Science.gov

Sample records for agent development research

  1. About the Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The group’s projects aim to identify and develop prevention agents with the potential to block, reverse, or delay the early stages of cancer. The overarching goal is to determine positive and negative predictive values of preclinical models for clinical development. |

  2. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  3. Research and Development for an Operational Information Ecology: The User-System Interface Agent Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Sadanand; deLamadrid, James

    1998-01-01

    The User System Interface Agent (USIA) is a special type of software agent which acts as the "middle man" between a human user and an information processing environment. USIA consists of a group of cooperating agents which are responsible for assisting users in obtaining information processing services intuitively and efficiently. Some of the main features of USIA include: (1) multiple interaction modes and (2) user-specific and stereotype modeling and adaptation. This prototype system provides us with a development platform towards the realization of an operational information ecology. In the first phase of this project we focus on the design and implementation of prototype system of the User-System Interface Agent (USIA). The second face of USIA allows user interaction via a restricted query language as well as through a taxonomy of windows. In third phase the USIA system architecture was revised.

  4. Chemopreventive Agent Development | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phas | Research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials.

  5. GridAgents DER Testing: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-265

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.

    2012-04-01

    The project objectives are to perform research, development, and pilot-scale testing of advanced, next-generation distribution operational strategies using ConEdison's 3G: Distribution System of the Future and associated infrastructure for the real-world Test Bed (demonstration network) combined with the Infotility GridAgents: Secure Agent Framework for Energy as the software platform for advanced operational strategies development. The objective is to accelerate high-payoff technologies that, because of their risk, are unlikely to be developed in a timely manner without a partnership between industry and the Federal government. NREL will be responsible for the evaluation of equipment design and control methods for DER integration and testing of prototype DER technologies and control equipment at the NREL test facility.

  6. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  7. Flexible, secure agent development framework

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith; Steven Y.

    2009-04-07

    While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

  8. Agent-based modeling: a systematic assessment of use cases and requirements for enhancing pharmaceutical research and development productivity

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, C Anthony; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kim, Sean H J; Ropella, Glen E P

    2013-01-01

    A crisis continues to brew within the pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) enterprise: productivity continues declining as costs rise, despite ongoing, often dramatic scientific and technical advances. To reverse this trend, we offer various suggestions for both the expansion and broader adoption of modeling and simulation (M&S) methods. We suggest strategies and scenarios intended to enable new M&S use cases that directly engage R&D knowledge generation and build actionable mechanistic insight, thereby opening the door to enhanced productivity. What M&S requirements must be satisfied to access and open the door, and begin reversing the productivity decline? Can current methods and tools fulfill the requirements, or are new methods necessary? We draw on the relevant, recent literature to provide and explore answers. In so doing, we identify essential, key roles for agent-based and other methods. We assemble a list of requirements necessary for M&S to meet the diverse needs distilled from a collection of research, review, and opinion articles. We argue that to realize its full potential, M&S should be actualized within a larger information technology framework—a dynamic knowledge repository—wherein models of various types execute, evolve, and increase in accuracy over time. We offer some details of the issues that must be addressed for such a repository to accrue the capabilities needed to reverse the productivity decline. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23737142

  9. Recent developments in sorbent coatings and chemical detectors at the Naval Research Laboratory for explosives and chemical agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, Eric J.; McGill, Robert A.; Nguyen, Viet K.; Chung, Russell; Weir, David W.

    2000-08-01

    New chemiselective polymers have been developed to enhance the nitroaromatic sorption properties of coated acoustic wave (AW) devices. The sensitivity and selectivity of polymer-based sensors depends on several factors including the chemiselective coating used, the physical properties of the vapor(s) of interest, the selected transducer, and the operating conditions. Detection limits with the coated SAW sensors, tested under laboratory conditions, are determined to be < 100 parts per trillion for 2,4-dinitrotoluene. A new SAW based chemical vapor detector the NRL p-CAD has been developed with dramatically improved signal kinetics offering T95 response times of less than 0.1 second for a wide range of organic compounds including the nerve agent simulant and agent precursor material dimethylmethylphosphonate. In addition, the NRL p-CAD system offers a rapid 2s baseline reset virtually eliminating baseline drift issues associated with changes in temperature and relative humidity. The p-CAD system has been successfully tested in both ground and unmanned aerial vehicle testing.

  10. Change Agent Research and Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragab, A. Megid; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Change Agent Research (CAR) is a "people" change approach that contrasts what a group (or individual) thinks it is doing with the actual behavior that exists. The applicability of CAR methodology to organizations is discussed. (Author)

  11. Proceedings of the Indo-U.S. bilateral workshop on accelerating botanicals/biologics agent development research for cancer chemoprevention, treatment, and survival

    PubMed Central

    B. Kumar, Nagi; Dhurandhar, Medha; Aggarwal, Bharat; Anant, Shrikant; Daniel, Kenyon; Deng, Gary; Djeu, Julie; Dou, Jinhui; Hawk, Ernest; Jayaram, B.; Jia, Libin; Joshi, Rajendra; Kararala, Madhuri; Karunagaran, Devarajan; Kucuk, Omer; Kumar, Lalit; Malafa, Mokenge; Samathanam, G. J.; Sarkar, Fazlul; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Singh, Rana P.; Srivastava, Anil; White, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    With the evolving evidence of the promise of botanicals/biologics for cancer chemoprevention and treatment, an Indo-U.S. collaborative Workshop focusing on “Accelerating Botanicals Agent Development Research for Cancer Chemoprevention and Treatment” was conducted at the Moffitt Cancer Center, 29–31 May 2012. Funded by the Indo-U.S. Science and Technology Forum, a joint initiative of Governments of India and the United States of America and the Moffitt Cancer Center, the overall goals of this workshop were to enhance the knowledge (agents, molecular targets, biomarkers, approaches, target populations, regulatory standards, priorities, resources) of a multinational, multidisciplinary team of researcher's to systematically accelerate the design, to conduct a successful clinical trials to evaluate botanicals/biologics for cancer chemoprevention and treatment, and to achieve efficient translation of these discoveries into the standards for clinical practice that will ultimately impact cancer morbidity and mortality. Expert panelists were drawn from a diverse group of stakeholders, representing the leadership from the National Cancer Institute's Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM), NCI Experimental Therapeutics (NExT), Food and Drug Administration, national scientific leadership from India, and a distinguished group of population, basic and clinical scientists from the two countries, including leaders in bioinformatics, social sciences, and biostatisticians. At the end of the workshop, we established four Indo-U.S. working research collaborative teams focused on identifying and prioritizing agents targeting four cancers that are of priority to both countries. Presented are some of the key proceedings and future goals discussed in the proceedings of this workshop. PMID:24279005

  12. Research Recommendations for Selected IARC-Classified Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Elizabeth M.; Schulte, Paul A.; Straif, Kurt; Hopf, Nancy B.; Caldwell, Jane C.; Carreón, Tania; DeMarini, David M.; Fowler, Bruce A.; Goldstein, Bernard D.; Hemminki, Kari; Hines, Cynthia J.; Pursiainen, Kirsti Husgafvel; Kuempel, Eileen; Lewtas, Joellen; Lunn, Ruth M.; Lynge, Elsebeth; McElvenny, Damien M.; Muhle, Hartwig; Nakajima, Tamie; Robertson, Larry W.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M.; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra; Smith, Martyn T.; Sorahan, Tom; Steenland, Kyle; Stevens, Richard G.; Vineis, Paolo; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Zeise, Lauren; Cogliano, Vincent J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives There are some common occupational agents and exposure circumstances for which evidence of carcinogenicity is substantial but not yet conclusive for humans. Our objectives were to identify research gaps and needs for 20 agents prioritized for review based on evidence of widespread human exposures and potential carcinogenicity in animals or humans. Data sources For each chemical agent (or category of agents), a systematic review was conducted of new data published since the most recent pertinent International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph meeting on that agent. Data extraction Reviewers were charged with identifying data gaps and general and specific approaches to address them, focusing on research that would be important in resolving classification uncertainties. An expert meeting brought reviewers together to discuss each agent and the identified data gaps and approaches. Data synthesis Several overarching issues were identified that pertained to multiple agents; these included the importance of recognizing that carcinogenic agents can act through multiple toxicity pathways and mechanisms, including epigenetic mechanisms, oxidative stress, and immuno- and hormonal modulation. Conclusions Studies in occupational populations provide important opportunities to understand the mechanisms through which exogenous agents cause cancer and intervene to prevent human exposure and/or prevent or detect cancer among those already exposed. Scientific developments are likely to increase the challenges and complexities of carcinogen testing and evaluation in the future, and epidemiologic studies will be particularly critical to inform carcinogen classification and risk assessment processes. PMID:20562050

  13. Discovery and development of new antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Gootz, T D

    1990-01-01

    The unprecedented growth in the number of new antibiotics over the past two decades has been the result of extensive research efforts that have exploited the growing body of knowledge describing the interactions of antibiotics with their targets in bacterial cells. Information gained from one class of antimicrobial agents has often been used to advance the development of other classes. In the case of beta-lactams, information on structure-activity relationships gleaned from penicillins and cephalosporins was rapidly applied to the cephamycins, monobactams, penems, and carbapenems in order to discover broad-spectrum agents with markedly improved potency. These efforts have led to the introduction of many new antibiotics that demonstrate outstanding clinical efficacy and improved pharmacokinetics in humans. The current review discusses those factors that have influenced the rapid proliferation of new antimicrobial agents, including the discovery of new lead structures from natural products and the impact of bacterial resistance development in the clinical setting. The development process for a new antibiotic is discussed in detail, from the stage of early safety testing in animals through phase I, II, and III clinical trials. PMID:2404566

  14. Abundance and Scarcity: A Prospect for Emancipation Using Educational Institutions Where Research and Development Are Change Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Doug

    Two things are required to bridge the technology gap between rich and poor countries that has resulted from the scientific and technological revolution: (1) a national development strategy that places a high priority on studies of global technological strategies for each sector of the economy; and (2) very high level educational institutions…

  15. Web Search Agents: "One-Stop Shopping" for Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ernest

    2002-01-01

    Explains Web search agents as tools that apply intelligent agent software technology for the purpose of automating, improving, and speeding up online search operations. Topics include intelligent desktop agents; search agent marketplace; comparing Web search agents; subjective evaluations; and use by researchers. (LRW)

  16. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Cancer.gov

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  17. The New Agent: A Qualitative Study to Strategically Adapt New Agent Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lauri M.; Hadley, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here assessed the needs of agents related to new agent professional development to improve the current model. Agents who participated in new agent professional development within the last 5 years were selected to participate in focus groups to determine concerns and continued needs. Agents enjoyed networking and…

  18. The Development of Sugar-Based Anti-Melanogenic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Bum-Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Bhin, Jinhyuk; Lee, Tae Ryong; Cho, Eun-Gyung

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of melanin production is important for managing skin darkness and hyperpigmentary disorders. Numerous anti-melanogenic agents that target tyrosinase activity/stability, melanosome maturation/transfer, or melanogenesis-related signaling pathways have been developed. As a rate-limiting enzyme in melanogenesis, tyrosinase has been the most attractive target, but tyrosinase-targeted treatments still pose serious potential risks, indicating the necessity of developing lower-risk anti-melanogenic agents. Sugars are ubiquitous natural compounds found in humans and other organisms. Here, we review the recent advances in research on the roles of sugars and sugar-related agents in melanogenesis and in the development of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents. The proposed mechanisms of action of these agents include: (a) (natural sugars) disturbing proper melanosome maturation by inducing osmotic stress and inhibiting the PI3 kinase pathway and (b) (sugar derivatives) inhibiting tyrosinase maturation by blocking N-glycosylation. Finally, we propose an alternative strategy for developing anti-melanogenic sugars that theoretically reduce melanosomal pH by inhibiting a sucrose transporter and reduce tyrosinase activity by inhibiting copper incorporation into an active site. These studies provide evidence of the utility of sugar-based anti-melanogenic agents in managing skin darkness and curing pigmentary disorders and suggest a future direction for the development of physiologically favorable anti-melanogenic agents. PMID:27092497

  19. (Coordinated research of chemotherapeutic agents and radiopharmaceuticals)

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.C.

    1991-01-14

    The traveler received a United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Award for Distinguished Scientists to visit Indian Research Institutions including Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Lucknow, the host institution, in cooperation with the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) of India. At CDRI, the traveler had meetings to discuss progress and future directions of on-going collaborative research work on nucleosides and had the opportunity to initiate new projects with the divisions of pharmacology, biopolymers, and membrane biology. As a part of this program, the traveler also visited Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute (SGPI) of Medical Sciences, Lucknow; Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) and Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), Bombay; Variable Energy Cyclotron Center (VECC) and Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Calcutta. He also attended the Indo-American Society of Nuclear Medicine Meeting held in Calcutta. The traveler delivered five seminars describing various aspects of radiopharmaceutical development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and discussed the opportunities for exchange visits to ORNL by Indian scientists.

  20. Development of Methodology for Programming Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erol, Kutluhan; Levy, Renato; Lang, Lun

    2004-01-01

    A brief report discusses the rationale for, and the development of, a methodology for generating computer code for autonomous-agent-based systems. The methodology is characterized as enabling an increase in the reusability of the generated code among and within such systems, thereby making it possible to reduce the time and cost of development of the systems. The methodology is also characterized as enabling reduction of the incidence of those software errors that are attributable to the human failure to anticipate distributed behaviors caused by the software. A major conceptual problem said to be addressed in the development of the methodology was that of how to efficiently describe the interfaces between several layers of agent composition by use of a language that is both familiar to engineers and descriptive enough to describe such interfaces unambivalently

  1. Spacecraft disinfectant/cleansing agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbate, M.

    1977-01-01

    The sanitation agent container, which was selected in a trade off study, employs two chambers, a rigid outer container and an inner flexible bladder. The bladder contains the sanitation agent formulation and its release is controlled by a manually operated valve. The outer container holds a high pressure vapor. There is no void in the bladder which makes the package operation independent of orientation and therefore usable in zero gravity. Foam is developed by a low boiling point fluid or dissolved in the product. When the product is dispensed at atmospheric presure, the evolved gas or vapor whips up a goam in the valve. The sanitation agents were initially formulated with freons which produces an excellent foam. However freon is incompatible with the life support system and was replaced with carbon dioxide dissolved at high pressure. The CO2 system may limit high temperature exposure to prevent leakage or package distortion. The sanitation agents have been shown to be effective in cleaning soils from personnel and material.

  2. Development of anticancer agents: wizardry with osmium.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Babak, Maria V; Hartinger, Christian G

    2014-10-01

    Platinum compounds are one of the pillars of modern cancer chemotherapy. The apparent disadvantages of existing chemotherapeutics have led to the development of novel anticancer agents with alternative modes of action. Many complexes of the heavy metal osmium (Os) are potent growth inhibitors of human cancer cells and are active in vivo, often superior or comparable to cisplatin, as the benchmark metal-based anticancer agent, or clinically tested ruthenium (Ru) drug candidates. Depending on the choice of ligand system, osmium compounds exhibit diverse modes of action, including redox activation, DNA targeting or inhibition of protein kinases. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the development of osmium anticancer drug candidates and discuss their cellular mechanisms of action. PMID:24955838

  3. Agent Model Development for Assessing Climate-Induced Geopolitical Instability.

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.

