly(ethylene oxide) (EO) units are discussed, along with the results of direct current (DC) measurements and broadband electrical spectroscopy (BES) studies. The dielectric properties of polyether-containing polyurethanes (PUs) are compared to those of PUs containing 1000 ppm of ionic liquids (ILs) as antistatic agents. The effects of the chemical environment of these ILs, including anion-fixed polymers (PU-AF), cation-fixed polymers (PU-CF), and a simple mixture of IL with the PUs (PU-IL), are compared and discussed on the basis of ion mobility. DC measurements suggest that the charge current is attributed not only to the electrode polarization but also to continuous dielectric relaxation. BES studies elucidate that both fast and slow relaxations are taking place in EO-rich domains in pristine PU and PU-AF. The activation energies of the slow relaxation and of the ionic conductivity are similar, suggesting that the ionic conductivity of these materials is attributed to the ion exchange reaction in EO/ion complexes. In contrast, only fast relaxations are observed in the domains mostly comprised of ion-depleted EO in the PUs containing "free" anions, i.e., PU-CF and PU-IL. This suggests that [Tf2N](-) ligands are weakly interacting with the EO chains and contribute effectively to the ion conduction. Thus, enhanced ionic conductivity is observed in PU-CF and PU-IL, yielding sufficient antistatic effects. Taking into account its long shelf life, arising from the lack of IL bleed-out, PU-CF is concluded to be the most promising candidate.

  6. DNA Virus Replication Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

  7. Aircraft Cargo Compartment Fire Test Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumke, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

  8. Biocompatible nanotemplate-engineered nanoparticles containing gadolinium: stability and relaxivity of a potential MRI contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Donghua; White, R D; Hardy, Peter A; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida; Sutthanut, Khaetthareeya; Jay, Michael

    2006-04-01

    In this article, we use a nanotemplate engineering approach to prepare biodegradable nanoparticles composed of FDA-approved materials and possessing accessible gadolinium (Gd) atoms and demonstrate their potential as a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agent. Nanoparticles containing dimyristoyl phosphoethanolamine diethylene triamine penta acetate (PE-DTPA) were prepared using 3.5 mg of Brij 78, 2.0 mg of emulsifying wax and 0.5 mg of PE-DTPA/ml from a microemulsion precursor. After the addition of GdCl3, the presence of Gd on the surface of nanoparticles was characterized using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). The in vitro relaxivities of the PE-DTPA-Gd nanoparticles in different media were assessed at different field strengths. The conditional stability constant of Gd binding to the nanoparticles was determined using competitive spectrophotometric titration. Transmetallation kinetics of the gadolinium ion from PE-DTPA-Gd nanoparticles with zinc as the competing ionic was measured using the relaxivity evolution method. Nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 130 nm possessing surface chelating functions were made from GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) materials. STEM demonstrated the uniform distribution of Gd3+ on the surface of the nanoparticles. The thermodynamic binding constant for Gd3+ to the nanoparticles was approximately 10(18) M(-1) and transmetallation studies with Zn2+ yielded kinetic constants K1 and K(-1) of 0.033 and 0.022 1/h, respectively, with an equilibrium constant of 1.5. A payload of approximately 10(5) Gd/nanoparticle was achieved; enhanced relaxivities were observed, including a pH dependence of the transverse relaxivity (r2). Nanoparticles composed of materials that have been demonstrated to be hemocompatible and enzymatically metabolized and possessing accessible Gd ions on their surface induce relaxivities in the bulk water signal that make them

  9. Absorbent pads for Containment, Neutralization, and Clean-Up of Environmental Spills Containing Chemically-Reactive Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis D. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A pad for cleaning up liquid spills is described which contains a porous surface covering, and an absorbent interior containing chemically reactive reagents for neutralizing noxious chemicals within the spilled liquid. The porous surface and the absorbent component would normally consist of chemically resistant materials allowing tentative spill to pass. The absorbent interior which contains the neutralizing reagents can but is not required to be chemically resilient and conducts the liquid chemical spill towards the absorbent interior containing the chemically reactive reagents where the dangerous and undesirable chemicals within the chemical spill are then neutralized as well as removed from the premises.

  10. Absorbent Pads for Containment, neutralization, and clean-up of environmental spills containing chemically-reactive agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis D. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A pad for cleaning up liquid spills is described which contains a porous surface covering, and an absorbent interior containing chemically reactive reagents for neutralizing noxious chemicals within the spilled liquid. The porous surface and the absorbent component would normally consist of chemically resistant materials allowing tentative spill to pass. The absorbent interior which contains the neutralizing reagents can but is not required to be chemically resilient and conducts the liquid chemically reactive reagents where the dangerous and undesirable chemicals within the chemical spill are then neutralized as well as removed from the premises.

  11. [Long-term ecological and genetic consequences of use of dioxin-containing environmental agents].

    PubMed

    Golikov, S N; Rumak, V S; Sofronov, G A; Umnova, N V

    1998-01-01

    The long-term consequences of the use of dioxine-containing ecotoxic agents in the USA in 1961-1972 are ecologically and genetically characterized. There were increases in the incidence of pathological reproductive events in the contaminated region. It is concluded that there will be higher probability of abnormalities in the families of individuals born at war or just thereof. An association of impaired reproduction with functional disorders and women's poorer health, with higher incidence of somatic and gynecological diseases (chronic ones in particular) is shown. Cytogenetic changes in the lymphocytes were found in individuals from exposure risk groups. The contribution of chromosomal alterations observed in the contaminated area to immunodeficiency is appreciated. The systemic pattern of the action of biologically active properties of dioxine was demonstrated from the morphofunctional changes of different cell types. Cluster analysis revealed associations of cytogenetic parameters with the integrated index of health status in individuals from different contaminated areas. The ecological and genetic consequences may be regarded as part of homeostatic changes at many levels, as suggested by a correlation between the genetic instability and the changes occurring in other tissues, organs, and systems.

  12. Synthesis of silane coupling agents containing fluorocarbon chain and applications to dentistry: plaque-controlling surface modifiers.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, N; Teranaka, T

    1997-01-01

    Silane coupling agents containing a fluorocarbon chain were prepared in high yields. It was found that silanes can be useful modifiers of the surfaces of glass, metals, and resin composites for dental use. The silane coupling agent CF3(CF2)9CH2CH2Si(OCH3)3 was the best modifier of these surfaces in terms of water and oil repellency. Colorants and experimental bacterial plaque detached much more easily from, and adhered less well to, surfaces modified with this silane coupling agent compared with unmodified surfaces. The surfaces of four teeth of a denture were modified with this silane coupling agent by spreading the agent on the surfaces with a small brush followed by brief drying with a hair drier. The modified tooth surfaces of the denture, which was worn for four months in a heavy smoker's oral cavity, were more stain-resistant than the unmodified tooth surfaces. It is expected that silane coupling agents containing a fluorocarbon chain will be surface modifiers for enhancement of oral health.

  13. Chlorido-containing ruthenium(II) and iridium(III) complexes as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Pandrala, Mallesh; Li, Fangfei; Feterl, Marshall; Mulyana, Yanyan; Warner, Jeffrey M; Wallace, Lynne; Keene, F Richard; Collins, J Grant

    2013-04-07

    A series of polypyridyl-ruthenium(II) and -iridium(III) complexes that contain labile chlorido ligands, [{M(tpy)Cl}(2){μ-bb(n)}](2/4+) {Cl-Mbb(n); where M = Ru or Ir; tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine; and bb(n) = bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane (n = 7, 12 or 16)} have been synthesised and their potential as antimicrobial agents examined. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the series of metal complexes against four strains of bacteria - Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) - have been determined. All the ruthenium complexes were highly active and bactericidal. In particular, the Cl-Rubb(12) complex showed excellent activity against all bacterial cell lines with MIC values of 1 μg mL(-1) against the Gram positive bacteria and 2 and 8 μg mL(-1) against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The corresponding iridium(III) complexes also showed significant antimicrobial activity in terms of MIC values; however and surprisingly, the iridium complexes were bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal. The inert iridium(III) complex, [{Ir(phen)(2)}(2){μ-bb(12)}](6+) {where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) exhibited no antimicrobial activity, suggesting that it could not cross the bacterial membrane. The mononuclear model complex, [Ir(tpy)(Me(2)bpy)Cl]Cl(2) (where Me(2)bpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine), was found to aquate very rapidly, with the pK(a) of the iridium-bound water in the corresponding aqua complex determined to be 6.0. This suggests the dinuclear complexes [Ir(tpy)Cl}(2){μ-bb(n)}](4+) aquate and deprotonate rapidly and enter the bacterial cells as 4+ charged hydroxo species.

  14. Effects of hydrogen peroxide-containing bleaching agents on the morphology of human enamel.

    PubMed

    Ernst, C P; Marroquín, B B; Willershausen-Zönnchen, B

    1996-01-01

    The effects of four bleaching agents (Opalescence, HiLite, 30% hydrogen peroxide, and 30% hydrogen peroxide mixed with sodium perborate) and 37% phosphoric acid on the external surface of human enamel were examined with the scanning electron microscope. The materials were applied to the enamel surfaces of 60 specimens obtained from 10 teeth. Each test agent was applied to one specimen from each tooth. One specimen of each tooth was left untreated. Comparison to the untreated control surfaces revealed that enamel exposed to the bleaching agents underwent slight morphologic surface alterations. The enamel surfaces treated with phosphoric acid, in contrast, showed severe morphologic alterations.

  15. Containment Control for First-Order Multi-Agent Systems with Time-Varying Delays and Uncertain Topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fu-Yong; Yang, Hong-Yong; Zhang, Shu-Ning; Han, Fu-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Containment control of first-order multi-agent systems with uncertain topologies and communication time-delays is studied. Suppose system topologies are dynamically changed, a containment control algorithm with time-varying delays is presented. The stability of the control algorithm is studied under the assumption that communication topologies are jointly-connected, and constraint condition of distributed containment control for delayed multi-agent systems is derived with the aid of Lyapunov-Krasovskii function. Simulation results are provided to prove the correctness and effectiveness of the conclusion. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61273152, 61304052, 51407088, the Science Foundation of Education Office of Shandong Province of China under Grant Nos. ZR2011FM07, BS2015DX018

  16. Effect of peritoneal dialysis fluid containing osmo-metabolic agents on human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bonomini, Mario; Di Silvestre, Sara; Di Tomo, Pamela; Di Pietro, Natalia; Mandatori, Domitilla; Di Liberato, Lorenzo; Sirolli, Vittorio; Chiarelli, Francesco; Indiveri, Cesare; Pandolfi, Assunta; Arduini, Arduino

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of glucose as the only osmotic agent in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions (PDSs) is believed to exert local (peritoneal) and systemic detrimental actions, particularly in diabetic PD patients. To improve peritoneal biocompatibility, we have developed more biocompatible PDSs containing xylitol and carnitine along with significantly less amounts of glucose and have tested them in cultured Human Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) obtained from the umbilical cords of healthy (C) and gestational diabetic (GD) mothers. Methods Primary C- and GD-HUVECs were treated for 72 hours with our PDSs (xylitol 0.7% and 1.5%, whereas carnitine and glucose were fixed at 0.02% and 0.5%, respectively) and two glucose-based PDSs (glucose 1.36% or 2.27%). We examined their effects on endothelial cell proliferation (cell count), viability (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay), intracellular nitro-oxidative stress (peroxynitrite levels), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 membrane exposure (flow cytometry), and HUVEC-monocyte interactions (U937 adhesion assay). Results Compared to glucose-based PDSs, our in vitro studies demonstrated that the tested PDSs did not change the proliferative potential both in C- and GD-HUVECs. Moreover, our PDSs significantly improved endothelial cell viability, compared to glucose-based PDSs and basal condition. Notably, glucose-based PDSs significantly increased the intracellular peroxynitrite levels, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 membrane exposure, and endothelial cell–monocyte interactions in both C- and GD-HUVECs, as compared with our experimental PDSs. Conclusion Present results show that in control and diabetic human endothelial cell models, xylitol–carnitine-based PDSs do not cause cytotoxicity, nitro-oxidative stress, and inflammation as caused by hypertonic glucose-based PDSs. Since xylitol and carnitine are also known to

  17. A neutral polydisulfide containing Gd(III) DOTA monoamide as a redox-sensitive biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhen; Zhou, Zhuxian; Ayat, Nadia; Wu, Xueming; Jin, Erlei; Shi, Xiaoyue; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to develop safe and effective gadolinium (III)-based biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agents for blood pool and cancer imaging. A neutral polydisulfide containing macrocyclic Gd-DOTA monoamide (GOLS) was synthesized and characterized. In addition to studying the in vitro degradation of GOLS, its kinetic stability was also investigated in an in vivo model. The efficacy of GOLS for contrast-enhanced MRI was examined with female BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 breast cancer xenografts. The pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and metabolism of GOLS were also determined in mice. GOLS has an apparent molecular weight of 23.0 kDa with T1 relaxivities of 7.20 mM(-1) s(-1) per Gd at 1.5 T, and 6.62 mM(-1) s(-1) at 7.0 T. GOLS had high kinetic inertness against transmetallation with Zn(2+) ions, and its polymer backbone was readily cleaved by L-cysteine. The agent showed improved efficacy for blood pool and tumor MR imaging. The structural effect on biodistribution and in vivo chelation stability was assessed by comparing GOLS with Gd(HP-DO3A), a negatively charged polydisulfide containing Gd-DOTA monoamide GODC, and a polydisulfide containing Gd-DTPA-bisamide (GDCC). GOLS showed high in vivo chelation stability and minimal tissue deposition of gadolinium. The biodegradable macromolecular contrast agent GOLS is a promising polymeric contrast agent for clinical MR cardiovascular imaging and cancer imaging.

  18. The value of a spreading agent in larvicidal formulations containing DDT

    PubMed Central

    Msangi, A. S.

    1959-01-01

    The value of a spreading agent in a 5% solution of DDT in oil was assessed under semifield conditions using third-stage laboratory-bred larvae of Anopheles gambiae. These larvae were treated with known dosages of the larvicide with and without the addition of spreading agent, and the mortalities produced by the two forms of the larvicide were compared. An attempt was also made to compare the efficacy of the two forms under field conditions. The trials described seem to have shown quite conclusively that, so far as a 5% solution of DDT in oil is concerned, there is no advantage to be gained by adding spreading agents to the larvicide. PMID:14424863

  19. The myofascial compartments of the foot: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Ling, Z X; Kumar, V P

    2008-08-01

    Compartment syndrome of the foot requires urgent surgical treatment. Currently, there is still no agreement on the number and location of the myofascial compartments of the foot. The aim of this cadaver study was to provide an anatomical basis for surgical decompression in the event of compartment syndrome. We found that there were three tough vertical fascial septae that extended from the hindfoot to the midfoot on the plantar aspect of the foot. These septae separated the posterior half of the foot into three compartments. The medial compartment containing the abductor hallucis was surrounded medially by skin and subcutaneous fat and laterally by the medial septum. The intermediate compartment, containing the flexor digitorum brevis and the quadratus plantae more deeply, was surrounded by the medial septum medially, the intermediate septum laterally and the main plantar aponeurosis on its plantar aspect. The lateral compartment containing the abductor digiti minimi was surrounded medially by the intermediate septum, laterally by the lateral septum and on its plantar aspect by the lateral band of the main plantar aponeurosis. No distinct myofascial compartments exist in the forefoot. Based on our findings, in theory, fasciotomy of the hindfoot compartments through a modified medial incision would be sufficient to decompress the foot.

  20. Preparation and initial characterization of biodegradable particles containing gadolinium-DTPA contrast agent for enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Amber L; Chu, Kevin; Ali, Adeel; Brannon-Peppas, Lisa

    2008-11-11

    Accurate imaging of atherosclerosis is a growing necessity for timely treatment of the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising technique for plaque imaging. The goal of this study was to create polymeric particles of a small size with high loading of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (III) (Gd-DTPA) and demonstrate their usefulness for MRI. A water-in-oil-in-oil double emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used to encapsulate the MRI agent in a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or polylactide-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) particle for the purpose of concentrating the agent at an imaging site. PLGA particles with two separate average sizes of 1.83 microm and 920 nm, and PLA-PEG particles with a mean diameter of 952 nm were created. Loading of up to 30 wt % Gd-DTPA was achieved, and in vitro release occurred over 5 h. PLGA particles had highly negative zeta potentials, whereas the particles incorporating PEG had zeta potentials closer to neutral. Cytotoxicity of the particles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was shown to be minimal. The ability of the polymeric contrast agent formulation to create contrast was similar to that of Gd-DTPA alone. These results demonstrate the possible utility of the contrast agent-loaded polymeric particles for plaque detection with MRI.

  1. Agents.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2002-01-01

    Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists.

  2. Raman spectroscopic study of structural changes upon chilling storage of frankfurters containing olive oil bulking agents as fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Herrero, A M; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Carmona, P

    2014-06-25

    Technological properties and structural characteristics of proteins and lipids, using Raman spectroscopy, of frankfurters formulated with olive oil bulking agents as animal fat replacers were examined during chilling storage. Frankfurters reformulated with oil bulking agents showed lower (P<0.05) processing loss and higher (P<0.05) hardness and chewiness. Purge loss during chilling storage was relatively low, demonstrating a good water retention in the products. β-Sheet structures were enhanced by the use of olive oil bulking agents, and this effect was more pronounced in samples containing inulin. Reformulated frankfurters contained the least turns (P<0.05). A significant decrease of β-sheets and an increase of turns were observed after 85 days of chilled storage. The lowest (P<0.05) values of IνsCH2/IνasCH2 were recorded in frankfurters reformulated with oil bulking agents, which suggests more lipid acyl chain disorder. Structural characteristics were correlated to processing losses, hardness, and chewiness.

  3. Formation-containment control of second-order multi-agent systems with only sampled position data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Baojie; Mu, Xiaowu

    2016-11-01

    This paper studies the formation-containment control problem of second-order multi-agent systems with only sampled position data. It is assumed that there exist interactions among leaders and the leaders' neighbours are only leaders. Two different control protocols with only sampled position information are proposed for followers and leaders, respectively. By the algebraic graph theory and matrix theory, sufficient conditions are given to guarantee that the leaders achieve a desired formation and the followers asymptotically converge into the convex hull formed by the corresponding states of the leaders, i.e. the multi-agent systems achieve formation-containment. Moreover, an explicit expression of the formation position function is given for each leader. Finally, a numerical simulation is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of theoretical results.

  4. Adaptive containment control of second-order multi-agent systems with nonlinear dynamics and multiple input-bounded leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Jia, Yingmin

    2015-10-01

    This paper considers the adaptive containment control problem of second-order multi-agent systems with inherent nonlinear dynamics. In particular, the leaders' control inputs are nonzero, bounded, and not available to any follower. Based on the relative states among neighbouring agents, a discontinuous adaptive protocol is first proposed to ensure that the containment errors of each follower converge to zero asymptotically, i.e. the states of the followers asymptotically converge to the convex hull spanned by those of the leaders. To eliminate the chattering effect caused by the discontinuous protocol, a continuous adaptive protocol is further designed based on the boundary layer technique and the σ-modification technique. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  5. Ionic Liquids as templating agents in formation of uranium-containing nanomaterials

    DOEpatents

    Visser, Ann E; Bridges, Nicholas J

    2014-06-10

    A method for forming nanoparticles containing uranium oxide is described. The method includes combining a uranium-containing feedstock with an ionic liquid to form a mixture and holding the mixture at an elevated temperature for a period of time to form the product nanoparticles. The method can be carried out at low temperatures, for instance less than about 300.degree. C.

  6. Selenium- and tellurium-containing multifunctional redox agents as biochemical redox modulators with selective cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jamier, Vincent; Ba, Lalla A; Jacob, Claus

    2010-09-24

    Various human diseases, including different types of cancer, are associated with a disturbed intracellular redox balance and oxidative stress (OS). The past decade has witnessed the emergence of redox-modulating compounds able to utilize such pre-existing disturbances in the redox state of sick cells for therapeutic advantage. Selenium- and tellurium-based agents turn the oxidizing redox environment present in certain cancer cells into a lethal cocktail of reactive species that push these cells over a critical redox threshold and ultimately kill them through apoptosis. This kind of toxicity is highly selective: normal, healthy cells remain largely unaffected, since changes to their naturally low levels of oxidizing species produce little effect. To further improve selectivity, multifunctional sensor/effector agents are now required that recognize the biochemical signature of OS in target cells. The synthesis of such compounds provides interesting challenges for chemistry in the future.

  7. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  8. Fluorine-Containing Taxoid Anticancer Agents and Their Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Joshua; Vineberg, Jacob G.; Zuniga, Edison S.; Ojima, Iwao

    2013-01-01

    A long-standing problem of conventional chemotherapy is the lack of tumor-specific treatments. Traditional chemotherapy relies on the premise that rapidly proliferating cancer cells are more likely to be killed by a cytotoxic agent. In reality, however, cytotoxic agents have very little or no specificity, which leads to systemic toxicity, causing undesirable severe side effects. Consequently, various “molecularly targeted cancer therapies” have been developed for use in specific cancers, including tumor-targeting drug delivery systems. In general, such a drug delivery system consists of a tumor recognition moiety and a cytotoxic “warhead” connected through a “smart” linker to form a conjugate. When a multi-functionalized nanomaterial is used as the vehicle, a “Trojan Horse” approach can be used for mass delivery of cytotoxic “warheads” to maximize the efficacy. Exploitation of the special properties of fluorine has proven successful in the development of new and effective biochemical tools as well as therapeutic agents. Fluorinated congeners can also serve as excellent probes for the investigation of biochemical mechanisms. 19F-NMR can provide unique and powerful tools for mechanistic investigations in chemical biology. This account presents our recent progress, in perspective, on the molecular approaches to the design and development of novel tumor-targeted drug delivery systems for new generation chemotherapy by exploiting the unique nature of fluorine. PMID:23935213

  9. Photochromic Properties of Tungsten Oxide/Methylcellulose Composite Film Containing Dispersing Agents.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Suzuko; Ishida, Hiroki; Shimizu, Dai; Adachi, Kenta

    2015-12-02

    Tungsten oxide-based photochromic films which changed reversibly in air between colorless- transparent in the dark and dark blue under UV irradiation were prepared by using methylcellulose as a film matrix and polyols such as ethylene glycol (EG), propylene glycol (PG), and glycerin (Gly) as dispersing agents. Influence of the dispersing agents and water in the films on the photochromic behavior was systematically studied. Under UV irradiation, absorption bands around 640 and 980 nm increased and the coloring rate was the following order: Gly > EG > PG. An increase in the amounts of dispersing agents or water accelerated the coloring rate. By increasing the water content of the film, a new absorption peak appeared at ca. 775 nm and the Raman spectra indicated a shift of W-O-W stretching vibration to lower wavenumber which was due to the formation of hydrogen bonding. All absorption spectra were fit by three Lorentz functions, whose bands were ascribed to various packing of WO6 octahedra. After the light was turned off, the formation of W(5+) was stopped and bleaching occurred by the reaction with O2 in air to recover its original transparent state. We anticipate that the biodegradable photochromic films developed in this study can be applied in recyclable display medium and especially in detachable films for glass windows whose light transmission properties are changed by sunlight, i.e., for usage as an alternative of smart windows without applying voltage.

  10. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the certificate holder for operation under this part that has at least one Class D compartment that...: (a) Each Class C or Class D compartment, as defined in § 25.857 of this Chapter in effect on June 16... capability of the liner to safely contain a fire. (c) After March 19, 2001, each Class D...

  11. Neonatal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martin, B; Treharne, L

    2016-01-01

    A term neonate was born with a grossly swollen and discoloured left hand and forearm. He was transferred from the local hospital to the plastic surgical unit, where a diagnosis of compartment syndrome was made and he underwent emergency forearm fasciotomies at six hours of age. Following serial debridements of necrotic tissue, he underwent split-thickness skin grafting of the resultant defects of his forearm, hand and digits. At the clinic follow-up appointment two months after the procedure, he was found to have developed severe flexion contractures despite regular outpatient hand therapy and splintage. He has had further reconstruction with contracture release, use of artificial dermal matrix, and K-wire fixation of the thumb and wrist. Despite this, the long term outcome is likely to be an arm with poor function. The key learning point from this case is that despite prompt transfer, diagnosis and appropriate surgical management, the outcome for neonatal compartment syndrome may still be poor. PMID:27138850

  12. Containment of antimicrobial resistance due to use of antimicrobial agents in animals intended for food: WHO perspective.

    PubMed

    Aidara-Kane, A

    2012-04-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and food-producing animals has important consequences for human and animal health, as it can lead to the development of resistant bacteria (pathogens and/or commensals with resistance genes). Moreover, resistant bacteria in animals can be transferred to people--usually through the consumption of food, but also through direct contact with food-producing animals or through environmental spread. Ultimately, this can result in human infections with bacteria that are resistant to antimicrobial agents and that can therefore be difficult or impossible to cure. Of special concern is resistance to antimicrobial agents classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as critically important for human medicine, such as fluoroquinolones, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, and macrolides. WHO encourages the agricultural, food, veterinary and health sectors to work together to eliminate the burden of antimicrobial resistance arising from the use of antimicrobial agents in food-producing animals. Joint efforts should be made to reduce the inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents (e.g. the use of antimicrobials as growth promoters) and limit the spread of bacteria resistant to antimicrobial agents. WHO will continueto address this issue in conjunction with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Organisation for Animal Health, the animal health/production industry and other important stakeholders. It will also continue to enhance the capacity of its Member States (through training courses and sentinel studies), particularly developing countries, to conduct integrated surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance, to carry out risk assessments to support the selection of risk management options and to implement strategies for the containment of antimicrobial resistance.

  13. Can Ionic Liquids Be Used As Templating Agents For Controlled Design of Uranium-Containing Nanomaterials?

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.; Bridges, N.; Tosten, M.

    2013-04-09

    Nanostructured uranium oxides have been prepared in ionic liquids as templating agents. Using the ionic liquids as reaction media for inorganic nanomaterials takes advantage of the pre-organized structure of the ionic liquids which in turn controls the morphology of the inorganic nanomaterials. Variation of ionic liquid cation structure was investigated to determine the impact on the uranium oxide morphologies. For two ionic liquid cations, increasing the alkyl chain length increases the aspect ratio of the resulting nanostructured oxides. Understanding the resulting metal oxide morphologies could enhance fuel stability and design.

  14. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Sulfur-Containing 1,1-Bisphosphonic Acids as Antiparasitic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Recher, Marion; Barboza, Alejandro P.; Li, Zhu-Hong; Galizzi, Melina; Ferrer-Casal, Mariana; Szajnman, Sergio H.; Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia N. J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of our efforts aimed at searching for new antiparasitic agents, 2-alkylmercaptoethyl-1,1-bisphosphonate derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, and Toxoplasma gondii, the responsible agent for toxoplasmosis. Many of these sulfur-containing bisphosphonates were potent inhibitors against the intracellular form of T. cruzi, the clinically more relevant replicative form of this parasite, and tachyzoites of T. gondii targeting T. cruzi or T. gondii farnesyl diphosphate synthases (FPPSs), which constitute valid targets for the chemotherapy of these parasitic diseases. Interestingly, long chain length sulfur-containing bisphosphonates emerged as relevant antiparasitic agents. Taking compounds 37, 38, and 39 as representative members of this class of drugs, they exhibited ED50 values of 15.8 μM, 12.8 μM, and 22.4 μM, respectively, against amastigotes of T. cruzi. These cellular activities matched the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of the target enzyme (TcFPPS) having IC50 values of 6.4 μM, 1.7 μM, and 0.097 μM, respectively. In addition, these compounds were potent anti-Toxoplasma agents. They had ED50 values of 2.6 μM, 1.2 μM, and 1.8 μM, respectively, against T. gondii tachyzoites, while they exhibited a very potent inhibitory action against the target enzyme (TgFPPS) showing IC50 values of 0.024 μM, 0.025 μM, and 0.021 μM, respectively. Bisphosphonates bearing a sulfoxide unit at C-3 were also potent anti-Toxoplasma agents, particularly those bearing long aliphatic chains such as 43–45, which were also potent antiproliferative drugs against tachyzoites of T. gondii. These compounds inhibited the enzymatic activity of the target enzyme (TgFPPS) at the very low nanomolar range. These bisphosphonic acids have very good prospective not only as lead drugs but also as potential chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:23318904

  15. Design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel vanadium-containing complexes as antidiabetic agents.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Elena V; Buryakina, Anna V; Zakharov, Alexey V; Filimonov, Dmitry A; Lagunin, Alexey A; Poroikov, Vladimir V

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data about structure and antidiabetic activity of twenty seven vanadium and zinc coordination complexes collected from literature we developed QSAR models using the GUSAR program. These QSAR models were applied to 10 novel vanadium coordination complexes designed in silico in order to predict their hypoglycemic action. The five most promising substances with predicted potent hypoglycemic action were selected for chemical synthesis and pharmacological evaluation. The selected coordination vanadium complexes were synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo for their hypoglycemic activities and acute rat toxicity. Estimation of acute rat toxicity of these five vanadium complexes was performed using a freely available web-resource (http://way2drug.com/GUSAR/acutoxpredict.html). It has shown that the selected compounds belong to the class of moderate toxic pharmaceutical agents, according to the scale of Hodge and Sterner. Comparison with the predicted data has demonstrated a reasonable correspondence between the experimental and predicted values of hypoglycemic activity and toxicity. Bis{tert-butyl[amino(imino)methyl]carbamato}oxovanadium (IV) and sodium(2,2'-Bipyridyl)oxo-diperoxovanadate(V) octahydrate were identified as the most potent hypoglycemic agents among the synthesized compounds.

  16. Design, Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Novel Vanadium-Containing Complexes as Antidiabetic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Elena V.; Buryakina, Anna V.; Zakharov, Alexey V.; Filimonov, Dmitry A.; Lagunin, Alexey A.; Poroikov, Vladimir V.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data about structure and antidiabetic activity of twenty seven vanadium and zinc coordination complexes collected from literature we developed QSAR models using the GUSAR program. These QSAR models were applied to 10 novel vanadium coordination complexes designed in silico in order to predict their hypoglycemic action. The five most promising substances with predicted potent hypoglycemic action were selected for chemical synthesis and pharmacological evaluation. The selected coordination vanadium complexes were synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo for their hypoglycemic activities and acute rat toxicity. Estimation of acute rat toxicity of these five vanadium complexes was performed using a freely available web-resource (http://way2drug.com/GUSAR/acutoxpredict.html). It has shown that the selected compounds belong to the class of moderate toxic pharmaceutical agents, according to the scale of Hodge and Sterner. Comparison with the predicted data has demonstrated a reasonable correspondence between the experimental and predicted values of hypoglycemic activity and toxicity. Bis{tert-butyl[amino(imino)methyl]carbamato}oxovanadium (IV) and sodium(2,2′-Bipyridyl)oxo-diperoxovanadate(V) octahydrate were identified as the most potent hypoglycemic agents among the synthesized compounds. PMID:25057899

  17. Sulphur-Containing Heterocycles as Antimycobacterial Agents: Recent Advances in Thiophene and Thiadiazole Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Krátký, Martin; Vinsova, Jarmila

    2016-01-01

    The global tuberculosis epidemic and emergence of drug resistance call for intensive research on new antimycobacterial agents. Recent development is focused mainly on heterocyclic molecules. In many cases, introduction of sulphur has improved antimicrobial activity; many drugs feature a sulphur heterocycle. Thiophene derivatives and thiadiazoles including derived ortho-condensed heterocycles have been found to have a wide range of biological activities. This review highlights the recent progress in the field with a focus on whole-cell antimycobacterial activity of the agents as well as targeting of enzymes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Some of the compounds have exhibited high activity with submicromolar minimum inhibitory concentrations including activity against drug-resistant strains and/or IC50 values for a range of enzymes as their targets (InhA, dehydroquinase, Pks13, carbonic anhydrases, DprE1). Mechanisms of action, toxicity, and structure-activity relationships are also discussed. Several compounds have exhibited promising in vitro and in vivo activities and safety profiles, thus constituting novel, promising leads.

  18. Stability and compatibility of antitumor agents in glass and plastic containers.

    PubMed

    Benvenuto, J A; Anderson, R W; Kerkof, K; Smith, R G; Loo, T L

    1981-12-01

    The stability of methotrexate, fluorouracil, cytarabine, dactinomycin, doxorubicin, bleomycin sulfate, mitomycin, mithramycin, vincristine sulfate, vinblastine sulfate, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, carmustine, and leucovorin calcium in underfilled plastic and glass administration containers was determined. Drugs were reconstituted according to manufacturers' instructions and added to 5% dextrose injection 50 ml in both polyvinyl chloride bags and glass partial-fill bottles. In addition, mitomycin was added to 0.9% sodium chloride injection 50 ml in both polyvinyl chloride bags and glass partial-fill bottles. All admixtures were stored at room temperature, not protected from light. Stability was determined over 24 hours (48 hours for doxorubicin and fluorouracil) by high-pressure liquid chromatography, except for cyclophosphamide (analyzed by mass spectrometry) and carmustine (analyzed by spectrophotometry). Methotrexate, leucovorin calcium, cytarabine, dactinomycin, mithramycin, vinblastine sulfate, cyclophosphamide, and dacarbazine were equally stable (10% or less change in concentration over 24 hours) in glass and plastic containers. Doxorubicin and fluorouracil were more stable in plastic containers than glass containers. The T90 value for doxorubicin in glass was 40 hours; there was no apparent decrease in plastic even after 48 hours. The T90 value for fluorouracil in glass was seven hours and in plastic, 43 hours. Vincristine sulfate, bleomycin sulfate, and carmustine were more stable in glass than plastic. The T90 value for vincristine sulfate in plastic was 10 hours. The T90 value for bleomycin sulfate in plastic was 0.7 hour. The T90 value for carmustine in plastic was 0.6 hour. Mitomycin dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was more stable in plastic. Mitomycin dissolved in 5% dextrose injection was not stable. Carmustine and bleomycin sulfate should be administered only in glass containers. Continuous infusions of doxorubicin and fluorouracil are

  19. Microbial Content of Nonsterile Therapeutic Agents Containing Natural or Seminatural Active Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, I.; Kuntscher, H.; Wolff, A.; Nekola, M.

    1968-01-01

    The relationship was investigated between various chemical or pharmaceutical production processes and the extent of microbial contamination, of natural origin, of the resulting products. The products contained active ingredients of vegetable, enzymatic, or animal origin. It was concluded that (i) vegetable products practically free from microbes can be produced if the proper manufacturing steps are taken; (ii) sterilization of the media used to manufacture antibiotics, etc., produces products with little contamination; and (iii) products containing extracts of animal organs require careful refrigeration and addition of preservatives to produce acceptable levels of microbial contamination. PMID:5726165

  20. Synthesis, structural characterization and in vitro testing of dysprosium containing silica particles as potential MRI contrast enhancing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriac, L. B.; Trandafir, D. L.; Turcu, R. V. F.; Todea, M.; Simon, S.

    2016-11-01

    The work is focused on synthesis and structural characterization of novel dysprosium-doped silica particles which could be considered as MRI contrast agents. Sol-gel derived silica rich particles obtained via freeze-drying and spray-drying processing methods were structurally characterized by XRD, 29Si MAS-NMR and XPS methods. The occurrence of dysprosium on the outermost layer of dysprosium containing silica particles was investigated by XPS analysis. The MRI contrast agent characteristics have been tested using RARE-T1 and RARE-T2 protocols. The contrast of MRI images delivered by the investigated samples was correlated with their local structure. Dysprosium disposal on microparticles with surface structure characterised by decreased connectivity of the silicate network units favours dark T2-weighted MRI contrast properties.

  1. Design, synthesis and molecular docking of salicylic acid derivatives containing metronidazole as a new class of antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi-Hua; Yin, Yong; Wang, Cong; Wang, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Xing-Tao; Wang, Zhong-Chang; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2015-09-15

    A series of novel salicylic acid derivatives containing metronidazole as Staphylococcus aureus Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) inhibitors have been synthesized and evaluated their biology activities as potential antibacterial agents. Among these compounds, compound 5r exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. aureus ATCC 6538 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 13525) with MICs of 0.39-1.57 μg/mL and showed the most potent S. aureus Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitory with 2.3 μM. Docking simulation was performed to insert compound 5r into the crystal structure of S. aureus Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase active site to determine the probable binding model. These results suggested that compound 5r may be a promising antibacterial agent.

  2. Synthesis and biological activity of quaternary ammonium salt-type agents containing cholesterol and terpenes.

    PubMed

    Novotná, Eva; Waisser, Karel; Kuneš, Jiří; Palát, Karel; Buchta, Vladimír; Stolaříková, Jiřina; Beckert, Rainer; Wsól, Vladimír

    2014-06-01

    New quaternary ammonium salt-type compounds with lipophilic cholesterol and terpene moieties were synthesized. The compounds showed promising antibacterial and antimycobacterial activities. Those compounds containing the cholesterol moiety showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Enterococcus faecium. On the contrary, the antimycobacterial activity increased with the presence of the terpene unit in the molecule.

  3. Protein transduction domain-containing microemulsions as cutaneous delivery systems for an anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Dominique; McCall, Melissa; Zheng, Haian; Lopes, Luciana B

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we developed cationic microemulsions containing a protein transduction domain (penetratin) for optimizing paclitaxel localization within the skin. Microemulsions were prepared by mixing a surfactant blend (BRIJ:ethanol:propylene glycol 2:1:1, w/w/w) with monocaprylin (oil phase) at 1.3:1 ratio, and adding water at 30% (ME-30), 43% (ME-43), and 50% (ME-50). Electrical conductivity and viscosity measurements indicated that ME-30 is most likely a bicontinuous system, whereas ME-43 and ME-50 are water continuous. Their irritation potential, studied in bioengineered skin equivalents, decreased as aqueous content increased. Because ME-50 was not stable in the presence of paclitaxel (0.5%), ME-43 was selected for penetratin incorporation (0.4%). The microemulsion containing penetratin (ME-P) displayed zeta potential of +5.2 mV, and promoted a 1.8-fold increase in paclitaxel cutaneous (but not transdermal) delivery compared with the plain ME-43, whereas the enhancement promoted by another cationic microemulsion containing phytosphingosine was 1.3-fold. Compared with myvacet oil, ME-P promoted a larger increase on transepidermal water loss (twofold) than the plain or the phytosphingosine-containing microemulsions (1.5-fold), suggesting that penetratin addition increases the barrier-disrupting and penetration-enhancing effects of microemulsions. The ratio Δcutaneous/Δtransdermal delivery promoted by ME-P was the highest among the formulations, suggesting its potential for drug localization within cutaneous tumor lesions.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of pyrazole derivatives containing thiourea skeleton as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Lv, Peng-Cheng; Li, Huan-Qiu; Sun, Juan; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2010-07-01

    Two series of pyrazole derivatives designing for potential EGFR kinase inhibitors have been discovered. Some of them exhibited significant EGFR inhibitory activity. Compound 3-(3,4-dimethylphenyl)-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide (C5) displayed the most potent EGFR inhibitory activity with IC₅₀ of 0.07 μM, which was comparable to the positive control erlotinib. Docking simulation was performed to position compound C5 into the EGFR active site to determine the probable binding model. Antiproliferative assay results indicating that some of the pyrazole derivatives own high antiproliferative activity against MCF-7. Compound C5 showed significant antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 with IC₅₀ of 0.08 μM. Therefore, compound C5 with potent inhibitory activity in tumor growth inhibition would be a potential anticancer agent.