    2005-12-01

    We present the initial stages of development of new agent-based computational methods to generate and test hypotheses about linkages between environmental change and international instability. This report summarizes the first year's effort of an originally proposed three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The preliminary work focused on a set of simple agent-based models and benefited from lessons learned in previous related projects and case studies of human response to climate change and environmental scarcity. Our approach was to define a qualitative model using extremely simple cellular agent models akin to Lovelock's Daisyworld and Schelling's segregation model. Such models do not require significant computing resources, and users can modify behavior rules to gain insights. One of the difficulties in agent-based modeling is finding the right balance between model simplicity and real-world representation. Our approach was to keep agent behaviors as simple as possible during the development stage (described herein) and to ground them with a realistic geospatial Earth system model in subsequent years. This work is directed toward incorporating projected climate data--including various C02 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report--and ultimately toward coupling a useful agent-based model to a general circulation model.3

  4. Current trends in antimicrobial agent research: chemo- and bioinformatics approaches.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Riadh; Fliss, Ismail

    2010-07-01

    Databases and chemo- and bioinformatics tools that contain genomic, proteomic and functional information have become indispensable for antimicrobial drug research. The combination of chemoinformatics tools, bioinformatics tools and relational databases provides means of analyzing, linking and comparing online search results. The development of computational tools feeds on a diversity of disciplines, including mathematics, statistics, computer science, information technology and molecular biology. The computational approach to antimicrobial agent discovery and design encompasses genomics, molecular simulation and dynamics, molecular docking, structural and/or functional class prediction, and quantitative structure-activity relationships. This article reviews progress in the development of computational methods, tools and databases used for organizing and extracting biological meaning from antimicrobial research. PMID:20546918

  5. Novel oral anticoagulants and reversal agents: Considerations for clinical development.

    PubMed

    Sarich, Troy C; Seltzer, Jonathan H; Berkowitz, Scott D; Costin', James; Curnutte, John T; Gibson, C Michael; Hoffman, Maureane; Kaminskas, Edvardas; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Levy, Jerrold H; Mintz, Paul D; Reilly, Paul A; Sager, Philip T; Singer, Daniel E; Stockbridge, Norman; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Kowey, Peter R

    2015-06-01

    This white paper provides a summary of presentations and discussions that were held at an Anticoagulant-Induced Bleeding and Reversal Agents Think Tank co-sponsored by the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) at the FDA's White Oak Headquarters on April 22, 2014. Attention focused on a development pathway for reversal agents for the novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs). This is important because anticoagulation is still widely underused for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Undertreatment persists, although NOACs, in general, overcome some of the difficulties associated with anticoagulation provided by vitamin K antagonists. One reason for the lack of a wider uptake is the absence of NOAC reversal agents. As there are neither widely accepted academic and industry standards nor a definitive regulatory policy on the development of such reversal agents, this meeting provided a forum for leaders in the fields of cardiovascular clinical trials and cardiovascular safety to discuss the issues and develop recommendations. Attendees included representatives from pharmaceutical companies; regulatory agencies; end point adjudication specialist groups; contract research organizations; and active, academically based physicians. There was wide and solid consensus that NOACs overall offer improvements in convenience, efficacy, and safety compared with warfarin, even without reversal agents. Still, it was broadly accepted that it would be helpful to have reversal agents available for clinicians to use. Because it is not feasible to do definitive outcomes studies demonstrating a reversal agent's clinical benefits, it was felt that these agents could be approved for use in life-threatening bleeding situations if the molecules were well characterized preclinically, their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles were well understood, and showed no harmful adverse events in early human testing. There was also consensus

  6. CaMKII inhibitors: from research tools to therapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Pellicena, Patricia; Schulman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac field has benefited from the availability of several CaMKII inhibitors serving as research tools to test putative CaMKII pathways associated with cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. Successful demonstrations of its critical pathophysiological roles have elevated CaMKII as a key target in heart failure, arrhythmia, and other forms of heart disease. This has caught the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which is now racing to develop CaMKII inhibitors as safe and effective therapeutic agents. While the first generation of CaMKII inhibitor development is focused on blocking its activity based on ATP binding to its catalytic site, future inhibitors can also target sites affecting its regulation by Ca2+/CaM or translocation to some of its protein substrates. The recent availability of crystal structures of the kinase in the autoinhibited and activated state, and of the dodecameric holoenzyme, provides insights into the mechanism of action of existing inhibitors. It is also accelerating the design and development of better pharmacological inhibitors. This review examines the structure of the kinase and suggests possible sites for its inhibition. It also analyzes the uses and limitations of current research tools. Development of new inhibitors will enable preclinical proof of concept tests and clinical development of successful lead compounds, as well as improved research tools to more accurately examine and extend knowledge of the role of CaMKII in cardiac health and disease. PMID:24600394

  7. Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl

    1991-09-01

    This study is a continuation of ``Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents'' sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (Schreck et al. 1990). The objectives of the present study was to evaluate up to 10 candidate fungicides.

  8. Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl

    1993-10-01

    This study is a continuation of ``Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents'' sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (Schreck et al. 1990, 1991, and 1992). The objectives of the present study were to select and evaluate candidate fungicides.

  9. Babybot: a biologically inspired developing robotic agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metta, Giorgio; Panerai, Francesco M.; Sandini, Giulio

    2000-10-01

    The study of development, either artificial or biological, can highlight the mechanisms underlying learning and adaptive behavior. We shall argue whether developmental studies might provide a different and potentially interesting perspective either on how to build an artificial adaptive agent, or on understanding how the brain solves sensory, motor, and cognitive tasks. It is our opinion that the acquisition of the proper behavior might indeed be facilitated because within an ecological context, the agent, its adaptive structure and the environment dynamically interact thus constraining the otherwise difficult learning problem. In very general terms we shall describe the proposed approach and supporting biological related facts. In order to further analyze these aspects from the modeling point of view, we shall demonstrate how a twelve degrees of freedom baby humanoid robot acquires orienting and reaching behaviors, and what advantages the proposed framework might offer. In particular, the experimental setup consists of five degrees-of-freedom (dof) robot head, and an off-the-shelf six dof robot manipulator, both mounted on a rotating base: i.e. the torso. From the sensory point of view, the robot is equipped with two space-variant cameras, an inertial sensor simulating the vestibular system, and proprioceptive information through motor encoders. The biological parallel is exploited at many implementation levels. It is worth mentioning, for example, the space- variant eyes, exploiting foveal and peripheral vision in a single arrangement, the inertial sensor providing efficient image stabilization (vestibulo-ocular reflex).

  10. AGENT-BASED MODELS IN EMPIRICAL SOCIAL RESEARCH*

    PubMed Central

    Bruch, Elizabeth; Atwell, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Agent-based modeling has become increasingly popular in recent years, but there is still no codified set of recommendations or practices for how to use these models within a program of empirical research. This article provides ideas and practical guidelines drawn from sociology, biology, computer science, epidemiology, and statistics. We first discuss the motivations for using agent-based models in both basic science and policy-oriented social research. Next, we provide an overview of methods and strategies for incorporating data on behavior and populations into agent-based models, and review techniques for validating and testing the sensitivity of agent-based models. We close with suggested directions for future research. PMID:25983351

  11. Development of spacecraft toxic gas removal agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    The development of agents suitable for removal of CO, NH3, NO2 SO2, and other spacecraft contaminants was approached. An extensive technology review was conducted, yielding a large number of potentially useful materials and/or concepts. Because the two toxic gases of greatest interest, CO and NH3, suggested the use of catalysis principles emphasis was placed on the intestigation of transition metals on various supports. Forty-three materials were prepared or obtained and 25 were tested. Gas chromatographic techniques were used to find seven candidates that effectively managed various combinations of the four toxic gases: none managed all. These candidates included six transition metal-containing preparations and a supported LiOH material. Three commercial charcoals showed some efficiency for the toxic gases and may constitute candidates for enhancement by doping with transition metals.

  12. New approaches to drug discovery and development: a mechanism-based approach to pharmaceutical research and its application to BNP7787, a novel chemoprotective agent.

    PubMed

    Hausheer, Frederick H; Kochat, Harry; Parker, Aulma R; Ding, Daoyuan; Yao, Shije; Hamilton, Susan E; Petluru, Pavankumar N; Leverett, Betsy D; Bain, Stacey H; Saxe, Jeffrey D

    2003-07-01

    Any approach applied to drug discovery and development by the medical community and pharmaceutical industry has a direct impact on the future availability of improved, novel, and curative therapies for patients with cancer. By definition, drug discovery is a complex learning process whereby research efforts are directed toward uncovering and assimilating new knowledge to create and develop a drug for the purpose of providing benefit to a defined patient population. Accordingly, a highly desirable technology or approach to drug discovery should facilitate both effective learning and the application of newly discovered observations that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. However, some believe that drug discovery is largely accomplished by serendipity and therefore appropriately addressed by screening a large number of compounds. Clearly, this approach has not generated an abundance of new drugs for cancer patients and suggests that a tangibly different approach in drug discovery is warranted. We employ an alternative approach to drug discovery, which is based on the elucidation and exploitation of biological, pharmacological, and biochemical mechanisms that have not been previously recognized or fully understood. Mechanism-based drug discovery involves the combined application of physics-based computer simulations and laboratory experimentation. There is increasing evidence that agreement between simulations based on the laws of physics and experimental observations results in a higher probability that such observations are more accurate and better understood as compared with either approach used alone. Physics-based computer simulation applied to drug discovery is now considered by experts in the field to be one of the ultimate methodologies for drug discovery. However, the ability to perform truly comprehensive physics-based molecular simulations remains limited by several factors, including the enormous computer-processing power that is required to perform

  13. University, Research, Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroui, Abdallah

    1991-01-01

    Describes personal experiences with university research and development. Criticizes university research as ineffective and inwardly focused, resulting in a concept of scientific research that negates the notion of economic development. Complains that the focus of study no longer contributes to an increase in consumable wealth. Urges that…

  14. Curriculum Development and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Ralph W.

    Ralph W. Tyler's paper on "Curriculum Development and Research" contains examples of research findings which were or were not used in efforts to change or develop curriculum. The roles, use, and importance of action research, formulation of objectives, planning and organization of learning experiences, program assessment, relationship between…

  15. Brief introductory guide to agent-based modeling and an illustration from urban health research.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, Amy H; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro

    2015-11-01

    There is growing interest among urban health researchers in addressing complex problems using conceptual and computation models from the field of complex systems. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is one computational modeling tool that has received a lot of interest. However, many researchers remain unfamiliar with developing and carrying out an ABM, hindering the understanding and application of it. This paper first presents a brief introductory guide to carrying out a simple agent-based model. Then, the method is illustrated by discussing a previously developed agent-based model, which explored inequalities in diet in the context of urban residential segregation. PMID:26648364

  16. Recent developments in antiviral agents against enterovirus 71 infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Recent EV-71 outbreaks in Asia-Pacific were not limited to mild HFMD, but were associated with severe neurological complications such as aseptic meningitis and brainstem encephalitis, which may lead to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The absence of licensed therapeutics for clinical use has intensified research into anti-EV-71 development. This review highlights the potential antiviral agents targeting EV-71 attachment, entry, uncoating, translation, polyprotein processing, virus-induced formation of membranous RNA replication complexes, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The strategies for antiviral development include target-based synthetic compounds, anti-rhinovirus and poliovirus libraries screening, and natural compound libraries screening. Growing knowledge of the EV-71 life cycle will lead to successful development of antivirals. The continued effort to develop antiviral agents for treatment is crucial in the absence of a vaccine. The coupling of antivirals with an effective vaccine will accelerate eradication of the disease. PMID:24521134

  17. Development of secreted proteins as biotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Bonin-Debs, Angelika L; Boche, Irene; Gille, Hendrik; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2004-04-01

    As one of the most important classes of proteins, secreted factors account for about one-tenth of the human genome, 3000 - 4000 in total, including factors of signalling pathways, blood coagulation and immune defence, as well as digestive enzymes and components of the extracellular matrix. Secreted proteins are a rich source of new therapeutics and drug targets, and are currently the focus of major drug discovery programmes throughout the industry. Many of the most important novel drugs developed in biotechnology have resulted from the application of secreted proteins as therapeutics. Secreted proteins often circulate throughout the body and, therefore, have access to most organs and tissues. Because of that, many of the factors are themselves therapeutic agents. This paper gives an overview on the features and functions of human secreted proteins and peptides, as well as strategies by which to discover additional therapeutic proteins from the human 'secretome'. Furthermore, a variety of examples are provided for the therapeutic use of recombinant secreted proteins as 'biologicals', including features and applications of recombinant antibodies, erythropoietin, insulin, interferon, plasminogen activators, growth hormone and colony-stimulating factors. PMID:15102604

  18. Current and future challenges in the development of antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Micro-organisms exist to survive. Even in the absence of antimicrobial agents, many have determinants of resistance that may be expressed phenotypically, should the need arise. With the advent of the antibiotic age, as more and more drugs were developed to treat serious infections, micro-organisms (particularly bacteria) rapidly developed resistance determinants to prevent their own demise.The most important determinants of resistance have been in the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Among Gram-positive bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) have taxed researchers and pharmaceutical companies to develop new agents that are effective against these resistant strains. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes, carbapenemases (CREs) and the so-called amp-C enzymes that may be readily transferred between species of enterobacteriaceae and other facultative species have created multi-drug resistant organisms that are difficult to treat. Other resistance determinants have been seen in other clinically important bacterial species such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Clostridium difficile, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These issues have now spread to fungal agents of infection.A variety of modalities have been used to stem the tide of resistance. These include the development of niche compounds that target specific resistance determinants. Other approaches have been to find new targets for antimicrobial activity, use of combination agents that are effective against more than one target in the cell, or new delivery mechanism to maximize the concentration of antimicrobial agents at the site of infection without causing toxicity to the host. It is important that such new modalities have been proved effective for clinical therapy. Animal models and non-mammalian systems have been developed to

  19. The Assessment Agent System: Design, Development, and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the design, development, and evaluation of an online software application for assessing students' understanding of curricular content based on concept maps. This computer-based assessment program, called the Assessment Agent System, was designed by following an agent-oriented software design method. The Assessment Agent System…

  20. Hereditary cancer syndromes as model systems for chemopreventive agent development.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Farzana L; Patel, Jigar; Lubet, Ronald; Rodriguez, Luz; Calzone, Kathleen A

    2016-02-01

    Research in chemoprevention has undergone a shift in emphasis for pragmatic reasons from large, phase III randomized studies to earlier phase studies focused on safety, mechanisms, and utilization of surrogate endpoints such as biomarkers instead of cancer incidence. This transition permits trials to be conducted in smaller populations and at substantially reduced costs while still yielding valuable information. This article will summarize some of the current chemoprevention challenges and the justification for the use of animal models to facilitate identification and testing of chemopreventive agents as illustrated though four inherited cancer syndromes. Preclinical models of inherited cancer syndromes serve as prototypical systems in which chemopreventive agents can be developed for ultimate application to both the sporadic and inherited cancer settings. PMID:26970132

  1. Development of artificial diet to rear internal-feeding insects to accelerate research on new biological control agents of yellow starthistle and other alien weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We demonstrated that an artificial diet that was previously developed to rear the purple loosestrife root weevil, Hylobius transversovittatus, can be effective for completing the development of larvae that are dissected out of plants. We used this diet to rear to adult stage larvae and pupae of the...

  2. Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl

    1993-03-01

    This study is a continuation of ``Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents'' sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (Schreck et al. 1990 and Schreck et al. 1991). The objectives of the present study were to select and evaluate up to 10 candidate fungicides.

  3. Development of polyimide foams with blowing agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Sorathia, Usman A. K. (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method of preparing a polyimide foam which includes the steps of: preparing, foaming, and curing a precursor containing at least one alkyl ester of 3,3'4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid; a meta- or para-substituted aromatic diamine; a heterocyclic diamine; an aliphatic diamine; and a solid blowing agent. The blowing agent is added to said precursor in a concentration which is sufficient to effect at least one of the following attributes of the foam: cell size, proportion of open cells, cell density, and indentation load deflection.

  4. Clinical Strategies and Animal Models for Developing Senolytic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, James L.; Tchkonia, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with increasing predisposition to multiple chronic diseases. One fundamental aging process that is often operative at sites of the pathology underlying chronic age-related diseases is cellular senescence. Small molecule senolytic agents are being developed. For successful drug development: 1) appropriate animal models of human age-related diseases need to be devised. 2) Models have to be made in which it can be proven that beneficial phenotypic effects are actually caused through clearing senescent cells by putative senolytic agents, as opposed to “off-target” effects of these agents on non-senescent cells. 3) Models are needed to test efficacy of drugs and to uncover potential side effects of senolytic agents. Development of the optimal animal models and clinical trial paradigms for senolytic agents warrants an intensive effort, since senolytic agents, if successful in delaying, preventing, alleviating, or reversing age-related diseases as a group would be transformative. PMID:25446976

  5. System integration and development for biological warfare agent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jacob A.; Green, Lance D.; Deshpande, Alina; White, P. Scott

    2007-04-01

    A wide variety of technical needs exist for surveillance, monitoring, identifying, or detecting pathogens with potential use as biological terrorism or warfare agents. Because the needs vary greatly among diverse applications, tailored systems are needed that meet performance, information, and cost requirements. A systems perspective allows developers to identify chokepoints for each application, and focus R&D investments on the limiting factors. Surveillance and detection systems are comprised of three primary components: information (markers), chemistries (assays), and instrumentation for "readout". Careful consideration of these components within the context of each application will allow for increases in efficiency and performance not generally realized when researchers focus on a single component in isolation. In fact, many application requirements can be met with simple novel combinations of existing technologies, without the need for huge investments in basic research. Here we discuss some of the key parameters for surveillance, detection, and identification of biothreat agents, and provide examples of focused development that addresses key bottlenecks, and greatly improve system performance.

  6. Barriers and Effective Educational Strategies to Develop Extension Agents' Professional Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakai, Dona; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Moore, Gary E.; Kistler, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here determined the barriers and effective educational strategies to develop Extension agents' professional competencies. This was a descriptive survey research conducted with a random sample of Extension agents. Increased workload and lack of time and funding were identified as the most constraining barriers of Extension…

  7. The Agent-based Approach: A New Direction for Computational Models of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Matthew; Parisi, Domenico

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the concepts of online and offline sampling and highlights the role of online sampling in agent-based models of learning and development. Compares the strengths of each approach for modeling particular developmental phenomena and research questions. Describes a recent agent-based model of infant causal perception. Discusses limitations…

  8. Space biology research development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  9. 2008 Research Portfolio: Research & Development Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the breadth of the research being conducted in 2008 by the Research and Development Division at Educational Testing Service (ETS). The research described falls into three large categories: (1) Research supported by the ETS research allocation; (2) Research funded by testing programs at ETS; and (3) Research funded by…

  10. A Methodology for Developing Environmental Information Systems with Software Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.; Mitkas, Pericles A.

    This article presents a unifying methodology for developing environmental information systems with software agents. Based on the experience reported in recent literature, we abstract common requirements of environmental information systems into agent types, combine state-of-the-art tools from computer science, service-oriented software engineering and artificial intelligence domains, as software agents and machine learning, and illustrate their potential for solving real-world problems. Specifically, two generic agent types are specified that behave as information carriers and decision makers, which provide an appropriate abstraction for deployment of added-value services in environmental information systems.

  11. Research progress of cardioprotective agents for prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Cui, Xiaohai; Yan, Yan; Li, Min; Yang, Ya; Wang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Anthracyclines, including doxorubicin, epirubicin, daunorubicin and aclarubicin, are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of hematologic and solid tumor, including acute leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, soft tissue sarcomas and ovarian cancer. In the cancer treatment, anthracyclines also can be combined with other chemotherapies and molecular-targeted drugs. The combination of anthracyclines with other therapies is usually the first-line treatment. Anthracyclines are effective and potent agents with a broad antitumor spectrum, but may cause adverse reactions, including hair loss, myelotoxicity, as well as cardiotoxicity. We used hematopoietic stimulating factors to control the myelotoxicity, such as G-CSF, EPO and TPO. However, the cardiotoxicity is the most serious side effect of anthracyclines. Clinical research and practical observations indicated that the cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines is commonly progressive and irreversible. Especially to those patients who have the first time use of anthracyclines, the damage is common. Therefore, early detection and prevention of anthracyclines induced cardiotoxicity are particularly important and has already aroused more attention in clinic. By literature review, we reviewed the research progress of cardioprotective agents for prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. PMID:27508008

  12. Rural Development: Research Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Larry R., Ed.

    Directed at the problem of providing equitable long term rural development, this collection of papers deals with the criteria on which research and educational priorities should be based, given the vast problems and limited resources in the U.S. today. There are 11 papers in this collection: "National Outlook and Perspective" (a plea for…

  13. Contraceptive research and development.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R J

    1979-05-01

    Contraceptive research and development is primarily performed at universities and research councils due to the cost and time involved for industry and philanthropic organizations to bring drugs to market. Promising fundamental research includes immunization of women against chorionic gonadotrophin in order to disrupt the embryo in early pregnancy. Post-coital drugs, such as Anordrin, are also being developed for situations involving low-coital frequency. Once-a-month formulas are being developed to 1) exert a direct luteolytic effect on the corpus luteum; 2) interfere with the luteotrophic action of the implanting blastocyst; 3) inhibit the progestational development of the endometrium during the luteal phase of the cycle; or 4) exert a specific toxic effect on the early embryo. Methods for detecting ovulation incuding urine and saliva tests as well as electronic devices to measure the blood flow or temperature associated with ovulation are also being explored. Reversible fertility control for men which suppress the pituitary function is under investigation. Applied research includes the design and assessment of alternate delivery systems such as intranasal sprays, intracervical devices, paper pills, vaginal rings, and biodegradable subdermal implants. In addition, long-acting injectable progestins, improved IUDs, and improved sterilization techniques are all being tested. With future funds, the comparative safety, efficacy, and acceptability of various fertility methods can be established. PMID:387168

  14. A multiagent architecture for developing medical information retrieval agents.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Steven

    2003-10-01

    Information that is available on the world wide web (WWW) is already more vast than can be comprehensibly studied by individuals and this quantity is increasing at a staggering pace. The quality of service delivered by physicians is dependent on the availability of current information. The agent paradigm offers a means for enabling physicians to filter information and retrieve only information that is relevant to current patient treatments. As with many specialized domains, agent-based information retrieval in medical domains must satisfy several domain-dependent constraints. A multiple agent architecture is developed and described in detail to efficiently provide agent-based information retrieval from the WWW and other explicit information resources. A simulation of the proposed multiple agent architecture shows a 97% decrease in information overload and an 85% increase in information relevancy over existing meta-search tools (with even larger gains over standard search engines). PMID:14584625

  15. Who will develop new antibacterial agents?

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Stewart T.

    2014-01-01

    The golden age of antimicrobial drug development is a distant memory, and the likelihood of there being another seems slim. In part, this is because the pharmaceutical industry, which has now adopted an unsustainable business model, abandoned the anti-infective sector, and the pipeline is almost empty. The contribution to this crisis of national governments, health agencies and funders also merits discussion. Much of the basis for drug discovery is funded by the public sector, thereby generating intellectual property and leads for drug development that are often not pursued owing to funding gaps. In particular, the cost of testing drug efficacy in clinical trials is beyond the means of most companies and organizations. Lack of a concerted international effort to develop new antimicrobials is particularly alarming at a time when multidrug-resistant bacteria threaten all areas of human medicine globally. Here, the steps that led to this situation are retraced, and some possible solutions to the dilemma are proposed. PMID:24821916

  16. Development of Solar Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Axel D.; Wolfschmidt, Gudrun; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Originally based on a workshop on “Development of Solar Research”, held in Freiburg/Breisgau, this book contains articles on megalithic structures, the Nebra sky-disk, ancient sun cults, the observation of sunspots, the photography of the sun during eclipses, eclipse maps and expeditions, solar telescopes, solar physics during the Nazi era, archives of solar observations, scientific ballooning for solar research, site-testing on the Canary Islands, as well as on international cooperation.

  17. Hydropower research and development

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

  18. Issues encountered in recent attempts to develop novel antidepressant agents.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, Alan F

    2015-05-01

    The development of new antidepressants has had mixed results over the past decade, with several notable failures. This paper reviews a number of major initiatives in the development of new antidepressant agents. Traditional strategies to build on agents that have monoaminergic effects at the synapse (e.g., vilazodone and ketamine) have been complemented with efforts that have emphasized devices and brain circuits (e.g., deep brain stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation) or chemical agents that modulate neuroendocrine systems (e.g., glucocorticoid antagonists, mixed melatonin agonists/serotonin type-2 receptor antagonists). Interestingly, chemical agents, such as onabotulinumtoxin A, may affect brain circuits as well. We present data from recent studies in drug and device development--reviewing progress made, stumbling blocks encountered, and issues that need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:25762133

  19. Photonics Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Elizabeth

    2010-01-15

    During the period August 2005 through October 2009, the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF), a non-profit affiliate of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), in collaboration with UNLV's Colleges of Science and Engineering; Boston University (BU); Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and Sunlight Direct, LLC, has managed and conducted a diverse and comprehensive research and development program focused on light-emitting diode (LED) technologies that provide significantly improved characteristics for lighting and display applications. This final technical report provides detailed information on the nature of the tasks, the results of the research, and the deliverables. It is estimated that about five percent of the energy used in the nation is for lighting homes, buildings and streets, accounting for some 25 percent of the average home's electric bill. However, the figure is significantly higher for the commercial sector. About 60 percent of the electricity for businesses is for lighting. Thus replacement of current lighting with solid-state lighting technology has the potential to significantly reduce this nation's energy consumption by some estimates, possibly as high as 20%. The primary objective of this multi-year R&D project has been to develop and advance lighting technologies to improve national energy conversion efficiencies; reduce heat load; and significantly lower the cost of conventional lighting technologies. The UNLVRF and its partners have specifically focused these talents on (1) improving LED technologies; (2) optimizing hybrid solar lighting, a technology which potentially offers the benefits of blending natural with artificial lighting systems, thus improving energy efficiency; and (3) building a comprehensive academic infrastructure within UNLV which concentrates on photonics R&D. Task researchers have reported impressive progress in (1) the development of quantum dot laser emitting diodes (QDLEDs) which will ultimately improve energy

  20. Biennial Research and Technology Development Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Elizabeth; Radigan, Jeff; Haas, John; Kelly, Brian; Hall, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Various articles for the Biennial Research and Technology Development Report of the Johnson Space Center include: Automating ISS File Management using Agent-Based Systems Integration; International Space Station Operations; Planning and Monitoring ISS Solar Array Operations; Water Egress and Survival Trainer; Search and Relationship -- Mining of Heterogeneous Flight Control Documents; and Anomaly Monitoring Inductive Software System.

  1. Development of a persistent chemical agent simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A Persistent Chemical Agent Simulation System was developed (PCASS) to simulate, for force-on-force training exercises, the field environment produced by the presence of persistent chemical agents. Such a simulant system must satisfy several requirements to be of value as a training aid. Specifically, it must provide for realistic training which will generate competency in at least the following areas: (1) detection of the persistent agent presence; (2) proper use of protective equipment and procedures; (3) determination of the extent of contamination; and (4) decontamination of equipment and personnel.

  2. IMS software developments for the detection of chemical warfare agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klepel, ST.; Graefenhain, U.; Lippe, R.; Stach, J.; Starrock, V.

    1995-01-01

    Interference compounds like gasoline, diesel, burning wood or fuel, etc. are presented in common battlefield situations. These compounds can cause detectors to respond as a false positive or interfere with the detector's ability to respond to target compounds such as chemical warfare agents. To ensure proper response of the ion mobility spectrometer to chemical warfare agents, two special software packages were developed and incorporated into the Bruker RAID-1. The programs suppress interferring signals caused by car exhaust or smoke gases resulting from burning materials and correct the influence of variable sample gas humidity which is important for detection and quantification of blister agents like mustard gas or lewisite.

  3. On the Subculture of Development Extension Agents from Overdeveloped Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luck, Uwe

    Studying the characteristics of development extension agents can help in the understanding of the dynamics of development. These key personnel exhibit certain traits, not yet corroborated scientifically, as they attempt to induce drastic changes in the values, beliefs, production, and consumption patterns of developing nations in order to move…

  4. Development and Applications of Photo-triggered Theranostic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Prakash; Mallidi, Srivallesha; Zheng, Xiang; Rahmanzadeh, Ramtin; Mir, Youssef; Elrington, Stefan; Khurshid, Ahmat; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2010-01-01

    Theranostics, the fusion of therapy and diagnostics for optimizing efficacy and safety of therapeutic regimes, is a growing field that is paving the way towards the goal of personalized medicine for the benefit of patients. The use of light as a remote-activation mechanism for drug delivery has received increased attention due to its advantages in highly specific spatial and temporal control of compound release. Photo-triggered theranostic constructs could facilitate an entirely new category of clinical solutions which permit early recognition of the disease by enhancing contrast in various imaging modalities followed by the tailored guidance of therapy. Finally, such theranostic agents could aid imaging modalities in monitoring response to therapy. This article reviews recent developments in the use of light-triggered theranostic agents for simultaneous imaging and photoactivation of therapeutic agents. Specifically, we discuss recent developments in the use of theranostic agents for photodynamic-, photothermal- or photo-triggered chemo-therapy for several diseases. PMID:20858520

  5. Novel therapeutic agents in clinical development for systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Conventional immunosuppressive therapies have radically transformed patient survival in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but their use is associated with considerable toxicity and a substantial proportion of patients remain refractory to treatment. A more comprehensive understanding of the complexity of SLE immunopathogenesis has evolved over the past decade and has led to the testing of several biologic agents in clinical trials. There is a clear need for new therapeutic agents that overcome these issues, and biologic agents offer exciting prospects as future SLE therapies. An array of promising new therapies are currently emerging or are under development including B-cell depletion therapies, agents targeting B-cell survival factors, blockade of T-cell co-stimulation and anti-cytokine therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies against interleukin-6 and interferon-α. PMID:23642011

  6. Structural modifications of quinoline-based antimalarial agents: Recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Bawa, Sandhya; Kumar, Suresh; Drabu, Sushma; Kumar, Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs constitute a major part of antiprotozoal drugs and have been in practice for a long time. Antimalarial agents generally belong to the class of quinoline which acts by interfering with heme metabolism. The recent increase in development of chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and failure of vaccination program against malaria have fuelled the drug discovery program against this old and widespread disease. Quinoline and its related derivative comprise a class of heterocycles, which has been exploited immensely than any other nucleus for the development of potent antimalarial agents. Various chemical modifications of quinoline have been attempted to achieve analogs with potent antimalarial properties against sensitive as well as resistant strains of Plasmodium sp., together with minimal potential undesirable side effects. This review outlines essentially some of the recent chemical modifications undertaken for the development of potent antimalarial agents based on quinoline. PMID:21814435

  7. Progress in the development of gelling agents for improved culturability of microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nabajit; Tripathi, Naveen; Basu, Srijoni; Bose, Chandra; Maitra, Susmit; Khurana, Sukant

    2015-01-01

    Gelling agents are required for formulating both solid and semisolid media, vital for the isolation of microorganisms. Gelatin was the first gelling agent to be discovered but it soon paved the way for agar, which has far superior material qualities. Source depletion, issues with polymerase-chain-reaction and inability to sustain extermophiles etc., necessitate the need of other gelling agents. Many new gelling agents, such as xantham gum, gellan gum, carrageenan, isubgol, and guar gum have been formulated, raising the hopes for the growth of previously unculturable microorganisms. We evaluate the progress in the development of gelling agents, with the hope that our synthesis would help accelerate research in the field. PMID:26257708

  8. Eltron Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, Carl; Mackay, Richard; Faull, John

    2014-03-01

    This topical report covers technical work conducted under contract DE-FC26-05NT42469 between FY06 Q1 through FY14 Q2. The project evolved through several budget periods, budget revisions and continuation applications. This report covers work performed under the “base” program. In 2010 ARRA funding was added to the project. A separate report covering the ARRA portion of the project was submitted to DOE. The original project was focused on research and development for scale-up of hydrogen separation membrane for a FutureGen type power plant. The work included membrane testing and evaluation of metal alloy flat plates vs. tubes and metal membranes vs. cermet membranes. In addition, economic analysis and process modeling was performed. The original project team included CoorsTek, NORAM, and Praxair. In FY10Q2 a continuation application was filed for conducting a scale-up test at Eastman Chemical. In this part of the project a Subscale Engineering Prototype (SEP) membrane skid was designed, fabricated, and operated on a gasified coal slip-stream on Eastman’s site in Kingsport, TN. Following operation, the project was reorganized and a second continuation application with a new statement of work was initiated in FY12Q1. Finally, based on DOE’s decision not to proceed with a Process Development Unit (PDU) field test, a third continuation application and statement of work was initiated in FY13Q1 to close out the project.