  5. Can ionic liquids be used as templating agents for controlled design of uranium-containing nanomaterials?

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, Ann E. Bridges, Nicholas J.; Tosten, Michael H.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Uranium oxides nanoparticles prepared using ionic liquids. • IL cation alkyl length impacts oxide morphology. • Low temperature UO{sub 2} synthesis. - Abstract: Nanostructured uranium oxides have been prepared in ionic liquids as templating agents. Using the ionic liquids as reaction media for inorganic nanomaterials takes advantage of the pre-organized structure of the ionic liquids which in turn controls the morphology of the inorganic nanomaterials. Variation of ionic liquid cation structure was investigated to determine the impact on the uranium oxide morphologies. For two ionic liquid cations, increasing the alkyl chain length increases the aspect ratio of the resulting nanostructured oxides. Understanding the resulting metal oxide morphologies could enhance fuel stability and design.

  6. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Oak, Nikhil R; Abrams, Reid A

    2016-07-01

    Hand compartment syndrome has many etiologies; untreated, it has dire functional consequences. Intracompartmental pressure exceeding capillary filling pressure causes decreased tissue perfusion resulting in progressive ischemic death of compartment contents. Clinical findings can evolve. Serial physical examinations are recommended and, if equivocal, interstitial pressure monitoring is indicated. Definitive management is emergent fasciotomies with incisions designed to decompress the involved hand compartments, which could include the thenar, hypothenar, and interosseous compartments, and the carpal tunnel. Careful wound care, edema management, splinting, and hand therapy are critical. Therapy should start early postoperatively, possibly before wound closure.

  7. Loki-Infect 3 : a portable networked agent model for designing community-level containment strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Leland B.; Cannon, Daniel C.; Hobbs, Jacob A.; Davey, Victoria J.; Glass, Robert John, Jr.

    2010-12-01

    Loki-Infect 3 is a desktop application intended for use by community-level decision makers. It allows rapid construction of small-scale studies of emerging or hypothetical infectious diseases in their communities and evaluation of the potential effectiveness of various containment strategies. It was designed with an emphasis on modularity, portability, and ease of use. Our goal is to make this program freely available to community workers across the world.

  8. Identification of novel disulfide adducts between the thiol containing leaving group of the nerve agent VX and cysteine containing tripeptides derived from human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Kranawetvogl, Andreas; Küppers, Jim; Gütschow, Michael; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Elsinghorst, Paul W; John, Harald

    2016-12-09

    Chemical warfare agents represent a continuous and considerable threat to military personnel and the civilian population. Such compounds are prohibited by the Chemical Weapons Convention, to which adherence by the member states is strictly controlled. Therefore, reliable analytical methods for verification of an alleged use of banned substances are required. Accordingly, current research focuses on long-term biomarkers derived from covalent adducts with biomolecules such as proteins. Recently, we have introduced a microbore liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry method allowing for the investigation of two different classes of adducts of the nerve agent VX with human serum albumin (HSA). Phosphonylated tyrosine residues and novel disulfide adducts at cysteine residues of HSA were produced by enzymatic cleavage with pronase and detected simultaneously. Notably, the thiol containing leaving group of VX (2-(diisopropylamino)ethanethiol, DPAET) formed disulfide adducts that were released as cysteine and proline containing dipeptides originating from at least two different sites of HSA. Aim of this study was to identify assumed and novel adducts of DPAET with HSA using synthetic peptide reference compounds. Two novel tripeptides were identified representing disulfide adducts with DPAET (Met-Pro-Cys-DPAET, MPC-DPAET and Asp-Ile-Cys-DPAET, DIC-DPAET). MPC-DPAET was shown to undergo partial in-source decay during electrospray ionization for MS detection thereby losing the N-terminal Met residue. This results in the more stable Pro-Cys-DPAET (PC-DPAET) dipeptide detectable as protonated ion. The limit of detection for MPC-DPAET was evaluated, revealing toxicologically relevant VX plasma concentrations. The results provide novel insights into the reactivity of VX and its endogenous targets. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Solid lipid microparticles containing the sunscreen agent, octyl-dimethylaminobenzoate: effect of the vehicle.

    PubMed

    Tursilli, Rosanna; Piel, Géraldine; Delattre, Luc; Scalia, Santo

    2007-06-01

    Solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) loaded with the sunscreen agent, octyl-dimethylaminobenzoate (ODAB), were prepared in order to achieve enhanced sunscreen photostability. The microparticles were produced by the melt dispersion technique using glyceryl behenate as lipidic material and poloxamer 188 as the emulsifier. The obtained SLMs showed proper features in terms of morphology, size distribution (1.67-15.81 microm) and ODAB loading (16.15+/-0.11%, w/w). The sunscreen release from the SLMs was slower than its dissolution rate and the photodecomposition of ODAB was markedly decreased (>51.3%) by encapsulation into the lipid microparticles. The efficacy of the SLM carrier system was also evaluated after their introduction in model topical formulations (i.e., hydrogel and oil-in-water emulsion). Further in vitro release measurements, performed using Franz diffusion cells with polycarbonate membranes, indicated that the retention capacity of the microparticles was lost after their incorporation into the emulsion, whereas it was retained in the hydrogel. Moreover, the SLMs achieved a reduction of the sunscreen photodegradation in the hydrogel vehicle (the ODAB loss decreased from 87.4% to 59.1%), whereas no significant photoprotective effect was observed in the emulsion. Therefore, the efficacy of the ODAB-loaded SLMs was markedly affected by the vehicle.

  10. Development and in-vitro characterization of fish oil oleogels containing benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid as keratolytic agents.

    PubMed

    Rehman, K; Tan, C M; Zulfakar, M H

    2014-03-01

    Topical keratolytic agents such as benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) are one of the common treatments for inflammatory skin diseases. However, the amount of drug delivery through the skin is limited due to the stratum corneum. The purposes of this study were to investigate the ability of fish oil to act as penetration enhancer for topical keratolytic agents and to determine the suitable gelator for formulating stable fish oil oleogels. 2 types of gelling agents, beeswax and sorbitan monostearate (Span 60), were used to formulate oleogels. To investigate the efficacy of fish oil oleogel permeation, commercial hydrogels of benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) were used as control, and comparative analysis was performed using Franz diffusion cell. Stability of oleogels was determined by physical assessments at 20°C and 40°C storage. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) fish oil oleogels containing beeswax were considered as better formulations in terms of drug permeation and cumulative drug release. All the results were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05, ANOVA) and it was concluded that the beeswax-fish oil combination in oleogel can prove to be beneficial in terms of permeation across the skin and stability.

  11. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  12. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Phosphatidylcholine Analogues Containing Monoterpene Acids as Potent Antiproliferative Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gliszczyńska, Anna; Niezgoda, Natalia; Gładkowski, Witold; Czarnecka, Marta; Świtalska, Marta; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of novel phosphatidylcholines with geranic and citronellic acids in sn-1 and sn-2 positions is described. The structured phospholipids were obtained in high yields (59–87%) and evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell lines of different origin: MV4-11, A-549, MCF-7, LOVO, LOVO/DX, HepG2 and also towards non-cancer cell line BALB/3T3 (normal mice fibroblasts). The phosphatidylcholines modified with monoterpene acid showed a significantly higher antiproliferative activity than free monoterpene acids. The highest activity was observed for the terpene-phospholipids containing the isoprenoid acids in sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine and palmitic acid in sn-2. PMID:27310666

  13. Benzothiazole-containing hydroxamic acids as histone deacetylase inhibitors and antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Oanh, Dao Thi Kim; Hai, Hoang Van; Park, Sang Ho; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Han, Byung-Woo; Kim, Hyung-Sook; Hong, Jin-Tae; Han, Sang-Bae; Hue, Van Thi My; Nam, Nguyen-Hai

    2011-12-15

    Data from clinical studies indicate that inhibitors of Class I and Class II histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes show great promise for the treatment of cancer. Zolinza (SAHA, Zolinza) was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of the cutaneous manifestations of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. As a part of our ongoing effort to identify novel small molecules to target these important enzymes, we have prepared two series of benzothiazole-containing analogues of SAHA. It was found that several compounds with 6C-bridge linking benzothiazole moiety and hydroxamic functional groups showed good inhibition against HDAC3 and 4 at as low as 1 μg/ml and exhibited potent cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines with average IC(50) values of as low as 0.81 μg/ml, almost equipotent to SAHA.

  14. Development of a sensitive ELISA for the detection of casein-containing fining agents in red and white wines.

    PubMed

    Deckwart, Marina; Carstens, Carsten; Webber-Witt, Manuella; Schäfer, Volker; Eichhorn, Lisa; Kang, Sophie; Fischer, Markus; Brockow, Knut; Christmann, Monika; Paschke-Kratzin, Angelika

    2014-07-16

    Fining of wine with proteinogenic fining agents such as casein from cow's milk is a traditional and commonly used technique all over the world. Casein and other proteins from cow's milk are well-known food allergens, which pose a risk for allergic consumers. Temporary regulations exempting the labeling of milk and products thereof in wine expired. Since July 1, 2012, these fining agents have to be declared on the wine label under Regulation (EU) No. 579/2012 in conjunction to article 120g of Regulation (EU) No. 1234/2007 if exceeding the threshold of 0.25 mg/L allergenic protein. The aim of the presented study was to develop sensitive ELISA methods for the detection of casein in white and red wines and to investigate the risk of allergenic residues in fined wines. In this context it was shown that the used substance for calibration is highly relevant. Casein wine fining agents of different commercial producers were investigated by LDS-PAGE and immunoblot. In addition to casein, they contain other milk proteins, which are potentially allergic and therefore have to be incorporated in the development of antibodies for an ELISA method to be set up. An indirect ELISA for the investigation of white wine was developed. The LOD is 0.1 mg/L. For red wine the LOD is 0.2 mg/L in an indirect sandwich ELISA setup. The LOD of the indirect sandwich ELISA for white wine depends on the calibration standard. It is 0.1 mg/L for the fining agent casein and 0.01 mg/L for casein from a chemical trader. It is also shown that the use of different technological procedures during winemaking leads to no detectable amounts of casein in various wine samples.

  15. New benzothiazole/thiazole-containing hydroxamic acids as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors and antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Tung, Truong Thanh; Oanh, Dao Thi Kim; Dung, Phan Thi Phuong; Hue, Van Thi My; Park, Sang Ho; Han, Byung Woo; Kim, Youngsoo; Hong, Jin-Tae; Han, Sang-Bae; Nam, Nguyen-Hai

    2013-12-01

    Results from clinical studies have demonstrated that inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes possess promise for the treatment of several types of cancer. Zolinza(®) (widely known as SAHA) has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of T-cell lymphoma. As a continuity of our ongoing research to find novel small molecules to target these important enzymes, we synthesized a series of benzothiazole-containing analogues of SAHA and found several compounds with very potent anticancer cytotoxicity. In this study, three more compounds of this type, including N(1)-(6-chlorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-N(8)-hydroxyoctanediamide (3a), N(1)-[6-(trifluoromethyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl]-N(8)-hydroxyoctanediamide (3b) and N(1)-(thiazol-2-yl)-N(8)-hydroxyoctanediamide (6) were synthesized and evaluated for HDAC inhibition and cytotoxic activities. All three compounds showed very potent HDAC inhibitory effects. Docking revealed that both two compounds 3a, 3b showed higher affinities towards HDAC(8) compared to SAHA. In vitro, compound 3a exhibited cytotoxicity equipotent to SAHA against five human cancer cell lines. In term of in vivo activity, compound 3a demonstrated equivalent efficacy to SAHA in mouse xenograft model.

  16. New uses for old drugs: attempts to convert quinolone antibacterials into potential anticancer agents containing ruthenium.

    PubMed

    Kljun, Jakob; Bratsos, Ioannis; Alessio, Enzo; Psomas, George; Repnik, Urška; Butinar, Miha; Turk, Boris; Turel, Iztok

    2013-08-05

    Continuing the study of the physicochemical and biological properties of ruthenium-quinolone adducts, four novel complexes with the general formula [Ru([9]aneS3)(dmso-κS)(quinolonato-κ(2)O,O)](PF6), containing the quinolones levofloxacin (1), nalidixic acid (2), oxolinic acid (3), and cinoxacin (4), were prepared and characterized in solid state as well as in solution. Contrary to their organoruthenium analogues, these complexes are generally relatively stable in aqueous solution as substitution of the dimethylsulfoxide (dmso) ligand is slow and not quantitative, and a minor release of the quinolonato ligand is observed only in the case of 4. The complexes bind to serum proteins displaying relatively high binding constants. DNA binding was studied using UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and performing viscosity measurements of CT DNA solutions in the presence of complexes 1-4. These experiments show that the ruthenium complexes interact with DNA via intercalation. Possible electrostatic interactions occur in the case of compound 4, which also shows the most pronounced rate of hydrolysis. Compounds 2 and 4 also exhibit a weak inhibition of cathepsins B and S, which are involved in the progression of a number of diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, complex 2 displayed moderate cytotoxicity when tested on the HeLa cell line.

  17. Exploring the space of histidine containing dipeptides in search of novel efficient RCS sequestering agents.

    PubMed

    Vistoli, Giulio; De Maddis, Danilo; Straniero, Valentina; Pedretti, Alessandro; Pallavicini, Marco; Valoti, Ermanno; Carini, Marina; Testa, Bernard; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2013-08-01

    The study reports a set of forty proteinogenic histidine-containing dipeptides as potential carbonyl quenchers. The peptides were chosen to cover as exhaustively as possible the accessible chemical space, and their quenching activities toward 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and pyridoxal were evaluated by HPLC analyses. The peptides were capped at the C-terminus as methyl esters or amides to favor their resistance to proteolysis and diastereoisomeric pairs were considered to reveal the influence of configuration on quenching. On average, the examined dipeptides are less active than the parent compound carnosine (βAla + His) thus emphasizing the unfavorable effect of the shortening of the βAla residue as confirmed by the control dipeptide Gly-His. Nevertheless, some peptides show promising activities toward HNE combined with a remarkable selectivity. The results emphasize the beneficial role of aromatic and positively charged residues, while negatively charged and H-bonding side chains show a detrimental effect on quenching. As a trend, ester derivatives are slightly more active than amides while heterochiral peptides are more active than their homochiral diastereoisomer. Overall, the results reveal that quenching activity strongly depends on conformational effects and vicinal residues (as evidenced by the reported QSAR analysis), offering insightful clues for the design of improved carbonyl quenchers and to rationalize the specific reactivity of histidine residues within proteins.

  18. Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

    2014-05-01

    Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic

  19. “On-Off” Thermoresponsive Coating Agent Containing Salicylic Acid Applied to Maize Seeds for Chilling Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    He, Fei; Huang, Yutao; Song, Wenjian; Hu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Chilling stress is an important constraint for maize seed establishment in the field. In this study, a type of “on-off” thermoresponsive coating agent containing poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylmethacrylate) (Abbr. P(NIPAm-co-BMA)) hydrogel was developed to improve the chilling tolerance of coated maize seed. The P(NIPAm-co-BMA) hydrogel was synthesized by free-radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and butylmethacrylate (BMA). Salicylic acid (SA) was loaded in the hydrogel as the chilling resistance agent. SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA) was used for seed film-coating of two maize varieties, Huang C (HC, chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive), to investigate the coated seed germination and seedling growth status under chilling stress. The results showed that the hydrogel obtained a phase transition temperature near 12°C with a NIPAM to MBA weight ratio of 1: 0.1988 (w/w). The temperature of 12°C was considered the “on-off” temperature for chilling-resistant agent release; the SA was released from the hydrogel more rapidly at external temperatures below 12°C than above 12°C. In addition, when seedlings of both maize varieties suffered a short chilling stress (5°C), higher concentrations of SA-loaded hydrogel resulted in increased germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, root length, shoot height, dry weight of roots and shoots and protective enzyme activities and a decreased malondialdehyde content in coated maize seeds compared to single SA treatments. The majority of these physiological and biochemical parameters achieved significant levels compared with the control. Therefore, SA-loaded P(NIPAm-co-BMA), a nontoxic thermoresponsive hydrogel, can be used as an effective material for chilling tolerance in film-coated maize seeds. PMID:25807522

  20. Turbiscan lab expert analysis of the stability of ethosomes and ultradeformable liposomes containing a bilayer fluidizing agent.

    PubMed

    Celia, Christian; Trapasso, Elena; Cosco, Donato; Paolino, Donatella; Fresta, Massimo

    2009-08-01

    The stability of vesicular drug carriers containing linoleic acid, as a model of bilayer fluidizing agent, was evaluated using a Turbiscan optical analyzer, an innovative analytical instrument able to determine the long-time stability of colloidal systems. Ethosomes and ultradeformable liposomes were prepared using Phospholipon 100G as the lecithin component, while ethanol and sodium cholate were used for the specific preparation of ethosomes and ultradeformable liposomes, respectively. The advantages of the Turbiscan optical analyzer are: (i) its ability to measure reversible (creaming and sedimentation) and irreversible (coalescence and segregation) destabilization phenomena directly in the sample without any dilution and (ii) to detect these phenomena much earlier and easier than other apparatuses. Turbiscan data showed that both colloidal vesicles demonstrate a good stability during the 3h of the experiment. No modification of Turbiscan backscattering profiles of colloidal suspensions occurred when different amounts of linoleic acid were used to prepare ethosomes and ultradeformable liposomes. No coalescence, sedimentation, flocculation or clarification occurred. The results were very encouraging and confirmed the fact that the Turbiscan optical analyzer can be used to study the stability of colloidal formulations even in the presence of deformable agents.

  1. [Conservative treatment improved corrosive esophagitis and pneumomediastinum in a patient who ingested bleaching agent containing sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Iseki, Ken; Ozawa, Akiko; Tominaga, Aya; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Otani, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department 3 hours after ingestion of a bleaching agent containing hypochlorous acid and sodium hydroxide in a suicide attempt. Enhanced chest computed tomography scans taken on admission indicated an edematous esophagus and air bubbles in the mediastinum. He underwent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation until day 9 because of laryngeal edema. On day 10, his endoscopy indicated diffuse reddish mucosal hyperemia, erosions, and lacerated mucosal lesions in the esophagus that were indicative of grade 2b corrosive esophagitis. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor was initiated, with which the condition of the esophagus improved, and on day 44, a slight stricture of the upper part of the esophagus was observed. He was discharged on day 64 without any complaints. The ingestion of sodium hypochlorite induces corrosive esophagitis and acute phase of gastritis. Ingestion of any corrosive agent is known as a risk factor for esophagus cancer in the long-term. In such cases with esophageal stricture, esophagectomy is recommended for preventing esophagus cancer. Considering the age of the patient, however, he did not undergo esophagectomy.

  2. Oxadiazole derivatives containing 1,4-benzodioxan as potential immunosuppressive agents against RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Yang, Yu-Shun; Zhang, Yan-Bin; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2011-08-15

    A series of oxadiazole derivatives containing 1,4-benzodioxan (4a-4s) have been first synthesized for their potential immunosuppressive activity. Among the compounds, compound 4i showed the most potent biological activity against RAW264.7 cells (inhibition=37.66±2.34% for NO overproduction and IC(50)=0.05μM for iNOS). Docking simulation was performed to position compound 4i into the iNOS structure active site to determine the probable binding model. RT-PCR experiment results demonstrated that some of these compounds possessed good immunosuppressive activity against iNOS, especially for compound 4i. Therefore, compound 4i with potent inhibitory activity may be a potential agent.

  3. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength.

    PubMed

    Derceli, Juliana Dos Reis; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP) as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS) of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate (COP10) with RelyX ARC (RX) after mechanical cycling (MC) and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm) were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8) according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h) or 60 days (60 d), and the performance (MC+FS) or not (only FS) of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min) and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min) were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Results The obtained FS (MPa) values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength.

  4. Test strips detect different CO2 concentrations in closed compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Four different test strips, using crystal violet for one pair of strips and basic fuchsin as a dye for the second pair, give unambiguous colorimetric indications of four different concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of a closed compartment. Tetraethylene pentamine is used as a dye decoloring agent.

  5. Compartment-Specific Phosphorylation of Squid Neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the giant axon and synapse of third-order neurons in the squid stellate ganglion have provided a vast literature on neuronal physiology and axon transport. Large neuronal size also lends itself to comparative biochemical studies of cell body versus axon. These have focused on the regulation of synthesis, assembly, posttranslational modification and function of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins (microtubules (MTs) and neurofilaments (NFs)), the predominant proteins in axoplasm. These contribute to axonal organization, stability, transport, and impulse transmission responsible for rapid contractions of mantle muscles underlying jet propulsion. Studies of vertebrate NFs have established an extensive literature on NF structure, organization, and function; studies of squid NFs, however, have made it possible to compare compartment-specific regulation of NF synthesis, assembly, and function in soma versus axoplasm. Since NFs contain over 100 eligible sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases, the compartment-specific patterns of phosphorylation have been a primary focus of biochemical studies. We have learned that NF phosphorylation is tightly compartmentalized; extensive phosphorylation occurs only in the axonal compartment in squid and in vertebrate neurons. This extensive phosphorylation plays a key role in organizing NFs, in association with microtubules (MTs), into a stable, dynamic functional lattice that supports axon growth, diameter, impulse transmission, and synaptic activity. To understand how cytoskeletal phosphorylation is topographically regulated, the kinases and phosphatases, bound to NFs isolated from cell bodies and axoplasm, have also been studied.

  6. Photo-crosslinkable cyanoacrylate bioadhesive: shrinkage kinetics, dynamic mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of adhesives containing TMPTMA and POSS nanostructures as crosslinking agents.

    PubMed

    Ghasaban, S; Atai, M; Imani, M; Zandi, M; Shokrgozar, M-A

    2011-11-01

    The study investigates the photo-polymerization shrinkage behavior, dynamic mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of cyanoacrylate bioadhesives containing POSS nanostructures and TMPTMA as crosslinking agents. Adhesives containing 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (2-OCA) and different percentages of POSS nanostructures and TMPTMA as crosslinking agents were prepared. The 1-phenyl-1, 2-propanedione (PPD) was incorporated as photo-initiator into the adhesive in 1.5, 3, and 4 wt %. The shrinkage strain of the specimens was measured using bonded-disk technique. Shrinkage strain, shrinkage strain rate, maximum and time at maximum shrinkage strain rate were measured and compared. Mechanical properties of the adhesives were also studied using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Biocompatibility of the adhesives was examined by MTT method. The results showed that shrinkage strain increased with increasing the initiator concentration up to 3 wt % in POSS-containing and 1.5 wt % in TMPTMA-containing specimens and plateaued out at higher concentrations. By increasing the crosslinking agent, shrinkage strain, and shrinkage strain rate increased and the time at maximum shrinkage strain rate decreased. The study indicates that the incorporation of crosslinking agents into the cyanoacrylate adhesives resulted in improved mechanical properties. Preliminary MTT studies also revealed better biocompatibility profile for the adhesives containing crosslinking agents comparing to the neat specimens.

  7. Lanthanide(III) complexes that contain a self-immolative arm: potential enzyme responsive contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Thomas; Torres, Susana; Rosseto, Renato; Kotek, Jan; Badet, Bernard; Durand, Philippe; Tóth, Eva

    2012-01-27

    Enzyme-responsive MRI-contrast agents containing a "self-immolative" benzylcarbamate moiety that links the MRI-reporter lanthanide complex to a specific enzyme substrate have been developed. The enzymatic cleavage initiates an electronic cascade reaction that leads to a structural change in the Ln(III) complex, with a concomitant response in its MRI-contrast-enhancing properties. We synthesized and investigated a series of Gd(3+) and Yb(3+) complexes, including those bearing a self-immolative arm and a sugar unit as selective substrates for β-galactosidase; we synthesized complex LnL(1), its NH(2) amine derivatives formed after enzymatic cleavage, LnL(2), and two model compounds, LnL(3) and LnL(4). All of the Gd(3+) complexes synthesized have a single inner-sphere water molecule. The relaxivity change upon enzymatic cleavage is limited (3.68 vs. 3.15 mM(-1) s(-1) for complexes GdL(1) and GdL(2), respectively; 37 °C, 60 MHz), which prevents application of this system as an enzyme-responsive T(1) relaxation agent. Variable-temperature (17)O NMR spectroscopy and (1)H NMRD (nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion) analysis were used to assess the parameters that determine proton relaxivity for the Gd(3+) complexes, including the water-exchange rate (k(ex)(298), varies in the range 1.5-3.9×10(6) s(-1)). Following the enzymatic reaction, the chelates contain an exocyclic amine that is not protonated at physiological pH, as deduced from pH-potentiometric measurements (log K(H)=5.12(±0.01) and 5.99(±0.01) for GdL(2) and GdL(3), respectively). The Yb(3+) analogues show a PARACEST effect after enzymatic cleavage that can be exploited for the specific detection of enzymatic activity. The proton-exchange rates were determined at various pH values for the amine derivatives by using the dependency of the CEST effect on concentration, saturation time, and saturation power. A concentration-independent analysis of the saturation-power-dependency data was also applied. All these

  8. Surfactant-free Gd3+-ion-containing carbon nanotube MRI contrast agents for stem cell labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizzatov, Ayrat; Hernández-Rivera, Mayra; Keshishian, Vazrik; Mackeyev, Yuri; Law, Justin J.; Guven, Adem; Sethi, Richa; Qu, Feifei; Muthupillai, Raja; Cabreira-Hansen, Maria Da Graça; Willerson, James T.; Perin, Emerson C.; Ma, Qing; Bryant, Robert G.; Wilson, Lon J.

    2015-07-01

    There is an ever increasing interest in developing new stem cell therapies. However, imaging and tracking stem cells in vivo after transplantation remains a serious challenge. In this work, we report new, functionalized and high-performance Gd3+-ion-containing ultra-short carbon nanotube (US-tube) MRI contrast agent (CA) materials which are highly-water-dispersible (ca. 35 mg ml-1) without the need of a surfactant. The new materials have extremely high T1-weighted relaxivities of 90 (mM s)-1 per Gd3+ ion at 1.5 T at room temperature and have been used to safely label porcine bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for MR imaging. The labeled cells display excellent image contrast in phantom imaging experiments, and TEM images of the labeled cells, in general, reveal small clusters of the CA material located within the cytoplasm with 109 Gd3+ ions per cell.There is an ever increasing interest in developing new stem cell therapies. However, imaging and tracking stem cells in vivo after transplantation remains a serious challenge. In this work, we report new, functionalized and high-performance Gd3+-ion-containing ultra-short carbon nanotube (US-tube) MRI contrast agent (CA) materials which are highly-water-dispersible (ca. 35 mg ml-1) without the need of a surfactant. The new materials have extremely high T1-weighted relaxivities of 90 (mM s)-1 per Gd3+ ion at 1.5 T at room temperature and have been used to safely label porcine bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for MR imaging. The labeled cells display excellent image contrast in phantom imaging experiments, and TEM images of the labeled cells, in general, reveal small clusters of the CA material located within the cytoplasm with 109 Gd3+ ions per cell. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: NMRD profiles, the Fourier transforms of the EXAFS data, EXAFS curve fitting data, cell viability data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02078f

  9. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    A paper discusses a dual-compartment inflatable suitlock (DCIS) for Extra - vehicular Activity (EVA) that will allow for dust control, suit maintenance, and efficient EVA egress/ingress. The expandable (inflatable technologies) aspect of the design will allow the unit to stow in a compact package for transport. The DCIS consists of three hard, in line bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The inner bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the common berthing mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The inner bulkhead and center bulkhead function as the end walls of the inner compartment, which, during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The suited crewmember can quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the compartment to depressurize. The outer compartment can be pressurized infrequently, when a long dwell time is expected prior to the next EVA, or during off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance of the space suits. The outer bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed routinely, but can be closed for suit maintenance and pressurization as needed.

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel fluorine-containing stilbene derivatives as fungicidal agents against phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Jian, Weilin; He, Daohang; Xi, Pinggen; Li, Xinwei

    2015-11-18

    The rising development of resistance to conventional fungicides is driving the search for new alternative candidates to control plant diseases. In this study, a series of new fluorine-containing stilbene derivatives was synthesized on the basis of our previous quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis results. Bioassays in vivo revealed that the title compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activities against phytopathogenic fungi (Colletotrichum lagenarium and Pseudoperonospora cubensis) from cucumber plants. In comparison to the previous results, the introduction of a fluorine moiety showed improved activities of some compounds against those fungi. Notably, compound 9 exhibited a control efficacy against C. lagenarium (83.4 ± 1.3%) comparable to that of commercial fungicide (82.7 ± 1.7%). For further understanding the possible mode of action of the stilbene against C. lagenarium, the effects on hyphal morphology, electrolyte leakage, and respiration of mycelial cell suspension were studied. Microscopic observation showed considerably deformed mycelial morphology. The conductivity of mycelial suspension increased in the presence of compound 9, whereas no significantly inhibitory effect on respiration was observed. Taken together, the fungicidal mechanism of this stilbene is associated with its membrane disruption effect, resulting in increased membrane permeability. These results provide important clues for mechanistic study and derivatization of stilbenes as alternative sources of fungicidal agents for plant disease control.

  11. Hemorrhoid sclerotherapy with the complication of abdominal compartment syndrome: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Wang, Ya-Jun; Li, Fei; Sun, Jia-Bang

    2011-06-01

    The complications of injection sclerotherapy for hemorrhoid are always local. Herein, we report a case in which a female patient with abdominal compartment syndrome developed after receiving a local injection of a sclerosing agent for hemorrhoid.

  12. Development of a novel anti-HIV-1 agent from within: Effect of chimeric Vpr-containing protease cleavage site residues on virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Serio, D.; Rizvi, T. A.; Cartas, M.; Kalyanaraman, V. S.; Weber, I. T.; Koprowski, H.; Srinivasan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Effective antiviral agents will be of great value in controlling virus replication and delaying the onset of HIV-1-related disease symptoms. Current therapy involves the use of antiviral agents that target the enzymatic functions of the virus, resulting in the emergence of resistant viruses to these agents, thus lowering their effectiveness. To overcome this problem, we have considered the idea of developing novel agents from within HIV-1 as inhibitors of virus replication. The specificity of the Vpr protein for the HIV-1 virus particle makes it an attractive molecule for the development of antiviral agents targeting the events associated with virus maturation. We have generated chimeric Vpr proteins containing HIV-1-specific sequences added to the C terminus of Vpr. These sequences correspond to nine cleavage sites of the Gag and Gag–Pol precursors of HIV-1. The chimeric Vpr constructs were introduced into HIV-1 proviral DNA to assess their effect on virus infectivity using single- and multiple-round replication assays. The virus particles generated exhibited a variable replication pattern depending on the protease cleavage site used as a fusion partner. Interestingly, the chimeric Vpr containing the cleavage sequences from the junction of p24 and p2, 24/2, completely abolished virus infectivity. These results show that chimeric proteins generated from within HIV-1 have the ability to suppress HIV-1 replication and make ideal agents for gene therapy or intracellular immunization to treat HIV-1 infection. PMID:9096396

  13. Synthesis of a Novel Phosphorus-Containing Flame Retardant Curing Agent and Its Application in Epoxy Resins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongkun; Xu, Miaojun; Li, Bin

    2016-03-01

    A novel phosphorus-containing compound diphenyl-(2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-phosphine oxide defined as DPDHPPO was synthesized and used as flame retardant and curing agent for epoxy resins (EP). The chemical structure was well characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H, 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. The flame retardant properties, combusting performances and thermal degradation behaviors of the cured epoxy resins were investigated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning tests (UL-94), cone calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests. The morphologies and chemical compositions of char residues for cured epoxy resins were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The water resistant properties were evaluated by putting the samples into distilled water at 70 degrees C for 168 h. The results revealed that the EP/40 wt% DPDHPPO/60 wt% PDA thermosets successfully passed UL-94 V-0 flammability rating and the LOI value was as high as 31.9%. The cone tests results revealed that the incorporation of DPDHPPO efficiently reduced the combustion parameters of epoxy resins thermosets, such as heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR) and so on. The TGA results indicated that the introduction of DPDHPPO promoted epoxy resins matrix decomposed ahead of time compared with that of pure EP and led to a higher char yield and thermal stability at high temperature. The morphological structures and analysis of XPS of char residues revealed that DPDHPPO benefited to the formation of a sufficient, compact and homogeneous char layer with rich flame retardant elements on the epoxy resins materials surface during combustion. After water resistance tests, EP/40 wt% DPDHPPO/60 wt% PDA thermosets still remained excellent flame retardancy, the moisture absorption of epoxy resins thermosets decreased with the increase of DPDHPPO contents in the thermosets due to the existing

  14. A composite microbial agent containing bacterial and fungal species: Optimization of the preparation process, analysis of characteristics, and use in the purification for volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhuowei; Lu, Lichao; Kennes, Christian; Ye, Jiexu; Yu, Jianming; Chen, Dongzhi; Chen, Jianmeng

    2016-10-01

    Proper preservation of microbial activity over long periods poses a considerable challenge for pollutant biopurification. A composite microbial agent, mainly composed of bacteria and fungi isolated by the current research team, was constructed in this study and its performance in the removal of mixed waste gases (containing α-pinene, n-butyl acetate and o-xylene) was investigated. According to the removal efficiency in the first 24h and the response to starvation, the optimal ratio of selected carriers (activated carbon, wheat bran and sawdust) was found to be 1:2:1. In some cases of storages, the removal capability of the microbial agent was more than twice that of the suspension. Microbial analysis showed that the inoculated bacterial and fungal strains dominated the agent preparation and utilization. These results indicated that the agent has potential for use in biopurification of mixed waste gas, favoring the reduction of environmental passives and longer retention of microbial activity.

  15. Robust finite-time containment control for high-order multi-agent systems with matched uncertainties under directed communication graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Junjie; Wang, Jinzhi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the robust finite-time containment control problem for a class of high-order uncertain nonlinear multi-agent systems modelled as high-order integrator systems with bounded matched uncertainties. When relative state information between neighbouring agents is available, an observer-based distributed controller is proposed for each follower using the sliding mode control technique which solves the finite-time containment control problem under general directed communication graphs. When only relative output information is available, robust exact differentiators and high-order sliding-mode controllers are employed together with the distributed finite-time observers. It is shown that robust finite-time containment control can still be achieved in this situation. An application in the coordination of multiple non-holonomic mobile robots is used as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies.

  16. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of cisplatin-containing EGFR targeting bioconjugates as potential therapeutic agents for brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Rolf F; Wu, Gong; Meisen, W Hans; Nakkula, Robin J; Yang, Weilian; Huo, Tianyao; Kellough, David A; Kaumaya, Pravin; Turro, Claudia; Agius, Lawrence M; Kaur, Balveen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate four different platinated bioconjugates containing a cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [cis-DDP]) fragment and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting moieties as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of brain tumors using a human EGFR-expressing transfectant of the F98 rat glioma (F98EGFR) to assess their efficacy. The first two bioconjugates employed the monoclonal antibody cetuximab (C225 or Erbitux®) as the targeting moiety, and the second two used genetically engineered EGF peptides. C225-G5-Pt was produced by reacting cis-DDP with a fifth-generation polyamidoamine dendrimer (G5) and then linking it to C225 by means of two heterobifunctional reagents. The second bioconjugate (C225-PG-Pt) employed the same methodology except that polyglutamic acid was used as the carrier. The third and fourth bioconjugates used two different EGF peptides, PEP382 and PEP455, with direct coordination to the Pt center of the cis-DDP fragment. In vivo studies with C225-G5-Pt failed to demonstrate therapeutic activity following intracerebral (ic) convection-enhanced delivery (CED) to F98EGFR glioma-bearing rats. The second bioconjugate, C225-PG-Pt, failed to show in vitro cytotoxicity. Furthermore, because of its high molecular weight, we decided that lower molecular weight peptides might provide better targeting and microdistribution within the tumor. Both PEP382-Pt and PEP455-Pt bioconjugates were cytotoxic in vitro and, based on this, a pilot study was initiated using PEP455-Pt. The end point for this study was tumor size at 6 weeks following tumor cell implantation and 4 weeks following ic CED of PEP455-Pt to F98 glioma-bearing rats. Neuropathologic examination revealed that five of seven rats were either tumor-free or only had microscopic tumors at 42 days following tumor implantation compared to a mean survival time of 20.5 and 26.3 days for untreated controls. In conclusion, we have succeeded in reformatting the

  17. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  18. Orbiter Crew Compartment Integration-Stowage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, L. Gary

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Orbiter Crew Compartment Integration (CCI) stowage. The evolution of orbiter crew compartment stowage volume is also described, along with photographs presented of the on-orbit volume stowage capacity.

  19. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be... controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less...

  20. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be... controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall be mounted no more than 48 inches, and no less...

  1. Effect of water-ageing on dentine bond strength and anti-biofilm activity of bonding agent containing new monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Cheng, Lei; Wu, Eric J.; Weir, Michael D.; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to develop bonding agent containing a new antibacterial monomer dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) as well as nanoparticles of silver (NAg) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), and to investigate the effects of water-ageing for 6 months on dentine bond strength and anti-biofilm properties for the first time. Methods Four bonding agents were tested: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) Primer and Adhesive control; SBMP + 5% DMADDM; SBMP + 5% DMADDM + 0.1% NAg; and SBMP + 5% DMADDM + 0.1% NAg with 20% NACP in adhesive. Specimens were water-aged for 1 d and 6 months at 37 °C. Then the dentine shear bond strengths were measured. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to inoculate bacteria on water-aged specimens and to measure metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFUs), and lactic acid production. Results Dentine bond strength showed a 35% loss in 6 months of water-ageing for SBMP control (mean ± sd; n = 10); in contrast, the new antibacterial bonding agents showed no strength loss. The DMADDM–NAg–NACP containing bonding agent imparted a strong antibacterial effect by greatly reducing biofilm viability, metabolic activity and acid production. The biofilm CFU was reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, compared to SBMP control. Furthermore, the DMADDM–NAg–NACP bonding agent exhibited a long-term antibacterial performance, with no significant difference between 1 d and 6 months (p > 0.1). Conclusions Incorporating DMADDM–NAg–NACP in bonding agent yielded potent and long-lasting antibacterial properties, and much stronger bond strength after 6 months of water-ageing than a commercial control. The new antibacterial bonding agent is promising to inhibit biofilms and caries at the margins. The method of DMADDM–NAg–NACP incorporation may have a wide applicability to other adhesives, cements and composites. PMID:23583528

  2. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to...

  3. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  4. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  5. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to...

  6. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  7. 36 CFR 1192.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Sleeping compartments. 1192.127 Section 1192.127 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to...

  8. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping compartments. 38.127 Section 38.127... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a) Sleeping compartments required to be accessible shall be designed so as to allow a person using...

  9. Effect of charge density of bonding agent containing a new quaternary ammonium methacrylate on antibacterial and bonding properties

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Weir, Michael D.; Chen, Jihua; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Quaternary amine charge density is important because when the negatively-charged bacteria contact the positive quaternary amine charge, the electric balance is disturbed and the bacterium could be disrupted. There has been no report on the effects of charge density on the antibacterial efficacy of dental bonding agents. The objective of this study was to synthesize a new quaternary ammonium methacrylate, and investigate the effects of charge density of bonding agent on bacteria early-attachment, biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) and dentin bond strength. Methods Dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) with an alkyl chain length of 16 was synthesized and mixed into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive and primer (SBMP) at mass fractions of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. A microtensile dentin bond test was performed. The density of quaternary ammonium groups was measured using a fluorescein dye method. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) early-attachment was examined at 4 hours, and biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) were measured at 2 days. Results All groups had similar microtensile bonding strengths (mean ± sd; n = 40) of about 60 MPa (p > 0.1). Quaternary amine charge density of bonding agents monotonically increased with increasing DMAHDM mass fraction. Bacteria early-attachment coverage greatly decreased with increasing DMAHDM content in the resin. Biofilm CFU at 10% DMAHDM was reduced by almost 5 log, compared to SBMP control. Charge density of bonding agent was inversely proportional to bacteria early-attachment coverage and biofilm CFU. Significance Increasing the quaternary amine charge density of dentin bonding agent resin was shown to greatly reduce S. mutans attachment and decrease biofilm CFU by four orders of magnitude, without compromising the dentin bond strength. The new DMAHDM is promising for use in bonding agents and other antibacterial restorative materials to inhibit caries. PMID:24534376

  10. Chronic elevation of phosphocholine containing lipids in mice exposed to Gulf War agents pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Laila; Evans, James E; Montague, Hannah; Reed, Jon M; Moser, Ann; Crynen, Gogce; Gonzalez, Ariel; Zakirova, Zuchra; Ross, Ivan; Mullan, Chris; Mullan, Michael; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Crawford, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    For two decades, 25% of the veterans who served in the 1991 Gulf War (GW) have been living with Gulf War Illness (GWI), a chronic multisymptom illness. Evidence suggests that brain structures involved in cognitive function may be affected in GWI. Gulf War agents such as the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and the pesticide permethrin (PER) are considered key etiogenic factors in GWI. We therefore developed a mouse model of GW agent exposure by co-administering PB and PER and showed that this model exhibits cognitive impairment and anxiety, and increased astrogliosis at chronic post-exposure time-points. Since GW agents inhibit AChE, we hypothesized that PB+PER exposure will modulate phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM), which are reservoirs of phosphocholine required for endogenous ACh synthesis. Lipidomic analyses showed that PC and SM were elevated in the brains of exposed compared to control mice. Brain ether PC (ePC) species were increased but lyso-platelet activating factors (lyso-PAF) that are products of ePC were decreased in exposed animals compared to controls. Catalase expression (a marker for peroxisomes) was increased in GW agent exposed mice compared to controls. Ether PC and lyso-PAF modulation was also evident in the plasma of GW agent exposed mice compared to controls. These studies suggest peroxisomal and lysosomal dysfunction in the brain at a chronic post-exposure timepoint following GW agent exposure. Our studies provide a new direction for GWI research, which will be useful for developing suitable therapies for treating GWI.

  11. Antibacterial properties of a self-cured acrylic resin composed of a polymer coated with a silver-containing organic composite antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Kiriyama, Takashi; Kuroki, Kenjiro; Sasaki, Keisuke; Tomino, Masahumi; Asakura, Masaki; Kominami, Yoshiko; Takahashi, Yoshihumi; Kawai, Tatsushi

    2013-01-01

    A novel antibacterial polymer, coated with a silver-containing organic composite antibacterial agent, was dispersed in a self-cured acrylic resin. Residual viable cell count of each oral bacterial and fungal species cultivated on acrylic resin specimens containing the antibacterial polymer was significantly decreased when compared to those cultivated on specimens prepared from untreated polymer. A strong inverse correlation was found between the amount of eluted silver ions and the residual viable cell count of all species grown on the antibacterial polymer: the lower the viable cell count, the higher the amount of eluted silver ions. This clearly indicated the antibacterial activity of silver ions. As the content of organic composite antibacterial agent added to the polymer increased from 0.5% to 1.5% in 0.5% increments, amount of eluted silver ions significantly increased with each 0.5% increment to exert greater antibacterial effect.

  12. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. E.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Large-scale aircraft lavatory and cargo compartment fire tests are described. Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these compartments to contain fire and smoke. Two tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1 involved a production Boeing 747 lavatory of the latest design installed in an enclosure outside the aircraft, to collect gases and expose animals to these gases. Results indicate that the interior of the lavatory was completely burned, evolving smoke and combustion products in the enclosure. Test 2 involved a simulated Douglas DC-10 cargo compartment retro-fitted with standard fiberglass liner. The fire caused excessive damage to the liner and burned through the ceiling in two areas. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed.

  13. 46 CFR 32.70-20 - Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pump-engine compartment-TB/ALL. 32.70-20 Section 32.70..., 1936 § 32.70-20 Pump-engine compartment—TB/ALL. No cofferdam will be required between a cargo tank and a compartment containing pumping engines and their auxiliaries which are used exclusively...

  14. EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND PROPOSED REHABILITATION GUIDELINES FOLLOWING SURGICAL RELEASE

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little published information regarding postoperative management of patients with Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS). Reports of recurrence of symptoms following surgical decompression exist, and are not uncommon depending on the specific technique used. Recurrence suggests that more time and effort may need to be spent on implementing strategic post-operative rehabilitation management in order to avoid repeat surgical intervention or prolonged symptoms. Objective: To summarize relevant literature regarding CECS and propose scientifically-based guidelines for rehab following compartment release with the rationale based on tissue healing, muscle loading, and scar tissue formation and consideration of all tissues contained in the involved compartment. Literature review: A literature search was performed in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PEDRO, and Google Scholar using the phrase: “chronic exertional compartment syndrome.” Results: No specific rehabilitation guidelines following surgical compartment release for lower extremity CECS were found in the literature search performed for this clinical commentary. Discussion: The development of the proposed post-operative guidelines may allow for improved long-term outcomes following anterior compartment release. Summary: Adequate description of long-term follow-up of outcomes following compartment release for CECS is lacking in current literature. The proposed guidelines for rehab following compartment release include consideration of tissue healing, muscle loading, scar tissue formation, and consideration of soft tissues contained in the involved compartment. Utilization of the proposed guidelines may allow for future research to be performed in order to assess outcomes following surgical intervention for CECS. PMID:21713230

  15. [Fascia compartment syndrome of the iliac-psoas compartment].

    PubMed

    Klammer, A

    1983-01-01

    The iliacus compression syndrome has a kind of exceptional position--as to genesis, development and therapy--in comparison with the other compartment-compression syndromes of the limbs. Indeed there exist similar pathophysiological, rules, but the special anatomic facts enlarge the etiological, differential-diagnostic and therapeutic spectrum. Thus, concerning the frequency of causes, not the trauma but the spontaneous bleeding in coagulation disturbances takes the first place, and unusual causes, such as rupturing aortic aneurysms, have to be included in the differential diagnostic discussion. The finest diagnostic sign besides pain is the palsy of the Nervus Femoralis. As to the treatment, operative measures are possible. The exact knowledge of the anatomy is important for the understanding of the specialties mentioned above.

  16. Size and CT density of iodine-containing ethosomal vesicles obtained by membrane extrusion: potential for use as CT contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Na, Bomin; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Bumsang

    2013-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is the primary non-invasive imaging technique used for most patients with suspected liver disease. In order to improve liver-specific imaging properties and prevent toxic effects in patients with compromised renal function, we investigated the encapsulation of iodine within ethosomal vesicles. As a first step in the development of novel contrast agents using ethosomes for CT imaging applications, iodine was entrapped within ethosomes and iodine-containing ethosomes of the desired size were obtained by extrusion using a polycarbonate membrane with a defined pore size. Ethosomes containing iodine showed a relatively high CT density, which decreased when they were extruded, due to the rupture and re-formation of the lipid bilayer of the ethosome. However, when a solution with a high iodine concentration was used as a dispersion media during the extrusion process, the decrease in CT density could be prevented. In addition, ethosomes containing iodine were taken up efficiently by macrophages, which are abundant in the liver, and these ethosomes exhibited no cellular toxicity. These results demonstrate that iodine could be entrapped within ethosomal vesicles, giving the ethosomes a relatively high CT density, and that the extrusion technique used in this study could conveniently and reproducibly produce ethosomal vesicles with a desired size. Therefore, ethosomes containing iodine, as prepared in this study, have potential as contrast agents with applications in CT imaging.

  17. Influence of container design on predation rate of potential biocontrol agent, Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) against dengue vector.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, N; Zuharah, W F

    2014-03-01

    Toxorhynchites splendens larvae are a natural predator of dengue vector mosquito larvae, Aedes albopictus. This study was carried out to evaluate the predation rate of Tx. splendens third instar larvae on Ae. albopictus larvae in 24 h. Each predator was offered prey at a density between 10 to 50 individuals. Predation rate of Tx. splendens were also tested with two manipulated factors; various types of container and different water volumes. The experiment was evaluated in man-made containers (tin cans, plastic drinking glasses and rubber tires) and natural container (bamboo stumps) which were filled with different water volumes (full, half full, 1/4 full, and 1/8 full). The prey density and the characteristics of the container were found as significant factors which influence the predation rate of Tx. splendens. The predator consumed significantly more prey at higher prey densities (40 and 50 preys) compared to the lowest density (10 preys) (F=3.935, df=4, p=0.008). The results showed significantly higher consumption in horizontal shaped container of rubber tire than in vertical shape of bamboo stumps (F=3.100, df=3, p=0.029). However, the water volume had no significant effect on predation rate of Tx. splendens (F=1.736, df=3, p=0.162). We generally suggest that Tx. splendens is best to be released in discarded tires or any other containers with horizontal shape design with wide opening since Tx. splendens can become more effective in searching prey in this type of container design. This predator is also a suitable biocontrol candidates to be introduced either in wet and dry seasons in Malaysia.

  18. 76 FR 44246 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Overhead Flight Attendant Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... minute quantities of flammable fluids (e.g., finger nail polish and aerosol hairspray) that would pose no... requirements were developed. This requirement originated from a concern that a fire in an unoccupied overhead... agent originating in the OFAR compartment from entering any other compartment occupied by crewmembers...

  19. Anatomical compartments of the parasellar region: adipose tissue bodies represent intracranial continuations of extracranial spaces

    PubMed Central

    WENINGER, WOLFGANG J.; STREICHER, JOHANNES; MÜLLER, GERD B.

    1997-01-01

    The cavernous sinus is traditionally described as a single anatomical compartment that contains cranial nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. A detailed analysis of 45 infant and 4 fetal parasellar regions shows that this view must be modified. The spatial arrangement, the topographic relations, and the expansion of the adipose and connective tissue spaces were analysed and reconstructed 3-dimensionally on a computer. It is shown that 3 different anatomical compartments, which are strictly demarcated by connective tissue, compose the parasellar region of infants. Two represent intracranial continuations of extracranial tissue spaces. The 3rd compartment corresponds to the so-called ‘cavernous sinus’ of the adult. Each of the 3 compartments contains characteristic adipose tissue bodies. Because the cavernous sinus represents only one compartment of the area, we propose to use the term ‘parasellar region’ to designate the entire anatomical region on either side of the sella turcica. PMID:9306202

  20. Preliminary investigation of topical nitroglycerin formulations containing natural wound healing agent in diabetes-induced foot ulcer.

    PubMed

    Hotkar, Mukesh S; Avachat, Amelia M; Bhosale, Sagar S; Oswal, Yogesh M

    2015-04-01

    Nitroglycerin (NTG) is an organic nitrate rapidly denitrated by enzymes to release free radical nitric oxide and shows improved wound healing and tissue protection from oxidative damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether topical application of NTG in the form of gel/ointment along with a natural wound healing agent, aloe vera, would bring about wound healing by using diabetes-induced foot ulcer model and rat excision wound model. All these formulations were evaluated for pH, viscosity, drug content and ex vivo diffusion studies using rat skin. Based on ex vivo permeation studies, the formulation consisting of carbopol 974p as a gelling agent and aloe vera was found to be suitable. The in vivo study used streptozotocin-induced diabetic foot ulcer and rat excision wound models to analyse wound healing activity. The wound size in animals of all treated groups was significantly reduced compared with that of the diabetic control and marketed treated animals. This study showed that the gel formed with carbopol 974p (1%) and aloe vera promotes significant wound healing and closure in diabetic rats compared with the commercial product and provides a promising product to be used in diabetes-induced foot ulcer.

  1. Sequence preferences of DNA interstrand crosslinking agents: quantitation of interstrand crosslink locations in DNA duplex fragments containing multiple crosslinkable sites.

    PubMed Central

    Millard, J T; Weidner, M F; Kirchner, J J; Ribeiro, S; Hopkins, P B

    1991-01-01

    A general approach to the quantitative study of the sequence specificity of DNA interstrand crosslinking agents in synthetic duplex DNA fragments is described. In the first step, a DNA fragment previously treated with an interstrand crosslinking agent is subjected to denaturing PAGE. Not only does this distinguish crosslinked from native or monoadducted DNA, it is shown herein that isomeric crosslinked DNAs differing in position of the crosslink can in some cases be separated. In the second stage, the now fractionated crosslinked DNAs isolated from denaturing PAGE are subjected to fragmentation using iron(II)/EDTA. For those fractions which are structurally homogeneous, analysis of the resulting fragment distribution has previously been shown to reveal the crosslink position at nucleotide resolution. It is shown herein that in fractions which are structurally heterogeneous due to differences in position of crosslink, this analysis quantifies the relative extent of crosslinking at distinct sites. Using this method it is shown that reductively activated mitomycin C crosslinks the duplex sequences 5'-GCGC and 5'-TCGA with 3 +/- 1:1 relative efficiency. Images PMID:1903204

  2. Independent Active Contraction of Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Demer, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscle (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, whereas all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. Mechanical independence between both types of compartments has been demonstrated during passive tensile loading. We examined coupling between EOM compartments during active, ex vivo contraction. Methods. Fresh bovine EOMs were removed, and one compartment of each was coated with hydrophobic petrolatum. Contraction of the uncoated compartment was induced by immersion in a solution of 50 mM CaCl2 at 38°C labeled with sodium fluorescein dye, whereas tensions in both compartments were monitored by strain gauges. Control experiments omitted petrolatum so that the entire EOM contracted. After physiological experiments, EOMs were sectioned transversely to demonstrate specificity of CaCl2 permeation by yellow fluorescence dye excited by blue light. Results. In control experiments without petrolatum, both transverse and GL and OL compartments contracted similarly. Selective compartmental omission of petrolatum caused markedly independent compartmental contraction whether measured at the GL or the OL insertions or for transverse compartments at the scleral insertion. Although some CaCl2 spread occurred, mean (±SD) tension in the coated compartments averaged only 10.5 ± 3.3% and 6.0 ± 1.5% in GL/OL and transverse compartments, respectively relative to uncoated compartments. Fluorescein penetration confirmed selective CaCl2 permeation. Conclusions. These data confirm passive tensile findings of mechanical independence of EOM compartments and extend results to active contraction. EOMs behave actively as if composed of mechanically independent parallel fiber bundles having different insertional targets, consistent with the active pulley and transverse compartmental hypotheses. PMID:25503460

  3. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    K. Intra- abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of ruptured abdomi- nal aortic aneurysm repair. Am Surg 1989;55:396-402. 6. Sugrue M...00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After Hip Arthroscopy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Author’s personal copy Case Report Abdominal Compartment Syndrome After

  4. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture.

    PubMed

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; Dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; Dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome.

  5. Lysosome-like compartments of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes may originate directly from epimastigote reservosomes.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Juliana C; Alcantara, Carolina DE L; DE Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-E-Silva, Narcisa L

    2017-01-12

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote reservosomes store nutrients taken up during the intense endocytic activity exhibited by this developmental form. Reservosomes were classified as pre-lysosomal compartments. In contrast, trypomastigote forms are not able to take up nutrients from the medium. Interestingly, trypomastigotes also have acidic organelles with the same proteases contained in epimastigote reservosomes. Nevertheless, the origin and function of these organelles have not been disclosed so far. Given the similarities between the compartments of epimastigotes and trypomastigotes, the present study aimed to investigate the origin of metacyclic trypomastigote protease-containing organelles by tracking fluorospheres or colloidal gold particles previously stored in epimastigotes' reservosomes throughout metacyclogenesis. Using three-dimensional reconstruction of serial electron microscopy images, it was possible to find trypomastigote compartments containing the tracer. Our observations demonstrate that the protease-containing compartments from metacyclic trypomastigotes may originate directly from the reservosomes of epimastigotes.

  6. Production and characterization of cosmetic nanoemulsions containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill extract as moisturizing agent.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Renato Cesar de Azevedo; Barreto, Stella Maria de Andrade Gomes; Ostrosky, Elissa Aarantes; da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra; Ferrari, Márcio

    2015-02-02

    This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX) and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica MILL extract (FXE) were white, homogeneus and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5-6.0); droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI) around 0.200 and a zeta potential from -26.71 to -47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  7. Multimodal delivery of irinotecan from microparticles with two distinct compartments.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Sahar; Park, Tae-Hong; Dishman, Acacia Frances; Lahann, Joerg

    2013-11-28

    In the last several decades, research in the field of drug delivery has been challenged with the fabrication of carrier systems engineered to deliver therapeutics to the target site with sustained and controlled release kinetics. Herein, we report the fabrication of microparticles composed of two distinct compartments: i) one compartment containing a pH responsive polymer, acetal-modified dextran, and PLGA (polylactide-co-glycolide), and ii) one compartment composed entirely of PLGA. We demonstrate the complete release of dextran from the microparticles during a 10-hour period in an acidic pH environment and the complete degradation of one compartment in less than 24h. This is in congruence with the stability of the same microparticles in neutral pH over the 24-hour period. Such microparticles can be used as pH responsive carrier systems for drug delivery applications where their cargo will only be released when the optimum pH window is reached. The feasibility of the microparticle system for such an application was confirmed by encapsulating a cancer therapeutic, irinotecan, in the compartment containing the acetal-modified dextran polymer and the pH dependent release over a 5-day period was studied. It was found that upon pH change to an acidic environment, over 50% of the drug was first released at a rapid rate for 10h, similar to that observed for the dextran release, before continuing at a more controlled rate for 4 days. As such, these microparticles can play an important role in the fabrication of novel drug delivery systems due to the selective, controlled, and pH responsive release of their encapsulated therapeutics.

  8. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... piping from the weather deck. The ducts or piping must be arranged and supported to safely sustain stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the supporting structure. Prior to installing ventilation for the engines, plans or sketches showing the...

  9. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... piping from the weather deck. The ducts or piping must be arranged and supported to safely sustain stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the supporting structure. Prior to installing ventilation for the engines, plans or sketches showing the...

  10. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... piping from the weather deck. The ducts or piping must be arranged and supported to safely sustain stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the supporting structure. Prior to installing ventilation for the engines, plans or sketches showing the...

  11. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... piping from the weather deck. The ducts or piping must be arranged and supported to safely sustain stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the supporting structure. Prior to installing ventilation for the engines, plans or sketches showing the...

  12. 46 CFR 169.625 - Compartments containing diesel machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... piping from the weather deck. The ducts or piping must be arranged and supported to safely sustain stresses induced by weight and engine vibration and to minimize transfer of vibration to the supporting structure. Prior to installing ventilation for the engines, plans or sketches showing the...

  13. Design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of novel dehydroabietic acid derivatives containing a dipeptide moiety as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Chao; Jin, Le; Wang, Meng; Liang, Dong; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Zhang, Ye; Pan, Ying-Ming; Wang, Heng-Shan

    2015-01-07

    A series of novel dehydroabietic acid (DHA) chiral dipeptide derivatives were designed and synthesized as potent antitumor agents. The inhibitory activities of these compounds against NCI-H460 (lung), HeLa (epithelial cervical) and MGC-803 (gastric) human cancer cell lines were estimated by MTT assay in vitro. The antitumor activities screening indicated that many compounds showed moderate to high levels of antitumor activities against these three cancer cell lines and most of these compounds displayed more potent inhibitory activities compared with commercial anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The induction of apoptosis and affects on the cell cycle distribution with compound 8k were investigated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst 33258 staining, JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential staining, TUNEL assay, flow cytometry and the activities of caspase-3 and -9 assay in Hela cells, which exhibited that the compound could induce cell apoptosis in Hela cells. In addition, further investigation showed that apoptosis were associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhancement of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and intracellular ROS production, elevation of Bax expression, down-regulation of Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-9 and -3.

  14. Gas Generation and Hold-Up in Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Process Streams Containing Anti-Foam Agent (AFA)

    SciTech Connect

    Arm, Stuart T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Stewart, Charles W.; Meyer, Perry A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2007-06-29

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify defense wastes stored at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Some of the WTP process streams are slurries that exhibit non-Newtonian rheological behavior. Such streams can accumulate hazardous quantities of thermally and radiolytically generated flammable gases. Experiments were performed in a bubble column to measure gas hold-up under various conditions to better understand flammable gas behavior in WTP processes. The two non-Newtonian slurries tested were kaolin-bentonite clay and a chemical surrogate of pretreated high-level waste (HLW) from Hanford Tank AZ-101. The addition of solutes, whether a salt or anti-foaming agent (AFA) decrease the bubble coalescence rate leading to smaller bubbles, lower bubble rise velocity and higher gas holdup. Gas holdup decreased with increasing yield stress and consistency. The impact of AFA on gas holdup in kaolin-bentonite clay was less than in simulated HLW, presumably because the AFA adsorbed onto the clay particles, rendering it unavailable to retard coalescence.

  15. Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun`s CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1.1). EC is now shipping MLS+ 3.0 for DEC Alpha platforms. Relatively new entries in the market include Loral B1/CMW for IBM RS/6000 platforms and a SecureWare-based CMW for HP platforms (HP-UX 10.09). With all these choices it is time for a comparative analysis of the features offered by the various vendors. The authors have three of the above five CMW systems plus HP-UX BLS 9.09, which is a multilevel secure operating system (OS) targeted at the B1 level but not a CMW. Each is unique in sometimes obvious, sometimes subtle ways, a situation that requires knowing and keeping straight a variety of commands to do the same thing on each system. Some vendors offer extensive GUI tools for system administration; some require entering command-line commands for certain system administration tasks. They examine the differences in system installation, system administration, and system operating among the systems. They look at trusted networking among the various systems and differences in the network databases and label encodings files. They examine the user interface on the various systems from logging in to logging out.

  16. The effect of activated dimethicone and a proprietary antacid preparation containing this agent on the absorption of phenytoin.

    PubMed

    McElnay, J C; Uprichard, G; Collier, P S

    1982-04-01

    1 The bioavailabilty of phenytoin sodium (Epanutin both alone and in combination with activated dimethicone and Asilone (a proprietary antacid preparation containing activated dimethicone) was examined in six healthy male volunteers. 2 The bioavailability of phenytoin when given concomitantly with Asilone was decreased in five of six volunteer subjects (by greater than 30% in three subjects) although this decrease was not shown to be statistically significant. 3 Dimethicone, which has been shown to decrease phenytoin absorption in vitro did not affect phenytoin bioavailability in vivo. 4 It is recommended that when treating patients stabilised on phenytoin one should exercise caution with concomitant phenytoin and antacid therapy to guard against possible changed drug absorption.

  17. Mass transport of heavy metal ions and radon in gels used as sealing agents in containment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lakatos, I.; Bauer, K.; Lakatos-Szabo, J.; Kretzschmar, H.J.

    1997-12-31

    The diffusion and hydrodynamic mass transport of multivalent cations, mostly Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ions and radon in polymer/silicate gels and Montanwax emulsions were studied. It was concluded that the self-conforming gels may decrease the hydrodynamic mass transport in porous and fractured media by 4-6 orders of magnitude. In water saturated systems, however, the diffusion transport can be restricted by hydrogels only to a moderate extent. On the other hand, the high and selective retention capacity of gels towards different diffusing species may open new vistas in the sealing technologies. Similar results were obtained for transport phenomena of radon. The almost perfect quenching process of radon and its nuclides in gels and emulsions further enhances the positive effects of the encapsulation methods. The laboratory experiments provided valuable new information to design the different containment technologies.

  18. [Advances in the development of new antitubercular agents from a group of 5-membered heterocyclic compounds containing various heteroatoms].

    PubMed

    Waisser, K; Drhová, L

    1999-09-01

    Tuberculosis and other antimycobacterial diseases are considered to be one of the most important problems of the health service at present. Since 1985, and in particular in the 1990s, a search for new structures of antimycobacterial substances has ranked among the prior fields of chemotherapeutic research. The present review paper links up with the previous communications, and surveys the studies carried out in the field of five-membered heterocyclic compounds containing more heteroatoms since 1984. The most frequently investigated field is thiazole derivatives but the most successful papers originated in the group of oxazoles, where effective antituberculotics for clinical use can be expected in the future. The present research is based on the journal Chemical Abstracts and original papers.

  19. Organic and conventional fruits and vegetables contain equivalent counts of Gram-negative bacteria expressing resistance to antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Ruimy, Raymond; Brisabois, Anne; Bernede, Claire; Skurnik, David; Barnat, Saïda; Arlet, Guillaume; Momcilovic, Sonia; Elbaz, Sandrine; Moury, Frédérique; Vibet, Marie-Anne; Courvalin, Patrice; Guillemot, Didier; Andremont, Antoine

    2010-03-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is a major public health problem which might culminate in outbreaks caused by pathogenic bacteria untreatable by known antibiotics. Most of the genes conferring resistance are acquired horizontally from already resistant commensal or environmental bacteria. Food contamination by resistant bacteria might be a significant source of resistance genes for human bacteria but has never been precisely assessed, nor is it known whether organic products differ in this respect from conventionally produced products. We showed here, on a large year-long constructed sample set containing 399 products that, irrespective of their mode of production, raw fruits and vegetables are heavily contaminated by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) resistant to multiple antibiotics. Most of these bacteria originate in the soil and environment. We focused on non-oxidative GNB resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, because of their potential impact on human health. Among them, species potentially pathogenic for immunocompetent hosts were rare. Of the products tested, 13% carried bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, all identified as Rahnella sp. which grouped into two phylotypes and all carrying the bla(RAHN) gene. Thus, both organic and conventional fruits and vegetables may constitute significant sources of resistant bacteria and of resistance genes.

  20. A tannin-blocking agent does not modify the preference of sheep towards tannin-containing plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orduño, G; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Capetillo-Leal, C M; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Alonso-Díaz, M A

    2015-06-01

    Sheep have been suggested to use their senses to perceive plant properties and associate their intake with consequences after ingestion. However, sheep with browsing experience do not seem to select against tannin-rich browsing materials in cafeteria trials. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition, selectivity index (SI), preference and intake rate (IR) of tannin-containing forage trees offered to sheep in cafeteria experiments. Four trees were selected for their condensed tannin content and their varying biological activities. Havardia albicans (high biological activity), Leucaena leucocephala (medium biological activity), Acacia gaumeri (low biological activity) and Brosimum alicastrum (very low biological activity) were used in this study. Ten hair sheep (23.7kg±1.43LW) with eight months of browsing experience in native vegetation were used in this study. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 3600MW) was administered to five sheep during all experiments. In experiment 1, fresh foliage from all trees was offered ad libitum for 4h. In experiment 2, B. alicastrum was withdrawn and the preference was determined again. The forage preference in experiment 1 was A. gaumeri (14.77gDM/kgLW)>B. alicastrum (11.77gDM/kgLW)>H. albicans (3.71gDM/kgLW)=L. leucocephala (1.87gDM/kgLW) (P<0.05). The preference in experiment 2 was A. gaumeri>H. albicans=L. leucocephala. PEG administration had no effect on the preference or IR. The intake rate seemed to have been affected by the plant density. Moreover, fiber compounds were found to be better predictors of DM intake than polyphenolic compounds at levels typically found in the evaluated forages. It was concluded that tannins and PEG did not modify the preferences of sheep in cafeteria trials. Thus, tannins are not involved in the preference regulation of animals with browsing experience.

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Nanoemulsion Containing Ursolic Acid: a Promising Trypanocidal Agent : Nanoemulsion with Ursolic Acid Against T. cruzi.

    PubMed

    Vargas de Oliveira, Erika Cristina; Carneiro, Zumira Aparecida; de Albuquerque, Sérgio; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2017-02-21

    Over a hundred years after the discovery of Chagas disease, this ailment continues to affect thousands of people. For more than 40 years, only two drugs have been available to treat it. Ursolic acid is a naturally occurring terpene that has shown a good trypanocidal action. However, the hydrophobicity of this compound presents a challenge for the development of proper delivery systems. Nanostructured systems are a prominent in delivering lipophilic drugs. Thus, a nanoemulsion containing ursolic acid was developed and had its trypanocidal activity and cytotoxicity evaluated. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) system were used in the development. The system was stable throughout 90 days of testing, as evidenced by turbidimetry analysis and measurements of the droplet size (57.3 nm) and polydispersity index (0.24). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry evidenced drug's integrity in the formulation. An in vitro dissolution profile showed 75% of ursolic acid release after 5 min from the nanoemulsion into the alkaline dissolution medium, while only 20% could be released from a physical mixture after 2 h. Trypanocidal activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated on the CL Brener strain and LLC-MK2 (monkey kidney) fibroblast by chlorophenol red-β-D-galactoside (CPRG) method. Biological studies showed that the developed formulation was nontoxic and effective against replicant forms of the parasite. A stable and efficient nanoemulsion could be developed to improve the delivery of a promising drug to treat a threatening illness such as Chagas disease.

  2. Influence of calcium-induced aggregation on the sensitivity of aminobis(methylenephosphonate)-containing potential MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Henig, Jörg; Mamedov, Ilgar; Fouskova, Petra; Tóth, Éva; Logothetis, Nikos K; Angelovski, Goran; Mayer, Hermann A

    2011-07-18

    A novel class of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-tris(methylenecarboxylic) acid (DO3A)-based lanthanide complexes with relaxometric response to Ca(2+) was synthesized, and their physicochemical properties were investigated. Four macrocyclic ligands containing an alkyl-aminobis(methylenephosphonate) side chain for Ca(2+)-chelation have been studied (alkyl is propyl, butyl, pentyl, and hexyl for L(1), L(2), L(3), and L(4), respectively). Upon addition of Ca(2+), the r(1) relaxivity of their Gd(3+) complexes decreased up to 61% of the initial value for the best compounds GdL(3) and GdL(4). The relaxivity of the complexes was concentration dependent (it decreases with increasing concentration). Diffusion NMR studies on the Y(3+) analogues evidenced the formation of agglomerates at higher concentrations; the aggregation becomes even more important in the presence of Ca(2+). (31)P NMR experiments on EuL(1) and EuL(4) indicated the coordination of a phosphonate to the Ln(3+) for the ligand with a propyl chain, while phosphonate coordination was not observed for the analogue bearing a hexyl linker. Potentiometric titrations yielded protonation constants of the Gd(3+) complexes. log K(H1) values for all complexes lie between 6.12 and 7.11 whereas log K(H2) values are between 4.61 and 5.87. Luminescence emission spectra recorded on the Eu(3+) complexes confirmed the coordination of a phosphonate group to the Ln(3+) center in EuL(1). Luminescence lifetime measurements showed that Ca-induced agglomeration reduces the hydration number which is the main cause for the change in r(1). Variable temperature (17)O NMR experiments evidenced high water exchange rates on GdL(1), GdL(2), and GdL(3) comparable to that of the aqua ion.

  3. Interference by metabolites and the corresponding troubleshooting during the LC-MS/MS bioanalysis of G004, a bromine-containing hypoglycemic agent.

    PubMed

    Hu, Linlin; Ding, Li; Li, Xiaobing; Zhou, Na; Zhong, Shuisheng; Wu, Guanzhong; Zhang, Huibin

    2012-06-15

    The quantitative determination of drugs in bio-samples may be interfered by the drug-related metabolites during the high-throughput LC-MS/MS analysis. When quantifying bromine or chlorine containing compounds, the ⁸¹Br/³⁷Cl isotopic forms of their mono-hydroxylated metabolites after in-source dehydration could produce ions which are isobaric with the precursor ions of the parent compounds at the ⁷⁹Br/³⁵Cl isotopic form. In this report, we described the identification of an interfering hydroxylated metabolite of G004, a novel bromine-containing hypoglycemic agent, during LC-MS/MS analysis of plasma samples. Several different MRM transitions were tested and evaluated to minimize the metabolite influence on the quantification of G004. Furthermore, the standard addition method using incurred samples was used to evaluate the matrix effect caused by the interfering metabolite. The lower limit of quantitation of the established method was 0.2 ng/ml, which was 10 times lower than the existing one. The method was successfully applied to investigate the single-dosing pharmacokinetic profile of G004 in beagle dogs. The above results indicated that when quantifying chlorine or bromine containing compounds, evaluation of the interference from mono-hydroxylation or dehydrogenation metabolites should be undertaken, and if such metabolites existed, their impact on quantification of the parent compounds could be eliminated by the proper selection of the MRM transitions.

  4. 49 CFR 38.127 - Sleeping compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.127 Sleeping compartments. (a...., heating and air conditioning controls, lighting controls, call buttons, electrical outlets, etc.) shall...

  5. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  6. [Advances in the development of new antitubercular agents from orthocondensed heterocyclic compounds. Part 3. Substances containing several types of heteroatoms in the six-membered ring].

    PubMed

    Waisser, K; Bures, O; Holý, P

    2001-11-01

    Tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases are considered to be one of the most important problems of contemporary health service. Since 1985 and particularly in the 1990s and at present the search for new structures of antimycobacterial agents have ranked among the foremost areas of chemotherapeutic research. The present review paper is already the 18th communication in a group of review papers about substances with antituberculotic effects, and the third, final, communication devoted in this series about the development of new antimycobacterial agents to ortho-condensed heterocyclic compounds in recent 15 years. The classification of ortho-condensed compounds is based on six-membered heterocyclic substructural fragments and the present study deals with the substructural fragments containing a greater number of different heteroatoms. The literature search is based on the journal Chemical Abstracts, Current Awareness in Biomedicine, part Mycobacteria, and original papers. Current Awareness in Biomedicine is, however, a very imperfect literature search source, recording only a fraction of communications. Review papers about five-membered heterocyclic antituberculotic ortho-condensed compounds was published in the present journal in 1999.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new boron-containing chlorin derivatives as agents for both photodynamic therapy and boron neutron capture therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Asano, Ryuji; Nagami, Amon; Fukumoto, Yuki; Miura, Kaori; Yazama, Futoshi; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakata, Isao; Tai, Akihiro

    2014-03-01

    New boron-containing chlorin derivatives 9 and 13 as agents for both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer were synthesized from photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (2) and L-4-boronophenylalanine-related compounds. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of 9 and 13 were investigated in tumor-bearing mice. The time to maximum accumulation of compound 13 in tumor tissue was one-fourth of that of compound 9, and compound 13 showed rapid clearance from normal tissues within 24h after injection. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of PDT using 13 was evaluated by measuring tumor growth rates in tumor-bearing mice with 660 nm light-emitting diode irradiation at 3h after injection of 13. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by PDT using 13. These results suggested that 13 might be a good candidate for both PDT and BNCT of cancer.

  8. A scintigraphic investigation of the disintegration behaviour of capsules in fasting subjects: a comparison of hypromellose capsules containing carrageenan as a gelling agent and standard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Tuleu, C; Khela, M K; Evans, D F; Jones, B E; Nagata, S; Basit, A W

    2007-03-01

    Two-piece hard shell capsules made from hypromellose (or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC) have been proposed as an alternative to conventional gelatin capsules for oral drug delivery; however, little is known about their in vivo behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the disintegration of HPMC and gelatin capsules in fasted human subjects using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. HPMC capsules containing carrageenan as a gelling agent (QUALI-V(R), Qualicaps) and gelatin capsules (Qualicaps) of size 0 were filled with a lactose-based mixture. The capsules were separately radiolabelled with indium-111 and technetium-99m. Both capsules were administered simultaneously with 180ml water to eight healthy male subjects following an overnight fast. Each volunteer was positioned in front of the gamma camera and sequential 60s images were acquired in a continuous manner for 30min. No differences in the oesophageal transit of the two types of capsules were noted, with the capsules arriving in the stomach in a matter of seconds. All the capsules disintegrated in the stomach. The mean (+/-S.D.) disintegration time for the HPMC capsules was 9+/-2min (range 6-11min). The corresponding mean time for the gelatin capsules was 7+/-4min (range 3-13min). These disintegration times were not significantly different (P=0.108, paired t-test). In conclusion, HPMC and gelatin capsules show rapid and comparable in vivo disintegration times in the fasted state. HPMC capsules containing carrageenan as a gelling agent therefore offer a practical alternative to gelatin capsules as an oral drug delivery carrier.

  9. Evaluation and comparison of the microhardness of enamel after bleaching with fluoride free and fluoride containing carbamide peroxide bleaching agents and post bleaching anticay application: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    George, Liza; Baby, Allu; Dhanapal, T. Prasanth; Charlie, K. M.; Joseph, Asha; Varghese, Anjum Anna

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the microhardness of enamel after the application of anticay on bleached enamel with fluoride containing and fluoride free bleaching agent. Materials and Methods: Twenty freshly extracted teeth decoronated and divided mesiodistally into two halves were randomly divided into five groups with 10 samples in each group. The enamel surface was treated as follows: Group 1 - no treatment, Group 2 - fluoride free bleaching agent, Group 3 - fluoride containing bleaching agent, and Group 4 - fluoride free bleaching agent followed by anticay application. The samples were subjected to indentation to test the microhardness using Vicker's hardness analyzer. Conclusion: Enamel microhardness significantly increased in samples where anticay was used after the application of bleaching agent. PMID:26604568

  10. Anatomic Landmarks for the First Dorsal Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Hazani, Ron; Engineer, Nitin J.; Cooney, Damon; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Knowledge of anatomic landmarks for the first dorsal compartment can assist clinicians with management of de Quervain's disease. The radial styloid, the scaphoid tubercle, and Lister's tubercle can be used as superficial landmarks for the first dorsal compartment. Methods: Thirty-two cadaveric wrists were dissected, and measurements were taken from the predetermined landmarks to the extensor retinaculum. The compartments were also inspected for variability of the abductor pollicis longus tendon and intracompartmental septations. Results: The average length of the extensor retinaculum from its proximal to distal extent measured approximately 2.2 cm. The distal aspect of the radial styloid was 0.3 cm distal to the distal aspect of the extensor retinaculum, and the distance between the distal aspect of the extensor retinaculum and the APL-Lister's-Scaphoid juncture was approximately 0.5 cm. A separate compartment for the extensor pollicis brevis was noted in 35% of the specimens. The abductor pollicis longus tendon demonstrated great variability with 1, 2, 3, or 4 slips in 9%, 30%, 43%, or 26% of the specimens, respectively. Conclusion: The superficial bony prominences of the radial wrist can be used reliably as anatomic landmarks for the first dorsal compartment. PMID:19092992

  11. In Vitro Selectivity of an Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril Molecular Container towards Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Relative to Commonly Used Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ganapati, Shweta; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Eikermann, Matthias; Isaacs, Lyle

    2015-01-01

    An acyclic cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) based molecular container (2, a.k.a. Calabadion 2) binds to both amino-steroidal and benzylisoquinolinium type neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in vitro, and reverses the effect of these drugs in vivo displaying faster recovery times than placebo and the γ-cyclodextrin (CD) based and clinically used reversal agent Sugammadex. In this study we have assessed the potential for other drugs commonly used during and after surgery (e.g. antibiotics, antihistamines, and antiarrhythmics) to interfere with the ability of 2 to bind NMBAs rocuronium and cisatracurium in vitro. We measured the binding affinities (Ka, M−1) of twenty seven commonly used drugs towards 2 and simulated the equilibrium between 2, NMBA, and drug based on their standard clinical dosages to calculate the equilibrium concentration of 2•NMBA in the presence of the various drugs. We found that none of the 27 drugs studied possess the combination of a high enough binding affinity with 2 and a high enough standard dosage to be able to promote the competitive dissociation (a.k.a. displacement interactions) of the 2•NMBA complex with the formation of the 2•drug complex. Finally, we used the simulations to explore how the potential for displacement interactions is affected by a number of factors including the Ka of the 2•NMBA complex, the Ka of the AChR•NMBA complex, the Ka of the 2•drug complex, and the dosage of the drug. PMID:26648135

  12. Evaluation of the Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Wet and Dry Enamel Using Dentin Bonding Agents Containing Various Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Ramarao, Sathyanarayanan; John, Bindu Meera; Rajesh, Praveen; Swatha, S

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Bonding of composite resin to dentin mandates a wet substrate whereas, enamel should be dry. This may not be easily achievable in intracoronal preparations where enamel and dentin are closely placed to each other. Therefore, Dentin Bonding Agents (DBA) are recommended for enamel and dentinal bonding, where enamel is also left moist. A research question was raised if the “enamel-only” preparations will also benefit from wet enamel bonding and contemporary DBA. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strengths of composite resin, bonded to dry and wet enamel using fifth generation DBA (etch and rinse system) containing various solvents such as ethanol/water, acetone and ethanol. Materials and Methods The crowns of 120 maxillary premolars were split into buccal and lingual halves. They were randomly allocated into four groups of DBA: Group 1-water/ethanol based, Group 2-acetone based, Group 3-ethanol based, Group 4-universal bonding agent (control group). The buccal halves and lingual halves were bonded using the wet bonding and dry bonding technique respectively. After application of the DBAs and composite resin build up, shear bond strength testing was done. Results Group 1 (ethanol/water based ESPE 3M, Adper Single Bond) showed highest bond strength of (23.15 MPa) in dry enamel. Group 2 (acetone based Denstply, Prime and Bond NT, showed equal bond strength in wet and dry enamel condition (18.87 MPa and 18.02 MPa respectively). Conclusion Dry enamel bonding and ethanol/water based etch and rinse DBA can be recommended for “enamel-only” tooth preparations. PMID:28274042

  13. High-Content Imaging Reveals Expansion of the Endosomal Compartment during Coxiella burnetii Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Charles L.; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of human Q fever. Replication of the bacterium within a large parasitophorous vacuole (PV) resembling a host phagolysosome is required for pathogenesis. PV biogenesis is a pathogen driven process that requires engagement of several host cell vesicular trafficking pathways to acquire vacuole components. The goal of this study was to determine if infection by C. burnetii modulates endolysosomal flux to potentially benefit PV formation. HeLa cells, infected with C. burnetii or left uninfected, were incubated with fluorescent transferrin (Tf) for 0–30 min, and the amount of Tf internalized by cells quantitated by high-content imaging. At 3 and 5 days, but not 1 day post-infection, the maximal amounts of fluorescent Tf internalized by infected cells were significantly greater than uninfected cells. The rates of Tf uptake and recycling were the same for infected and uninfected cells; however, residual Tf persisted in EEA.1 positive compartments adjacent to large PV after 30 min of recycling in the absence of labeled Tf. On average, C. burnetii-infected cells contained significantly more CD63-positive endosomes than uninfected cells. In contrast, cells containing large vacuoles generated by Chlamydia trachomatis exhibited increased rates of Tf internalization without increased CD63 expression. Our results suggest that C. burnetii infection expands the endosomal system to increase capacity for endocytic material. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the power of high-content imaging for measurement of cellular responses to infection by intracellular pathogens. PMID:28293541

  14. [The perichromatin compartment of the cell nucleus].