  9. Toward Agent-Based Models of the Development And Evolution of Business Relations and Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Ian F.; Marks, Robert E.; Young, Louise

    Firms achieve competitive advantage in part through the development of cooperative relations with other firms and organisations. We describe a program of research designed to map and model the development of cooperative inter-firm relations, including the processes and paths by which firms may evolve from adversarial to more cooperative relations. Narrative-event-history methods will be used to develop stylised histories of the emergence of business relations in various contexts and to identify relevant causal mechanisms to be included in the agent-based models of relationship and network evolution. The relationship histories will provide the means of assuring the agent-based models developed.

  10. Recent developments in rationally designed multitarget antiprotozoan agents.

    PubMed

    Njogu, P M; Chibale, K

    2013-01-01

    Protozoan infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among parasitic infections of humans, accounting for approximately 800 thousand mortalities and a loss of more than 30 million disability-adjusted life years annually. The major protozoan infections of humans, namely malaria, Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis, are primarily centered in the tropics, with a reach into some subtropical regions of the world. Though globally massive in their impact, these diseases mostly afflict the least economically endowed and geographically marginalized populations in low-income countries. As such, there is no sufficient market incentive for industrial business-driven antiprotozoal drug discovery due to poor marketing prospects and low returns on investment. Consequently, the pharmacopoeia for majority of these diseases, composed mainly of agents with poor efficacy and unsatisfactory safety profiles, has essentially remained unchanged for decades, creating a compelling need for more efficacious and better tolerated medicines. The policy makers and the scientific community are seeking effective ways to meet this need. So far, two approaches have emerged promising in this regard: combination chemotherapy and drug repositioning. Molecular hybridization has been cited as a potential third approach that could be used to deliver new antiprotozoal chemical entities. In this review article, recent applications of this novel strategy in antimalarial, antichagasic, antitrypanosomal, and antileishmanial drug discovery research and development over the last five years will be presented and discussed. PMID:23410169

  11. Development of a chemical vision spectrometer to detect chemical agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1999-02-23

    This paper describes initial work in developing a no-moving-parts hyperspectral-imaging camera that provides both a thermal image and specific identification of chemical agents, even in the presence of nontoxic plumes. The camera uses enhanced stand-off chemical agent detector (ESCAD) technology based on a conventional thermal-imaging camera interfaced with an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF). The AOTF is programmed to allow selected spectral frequencies to reach the two dimensional array detector. These frequencies are combined to produce a spectrum that is used for identification. If a chemical agent is detected, pixels containing the agent-absorbing bands are given a colored hue to indicate the presence of the agent. In test runs, two thermal-imaging cameras were used with a specially designed vaporizer capable of controlled low-level (low ppm-m) dynamic chemical releases. The objective was to obtain baseline information about detection levels. Dynamic releases allowed for realistic detection scenarios such as low sky, grass, and wall structures, in addition to reproducible laboratory releases. Chemical releases consisted of dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) and methanol. Initial results show that the combination of AOTF and thermal imaging will produce a chemical image of a plume that can be detected in the presence of interfering substances.

  12. Local Development Agents' Training for Sustainable and Endogenous Development: A Participatory Development Project among Mayan Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Margarita Rosales; Salgado, Margarita Ines Zarco

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the capacity building of "local partnership" members or leaders as development agents in their Mayan communities. It relates to an education/training process started in 1995 in four different regions of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, which was carried out by Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) and academic institutions. It…

  13. Agent-Based Learning Environments as a Research Tool for Investigating Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Amy L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses intelligent learning environments for computer-based learning, such as agent-based learning environments, and their advantages over human-based instruction. Considers the effects of multiple agents; agents and research design; the use of Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively (MIMIC) for instructional design for…

  14. Trends in research of antitrypanosomal agents among synthetic heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Kryshchyshyn, Anna; Kaminskyy, Danylo; Grellier, Philippe; Lesyk, Roman

    2014-10-01

    To date treatment of trypanosomiasis urgently requires new effective and non-toxic drugs. The article covers some of the achievements in the search for new antitrypanosomal agents; also the "validated" biological targets used in the antitrypanosomal agents design are outlined. The major part of the manuscript focuses on the synthetic small molecules, such as thiosemicarbazone and thiazole (as their cyclic analogues) derivatives, benzofuran derivatives, heterocycles bearing nitro group etc. Also, the attractiveness of metal complexes and well known drugs as sources for antitrypanosomal agent design is discussed. PMID:25072876

  15. Improving Educational Research and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krathwohl, David

    1977-01-01

    Considers some ways to improve the milieu in which educational research and development takes place, including balancing procurement methods, modifying expectations of R & D, building a political constituency and developing realistic legislative goals, obtaining continual adequate research support, and, joining researchers and practitioners.…

  16. Research and Development for Safeguards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Guy M.

    This report summarizes the results of unclassified research and development contracts in the field of peaceful use safeguards regarding the use of nuclear material. These summaries indicate there is really no sharp line of demarcation between research for safeguards and research for many other purposes. It includes areas of research effort and…

  17. Professional Development. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    According to the literature, the purpose of professional development is to improve student learning. It was noted that there appeared to be a direct correlation between the depth of the teacher's content knowledge, methodologies, student-teacher relationships, and reflection, that when applied to an improvement in practices, positively affected…

  18. Rural Development Research Under Scrutiny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyner, Fred H.

    Evaluating current rural development research, the paper covers 6 major areas: (1) the nature and purpose of research; (2) circumstances related to rural development that require careful attention; (3) observations on rural development "disorganization" as an "outsider" might view the situation; (4) an opinion about the focus rural development…

  19. Biologic Agents for Periodontal Regeneration and Implant Site Development.

    PubMed

    Suárez-López Del Amo, Fernando; Monje, Alberto; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Tang, ZhiHui; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of molecular mediators or biologic agents has increased tremendously during the last decade in periodontology and dental implantology. Implant site development and reconstruction of the lost periodontium represent main fields in which these molecular mediators have been employed and investigated. Different growth factors trigger different reactions in the tissues of the periodontium at various cellular levels. Proliferation, migration, and differentiation constitute the main target areas of these molecular mediators. It was the purpose of this comprehensive review to describe the origin and rationale, evidence, and the most current understanding of the following biologic agents: Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB), Enamel Matrix Derivate (EMD), Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF), Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (rhFGF-2), Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMPs, BMP-2 and BMP-7), Teriparatide PTH, and Growth Differential Factor-5 (GDF-5). PMID:26509173

  20. Biologic Agents for Periodontal Regeneration and Implant Site Development

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-López del Amo, Fernando; Monje, Alberto; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Tang, ZhiHui; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of molecular mediators or biologic agents has increased tremendously during the last decade in periodontology and dental implantology. Implant site development and reconstruction of the lost periodontium represent main fields in which these molecular mediators have been employed and investigated. Different growth factors trigger different reactions in the tissues of the periodontium at various cellular levels. Proliferation, migration, and differentiation constitute the main target areas of these molecular mediators. It was the purpose of this comprehensive review to describe the origin and rationale, evidence, and the most current understanding of the following biologic agents: Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB), Enamel Matrix Derivate (EMD), Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF), Recombinant Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (rhFGF-2), Bone Morphogenic Proteins (BMPs, BMP-2 and BMP-7), Teriparatide PTH, and Growth Differential Factor-5 (GDF-5). PMID:26509173

  1. Development and characterization of a nano-scale contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Oeffinger, Brian E; Wheatley, Margaret A

    2004-04-01

    Agents injected parenterally must be less than approximately 8 microm diameter in order to traverse the capillaries in the pulmonary bed, but these agents remain in the vasculature until they are eliminated from the body by a variety of mechanisms. Targeting of cells outside the capillaries requires agent diameters of less than approximately 700 nm to enable escape through the larger-than-usual pores that have been noted in the leaky vasculature of a tumor. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of creating a surfactant-stabilized nano-bubble with favorable acoustic properties, and identify the key parameters that influence size, yield and stability. Size distribution was characterized using laser light scattering. In vitro acoustic enhancement was assessed by generation of dose and time response curves. We previously developed a successful protocol to generate gas-filled microbubbles (containing perfluorocarbon, sulfur hexafluoride or air) with mean diameter of 1.5 microm, using sonication of carefully selected surfactant mixtures. This presentation describes generation of nano-bubbles with mean diameters ranging from 700 to 450 nm, depending on process variables. In all cases a centrifugation step was employed to separate the nano-sized particles. The in vitro dose response curves gave a maximum of 23-27 dB enhancement compared to buffer in the absence of agent, with the maximum enhancement and presence of shadowing at higher doses being dependent on the fabrication protocol. The effect of sonication time for solutions containing a mixture of the surfactants (Span 60 and Tween 80) was also tested, but was determined not to be an influencing factor. Future studies will involve development of a mathematical model characterizing the mean size as a function of centrifugal force, spin time and initial size distribution. Future work will also include imaging of tumor-bearing mice and measuring imaging potential in vivo in New Zealand white rabbits

  2. [Development of polaprezinc research].

    PubMed

    Takei, Mineo

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, one of essential trace elements, functions as a structural component in more than 300 different enzymes in the human body, playing crucial roles in performing a number of functions, including protein and DNA synthesis. Also hereditary or dietary zinc deficiency leading to pathological changes such as growth retardation, skin symptoms and taste disorders in human has been well investigated. Polaprezinc (Promac(®), Zeria Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.), a chelate compound consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, is a zinc-related medicine approved for the first time in Japan, which has been clinically used to treat gastric ulcers. Its mechanism of action is believed to oxygen radical scavenging, anti-oxidation, and acceleration of wound healing. Further, as zinc deficiency is known to be a primary cause of taste disorders, a clinical phase III study is in progress to determine taste disorders as a new indication of polaprezinc. The pharmacological action of polaprezinc, however, on taste disorders remains unclear. So we examined the effect of polaprezinc on taste disorders induced by feeding rats a zinc-deficient diet and clarified its mechanism of action in restoring the reduced zinc content in the lingual epithelium and improving delayed cell proliferation of taste bud cells due to zinc deficiency. In this review, we primarily make reference to our own data on the pharmacological action of polaprezinc on taste disorders and introduce recent research on the effects of polaprezinc in treating other diseases. PMID:22382829

  3. A Survey of Agent-oriented Development Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokahr, Alexander; Braubach, Lars

    Development tools represent an important additive for the practical realization of software applications, mainly because they help automating development activities and are able to hide complexity from developers. In this chapter, the requirements for tools are generically analyzed by the various tasks that need to be performed in the different development phases. These requirements are the foundation for a detailed investigation of the landscape of available agent-oriented development tools. In order to assess the variety of tools systematically, existing surveys and evaluations have been used to isolate three important categories of tools, which are treated separately: modeling tools, IDEs and phase-specic tools. For each of these categories specic requirements are elaborated, an overview of existing tools is given and one representative tool is presented in more detail.

  4. Texas 4-H Agents' Perceptions of Selected Competencies in the 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Amy; Wingenbach, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    There are many competencies necessary for success as a 4-H agent. The 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies (PRKC) Model organizes competencies into six domains: (a) Youth Development, (b) Youth Program Development, (c) Volunteerism, (d) Partnerships, (e) Organizational Systems, and (f) Equity, Access and Opportunity (National 4-H…

  5. Project swiftsure final report: Destruction of chemical agent waste at Defence Research Establishment Suffield. Suffield special publication No. 170

    SciTech Connect

    McAndless, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Swiftsure was a project to destroy old chemical warfare agent waste at the Defence Research Establishment Suffield Experimental Proving Ground. This report begins with an overview of the project and the consultation process, and describes the project planning and development process, the methods used to destroy the nerve agents, the contracting of a waste incinerator, the environmental protection plan, incinerator installation and testing, waste preparation and incineration operations, final waste product disposal and the environmental monitoring program. Appendices include details on the properties of the agents destroyed, sampling and analysis methods, and air quality monitoring specifications.

  6. Translational Research and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  7. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.; Brimfield, A.A.; Cook, L.

    1996-10-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detection soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition these antibodies were found to be highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies extended the level of sensitivity to {approximately}80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These reagents offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances. More recent efforts have focussed on developing antibodies specific for sulfur mustard a highly reactive vesicating agent.

  8. Research and Development. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    Research and Development is a laboratory-oriented course that includes the appropriate common essential elements for industrial technology education plus concepts and skills related to research and development. This guide provides teachers of the course with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an…

  9. Cyclodepsipeptides from marine sponges: natural agents for drug research.

    PubMed

    Andavan, Gowri Shankar Bagavananthem; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    A number of natural products from marine sponges, such as cyclodepsipeptides, have been identified. The structural characteristics of this family of cyclic peptides include various unusual amino acid residues and unique N-terminal polyketide-derived moieties. Papuamides are representatives of a class of marine sponge derived cyclic depsipeptides, including callipeltin A, celebesides A and B, homophymine A, mirabamides, microspinosamide, neamphamide A and theopapuamides. They are thought to have cytoprotective activity against HIV-1 in vitro by inhibiting viral entry. Jasplakinolide, a representative member of marine sponge-derived cyclodepsipeptides that include arenastatin A, geodiamolides, homophymines, spongidepsin and theopapuamides, is a potent inducer of actin polymerization in vitro. Although actin dynamics is essential for tumor metasasis, no actin targeting drugs have been used in clinical trials due to their severe cytotoxicity. Nonetheless, the actin cytoskeleton remains a potential target for anti-cancer drug development. These features imply the use of cyclodepsipeptides as molecular models in drug research. PMID:20411126

  10. Developing the Manufacturing Process for Hylene MP Curing Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, Eric

    2009-02-16

    This report details efforts to scale-up and re-establish the manufacturing process for the curing agent known as Hylene MP. First, small scale reactions were completed with varying conditions to determine key drivers for yielding high quality product. Once the optimum conditions were determined on the small scale, the scaled-up process conditions were determined. New equipment was incorporated into the manufacturing process to create a closed production system and improve chemical exposure controls and improve worker safety. A safe, efficient manufacturing process was developed to manufacture high quality Hylene MP in large quantities.

  11. Development of a Persistent Chemical Agent Simulator System (PCASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginness, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a persistent chemical agent simulation system (PCASS) is described. This PCASS is to be used for the military training of troops to simulate actual chemical warfare. The purpose of this system is to facilitate in the determination of chemical contamination and effectiveness of decontamination for training purposes. The fluorescent tracer employed has no daylight activation, but yet is easily removed with a decontaminate solution or water and surfactants. Also employed is a time delayed color developing system. When an individual is subjected to the PCASS and does not decontaminate adequately, red blotches or red coloration will develop as a function of time and temperature. The intent of this is to simulate the delayed chemical reaction of mustard contaminates.