    PubMed

    Bogoliubov, D S

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the data on the structure and composition of the perichromatin compartment, a special border area between the condensed chromatin and the interchromatin space of the cell nucleus, are discussed in the light of the concept of nuclear functions in complex nuclear architectonics. Morphological features, molecular composition and functions of main extrachromosomal structures of the perichromatin compartment, perichromatin fibrils (PFs) and perichromatin granules (PGs) including nuclear stress-bodies (nSBs) that are derivates of the PGs under heat shock, are presented. A special attention was paid to the features of the molecular compositions of PFs and PGs in different cell types and at different physiological conditions.

  15. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. B.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A program of experimental fires has been carried out to assess fire containment and other fire hazards in lavatory and cargo compartments of wide-body jet aircraft by evaluation of ignition time, burn-through time, fire spread rate, smoke density, evolution of selected combustible and toxic gases, heat flux, and detector response. Two tests were conducted: one involving a standard Boeing 747 lavatory and one involving a simulated DC-10 cargo compartment. A production lavatory module was furnished with conventional materials and was installed in an enclosure. The ignition load was four polyethylene bags containing paper and plastic waste materials representive of a maximum flight cabin waste load. Standard aircraft ventilation conditions were utilized and the lavatory door was closed during the test. Lavatory wall and ceiling panels contained the fire spread during the 30-minute test. Smoke was driven into the enclosure primarily through the ventilation grille in the door and through the gaps between the bifold door and the jamb where the door distorted from the heat earlier in the test. The interior of the lavatory was almost completely destroyed by the fire.

  16. Cross-institute evaluations of inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for direct testing of aerosol and blood samples containing biological warfare agent DNA.

    PubMed

    Minogue, Timothy D; Rachwal, Phillip A; Trombley Hall, Adrienne; Koehler, Jeffery W; Weller, Simon A

    2014-02-01

    Rapid pathogen detection is crucial for the timely introduction of therapeutics. Two groups (one in the United Kingdom and one in the United States) independently evaluated inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for the direct testing of substrates. In the United Kingdom, a multiplexed Bacillus anthracis (target) and Bacillus subtilis (internal-control) PCR was used to evaluate 4 reagents against 5 PCR inhibitors and down-selected the TaqMan Fast Virus 1-Step master mix (Life Technologies Inc.). In the United States, four real-time PCR assays (targeting B. anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV], and Orthopoxvirus spp.) were used to evaluate 5 reagents (plus the Fast Virus master mix) against buffer, blood, and soil samples and down-selected the KAPA Blood Direct master mix (KAPA Biosystems Inc.) with added Platinum Taq (Life Technologies). The down-selected reagents underwent further testing. In the United Kingdom experiments, both reagents were tested against seven contrived aerosol collector samples containing B. anthracis Ames DNA and B. subtilis spores from a commercial formulation (BioBall). In PCR assays with reaction mixtures containing 40% crude sample, an airfield-collected sample induced inhibition of the B. subtilis PCR with the KAPA reagent and complete failure of both PCRs with the Fast Virus reagent. However, both reagents allowed successful PCR for all other samples-which inhibited PCRs with a non-inhibitor-resistant reagent. In the United States, a cross-assay limit-of-detection (LoD) study in blood was conducted. The KAPA Blood Direct reagent allowed the detection of agent DNA (by four PCRs) at higher concentrations of blood in the reaction mixture (2.5%) than the Fast Virus reagent (0.5%), although LoDs differed between assays and reagent combinations. Across both groups, the KAPA Blood Direct reagent was determined to be the optimal reagent for inhibition relief in PCR.

  17. An AS1411 aptamer-conjugated liposomal system containing a bubble-generating agent for tumor-specific chemotherapy that overcomes multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zi-Xian; Chuang, Er-Yuan; Lin, Chia-Chen; Ho, Yi-Cheng; Lin, Kun-Ju; Cheng, Po-Yuan; Chen, Ko-Jie; Wei, Hao-Ji; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2015-06-28

    Recent research in chemotherapy has prioritized overcoming the multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells. In this work, liposomes that contain doxorubicin (DOX) and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC, a bubble-generating agent) are prepared and functionalized with an antinucleolin aptamer (AS1411 liposomes) to target DOX-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR), which overexpress nucleolin receptors. Free DOX and liposomes without functionalization with AS1411 (plain liposomes) were used as controls. The results of molecular dynamic simulations suggest that AS1411 functionalization may promote the affinity and specific binding of liposomes to the nucleolin receptors, enhancing their subsequent uptake by tumor cells, whereas plain liposomes enter cells with difficulty. Upon mild heating, the decomposition of ABC that is encapsulated in the liposomes enables the immediate activation of generation of CO2 bubbles, creating permeable defects in their lipid bilayers, and ultimately facilitating the swift intracellular release of DOX. In vivo studies in nude mice that bear tumors demonstrate that the active targeting of AS1411 liposomes can substantially increase the accumulation of DOX in the tumor tissues relative to free DOX or passively targeted plain liposomes, inhibiting tumor growth and reducing systemic side effects, including cardiotoxicity. The above findings indicate that liposomes that are functionalized with AS1411 represent an attractive therapeutic alternative for overcoming the MDR effect, and support a potentially effective strategy for cancer therapy.

  18. Effects of different cyclodextrins on the morphology, loading and release properties of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide)-microparticles containing the hypnotic agent etizolam.

    PubMed

    Lopedota, A; Cutrignelli, A; Trapani, A; Boghetich, G; Denora, N; Laquintana, V; Trapani, G; Liso, G

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the feasibility of using microparticles (MPs) constituted by the biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and a number of cyclodextrins (CDs) as an orally sustained delivery system of the hypnotic agent etizolam (ETZ). A further aim of the work was to investigate the effects of different CDs on the morphology, loading, and release properties of the MPs prepared. For these purposes, ETZ alone, and ETZ/CD-PLGA loaded MPs were prepared by the W/O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method. It was found that the release of ETZ in vitro was more prolonged over three days with a kinetic constant proportional to t(1/2). It was also demonstrated that the CDs in these MPs are able to modulate several properties such as morphology, drug loading, and release properties. In fact, marked differences in shape, surface, and encapsulation efficiencies were noted depending on the presence, hydrophilicity, and charge of the CD employed. The obtained results induce us to consider the present ETZ-containing formulations as new valuable tools for the treatment of different insomnia categories.

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some new 1,4-dihydropyridines containing different ester substitute and diethyl carbamoyl group as anti-tubercular agents.

    PubMed

    Khoshneviszadeh, Mehdi; Edraki, Najmeh; Javidnia, Katayoun; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Pourabbas, Bahman; Mardaneh, Jalal; Miri, Ramin

    2009-02-15

    Tuberculosis is a leading infectious cause of death worldwide. Because of the concern of the resistance to most of the commonly used drugs displayed by the considered mycobacteria, most efforts have been done to introduce new anti-tubercular agents. Recent studies showed that 1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbamoyl derivatives with lipophilic groups have significant anti-tubercular activity. In this study, we synthesized new derivatives of 1,4-dihydropyridines in which different alkyl and aryl esters and diethyl carbamoyl are substituted in C-3 and C-5 of the DHP ring. In addition nitroimidazole ring is substitutes at C-4 position. These asymmetric analogues were synthesized by a modified Hantzsh reaction using procedure reported by Meyer. The in vitro anti-tubercular activity of compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated. The results indicate that the compounds containing aromatic esters are more potent than alkyl ones. The most potent aromatic compound (R=3-phenylpropyl) exhibits comparable anti-tubercular activity (MIC=1 micromol/ml) with reference compound isoniazide (INH) (MIC=1 micromol/ml). Conformational analysis, SAR studies of these compounds showed that increasing in lipophilicity and rotable bonds of these compounds resulted in increasing anti-tubercular activity.

  20. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Taype Zamboni, Danilo E. R.; Carabelli, Guido S.; Barla, Jorge D.; Sancineto, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death. PMID:27579205

  1. Architectural properties of the neuromuscular compartments in selected forearm skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Liu, An-Tang; Liu, Ben-Li; Lu, Li-Xuan; Chen, Gang; Yu, Da-Zhi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Rong; Dang, Rui-Shan; Jiang, Hua

    2014-07-01

    The purposes f this study were to (i) explore the possibility of splitting the selected forearm muscles into separate compartments in human subjects; (ii) quantify the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment; and (iii) discuss the implication of these properties in split tendon transfer procedures. Twenty upper limbs from 10 fresh human cadavers were used in this study. Ten limbs of five cadavers were used for intramuscular nerve study by modified Sihler's staining technique, which confirmed the neuromuscular compartments. The other 10 limbs were included for architectural analysis of neuromuscular compartments. The architectural features of the compartments including muscle weight, muscle length, fiber length, pennation angle, and sarcomere length were determined. Physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Five of the selected forearm muscles were ideal candidates for splitting, including flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radials, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator teres. The humeral head of pronator teres contained the longest fiber length (6.23 ± 0.31 cm), and the radial compartment of extensor carpi ulnaris contained the shortest (2.90 ± 0.28 cm). The ulnar compartment of flexor carpi ulnaris had the largest physiological cross-sectional area (5.17 ± 0.59 cm(2)), and the ulnar head of pronator teres had the smallest (0.67 ± 0.06 cm(2)). Fiber length/muscle length ratios of the neuromuscular compartments were relatively low (average 0.27 ± 0.09, range 0.18-0.39) except for the ulnar head of pronator teres, which had the highest one (0.72 ± 0.05). Using modified Sihler's technique, this research demonstrated that each compartment of these selected forearm muscles has its own neurovascular supply after being split along its central tendon. Data of the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment provide insight into the 'design' of their

  2. Extraocular Muscle Compartments in Superior Oblique Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Soh Youn; Clark, Robert A.; Le, Alan; Demer, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate changes in volumes of extraocular muscle (EOM) compartments in unilateral superior oblique (SO) palsy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods High-resolution, surface-coil MRI was obtained in 19 patients with unilateral SO palsy and 19 age-matched orthotropic control subjects. Rectus EOMs and the SO were divided into two anatomic compartments for volume analysis in patients with unilateral SO palsy, allowing comparison of total compartmental volumes versus controls. Medial and lateral compartmental volumes of the SO muscle were compared in patients with isotropic (round shape) versus anisotropic (elongated shape) SO atrophy. Results The medial and lateral compartments of the ipsilesional SO muscles were equally atrophic in isotropic SO palsy, whereas the lateral compartment was significantly smaller than the medial in anisotropic SO palsy (P = 0.01). In contrast to the SO, there were no differential compartmental volume changes in rectus EOMs; however, there was significant total muscle hypertrophy in the ipsilesional inferior rectus (IR) and lateral rectus (LR) muscles and contralesional superior rectus (SR) muscles. Medial rectus (MR) volume was normal both ipsi- and contralesionally. Conclusions A subset of patients with SO palsy exhibit selective atrophy of the lateral, predominantly vertically acting SO compartment. Superior oblique atrophy is associated with whole-muscle volume changes in the ipsilesional IR, ipsilesional LR, and contralesional SR; however, SO muscle atrophy is not associated with compartmentally selective volume changes in the rectus EOMs. Selective compartmental SO pathology may provide an anatomic mechanism that explains some of the variability in clinical presentations of SO palsy. PMID:27768791

  3. Acute exertional anterior compartment syndrome in an adolescent female.

    PubMed

    Fehlandt, A; Micheli, L

    1995-01-01

    Acute compartment syndromes usually occur as a complication of major trauma. While the chronic exertional anterior tibial compartment syndrome is well described in the sports medicine literature, reports of acute tibial compartment syndromes due to physical exertion, or repetitive microtrauma, are rare. The case of an adolescent female who developed an acute anterior compartment syndrome from running in a soccer game is described in this report. Failure to recognize the onset of an acute exertional compartment syndrome may lead to treatment delay and serious complications. Whereas the chronic exertional anterior compartment syndrome is characterized by pain that diminishes with the cessation of exercise, the onset of the acute exertional anterior compartment syndrome is heralded by pain that continues, or increases, after exercise has stopped. Compartment pressure measurement confirms the clinical diagnosis and helps guide treatment. True compartment syndromes require urgent fasciotomy.

  4. Uptake of heavy metals to the extracellular and intracellular compartments in three species of aquatic bryophyte.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M D; López, J; Carballeira, A

    1999-09-01

    Shoot tips of Fontinalis antipyretica, Scapania undulata, and Fissidens polyphyllus were maintained for 60 min with solutions containing 0, 1, 10, 50, 100, or 200 ppm of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, or Zn. A sequential extraction procedure was then used to estimate the amounts of the corresponding metal, and of K and Mg, in the extracellular compartment (extraction with NiCl(2) or EDTA), the intracellular compartment (subsequent extraction with cold dilute HNO(3)), and the particulate fraction (subsequent extraction with hot concentrated HNO(3)). In most cases more metal was taken up to the extracellular compartment than to the intracellular compartment, while particulate-fraction content was negligible. The relationship between metal concentration in the water and metal content in the extracellular compartment was well modeled with a Michaelis-Menten-type equation. Results suggest that in S. undulata extracellular cation-binding sites have a high metal affinity, while in F. polyphyllus it is relatively low. However, postincubation intracellular contents were highest in the latter species. The ranking of the six metals by amounts taken up into the intracellular compartment was the same for all three bryophyte species. Uptake of heavy metals led to considerable losses of intracellular K (probably due to effects on plasma membrane properties), and of extracellular Mg (probably due to displacement from cation-binding sites). Losses of intracellular K were most marked in S. undulata, followed by F. antipyretica. By contrast, S. undulata was the species from which losses of extracellular Mg were lowest.

  5. Comparison of 2-PAM and pro-2-PAM containing treatment regimens as antagonists of nerve agent-induced lethality and incapacitation. Final report, June 1981-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, B.G.; Harris, L.W.; Lennox, W.J.; Anderson, D.A.; Green, M.D.

    1986-09-01

    In vivo, (2-Puridine Aldoxine Methioidide) reactivates phosphonylated acetylcholinesterase AChE peripherally, but is effective in restoring AChE centrally because the quaternary nitrogen atom of 2-PAM prevents penetration of the brain. The problem was solved by the synthesis of the 1,6-dihyropyridine derivative of 2-PAM, pro-2-PAM (PP). Functional brain AChE is related to return to control performance on an accelerating rotarod (ARR) in animals intoxicated with soman. There should be a difference in the time to recovery of control ARR performance between PP- and 2-PAM-treated, sarin-intoxicated animals. In the present work, an ARR decrement free dosage (DFD) of each of these oximes (30 mg/kg, im) in combination with DFD of atropine (A) and mecamylamine (M) (0.79 mg/kg each, im) was used as pretreatment against sarin-induced deficit. The same antidotes were given pre-and post- intoxication (as pretreatment and therapy) to anatagonize sarin-induced lethality; the PP containing antidote provided significantly greater protection than that by the 2-PAM antidote which in turn provided significant protection over control. Neither antidote when given as pretreatment and therapy provided protection above control against soman-induced physical incapacitation, but they were equally effective in antagonizing VX-induced physical incapacitation. The reversal of sarin-induced physical debilitation reflects the central actions of PP and supports the notion that functional brain AChE activity is essential for rapid recovery from the debilitating effeclts on nerve agents.

  6. Wipe selection for the analysis of surface materials containing chemical warfare agent nitrogen mustard degradation products by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Willison, Stuart A

    2012-12-28

    Degradation products arising from nitrogen mustard chemical warfare agent were deposited on common urban surfaces and determined via surface wiping, wipe extraction, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry detection. Wipes investigated included cotton gauze, glass fiber filter, non-woven polyester fiber and filter paper, and surfaces included several porous (vinyl tile, painted drywall, wood) and mostly non-porous (laminate, galvanized steel, glass) surfaces. Wipe extracts were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) and compared with high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) results. An evaluation of both techniques suggests UPLC–MS/MS provides a quick and sensitive analysis of targeted degradation products in addition to being nearly four times faster than a single HPLC run, allowing for greater throughput during a wide-spread release concerning large-scale contamination and subsequent remediation events. Based on the overall performance of all tested wipes, filter paper wipes were selected over other wipes because they did not contain interferences or native species (TEA and DEA) associated with the target analytes, resulting in high percent recoveries and low background levels during sample analysis. Other wipes, including cotton gauze, would require a pre-cleaning step due to the presence of large quantities of native species or interferences of the targeted analytes. Percent recoveries obtained from a laminate surface were 47–99% for all nitrogen mustard degradation products. The resulting detection limits achieved from wipes were 0.2 ng/cm(2) for triethanolamine (TEA), 0.03 ng/cm(2) for N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), 0.1 ng/cm(2) for N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 0.1 ng/cm(2) for diethanolamine (DEA).

  7. Upper extremity acute compartment syndrome during tissue plasminogen activator therapy for pulmonary embolism in a morbidly obese patient

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Serkan; Duymus, Tahir Mutlu; Mutlu, Serhat; Ketenci, Ismail Emre; Ulusoy, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are more frequently observed in morbidly obese patients. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a thrombolytic agent which dissolves the thrombus more rapidly than conventional heparin therapy and reduces the mortality and morbidity rates associated with PE. Compartment syndrome is a well-known and documented complication of thrombolytic treatment. In awake, oriented and cooperative patients, the diagnosis of compartment syndrome is made based on clinical findings including swelling, tautness, irrational and continuous pain, altered sensation, and severe pain due to passive stretching. These clinical findings may not be able to be adequately assessed in unconscious patients. Presentation of case In this case report, we present compartment syndrome observed, for which fasciotomy was performed on the upper right extremity of a 46-year old morbidly obese, conscious female patient who was receiving tPA due to a massive pulmonary embolism. Discussion Compartment syndrome had occurred due to the damage caused by the repeated unsuccessful catheterisation attempts to the brachial artery and the accompanying tPA treatment. Thus, the bleeding that occurred in the volar compartment of the forearm and the anterior compartment of the arm led to acute compartment syndrome (ACS). After relaxation was brought about in the volar compartment of the forearm and the anterior compartment of the arm, the circulation in the limb was restored. Conclusion As soon as the diagnosis of compartment syndrome is made, an emergency fasciotomy should be performed. Close follow-up is required to avoid wound healing problems after the fasciotomy. PMID:25618841

  8. Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, E.; Malbrain, M.; Nesbitt, I.; Cohen, J.; Kaloiani, V.; Ivatury, R.; Mone, M.; Debergh, D.; Björck, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of decompressive laparotomy on outcomes in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome has been poorly investigated. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to describe the effect of decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome on organ function and outcomes. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients who underwent decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. The primary endpoints were 28‐day and 1‐year all‐cause mortality. Changes in intra‐abdominal pressure (IAP) and organ function, and laparotomy‐related morbidity were secondary endpoints. Results Thirty‐three patients were included in the study (20 men). Twenty‐seven patients were surgical admissions treated for abdominal conditions. The median (i.q.r.) Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 26 (20–32). Median IAP was 23 (21–27) mmHg before decompressive laparotomy, decreasing to 12 (9–15), 13 (8–17), 12 (9–15) and 12 (9–14) mmHg after 2, 6, 24 and 72 h. Decompressive laparotomy significantly improved oxygenation and urinary output. Survivors showed improvement in organ function scores, but non‐survivors did not. Fourteen complications related to the procedure developed in eight of the 33 patients. The abdomen could be closed primarily in 18 patients. The overall 28‐day mortality rate was 36 per cent (12 of 33), which increased to 55 per cent (18 patients) at 1 year. Non‐survivors were no different from survivors, except that they tended to be older and on mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Decompressive laparotomy reduced IAP and had an immediate effect on organ function. It should be considered in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome. PMID:26891380

  9. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids­ amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA;232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root­ soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with incre

  10. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.787 Cargo and baggage compartments. (a) Each cargo and baggage compartment must be...

  11. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.787 Cargo and baggage compartments. (a) Each cargo and baggage compartment must be...

  12. Characterization of a Novel Prevacuolar Compartment in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Draskovic, Marija; Schnittker, Robert R.; El-Mellouki, Tarik; Plamann, Michael D.; Sánchez-León, Eddy; Riquelme, Meritxell; Bowman, Emma Jean

    2015-01-01

    Using confocal microscopy, we observed ring-like organelles, similar in size to nuclei, in the hyphal tip of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. These organelles contained a subset of vacuolar proteins. We hypothesize that they are novel prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We examined the locations of several vacuolar enzymes and of fluorescent compounds that target the vacuole. Vacuolar membrane proteins, such as the vacuolar ATPase (VMA-1) and the polyphosphate polymerase (VTC-4), were observed in the PVCs. A pigment produced by adenine auxotrophs, used to visualize vacuoles, also accumulated in PVCs. Soluble enzymes of the vacuolar lumen, alkaline phosphatase and carboxypeptidase Y, were not observed in PVCs. The fluorescent molecule Oregon Green 488 carboxylic acid diacetate, succinimidyl ester (carboxy-DFFDA) accumulated in vacuoles and in a subset of PVCs, suggesting maturation of PVCs from the tip to distal regions. Three of the nine Rab GTPases in N. crassa, RAB-2, RAB-4, and RAB-7, localized to the PVCs. RAB-2 and RAB-4, which have similar amino acid sequences, are present in filamentous fungi but not in yeasts, and no function has previously been reported for these Rab GTPases in fungi. PVCs are highly pleomorphic, producing tubular projections that subsequently become detached. Dynein and dynactin formed globular clusters enclosed inside the lumen of PVCs. The size, structure, dynamic behavior, and protein composition of the PVCs appear to be significantly different from those of the well-studied prevacuolar compartment of yeasts. PMID:26453652

  13. 14 CFR 25.365 - Pressurized compartment loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pressurized compartment loads. 25.365... an engine disintegration; (2) Any opening in any pressurized compartment up to the size Ho in square... small compartment. The size Ho must be computed by the following formula: Ho=PAs where,...

  14. Actin: its cumbersome pilgrimage through cellular compartments

    PubMed Central

    Schleicher, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we follow the history of one of the most abundant, most intensely studied proteins of the eukaryotic cells: actin. We report on hallmarks of its discovery, its structural and functional characterization and localization over time, and point to present days’ knowledge on its position as a member of a large family. We focus on the rather puzzling number of diverse functions as proposed for actin as a dual compartment protein. Finally, we venture on some speculations as to its origin. PMID:18438682

  15. [Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sonne, Morten; Hillingsø, Jens

    2008-02-11

    Intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare conditions with high mortality. IAH is an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) above 12 mmHg and ACS an IAP above 20 mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction. IAP is measured indirectly via the bladder or stomach. Various medical and surgical conditions increase the intraabdominal volume. When the content exceeds the compliance of the abdominal wall, the IAP rises. Increased IAP affects the functioning of the brain, lungs, circulation, kidneys, and bowel. The treatment of ACS is a reduction of IAP.

  16. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  17. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  18. Microbial diversity in different compartments of an aquaponics system.

    PubMed

    Schmautz, Zala; Graber, Andreas; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Goesmann, Alexander; Junge, Ranka; Smits, Theo H M

    2017-01-10

    Aquaponics is a solution for sustainable production of fish and plants in a single semi-closed system, where nutrient-rich water from the aquaculture provides nutrients for plant growth. We examined the microbial communities within an experimental aquaponics system. Whereas the fish feces contained a separate community dominated by bacteria of the genus Cetobacterium, the samples from plant roots, biofilter, and periphyton were more similar to each other, while the communities were more diverse. Detailed examination of the data gave the first indications to functional groups of organisms in the different compartments of the aquaponic system. As other nitrifiers other than members of the genus Nitrospira were only present at low numbers, it was anticipated that Nitrospirae may perform the nitrification process in the biofilm.

  19. Biodistribution of titanium dioxide from biologic compartments.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Tasat, Deborah R; Guglielmotti, María Beatriz; Cabrini, Rómulo Luis

    2008-09-01

    The layer of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) of the implant is chronically exposed to the internal electrolyte milieu in the peri-implant biological compartment. Corrosion results from electrochemical attack and ensuing gradual degradation of the metallic materials and is thus of biological interest when these biomaterials are employed in clinical implantology. Herein we evaluated and compared the chronic effect and the biodistribution of TiO(2) administered subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. We propose that the compartmentalization of titanium in the area of subcutaneous injection would reproduce the biological compartment of the implant and its microenvironment from which metal ions could be released and migrate systemically. Potential TiO(2) deposits were identified and characterized in skin, liver and lung by histological and EDX analyses. After both treatments, the skin, liver, and lungs exhibited histological evidence of TiO(2) deposits. In order to characterize in situ macrophage-like cells, tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained for CD68. Tissue specimens from all organs assayed showed positive staining for anti-macrophage monoclonal antibody CD68 (PGM1). Despite the compartmentalization of titanium within nodular areas in rats treated subcutaneously, systemic migration occurred. We concluded that systemic migration of TiO(2) occurred regardless of the administration route.

  20. Remote detection of pressure compartments. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.; Boyd, N.; Jiao, Z.; Maucione, D.; Kubicheck, S.

    1996-02-01

    A significant portion of the Cretaceous shale section in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB) is anomalously pressured and gas saturated. The top of the anomalously pressured zone is identified by marked increases in sonic transit time, hydrocarbon production index (P.I.), clay diagenesis (smectite to illite), and vitrinite reflectance gradients. The driving mechanism of anomalous pressure development and compartmentalization is the generation and storage of liquid hydrocarbons that subsequently partially react to gas, converting the fluid-flow system to a multiphase regime in which capillarity controls permeability; the result is elevated displacement pressure within the shales. Sandstone reservoirs within this anomalously pressured shale section are subdivided stratigraphically and diagenetically into relatively small, isolated pressure or fluid-flow compartments. The saturation of these compartments with hydrocarbons and the subsequent oil-to-gas reaction causes explusion of a significant portion of the free water, resulting in anomalously pressured gas accumulations characterized by depletion drive. The determination of the position and configuration of the pressure boundary between normal and anomalously pressured regimes and the detection and delineation of porosity/permeability `sweet spots` below this boundary are the two most important elements in exploring for basin center gas in the RMLB.

  1. Subcellular storage compartments of bacteriopheophorbide sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Joerg G.; Dembeck, U.; Hubert, M.; Spengler, Bernhard; Bayer, Rainer; Wagner, Birgit

    1994-03-01

    Fluorescence colocalization with the Golgi specific stain, NBD-ceramide, and the mitochondrial localizing stain, Rhodamine 123, confirmed the earlier assumption that the Golgi apparatus is one of the prominent storage compartments for bacteriopheophorbide esters in OAT 75 SCLC cells and several amelanotic melanoma cell lines (A375, Melur SP18, SkAMel 25). Furthermore, a diffuse staining of mitochondria, of non-structured cytoplasm, and an additional storage in melanine vesicles of the amelanotic melanoma cells suggests further storage compartments with quantitatively different contributions to the phototoxicity of bacteriochlorophyll-derived photosensitizers. Independent observations of early phototoxic effects on microfilamentous networks, enzymatic activities (succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase), and redistribution phenomena following primary uptake of the sensitizers let us assume that only a part of the 108 molecules taken up by a cell contribute directly to phototoxicity. Thus it may be asked if a proper subcellular positioning of only a few sensitizer molecules may have similar phototoxic effects as the huge amounts stored at apparently ineffective sites.

  2. Melasma treatment: A novel approach using a topical agent that contains an anti-estrogen and a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-04-01

    Melasma is an acquired disorder of pigmentation that presents with asymptomatic symmetric darkening of the face. The pathogenesis of this condition is multifactorial and influenced by several factors including female sex hormones, genetic predisposition and ultraviolet light exposure. The management of melasma is usually directed at more than one of the causative etiologic factors and often incorporates a combination of topical agents, with or without the addition of physical modalities. Estrogen and angiogenesis are significant factors in the etiology of melasma. A useful addition to the therapeutic armentarium for treating melasma would include a topical agent that could effect both of these causative factors. Specifically, a topical preparation consisting of an anti-estrogen and a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor would accomplish this goal. Suitable candidates that target estrogen receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor are currently used in medical oncology as systemic antineoplastic agents. The anti-estrogen could be either a selective estrogen receptor modulator (such as tamoxifen or raloxifene) or an aromatase inhibitor (such as anastrozole or letrozole or exemestane). The vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor would be bevacizumab. In conclusion, a novel-topically administered-therapy for melasma would combine an anti-estrogen and a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor.

  3. The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

  4. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  5. Coping with the diagnostic complexities of the compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Karkal, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    This review recognizes that, given the various complexities associated with the condition, no pat answers can be given to fit every patient with the compartment syndrome. The authors first give a definition of the syndrome, together with a brief account of how this self-perpetuating pathologic cycle is triggered. Next, they delineate specific anatomical features of compartments that are likely to be involved, and follow this with an inventory of symptoms and signs to look for in suspected cases. After sorting out the entities that can mimic the compartment syndrome, the authors describe three essential techniques of measuring tissue pressure, which can prove invaluable in diagnosing the compartment syndrome.

  6. Acute exercise-induced bilateral thigh compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boland, Michael R; Heck, Chris

    2009-03-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is rare due to the space's ability to accommodate large volumes of fluid and, with the exception of the lateral septum, its thin compliant linings. This article describes a case of bilateral exercise-induced severe compartment syndrome treated with anterior and posterior fasciotomies. A 29-year-old man was admitted to intensive care with myoglobinuria. His left thigh was evaluated 18 hours later for compartment syndrome. The patient reported that 14 hours prior to initial presentation, he had participated in a 1-hour session of vigorous basketball. He gradually developed bilateral moderately severe thigh pain and tea-colored urine. Physical examination revealed pain secondary to passive stretch of both knees at 20 degrees flexion, plus firm anterior and posterior compartments to palpation. A handheld pressure monitor revealed the following compartment pressures: left anterior 80 mm Hg; left posterior 75 mm Hg; right anterior 45 mm Hg; and right posterior 50 mm Hg. Bilateral emergent anterior and posterior compartment fasciotomies were performed. The patient developed a significant severe distal motor and sensory neurological deficit on the left side, which recovered to 3/5 motor strength and protective sensation. At 6-month follow-up, he ambulated with the assistance of a left ankle foot orthosis. Acute severe compartment syndrome can occur following vigorous exercise. We recommend fasciotomies after exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome rather than initial observation because of the severity of morbidity associated with undertreated compartment syndrome.

  7. Erythrocyte-derived photo-theranostic agents: hybrid nano-vesicles containing indocyanine green for near infrared imaging and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Baharak; Bacon, Danielle; Anvari, Bahman

    2013-01-01

    Development of theranostic nano-constructs may enable diagnosis and treatment of diseases at high spatial resolution. Some key requirements for clinical translation of such constructs are that they must be non-toxic, non-immunogenic, biodegradable, with extended circulating lifetime. Cell-based structures, particularly those derived from erythrocytes, are promising candidate carrier systems to satisfy these requirements. One particular type of theranostic materials utilize light-sensitive agents that once photo-activated can provide diagnostic imaging capability, and elicit therapeutic effects. Here we demonstrate the first successful engineering of hybrid nano-scale constructs derived from membranes of hemoglobin-depleted erythrocytes that encapsulate the near infrared chromophore, indocyanine green. We show the utility of the constructs as photo-theranostic agents in fluorescence imaging and photothermal destruction of human cells. These erythrocyte-mimicking nano-structures can be derived autologously, and may have broad applications in personal nanomedicine ranging from imaging and photo-destruction of cancerous tissues to vascular abnormalities, and longitudinal evaluations of therapeutic interventions. PMID:23846447

  8. Sec61β Controls Sensitivity to Platinum-Containing Chemotherapeutic Agents through Modulation of the Copper-Transporting ATPase ATP7A

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Christopher A.; Manorek, Gerald; Adams, Preston; Howell, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    The Sec61 protein translocon is a multimeric complex that transports proteins across lipid bilayers. We discovered that the Sec61β subunit modulates cellular sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents, particularly the platinum drugs. To investigate the mechanism, expression of Sec61β was constitutively knocked down in 2008 ovarian cancer cells. Sec61β knockdown (KD) resulted in 8-, 16.8-, and 9-fold resistance to cisplatin (cDDP), carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, respectively. Sec61β KD reduced the cellular accumulation of cDDP to 67% of that in parental cells. Baseline copper levels, copper uptake, and copper cytotoxicity were also reduced. Because copper transporters and chaperones regulate platinum drug accumulation and efflux, their expression in 2008 Sec61β-KD cells was analyzed; ATP7A was found to be 2- to 3-fold overexpressed, whereas there was no change in ATP7B, ATOX1, CTR1, or CTR2 levels. Cells lacking ATP7A did not exhibit increased cDDP resistance upon knockdown of Sec61β. Sec61β-KD cells also exhibited altered ATP7A cellular distribution. We conclude that Sec61β modulates the cytotoxicity of many chemotherapeutic agents, with the largest effect being on the platinum drugs. This modulation occurs through effects of Sec61β on the expression and distribution of ATP7A, which was shown previously to control platinum drug sequestration and cytotoxicity. PMID:22710939

  9. Sec61β controls sensitivity to platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agents through modulation of the copper-transporting ATPase ATP7A.

    PubMed

    Abada, Paolo B; Larson, Christopher A; Manorek, Gerald; Adams, Preston; Howell, Stephen B

    2012-09-01

    The Sec61 protein translocon is a multimeric complex that transports proteins across lipid bilayers. We discovered that the Sec61β subunit modulates cellular sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents, particularly the platinum drugs. To investigate the mechanism, expression of Sec61β was constitutively knocked down in 2008 ovarian cancer cells. Sec61β knockdown (KD) resulted in 8-, 16.8-, and 9-fold resistance to cisplatin (cDDP), carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, respectively. Sec61β KD reduced the cellular accumulation of cDDP to 67% of that in parental cells. Baseline copper levels, copper uptake, and copper cytotoxicity were also reduced. Because copper transporters and chaperones regulate platinum drug accumulation and efflux, their expression in 2008 Sec61β-KD cells was analyzed; ATP7A was found to be 2- to 3-fold overexpressed, whereas there was no change in ATP7B, ATOX1, CTR1, or CTR2 levels. Cells lacking ATP7A did not exhibit increased cDDP resistance upon knockdown of Sec61β. Sec61β-KD cells also exhibited altered ATP7A cellular distribution. We conclude that Sec61β modulates the cytotoxicity of many chemotherapeutic agents, with the largest effect being on the platinum drugs. This modulation occurs through effects of Sec61β on the expression and distribution of ATP7A, which was shown previously to control platinum drug sequestration and cytotoxicity.

  10. Reactive extrusion of epsilon-caprolactone polymers and application of poly(lauryl lactam-b-caprolactone) as a compatibilizing agent in blends containing poly(vinyl chloride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byong Jun

    In this dissertation, we investigate the continuous polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone (CL) and copolymerization of CL with epsilon-caprolactam (CA), o-lauryl lactam (LA), and styrene (ST) in a modular intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder. We consider the variables of temperature profile, screw speed, monomer feed rate, the ratio of monomer to initiator, and feeding order of co-monomers on reactive extrusion of CL polymers. Associated with the reactive extrusion of CL, we also perform the engineering analysis of molecular weight increase and shear-induced molecular weight reduction after polymerization of CL during the reactive extrusion process. Specially designed block copolymers have played a role as compatibilizing agents in the system of immiscible polymer blends. We apply the LA-CL block copolymer (P(LA-b-CL)) produced by reactive extrusion as a compatibilizing agent in immiscible polymer blend systems: (i) poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/polyamide 12(PA12), (ii) PVC/polypropylene (PP), and (iii) PVC/maleic anhydride (MA)-modified ethylene-propylene-non-conjugated diene elastomer (MA-EPDM). We investigate the mechanical and thermal properties of (i) PVC/PA12 blend compatibilized with P(LA-b-CL), (ii) PVC/PP blend compatibilized with P(LA-b-CL)/PA12/MA-PP, and (iii) PVC/MA-EPDM blend compatibilized with P(LA-b-CL)/PA12.

  11. Long-term liquid storage and reproductive evaluation of an innovative boar semen extender (Formula12(®)) containing a non-reducing disaccharide and an enzymatic agent.