  12. A task-oriented modular and agent-based collaborative design mechanism for distributed product development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinfei; Chen, Ming; Wang, Lei; Wu, Qidi

    2014-05-01

    The rapid expansion of enterprises makes product collaborative design (PCD) a critical issue under the distributed heterogeneous environment, but as the collaborative task of large-scale network becomes more complicated, neither unified task decomposition and allocation methodology nor Agent-based network management platform can satisfy the increasing demands. In this paper, to meet requirements of PCD for distributed product development, a collaborative design mechanism based on the thought of modularity and the Agent technology is presented. First, the top-down 4-tier process model based on task-oriented modular and Agent is constructed for PCD after analyzing the mapping relationships between requirements and functions in the collaborative design. Second, on basis of sub-task decomposition for PCD based on a mixed method, the mathematic model of task-oriented modular based on multi-objective optimization is established to maximize the module cohesion degree and minimize the module coupling degree, while considering the module executable degree as a restriction. The mathematic model is optimized and simulated by the modified PSO, and the decomposed modules are obtained. Finally, the Agent structure model for collaborative design is put forward, and the optimism matching Agents are selected by using similarity algorithm to implement different task-modules by the integrated reasoning and decision-making mechanism with the behavioral model of collaborative design Agents. With the results of experimental studies for automobile collaborative design, the feasibility and efficiency of this methodology of task-oriented modular and Agent-based collaborative design in the distributed heterogeneous environment are verified. On this basis, an integrative automobile collaborative R&D platform is developed. This research provides an effective platform for automobile manufacturing enterprises to achieve PCD, and helps to promote product numeralization collaborative R&D and

  13. Reframing research on faculty development.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Irby, David M

    2011-04-01

    Research on faculty development has focused primarily on individual participants and has produced relatively little generalizable knowledge that can guide faculty development programs. In this article, the authors examine how current research on faculty development in medical education can be enriched by research in related fields such as teacher education, quality improvement, continuing medical education, and workplace learning. As a result of this analysis, the authors revise the old model for conceptualizing faculty development (preferably called professional development). This expanded model calls for research on educational process and outcomes focused on two communities of practice: the community created among participants in faculty development programs and the communities of teaching practice in the workplace (classroom or clinic) where teaching actually occurs. For the faculty development community, the key components are the participants, program, content, facilitator, and context in which the program occurs and in which the faculty teach. For the workplace community, associated components include relationships and networks of association in that environment, the organization and culture of the setting, the teaching tasks and activities, and the mentoring available to the members of that academic and/or clinical community of teaching practice. This expanded model of faculty development generates a new set of research questions, which are described along with six recommendations for enhancing research, including establishment of a national center for research in health professions education. PMID:21346505

  14. The development of immunoassays for detection of chemical warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.

    1995-06-01

    With the advent of enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assays (ELISA) and monoclonal antibodies in the last two decades, there has been considerable effort devoted to the development of antibodies to detect and quantify low molecular weight toxic substances in environmental or biological fluids. Polyclonal antibodies against paraoxon (the toxic metabolite of parathion) were reported as capable of detecting paraoxon in body fluids at a level of 10{sup -9} M ({approximately}260 pg/mL) when used in a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA). Monoclonal antibodies developed against a structural analogue of the chemical warfare agent soman were capable of detecting soman in buffer solutions at a level of 10{sup -6} M ({approximately}180 ng/mL). In addition, these antibodies were highly specific for soman even in the presence of its major hydrolysis product. Subsequent studies with antisoman monoclonal antibodies reported an extension of the level of sensitivity to -80 ng/mL. Furthermore these antibodies did not cross react with other chemical warfare nerve agents such as sarin or tabun. In all cases, the time for a confirmatory test was two hours or less. Immunoassays for T-2 micotoxins have also been reported with a minimal detection range of 2 pg/assay to 50 ng/assay for the polyclonal and monoclonal T-2 antibodies respectively. These antibodies offer a sensitive, rapid and low cost approach to the diagnosis or detection of the presence of toxic chemical substances.

  15. New promising anticancer agents in development: what comes next?

    PubMed

    Verweij, J

    1996-01-01

    Anticancer drug development has recently shifted in part to development of more innovative anticancer agents. The increasing knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in cancer cell growth has enabled the introduction of drug screening that is more mechanism-based. The realization that new targets should be preferentially evaluated as sites for anticancer drug treatment has led to the introduction of drugs such as the taxanes. Following this logic, several new drugs are being developed. Minor groove-binding agents such as carzelesin and oral platins lacking organ toxicity, such as JM216, have recently entered clinical studies. The activity of gemcitabine is a result of its being a cytidine analogue and being competitively incorporated by DNA; the drug has shown interesting activity in non-small-cell lung cancer and, although registration is imminent, issues regarding the optimal dose and administration schedule have yet to be resolved. Tomudex is a thymidylate synthase inhibitor with interesting activity in colorectal cancer. Activity in colorectal cancer is also of interest for irinotecan, the first clinically applied topoisomerase I inhibitor, an enzyme that is another example of a new target for anticancer drugs. Irinotecan has produced consistent response rates of 20-30% in six different studies in colorectal cancer. The other topoisomerase I inhibitor that is in the advanced stage of development is topotecan. This drug has shown activity in second-line chemotherapy for ovarian cancer and small-cell lung cancer. Another interesting feature of topotecan is the availability of an oral formulation with consistent bioavailability. Drugs interfering with cellular signal transduction, such as the protein kinase C inhibitors, are in the development spotlight. Finally, the use of old drugs in new ways, such as immunoconjugates of doxorubicin, holds promise for the near future. PMID:8765408

  16. Therapies for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Current Approaches and Pharmacologic Agents in Development

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Daniel; Kherani, Saleema; Sepah, Yasir J.; Rajagopalan, Nithya; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Do, Diana V.; Nguyen, Quan Dong

    2013-01-01

    As one of the leading causes of blindness, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has remained at the epicenter of clinical research in ophthalmology. During the past decade, focus of researchers has ranged from understanding the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the angiogenic cascades to developing new therapies for retinal vascular diseases. Anti-VEGF agents such as ranibizumab and aflibercept are becoming increasingly well-established therapies and have replaced earlier approaches such as laser photocoagulation or photodynamic therapy. Many other new therapeutic agents, which are in the early phase clinical trials, have shown promising results. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the available treatment modalities for neovascular AMD and then focus on promising new therapies that are currently in various stages of development. PMID:24319688

  17. JOHNSTON ATOLL CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL SYSTEM (JACADS) CLOSURE PLAN DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The JACADS project consists of four incinerators including a liquid chemical agent waste processor, an explosives treatment incinerator and a batch metal parts treatment unit. Its mission was to disassemble and destroy chemcial weapons and bulk chemical agent. This prototypical...

  18. Technical Report (Final): Development of Solid State Reagents for Preparing Radiolabeled Imaging Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kabalka, George W

    2011-05-20

    The goal of this research was on the development of new, rapid, and efficient synthetic methods for incorporating short-lived radionuclides into agents of use in measuring dynamic processes. The initial project period (Year 1) was focused on the preparation of stable, solid state precursors that could be used to efficiently incorporate short-lived radioisotopes into small molecules of use in biological applications (environmental, plant, and animal). The investigation included development and evaluation of new methods for preparing carbon-carbon and carbon-halogen bonds for use in constructing the substrates to be radiolabeled. The second phase (Year 2) was focused on developing isotope incorporation techniques using the stable, boronated polymeric precursors. The final phase (Year 3), was focused on the preparation of specific radiolabeled agents and evaluation of their biodistribution using micro-PET and micro-SPECT. In addition, we began the development of a new series of polymeric borane reagents based on polyethylene glycol backbones.

  19. Development of Tc-99m Imaging Agents for Abeta Plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Ping, Zhuang; Mei-Ping Kung; Catherihne Hou; Hank F. Kung

    2008-09-26

    Development of SPECT imaging agents based on Tc-99m targeting Aβ plaques is useful for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A stilbene derivative, [11C]SB-13, showing promise in detecting senile plaques present in AD patients has been reported previously1,2. Based on the 4’-amino-stilbene core structure we have added substituted groups through which a chelating group, N2S2, was conjugated. We report herein a series of Tc-99m labeled stilbene derivative conjugated with a TcO[N2S2] core. The syntheses of stilbenes containing a N2S2 chelating ligand are achieved by a scheme shown. Lipophilic 99mTc stilbene complexes were successfully prepared and purified through HPLC. Preliminary results of in vitro labeling of brain sections from transgenic mice showed very promising plaque labeling. These 99mTc stilbene derivatives are warranted for further evaluations as potential imaging agents targeting amyloid plaques.

  20. Research of negotiation in network trade system based on multi-agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jun; Wang, Guozheng; Wu, Haiyan

    2009-07-01

    A construction and implementation technology of network trade based on multi-agent is described in this paper. First, we researched the technology of multi-agent, then we discussed the consumer's behaviors and the negotiation between purchaser and bargainer which emerges in the traditional business mode and analysed the key technology to implement the network trade system. Finally, we implement the system.

  1. The Change Agent and the Process of Change. Research Bulletin 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, James

    As a final chapter in the research to evaluate the impact of the Michigan township extension experiment, this report focuses on why and how change came about, what factors appear to be most closely related to change, and the ways in which change agents can most effectively help bring about change. In the experiment, extension agents worked…

  2. SMART II : the spot market agent research tool version 2.0.

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J. N.

    2000-12-14

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has worked closely with Western Area Power Administration (Western) over many years to develop a variety of electric power marketing and transmission system models that are being used for ongoing system planning and operation as well as analytic studies. Western markets and delivers reliable, cost-based electric power from 56 power plants to millions of consumers in 15 states. The Spot Market Agent Research Tool Version 2.0 (SMART II) is an investigative system that partially implements some important components of several existing ANL linear programming models, including some used by Western. SMART II does not implement a complete model of the Western utility system but it does include several salient features of this network for exploratory purposes. SMART II uses a Swarm agent-based framework. SMART II agents model bulk electric power transaction dynamics with recognition for marginal costs as well as transmission and generation constraints. SMART II uses a sparse graph of nodes and links to model the electric power spot market. The nodes represent power generators and consumers with distinct marginal decision curves and varying investment capital as well individual learning parameters. The links represent transmission lines with individual capacities taken from a range of central distribution, outlying distribution and feeder line types. The application of SMART II to electric power systems studies has produced useful results different from those often found using more traditional techniques. Use of the advanced features offered by the Swarm modeling environment simplified the creation of the SMART II model.

  3. Brahms An Agent-Oriented Language for Work Practice Simulation and Multi-Agent Systems Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; van Hoof, Ron J. J.

    Brahms is a multi-agent modeling language for simulating human work practice that emerges from work processes in organizations. The same Brahms language can be used to implement and execute distributed multi-agent systems, based on models of work practice that were first simulated. Brahms demonstrates how a multi-agent belief-desire-intention language, symbolic cognitive modeling, traditional business process modeling, activity-and situated cognition theories are brought together in a coherent approach for analysis and design of organizations and human-centered systems.

  4. Development of pretreatment compounds against nerve-gas agents. Annual report (Final), 16 May 88-30 Sep 90

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, F.I.; Abraham, P.

    1990-09-30

    The U. S. Army Medical Research and Development Command is interested in research directed toward the development of countermeasures to chemical warfare (CW) agents such as the nerve gas poison soman. Soman and other nerve gas poisons are extremely potent cholinesterase inhibitors. This inhibition leads to a buildup of excess acetylcholine resulting in over-stimulation of both the peripheral and central nervous system and can lead to death. Standard therapy for organophosphate nerve agent poisoning is based on co-administration of an anticholinergic agent such as atropine to antagonize the effects of accumulated acetylcholine and a cholinesterase reactivator such as 2-PAM to dephosphorylate the inhibited enzyme. However, since many problems remain in the treatment of organophosphate nerve agent poisoning, there is considerable interest and need to develop new pretreatment and treatment drugs, particularly for soman poisoning.

  5. Using Agent Based Modeling (ABM) to Develop Cultural Interaction Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drucker, Nick; Jones, Phillip N.

    2012-01-01

    Today, most cultural training is based on or built around "cultural engagements" or discrete interactions between the individual learner and one or more cultural "others". Often, success in the engagement is the end or the objective. In reality, these interactions usually involve secondary and tertiary effects with potentially wide ranging consequences. The concern is that learning culture within a strict engagement context might lead to "checklist" cultural thinking that will not empower learners to understand the full consequence of their actions. We propose the use of agent based modeling (ABM) to collect, store, and, simulating the effects of social networks, promulgate engagement effects over time, distance, and consequence. The ABM development allows for rapid modification to re-create any number of population types, extending the applicability of the model to any requirement for social modeling.

  6. Development of biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents: its issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Rani, Renu

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses current development in biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents (BWAs). BWAs include bacteria, virus and toxins that are added deliberately into air water and food to spread terrorism and cause disease or death. The rapid and unambiguous detection and identification of BWAs with early warning signals for detecting possible biological attack is a major challenge for government agencies particularly military and health. The detection devices--biosensors--can be classified (according to their physicochemical transducers) into four types: electrochemical, nucleic acid, optical and piezoelectric. Advantages and limitations of biosensors are discussed in this review followed by an assessment of the current state of development of different types of biosensors. The research and development in biosensors for biological warfare agent detection is of great interest for the public as well as for governments. PMID:24244972

  7. Development of superior asphalt recycling agents. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Glover, C.J.; Davison, R.R.; Chaffin, J.; Lin, Moon-Sun

    1995-07-01

    About 27 million tons of asphalt and nearly twenty times this much aggregate are consumed each year to build and maintain over two million miles of roads in this country. Over a cycle of about 12 years on the average, these roads must be reworked and much of these millions of tons of rock and asphalt cannot be reused with present recycling technology. Instead, much of the maintenance is accomplished by placing thick layers (hot-mix overlays) of new material on top of the failed material. This results in considerable waste of material, both in terms of quality aggregate and in terms of asphalt binder. In addition, the new asphalt binder represents a significant source of potential energy. The main impediment to recycling asphalt binder is the poorly developed science of recycling agent composition and, as a result, optimum recycling agents are not available. An excellent recycling agent should not only be able to reduce the viscosity of the aged material, but it must also be able to restore compatibility. The properties of the old material and recycling agent must be compatible to give both good initial properties and aging characteristics, and this must be understood. The agent must also be inexpensive and easily manufactured. A large quantity of potential feedstock for the production of recycling agents is available and much of it is now fed to cokers. This material could be recovered by supercritical extraction which is an existing refinery technology. A supercritical pilot plant is available at Texas A&M and has been used to produce fractions for study. The objective of this research is to establish the technical feasibility of determining the specifications and operating parameters necessary to produce high quality recycling agents which will allow most old asphalt-based road material to be recycled.

  8. Using software agents to maintain autonomous patient registries for clinical research.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, S. N.; Rabbani, U. H.; Barnett, G. O.

    1997-01-01

    A software agent is an application that can function in an autonomous and intelligent fashion. We have used mobile software agents to maintain clinicians' patient research databases (patient registries). Agents were used to acquire data from the clinician and place it into the registries, copy data from hospital databases into the registries, and report data from the registries. The agents were programmed with the intelligence to navigate through complex network security, interact with legacy systems, and protect themselves from various forms of failure at multiple levels. To maximize the separation between our system and the hospital information infrastructure we often used Java, a platform-independent language, to program and distribute our software agents. By using mobile agents, we were able to distribute the computing time required by these applications to underutilized host machines upon which the registries could be maintained. PMID:9357591

  9. Nuclear safeguards research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, C. N.

    1981-11-01

    The status of a nuclear safeguard research and development program is presented. Topics include nondestructive assay technology development and applications, international safeguards, training courses, technology transfer, analytical chemistry methods for fissionable materials safeguards, the Department of Energy Computer Security Technical Center, and operational security.

  10. Discovery and Development of the Anticancer Agent Salinosporamide A (NPI-0052)

    PubMed Central

    Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R.; Palladino, Michael A.; Lam, Kin S.; Lloyd, G. Kenneth; Potts, Barbara C.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of the anticancer agent salinosporamide A (NPI-0052) resulted from the exploration of new marine environments and a commitment to the potential of the ocean to yield new natural products for drug discovery and development. Driving the success of this process was the linkage of academic research together with the ability and commitment of industry to undertake drug development and provide the resources and expertise to advance the entry of salinosporamide A (NPI-0052) into human clinical trials. This paper offers a chronicle of the important events that facilitated the rapid clinical development of this exciting molecule. PMID:19022674

  11. Origins of behavioral teratology and distinctions between research on pharmaceutical agents and environmental/industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.K. )

    1990-07-01

    Most behavioral teratology studies have focused on pharmaceutical agents. Investigations of developmental toxicity are lacking for the majority of the nearly 100,000 industrial chemicals currently in use. Only some three dozen chemicals have been examined for behavioral/neurochemical deviations in offspring following maternal exposures. Examination of industrial agents for developmental toxicity, therefore, remains a major public health need. Most developmental research addresses the effects of pharmaceutical agents, but these studies frequently do not address environmental/industrial concerns due to fundamental differences in experimental methodology. The route, duration, and timing of exposure, usefulness of fostering of offspring, and potential concomitant exposure of both parents are all variables which should be treated differently in research on industrial chemicals as opposed to pharmaceutical agents. After briefly tracking the history of behavioral teratology, the present paper discusses differences in application of behavioral teratological principles to industrial versus pharmaceutical agents, and points to the largely untested number of industrial chemicals needing investigation. 57 references.

  12. Choice of approaches in developing novel medical countermeasures for nerve agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Myhrer, Trond; Aas, Pål

    2014-09-01

    During the establishment of a research branch, all relevant matters encountered will be of interest to study. After having acquired a body of basal knowledge, it becomes possible to derive ideas or hypotheses for further elaboration of information. The purpose of the present study was to show that therapies for nerve agent poisoning based on specific neuropharmacological approaches can have greater probability for being successful than treatment regimens based on fragmental research or serendipitous discoveries. By following the guidelines for research in experimental epilepsy, neuronal target areas for nerve agents have been identified through lesion studies, and critical receptors for pharmacological treatment have been specified through microinfusion studies of rats. Subsequent experimentations have shown that the results achieved from microinfusion studies are transferable to systemic administration. It is demonstrated that a treatment regimen developed through the novel approach is more efficacious than regimens derived from conventional research on countermeasures. A therapy consisting of HI-6, levetiracetam, and procyclidine that has been worked out along the new lines, exerts powerful anticonvulsant capacity and appears to have universal utility as a stand-alone therapy against soman intoxication in rats. It would be of great interest to examine whether the latter findings can be expanded to other animal species than rats and other classical nerve agents than soman. PMID:24820435

  13. Developing Professional Researchers: Research Students' Graduate Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manathunga, Catherine; Lant, Paul; Mellick, George

    2007-01-01

    The impetus to broaden the scope of research education is not new. Since the 1970s, concern has been expressed about the suitability of research education as preparation for a research career outside academe. Universities have been criticized for producing over-specialized research graduates, who struggle to apply their expertise to new workplace…

  14. Ganetespib: research and clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Komal; Modi, Shanu

    2015-01-01

    Under stressful conditions, the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) molecular chaperone protects cellular proteins (client proteins) from degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. HSP90 expression is upregulated in cancers, and this contributes to the malignant phenotype of increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis and maintenance of metastatic potential via conservation of its client proteins, including human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, androgen receptor, estrogen receptor, Akt, Raf-1, cell cycle proteins, and B-cell lymphoma 2 among others. Hence, inhibition of HSP90 leads to the simultaneous degradation of its many clients, thereby disrupting multiple oncogenic signaling cascades. This has sparked tremendous interest in the development of HSP90 inhibitors as an innovative anticancer strategy. Based on the wealth of compelling data from preclinical studies, a number of HSP90 inhibitors have entered into clinical testing. However, despite enormous promise and anticancer activity reported to date, none of the HSP90 inhibitors in development has been approved for cancer therapy, and the full potential of this class of agents is yet to be realized. This article provides a review on ganetespib, a small molecule HSP90 inhibitor that is currently under evaluation in a broad range of cancer types in combination with other therapeutic agents with the hope of further enhancing its efficacy and overcoming drug resistance. Based on our current understanding of the complex HSP90 machinery combined with the emerging data from these key clinical trials, ganetespib has the potential to be the first-in-class HSP90 inhibitor to be approved as a new anticancer therapy. PMID:26244021

  15. UCLA accelerator research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report covers work supported by the above DOE grant over the period November 1, 1991 to July 31, 1992. The work is a program of experimental and theoretical studies in advanced particle accelerator research and development for high energy physics applications. The program features research at particle beam facilities in the United States and includes research on novel high power sources, novel focussing systems (e.g. plasma lens), beam monitors, novel high brightness, high current gun systems, and novel flavor factories in particular the {phi} Factory.

  16. Magnesium Research and Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joost, William; Smith, Mark T.

    2009-12-30

    The Magnesium Research and Technical Development (MR&TD) project supports efforts to increase using magnesium in automotive applications, including improving technology, lowering costs and increasing the knowledge needed to enable alloy and manufacturing process optimization. MR&TD supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project in collaboration with China and Canada. The MR&TD projects also maintains the magnesium bibliographic database at magnesium.pnl.gov.

  17. Development of a calcium-sensing receptor molecular imaging agent

    PubMed Central

    Yusof, Adlina Mohd; Kothandaraman, Shankaran; Zhang, Xiaoli; Saji, Motoyasu; Ringel, Matthew D.; Tweedle, Michael F.; Phay, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed by parathyroid cells and thyroid C-cells (from which medullary thyroid carcinoma [MTC] is derived). A molecular imaging agent localizing to the CaSR could improve the detection of parathyroids and MTC preoperatively or intraoperatively. We synthesized a novel compound containing a fluorine residue for potential future labeling and demonstrated that the compound inhibited CaSR function in vitro. Methods We synthesized compound M, a derivative of a known calcilytic compound, Calhex-231. Human embryonic kidney cells transfected with green-fluorescent protein-tagged CaSR or control vector were preincubated with compound M before the addition of calcium. Immunoblotting for total mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK: ERK1/2), activated MAPK (phosphorylated ERK1/2), and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was performed. Results Synthesis of compound M was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathway by compound M was demonstrated in a dose-dependent manner by a decrease in phosphorylated ERK1/2 with no change in total ERK1/2 levels. Compound M inhibited MAPK signaling slightly better than the parent compound. Conclusion We have developed a novel molecule which demonstrates functional inhibition of CaSR and has a favorable structure for labeling. This compound appears to be appropriate for further development as a molecular imaging tool to enhance the surgical treatment of parathyroid disease and MTC. PMID:24238055

  18. Bridging academic science and clinical research in the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This review starts with a brief history of drug discovery & development, and the place of Asia in this worldwide effort discussed. The conditions and constraints of a successful translational R&D involving academic basic research and clinical research are discussed and the Singapore model for pursuit of open R&D described. The importance of well-characterized, validated drug targets for the search for novel targeted anti-cancer agents is emphasized, as well as a structured, high quality translational R&D. Furthermore, the characteristics of an attractive preclinical development drug candidate are discussed laying the foundation of a successful preclinical development. The most frequent sources of failures are described and risk management at every stage is highly recommended. Organizational factors are also considered to play an important role. The factors to consider before starting a new drug discovery & development project are described, and an example is given of a successful clinical project that has had its roots in local universities and was carried through preclinical development into phase I clinical trials. PMID:26779369

  19. Orthopoxvirus targets for the development of new antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Prichard, Mark N.; Kern, Earl R.

    2013-01-01

    Investments in the development of new drugs for orthopoxvirus infections have fostered new avenues of research, provided an improved understanding of orthopoxvirus biology and yielded new therapies that are currently progressing through clinical trials. These broad-based efforts have also resulted in the identification of new inhibitors of orthopoxvirus replication that target many different stages of viral replication cycle. This review will discuss progress in the development of new anti-poxvirus drugs and the identification of new molecular targets that can be exploited for the development of new inhibitors. The prototype of the orthopoxvirus group is vaccinia virus and its replication cycle will be discussed in detail noting specific viral functions and their associated gene products that have the potential to serve as new targets for drug development. Progress that has been achieved in recent years should yield new drugs for the treatment of these infections and might also reveal new approaches for antiviral drug development with other viruses. PMID:22406470

  20. NGNP Research and Development Status

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Petti

    2010-08-01

    At the inception of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, experts from the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, gas reactor vendors, and universities collaborated to establish technology research and development (R&D) roadmaps. These roadmaps outlined the testing and computational development activities needed to qualify the materials and validate the modeling and simulation tools to be used in the design and safe operation of the NGNP, a helium-cooled, high temperature gas reactor (HTGR).

  1. Recent Research on Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loevinger, Jane

    One conception of ego development and recent research on its outcome are presented. The infant first asserts his selfhood through demand and negation. This is the Impulsive stage. The next stage is the Ritual-hedonistic stage, in which controls are supplied by ritual observances, and reward and punishment remain important sanctions. The next…

  2. Current Research in Affective Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayer, Janet

    1985-01-01

    Current research concerning affective development in infants and children is selectively reviewed. The focus of findings and discussion is on three general and related topics: (1) expression of emotion and affective interaction in infancy; (2) socialization and regulation of emotion; (3) comprehension of emotions and empathy with others by…

  3. Suborbital Research and Development Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the new strategies for problem solving in the life sciences in the suborbital realm. Topics covered are: an overview of the space life sciences, the strategic initiatives that the Space Life Sciences organization engaged in, and the new business model that these initiatives were developed. Several opportunities for research are also reviewed.

  4. Developments in Applied Psycholinguistics Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Sheldon, Ed.; Koplin, James H., Ed.

    The eight articles in this volume reflect the increased tendency in recent years to consider problems of language acquisition and language pathology in the context of basic research and theory. They also reflect the two major approaches to language development: the transformational-linguistic approach which puts its emphasis on an innate…

  5. Development of novel epidermal growth receptor-basedradiopharmaceuticals: Imaging agents for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Van Brocklin, Henry F.

    2001-09-25

    The goal of this research was to develop epidermal growthfactor receptor (EGFR) nuclear medicine breast cancer imaging agents. Ourapproach was to synthesize small molecule inhibitors of the EGFR tyrosinekinase (tk) suitable for labeling with single photon or positron-emittingradioisotopes and evaluate the imaging potential of these new molecules.We have synthesized and fully characterized 22 quinazoline compounds. Allcompounds inhibit EGFR tk phosphorylation activity in the nanomolarrange. All compounds tested exhibited specificity for the EGFR tk versusthe ErbB2 and ErbB4 tyrosine kinases. A radiometric binding assay usingan iodine-125 labeled quinazoline was developed to determine the affinityof the quinazolines for the EGFR tk ATP binding site. The affinitiesranged from 0.4-51 nM. The octanol/water partition coefficients (Log P;lipophilicity) of the new compounds ranged from 2.2-5.5. Six compoundshave been labeled with fluorine-18. Biodistribution in EGFRoverexpressing tumor bearing mice demonstrated tumor uptake buthighlighted delivery and metabolism issues. The 2-fluoro quinazoline wasnot metabolized in an in vitro hepatocyte study. From this work a breadthof agent characteristics was created establishing the foundation forfuture research toward the optimal EGFR imaging agent.

  6. Agent-Based Modeling of Chronic Diseases: A Narrative Review and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Mark A.; Siscovick, David S.; Zhang, Donglan; Pagán, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The United States is experiencing an epidemic of chronic disease. As the US population ages, health care providers and policy makers urgently need decision models that provide systematic, credible prediction regarding the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases to improve population health management and medical decision-making. Agent-based modeling is a promising systems science approach that can model complex interactions and processes related to chronic health conditions, such as adaptive behaviors, feedback loops, and contextual effects. This article introduces agent-based modeling by providing a narrative review of agent-based models of chronic disease and identifying the characteristics of various chronic health conditions that must be taken into account to build effective clinical- and policy-relevant models. We also identify barriers to adopting agent-based models to study chronic diseases. Finally, we discuss future research directions of agent-based modeling applied to problems related to specific chronic health conditions. PMID:27236380

  7. Agent-Based Modeling of Chronic Diseases: A Narrative Review and Future Research Directions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Lawley, Mark A; Siscovick, David S; Zhang, Donglan; Pagán, José A

    2016-01-01

    The United States is experiencing an epidemic of chronic disease. As the US population ages, health care providers and policy makers urgently need decision models that provide systematic, credible prediction regarding the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases to improve population health management and medical decision-making. Agent-based modeling is a promising systems science approach that can model complex interactions and processes related to chronic health conditions, such as adaptive behaviors, feedback loops, and contextual effects. This article introduces agent-based modeling by providing a narrative review of agent-based models of chronic disease and identifying the characteristics of various chronic health conditions that must be taken into account to build effective clinical- and policy-relevant models. We also identify barriers to adopting agent-based models to study chronic diseases. Finally, we discuss future research directions of agent-based modeling applied to problems related to specific chronic health conditions. PMID:27236380

  8. Accumulation and Application of Knowledge Through Sports Institute for Research/Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick

    The Sports Institute for Research Through Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) is an interdisciplinary, public professional, study/action group, which brings together theoreticians and practitioners to investigate topics of vital interest to sport or athletic organizations functioning at the community, provincial/state, national, or international…

  9. Development of Oseltamivir Phosphonate Congeners as Anti-Influenza Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ting-Jen R.; Weinheimer, Steven; Tarbet, E. Bart; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Cheng, Yih-Shyun E.; Shie, Jiun-Jie; Chen, Chun-Lin; Chen, Chih-An; Hsieh, Wei-Che; Huang, Pei-Wei; Lin, Wen-Hao; Wang, Shi-Yun; Fang, Jim-Min; Hu, Oliver Yoa-Pu; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2012-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphonic acid (tamiphosphor, 3a), its monoethyl ester (3c), guanidino-tamiphosphor (4a) and its monoethyl ester (4c) are potent inhibitors of influenza neuraminidases. They inhibit the replication of influenza viruses, including the oseltamivir-resistant H275Y strain, at low nM to pM levels, and significantly protect mice from infection with lethal doses of influenza viruses when orally administered with 1 mg/kg or higher doses. These compounds are stable in simulated gastric fluid, liver microsomes and human blood, and are largely free from binding to plasma proteins. Pharmacokinetic properties of these inhibitors are thoroughly studied in dogs, rats and mice. The absolute oral bioavailability of these compounds was lower than 12%. No conversion of monoester 4c to phosphonic acid 4a was observed in rats after intravenous administration, but partial conversion of 4c was observed with oral administration. Advanced formulation may be investigated to develop these new anti-influenza agents for better therapeutic use. PMID:23009169

  10. A methodology for the development of software agent based interoperable telemedicine systems: a tele-electrocardiography perspective.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, P; Ray, P

    2000-01-01

    Telemedicine involves the integration of information, human-machine, and healthcare technologies. Because different modalities of patient care require applications running on heterogeneous computing environment, software interoperability is a major issue in telemedicine. Software agent technology provides a range of promising techniques to solve this problem. This article discusses the development of a methodology for the design of interoperable telemedicine systems (illustrated with a tele-electrocardiography application). Software interoperability between different applications can be modeled at different levels of abstraction such as physical interoperability, data-type interoperability, specification-level interoperability, and semantic interoperability. Software agents address the issue of software interoperability at semantic level. A popular object-oriented software development methodology - unified modeling language (UML) - has been used for this development. This research has demonstrated the feasibility of the development of agent-based interoperable telemedicine systems. More research is needed before widespread deployment of such systems can take place. PMID:10957742

  11. CELSS research and development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David

    1990-01-01

    Research in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) conducted by NASA indicate that plant based systems are feasible candidates for human support in space. Ames has responsibility for research and development, systems integration and control, and space flight experiment portions of the CELSS program. Important areas for development of new methods and technologies are biomass production, waste processing, water purification, air revitalization, and food processing. For the plant system, the approach was to identify the flexibility and response time for the food, water, and oxygen production, and carbon dioxide consumption processes. Tremendous increases in productivity, compared with terrestrial agriculture, were realized. Waste processing research emphasizes recycle (transformation) of human wastes, trash, and inedible biomass to forms usable as inputs to the plant production system. Efforts to improve efficiency of the plant system, select new CELSS crops for a balanced diet, and initiate closed system research with the Crop Growth Research Chambers continue. The System Control and Integration program goal is to insure orchestrated system operation of the biological, physical, and chemical operation of the biological, physical, and chemical component processors of the CELSS. Space flight studies are planned to verify adequate operation of the system in reduced gravity or microgravity environments.