    PubMed

    Bresciani, Carla; Bianchera, Annalisa; Bettini, Ruggero; Buschini, Annamaria; Marchi, Laura; Cabassi, Clotilde Silvia; Sabbioni, Alberto; Righi, Federico; Mazzoni, Claudio; Parmigiani, Enrico

    2017-02-24

    There are no reports of saccharolytic enzymes being used in the preparation of formulations for animal semen extenders. In the present study, the use of an innovative semen extender (Formula12(®)) in the long-term liquid storage of boar semen at 17°C was evaluated. The formulation included use of a disaccharide (sucrose) as the energy source precursor coupled to an enzymatic agent (invertase). The innovative extender was evaluated and compared in vitro to a commercial extender (Vitasem LD(®)) for the following variables: Total Motility (TM), Forward Progressive Motility (FPM), sperm morphology, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and chromatin instability. Boar sperm diluted in Formula12(®) and stored for 12 days at 17°C maintained a commercially acceptable FPM (>70%). Using the results from the in vitro study, an AI field trial was performed. A total of 170 females were inseminated (135 with Formula12(®) and 35 with Vitasem LD(®)). The pregnancy rates were 97.8% compared with 91.4%, and the farrowing rates were 96.3% compared with 88.6% when Formula12(®) and Vitasem LD(®) were used, respectively. The mean number of piglets born/sow were 14.92±0.46 compared with 13.83±0.70, and the number of piglets born alive/sow were 14.07±0.46 compared with 12.12±0.70 (P<0.05). The results obtained in this study demonstrated that use of the innovative concept to provide a precursor of glucose and fructose as energy sources for an enzymatic agent in an extender allowed for meeting the metabolic requirements of boar sperm during storage at 17°C. It is suggested that there was a beneficial effect on fertilizing capacity of boar sperm in the female reproductive tract with use of these technologies.

  12. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment-apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Natasha M; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents.

  13. Synthesis of spiro[isobenzofuran-1(3H),4'-piperidines] as potential central nervous system agents. 2. Compounds containing a heteroatom attached to nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Klioze, S S; Bauer, V J; Geyer, H M

    1977-04-01

    The synthesis and antitetrabenazine activity of a series of N-heteroatom derivatives of 3-phenylspiro[isobenzofuran-1,4'-piperidines] are reported. Optimal antitetrabenazine activity is associated with compounds containing a sterically unhindered, basic nitrogen. Hydroxylamines 6, 11, 12, and 13 possess the most significant activity with ED50's of 1.4, 3.5, 4.7, and 4.0, respectively.

  14. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  16. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments must.... (d) All other materials used in the construction of the cargo or baggage compartment must meet...

  17. 14 CFR 135.170 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.170 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane... 26, 1984. (c) Thermal/acoustic insulation materials. For transport category airplanes type... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors....

  18. 14 CFR 135.170 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.170 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane... 26, 1984. (c) Thermal/acoustic insulation materials. For transport category airplanes type... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors....

  19. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments must.... (d) All other materials used in the construction of the cargo or baggage compartment must meet...

  20. 14 CFR 135.170 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.170 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) No person may operate an airplane... 26, 1984. (c) Thermal/acoustic insulation materials. For transport category airplanes type... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors....

  1. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments must.... (d) All other materials used in the construction of the cargo or baggage compartment must meet...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1192 - Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. 23... Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1192 Engine accessory compartment diaphragm. For aircooled radial engines, the engine power section and all portions of the exhaust sytem must be isolated from the...

  4. Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh after weight training.

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, J P; Gibbons, C E; Godsiff, S

    1996-01-01

    Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare but serious condition that is normally associated with closed trauma or compressive injury. A case of acute compartment syndrome of the thigh occurred in a 16 year old boy after intensive weight training. There was no evidence of muscle tear or focal haemorrhage during subsequent fasciotomy. PMID:8889126

  5. Spontaneous Compartment Syndrome of the Hand in Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tanagho, Andy; Hatab, Sameh; Youssef, Sally; Ansara, Sameh

    2015-09-01

    Compartment syndrome refers to a condition of compromised circulation within a limited space due to increased pressure within that space. The reduced tissue perfusion results in reduced venous drainage, leading to increased interstitial tissue pressure and subsequent compromised arterial flow. Although not as common as compartment syndrome of the leg and forearm, compartment syndrome of the hand is not rare and can lead to devastating sequelae as a result of tissue necrosis. Compartment syndrome of the hand has several etiologies, including trauma, arterial injury, thermal injury, and constrictive bandaging. The cardinal clinical sign is pain that is aggravated by passive stretching of the muscles within the involved compartments. Extremity function is usually restored with expeditious fasciotomy of the involved myofascial compartments, and complications, such as intrinsic muscular dysfunction and Volkmann's ischemic contracture, can usually be prevented. There are no reported cases of compartment syndrome of the hand in patients with systemic sclerosis or Raynaud's phenomenon. Systemic sclerosis is a form of scleroderma that affects the skin and internal organs. The limited cutaneous subset affects the skin of the extremities but is associated with a set of characteristic features that includes calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia. This report describes an unusual case of a patient who had spontaneous compartment syndrome of the hand. The patient's concomitant limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis may have played a role in this unusual occurrence. The diagnosis was based on the clinical picture, and the symptoms resolved after surgical decompression.

  6. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  7. 14 CFR 25.772 - Pilot compartment doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot compartment doors. 25.772 Section 25... § 25.772 Pilot compartment doors. For an airplane that has a lockable door installed between the pilot... passengers require use of the flightdeck door in order to reach the emergency exits provided for them; and...

  8. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-9 Compartment tanks....

  9. Tin-containing fluoride solutions as anti-erosive agents in enamel: an in vitro tin-uptake, tissue-loss, and scanning electron micrograph study.

    PubMed

    Schlueter, Nadine; Hardt, Martin; Lussi, Adrian; Engelmann, Frank; Klimek, Joachim; Ganss, Carolina

    2009-08-01

    Tin-containing fluoride solutions can reduce erosive tissue loss, but the effects of the reaction between tin and enamel are still not clear. During a 10-d period, enamel specimens were cyclically demineralized (0.05 M citric acid, pH 2.3, 6 x 5 min d(-1)) and remineralized (between the demineralization cycles and overnight). In the negative-control group, no further treatment was performed. Three groups were treated (2 x 2 min d(-1)) with tin-containing fluoride solutions (400, 1,400 or 2,100 ppm Sn2+, all 1,500 ppm F-, pH 4.5). Three additional groups were treated with test solutions twice daily, but without demineralization. Tissue loss was determined profilometrically. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to measure the tin content on and within three layers (10 mum each) beneath the surface. In addition, scanning electron microscopy was conducted. All test preparations significantly reduced tissue loss. Deposition of tin on surfaces was higher without erosion than with erosion, but no incorporation of tin into enamel was found without demineralization. Under erosive conditions, both highly concentrated solutions led to the incorporation of tin up to a depth of 20 mum; the less-concentrated solution led to small amounts of tin in the outer 10 mum. The efficacy of tin-containing solutions seems to depend mainly on the incorporation of tin into enamel.

  10. Clinical comparative study of the effectiveness of and tooth sensitivity to 10% and 20% carbamide peroxide home-use and 35% and 38% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching materials containing desensitizing agents.

    PubMed

    Basting, R T; Amaral, F L B; França, F M G; Flório, F M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of and tooth sensitivity to 10% and 20% carbamide peroxide (CP) home-use bleaching agents and 35% and 38% hydrogen peroxide (HP) in-office bleaching agents, all of which contain desensitizing agents, in a clinical trial. Four agents were evaluated: 10% CP and 20% CP (Opalescence PF 10% and Opalescence PF 20%, Ultradent, both with 0.5% potassium nitrate and 0.11% fluoride ions), 38% HP (Opalescence Boost PF, Ultradent, with 3% potassium nitrate and 1.1% fluoride ions), and 35% HP (Pola Office, SDI, with potassium nitrate). The initial screening procedure included 100 volunteers, aged 18 to 42, with no previous sensitivity or bleaching treatment and with any tooth shade. Volunteers were randomly assigned among the technique/bleaching agent groups. A run-in period was performed 1 week before the beginning of the bleaching treatment. For the home-use bleaching technique, each volunteer was instructed to dispense gel (10% CP or 20% CP) into the trays and then insert them into his or her mouth for at least two hours per night for three weeks. For the in-office bleaching technique, the bleaching agents (38% HP or 35% HP) were prepared and used following the manufacturer's instructions, with three applications performed in each session. Three sessions were carried out with an interval of seven days between each session. The participants were evaluated before, at one week, two weeks, and three weeks after the beginning of the bleaching treatment, and again one and two weeks after the bleaching treatment ended. A shade guide (Vita Classical, Vita) was used by a blinded examiner to perform shade evaluations before bleaching and two weeks after the end of bleaching. At the time of the shade evaluations, tooth sensitivity was also recorded by asking the volunteers to classify the sensitivity during bleaching treatment as absent, mild, moderate, or severe. The present study found that 13.8% of the volunteers withdrew from

  11. Development of Paper, Chemical Agent Detector, 3-Way Liquid Containing Non-Mutagenic Dyes. 2. Replacement of the Blue Indicator Dye Ethyl-bis-(2,4- Dinitrophenyl Acetate (EDA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    OL JU)OY (ý2ýPj 00 (V)~ Oetence nationale DTI DEVELOPIIEnT OF PAPER, CHEMICAL AGENT DETECTOR, 3-WAY LIQUID CONTAINING NON-MUTAGENIC DYES . Hi...REPLACEMENT OF THE BLUE INflICATOR DYE ETH.YL-b is-(2.4-DI NITROPH ENYL) ACETATE IEDA) by D. Thoravala, J.W. Bovenkampb, R.W. Betsa and B.V. Lcroixb...NON-MUTAGENIC DYES . n-REPLACEMENT OF THE BLUE INDICATOR DYE ETHYL-bis-(2,4-DINITROPHENYL) ACETATE (EDA) by D. Thoraval and R.W. Bets Anachemic Canada

  12. An unusual lysosome compartment involved in vitellogenin endocytosis by Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    We have investigated the lysosomal compartment of Xenopus oocytes to determine the possible role of this organelle in the endocytic pathway of the yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin. Oocytes have lysosome-like organelles of unusual enzymatic composition at all stages of their development, and the amount of hydrolase activity increases steadily throughout oogenesis. These unusual lysosomes appear to be located primarily in a peripheral zone of oocyte cytoplasm. At least two distinct populations of lysosomal organelles can be identified after sucrose density gradient fractionation of vitellogenic oocytes. Most enzyme activity resides in a compartment of large size and high density that appears to be a subpopulation of yolk platelets that are less dense than most platelets within the cell. The appearance of this high density peak of lysosomal enzyme activity coincides with the time of onset of vitellogenin endocytosis during oocyte development. The data suggest that endocytic vesicles that contain vitellogenin fuse with modified lysosomes shortly after their internalization by the oocyte. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled vitellogenin suggest that the ligand passes through the low density platelet compartment en route to the heavy platelets. The accumulation of yolk proteins apparently results from a failure of these molecules to undergo complete digestion after their entry into an unusual lysosomal compartment. The yolk platelets that these proteins finally enter for prolonged storage appear to be a postlysosomal organelle. PMID:4055890

  13. Compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression, and the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment-specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment-specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, tobacco mosaic virus). The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g., glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol). Thus this review will reveal the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. PMID:25368627

  14. Ca exchange under non-perfusion-limited conditions in rat ventricular cells: Identification of subcellular compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.A.; Rich, T.L.; Orner, F.B. )

    1990-08-01

    Freshly prepared ventricular myocytes from rat hearts, aliquots of which were tested for sarcolemmal integrity by La exposure, were labeled at high 45Ca specific activity. Isotope was subsequently washed out at a perfusion rate of 2.8 ml/s with washout solution sampled each 1 s. No initial unrecorded period of washout was imposed. Four compartments were distinguishable: (1) a rapid compartment (RC) containing 2.6 mmol Ca/kg dry wt of La-displaceable Ca, half time (t1/2) less than 1 s; (2) an intermediate compartment(s) (IC) containing 2.1 mmol, t1/2 = 3 and 19 s; (3) a slow compartment (SC) containing 1.6 mmol, t1/2 = 3.6 min; (4) an inexchangeable compartment that demonstrated no 45Ca uptake after 60-min labeling containing 1.2 mmol. Introduction of 10 mM caffeine as a probe for sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) content at various times during the washouts caused an increased release of 45Ca. The net increased 45Ca release plotted as a function of time at which caffeine was introduced produced a biexponential curve with t1/2s of 2 and 22 s, very similar to the t1/2s of the IC. Ryanodine (1 microM) significantly reduced the caffeine-induced 45Ca release, confirming the SR locus of the IC. Cells were perfused with 10 mM NaH2PO4 to specifically increase mitochondrial 45Ca labeling. Subsequent removal of PO4 at various times during washouts produced large increases in effluent 45Ca. A plot of the net peak release of 45Ca vs. time of PO4 removal was monoexponential with t1/2 = 3.3 min, very similar to the SC t1/2. The large La-accessible RC remains unlocalized, but the rapidity of its exchange places it in the sarcolemma and/or at sites in rapid equilibrium with the sarcolemma.

  15. Contamination control of the space shuttle Orbiter crew compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartelson, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    Effective contamination control as applied to manned space flight environments is a discipline characterized and controlled by many parameters. An introduction is given to issues involving Orbiter crew compartment contamination control. An effective ground processing contamination control program is an essential building block to a successful shuttle mission. Personnel are required to don cleanroom-grade clothing ensembles before entering the crew compartment and follow cleanroom rules and regulations. Prior to crew compartment entry, materials and equipment must be checked by an orbiter integrity clerk stationed outside the white-room entrance for compliance to program requirements. Analysis and source identification of crew compartment debris studies have been going on for two years. The objective of these studies is to determine and identify particulate generating materials and activities in the crew compartment. Results show a wide spectrum of many different types of materials. When source identification is made, corrective action is implemented to minimize or curtail further contaminate generation.

  16. The synthesis and biological evaluation of new DNA-directed alkylating agents, phenyl N-mustard-4-anilinoquinoline conjugates containing a urea linker.

    PubMed

    Marvania, Bhavin; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Christian, Wilson; Chen, Tai-Lin; Wu, Ming-Hsi; Suman, Sharda; Tala, Kiran; Lee, Te-Chang; Shah, Anamik; Su, Tsann-Long

    2014-08-18

    We synthesized a series of phenyl N-mustard-4-anilinoquinoline conjugates to study their antitumorigenic effects. These agents were prepared by the condensation of 4-[N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl isocyanate with 6-amino-4-methylamino or 4-anilinoquinolines. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed that the C2-methylquinoline derivatives (18a-o) were generally more cytotoxic than the C2-phenylquinoline conjugates (23a-d) in inhibiting the cell growth of various human tumor cell lines in vitro. However, the methylamino or aniline substituents at C4 of quinoline did not influence the cytotoxic effects. The title conjugates were capable of inducing DNA cross-linking and promoting cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. This study demonstrates that phenyl N-mustard-4-anilinoquinoline conjugates are generally more potent than phenyl N-mustard-4-anilinoquinazoline conjugates against the cell growth of various tumor cell-lines.

  17. Compartmentalization and Functionality of Nuclear Disorder: Intrinsic Disorder and Protein-Protein Interactions in Intra-Nuclear Compartments.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanchi; Na, Insung; Kurgan, Lukasz; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-12-25

    The cell nucleus contains a number of membrane-less organelles or intra-nuclear compartments. These compartments are dynamic structures representing liquid-droplet phases which are only slightly denser than the bulk intra-nuclear fluid. They possess different functions, have diverse morphologies, and are typically composed of RNA (or, in some cases, DNA) and proteins. We analyzed 3005 mouse proteins localized in specific intra-nuclear organelles, such as nucleolus, chromatin, Cajal bodies, nuclear speckles, promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, nuclear lamina, nuclear pores, and perinuclear compartment and compared them with ~29,863 non-nuclear proteins from mouse proteome. Our analysis revealed that intrinsic disorder is enriched in the majority of intra-nuclear compartments, except for the nuclear pore and lamina. These compartments are depleted in proteins that lack disordered domains and enriched in proteins that have multiple disordered domains. Moonlighting proteins found in multiple intra-nuclear compartments are more likely to have multiple disordered domains. Protein-protein interaction networks in the intra-nuclear compartments are denser and include more hubs compared to the non-nuclear proteins. Hubs in the intra-nuclear compartments (except for the nuclear pore) are enriched in disorder compared with non-nuclear hubs and non-nuclear proteins. Therefore, our work provides support to the idea of the functional importance of intrinsic disorder in the cell nucleus and shows that many proteins associated with sub-nuclear organelles in nuclei of mouse cells are enriched in disorder. This high level of disorder in the mouse nuclear proteins defines their ability to serve as very promiscuous binders, possessing both large quantities of potential disorder-based interaction sites and the ability of a single such site to be involved in a large number of interactions.

  18. Evaluation of the bioequivalence of tablets and capsules containing the novel anticancer agent R115777 (Zarnestra) in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Crul, M; de Klerk, G J; Swart, M; Weiner, L; Palmer, P A; Bol, C J; Beijnen, J H; Schellens, J H M

    2002-01-01

    R115777 (Zamestra) is a novel anticancer agent, currently undergoing phase III clinical testing. An open, cross-over trial was performed in 24 patients with solid tumors to compare the bioavailability of a new tablet formulation with the standard capsule formulation. Both dosage forms were administered once daily in doses of 300 or 400 mg. Patients received R115777 as a capsule on day I and as a tablet on day 2, or vice versa. Blood samples were drawn up to 24 hours after drug intake and R115777 levels were measured using a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The following pharmacokinetic parameters were determined and compared for the two formulations: time to maximal plasma concentration (Tmax), half-life (t 1/2), maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve at twenty-four hours (AUC24h). For the latter two parameters, 90% classical confidence intervals of the ratio tablet/capsule were calculated after a log-transformation, using an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). For t 1/2 and Tmax, no statistically significant differences were found between tablet and capsule. The point estimates of the ratio's of the log-normalized Cmax and AUC24h were 0.94 and 0.92, respectively, and the 90% confidence intervals were 0.81-1.09 and 0.83-1.03, which is within the critical range for bioequivalence of 0.80-1.25. In conclusion, the established pharmacokinetic parameters demonstrate that the capsule and tablet formulations of R115777 are interchangeable.

  19. Synthesis of bifunctional molecules containing [12]aneN3 and coumarin moieties as effective DNA condensation agents and new non-viral gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Yue, Pan; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Zhi-Fo; Cao, Ao-Cheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Zhai, Yong-Gong

    2015-04-21

    A series of bifunctional molecules with different combinations of macrocyclic polyamine [12]aneN3 and coumarin moieties, 4a/b and 5a/b, were synthesized by a two-step copper(I)-mediated alkyne–azide click reactions between 1,3,5-tris(azidomethyl)benzene and Boc-protected N-propynyl-[12]aneN3/7-propynyloxycoumarins. Agarose gel electrophoresis experiments indicated that bifunctional molecules 4b and 5b effectively induced complete plasmid DNA condensation at concentrations up to 40 μM. It was found that the structural variation had a major impact on the condensation behavior of these compounds. The electrostatic interaction involving the [12]aneN3 moiety can be compensated by the binding contribution of the coumarin units during the DNA condensation process. These two types of interaction showed different effects on the reversibility of DNA condensation. Results from studies using dynamic laser scattering, atomic force microscopy, and EB replacement assay further supported the above conclusion. Cytotoxicity assays on bifunctional compounds 4a/b and 5a/b indicated their low cytotoxicity. Results from cellular uptake and cell transfection experiments proved that bifunctional compounds 4b and 5b successfully served as non-viral gene vectors. Furthermore, methyl substituents attached to the coumarin unit (4b and 5b) greatly enhanced their DNA condensation capability and gene transfection. These bifunctional molecules, with the advantages of lower cytotoxicity, good water solubility, and potential structural modification, will have great potential for the development of new non-viral gene delivery agents.

  20. Prelysosomal Compartments in the Unconventional Secretion of Amyloidogenic Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Borland, Helena; Vilhardt, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    A mechanistic link between neuron-to-neuron transmission of secreted amyloid and propagation of protein malconformation cytopathology and disease has recently been uncovered in animal models. An enormous interest in the unconventional secretion of amyloids from neurons has followed. Amphisomes and late endosomes are the penultimate maturation products of the autophagosomal and endosomal pathways, respectively, and normally fuse with lysosomes for degradation. However, under conditions of perturbed membrane trafficking and/or lysosomal deficiency, prelysosomal compartments may instead fuse with the plasma membrane to release any contained amyloid. After a brief introduction to the endosomal and autophagosomal pathways, we discuss the evidence for autophagosomal secretion (exophagy) of amyloids, with a comparative emphasis on Aβ1–42 and α-synuclein, as luminal and cytosolic amyloids, respectively. The ESCRT-mediated import of cytosolic amyloid into late endosomal exosomes, a known vehicle of transmission of macromolecules between cells, is also reviewed. Finally, mechanisms of lysosomal dysfunction, deficiency, and exocytosis are exemplified in the context of genetically identified risk factors, mainly for Parkinson’s disease. Exocytosis of prelysosomal or lysosomal organelles is a last resort for clearance of cytotoxic material and alleviates cytopathy. However, they also represent a vehicle for the concentration, posttranslational modification, and secretion of amyloid seeds. PMID:28124989

  1. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.

    PubMed

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost

    2014-10-08

    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P₂ into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion.

  2. Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

  3. Stochastic Turing patterns: analysis of compartment-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Erban, Radek

    2014-12-01

    Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  4. Compartment Syndrome of the Calf Due to Nicolau Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Enshaei, Ali; Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Nicolau syndrome in a 15 months old girl following an intramuscular injection of penicillin 6.3.3 in her left buttock. This case is unique because she developed compartment syndrome in her left calf far from her injection site. Her toe’s tips gangrened in the course of her ailment. We hypothesized that the compartment syndrome might be produced by a probable intra-arterial injection that had produced embolic obstruction of the small and medium size arteries in her leg or a probable perineural or periarteial injection had produced secondary sympathetic stimulation, extensive vasospasm, compromised microcirculation and the development of compartment syndrome. PMID:26894227

  5. Compartment Syndrome of the Calf Due to Nicolau Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Enshaei, Ali; Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Nicolau syndrome in a 15 months old girl following an intramuscular injection of penicillin 6.3.3 in her left buttock. This case is unique because she developed compartment syndrome in her left calf far from her injection site. Her toe's tips gangrened in the course of her ailment. We hypothesized that the compartment syndrome might be produced by a probable intra-arterial injection that had produced embolic obstruction of the small and medium size arteries in her leg or a probable perineural or periarteial injection had produced secondary sympathetic stimulation, extensive vasospasm, compromised microcirculation and the development of compartment syndrome.

  6. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole derivatives containing benzimidazole skeleton as potential anticancer and apoptosis inducing agents.

    PubMed

    Reddy, T Srinivasa; Kulhari, Hitesh; Reddy, V Ganga; Bansal, Vipul; Kamal, Ahmed; Shukla, Ravi

    2015-08-28

    A series of forty different pyrazole containing benzimidazole hybrids (6-45) have been designed, synthesized and evaluated for their potential anti-proliferative activity against three human tumor cell lines - lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), and cervical (HeLa). Some of the compounds, specifically 9, 17, and 28, showed potent growth inhibition against all the cell lines tested, with IC50 values in the range of 0.83-1.81 μM. Breast cancer cells were used for further detailed studies to understand the mechanism of cell growth inhibition and apoptosis inducing effect of compounds. The morphology, cell migration and long term clonogenic survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells were severely affected by treatment with these compounds. Flow-cytometry revealed the compounds arrested MCF-7 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle via down regulation of cyclin D2 and CDK2. Fluorescent staining and DNA fragmentation studies showed that cell proliferation was inhibited by induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the compounds led to collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (DΨm) and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were noted. The ease of synthesis and the remarkable biological activities make these compounds promising new frameworks for the development of cancer therapeutics.

  7. (E)-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole derivatives containing O-benzyl oxime moiety as potential immunosuppressive agents: Design, synthesis, molecular docking and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xian-Hai; Li, Qing-Shan; Ren, Zi-Li; Chu, Ming-Jie; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Xin; Xing, Man; Zhu, Hai-Liang; Cao, Hai-Qun

    2016-01-27

    A series of novel (E)-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole derivatives containing O-benzyl oxime moiety were firstly synthesized and their immunosuppressive activities were evaluated. Among all the compounds, 4n exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity (IC50 = 1.18 μM for lymph node cells and IC50 = 0.28 μM for PI3Kγ), which was comparable to that of positive control. Moreover, selected compounds were tested for their inhibitory activities against IL-6 released in ConA-simulated mouse lymph node cells, 4n exhibited the most potent inhibitory ability. Furthermore, in order to study the preliminary mechanism of the compounds with potent inhibitory activity, the RT-PCR experiment was performed to assay the effect of selected compounds on mRNA expression of IL-6. Among them, compound 4n strongly inhibited the expression of IL-6 mRNA.

  8. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives containing diaryl urea moiety as potent antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zijian; Wang, Yu; Lin, Huafang; Zuo, Dazhuang; Wang, Lihui; Zhao, Yanfang; Gong, Ping

    2014-10-06

    Two series of thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives containing diaryl urea moiety were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their biological activity. The preliminary investigation showed that most compounds displayed good to excellent potency against four tested cancer cell lines as compared with GDC-0941 and sorafenib. In particular, the most promising compound 29a showed the most potent antitumor activities with IC50 values of 0.081 μM, 0.058 μM, 0.18 μM, and 0.23 μM against H460, HT-29, MKN-45 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, respectively. The SAR analyses indicated that compounds with mono-halogen groups at 4-position on the terminal phenyl ring were more active than those with double-halogen groups or methyl groups. In addition, the introduction of chlorine atoms into 6,7-position of thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine moiety led to a slight decline, but more selective activity against H460 and HT-29 cell lines.

  9. Silicon-Containing GABA Derivatives, Silagaba Compounds, as Orally Effective Agents for Treating Neuropathic Pain without Central-Nervous-System-Related Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition resulting from neuronal damage. Pregabalin, the (S)-isomer of 3-isobutyl-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is widely used to treat neuropathic pain, despite the occurrence of central nervous system (CNS)-related side effects such as dizziness and somnolence. Here we describe the pharmacology of novel GABA derivatives containing silicon–carbon bonds, silagaba compounds. Silagaba131, 132, and 161 showed pregabalin-like analgesic activities in animal models of neuropathic pain, but in contrast to pregabalin they did not impair neuromuscular coordination in rotarod tests. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that brain exposure to silagaba compounds was lower than that to pregabalin. Surprisingly, despite their potent analgesic action in vivo, silagaba compounds showed only weak binding to α2-δ protein. These compounds may be useful to study mechanisms of neuropathic pain. Our results also indicate that silagaba132 and 161 are candidates for orally effective treatment of neuropathic pain without CNS-related side effects. PMID:24738473

  10. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....510 Rooms and compartments. (a) Processing operations with open cheese vats should be separated from... ingredients supplies or finished products are handled, processed, packaged or stored shall be designed...

  12. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  13. 10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 7 CFR 58.510 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compartments shall be ventilated to maintain sanitary conditions, preclude the growth of mold and air borne... quality and condition of the products. Coolers shall be kept clean, orderly and free from mold,...

  15. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.24 Sealing of conveyances or compartments. (a) Sealing required. Merchandise in...

  16. The pathophysiology, diagnosis and current management of acute compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, James; Haddad, Behrooz; Khan, Wasim S

    2014-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is a surgical emergency warranting prompt evaluation and treatment. It can occur with any elevation in interstitial pressure in a closed osseo-fascial compartment. Resultant ischaemic damage may be irreversible within six hours and can result in long-term morbidity and even death. The diagnosis is largely clinical with the classical description of 'pain out of proportion to the injury'. Compartment pressure monitors can be a helpful adjunct where the diagnosis is in doubt. Initial treatment is with the removal of any constricting dressings or casts, avoiding hypotension and optimizing tissue perfusion by keeping the limb at heart level. If symptoms persist, definitive treatment is necessary with timely surgical decompression of all the involved compartments. This article reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis and current management of ACS.

  17. 2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). Vanadium Corporation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR, SOUTHWEST VIEW (STORAGE COMPARTMENTS). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mine Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  18. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  19. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  20. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  1. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  2. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  3. Compartment pressure monitoring during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Amendola, A; Faber, K; Willits, K; Miniaci, A; Labib, S; Fowler, P

    1999-09-01

    A prospective double blind randomized study was carried out using 20 healthy males with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency undergoing bone-patellar tendon-bone ACL reconstruction. The subjects were randomized into either water or saline irrigation and then underwent identical reconstructive procedures using an arthroscopic pump. Continuous preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative pressures were monitored using the slit catheter technique. Blood pressure and compartment pressure measurements were continuously recorded and noted at all stages of the procedure. Mean preoperative anterior and posterior compartment pressures were similar in both groups. No significant differences were noted between the anterior and posterior compartments of each group. No difference between water and saline irrigation was identified throughout the procedure. In both groups, postoperative pressures were slightly lower in the anterior and posterior compartments compared with preoperative pressures, but not significantly.

  4. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. Dynamics of the Establishment of Multinucleate Compartments in Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shermineh; Beerens, Bas; Manders, Erik M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. Here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in Fusarium oxysporum. Using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that F. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. We observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth rate, possibly acting as a nutrient scout. The higher growth rate is associated with a higher nuclear count and mitotic waves involving 2 to 6 nuclei in the apical compartment. Further, we found that dormant nuclei of intercalary compartments can reenter the mitotic cycle, resulting in multinucleate compartments with up to 18 nuclei in a single compartment. PMID:25398376

  6. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    phocids (Fig. 1). Fig. 1: Relative weight of integument (blubber), bones, muscle, internal organs, connective tissue , and the soft tissue of the...status of animals of the same species and similar age. Fig.2: Mean relative body weight of integument, bones, muscle, organs, connective tissue ...a five-compartment model arranging the tissues in the following compartments [10-12]: blood, brain, fat, muscle (muscle, skin, bone, connective

  7. Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome Based on Tissue Oxygenation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    tissue oxygenation and compartment pressure following tibia fracture, Injury 2013, 44:1076- 1080 8. Cathcart CC, Shuler MS, Freedman BA, Reno LR...Injury, Int. J. Care Injured 44 (2013) 1076– 1080 1077percentage of postoperative CP measurements would meet established warning criteria for compartment...Care Injured 44 (2013) 1076– 1080 1079in one patient. Correlations between PmO2 and CP excluding the first 3 h resulted in Pearson correlation

  8. Contralateral compartment syndrome inoculated by invasive group A streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huiwen; Mcphillips, Sean Thomas; Chundi, Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is a rare but a well-documented complication in patients with trauma-induced group A streptococcus infection. Here, we present a case of a male who developed compartment syndrome on the left lower extremity after an injury inoculated by group A streptococcus on the right lower extremity. The patient was resuscitated with antibiotics, urgent fasciotomy, and immunoglobulin. The patient was eventually transferred to a burn center for further care. PMID:27802865

  9. 14 CFR 27.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... flame-resistant; (b) (c) If smoking is to be prohibited, there must be a placard so stating, and if smoking is to be allowed— (1) There must be an adequate number of self-contained, removable ashtrays; and... one illuminated sign (using either letters or symbols) notifying all passengers when smoking...

  10. 14 CFR 27.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... flame-resistant; (b) (c) If smoking is to be prohibited, there must be a placard so stating, and if smoking is to be allowed— (1) There must be an adequate number of self-contained, removable ashtrays; and... one illuminated sign (using either letters or symbols) notifying all passengers when smoking...

  11. 14 CFR 27.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... flame-resistant; (b) (c) If smoking is to be prohibited, there must be a placard so stating, and if smoking is to be allowed— (1) There must be an adequate number of self-contained, removable ashtrays; and... one illuminated sign (using either letters or symbols) notifying all passengers when smoking...

  12. Differential gene expression in anatomical compartments of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Diehn, Jennifer J; Diehn, Maximilian; Marmor, Michael F; Brown, Patrick O

    2005-01-01

    Background The human eye is composed of multiple compartments, diverse in form, function, and embryologic origin, that work in concert to provide us with our sense of sight. We set out to systematically characterize the global gene expression patterns that specify the distinctive characteristics of the various eye compartments. Results We used DNA microarrays representing approximately 30,000 human genes to analyze gene expression in the cornea, lens, iris, ciliary body, retina, and optic nerve. The distinctive patterns of expression in each compartment could be interpreted in relation to the physiology and cellular composition of each tissue. Notably, the sets of genes selectively expressed in the retina and in the lens were particularly large and diverse. Genes with roles in immune defense, particularly complement components, were expressed at especially high levels in the anterior segment tissues. We also found consistent differences between the gene expression patterns of the macula and peripheral retina, paralleling the differences in cell layer densities between these regions. Based on the hypothesis that genes responsible for diseases that affect a particular eye compartment are likely to be selectively expressed in that compartment, we compared our gene expression signatures with genetic mapping studies to identify candidate genes for diseases affecting the cornea, lens, and retina. Conclusion Through genome-scale gene expression profiling, we were able to discover distinct gene expression 'signatures' for each eye compartment and identified candidate disease genes that can serve as a reference database for investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the eye. PMID:16168081

  13. Modulatory compartments in cortex and local regulation of cholinergic tone.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Jennifer J; Ward, Nicholas J; Jadi, Monika P; Disney, Anita A

    2016-09-01

    Neuromodulatory signaling is generally considered broad in its impact across cortex. However, variations in the characteristics of cortical circuits may introduce regionally-specific responses to diffuse modulatory signals. Features such as patterns of axonal innervation, tissue tortuosity and molecular diffusion, effectiveness of degradation pathways, subcellular receptor localization, and patterns of receptor expression can lead to local modification of modulatory inputs. We propose that modulatory compartments exist in cortex and can be defined by variation in structural features of local circuits. Further, we argue that these compartments are responsible for local regulation of neuromodulatory tone. For the cholinergic system, these modulatory compartments are regions of cortical tissue within which signaling conditions for acetylcholine are relatively uniform, but between which signaling can vary profoundly. In the visual system, evidence for the existence of compartments indicates that cholinergic modulation likely differs across the visual pathway. We argue that the existence of these compartments calls for thinking about cholinergic modulation in terms of finer-grained control of local cortical circuits than is implied by the traditional view of this system as a diffuse modulator. Further, an understanding of modulatory compartments provides an opportunity to better understand and perhaps correct signal modifications that lead to pathological states.

  14. Organic Radical Contrast Agents Based on Polyacetylenes Containing 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine 1-Oxyl (TEMPO): Targeted Magnetic Resonance (MR)/Optical Bimodal Imaging of Folate Receptor Expressing HeLa Tumors in Vitro and in Vivo(a).

    PubMed

    Huang, Lixia; Yan, Chenggong; Cui, Danting; Yan, Yichen; Liu, Xiang; Lu, Xinwei; Tan, Xiangliang; Lu, Xiaodan; Xu, Jun; Xu, Yikai; Liu, Ruiyuan

    2015-06-01

    Nitroxides have great potential as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents for tumor detection. Polyacetylenes(PAs) containing 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine oxyl (TEMPO) and poly(ethylene glycol) were synthesized via metathesis polymerization of the corresponding substituted acetylenes to be used for targeted bimodal MRI /optical imaging of tumors. The poly(ethylene glycol) in the polyacetylenes enables covalent conjugation of carboxyl fluorescein and folic acid (FA) with hydroxyl groups to develop targeted multifunctional organic radical contrast agents (ORCAs). In vitro studies confirm the excellent binding specificity and subsequent enhanced cellular internalization of the targeted ORCAs (PA-TEMPO-FI-FA) without cytotoxicity. In vivo T1-weighted MRI demonstrates the active tumor targeting ability of PA-TEMPO-FI-FA to generate specific contrast enhancement in mice bearing HeLa tumors. Moreover, longitudinal optical imaging displays high tumor accumulation after 1 h post-injection of PA-TEMPO-FI-FA. These results indicate that multifunctional ORCAs may provide a tumor-targeted delivery platform for further molecular imaging guided cancer therapy.

  15. MELiSSA third compartment: Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures in bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruvellier, Nelly; Lasseur, Christophe; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Dussap, Gilles

    Nitrogen is a key element for the life and its balance on Earth is regulated by the nitrogen cycle. This loop includes several steps among which nitrification that permits the transformation of the ammonium into nitrate. The MELiSSA loop is an artificial ecosystem designed for life support systems (LSS). It is based on the carbon and nitrogen cycles and the recycling of the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew. In this order, all the wastes are collected in the first compartment to degrade them into organic acids and CO2. These compounds are joining the second compartment which is a photoheterotrophic compartment where at the outlet an organic-free medium containing ammonium is produced. This solution will be the substrate of the third compartment where nitrification is done. This compartment has to oxidize the ammonium into nitrate, and this biological reaction needs two steps. In the MELiSSA loop, the nitrification is carried out by two bacteria: Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC® 19718™ which is oxidizing ammonia into nitrite and Nitrobacter winogradskyi ATCC® 25391™ which is producing nitrate from nitrite in the third compartment. These two bacteria are growing in axenic conditions on a fixed bed bioreactor filled with Biostyr® beads. The nitrogen compounds are controlled by Ionic Chromatography and colorimetric titration for each sample. The work presented here deals with the culture of both bacteria in pure cultures and mixed cultures in stirred and aerated bioreactors of different volumes. The first aim of our work is the characterization of the bacteria growth in bioreactors and in the nitrifying fixed-bed column. The experimental results confirm that the growth is slow; the maximal growth rate in suspended cultures is 0.054h-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and 0.022h-1 for Nitrobacter winogradskyi. Mixed cultures are difficult to control and operate but one could be done for more than 500 hours. The characterization of the

  16. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... Orange Parkinson’s Awareness Month Were you exposed to herbicides during service and have Parkinson’s disease? You may ...

  17. KINETICS STUDY ON KETOPROFEN RELEASE FROM MINI TABLETS AND MULTI-COMPARTMENT SYSTEMS.

    PubMed

    Stawarski, Tomasz; Sieradzki, Edmund; Gałecka, Emilia; Binek, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to multi-compartment systems it is possible to modify drug release. Two types of mini tablets containing 12.5 mg of ketoprofen were made: mini tablets of immediate (IR) and sustained (SR) release. Some of the tablets of immediate release were coated with an enteric coating, thereby obtaining a delayed release effect (IRc). For each tablet type, release profiles were tested in three media: 0.1 M HCl, phosphate buffer pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Based on the obtained results, three appropriate multi-compartment models have been constructed and tested. The factor limiting the amount of available ketoprofen at the absorption place is pH of the environment. It was observed that the increase in pH caused the increase of ketoprofen solubility. Constructed multi-compartment systems allowed to change the composition and the dose of medicinal substances easily. Thanks to this it is possible to adjust the release profile of the active substance to the individual patient, which meets the expectations of personalized medicine.

  18. Stability and mixing conditions for HIV/AIDS models with regional compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Richard

    Compartmental models have been adapted to derive temporal epidemic forecasting systems for imitating the transfer of HIV infection between those with different behaviours or rates of risk activity. Alternatively, models with regional compartments, which forecast disease incidence in both space and time, have emerged as a response to the challenge of anticipating the pandemic pathways of this infection. This paper combines these frameworks to obtain properties for a multiregion model that also contains demographic compartments. Section 2 begins by showing how the stability conditions (starting thresholds) for a purely regional model are a special case of the existing conditions that have been derived for the general compartmental framework. Then, these results are extended to encompass a regions with compartments design. Section 3 presents an analysis of the population mixing relationships that are embedded in all these specifications. Here, the topics include the maintenance of contact symmetry, the representation of alternative partner selection behaviours, and the identification of core populations for the diffusion of HIV infection. The discussion considers how these theoretical findings might be applied to disease prevention.

  19. Decontamination of Water Containing Radiological Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    Development Center Fort Belvoir, Virginia March 1975 󈧄 " DISTRIBUTED BY: National Technical Information Service U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE . •p•-M ! w... distribution unlimnied. U. S. ARMY MOBILITY EQUIPMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER "__. +FORT BELVOIR, VIRGINIA R.-rd-~d b, NATIONAL TECHNICAL...citation in this report of trade naraev of comrmercially available products does not constitute official endorsement or approval of the use of such

  20. Mechanism of action of tin-containing fluoride solutions as anti-erosive agents in dentine - an in vitro tin-uptake, tissue loss, and scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Ganss, Carolina; Hardt, Martin; Lussi, Adrian; Cocks, Ann-Kristin; Klimek, Joachim; Schlueter, Nadine

    2010-08-01

    Solutions containing tin and fluoride exhibit remarkable anti-erosive properties with tin ions as a major agent. To elucidate its mechanism of action in dentine, the tin uptake on and in the tissue was investigated and related to histological findings and substance loss. Samples were treated twice daily, each treatment lasting for 2 min, with fluoride solutions [pH 4.5; 1,500 parts per million (p.p.m.) F] containing 2,100, 1,400, or 400 p.p.m. Sn as SnCl(2). In experiments 1 and 2, samples were eroded with citric acid (pH 2.3) six times each day, each treatment lasting for 5 min; in experiment 2, the demineralized organic matrix was continuously digested by collagenase; in experiment 3, no erosive challenges were performed. Sample surfaces and cross-sections were investigated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and profilometry. Surface retention of tin was found in almost all treatment groups and was highest in experiment 2. On cross-sections, tin was retained within the organic matrix; in mineralized areas, tin was found mainly within a depth of 10 mum. Test solutions inhibited substance loss significantly; in experiment 2, the effect was dose-dependent. Erosion inhibition seemed to depend mainly on the incorporation of tin in the mineralized dentine when the organic portion was preserved, but on surface precipitation when the organic portion was continuously digested.

  1. Numerical modelling of crural fascia mechanical interaction with muscular compartments.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Piero G; Pachera, Paola; Natali, Arturo N

    2015-05-01

    The interaction of the crural fascia with muscular compartments and surrounding tissues can be at the origin of different pathologies, such as compartment syndrome. This pathology consists in the onset of excessive intracompartmental pressure, which can have serious consequences for the patient, compromising blood circulation. The investigation of compartment syndrome etiology also takes into account the alteration of crural fascia mechanical properties as a cause of the syndrome, where the fascial stiffening would result in the rise of intracompartmental pressure. This work presents a computational approach toward evaluating some biomechanical aspects of the problem, within the context of a more global viewpoint. Finite element analyses of the interaction phenomena of the crural fascia with adjacent regions are reported here. This study includes the effects of a fascial stiffness increase along the proximal-distal direction and their possible clinical implications. Furthermore, the relationship between different pre-strain levels of the crural fascia in the proximal-distal direction and the rise of internal pressure in muscular compartments are considered. The numerical analyses can clarify which aspects could be directly implied in the rise of compartment syndrome, leading to greater insight into muscle-fascia mechanical phenomena, as well as promoting experimental investigation and clinical analysis of the syndrome.

  2. 77 FR 19148 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ...-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... separate Crew Rest Compartments: a Flight Crew Rest Compartment (FCRC) intended to be occupied by flight crew members only, and a Cabin Crew Rest Compartment (CCRC) intended to be occupied by cabin...

  3. The reinforcement and healing of asphalt mastic mixtures by rejuvenator encapsulation in alginate compartmented fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabaković, A.; Post, W.; Cantero, D.; Copuroglu, O.; Garcia, S. J.; Schlangen, E.

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores the potential use of compartmented alginate fibres as a new method of incorporating rejuvenators into asphalt pavement mixtures. The compartmented fibres are employed to locally distribute the rejuvenator and to overcome the problems associated with spherical capsules and hollow fibres. The work presents proof of concept of the encapsulation process which involved embedding the fibres into the asphalt mastic mixture and the survival rate of fibres in the asphalt mixture. To prove the effectiveness of the alginate as a rejuvenator encapsulating material and to demonstrate its ability survive asphalt production process, the fibres containing the rejuvenator were prepared and subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and uniaxial tensile test. The test results demonstrated that fibres have suitable thermal and mechanical strength to survive the asphalt mixing and compaction process. The CT scan of an asphalt mortar mix containing fibres demonstrated that fibres are present in the mix in their full length, undamaged, providing confirmation that the fibres survived the asphalt production process. In order to investigate the fibres physiological properties and ability to release the rejuvenator into cracks in the asphalt mastic, the environmental scanning electron microscope and optical microscope analysis were employed. To prove its success as an asphalt healing system, compartmented alginate fibres containing rejuvenator were embedded in asphalt mastic mix. The three point bend tests were performed on the asphalt mastic test samples and the degree to which the samples began to self-heal in response was measured and quantified. The research findings indicate that alginate fibres present a promising new approach for the development of self-healing asphalt pavement systems.

  4. Psittacine paranasal sinus--a new definition of compartments.

    PubMed

    Artmann, A; Henninger, W

    2001-12-01

    Documentation of the psittacine paranasal sinuses has been limited. To provide more published detail, spiral computed tomography (CT) was used to scan the cephalic and cervical region from cadavers of 10 psittacine birds (Ara ararauna, Ara chloroptera, Ara macao, and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). Skeletal studies, histologic examinations, and evaluation of deep-frozen sections and anatomic preparations confirmed the results of the CT scans. New morphologic details of the paranasal sinus and some compartments were discovered. The paranasal sinuses of these macaws consist of two unpaired rostral compartments, followed caudally by eight paired compartments. Histologic examinations revealed that the walls of the paranasal sinuses consist of flat or cubic monolayer epithelium with underlying connective tissue. The described method of CT examination of these macaws, especially the positioning, scan orientation and parameters, and documentation of the normal paranasal sinus, provides a basis for future clinical use of CT.

  5. Hypothyroid-induced acute compartment syndrome in all extremities

    PubMed Central

    Musielak, Matthew C.; Chae, Jung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is an uncommon complication of uncontrolled hypothyroidism. If unrecognized, this can lead to ischemia, necrosis and potential limb loss. A 49-year-old female presented with the sudden onset of bilateral lower and upper extremity swelling and pain. The lower extremity anterior compartments were painful and tense. The extensor surface of the upper extremities exhibited swelling and pain. Motor function was intact, however, limited due to pain. Bilateral lower extremity fasciotomies were performed. Postoperative Day 1, upper extremity motor function decreased significantly and paresthesias occurred. She therefore underwent bilateral forearm fasciotomies. The pathogenesis of hypothyroidism-induced compartment syndrome is unclear. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-induced fibroblast activation results in increased glycosaminoglycan deposition. The primary glycosaminoglycan in hypothyroid myxedematous changes is hyaluronic acid, which binds water causing edema. This increases vascular permeability, extravasation of proteins and impaired lymphatic drainage. These contribute to increased intra-compartmental pressure and subsequent ACS. PMID:28003319

  6. A total and biosafe liquefaction compartment for MELiSSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Kübe, J.; Dussap, G.; Creuly, C.

    2005-10-01

    Envisaging long-duration space missions and settlements on the Moon or even on more distant planets means considering the production of food and the recycling of scarce, valuable chemical species from waste. ESA's MELiSSA project (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is studying, in which five different compartments degrade waste into basic chemicals and then assimilate them into food, clean water and a breathable atmosphere. Crucial to the success of such a closed system is the absolute efficiency of the first compartment, in which all waste is biologically degraded into easily assimilable basic compounds. In order to ease this strenuous task and to ensure total and biosafe liquefaction of the waste, this MAP project is studying additional technologies that complement MELiSSA's waste degrading compartment.

  7. Anatomic variation of the 5th extensor tendon compartment and extensor digiti minimi tendon.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshikazu; Moran, Steven L; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2007-08-01

    Anatomic variation within the 5th extensor compartment may contribute to the development of tenosynovitis and limit the usefulness of the extensor digiti minimi (EDM) for tendon transfer. The purpose of this study was to assess the anatomic variation of the EDM tendon and its surrounding retinaculum, with particular attention to anatomical variation between specimens. Forty-one fresh cadaver hands were dissected. The length of the 5th compartment retinaculum was noted. The incidence of an intercompartmental septum was noted in each specimen as well as the type of tendinous attachments present between the EDM and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendons. The presence and length of any accessory retinacular bands distal to the edge of proper extensor retinaculum was also noted. Only one specimen contained a single EDM tendon, while 71% (n = 29) of specimens contained two slips and 23% (n = 9) had three slips; 24% (n = 10) of EDC tendons had no slip to the small finger, while 61% (n = 25) of specimens had a single slip to the small finger. The EDC's contribution to the small finger was found to be an independent tendon in 42% of cases (n = 17), while 34% (n = 14) of specimens were found to have a common EDC slip, which branched to both the ring and small finger. Three EDM tendons divided distal to the extensor retinaculum, while the remaining EDM tendons divided beneath or proximal to the extensor retinaculum. Seventy-three percent (n = 30) of the specimens had an accessory retinacular band surrounding the EDM tendon identified at the base of the 5th metacarpal. Eighty-eight percent (n = 36) of hands had a septum between the EDM slips. The surgeon should be aware of variability within the 5th dorsal compartment in cases of trauma and in cases of tendon transfer. In our series 30 of 41 specimens were noted to contain an accessory dorsal retinacular band surrounding the EDM and 36 specimens were noted to contain a septum within the 5th compartment. The presence of an

  8. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome with Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Kevin; Day, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) syndrome is a condition in which the duodenum becomes compressed between the SMA and the aorta, resulting in bowel obstruction which subsequently compresses surrounding structures. Pressure on the inferior vena cava (IVC) and aorta decreases cardiac output which compromises distal blood flow, resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome with ischemia and renal failure. A 15-year-old male with SMA syndrome presented with 12 hours of pain, a distended, rigid abdomen, mottled skin below the waist, and decreased motor and sensory function in the lower extremities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed ischemic small bowel and stomach with abdominal compartment syndrome. Despite decompression, the patient arrested from hyperkalemia following reperfusion. PMID:28003918

  9. Surviving space flight: case study on MELiSSA's CIII nitrifying compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgrande, Chiara; Lasseur, Christophe; Mastroleo, Felice; Paille, Christel; Leys, Natalie; Morozova, Julia; Ilyin, Vyacheslav; Clauwaert, Peter; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Vlaeminck, Siegfried; Prat, Delphine; Arroyo, Jose M. C.; Conincx, Ilse; Van Hoey, Olivier; Roume, Hugo; Udert, Kai; Sas, Benedikt

    2016-07-01

    Space synthetic biology offers key opportunities for long-term space missions. Planets mining, terraformation, space medicine and Life Support technologies would all benefit from an integrative biological approach. However, space is a harsh environment for life: microgravity, temperature, UV and cosmic radiation can affect the health and functionality of microorganisms and plants, possibly preventing the optimal performance of the systems. The European Space Agency's Life Support System (MELiSSA) has been developed as a model for future long term Space missions and Space habitation. MELiSSA is a 5 compartment artificial ecosystem with microorganisms and higher, that aims at completely recycling gas, liquid and solid waste. In this study, the survival and functional activity after Lower Earth Orbit conditions of microbial nitrogen conversions, relevant for MELiSSA's CIII compartment, was tested. Synthetic communities containing Nitrosomonas europeae, Nitrosomonas ureae, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, Nitrospira moscoviensis and Cupriavidus pinatubonensis were exposed to the Lower Earth Orbit conditions of the International Space Station (ISS) for 7 days. Nitrosomonas europeae, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, Cupriavidus pinatubonensis, and three mixed communities (a urine nitrification sludge, a sludge containing aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria (OLAND), and an aquaculture sludge containing ammonia oxidizing archaea) were exposed to Lower Earth Orbit conditions for 44 days. Survival after both space flights was demonstrated because nitritation, nitratation, denitrification and anammox activity could be restored at a rate comparable to ground storage conditions. Our results validate the potential survival feasibility and suggest future space applications for N-related microorganisms.

  10. The influence of distributional kinetics into a peripheral compartment on the pharmacokinetics of substrate partitioning between blood and brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Padowski, Jeannie M; Pollack, Gary M

    2011-12-01

    Development of CNS-targeted agents often focuses on identifying compounds with "good" CNS exposure (brain-to-blood partitioning >1). Some compounds undergoing enterohepatic recycling (ER) evidence a partition coefficient, K (p,brain) (expressed as C (brain) /C (plasma)), that exceeds and then decreases to (i.e., overshoots) a plateau (distribution equilibrium) value, rather than increasing monotonically to this value. This study tested the hypothesis that overshoot in K (p,brain) is due to substrate residence in a peripheral compartment. Simulations were based on a 3-compartment model with distributional clearances between central and brain (CL (br)) and central and peripheral (CL (d)) compartments and irreversible clearance from the central compartment (CL). Parameters were varied to investigate the relationship between overshoot and peripheral compartment volume (V (p)), and how this relationship was modulated by other model parameters. Overshoot magnitude and duration were characterized as peak C (brain)/C (plasma) relative to the plateau value (%OS) and time to reach plateau (TRP). Except for systems with high CL (d), increasing V (p) increased TRP and %OS. Increasing brain (V (br)) or central (V (c)) distribution volumes eliminated V (p)-related OS. Parallel increases in all clearances shortened TRP, but did not alter %OS. Increasing either CL or CL (d) individually increased %OS related to V (p), while increasing CL (br) decreased %OS. Under realistic peripheral distribution scenarios, C (brain)/C (plasma) may overshoot substantially K (p,brain) at distribution equilibrium. This observation suggests potential for erroneous assessment of brain disposition, particularly for compounds which exhibit a large apparent V (p), and emphasizes the need for complete understanding of distributional kinetics when evaluating brain uptake.

  11. Converting a Natural Protein Compartment into a Nanofactory for the Size-Constrained Synthesis of Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Giessen, Tobias W; Silver, Pamela A

    2016-12-16

    Engineered biological systems are used extensively for the production of high value and commodity organics. On the other hand, most inorganic nanomaterials are still synthesized via chemical routes. By engineering cellular compartments, functional nanoarchitectures can be produced under environmentally sustainable conditions. Encapsulins are a new class of microbial nanocompartments with promising applications in nanobiotechnology. Here, we engineer the Thermotoga maritima encapsulin EncTm to yield a designed compartment for the size-constrained synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). These Ag NPs exhibit uniform shape and size distributions as well as long-term stability. Ambient aqueous conditions can be used for Ag NP synthesis, while no reducing agents or solvents need to be added. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized protein-coated or shell-free Ag NPs is superior to that of silver nitrate and citrate-capped Ag NPs. This study establishes encapsulins as an engineerable platform for the synthesis of biogenic functional nanomaterials.

  12. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Gluteal Compartment Syndrome following an Iliac Bone Marrow Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Najera, Carlos; Leal-Contreras, Carlos; Leal-Berumen, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is a condition characterized by a raised hydraulic pressure within a closed and non expandable anatomical space. It leads to a vascular insufficiency that becomes critical once the vascular flow cannot return the fluids back to the venous system. This causes a potential irreversible damage of the contents of the compartment, especially within the muscle tissues. Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) secondary to hematomas is seldom reported. Here we present a case of a 51-year-old patient with history of a non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent a bone marrow aspiration from the posterior iliac crest that had excessive bleeding at the puncture zone. The patient complained of increasing pain, tenderness, and buttock swelling. Intraoperative pressure validation of the gluteal compartment was performed, and a GCS was diagnosed. The patient was treated with a gluteal region fasciotomy. The patient recovered from pain and swelling and was discharged shortly after from the hospital. We believe clotting and hematologic disorders are a primary risk factor in patients who require bone marrow aspirations or biopsies. It is important to improve awareness of GCS in order to achieve early diagnosis, avoid complications, and have a better prognosis. PMID:24392235

  14. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... materials. For transport category airplanes type certificated after January 1, 1958: (1) For airplanes... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613... and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.613 Materials...

  15. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... breakage or failure of such an item would not create a hazard. (f) Airplane materials located on the cabin... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES... compartment to be used by the crew or passengers: (a) The materials must be at least flame-resistant; (b)...

  16. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... materials. For transport category airplanes type certificated after January 1, 1958: (1) For airplanes... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613... and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.613 Materials...

  17. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and baggage compartments. For each transport category airplane type certificated after January 1, 1958... sidewall liner panels which are constructed of: (1) Glass fiber reinforced resin; (2) Materials which meet... number of each airplane listed in the operations specifications issued to the certificate holder...

  18. 14 CFR 121.312 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 121.312 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) All interior materials; transport category airplanes and nontransport category airplanes type certificated before January 1, 1965. Except for the materials..., must comply with the material requirements under which the airplane was type certificated,...

  19. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... materials. For transport category airplanes type certificated after January 1, 1958: (1) For airplanes... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613... and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.613 Materials...

  20. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... breakage or failure of such an item would not create a hazard. (f) Airplane materials located on the cabin... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES... compartment to be used by the crew or passengers: (a) The materials must be at least flame-resistant; (b)...

  1. 14 CFR 121.312 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 121.312 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) All interior materials; transport category airplanes and nontransport category airplanes type certificated before January 1, 1965. Except for the materials..., must comply with the material requirements under which the airplane was type certificated,...

  2. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and baggage compartments. For each transport category airplane type certificated after January 1, 1958... sidewall liner panels which are constructed of: (1) Glass fiber reinforced resin; (2) Materials which meet... number of each airplane listed in the operations specifications issued to the certificate holder...

  3. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... materials. For transport category airplanes type certificated after January 1, 1958: (1) For airplanes... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613... and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.613 Materials...

  4. 14 CFR 91.613 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... materials. For transport category airplanes type certificated after January 1, 1958: (1) For airplanes... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials for compartment interiors. 91.613... and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.613 Materials...

  5. 14 CFR 121.312 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 121.312 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) All interior materials; transport category airplanes and nontransport category airplanes type certificated before January 1, 1965. Except for the materials..., must comply with the material requirements under which the airplane was type certificated,...

  6. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... breakage or failure of such an item would not create a hazard. (f) Airplane materials located on the cabin... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES... compartment to be used by the crew or passengers: (a) The materials must be at least flame-resistant; (b)...

  7. 14 CFR 121.312 - Materials for compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 121.312 Materials for compartment interiors. (a) All interior materials; transport category airplanes and nontransport category airplanes type certificated before January 1, 1965. Except for the materials..., must comply with the material requirements under which the airplane was type certificated,...

  8. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... breakage or failure of such an item would not create a hazard. (f) Airplane materials located on the cabin... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES... compartment to be used by the crew or passengers: (a) The materials must be at least flame-resistant; (b)...

  9. Does oedema following lower limb revascularisation cause compartment syndromes?

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D. J.; Allen, M. J.; Bell, P. R.; McShane, M.; Barnes, M. R.

    1988-01-01

    Oedema of the leg, particularly the calf, is a well-recognised complication following lower limb reconstructive vascular surgery, but its effect on the limb is unknown. In this study, anterior compartment pressures and calf circumference were measured in both the operated and non-operated limbs following femoropopliteal bypass in 15 patients. All the patients developed lower limb swelling, which was significantly greater than the non-operated limb, P less than 0.05 paired t test (day 2-5). There was a significant difference in the mean anterior compartment pressures between the operated and non-operated limbs on the third and fourth postoperative days for the overall and below knee group, P less than 0.05 (paired t test). However, none of the patients developed signs, symptoms or pressures indicative of a compartment syndrome. These results suggest that the oedema following reconstructive vascular surgery is subcutaneous rather than compartmental in origin and that compartment pressure measurements should only be undertaken if a fasciotomy is being contemplated. Images fig. 2 PMID:3207329

  10. 12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Interior view of battle staff compartment showing the general's chair. View toward front of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  12. Digital Microscopy Assessment of Angiogenesis in Different Breast Cancer Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Rogojanu, Radu; Croitoru, Camelia; Jitaru, Daniela; Tarniceriu, Cristina; Carasevici, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Tumour angiogenesis defined by microvessel density (MVD) is generally accepted as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, due to variability of measurement systems and cutoffs, it is questionable to date whether it contributes to predictive outline. Our study aims to grade vascular heterogeneity by comparing clear-cut compartments: tumour associated stroma (TAS), tumour parenchyma, and tumour invasive front. Material and Methods. Computerized vessel area measurement was performed using a tissue cytometry system (TissueFAXS) on slides originated from 50 patients with breast cancer. Vessels were marked using immunohistochemistry with CD34. Regions of interest were manually defined for each tumour compartment. Results. Tumour invasive front vascular endothelia area was 2.15 times higher than that in tumour parenchyma and 4.61 times higher than that in TAS (P < 0.002). Worth to mention that the lymph node negative subgroup of patients show a slight but constant increase of vessel index in all examined compartments of breast tumour. Conclusion. Whole slide digital examination and region of interest (ROI) analysis are a valuable tool in scoring angiogenesis markers and disclosing their prognostic capacity. Our study reveals compartments' variability of vessel density inside the tumour and highlights the propensity of invasive front to associate an active process of angiogenesis with potential implications in adjuvant therapy. PMID:24073397

  13. 38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, with salon wall panels removed to show engine frame. Main connecting rod from crank to walking beam appears at extreme right of view, top of cylinder and piston rod appear at extreme left. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  14. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accessories whose damage or failure would affect safe operation, unless those items are protected so that— (1... endangering the safety of a rotorcraft or its occupants must be designed, or must have a device, to ensure... area may be considered a cargo compartment and, in addition to paragraphs (a) through (d) of...

  15. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartments assumed flooded: general. 174.075 Section 174.075 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore...

  16. 46 CFR 174.075 - Compartments assumed flooded: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments assumed flooded: general. 174.075 Section 174.075 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore...

  17. 19 CFR 123.24 - Sealing of conveyances or compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sealing of conveyances or compartments. 123.24 Section 123.24 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or...

  18. 9 CFR 354.241 - Cleaning of rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cleaning of rooms and compartments... Sanitary Conditions and Precautions Against Contamination of Products § 354.241 Cleaning of rooms and... rooms shall be of such construction as readily to permit their thorough cleaning, and such docks...

  19. 14 CFR 27.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 27.855 Section 27.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection §...

  20. Compartment syndrome of the foot in a child.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A K; Sharaf, I; Ajay, S

    2001-06-01

    We report a case of a 12-year-old boy with acute compartment syndrome of the foot following a road-traffic accident. Due to the rarity of the injury, there was a delay in diagnosing the injury. An emergency fasciotomy was performed 19 hours after the injury. The foot healed with a mild extension contracture of the second toe.

  1. 49 CFR 179.220-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.220-9 Section 179.220-9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for...

  2. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for...

  3. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for...

  4. 49 CFR 179.200-9 - Compartment tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compartment tanks. 179.200-9 Section 179.200-9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for...

  5. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... needs of the inspection in the plant may require. They shall be equipped with locks and keys and...

  6. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... needs of the inspection in the plant may require. They shall be equipped with locks and keys and...

  7. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... needs of the inspection in the plant may require. They shall be equipped with locks and keys and...

  8. 9 CFR 354.221 - Rooms and compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rooms and compartments. 354.221 Section 354.221 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... needs of the inspection in the plant may require. They shall be equipped with locks and keys and...

  9. Liposome encapsulation of chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh Erh

    1976-01-13

    A method for transferring a chelating agent across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating agent within liposomes and carrying the liposome-encapsulated chelating agent to the cellular membrane where the liposomes containing the chelating agent will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating agent across the cellular membrane. A chelating agent can be introduced into the interior of a cell of a living organism wherein the liposomes will be decomposed, releasing the chelating agent to the interior of the cell. The released chelating agent will complex intracellularly deposited toxic heavy metals, permitting the more soluble metal complex to transfer across the cellular membrane from the cell and subsequently be removed from the living organism.

  10. [Open treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome after contained aortic aneurysm rupture].

    PubMed

    Mihály, Zsuzsanna; Perczel, Kristóf; Csikós, Gergely; Szeberin, Zoltán

    2014-10-01

    Magyarországon elsőként közöljük esetünket, amelyben sikerrel alkalmaztunk nyitott hasi és VAC- (vákuumasszisztált sebzárás) kezelést aortaaneurysma-ruptura miatt kialakuló hasi compartmentsyndroma megelőzéseként. Esetismertetés: Az 59 éves nőbeteg acutan került felvételre klinikánkra, akinél az angio-CT-vizsgálat fedett hasi aortaaneurysma-rupturát igazolt. Az acut laparotomiából végzett aortoaorticus Dacron graft interpositióját követően, a has zárásakor a beteg lélegeztethetetlenné vált a vékony- és vastagbél hosszú szakaszát érintő oedemája és a retroperitonealis vérgyülem okozta megemelkedett hasűri nyomás miatt. Ezért nyitott hasi kezelés és VAC-terápia mellett döntöttünk. Az ismételt kötéscseréket követően a has halasztott zárása DualMesh hálóval történt, három héttel később a beteg otthonába távozott. Megbeszélés: Esetünkben a nagyfokú oedema és a retroperitonealis haematoma miatt a fedett hasi aortaaneurysma-ruptura műtéti megoldását követően a has zárása már nem volt kivitelezhető. Az intraabdominalis nyomásfokozódás szövődményei megakadályozhatók voltak a nyitott hasi kezelésnek köszönhetően. Esetünk tapasztalata és a szakirodalom ajánlása alapján javasoljuk a nyitott hasi kezelést VAC-rendszerrel kombinálva hasi compartmentsyndroma esetén.

  11. The side population of ovarian cancer cells defines a heterogeneous compartment exhibiting stem cell characteristics.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Maximilian; Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Schmidt, Stefan; Gastl, Guenther; Parson, Walther; Spoeck, Franziska; Hatina, Jiri; Wolf, Dominik; Sopper, Sieghart

    2014-08-30

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) are believed to be involved in tumor evasion of classical antitumor therapies and have thus become an attractive target for further improvement of anticancer strategies. However, the existence and identity of CSC are still a matter of controversy. In a systematic screen of 13 ovarian cancer cell lines we show that cells with stem cell properties are reliably detectable as a minor population, characterized by ABC transporter expression resulting in the side population (SP) phenotype. In different cell lines, either ABCG2 or ABCB1 was found to be responsible for this effect. Purified SP cells featured virtually all characteristics of bona fide CSC, including clonogenicity, asymmetric division and high tumorigenicity in vivo. Using in-depth phenotyping by multicolor flow cytometry, we found that among the investigated ovarian cancer cell lines the SP compartment exhibits tremendous heterogeneity and is composed of multiple phenotypically distinct subpopulations. Thus, our study confirms previous results showing that CSC are contained within the SP. However, the exact identity of the CSC is still disguised by the high complexity of the CSC-containing compartment. Further functional studies are needed to determine whether a single cellular subset can unambiguously be defined as CSC or whether multiple stem cell-like cells with different properties coexist. Moreover, the observed heterogeneity may reflect a high level of plasticity and likely influences tumor progression, escape from immune-surveillance and development of resistance to anticancer therapies and should therefore be considered in the development of new treatment strategies.

  12. The side population of ovarian cancer cells defines a heterogeneous compartment exhibiting stem cell characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Boesch, Maximilian; Zeimet, Alain G.; Reimer, Daniel; Schmidt, Stefan; Gastl, Guenther; Parson, Walther; Spoeck, Franziska; Hatina, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) are believed to be involved in tumor evasion of classical antitumor therapies and have thus become an attractive target for further improvement of anticancer strategies. However, the existence and identity of CSC are still a matter of controversy. In a systematic screen of 13 ovarian cancer cell lines we show that cells with stem cell properties are reliably detectable as a minor population, characterized by ABC transporter expression resulting in the side population (SP) phenotype. In different cell lines, either ABCG2 or ABCB1 was found to be responsible for this effect. Purified SP cells featured virtually all characteristics of bona fide CSC, including clonogenicity, asymmetric division and high tumorigenicity in vivo. Using in-depth phenotyping by multicolor flow cytometry, we found that among the investigated ovarian cancer cell lines the SP compartment exhibits tremendous heterogeneity and is composed of multiple phenotypically distinct subpopulations. Thus, our study confirms previous results showing that CSC are contained within the SP. However, the exact identity of the CSC is still disguised by the high complexity of the CSC-containing compartment. Further functional studies are needed to determine whether a single cellular subset can unambiguously be defined as CSC or whether multiple stem cell-like cells with different properties coexist. Moreover, the observed heterogeneity may reflect a high level of plasticity and likely influences tumor progression, escape from immune-surveillance and development of resistance to anticancer therapies and should therefore be considered in the development of new treatment strategies. PMID:25216521

  13. Trafficking-deficient hERG K⁺ channels linked to long QT syndrome are regulated by a microtubule-dependent quality control compartment in the ER.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer L; McBride, Christie M; Nataraj, Parvathi S; Bartos, Daniel C; January, Craig T; Delisle, Brian P

    2011-07-01

    The human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) encodes the voltage-gated K(+) channel that underlies the rapidly activating delayed-rectifier current in cardiac myocytes. hERG is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as an "immature" N-linked glycoprotein and is terminally glycosylated in the Golgi apparatus. Most hERG missense mutations linked to long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2) reduce the terminal glycosylation and functional expression. We tested the hypothesis that a distinct pre-Golgi compartment negatively regulates the trafficking of some LQT2 mutations to the Golgi apparatus. We found that treating cells in nocodazole, a microtubule depolymerizing agent, altered the subcellular localization, functional expression, and glycosylation of the LQT2 mutation G601S-hERG differently from wild-type hERG (WT-hERG). G601S-hERG quickly redistributed to peripheral compartments that partially colocalized with KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) chaperones but not calnexin, Sec31, or the ER golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). Treating cells in E-4031, a drug that increases the functional expression of G601S-hERG, prevented the accumulation of G601S-hERG to the peripheral compartments and increased G601S-hERG colocalization with the ERGIC. Coexpressing the temperature-sensitive mutant G protein from vesicular stomatitis virus, a mutant N-linked glycoprotein that is retained in the ER, showed it was not restricted to the same peripheral compartments as G601S-hERG at nonpermissive temperatures. We conclude that the trafficking of G601S-hERG is negatively regulated by a microtubule-dependent compartment within the ER. Identifying mechanisms that prevent the sorting or promote the release of LQT2 channels from this compartment may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for LQT2.

  14. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Voleti, Pramod B.; Lebrun, Drake G.; Roth, Cameron A.; Kelly, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports. PMID:26900549

  15. p73-induced apoptosis: A question of compartments and cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbelstein, Matthias; Strano, Sabrina; Roth, Judith; Blandino, Giovanni . E-mail: blandino@ifo.it

    2005-06-10

    The transcriptionally active forms of p73 are capable of inducing apoptosis, and the isoforms termed TAp73 are important players when E2F and its oncogenic activators induce programmed cell death. However, the conditions under that TAp73 can kill a cell remain to be clarified. Recently, it has been found that p73 proteins are not merely floating in the nucleoplasm but rather can associate with specific compartments in the cell. Examples of intranuclear compartments associated with p73 proteins include the PML oncogenic domains and the nuclear matrix. In addition, p73 is found in the cytoplasm. It remains to be seen whether p73 might also associate with mitochondria, in analogy with p53. The relocalization of p73 is expected to be mediated by specific binding partners, mostly other proteins. Here, we discuss the possibility that the compartmentalization of p73, and the cooperation with the corresponding binding partners, might decide about its apoptosis-inducing activity.

  16. Head and neck fascia and compartments: no space for spaces.

    PubMed

    Guidera, Alice K; Dawes, Patrick J D; Fong, Amy; Stringer, Mark D

    2014-07-01

    An accurate understanding of the arrangement of cervical fascia and its associated compartments is essential for differential diagnosis, predicting the spread of disease, and surgical management. The purpose of this detailed review is to summarize the anatomic, clinical, and radiological literature to determine what is known about the arrangement of cervical fascia and to highlight controversies and consensus. The current terminology used to describe cervical fascia and compartments is replete with confusing synonyms and inconsistencies, creating important interdisciplinary differences in understanding. The term "spaces" is inappropriate. A modified nomenclature underpinned by evidence-based anatomic and radiologic findings is proposed. This should not only enhance our understanding of cervical anatomy but also facilitate clearer interdisciplinary communication.

  17. Understanding tumor heterogeneity as functional compartments--superorganisms revisited.

    PubMed

    Grunewald, Thomas G P; Herbst, Saskia M; Heinze, Jürgen; Burdach, Stefan

    2011-05-27

    Compelling evidence broadens our understanding of tumors as highly heterogeneous populations derived from one common progenitor. In this review we portray various stages of tumorigenesis, tumor progression, self-seeding and metastasis in analogy to the superorganisms of insect societies to exemplify the highly complex architecture of a neoplasm as a system of functional "castes."Accordingly, we propose a model in which clonal expansion and cumulative acquisition of genetic alterations produce tumor compartments each equipped with distinct traits and thus distinct functions that cooperate to establish clinically apparent tumors. This functional compartment model also suggests mechanisms for the self-construction of tumor stem cell niches. Thus, thinking of a tumor as a superorganism will provide systemic insight into its functional compartmentalization and may even have clinical implications.

  18. Emerging Technologies and Their Applications in Lipid Compartment Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B.; Hu, Houchun Harry; Shen, Wei; Carmichael, Owen

    2015-01-01

    Non-Communicable diseases (NCDs), including obesity, are emerging as the major health concern of the 21st century. Excess adiposity and related NCD metabolic disturbances have stimulated development of new lipid compartment measurement technologies to help us understand cellular energy exchange, to refine phenotypes, and to develop predictive markers of adverse clinical outcomes. Recent advances now allow for quantification of multiple intracellular lipid and adipose tissue compartments that can be evaluated across the human lifespan. With magnetic resonance methods leading the way, newer approaches will give molecular structural and metabolic information beyond the laboratory in real-world settings. The union between these new technologies and the growing NCD population is creating an exciting interface advancing our understanding of chronic disease mechanisms. PMID:26596676

  19. Antibiotic Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... producing ). Examples of this type are the alcohols, chlorine, peroxides, and aldehydes. The second group consists mostly ... viruses have some kind of antibacterial agent. Alcohols, chlorine and peroxides have been used for many decades ...

  20. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible Veterans a free Agent Orange Registry health exam for possible long-term health problems related to ...

  1. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    dissection data were collected from one spotted dolphin , one bottlenose dolphin , three common dolphins , one elephant seal, three californian sea lions and...deviation for body compartments of three common dolphins of similar age (subadults and adults) but with different body condition. Muscle was the most...AL, Dennison SE, Early G, Garner MM, Hayward BA, Lentell BJ, Rotstein DS (2009) Gas Bubbles in Seals, Dolphins , and Porpoises Entangled and Drowned

  2. Closeup view if the starboard side of the crew compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view if the starboard side of the crew compartment mid-deck of the Orbiter Discovery. This is a close up view of the galley for meal preparations. In the center right of the image is stowage lockers that are designated to store meals for the mission. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome Based on Tissue Oxygenation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    measured with microprobes has been shown to be highly correlated with tissue oxygenation and the extent of ischemia reperfusion injury .3 Near-infrared...Tissue Oxygenation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Hubert Kim, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Northern California Institute for...SUBTITLE Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome based on Tissue Oxygenation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-1024 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  4. Shaped Charge Jet/Propellant Interactions in a Vented Compartment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    the vented ammunition compartment. One of these was the Susquehanna Instruments Model ST-4 tourmaline transducer, a nonresonant transducer capable of...S1-4 tourmaline gauges and those at positons 3 and 4 were Kistler Model 617A tourmaline gauges. Thin strips of metal were welded over the trans- ducers...two different types of piezoelectric transducers. One was a fast almost totally non- resonant though somewhat temperature sensitive Tourmaline bar gauge

  5. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  6. Closeup view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment bulkhead, orbiter structure and landing gear housing in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control System Module from the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery. This image was taken from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case☆

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Ana Alexandra da Costa; Marques, Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa; Sá, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Fernandes; da Silva, Bruno Pombo Ferreira; de Sousa, Cristina Maria Varino

    2015-01-01

    Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26401507

  8. Independent Passive Mechanical Behavior of Bovine Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, while all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. We sought evidence of potential independent action by examining passive mechanical coupling between EOM compartments. Methods. Putative compartments of each of the six whole bovine anatomical EOMs were separately clamped to a physiologically controlled, dual channel microtensile load cell (5-mN force resolution) driven by independent, high-speed, linear motors having 20-nm position resolution. One channel at a time was extended or retracted by 3 to 5 mm, with the other channel stationary. Fiducials distributed on the EOM global surface enabled optical tracking of local deformation. Loading rates of 5 to 100 mm/sec were applied to explore speeds from slow vergence to saccades. Control loadings employed transversely loaded EOM and isotropic latex. Results. All EOM bellies and tendons exhibited substantial compartmental independence when loaded in the physiologic direction, both between OL and GL, and for arbitrary transverse parsings of EOM width ranging from 60%:40% to 80%:20%. Intercompartmental force coupling in the physiologic direction was less than or equal to 10% in all six EOMS even for saccadic loading rates. Coupling was much higher for nonphysiologic transverse EOM loading and isotropic latex. Optical tracking demonstrated independent strain distribution between EOM compartments. Conclusions. Substantial mechanical independence exists among physiologically loaded fiber bundles in bovine EOMs and tendons, providing biomechanical support for the proposal that differential compartmental function in horizontal rectus EOMs contributes to novel torsional and vertical actions. PMID:23188730

  9. Rare times rare: The hyponatremia, rhabdomyolysis, anterior compartment syndrome sequence

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Ina; Gelber, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Lesson Primary polydipsia occurs in up to 25% of patients with chronic psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia), related to the disease, its treatment or both. Urine output fails to match intake >10 L/day and water intoxication may develop. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of hyponatremia, and an acute anterior compartment syndrome of the leg, an emergency, may be very rarely associated. PMID:27186379

  10. Ruptured Baker's cyst with compartment syndrome: an extremely unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Mark; Galanopoulos, Ilias; Mahale, Avinash; Ashwood, Neil

    2012-12-20

    A 69-year-old man presented with sudden onset of pain with acute tense swelling of his left leg. Initially he was treated empirically with antibiotics for cellulitis while the possibility of deep vein thrombosis was ruled out. His symptoms gradually worsened with progressive distal neurological deficit and increasing pain. Further investigations suggested that he had a ruptured Baker's cyst in the calf with development of compartment syndrome.

  11. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana Alexandra da Costa; Marques, Pedro Miguel Dantas Costa; Sá, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Fernandes; da Silva, Bruno Pombo Ferreira; de Sousa, Cristina Maria Varino

    2015-01-01

    Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury.