  12. Laboratory conditions and safety in a chemical warfare agent analysis and research laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kenar, Levent; Karayilanoğlu, Turan; Kose, Songul

    2002-08-01

    Toxic chemicals have been used as weapons of war and also as means of terrorist attacks on civilian populations. Research focusing on chemical warfare agents (CWAs) may be associated with an increased risk of exposure to and contamination by these agents. This article summarizes some of the regulations concerning designation and safety in a CWA analysis and research laboratory and medical countermeasures in case of an accidental exposure. The design of such a laboratory, coupled with a set of safety guidelines, provides for the safe conduct of research and studies involving CWAs. Thus, a discussion of decontamination and protection means against CWAs is also presented. PMID:12188231

  13. Research Centers as Change Agents: Reshaping Work in Rhetoric and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogan, Brian; Belanger, Kelly; Patriarca, Ashley; O'Neill, Megan

    2010-01-01

    This article defines research centers as associative enterprises for solving scholarly and societal problems that cannot be adequately addressed by individuals. The authors identify more than fifty research centers in rhetoric and writing, past and present, and argue that they function as change agents by emphasizing collaboration and conducting…

  14. Crisis in Amateur Sports Organizations Viewed by Change Agent Research (CAR).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmette, Ann Marie; Moriarty, Dick

    The Sports Institute for Research Through Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) provides a service whereby organizations through an audit and feedback system prognosticate and identify problems in order to avoid situations discordant with their organizational goals and objectives. This document reports the organizational crisis that faced the Windsor…

  15. Change Agent Research: Phase I-Organizational Audit and Communication Feedback Applied to Windsor Minor Lacrosse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Jones, Patti

    This study reports the results of a pilot Change Agent Research (CAR) project initiated in the summer of 1975 by the Sports Institute for Research (SIR) for the Windsor Minor Lacrosse Association. The purpose of the project was to audit the association to diagnose the nature of its organizational problems and assist in initiating change in order…

  16. Challenges and Practices in Building and Implementing Biosafety and Biosecurity Programs to Enable Basic and Translational Research with Select Agents

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Colleen B.; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Roy, Chad J.; Perlin, David S.; Byrne, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Select agent research in the United States must meet federally-mandated biological surety guidelines and rules which are comprised of two main components: biosecurity and biosafety. Biosecurity is the process employed for ensuring biological agents are properly safeguarded against theft, loss, diversion, unauthorized access or use/release. Biosafety is those processes that ensure that operations with such agents are conducted in a safe, secure and reliable manner. As such, a biological surety program is generally concerned with biological agents that present high risk for adverse medical and/or agricultural consequences upon release outside of proper containment. The U.S. Regional and National Biocontainment Laboratories (RBL, NBL) represent expertise in this type of research, and are actively engaged in the development of programs to address these critical needs and federal requirements. While this comprises an ongoing activity for the RBLs, NBLs and other facilities that handle select agents as new guidelines and regulations are implemented, the present article is written with the goal of presenting a simplified yet comprehensive review of these requirements. Herein, we discuss the requirements and the various activities that the RBL/NBL programs have implemented to achieve these metrics set forth by various agencies within the U.S. Federal government. PMID:24900945

  17. Laboratory directed research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-15

    The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory's R D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering proof-of-principle''; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these project are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne's Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne. Areas of emphasis are (1) advanced accelerator and detector technology, (2) x-ray techniques in biological and physical sciences, (3) advanced reactor technology, (4) materials science, computational science, biological sciences and environmental sciences. Individual reports summarizing the purpose, approach, and results of projects are presented.

  18. Tremelimumab: research and clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Escuin-Ordinas, Helena; Ibarrondo, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    The immune checkpoint therapy is a relatively recent strategy that aims to tweak the immune system to effectively attack cancer cells. The understanding of the immune responses and their regulation at the intracellular level and the development of fully humanized monoclonal antibodies are the pillars of an approach that could elicit durable clinical responses and even remission in some patients with cancer. Most of the immune checkpoints that regulate the T-cell responses (activation and inhibition) operate through proteins present on the cytoplasmic membrane of the immune cells. Therefore, specific antibodies capable of blocking the inhibitory signals should lead to unrestrained immune responses that supersede the inhibitory mechanisms, which are naturally present in the tumor microenviroment. The best-known and most successful targets for immune checkpoint therapy are the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death-1 coreceptors. Tremelimumab (CP-675,206) is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody specific for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, which has been successfully used to treat patients with metastatic melanoma and some other cancers. Although still a work in progress, the use of tremelimumab as an immune checkpoint therapeutic agent is a promising approach alone or in combination with other anticancer drugs. Here, we review the use of this antibody in a number of clinical trials against solid tumors. PMID:27042127

  19. Hyperspectral imager development at Army Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Neelam

    2008-04-01

    Development of robust compact optical imagers that can acquire both spectral and spatial features from a scene of interest is of utmost importance for standoff detection of chemical and biological agents as well as targets and backgrounds. Spectral features arise due to the material properties of objects as a result of the emission, reflection, and absorption of light. Using hyperspectral imaging one can acquire images with narrow spectral bands and take advantage of the characteristic spectral signatures of different materials making up the scene in detection of objects. Traditional hyperspectral imaging systems use gratings and prisms that acquire one-dimensional spectral images and require relative motion of sensor and scene in addition to data processing to form a two-dimensional image cube. There is much interest in developing hyperspectral imagers using tunable filters that acquire a two-dimensional spectral image and build up an image cube as a function of time. At the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), we are developing hyperspectral imagers using a number of novel tunable filter technologies. These include acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) that can provide adaptive no-moving-parts imagers from the UV to the long wave infrared, diffractive optics technology that can provide image cubes either in a single spectral region or simultaneously in different spectral regions using a single moving lens or by using a lenslet array, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS)-based Fabry-Perot (FP) tunable etalons to develop miniature sensors that take advantage of the advances in microfabrication and packaging technologies. New materials are being developed to design AOTFs and a full Stokes polarization imager has been developed, diffractive optics lenslet arrays are being explored, and novel FP tunable filters are under fabrication for the development of novel miniature hyperspectral imagers. Here we will brief on all the technologies being developed and present

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOLS FOR TESTING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SURFACE WASHING AGENTS AND OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION AGENTS AND SPILLS OF OPPORTUNITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project concerns the need by the program office to develop reproducible protocols for testing the effectiveness of surface washing agents and bioremediation products, and to devise a protocol for testing a remediation strategy in the event of a spill of opportunity. The bior...

  1. Development of [F-18]-Labeled Amyloid Imaging Agents for PET

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, CA

    2007-05-09

    The applicant proposes to design and synthesize a series of fluorine-18-labeled radiopharmaceuticals to be used as amyloid imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET). The investigators will conduct comprehensive iterative in vitro and in vivo studies based upon well defined acceptance criteria in order to identify lead agents suitable for human studies. The long term goals are to apply the selected radiotracers as potential diagnostic agents of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as surrogate markers of amyloid in the brain to determine the efficacy of anti-amyloid therapeutic drugs, and as tools to help address basic scientific questions regarding the progression of the neuropathology of AD, such as testing the "amyloid cascade hypothesis" which holds that amyloid accumulation is the primary cause of AD.

  2. Research and Development at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration marks the next segment of NASA's continuing journey to find answers to compelling questions about the origins of the solar system, the existence of life beyond Earth, and the ability of humankind to live on other worlds. The success of the Vision relies upon the ongoing research and development activities conducted at each of NASA's 10 field centers. In an effort to promote synergy across NASA as it works to meet its long-term goals, the Agency restructured its Strategic Enterprises into four Mission Directorates that align with the Vision. Consisting of Exploration Systems, Space Operations, Science, and Aeronautics Research, these directorates provide NASA Headquarters and the field centers with a streamlined approach to continue exploration both in space and on Earth.

  3. Carbon sequestration research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  4. Development of high temperature resistant graphite fiber coupling agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    Surface treatments were investigated as potential coupling agents to improve the elevated temperature shear strength retention of polyimide/graphite and polyphenylquinoxaline/graphite composites. The potential coupling agents were evaluated by fiber strand tensile tests, fiber and composite weight losses at 533 and 588K, and by interlaminar shear strength retention at 533 and 588K. The two surface treatments selected for more extensive evaluation were a coating of Ventromer T-1, a complex organometallic reaction product of titanium tetrachloride and trimethyl borate, and a polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) sizing which was pyrolyzed in nitrogen to form a carbonaceous layer on the fiber. Pyrolyzed polyphenylquinoxaline is a satisfactory coupling agent for polyimide/Thornel 300 graphite fiber composites. During 1000 hours aging at 588K such composites lose a little over half their transverse tensile strength, and suffer a slight loss in flexural modulus. No degradation of flexural strength or interlaminar shear strength occured during 1000 hours aging at 588K. None of the coupling agents examined had a markedly beneficial effect with polyphenylquinoxaline composites.

  5. A Review of the Recent Developments in Synthetic Anti-Breast Cancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parvesh; Ngcoya, Nomandla; Kumar, Vipan

    2016-01-01

    The perceptible decrease in the incidence of breast cancer in recent years has not influenced its societal and economic impact and it remains as the most commonly diagnosed malignancies among females. Recent reports of clinical trials in preventive settings suggested chemoprevention as an appealing strategy zeroing heavily on endocrine intervention using selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Unfortunately, these drugs are only effective in prevention of endocrine responsive lesions with essentially no effect in reducing the risk of estrogen-negative breast cancer. Further, the existing drugs for breast cancer treatment are invariably associated with several drawbacks such as poor oral bioavailability, non-selectivity and poor pharmacodynamics properties, limiting their clinical utility. Thus, the identification of new molecular targets and the development of agents with better pharmacological profiles will streamline the development of rational, effective and safe anticancer drugs with minimal side-effects. Over the past few years, different research groups have been actively involved in the design and synthesis of novel anti-breast cancer agents. In this review article, the recent developments (2013 onwards) made in the direction of synthesis of new scaffolds with promising anti-breast cancer activity, are briefly described. Hopefully, the data compiled in this article will update scientific community with recent endeavors in this field, and will certainly be encouraging for further research in this direction. PMID:26584726

  6. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Research infrastructures (RIs) are platforms integrating facilities, resources and services used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation. RIs include scientific equipment, e.g., sensor platforms, satellites or other instruments, but also scientific data, sample repositories or archives. E-infrastructures on the other hand provide the technological substratum and middleware to interlink distributed RI components with computing systems and communication networks. The resulting platforms provide the foundation for the design and implementation of RIs and play an increasing role in the advancement and exploitation of knowledge and technology. RIs are regarded as essential to achieve and maintain excellence in research and innovation crucial for the European Research Area (ERA). The implementation of RIs has to be considered as a long-term, complex development process often over a period of 10 or more years. The ongoing construction of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provides a good example for the general complexity of infrastructure development processes especially in system-of-systems environments. A set of directives issued by the European Commission provided a framework of guidelines for the implementation processes addressing the relevant content and the encoding of data as well as the standards for service interfaces and the integration of these services into networks. Additionally, a time schedule for the overall construction process has been specified. As a result this process advances with a strong participation of member states and responsible organisations. Today, SDIs provide the operational basis for new digital business processes in both national and local authorities. Currently, the development of integrated RIs in Earth and Environmental Sciences is characterised by the following properties: • A high number of parallel activities on European and national levels with numerous institutes and organisations participating

  7. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Research infrastructures (RIs) are platforms integrating facilities, resources and services used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation. RIs include scientific equipment, e.g., sensor platforms, satellites or other instruments, but also scientific data, sample repositories or archives. E-infrastructures on the other hand provide the technological substratum and middleware to interlink distributed RI components with computing systems and communication networks. The resulting platforms provide the foundation for the design and implementation of RIs and play an increasing role in the advancement and exploitation of knowledge and technology. RIs are regarded as essential to achieve and maintain excellence in research and innovation crucial for the European Research Area (ERA). The implementation of RIs has to be considered as a long-term, complex development process often over a period of 10 or more years. The ongoing construction of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provides a good example for the general complexity of infrastructure development processes especially in system-of-systems environments. A set of directives issued by the European Commission provided a framework of guidelines for the implementation processes addressing the relevant content and the encoding of data as well as the standards for service interfaces and the integration of these services into networks. Additionally, a time schedule for the overall construction process has been specified. As a result this process advances with a strong participation of member states and responsible organisations. Today, SDIs provide the operational basis for new digital business processes in both national and local authorities. Currently, the development of integrated RIs in Earth and Environmental Sciences is characterised by the following properties: • A high number of parallel activities on European and national levels with numerous institutes and organisations participating

  8. Towards a nanoscale mammographic contrast agent: development of a modular pre-clinical dual optical/x-ray agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Melissa L.; Gorelikov, Ivan; Niroui, Farnaz; Levitin, Ronald B.; Mainprize, James G.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Rowlands, J. A.; Matsuura, Naomi

    2013-08-01

    Contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) can provide improved breast cancer detection and characterization compared to conventional mammography by imaging the effects of tumour angiogenesis. Current small-molecule contrast agents used for CEDM are limited by a short plasma half-life and rapid extravasation into tissue interstitial space. To address these limitations, nanoscale agents that can remain intravascular except at sites of tumour angiogenesis can be used. For CEDM, this agent must be both biocompatible and strongly attenuate mammographic energy x-rays. Nanoscale perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) droplets have good x-ray attenuation and have been used in patients for other applications. However, the macroscopic scale of x-ray imaging (50-100 µm) is inadequate for direct verification that PFOB droplets localize at sites of breast tumour angiogenesis. For efficient pre-clinical optimization for CEDM, we integrated an optical marker into PFOB droplets for microscopic assessment (≪50 µm). To develop PFOB droplets as a new nanoscale mammographic contrast agent, PFOB droplets were labelled with fluorescent quantum dots (QDs). The droplets had mean diameters of 160 nm, fluoresced at 635 nm and attenuated x-ray spectra at 30.5 keV mean energy with a relative attenuation of 5.6 ± 0.3 Hounsfield units (HU) mg-1 mL-1 QD-PFOB. With the agent loaded into tissue phantoms, good correlation between x-ray attenuation and optical fluorescence was found (R2 = 0.96), confirming co-localization of the QDs with PFOB for quantitative assessment using x-ray or optical methods. Furthermore, the QDs can be removed from the PFOB agent without affecting its x-ray attenuation or structural properties for expedited translation of optimized PFOB droplet formulations into patients.

  9. Improving the outcome for children with cancer: Development of targeted new agents.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    The outcome for children with cancer has improved significantly over the past 60 years, with greater than 80% of patients today becoming 5-year survivors. Despite this progress, cancer remains the leading cause of death from disease in children in the United States, and significant short-term and long-term treatment toxicities continue to impact the majority of children with cancer. The development of targeted new agents offers the prospect of potentially more effective and less toxic treatment for children. More than a decade since imatinib mesylate was introduced into the treatment of children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, transforming its outcome, a range of targeted agents has undergone study in pediatric cancer patients. Early lessons learned from these studies include a better understanding of the adverse event profile of these drugs in children, the challenge of developing pediatric-specific formulations, and the continued reliance on successful development for adult cancer indications on pediatric drug development. The collaborative research infrastructure for children with cancer in the United States is well positioned to advance novel treatments into clinical investigations for a spectrum of rare and ultra-rare childhood cancers. A greater investment of resources in target discovery and validation can help drive much needed development of new, more effective treatments for children with cancer. PMID:25754421

  10. Improving the Outcome for Children With Cancer: Development of Targeted New Agents

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    The outcome for children with cancer has improved significantly over the past 60 years, with greater than 80% of patients today becoming 5-year survivors. Despite this progress, cancer remains the leading cause of death from disease in children in the United States, and significant short-term and long-term treatment toxicities continue to impact the majority of children with cancer. The development of targeted new agents offers the prospect of potentially more effective and less toxic treatment for children. More than a decade since imatinib mesylate was introduced into the treatment of children with Philadelphia chromosomepositive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, transforming its outcome, a range of targeted agents has undergone study in pediatric cancer patients. Early lessons learned from these studies include a better understanding of the adverse event profile of these drugs in children, the challenge of developing pediatric-specific formulations, and the continued reliance on successful development for adult cancer indications on pediatric drug development. The collaborative research infrastructure for children with cancer in the United States is well positioned to advance novel treatments into clinical investigations for a spectrum of rare and ultra-rare childhood cancers. A greater investment of resources in target discovery and validation can help drive much needed development of new, more effective treatments for children with cancer. PMID:25754421

  11. A research on measuring and analyzing the optical properties of fluorescent whitening agent in soybean milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xingyue; Zhao, Zhimin; Zhang, Lin; Qian, Kun; Wang, Lexin; Lan, Xiufeng

    2015-03-01

    A research on measuring and analyzing the fluorescence spectra of fluorescent whitening agent in soybean milk was explained in this paper. At the temperature of 30 °C, linear relationship was found good between fluorescence intensity and concentration of fluorescent whitening agent in the range of 0.015-0.25 mg/mL when the emission wavelength was 437 nm and excitation wavelength was 347 nm. Modeling analysis showed that the correlation coefficient was 0.996, the relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 0.45% to 0.73% and the recovery of standard addition ranged from 96.80% to 102.67%, which testified the validity of the method. This research provided a new way for detecting the unedible fluorescent whitening agent content in food production.