  12. The pseudo-compartment method for coupling partial differential equation and compartment-based models of diffusion.

    PubMed

    Yates, Christian A; Flegg, Mark B

    2015-05-06

    Spatial reaction-diffusion models have been employed to describe many emergent phenomena in biological systems. The modelling technique most commonly adopted in the literature implements systems of partial differential equations (PDEs), which assumes there are sufficient densities of particles that a continuum approximation is valid. However, owing to recent advances in computational power, the simulation and therefore postulation, of computationally intensive individual-based models has become a popular way to investigate the effects of noise in reaction-diffusion systems in which regions of low copy numbers exist. The specific stochastic models with which we shall be concerned in this manuscript are referred to as 'compartment-based' or 'on-lattice'. These models are characterized by a discretization of the computational domain into a grid/lattice of 'compartments'. Within each compartment, particles are assumed to be well mixed and are permitted to react with other particles within their compartment or to transfer between neighbouring compartments. Stochastic models provide accuracy, but at the cost of significant computational resources. For models that have regions of both low and high concentrations, it is often desirable, for reasons of efficiency, to employ coupled multi-scale modelling paradigms. In this work, we develop two hybrid algorithms in which a PDE in one region of the domain is coupled to a compartment-based model in the other. Rather than attempting to balance average fluxes, our algorithms answer a more fundamental question: 'how are individual particles transported between the vastly different model descriptions?' First, we present an algorithm derived by carefully redefining the continuous PDE concentration as a probability distribution. While this first algorithm shows very strong convergence to analytical solutions of test problems, it can be cumbersome to simulate. Our second algorithm is a simplified and more efficient implementation of

  13. RAB24 facilitates clearance of autophagic compartments during basal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Anttila, Päivi; Mikkonen, Elisa; Happonen, Kaisa E; Holland, Petter; Ueno, Takashi; Simonsen, Anne; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    RAB24 belongs to a family of small GTPases and has been implicated to function in autophagy. Here we confirm the intracellular localization of RAB24 to autophagic vacuoles with immuno electron microscopy and cell fractionation, and show that prenylation and guanine nucleotide binding are necessary for the targeting of RAB24 to autophagic compartments. Further, we show that RAB24 plays a role in the maturation and/or clearance of autophagic compartments under nutrient-rich conditions, but not during short amino acid starvation. Quantitative electron microscopy shows an increase in the numbers of late autophagic compartments in cells silenced for RAB24, and mRFP-GFP-LC3 probe and autophagy flux experiments indicate that this is due to a hindrance in their clearance. Formation of autophagosomes is shown to be unaffected by RAB24-silencing with siRNA. A defect in aggregate clearance in the absence of RAB24 is also shown in cells forming polyglutamine aggregates. This study places RAB24 function in the termination of the autophagic process under nutrient-rich conditions. PMID:26325487

  14. Deltoid Compartment Syndrome: A Rare Complication after Humeral Intraosseous Access

    PubMed Central

    Thadikonda, Kishan M.; Ma, Irene; Spiess, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: We present a case of a 65-year-old woman who developed a delayed deltoid compartment syndrome after resuscitation via humeral intraosseous access. Initially she was treated conservatively but then was taken emergently for a fasciotomy. After confirming the diagnosis with compartment pressures, a 2-incision approach was employed and a large hematoma was evacuated from the inferior margin of the anterior deltoid. The rest of the deltoid was inspected and debrided to healthy bleeding tissue. Her fasciotomy wounds were left open to heal on their own due to her tenuous clinical condition. At most recent follow-up, she had full range of motion in her shoulder and no residual pain. Our unique case study is the first documented incidence of upper extremity compartment syndrome after intraosseous access. Additionally, our case supports using humeral access only as a second-line option if lower extremity access is not available and prolonged vigilant monitoring after discontinuing intraosseous access to prevent disastrous late complications. PMID:28203508

  15. Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

  16. Dynamically Active Compartments Coupled by a Stochastically Gated Gap Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Lawley, Sean D.

    2017-03-01

    We analyze a one-dimensional PDE-ODE system representing the diffusion of signaling molecules between two cells coupled by a stochastically gated gap junction. We assume that signaling molecules diffuse within the cytoplasm of each cell and then either bind to some active region of the cell's membrane (treated as a well-mixed compartment) or pass through the gap junction to the interior of the other cell. We treat the gap junction as a randomly fluctuating gate that switches between an open and a closed state according to a two-state Markov process. This means that the resulting PDE-ODE is stochastic due to the presence of a randomly switching boundary in the interior of the domain. It is assumed that each membrane compartment acts as a conditional oscillator, that is, it sits below a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. In the ungated case (gap junction always open), the system supports diffusion-induced oscillations, in which the concentration of signaling molecules within the two compartments is either in-phase or anti-phase. The presence of a reflection symmetry (for identical cells) means that the stochastic gate only affects the existence of anti-phase oscillations. In particular, there exist parameter choices where the gated system supports oscillations, but the ungated system does not, and vice versa. The existence of oscillations is investigated by solving a spectral problem obtained by averaging over realizations of the stochastic gate.

  17. View of bulkhead mounted steam powered windlass in compartment B126 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of bulkhead mounted steam powered windlass in compartment B-126 used for servicng boiler room compartments B-3 and B-4. (052A) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Activated Pancreatic Stellate Cells Sequester CD8+ T-Cells to Reduce Their Infiltration of the Juxtatumoral Compartment of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ene-Obong, Abasi; Clear, Andrew J.; Watt, Jennifer; Wang, Jun; Fatah, Rewas; Riches, John C.; Marshall, John F.; Chin-Aleong, Joanne; Chelala, Claude; Gribben, John G.; Ramsay, Alan G.; Kocher, Hemant M.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by a prominent desmoplastic microenvironment that contains many different immune cells. Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) contribute to the desmoplasia. We investigated whether distinct stromal compartments are differentially infiltrated by different types of immune cells. Method We used tissue microarray analysis to compare immune cell infiltration of different pancreatico-biliary diseased tissues (PDAC, ampullary carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, mucinous cystic neoplasm, chronic inflammation, and chronic pancreatitis), and juxtatumoral stromal (<100 μm from tumor) and panstromal compartments. We investigated the association between immune infiltrate and patient survival times. We analyzed T-cell migration and tumor infiltration in LSL-KrasG12D/+; LSL-Trp53R172H/+; Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) mice, and the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on these processes. Results Juxtatumoral compartments in PDAC samples from 2 independent groups of patients contained increased numbers of myeloperoxidase+ and CD68+ cells, compared with panstromal compartments. However, juxtatumoral compartments of PDACs contained fewer CD8+, FoxP3+, CD56+, or CD20+ cells than panstromal compartments, a distinction absent in ampullary carcinomas and cholangiocarcinomas. Patients with PDACs that had high densities of CD8+ T-cells in the juxtatumoral compartment had longer survival times than patients with lower densities. In KPC mice, administration of ATRA, which renders PSCs quiescent, increased numbers of CD8+ T-cells in juxtatumoral compartments. We found that activated PSCs express cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules that regulate T-cell migration. In vitro migration assays showed that CD8+ T-cells from PDAC patients had increased chemotaxis towards activated PSCs, which secrete CXCL12, compared with quiescent PSC or tumor cells. These effects could be reversed by knockdown of CXCL12 or treatment of

  19. Ablation of human skin mast cells in situ by lysosomotropic agents.

    PubMed

    Hagforsen, Eva; Paivandy, Aida; Lampinen, Maria; Weström, Simone; Calounova, Gabriela; Melo, Fabio R; Rollman, Ola; Pejler, Gunnar

    2015-07-01

    Mast cells are known to have a detrimental impact on numerous types of inflammatory skin diseases such as contact dermatitis, atopic eczema and cutaneous mastocytosis. Regimens that dampen skin mast cell-mediated activities can thus offer an attractive therapeutic option under such circumstances. As mast cells are known to secrete a large array of potentially pathogenic compounds, both from preformed stores in secretory lysosomes (granules) and after de novo synthesis, mere inhibition of degranulation or interference with individual mast cell mediators may not be sufficient to provide an effective blockade of harmful mast cell activities. An alternative strategy may therefore be to locally reduce skin mast cell numbers. Here, we explored the possibility of using lysosomotropic agents for this purpose, appreciating the fact that mast cell granules contain bioactive compounds prone to trigger apoptosis if released into the cytosolic compartment. Based on this principle, we show that incubation of human skin punch biopsies with the lysosomotropic agents siramesine or Leu-Leu methyl ester preferably ablated the mast cell population, without causing any gross adverse effects on the skin morphology. Subsequent analysis revealed that mast cells treated with lysosomotropic agents predominantly underwent apoptotic rather than necrotic cell death. In summary, this study raises the possibility of using lysosomotropic agents as a novel approach to targeting deleterious mast cell populations in cutaneous mastocytosis and other skin disorders negatively influenced by mast cells.

  20. REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE genes from Arabidopsis thaliana help to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Robert M.; Stefano, Giovanni; Ruckle, Michael E.; Stavoe, Andrea K.; Sinkler, Christopher A.; Brandizzi, Federica; Malmstrom, Carolyn M.; Osteryoung, Katherine W.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells require mechanisms to establish the proportion of cellular volume devoted to particular organelles. These mechanisms are poorly understood. From a screen for plastid-to-nucleus signaling mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana, we cloned a mutant allele of a gene that encodes a protein of unknown function that is homologous to two other Arabidopsis genes of unknown function and to FRIENDLY, which was previously shown to promote the normal distribution of mitochondria in Arabidopsis. In contrast to FRIENDLY, these three homologs of FRIENDLY are found only in photosynthetic organisms. Based on these data, we proposed that FRIENDLY expanded into a small gene family to help regulate the energy metabolism of cells that contain both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Indeed, we found that knocking out these genes caused a number of chloroplast phenotypes, including a reduction in the proportion of cellular volume devoted to chloroplasts to 50% of wild type. Thus, we refer to these genes as REDUCED CHLOROPLAST COVERAGE (REC). The size of the chloroplast compartment was reduced most in rec1 mutants. The REC1 protein accumulated in the cytosol and the nucleus. REC1 was excluded from the nucleus when plants were treated with amitrole, which inhibits cell expansion and chloroplast function. We conclude that REC1 is an extraplastidic protein that helps to establish the size of the chloroplast compartment, and that signals derived from cell expansion or chloroplasts may regulate REC1. PMID:26862170

  1. TIL therapy broadens the tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cell compartment in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Kvistborg, Pia; Shu, Chengyi Jenny; Heemskerk, Bianca; Fankhauser, Manuel; Thrue, Charlotte Albæk; Toebes, Mireille; van Rooij, Nienke; Linnemann, Carsten; van Buuren, Marit M; Urbanus, Jos H M; Beltman, Joost B; Thor Straten, Per; Li, Yong F; Robbins, Paul F; Besser, Michal J; Schachter, Jacob; Kenter, Gemma G; Dudley, Mark E; Rosenberg, Steven A; Haanen, John B A G; Hadrup, Sine Reker; Schumacher, Ton N M

    2012-07-01

    There is strong evidence that both adoptive T cell transfer and T cell checkpoint blockade can lead to regression of human melanoma. However, little data are available on the effect of these cancer therapies on the tumor-reactive T cell compartment. To address this issue we have profiled therapy-induced T cell reactivity against a panel of 145 melanoma-associated CD8(+) T cell epitopes. Using this approach, we demonstrate that individual tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte cell products from melanoma patients contain unique patterns of reactivity against shared melanoma-associated antigens, and that the combined magnitude of these responses is surprisingly low. Importantly, TIL therapy increases the breadth of the tumor-reactive T cell compartment in vivo, and T cell reactivity observed post-therapy can almost in full be explained by the reactivity observed within the matched cell product. These results establish the value of high-throughput monitoring for the analysis of immuno-active therapeutics and suggest that the clinical efficacy of TIL therapy can be enhanced by the preparation of more defined tumor-reactive T cell products.

  2. TIL therapy broadens the tumor-reactive CD8+ T cell compartment in melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Kvistborg, Pia; Shu, Chengyi Jenny; Heemskerk, Bianca; Fankhauser, Manuel; Thrue, Charlotte Albæk; Toebes, Mireille; van Rooij, Nienke; Linnemann, Carsten; van Buuren, Marit M.; Urbanus, Jos H.M.; Beltman, Joost B.; thor Straten, Per; Li, Yong F.; Robbins, Paul F.; Besser, Michal J.; Schachter, Jacob; Kenter, Gemma G.; Dudley, Mark E.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Haanen, John B.A.G.; Hadrup, Sine Reker; Schumacher, Ton N.M.

    2012-01-01

    There is strong evidence that both adoptive T cell transfer and T cell checkpoint blockade can lead to regression of human melanoma. However, little data are available on the effect of these cancer therapies on the tumor-reactive T cell compartment. To address this issue we have profiled therapy-induced T cell reactivity against a panel of 145 melanoma-associated CD8+ T cell epitopes. Using this approach, we demonstrate that individual tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte cell products from melanoma patients contain unique patterns of reactivity against shared melanoma-associated antigens, and that the combined magnitude of these responses is surprisingly low. Importantly, TIL therapy increases the breadth of the tumor-reactive T cell compartment in vivo, and T cell reactivity observed post-therapy can almost in full be explained by the reactivity observed within the matched cell product. These results establish the value of high-throughput monitoring for the analysis of immuno-active therapeutics and suggest that the clinical efficacy of TIL therapy can be enhanced by the preparation of more defined tumor-reactive T cell products. PMID:22754759

  3. Cyclosporin-A-induced prion protein aggresomes are dynamic quality-control cellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Ben-Gedalya, Tziona; Lyakhovetsky, Roman; Yedidia, Yifat; Bejerano-Sagie, Michal; Kogan, Natalya M; Karpuj, Marcela Viviana; Kaganovich, Daniel; Cohen, Ehud

    2011-06-01

    Despite the activity of cellular quality-control mechanisms, subsets of mature and newly synthesized polypeptides fail to fold properly and form insoluble aggregates. In some cases, protein aggregation leads to the development of human neurodegenerative maladies, including Alzheimer's and prion diseases. Aggregates of misfolded prion protein (PrP), which appear in cells after exposure to the drug cyclosporin A (CsA), and disease-linked PrP mutants have been found to accumulate in juxtanuclear deposition sites termed 'aggresomes'. Recently, it was shown that cells can contain at least two types of deposition sites for misfolded proteins: a dynamic quality-control compartment, which was termed 'JUNQ', and a site for terminally aggregated proteins called 'IPOD'. Here, we show that CsA-induced PrP aggresomes are dynamic structures that form despite intact proteasome activity, recruit chaperones and dynamically exchange PrP molecules with the cytosol. These findings define the CsA-PrP aggresome as a JUNQ-like dynamic quality-control compartment that mediates the refolding or degradation of misfolded proteins. Together, our data suggest that the formation of PrP aggresomes protects cells from proteotoxic stress.

  4. 75 FR 81 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Flightcrew Rest Compartment Occupiable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... wishes to use an OFCR compartment as ``sleeping quarters,'' the compartment must undergo an additional... suitability'' evaluation or a ``sleeping quarters'' evaluation of its OFCR compartment. The results of these... berths and must be compatible with the sleeping position during cruise conditions. There must be...

  5. 75 FR 75 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew Rest Compartment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... operator wishes to use an OCR compartment as ``sleeping quarters,'' the compartment must undergo an... request a ``basic suitability'' evaluation or a ``sleeping quarters'' evaluation of its OCR compartment... provided for berths and must be compatible for the sleeping attitude during cruise conditions. There...

  6. Compartment A126 port side. Note ash hoist for boiler room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-126 port side. Note ash hoist for boiler room compartment B-1 and compartment B-2. Scuttlebutt (drinking water fountain) is at right center of photograph. Manikin wearing WWII wave uniform is in display case at left center. (045) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Acute compartment syndrome after muscle rupture in a non-athlete.

    PubMed Central

    Thennavan, A S; Funk, L; Volans, A P

    1999-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after muscle rupture, although rare, is a limb threatening condition, which warrants emergency treatment. The case of acute compartment syndrome secondary to a gastrocnemius muscle tear of the right lower leg, in a non-athlete is reported. To our knowledge, this is the only description of acute compartment syndrome due to muscle rupture in a non-athlete. PMID:10505928

  8. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with §...

  9. 14 CFR 121.587 - Closing and locking of flightcrew compartment door.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compartment door. 121.587 Section 121.587 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... locking of flightcrew compartment door. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a pilot in command of an airplane that has a lockable flightcrew compartment door in accordance with §...

  10. View forward to aft of compartment B126. Note steam powered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward to aft of compartment B-126. Note steam powered windlass for ash hoist that services boiler room compartment B-3 and compartment B-4. Ash hoist conveyor rail is at top left. Diving suit and helmet dating from 1950's is displayed in case at center of photograph. (049) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. 58.25-40... AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-40 Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment. (a) The steering-gear compartment must— (1) Be readily accessible and, as far as...

  12. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  13. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  14. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  15. Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm caused by calcific tendinitis of the distal biceps.

    PubMed

    Garayoa, Santiago Amillo; Romero-Muñoz, Luis M; Pons-Villanueva, Juan

    2010-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm requires immediate treatment to avoid damage of the soft tissues and a poor functional outcome for the forearm. Muscular and bone lesions are the main causes of acute compartment syndromes. We report a case of acute compartment syndrome of the forearm caused by a calcific tendinitis of the distal biceps.

  16. 14 CFR 121.576 - Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... crew compartments. 121.576 Section 121.576 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.576 Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments. The certificate holder must... each item of crew baggage, which is carried in a passenger or crew compartment from becoming a...

  17. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  18. The mosaic structure of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42 and its relation to other symbiotic genome compartments

    PubMed Central

    González, Víctor; Bustos, Patricia; Ramírez-Romero, Miguel A; Medrano-Soto, Arturo; Salgado, Heladia; Hernández-González, Ismael; Hernández-Celis, Juan Carlos; Quintero, Verónica; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Girard, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Oscar; Flores, Margarita; Cevallos, Miguel A; Collado-Vides, Julio; Romero, David; Dávila, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Background Symbiotic bacteria known as rhizobia interact with the roots of legumes and induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. In rhizobia, essential genes for symbiosis are compartmentalized either in symbiotic plasmids or in chromosomal symbiotic islands. To understand the structure and evolution of the symbiotic genome compartments (SGCs), it is necessary to analyze their common genetic content and organization as well as to study their differences. To date, five SGCs belonging to distinct species of rhizobia have been entirely sequenced. We report the complete sequence of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN42, a microsymbiont of beans, and a comparison with other SGC sequences available. Results The symbiotic plasmid is a circular molecule of 371,255 base-pairs containing 359 coding sequences. Nodulation and nitrogen-fixation genes common to other rhizobia are clustered in a region of 125 kilobases. Numerous sequences related to mobile elements are scattered throughout. In some cases the mobile elements flank blocks of functionally related sequences, thereby suggesting a role in transposition. The plasmid contains 12 reiterated DNA families that are likely to participate in genomic rearrangements. Comparisons between this plasmid and complete rhizobial genomes and symbiotic compartments already sequenced show a general lack of synteny and colinearity, with the exception of some transcriptional units. There are only 20 symbiotic genes that are shared by all SGCs. Conclusions Our data support the notion that the symbiotic compartments of rhizobia genomes are mosaic structures that have been frequently tailored by recombination, horizontal transfer and transposition. PMID:12801410

  19. Autophagosome formation from membrane compartments enriched in phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and dynamically connected to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Axe, Elizabeth L; Walker, Simon A; Manifava, Maria; Chandra, Priya; Roderick, H Llewelyn; Habermann, Anja; Griffiths, Gareth; Ktistakis, Nicholas T

    2008-08-25

    Autophagy is the engulfment of cytosol and organelles by double-membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes. Autophagosome formation is known to require phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P) and occurs near the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but the exact mechanisms are unknown. We show that double FYVE domain-containing protein 1, a PI(3)P-binding protein with unusual localization on ER and Golgi membranes, translocates in response to amino acid starvation to a punctate compartment partially colocalized with autophagosomal proteins. Translocation is dependent on Vps34 and beclin function. Other PI(3)P-binding probes targeted to the ER show the same starvation-induced translocation that is dependent on PI(3)P formation and recognition. Live imaging experiments show that this punctate compartment forms near Vps34-containing vesicles, is in dynamic equilibrium with the ER, and provides a membrane platform for accumulation of autophagosomal proteins, expansion of autophagosomal membranes, and emergence of fully formed autophagosomes. This PI(3)P-enriched compartment may be involved in autophagosome biogenesis. Its dynamic relationship with the ER is consistent with the idea that the ER may provide important components for autophagosome formation.

  20. The peri-esophageal connective tissue layers and related compartments: visualization by histology and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Weijs, T J; Goense, L; van Rossum, P S N; Meijer, G J; van Lier, A L H M W; Wessels, F J; Braat, M N G; Lips, I M; Ruurda, J P; Cuesta, M A; van Hillegersberg, R; Bleys, R L A W

    2017-02-01

    An organized layer of connective tissue coursing from aorta to esophagus was recently discovered in the mediastinum. The relations with other peri-esophageal fascias have not been described and it is unclear whether this layer can be visualized by non-invasive imaging. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive description of the peri-esophageal fascias and determine whether the connective tissue layer between aorta and esophagus can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). First, T2-weighted MRI scanning of the thoracic region of a human cadaver was performed, followed by histological examination of transverse sections of the peri-esophageal tissue between the thyroid gland and the diaphragm. Secondly, pretreatment motion-triggered MRI scans were prospectively obtained from 34 patients with esophageal cancer and independently assessed by two radiologists for the presence and location of the connective tissue layer coursing from aorta to esophagus. A layer of connective tissue coursing from the anterior aspect of the descending aorta to the left lateral aspect of the esophagus, with a thin extension coursing to the right pleural reflection, was visualized ex vivo in the cadaver on MR images, macroscopic tissue sections, and after histologic staining, as well as on in vivo MR images. The layer connecting esophagus and aorta was named 'aorto-esophageal ligament' and the layer connecting aorta to the right pleural reflection 'aorto-pleural ligament'. These connective tissue layers divides the posterior mediastinum in an anterior compartment containing the esophagus, (carinal) lymph nodes and vagus nerve, and a posterior compartment, containing the azygos vein, thoracic duct and occasionally lymph nodes. The anterior compartment was named 'peri-esophageal compartment' and the posterior compartment 'para-aortic compartment'. The connective tissue layers superior to the aortic arch and at the diaphragm corresponded with the currently available anatomic

  1. I. Textural/Structural tuning and nanoparticle stabilization of copper-containing nanocomposite materials. II. Generation of reducing agents for automotive exhaust gas purification via the processing of hydrocarbons in a PACT (plasma and catalysis integrated technologies) reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yu

    This research consists of two parts. The first part deals with the preparation and properties of copper-containing nanocomposite materials. For studies of textural tuning, structural tuning, or material sintering, copper/aluminum and copper/zinc nanocomposites were prepared via various inorganic synthesis methods including conventional coprecipitation methods and a novel urea-gelation/thermal-modification method that produces narrow distributions of pore sizes, high surface areas, and significantly higher specific metal loadings. Solid-solid reaction analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis were developed for the determination of the mixing homogeneities of the copper/aluminum nanocomposites. A sintering experiment at 250-600°C for 350 h under methanol-steam reforming conditions was carried out to compare the stability of supported Cu0 nanoparticles. The mixing homogeneities of CuO/Al2O3 nanocomposites significantly affected the thermal stability of their reduced Cu0 crystallites. Creation of relatively narrow distributions of pore sizes with relatively small major pore diameters (e.g., 3.5 nm) can also be used for the stabilization of supported Cu0 nanoparticles. The supported nanoparticles with a relatively small initial size cannot ensure good thermal stability. A "hereditary" character on the homogeneity of copper/aluminum nanocomposites was revealed. Stepwise reduction and reoxidation were studied for the structural tuning and purification of Cu-Al-O spinels with isotropic and gradual unit-cell contractions. The second part of the research deals with the processing of hydrocarbons. Conversion of a model hydrocarbon (n-hexane or n-octane) in an AC discharge PACT (plasma and catalysis integrated technologies) reactor was verified to be an effective method to instantly produce reducing agents (e.g., hydrogen or/and light alkanes and alkenes), at room temperature and atmospheric pressure for automotive exhaust gas purification. Effects of

  2. Exercise-induced Pediatric Lumbar Paravertebral Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Verena M; Ward, W Timothy

    2015-09-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is described as an elevation of interstitial pressure in a closed fascial compartment that can lead to damage of the microvasculature with subsequent tissue necrosis. Although paravertebral compartment syndrome has been described there is no case of paravertebral compartment syndrome that has been described in the pediatric population. We report the case of a 17-year-old boy who presented at our institution with severe, acute-onset low back pain that started shortly after a rigorous 4-hour workout. He was diagnosed with acute lumbar paravertebral compartment syndrome and underwent emergent fasciotomy with 2 more debridements.

  3. Renal compartment segmentation in DCE-MRI images.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Le Minh, Hung; Tim Cheng, Kwang-Ting; Sung, Kyung Hyun; Liu, Wenyu

    2016-08-01

    Renal compartment segmentation from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) images is an important task for functional kidney evaluation. Despite advancement in segmentation methods, most of them focus on segmenting an entire kidney on CT images, there still lacks effective and automatic solutions for accurate segmentation of internal renal structures (i.e. cortex, medulla and renal pelvis) from DCE-MRI images. In this paper, we introduce a method for renal compartment segmentation which can robustly achieve high segmentation accuracy for a wide range of DCE-MRI data, and meanwhile requires little manual operations and parameter settings. The proposed method consists of five main steps. First, we pre-process the image time series to reduce the motion artifacts caused by the movement of the patients during the scans and enhance the kidney regions. Second, the kidney is segmented as a whole based on the concept of Maximally Stable Temporal Volume (MSTV). The proposed MSTV detects anatomical structures that are homogeneous in the spatial domain and stable in terms of temporal dynamics. MSTV-based kidney segmentation is robust to noises and does not require a training phase. It can well adapt to kidney shape variations caused by renal dysfunction. Third, voxels in the segmented kidney are described by principal components (PCs) to remove temporal redundancy and noises. And then k-means clustering of PCs is applied to separate voxels into multiple clusters. Fourth, the clusters are automatically labeled as cortex, medulla and pelvis based on voxels' geometric locations and intensity distribution. Finally, an iterative refinement method is introduced to further remove noises in each segmented compartment. Experiments on 14 real clinical kidney datasets and 12 synthetic dataset demonstrate that results produced by our method match very well with those segmented manually and the performance of our method is superior to the other five existing methods.

  4. A Two-Compartment Model of VEGF Distribution in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Engel-Stefanini, Marianne O.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of angiogenesis – the growth of new microvessels from existing microvasculature. Angiogenesis is a complex process involving numerous molecular species, and to better understand it, a systems biology approach is necessary. In vivo preclinical experiments in the area of angiogenesis are typically performed in mouse models; this includes drug development targeting VEGF. Thus, to quantitatively interpret such experimental results, a computational model of VEGF distribution in the mouse can be beneficial. In this paper, we present an in silico model of VEGF distribution in mice, determine model parameters from existing experimental data, conduct sensitivity analysis, and test the validity of the model. The multiscale model is comprised of two compartments: blood and tissue. The model accounts for interactions between two major VEGF isoforms (VEGF120 and VEGF164) and their endothelial cell receptors VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and co-receptor neuropilin-1. Neuropilin-1 is also expressed on the surface of parenchymal cells. The model includes transcapillary macromolecular permeability, lymphatic transport, and macromolecular plasma clearance. Simulations predict that the concentration of unbound VEGF in the tissue is approximately 50-fold greater than in the blood. These concentrations are highly dependent on the VEGF secretion rate. Parameter estimation was performed to fit the simulation results to available experimental data, and permitted the estimation of VEGF secretion rate in healthy tissue, which is difficult to measure experimentally. The model can provide quantitative interpretation of preclinical animal data and may be used in conjunction with experimental studies in the development of pro- and anti-angiogenic agents. The model approximates the normal tissue as skeletal muscle and includes endothelial cells to represent the vasculature. As the VEGF system becomes better characterized in other tissues and

  5. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  6. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-05-10

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation packages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on tile US Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama.

  7. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Poa, D.S.; Pierce, R.D.; Mulcahey, T.P.; Johnson, G.K.

    1991-12-31

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl{sub 2}-CaF{sub 2} with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  8. Acute Compartment Syndrome in Orthopedics: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Hasnain; Mahapatra, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Almost all orthopaedic surgeons come across acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in their clinical practice. Diagnosis of ACS mostly relies on clinical findings. If the diagnosis is missed and left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences which can endanger limb and life of the patient and also risk the clinician to face lawsuits. This review article highlights the characteristic features of ACS which will help an orthopaedic surgeon to understand the pathophysiology, natural history, high risk patients, diagnosis, and surgical management of the condition. PMID:25688303

  9. Relevance of mangled extremity severity score to compartment syndromes.

    PubMed

    Uslu, M M; Altun, N S; Cila, E; Atik, O S

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relevance of a mangled extremity severity score (MESS) to the evaluation of intracompartmental pressure in injured patients. We measured intracompartmental pressures with a modification of the Whitesides method and compared these values with MESS in 27 patients after trauma. For 5 of them fasciotomy was necessary to relieve high intracompartmental pressures. In our series MESS seemed to correlate with intracompartmental pressure values (r = 0.733, P < 0.05). We conclude that the MESS system provides objective criteria in determining the risk of a compartment syndrome.

  10. Internalized compartments encapsulated nanogels for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Ranson, Davis; Ye, Yanqi; Weng, Yuyan; Gu, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The resulting nanogels loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) displayed enhanced internalization efficiency to the source cells through a specific homotypic affinity in vitro. However, when treated with the non-source cells, the EM-NGs exhibited insignificant difference in therapeutic efficiency compared to a bare HA nanogel with DOX. This study illustrates the potential of utilizing an internalized compartments encapsulated formulation for targeted cancer therapy, and offers guidelines for developing a natural particulate-inspired drug delivery system.Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The

  11. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Poa, Davis S.; Pierce, R. Dean; Mulcahey, Thomas P.; Johnson, Gerald K.

    1993-01-01

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  12. Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Thigh in Combat Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    mechanisms such as motor vehicle trauma (1), femur fracture (2, 3), blunt vascular injury (4), and contusion (5, 6); (b) compressive mechanisms of injury...anesthesia (12); (c) internal hemorrhage or fluid extravasation such as coagulopathy and intramuscular hematoma (13, 14), false aneurysm (15), hamstring...Ipsilateral Femur Fracture Bilateral Compartment Syndromes ISS ½ 25 Nonsurvivors (n D 7) 42.4 š 8.6 70.1 š 5.6 0% (0/7) 86% (6/7) 100% (7/7

  13. Surgical management of abdominal compartment syndrome; indications and techniques

    PubMed Central

    Leppäniemi, Ari

    2009-01-01

    The indications for surgical decompression of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are not clearly defined, but undoubtedly some patients benefit from it. In patients without recent abdominal incisions, it can be achieved with full-thickness laparostomy (either midline, or transverse subcostal) or through a subcutaneous linea alba fasciotomy. In spite of the improvement in physiological variables and significant decrease in IAP, however, the effects of surgical decompression on organ function and outcome are less clear. Because of the significant morbidity associated with surgical decompression and the management of the ensuing open abdomen, more research is needed to better define the appropriate indications and techniques for surgical intervention. PMID:19366442

  14. Blocking the FGF/FGFR system as a "two-compartment" antiangiogenic/antitumor approach in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Arianna; Chiodelli, Paola; Matarazzo, Sara; Rusnati, Marco; Presta, Marco; Ronca, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a family of pleiotropic factors produced by stromal and parenchymal tumor cells. Even though FGFs have been firstly characterized as angiogenic factors, they exert autocrine and paracrine functions not only on endothelial cells but also on tumor cells and other stromal components. Thus, the FGF/FGF receptor (FGFR) pathway may represent a key player in tumor growth by regulating the complex cross-talk between stromal and tumor compartments. The ligand dependent or independent activation of the FGF/FGFR system by gene upregulation, oncogenic mutation or amplification occurs in a variety of human tumors and is implicated in various key steps of tumor growth and progression. In addition, FGF/FGFR activation has been described as a mechanism of tumor escape in response to antiangiogenic/anti-VEGF therapies. Experimental and clinical evidences provide a compelling biologic rationale for the development of anti-FGF/FGFR targeting agents in cancer therapy. However, the development of drugs specifically targeting the FGF/FGFR pathway proved to be difficult, also due to the high redundancy and pleiotropic effects of FGF and FGFR family members. On the other hand, the possibility to develop "two-compartment" targeting agents endowed with both antiangiogenic and antitumor activities remains promising. Here we will review the preclinical and clinical approaches and potential therapeutics currently available to block the FGF/FGFR system in human cancer.

  15. The extracellular matrix of Volvox carteri: molecular structure of the cellular compartment.

    PubMed

    Ertl, H; Mengele, R; Wenzl, S; Engel, J; Sumper, M

    1989-12-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of Volvox contains insoluble fibrous layers that surround individual cells at a distance to form contiguous cellular compartments. Using immunological techniques, we identified a sulfated surface glycoprotein (SSG 185) as the monomeric precursor of this substructure within the ECM. The primary structure of the SSG 185 poly-peptide chain has been derived from cDNA and genomic DNA. A central domain of the protein, 80 amino acid residues long, consists almost exclusively of hydroxyproline residues. The chemical structure of the highly sulfated polysaccharide covalently attached to SSG 185 has been determined by permethylation analysis. As revealed by EM, SSG 185 is a rod-shaped molecule with a 21-nm-long polysaccharide strand protruding from its central region. The chemical nature of the cross-links between SSG 185 monomers is discussed.

  16. Darwinian evolution in a translation-coupled RNA replication system within a cell-like compartment.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Norikazu; Usui, Kimihito; Kazuta, Yasuaki; Sunami, Takeshi; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    The ability to evolve is a key characteristic that distinguishes living things from non-living chemical compounds. The construction of an evolvable cell-like system entirely from non-living molecules has been a major challenge. Here we construct an evolvable artificial cell model from an assembly of biochemical molecules. The artificial cell model contains artificial genomic RNA that replicates through the translation of its encoded RNA replicase. We perform a long-term (600-generation) replication experiment using this system, in which mutations are spontaneously introduced into the RNA by replication error, and highly replicable mutants dominate the population according to Darwinian principles. During evolution, the genomic RNA gradually reinforces its interaction with the translated replicase, thereby acquiring competitiveness against selfish (parasitic) RNAs. This study provides the first experimental evidence that replicating systems can be developed through Darwinian evolution in a cell-like compartment, even in the presence of parasitic replicators.

  17. The extracellular matrix of Volvox carteri: molecular structure of the cellular compartment

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of Volvox contains insoluble fibrous layers that surround individual cells at a distance to form contiguous cellular compartments. Using immunological techniques, we identified a sulfated surface glycoprotein (SSG 185) as the monomeric precursor of this substructure within the ECM. The primary structure of the SSG 185 poly-peptide chain has been derived from cDNA and genomic DNA. A central domain of the protein, 80 amino acid residues long, consists almost exclusively of hydroxyproline residues. The chemical structure of the highly sulfated polysaccharide covalently attached to SSG 185 has been determined by permethylation analysis. As revealed by EM, SSG 185 is a rod-shaped molecule with a 21-nm-long polysaccharide strand protruding from its central region. The chemical nature of the cross- links between SSG 185 monomers is discussed. PMID:2689458

  18. Single-cell analysis reveals functionally distinct classes within the planarian stem cell compartment

    PubMed Central

    van Wolfswinkel, Josien C.; Wagner, Daniel E.; Reddien, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Planarians are flatworms capable of regenerating any missing body region. This capacity is mediated by neoblasts, a proliferative cell population that contains pluripotent stem cells. Although population-based studies have revealed many neoblast characteristics, whether functionally distinct classes exist within this population is unclear. Here, we used high-dimensional single-cell transcriptional profiling from over a thousand individual neoblasts to directly compare gene expression fingerprints during homeostasis and regeneration. We identified two prominent neoblast classes that we named ζ (zeta) and σ (sigma). Zeta-neoblasts encompass specified cells that give rise to an abundant postmitotic lineage including epidermal cells, and are not required for regeneration. By contrast, sigma-neoblasts proliferate in response to injury, possess broad lineage capacity, and can give rise to zeta-neoblasts. These findings present a new view of planarian neoblasts, in which the population is comprised of two major and functionally distinct cellular compartments. PMID:25017721

  19. Effects of D(1) receptor agonist SKF 38393 on male rat sexual behavior and postcopulatory departure in the goal compartment-runway paradigm.

    PubMed

    Beck, Józef; Biały, Michal; Kostowski, Wojciech

    2002-05-01

    Male rats were tested in an apparatus in which the goal compartment of the runway was connected with the start compartment by a one-way door. In this apparatus, the male spontaneously left the goal compartment containing the estrous female after a mount bout (the cluster of one or more copulatory events) and a new run started. This effect (the postcopulatory departure) seems to be due to the competition between the incentive value of the stimulus female and the runway. The dopamine D(1) receptor agonist SKF 38393 at the doses of 1-5 mg/kg sc significantly prolonged the time spent by the male in the goal compartment, while both run latency and run duration remained unaffected. Further analysis showed that the prolongation of the time in goal compartment results from increased duration of copulatory behavior accompanied by increased number of copulatory events. Although SKF 38393 did not influence the latency of postcopulatory departures, incomplete departures occurred in five out of eight males. In the free access to female conditions, the SKF 38393 did not influence copulatory performance, except for a reduction in the number of intromissions at the dose of 1 mg/kg sc. On the other hand, a significant reduction of postejaculatory ultrasonic vocalization was observed.

  20. Traffic into the prevacuolar/endosomal compartment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a VPS45-dependent intracellular route and a VPS45-independent, endocytic route.

    PubMed

    Bryant, N J; Piper, R C; Gerrard, S R; Stevens, T H

    1998-05-01

    The vps (vacuolar protein sorting) mutants have been used to dissect and characterize the vacuolar biogenesis pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The vps mutants were isolated through their loss of ability to correctly sort the vacuolar hydrolase CPY, which travels from Golgi membranes to the vacuole through a prevacuolar compartment. Over 50 VPS genes have been divided into 6 classes according to vacuolar morphology. Mutations in any one of the class E VPS genes, such as VPS27, lead to an exaggerated form of the prevacuolar compartment. This class E compartment contains endocytosed proteins as well as proteins en route to the vacuole, and is thus taken to represent an intersection point between the endocytic and biosynthetic pathways. Mutations in the class D gene VPS45 can be used to define a second transport intermediate along the vacuolar biogenesis pathway, Golgi-derived transport vesicles carrying vacuolar membrane proteins on their way to the vacuole. Here we demonstrate that the Sec1p-like protein Vps45p is required for the fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles with the prevacuolar compartment indicating that VPS45 functions before VPS27 in the vacuolar biogenesis pathway. In addition, we show that VPS45 function is not required for the delivery of endocytosed proteins to the prevacuolar compartment from the plasma membrane suggesting that the function of Vps45p is restricted to a single vesicular pathway.

  1. Compartment Syndrome as a Result of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    D'Egidio, Gianni; Wan, Cynthia; Baxter, Alan; Rosenberg, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe a single case of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS) with a rare complication of compartment syndrome. Patient. Our patient is a 57-year-old male, referred to our hospital due to polycythemia (hemoglobin (Hgb) of 220 g/L), hypotension, acute renal failure, and bilateral calf pain. Measurements and Main Results. The patient required bilateral forearm, thigh, and calf fasciotomies during his ICU stay and continuous renal replacement therapy was instituted following onset of acute renal failure and oliguria. Ongoing hemodynamic (Norepinephrine and Milrinone infusion) and respiratory (ventilator) support in the ICU was provided until resolution of intravascular fluid extravasation. Conclusions. SCLS is an extremely rare disorder characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability, which causes shift of volume and protein from the intravascular space to the interstitial space. Patients present with significant hypotension, hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, and oliguria. Severe edema results from leakage of fluid and proteins into tissue. The most important part of treatment is maintaining stable hemodynamics, ruling out other causes of shock and diligent monitoring for complications. Awareness of the clinical syndrome with the rare complication of compartment syndrome may help guide investigations and diagnoses of these critically ill patients. PMID:27688917

  2. [Compartment analysis of 123I-IMP brain SPECT].

    PubMed

    Higano, S; Shishido, F; Aizawa, Y; Miura, S; Murakami, M; Inugami, A; Kanno, I; Fujita, H; Uemura, K

    1990-01-01

    To clarify the kinetics of N-isopropyl [123I]p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in the brain, 2-compartment analysis was applied for brain SPECT with 57-minute dynamic scan in 9 subjects. The model consisted of blood component and brain tissue component. Two transfer rate constants were defined; k1 showed the rate from the blood to the brain tissue, and k2 was that of back diffusion. The late scan was performed 210 minutes after the tracer injection. Suitable k values best fitting to the dynamic data were determined for all regions of interest. Predicted regional cerebral activity at 210 minutes using 57-minute dynamic data was well agreed with measured activity. These showed the kinetics of IMP in the brain was well described by the 2-compartment model. The partition coefficient (k1/k2 ratio) was as large as about 35, and almost constant in the various brain structures including hypoperfused areas. These findings indicated that the initial IMP images reflected the reasonable CBF distribution, which gave relatively reliable CBF values even if using microsphere model.

  3. Identifiability Results for Several Classes of Linear Compartment Models.

    PubMed

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Sullivant, Seth; Eisenberg, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    Identifiability concerns finding which unknown parameters of a model can be estimated, uniquely or otherwise, from given input-output data. If some subset of the parameters of a model cannot be determined given input-output data, then we say the model is unidentifiable. In this work, we study linear compartment models, which are a class of biological models commonly used in pharmacokinetics, physiology, and ecology. In past work, we used commutative algebra and graph theory to identify a class of linear compartment models that we call identifiable cycle models, which are unidentifiable but have the simplest possible identifiable functions (so-called monomial cycles). Here we show how to modify identifiable cycle models by adding inputs, adding outputs, or removing leaks, in such a way that we obtain an identifiable model. We also prove a constructive result on how to combine identifiable models, each corresponding to strongly connected graphs, into a larger identifiable model. We apply these theoretical results to several real-world biological models from physiology, cell biology, and ecology.

  4. Delayed Presentation of Gluteal Compartment Syndrome: The Argument for Fasciotomy

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, John E.; Cundall-Curry, Duncan J.; Stohr, Kuldeep K.

    2016-01-01

    A male patient in his fifties presented to his local hospital with numbness and weakness of the right leg which left him unable to mobilise. He reported injecting heroin the previous morning. Following an initial diagnosis of acute limb ischaemia the patient was transferred to a tertiary centre where Computed Tomography Angiography was reported as normal. Detailed neurological examination revealed weakness in hip flexion and extension (1/5 on the Medical Research Council scale) with complete paralysis of muscle groups distal to this. Sensation to pinprick and light touch was globally reduced. Blood tests revealed acute kidney injury with raised creatinine kinase and the patient was treated for rhabdomyolysis. Orthopaedic referral was made the following day and a diagnosis of gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) was made. Emergency fasciotomy was performed 56 hours after the onset of symptoms. There was immediate neurological improvement following decompression and the patient was rehabilitated with complete nerve recovery and function at eight-week follow-up. This is the first documented case of full functional recovery following a delayed presentation of GCS with sciatic nerve palsy. We discuss the arguments for and against fasciotomy in cases of compartment syndrome with significant delay in presentation or diagnosis. PMID:27073707

  5. Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana; Tessa, Alessandra; Tonin, Paola; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Mole, Sara E.; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Simonati, Alessandro

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

  6. Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Mack, Stephen; Gendoo, Deena M A; Remke, Marc; Wu, Xiaochong; Garzia, Livia; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence; Peacock, John; López, Borja; Skowron, Patryk; Zagzag, David; Lyden, David; Hoffman, Caitlin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Eberhart, Charles; MacDonald, Tobey; Li, Xiao-Nan; Van Meter, Timothy; Northcott, Paul A; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Bouffet, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the metastatic compartment. We assembled a cohort of 12-paired primary-metastatic tumors collected in the MAGIC consortium, and established their molecular subgroup affiliation by performing integrative gene expression and DNA methylation analysis. Frozen tissues were collected and profiled using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Illumina methylation arrays. Class prediction and hierarchical clustering were performed using existing published datasets. Our molecular analysis, using consensus integrative genomic data, establishes the unequivocal maintenance of molecular subgroup affiliation in metastatic medulloblastoma. We further validated these findings by interrogating a non-overlapping cohort of 19 pairs of primary-metastatic tumors from the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute using an orthogonal technique of immunohistochemical staining. This investigation represents the largest reported primary-metastatic paired cohort profiled to date and provides a unique opportunity to evaluate subgroup-specific molecular aberrations within the metastatic compartment. Our findings further support the hypothesis that medulloblastoma subgroups arise from distinct cells of origin, which are carried forward from ontogeny to oncology.

  7. Compartment specific response of antioxidants to drought stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Koffler, Barbara Eva; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Stabentheiner, Edith; Müller, Maria; Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Compartment specific changes in ascorbate and glutathione contents were studied during drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and in ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively, over a time period of 10 days. The results of this study revealed a strong decrease of glutathione contents in both mutants (up to 52% in mitochondria of pad2-1 and 40% in nuclei of vtc2-1) at early time points when drought stress was not yet measurable in leaves even though the soil showed a drop in relative water contents. These results indicate that glutathione is used at early time points to signal drought stress from roots to leaves. Such roles could not be confirmed for ascorbate which remained unchanged in most cell compartments until very late stages of drought. During advanced drought stress the strong depletion of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts (up to 50% in Col-0 and vtc2-1) and peroxisomes (up to 56% in Col-0) could be correlated with a strong accumulation of H2O2. The strong increase of H2O2 and ascorbate in vacuoles (up to 111%) in wildtype plants indicates that ascorbate plays an important role for the detoxification of ROS in vacuoles during drought stress. PMID:25219315

  8. MeLiSSA third compartment: a kinetic and stoichiometric study for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Farges, Berangere

    2012-07-01

    As a part of a natural biological N-cycle, nitrification is one of the steps included in the conception of artificial ecosystems designed for extraterrestrial life support systems (LSS). In MELiSSA loop, which is based on carbon and nitrogen recycling, the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew are collected in the liquefying compartment that degrades the chemically complex wastes into simpler building blocks (organic acids and CO2). The organic acids are eliminated in the second photoheterotrophic compartment letting an organic free medium mostly containing minerals and N-NH+4 nitrogen. The third compartment is in charge to re-oxidize N-NH+4 in order to make nitrogen usable by the following compartments. In MELiSSA, the constraint is to perform axenic cultures in order to fully control the genetic status of the culture and a thorough modelling for developing a control strategy of the compartment and of the loop, knowing that the reliability of the production of oxidized forms of nitrogen NO3- directly impacts the behaviour of the following compartments. Nitrification in aerobic environments is carried out by two groups of bacteria in co-cultures in a two-step process. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea) realize the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrobacter winogradskyi) the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. In both cases, the bacteria achieve the oxidations to obtain an energy and reductant source for their growth and maintenance. Both groups use CO2 predominantly as their carbon source. They are typically found together in ecosystems and, consequently, nitrite accumulation is rare. This study concerns kinetic and mass balances studies of axenic cultures of Ns. europaea and Nb. winogradskyi in autotrophic conditions. The daily follow-up of these cultures is done using a new protocol involving flow cytometry and ionic chromatography. Nitrogen substrates and products are

  9. Estimation of adipose compartment volumes in CT images of a mastectomy specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, Abdullah-Al-Zubaer; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2016-03-01

    Anthropomorphic software breast phantoms have been utilized for preclinical quantitative validation of breast imaging systems. Efficacy of the simulation-based validation depends on the realism of phantom images. Anatomical measurements of the breast tissue, such as the size and distribution of adipose compartments or the thickness of Cooper's ligaments, are essential for the realistic simulation of breast anatomy. Such measurements are, however, not readily available in the literature. In this study, we assessed the statistics of adipose compartments as visualized in CT images of a total mastectomy specimen. The specimen was preserved in formalin, and imaged using a standard body CT protocol and high X-ray dose. A human operator manually segmented adipose compartments in reconstructed CT images using ITK-SNAP software, and calculated the volume of each compartment. In addition, the time needed for the manual segmentation and the operator's confidence were recorded. The average volume, standard deviation, and the probability distribution of compartment volumes were estimated from 205 segmented adipose compartments. We also estimated the potential correlation between the segmentation time, operator's confidence, and compartment volume. The statistical tests indicated that the estimated compartment volumes do not follow the normal distribution. The compartment volumes are found to be correlated with the segmentation time; no significant correlation between the volume and the operator confidence. The performed study is limited by the mastectomy specimen position. The analysis of compartment volumes will better inform development of more realistic breast anatomy simulation.

  10. Biotinylating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Sigler, G.F.

    1989-01-17

    A method is described for recovering a complex of target antigen and target binding biotin labeled protein from a mixture containing the target antigen, the method comprising: providing a thiol containing binding protein for the target antigen; preparing a biotin derivative of the thiol containing binding protein by contacting the binding protein in an aqueous buffer maintaining a pH within the range of 6 to 9 with a compound; contacting a mixture containing the target antigen with biotin derivatized binding protein to obtain a complex of target antigen and biotin derivatized binding protein; contacting the complex with immobilized avidin to obtain avidin bound complex; and treating the avidin bound complex with a thiol whereby the complex is released from the immobilized avidin.

  11. A peripheral protein associated with the cis-Golgi network redistributes in the intermediate compartment upon brefeldin A treatment

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Human autoantibodies offer unique tools for the study of cellular constituents since they usually recognize highly conserved components, the most difficult to detect due to their low immunogenicity. The serum from a patient with Sjogren's syndrome (RM serum) showing a very high reactivity to the Golgi complex has been shown to immunoprecipitate and to immunodetect by Western blotting experiments a protein mol wt 210,000 (p210) that was shown to be peripheral and cytoplasmically disposed. A close examination of the p210 labeling revealed some differences with Golgi markers: RM serum staining was slightly more extensive than several Golgi markers and showed a discontinuous or granular appearance. Nocodazole induced a specific and early segregation of many p210-associated vesicles or tubules from Golgi apparatus. Upon brefeldin A treatment, p210 did not redistribute in the ER as did other Golgi proteins. In contrast, it exhibited a vesicular pattern reminiscent to that displayed by proteins residing in the intermediate compartment. Double staining immunofluorescence using the RM serum and the marker of the intermediate compartment, p58, revealed segregation of both proteins in control conditions but colocalization in BFA-treated cells. We have further demonstrated by combining different drug treatments that p210-containing elements in brefeldin A- treated cells belong indeed to the intermediate compartment. Experiments on brefeldin A recovery suggested that these p210 elements might play a role in reformation and repositioning of the Golgi apparatus. Ultrastructural localization performed by immunoperoxidase staining allowed us to establish that p210 interacted with the external side of an abundant tubulo-vesicular system on the cis side of the Golgi complex which extended to connecting structures and vesicles between saccules or stacks of cisternae, p210 appears to be a novel protein residing in the cis-Golgi network that may cycle between the Golgi apparatus and the

  12. Aging of microstructural compartments in human compact bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkus, Ozan; Polyakova-Akkus, Anna; Adar, Fran; Schaffler, Mitchell B.

    2003-01-01

    Composition of microstructural compartments in compact bone of aging male subjects was assessed using Raman microscopy. Secondary mineralization of unremodeled fragments persisted for two decades. Replacement of these tissue fragments with secondary osteons kept mean composition constant over age, but at a fully mineralized limit. Slowing of remodeling may increase fracture susceptibility through an increase in proportion of highly mineralized tissue. In this study, the aging process in the microstructural compartments of human femoral cortical bone was investigated and related to changes in the overall tissue composition within the age range of 17-73 years. Raman microprobe analysis was used to assess the mineral content, mineral crystallinity, and carbonate substitution in fragments of primary lamellar bone that survived remodeling for decades. Tissue composition of the secondary osteonal population was investigated to determine the composition of turned over tissue volume. Finally, Raman spectral analysis of homogenized tissue was performed to evaluate the effects of unremodeled and newly formed tissue on the overall tissue composition. The chemical composition of the primary lamellar bone exhibited two chronological stages. Organic matrix became more mineralized and the crystallinity of the mineral improved during the first stage, which lasted for two decades. The mineral content and the mineral crystallinity did not vary during the second stage. The results for the primary lamellar bone demonstrated that physiological mineralization, as evidenced by crystal growth and maturation, is a continuous process that may persist as long as two decades, and the growth and maturation process stops after the organic matrix becomes "fully mineralized." The average mineral content and the average mineral crystallinity of the homogenized tissue did not change with age. It was also observed that the mineral content of the homogenized tissue was consistently greater than the

  13. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  14. Overuse injuries: tendinopathies, stress fractures, compartment syndrome, and shin splints.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Robert P; Sethi, Shikha

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 50% of all sports injuries are secondary to overuse and result from repetitive microtrauma that causes local tissue damage. Injuries are most likely with changes in mode, intensity, or duration of training and can accumulate before symptoms appear. Intrinsic factors contributing to injuries are individual bio-mechanical abnormalities such as malalignments, muscle imbalance, inflexibility, weakness, and instability. Contributing extrinsic (avoidable) factors include poor technique, improper equipment, and improper changes in duration or frequency of activity. Injuries are often related to biomechanical abnormalities removed from the specific injury site, requiring evaluation of the entire kinetic chain. This article discusses common overuse injuries of the lower leg, ankle, and foot: tendinopathies, stress fractures, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, and shin splints.

  15. Spatial organization of chromatin domains and compartments in single chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyuan; Su, Jun-Han; Beliveau, Brian J; Bintu, Bogdan; Moffitt, Jeffrey R; Wu, Chao-ting; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-08-05

    The spatial organization of chromatin critically affects genome function. Recent chromosome-conformation-capture studies have revealed topologically associating domains (TADs) as a conserved feature of chromatin organization, but how TADs are spatially organized in individual chromosomes remains unknown. Here, we developed an imaging method for mapping the spatial positions of numerous genomic regions along individual chromosomes and traced the positions of TADs in human interphase autosomes and X chromosomes. We observed that chromosome folding deviates from the ideal fractal-globule model at large length scales and that TADs are largely organized into two compartments spatially arranged in a polarized manner in individual chromosomes. Active and inactive X chromosomes adopt different folding and compartmentalization configurations. These results suggest that the spatial organization of chromatin domains can change in response to regulation.

  16. Facile synthesis of dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Doermbach, Karla; Pich, Andrij

    2015-05-28

    In this article we report on the controlled synthesis of asymmetric lemon-shaped and dumbbell-shaped multi-compartment nanoparticles (MCPs) with a reactive surface and interesting morphology. In our approach we utilize partial coating of hematite ellipsoids with a hydrophobic polymer layer followed by selective silica deposition on the non-coated surface. Ellipsoidal hematite particles provide a non-centric asymmetry, which is strongly enhanced during the seeded emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric growth of polymers on the hematite particle surface is driven by phase separation phenomena, which lead to a reduction of the interfacial tension. We found the tips of the hematite ellipsoids to be uncovered after polymerization. A selective deposition of silica onto the free tips leads to dumbbell-shaped particles with hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.

  17. Abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty: A case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Izadpanah, Arash; Izadpanah, Ali; Karunanayake, Mihiran; Petropolis, Christian; Deckelbaum, Dan L.; Luc, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Abdominoplasty is among the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. Despite high complication rate, abdominal contouring procedures are expected to rise in popularity with the advent of bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of gastric bypass surgery have an elevated incidence of small bowel obstruction from internal herniation, which is associated with non-specific upper abdominal pain, nausea, and a decrease in appetite. Internal hernias, when subjected to elevated intra-abdominal pressures, have a high-risk of developing ischemic bowel. We present a case report of patient with previous laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass who developed acute ischemic bowel leading to abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature. We herein emphasise on the subtle symptoms and signs that warrant further investigations in prospective patients for an abdominal contouring procedure with a prior history of gastric bypass surgery. PMID:25190927

  18. Abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty: A case report and review.

    PubMed

    Izadpanah, Arash; Izadpanah, Ali; Karunanayake, Mihiran; Petropolis, Christian; Deckelbaum, Dan L; Luc, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Abdominoplasty is among the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. Despite high complication rate, abdominal contouring procedures are expected to rise in popularity with the advent of bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of gastric bypass surgery have an elevated incidence of small bowel obstruction from internal herniation, which is associated with non-specific upper abdominal pain, nausea, and a decrease in appetite. Internal hernias, when subjected to elevated intra-abdominal pressures, have a high-risk of developing ischemic bowel. We present a case report of patient with previous laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass who developed acute ischemic bowel leading to abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature. We herein emphasise on the subtle symptoms and signs that warrant further investigations in prospective patients for an abdominal contouring procedure with a prior history of gastric bypass surgery.

  19. Anterior elbow dislocation with potential compartment syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Queipo-de-Llano Temboury, Alfonso; Lara, Jorge Mariscal; Fernadez-de-Rota, Antonio; Queipo-de-Llano, Enrique

    2007-03-01

    Anterior elbow dislocation is an infrequent lesion, usually produced by direct trauma to the proximal ulna after a fall on the elbow in flexion, and is often associated with soft tissue injuries. The authors report a case of a complex injury produced by a high-energy trauma in the right arm of a 65-year-old patient. His limb was trapped inside an industrial spin-dryer, resulting in a closed anterior elbow dislocation, diaphyseal ulnar shaft, radial styloid process fractures, and an associated compartment syndrome. The injury mechanism and its treatment are described to better manage the soft tissue injury and early elbow mobilization using the FEARM hinged external fixator. A good result was achieved, with almost complete restoration of the patient's arm functions, and he has returned to his previous working activities.

  20. Regulation of spermatogonial stem cell compartment in the mouse testis.

    PubMed

    Iwamori, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Spermatogenesis occurs throughout the adult lifetime of males and is supported by a robust stem cell system. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the stem cells of postnatal male germ cells, and not only self-renew but also produce differentiated progeny continuously. Recent report revealed that differentiating spermatogonia could revert into an undifferentiated state, although it was believed that SSCs were homogeneous and that differentiating spermatogonia was not reversible. Although several molecules, which regulate SSC, have been identified so far, molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of SSCs as well as the reversible developmental lineage of SSCs remain to be elucidated. In this review, we describe a brief overview of spermatogenesis and summarize the molecular regulation of SSC compartment.

  1. Native tissue repair for central compartment prolapse: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Paz-Levy, Dorit; Yohay, David; Neymeyer, Joerg; Hizkiyahu, Ranit; Weintraub, Adi Y

    2017-02-01

    Central descent due to a level 1 defect is a main component in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) reconstructive surgery, whether for symptomatic apical prolapse or for the prolapse repair of other compartments. A recent growth in the rate of native tissue repair procedures for POP, following the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warnings regarding the safety and efficacy of synthetic meshes, requires a re-evaluation of these procedures. The safety, efficacy, and determination of the optimal surgical approach should be the center of attention. Functional outcome measures and patient-centered results have lately gained importance and received focus. A comprehensive literature review was performed to evaluate objective and subjective outcomes of apical prolapse native tissue repair, with a special focus on studies reporting impact on patients' functional outcomes, quality of life, and satisfaction. We performed a MEDLINE search for articles in the English language by using the following key words: apical prolapse, sacrospinous ligament fixation, uterosacral ligament suspension, sacral colpopexy, McCall culdoplasty, iliococcygeus vaginal fixation, and functional outcomes. We reviewed references as well. Despite a prominent shortage of studies reporting standardized prospective outcomes for native tissue repair interventions, we noted a high rate of safety and efficacy, with a low complication rate for most procedures and low recurrence or re-treatment rates. The objective and subjective results of different procedures are reviewed. Functional outcomes of native tissue repair procedures have not been studied sufficiently, though existing data present those procedures as favorable and not categorically inferior to sacrocolpopexy. Apical compartment prolapse repair using native tissue is not a compromise. Functional outcomes of native tissue repair procedures are favorable, have a high rate of success, improve women's quality of life (QoL), and result in high rates of

  2. Evolution of trochlear compartment geometry in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Demey, Guillaume; Nover, Luca; Dejour, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The study aimed to compare trochlear profiles in recent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) models and to determine whether they feature improvements compared to their predecessors. The hypothesis was that recent TKA models have more anatomic trochlear compartments and would display no signs of trochlear dysplasia. Methods The authors analyzed the geometry of the 6 following TKA models using engineering software: PFC and Attune (DePuy), NexGen and Persona (Zimmer), Noetos and KneeTec (Tornier). The mediolateral trochlear profiles were plotted at various flexion angles (0°, 15°, 30° and 45°) to deduce the sulcus angle. Results Analysis of sulcus angles reveals general convergence of recent designs towards anatomic values. At 0° of flexion, sulcus angles of recent implant models were between 156.0–157.4°, while those of previous generation models between 154.5–165.5°. At 30° of flexion, sulcus angles of recent models also lie within 145.7–148.6°, but those of previous models are between 149.5–152.0°. All three manufacturers deepened their trochlear profile at 30° of flexion in recent models compared to earlier designs. Sulcus angles converge towards anatomic values but still exceed radiologic signs of dysplasia by 2–5°. Conclusions Recent TKA designs have more anatomic trochlear geometries than earlier TKA models by the same manufacturers, but trochlear compartments still exceed radiologic signs of trochlear dysplasia by 2° to 5°. The hypothesis that recent TKA models display no signs of trochlear dysplasia is therefore refuted. Surgeons should be aware of design limitations to optimize choice of implant and extensor mechanisms alignment. Level of evidence: IV geometric implant analysis. PMID:26855943

  3. Management of abdominal compartment syndrome after transurethral resection of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Gaut, Megan M; Ortiz, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Acute abdominal compartment syndrome is most commonly associated with blunt abdominal trauma, although it has been seen after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, liver transplantation, pancreatitis, and massive volume resuscitation. Acute abdominal compartment syndrome develops once the intra-abdominal pressure increases to 20-25 mmHg and is characterized by an increase in airway pressures, inadequate ventilation and oxygenation, altered renal function, and hemodynamic instability. This case report details the development of acute abdominal compartment syndrome during transurethral resection of the prostate with extra- and intraperitoneal bladder rupture under general anesthesia. The first signs of acute abdominal compartment syndrome in this patient were high peak airway pressures and difficulty delivering tidal volumes. Management of the compartment syndrome included re-intubation, emergent exploratory laparotomy, and drainage of irrigation fluid. Difficulty with ventilation should alert the anesthesiologist to consider abdominal compartment syndrome high in the list of differential diagnoses during any endoscopic bladder or bowel case.

  4. [Management of abdominal compartment syndrome after transurethral resection of the prostate].

    PubMed

    Gaut, Megan M; Ortiz, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Acute abdominal compartment syndrome is most commonly associated with blunt abdominal trauma, although it has been seen after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, liver transplantation, pancreatitis, and massive volume resuscitation. Acute abdominal compartment syndrome develops once the intra-abdominal pressure increases to 20-25mmHg and is characterized by an increase in airway pressures, inadequate ventilation and oxygenation, altered renal function, and hemodynamic instability. This case report details the development of acute abdominal compartment syndrome during transurethral resection of the prostate with extra- and intraperitoneal bladder rupture under general anesthesia. The first signs of acute abdominal compartment syndrome in this patient were high peak airway pressures and difficulty delivering tidal volumes. Management of the compartment syndrome included re-intubation, emergent exploratory laparotomy, and drainage of irrigation fluid. Difficulty with ventilation should alert the anesthesiologist to consider abdominal compartment syndrome high in the list of differential diagnoses during any endoscopic bladder or bowel case.

  5. Multi-compartment encapsulation of communicating droplets and droplet networks in hydrogel as a model for artificial cells.

    PubMed

    Bayoumi, Mariam; Bayley, Hagan; Maglia, Giovanni; Sapra, K Tanuj

    2017-04-03

    Constructing a cell mimic is a major challenge posed by synthetic biologists. Efforts to this end have been primarily focused on lipid- and polymer-encapsulated containers, liposomes and polymersomes, respectively. Here, we introduce a multi-compartment, nested system comprising aqueous droplets stabilized in an oil/lipid mixture, all encapsulated in hydrogel. Functional capabilities (electrical and chemical communication) were imparted by protein nanopores spanning the lipid bilayer formed at the interface of the encapsulated aqueous droplets and the encasing hydrogel. Crucially, the compartmentalization enabled the formation of two adjoining lipid bilayers in a controlled manner, a requirement for the realization of a functional protocell or prototissue.

  6. Interaction of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium with Dendritic Cells Is Defined by Targeting to Compartments Lacking Lysosomal Membrane Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    García-Del Portillo, Francisco; Jungnitz, Heidrun; Rohde, Manfred; Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the generation of acquired immunity to infections by pathogenic microorganisms. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is known to survive and proliferate intracellularly within macrophages and nonphagocytic cells, but no data exist on how this pathogen interacts with DCs. In this report, we show the capacity of serotype Typhimurium to survive within the established mouse DC line CB1. In contrast to the case for the macrophage model, the compartments of DCs containing serotype Typhimurium are devoid of lysosomal membrane glycoproteins and the PhoPQ two-component regulatory system is not essential for pathogen intracellular survival. PMID:10768999

  7. Multi-compartment encapsulation of communicating droplets and droplet networks in hydrogel as a model for artificial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bayoumi, Mariam; Bayley, Hagan; Maglia, Giovanni; Sapra, K. Tanuj

    2017-01-01

    Constructing a cell mimic is a major challenge posed by synthetic biologists. Efforts to this end have been primarily focused on lipid- and polymer-encapsulated containers, liposomes and polymersomes, respectively. Here, we introduce a multi-compartment, nested system comprising aqueous droplets stabilized in an oil/lipid mixture, all encapsulated in hydrogel. Functional capabilities (electrical and chemical communication) were imparted by protein nanopores spanning the lipid bilayer formed at the interface of the encapsulated aqueous droplets and the encasing hydrogel. Crucially, the compartmentalization enabled the formation of two adjoining lipid bilayers in a controlled manner, a requirement for the realization of a functional protocell or prototissue. PMID:28367984

  8. Targeting of endopeptidase 24.16 to different subcellular compartments by alternative promoter usage.

    PubMed

    Kato, A; Sugiura, N; Saruta, Y; Hosoiri, T; Yasue, H; Hirose, S

    1997-06-13

    Endopeptidase 24.16 or mitochondrial oligopeptidase, abbreviated here as EP 24.16 (MOP), is a thiol- and metal-dependent oligopeptidase that is found in multiple intracellular compartments in mammalian cells. From an analysis of the corresponding gene, we found that the distribution of the enzyme to appropriate subcellular locations is achieved by the use of alternative sites for the initiation of transcription. The pig EP 24.16 (MOP) gene spans over 100 kilobases and is organized into 16 exons. The core protein sequence is encoded by exons 5-16 which match perfectly with exons 2-13 of the gene for endopeptidase 24.15, another member of the thimet oligopeptidase family. These two sets of 11 exons share the same splice sites, suggesting a common ancestor. Multiple species of mRNA for EP 24.16 (MOP) were detected by the 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends and they were shown to have been generated from a single gene by alternative choices of sites for the initiation of transcription and splicing. Two types of transcript were prepared, corresponding to transcription from distal and proximal sites. Their expression in vitro in COS-1 cells indicated that they encoded two isoforms (long and short) which differed only at their amino termini: the long form contained a cleavable mitochondrial targeting sequence and was directed to mitochondria; the short form, lacking such a signal sequence, remained in the cytosol. The complex structure of the EP 24.16 (MOP) gene thus allows, by alternative promoter usage, a fine transcriptional regulation of coordinate expression, in the different subcellular compartments, of the two isoforms arising from a single gene.

  9. New insights on human skeletal muscle tissue compartments revealed by in vivo t2 NMR relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ericky C A; Fromes, Yves; Carlier, Pierre G

    2014-05-20

    The spin-spin (T2) relaxation of (1)H-NMR signals in human skeletal muscle has been previously hypothesized to reveal information about myowater compartmentation. Although experimental support has been provided, no consensus has yet emerged concerning the attribution of specific anatomical compartments to the observed T2 components. Potential application of a noninvasive tool that might offer such information urges the quest for a definitive answer to this question. The purpose of this work was to obtain new information that might help elucidate the mechanism of T2 distribution in muscle. To do so, in vivo T2 relaxation data was acquired from the soleus of eight healthy volunteers using a localized Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill technique. Each acquisition contained 1000 echoes with an interecho spacing of 1 ms. Data were acquired from each subject under different vascular filling preparations expected to change exclusively the extracellular water fraction. Two exponential components were systematically observed: an intermediate component (T2 ~ 32 ms) and a long component (100 < T2 < 210 ms). The relative fraction and T2 value characterizing the long component systematically increased after progressive augmentation of extracellular water volume. Characteristic relaxation behavior for each vascular filling condition was analyzed with a two-site exchange model and a three-site two-exchange model. We show that a two-site exchange model can only predict the observations for small exchange rates, much more representative of transendothelial than transcytolemmal exchange regimes. The three-site two-exchange model representing the intracellular, interstitial, and vascular spaces was capable of precisely predicting the observations for realistic transcytolemmal and transendothelial exchange rates. The estimated intrinsic relative fractions of each of these compartments corroborate with estimations from previous works and strongly suggest that the T2 relaxation from water within

  10. Differential effects of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs on striosome and matrix compartments of the striatum.

    PubMed

    Bubser, Michael; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2002-02-01

    Administration of typical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) is often accompanied by extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS). Treatment with atypical APDs has a lower incidence of motor side-effects and atypical APDs are superior to typical APDs in treating the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Although typical APDs strongly induce the immediate-early gene c-fos in the striatum while atypical APDs do so only weakly, it is possible that the effects of atypical APDs are more pronounced within certain regions of the striatum. The striatum contains two histochemically defined compartments, the striosome (patch) and the matrix. These compartments have been well characterized anatomically but their functional attributes are unclear. We therefore examined the effects of typical and atypical APDs on Fos expression in the striosome and matrix of the rat. Typical and atypical APDs were distinguished by the pattern of striatal compartmental activation they induced: the striosome : matrix ratio of Fos-li neurons was greater in rats treated with atypical APDs. Pretreating animals with selective antagonists of receptors that atypical APDs target with high affinity did not increase the striosome : matrix Fos ratio of typical APD-treated rats and thus did not mimic the ratio seen in response to atypical APDs. However, pretreatment with the atypical APD clozapine did recapitulate the characteristic compartmental Fos pattern seen in response to typical APDs. These data suggest that some characteristics of atypical APDs, such as the lower EPS liability and greater reduction of negative symptoms, may be linked to the coordinate regulation of the striatal striosome and matrix.

  11. Phosphorous recovery from sewage sludge ash suspended in water in a two-compartment electrodialytic cell.

    PubMed

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Jensen, Pernille E; Kirkelund, Gunvor M

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is indispensable for all forms of life on Earth and as P is a finite resource, it is highly important to increase recovery of P from secondary resources. This investigation is focused on P recovery from sewage sludge ash (SSA) by a two-compartment electrodialytic separation (EDS) technique. Two SSAs are included in the investigation and they contained slightly less P than phosphate rock used in commercial fertilizer production and more heavy metals. The two-compartment electrodialytic technique enabled simultaneous recovery of P and separation of heavy metals. During EDS the SSA was suspended in water in the anolyte, which was separated from the catholyte by a cation exchange membrane. Electrolysis at the anode acidified the SSA suspension, and hereby P, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn were extracted. The heavy metal ions electromigrated into the catholyte and were thus separated from the filtrate with P. More than 95% P was extracted from both SSAs. The charge transfer to obtain this varied when treating the two SSAs, and for one ash it was about 30% higher than for the other as a result of a higher buffering capacity against acidification. The repeatability of EDS results between experiments with the same SSA and the same experimental conditions was good, which shows that the process is easy to control at the studied laboratory conditions. About 80% P and 10% of the heavy metals remained in the filtrate from the anolyte after treatment of both SSAs. The heavy metal content relative to P in the filtrate by far meet the limiting values for use of industrial wastes as fertilizers, thus the filtrate is ready for direct processing into P-fertilizer.

  12. Lateral compartment translation predicts the grade of pivot shift: a cadaveric and clinical analysis.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Asheesh; Musahl, Volker; Lane, Clayton; Citak, Musa; Warren, Russell F; Pearle, Andrew D

    2010-09-01

    Anterior translation of the lateral compartment was hypothesized to correlate with the clinical grade of a pivot shift maneuver. Using a computer-assisted navigation system, this hypothesis was tested by recording the maximum anterior tibial translation in the medial and lateral compartment as well as the arc of rotation during the pivot shift maneuver. One hundred and fifty-four pivot shift examinations were performed on cadavers with various degrees of instability, and 24 pivot shift exams were performed on patients under anesthesia before and after ACL reconstruction. In all positive pivot shift exams, anterior tibial translations were found to be higher on in the lateral compartment compared to the medial compartment. In addition, an excellent correlation was found between the amount of lateral compartment translation and the clinical grade of the pivot shift; medial compartment translations and amount of knee rotation could not distinguish between clinical grades. Finally, a threshold of 6-7 mm of anterior tibial translation in the lateral compartment was necessary to produce a positive pivot shift. Taken together, these data suggest that monitoring lateral compartment translations during a pivot shift exam may be a convenient means to evaluate the outcomes of ACL surgery and that requisite increases in anterior translation of the lateral compartment are necessary for each progressive clinical grade of the pivot shift examination.

  13. Anomalous supratendinous course of the fifth extensor compartment artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tracy, C Alan

    2007-12-01

    Vascularized bone grafts have been successfully used in the treatment of carpal bone nonunion and avascular necrosis. The 4 + 5 extensor compartmental vascularized bone graft based on the fourth extensor compartment artery with retrograde blood flow through the fifth extensor compartment artery is the pedicle of choice for vascularized bone grafting of the lunate. This case report describes an anomalous supratendinous course of the fifth extensor compartment artery. The recognition of this anatomic variant is important for the safe dissection of the fifth extensor compartment artery.

  14. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand: A Rare Sequela of Transradial Cardiac Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Jue, Jennifer; Karam, Joseph A.; Mejia, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    A 64-year-old man who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention via right radial artery access reported right-hand pain and swelling 2 hours after the procedure. He had developed compartment syndrome of the hand, specifically with muscular compromise of the thenar compartment but with no involvement of the forearm. He underwent emergency right-hand compartment release and carpal tunnel release, followed by an uneventful postoperative course. In addition to our patient's case, we discuss compartment syndrome of the hand and related issues. PMID:28265219

  15. Acute thigh compartment syndrome post femoral vein catheterization: a case report.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Mark W

    2008-08-01

    This case report presents a previously unreported etiology of acute thigh compartment syndrome following ipsilateral femoral vein catheterization, including clinical results and a brief review of the literature.

  16. A swollen hand with blisters: a case of compartment syndrome in a child.

    PubMed

    Rios-Alba, Tonatiuh; Ahn, James

    2015-06-01

    The accurate identification of compartment syndrome in the emergency department is essential to timely treatment and prevention of long-term sequela. Recognizing compartment syndrome is not straightforward, especially in the pediatric population. In addition to communication barriers that exist with children, the classic signs of pain, pallor, paresthesia, paralysis, and pulselessness are not always present, making its diagnosis a challenge. We report a case of a child with compartment syndrome to the left hand due to compression from an ACE wrap. The existing literature on compartment syndrome in children is reviewed.

  17. Neuroprotection by estrogen in the brain: the mitochondrial compartment as presumed therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Susanne; Beyer, Cordian

    2009-07-01

    Neuroprotection by estrogen in the CNS is well-documented and comprises the intricate regulation of cell-cell communication between neurons and supportive non-neuronal glial cells. It is assumed that these interactions are essential for cell survival under pathological and toxic conditions by regulating the allocation of trophic molecules, e.g., growth factors, controlling relevant intracellular anti-apoptotic and death cascades, and attenuating inflammatory processes. Malfunction and disturbance of mitochondria are doubtlessly associated with brain cell degeneration during neurotoxic and neurodegenerative processes. Estrogen has been documented as protective agent in the brain by stimulating growth factor supply and cell-intrinsic pro-/anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. In recent years, an additional estrogen-dependent safe-guarding strategy comes into the focus of neuronal protection. The mitochondrial compartment appears to be regulated by estrogen at the level of ATP and reactive oxygen species production as well as under a structural-functional viewpoint. In the present article, we would like to highlight recent data which demonstrate that sex steroids can directly and indirectly interfere with mitochondrial properties via non-nuclear, presumably mitochondria-intrinsic and nuclear signaling mechanisms. This enables mitochondria to cope with pathological processes and provide stabile local energy homeostasis and an anti-apoptotic base setting in the brain which, in turn, is a prerequisite for neuronal survival.

  18. Tuneable resolution as a systems biology approach for multi-scale, multi-compartment computational models.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Denise E; Hunt, C Anthony; Marino, Simeone; Fallahi-Sichani, Mohammad; Linderman, Jennifer J

    2014-01-01

    The use of multi-scale mathematical and computational models to study complex biological processes is becoming increasingly productive. Multi-scale models span a range of spatial and/or temporal scales and can encompass multi-compartment (e.g., multi-organ) models. Modeling advances are enabling virtual experiments to explore and answer questions that are problematic to address in the wet-lab. Wet-lab experimental technologies now allow scientists to observe, measure, record, and analyze experiments focusing on different system aspects at a variety of biological scales. We need the technical ability to mirror that same flexibility in virtual experiments using multi-scale models. Here we present a new approach, tuneable resolution, which can begin providing that flexibility. Tuneable resolution involves fine- or coarse-graining existing multi-scale models at the user's discretion, allowing adjustment of the level of resolution specific to a question, an experiment, or a scale of interest. Tuneable resolution expands options for revising and validating mechanistic multi-scale models, can extend the longevity of multi-scale models, and may increase computational efficiency. The tuneable resolution approach can be applied to many model types, including differential equation, agent-based, and hybrid models. We demonstrate our tuneable resolution ideas with examples relevant to infectious disease modeling, illustrating key principles at work.

  19. Occurrence of Surface Active Agents in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Olkowska, Ewa; Ruman, Marek; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2014-01-01

    Due to the specific structure of surfactants molecules they are applied in different areas of human activity (industry, household). After using and discharging from wastewater treatment plants as effluent stream, surface active agents (SAAs) are emitted to various elements of the environment (atmosphere, waters, and solid phases), where they can undergo numerous physic-chemical processes (e.g., sorption, degradation) and freely migrate. Additionally, SAAs present in the environment can be accumulated in living organisms (bioaccumulation), what can have a negative effect on biotic elements of ecosystems (e.g., toxicity, disturbance of endocrine equilibrium). They also cause increaseing solubility of organic pollutants in aqueous phase, their migration, and accumulation in different environmental compartments. Moreover, surfactants found in aerosols can affect formation and development of clouds, which is associated with cooling effect in the atmosphere and climate changes. The environmental fate of SAAs is still unknown and recognition of this problem will contribute to protection of living organisms as well as preservation of quality and balance of various ecosystems. This work contains basic information about surfactants and overview of pollution of different ecosystems caused by them (their classification and properties, areas of use, their presence, and behavior in the environment). PMID:24527257

  20. Determination of the enantiomeric excess of chiral carboxylic acids by 31P NMR with phosphorylated derivatizing agents from C2-symmetrical diamines containing the (S)-alpha-phenylethyl group.

    PubMed

    Mastranzo, Virginia M; Quintero, Leticia; de Parrodi, Cecilia Anaya

    2007-06-01

    The use of P(III) and P(V) organophosphorus derivatizing agents prepared from C(2) symmetrical (1R,2R)- and (1S,2S)-trans-N,N'-bis-[(S)-alpha-phenylethyl]-cyclohexane-1,2-diamines 1 and 2, as well as (1R,2R)- and (1S,2S)-trans-N,N'-bis-[(S)-alpha-phenylethyl]-4-cyclohexene-1,2-diamines 3 and 4 for the determination of enantiomeric composition of chiral carboxylic acids by (31)P NMR, is described.