  12. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  13. Development of USES Specific Aptitude Test Battery for Ticket Agent (any ind.) 238.367-026.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Dept. of Employment Security, Salt Lake City. Western Test Development Field Center.

    The United States Employment Service (USES) Specific Aptitude Test Battery (SATB) for Ticket Agent is evaluated from three points of view: (1) technical adequacy of the research; (2) fairness to minorities; and (3) usefulness of the battery to Employment Service staff and employers in selecting individuals for ticket agent positions. Research…

  14. A Buyer Behaviour Framework for the Development and Design of Software Agents in E-Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproule, Susan; Archer, Norm

    2000-01-01

    Software agents are computer programs that run in the background and perform tasks autonomously as delegated by the user. This paper blends models from marketing research and findings from the field of decision support systems to build a framework for the design of software agents to support in e-commerce buying applications. (Contains 35…

  15. Institutional Researchers as Agents of Organizational Learning in Hispanic-Serving Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined three institutional researchers from three different Hispanic-serving community colleges in southern California to examine how they would use data to act as agents of organizational learning and raise awareness of Hispanic students' educational outcomes within their respective institutions. This study was of a qualitative…

  16. The Research for Knowledge Management System of Virtual Enterprise Based on Multi-agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Yang; Xu, Shenghua

    By analyzing the features and knowledge management system of virtual enterprise, the research introduces the complex adaptive systems into the knowledge management system of virtual enterprise. It offers a model based on the knowledge management system of virtual enterprise and discusses the functions of each agent as well as mutual communication and coordination mechanism.

  17. 77 FR 59930 - Clinical Development Programs for Disease-Modifying Agents for Peripheral Neuropathy; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...-modifying agents, and clinical trial design. FDA intends to take this information into account in developing... painful peripheral neuropathies amenable to treatment with disease-modifying agents, and clinical trial... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Development Programs for Disease-Modifying...

  18. Developing a consensus framework and risk profile for agents of opportunity in academic medical centers: implications for public health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Brenna M; Nelson, Lewis S; Graham, Margaret E; Bendzans, Carly; McCrillis, Aileen M; Portelli, Ian; Zhang, Meng; Goldberg, Judith; Rosenberg, Sheldon D; Goldfrank, Lewis R; Tunik, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Agents of opportunity (AO) in academic medical centers (AMC) are defined as unregulated or lightly regulated substances used for medical research or patient care that can be used as "dual purpose" substances by terrorists to inflict damage upon populations. Most of these agents are used routinely throughout AMC either during research or for general clinical practice. To date, the lack of careful regulations for AOs creates uncertain security conditions and increased malicious potential. Using a consensus-based approach, we collected information and opinions from staff working in an AMC and 4 AMC-affiliated hospitals concerning identification of AO, AO attributes, and AMC risk and preparedness, focusing on AO security and dissemination mechanisms and likely hospital response. The goal was to develop a risk profile and framework for AO in the institution. Agents of opportunity in 4 classes were identified and an AO profile was developed, comprising 16 attributes denoting information critical to preparedness for AO misuse. Agents of opportunity found in AMC present a unique and vital gap in public health preparedness. Findings of this project may provide a foundation for a discussion and consensus efforts to determine a nationally accepted risk profile framework for AO. This foundation may further lead to the implementation of appropriate regulatory policies to improve public health preparedness. Agents of opportunity modeling of dissemination properties should be developed to better predict AO risk. PMID:21149234

  19. Qualitative Studies: Developing Good Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufkin, Melissa A.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative research is a type of research process that is widely used to give people a voice while researching a particular subject matter. In using this research process, one must understand how important it is to develop research questions within the qualitative research process. The purpose of this article is to aid researchers in the…

  20. Developing a Research Skill Set

    PubMed Central

    You, Y. Nancy; Bednarski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills. PMID:25067917

  1. Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1993-05-03

    This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

  2. Online Deception Detection Using BDI Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritts, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    This research has two facets within separate research areas. The research area of Belief, Desire and Intention (BDI) agent capability development was extended. Deception detection research has been advanced with the development of automation using BDI agents. BDI agents performed tasks automatically and autonomously. This study used these…

  3. Targeting Bacterial Dsb Proteins for the Development of Anti-Virulence Agents.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roxanne P; Paxman, Jason J; Scanlon, Martin J; Heras, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in bacterial antimicrobial resistance and a decline in the development of novel antibiotics. New therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to combat the growing threat posed by multidrug resistant bacterial infections. The Dsb disulfide bond forming pathways are potential targets for the development of antimicrobial agents because they play a central role in bacterial pathogenesis. In particular, the DsbA/DsbB system catalyses disulfide bond formation in a wide array of virulence factors, which are essential for many pathogens to establish infections and cause disease. These redox enzymes are well placed as antimicrobial targets because they are taxonomically widespread, share low sequence identity with human proteins, and many years of basic research have provided a deep molecular understanding of these systems in bacteria. In this review, we discuss disulfide bond catalytic pathways in bacteria and their significance in pathogenesis. We also review the use of different approaches to develop inhibitors against Dsb proteins as potential anti-virulence agents, including fragment-based drug discovery, high-throughput screening and other structure-based drug discovery methods. PMID:27438817

  4. Development of superior asphalt recycling agents. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.; Chaffin, J.; Liu, M.; Madrid, R.

    1997-07-01

    After an introduction and a literature survey in Chap. 1, Chap. 2 describes the tasks, together with objectives and important results obtained for each task throughout the entire project. Chaps. 3 thru 7 detail work in developing a qualitative and quantitative knowledge of asphalt oxidation, composition dependence of asphalt properties, and guidelines for producing superior asphalt binders through composition control. They also detail the development of a kinetic model for asphalt oxidative aging and present an understanding of the composition dependence of asphalt oxidation as well as other performance-related properties. Chaps. 8 and 9 compare the aging performance of recycled blends produced using commercial recycling agents and industrial supercritical fractions as rejuvenating agents. Oxidative aging of the recycled blends were evaluated along with the performance of the recycled blends in terms of the strategic highway research program performance grading procedure. Chap. 10 summarizes the work completed in the areas of processing schemes development, projection updates, and scale-up and commercialization plans.

  5. The Mobile Agents Integrated Field Test: Mars Desert Research Station April 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Alena, Rick; Crawford, Sekou; Dowding, John; Graham, Jeff; Kaskiris, Charis; Tyree, Kim S.; vanHoof, Ron

    2003-01-01

    The Mobile Agents model-based, distributed architecture, which integrates diverse components in a system for lunar and planetary surface operations, was extensively tested in a two-week field "technology retreat" at the Mars Society s Desert Research Station (MDRS) during April 2003. More than twenty scientists and engineers from three NASA centers and two universities refined and tested the system through a series of incremental scenarios. Agent software, implemented in runtime Brahms, processed GPS, health data, and voice commands-monitoring, controlling and logging science data throughout simulated EVAs with two geologists. Predefined EVA plans, modified on the fly by voice command, enabled the Mobile Agents system to provide navigation and timing advice. Communications were maintained over five wireless nodes distributed over hills and into canyons for 5 km; data, including photographs and status was transmitted automatically to the desktop at mission control in Houston. This paper describes the system configurations, communication protocols, scenarios, and test results.

  6. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, T. H.; Yin, Z.; Song, Y. Z.

    2012-11-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  7. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on multi-agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, T. H.; Wang, D. S.

    2012-11-01

    Irrigation agriculture is the basis of agriculture and rural economic development in China. Realizing the water resource information of irrigated area will make full use of existing water resource and increase benefit of irrigation agriculture greatly. However, the water resource information system of many irrigated areas in our country is not still very sound at present, it lead to the wasting of a lot of water resources. This paper has analyzed the existing water resource monitoring system of irrigated areas, introduced the Multi-Agent theories, and set up a water resource monitoring system of irrigated area based on multi-Agent. This system is composed of monitoring multi-Agent federal, telemetry multi-Agent federal, and the Communication Network GSM between them. It can make full use of good intelligence and communication coordination in the multi-Agent federation interior, improve the dynamic monitoring and controlling timeliness of water resource of irrigated area greatly, provide information service for the sustainable development of irrigated area, and lay a foundation for realizing high information of water resource of irrigated area.

  8. Research Engagement for School Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    This thought-provoking book examines the new and growing phenomenon of the "research-engaged school"--schools that not only encourage their staff to carry out their own research, but also use published research to inform practice and improve the quality of education. The author draws upon his scholarship and practice in local authorities, schools…

  9. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI. PMID:27563295

  10. The Development of a Bi-Lingual Assessment Instrument to Measure Agentic and Communal Consumer Motives in English and French.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mike; Bartier, Anne-Laure; Lown, Josh; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Consumer behavior is driven, in part, by the degree to which goods and services appeal to underlying motives for agency and communion. The purpose of this research was to develop a brief individual differences measure of these motivations for use in behavioral research and theoretical and applied consumer psychology and marketing studies. We employed a bi-lingual scale development procedure to create the 10-item Agentic and Communal Consumer Motivation Inventory (ACCMI) in English and French. Two studies show that the ACCMI is language invariant, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with consumer, motivational, and interpersonal constructs, and predicts evaluations of products described in agentic and communal terms, respectively, in both languages. The general conclusion of this research is that agency and communion provide a useful framework for understanding and studying consumer buying motivations. Discussion focuses on the relevance of motivational factors for studying human behavior and the applied utility of the ACCMI. PMID:27563295

  11. Development of Research in Marriage Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Elizabeth S.

    This study traces the development of research in marriage counseling to discover whether generalizations concerning development in a scientific field also apply to research in marriage counseling. It is hypothesized that it is possible to identify development in a field along the lines of productivity of research, development of accretive studies,…

  12. Historical Development of Origins Research

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Following the publication of the Origin of Species in 1859, many naturalists adopted the idea that living organisms were the historical outcome of gradual transformation of lifeless matter. These views soon merged with the developments of biochemistry and cell biology and led to proposals in which the origin of protoplasm was equated with the origin of life. The heterotrophic origin of life proposed by Oparin and Haldane in the 1920s was part of this tradition, which Oparin enriched by transforming the discussion of the emergence of the first cells into a workable multidisciplinary research program. On the other hand, the scientific trend toward understanding biological phenomena at the molecular level led authors like Troland, Muller, and others to propose that single molecules or viruses represented primordial living systems. The contrast between these opposing views on the origin of life represents not only contrasting views of the nature of life itself, but also major ideological discussions that reached a surprising intensity in the years following Stanley Miller’s seminal result which showed the ease with which organic compounds of biochemical significance could be synthesized under putative primitive conditions. In fact, during the years following the Miller experiment, attempts to understand the origin of life were strongly influenced by research on DNA replication and protein biosynthesis, and, in socio-political terms, by the atmosphere created by Cold War tensions. The catalytic versatility of RNA molecules clearly merits a critical reappraisal of Muller’s viewpoint. However, the discovery of ribozymes does not imply that autocatalytic nucleic acid molecules ready to be used as primordial genes were floating in the primitive oceans, or that the RNA world emerged completely assembled from simple precursors present in the prebiotic soup. The evidence supporting the presence of a wide range of organic molecules on the primitive Earth, including membrane

  13. Development of anticancer agents targeting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangqian; Hao, Jijun

    2015-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays indispensable roles in both embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Abnormal regulation of this pathway is implicated in many types of cancer. Consequently, substantial efforts have made to develop therapeutic agents as anticancer drugs by specifically targeting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Here we systematically review the potential therapeutic agents that have been developed to date for inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin cascade as well as current status of clinical trials of some of these agents. PMID:26396911

  14. Discovery, development, and clinical application of sugammadex sodium, a selective relaxant binding agent

    PubMed Central

    Welliver, Mark; McDonough, John; Kalynych, Nicholas; Redfern, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Neuromuscular blockade, induced by neuromuscular blocking agents, has allowed prescribed immobility, improved surgical exposure, optimal airway management conditions, and facilitated mechanical ventilation. However, termination of the effects of neuromuscular blocking agents has, until now, remained limited. A novel cyclodextrin encapsulation process offers improved termination of the paralytic effects of aminosteroidal non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. Sugammadex sodium is the first in a new class of drug called selective relaxant binding agents. Currently, in clinical trials, sugammadex, a modified gamma cyclodextrin, has shown consistent and rapid termination of neuromuscular blockade with few side effects. The pharmacology of cyclodextrins in general and sugammadex in particular, together with the results of current clinical research are reviewed. The ability of sugammadex to terminate the action of neuromuscular blocking agents by direct encapsulation is compared to the indirect competitive antagonism of their effects by cholinesterase inhibitors. Also discussed are the clinical implications that extend beyond fast, effective reversal, including numerous potential perioperative benefits. PMID:19920893

  15. Pharmacometrics-guided drug development of antihyperhidrosis agents.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shailly; Schmith, Virginia D; Dumitrescu, Teodora Pene; Gobburu, Jogarao

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present work was to use modeling and simulation to inform trial design of a proof-of-concept study for agents used in the treatment of hyperhidrosis. Data were available from 36 subjects who received the vehicle, 2% or 4% topical glycopyrrolate wipes daily for 4 weeks, with response (hyperhidrosis disease severity scale [HDSS] and sweat production [SP]) measured weekly. The HDSS and SP time courses were best described using a longitudinal model with maximum response achieved by 1 week. Glycopyrrolate 4% had a higher HDSS responder rate than 2% (50% vs 33%) and placebo (0%) at week 1. Mean change from baseline (mg/5 min [SD]) in SP at week 1 was -90 (220), -185 (214), and -271 (265) for placebo, 2%, and 4% glycopyrrolate, respectively. Subjects with higher baseline SP had higher sweat reduction from baseline. Virtual clinical trials were simulated and analyzed using conventional (at the end of the study) versus model-based methods to determine sample size for achieving 80% power to identify a dose-response relationship. Twenty-seven subjects compared with at least 120 subjects would be needed using model-based and conventional methods, respectively. Thus, the model-based method using longitudinal data required fewer subjects than the conventional single-point method. PMID:25939678

  16. Development of Iron Doped Silicon Nanoparticles as Bimodal Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mani P.; Atkins, Tonya M.; Muthuswamy, Elayaraja; Kamali, Saeed; Tu, Chuqiao; Louie, Angelique Y.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of water-soluble allylamine terminated Fe doped Si (SixFe) nanoparticles as bimodal agents for optical and magnetic imaging. The preparation involves the synthesis of a single source iron containing precursor, Na4Si4 with x% Fe (x = 1, 5, 10), and its subsequent reaction with NH4Br to produce hydrogen terminated SixFe nanoparticles. The hydrogen-capped nanoparticles are further terminated with allylamine via thermal hydrosilylation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates that the average particle diameter is ~3.0±1.0 nm. The Si5Fe nanoparticles show strong photoluminescence quantum yield in water (~ 10 %) with significant T2 contrast (r2/r1value of 4.31). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Mössbauer spectroscopies indicate that iron in the nanoparticles is in the +3 oxidation state. Analysis of cytotoxicity using the resazurin assay on HepG2 liver cells indicates that the particles have minimal toxicity. PMID:22616623

  17. [Research on multi-agent based modeling and simulation of hospital system].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junping; Yang, Hongqiao; Guo, Huayuan; Li, Yi; Zhang, Zhenjiang; Li, Shuzhang

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the theory of complex adaptive system (CAS) and its modeling method are introduced. The complex characters of the hospital system is analyzed. The agile manufacturing and cell reconstruction technologies are used to reconstruct the hospital system. Then we set forth a research for simulation of hospital system based on the methodology of Multi-Agent technology and high level architecture (HLA). Finally, a simulation framework based on HLA for hospital system is presented. PMID:21374992

  18. Developing Software for Corpus Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Despite the central role of the computer in corpus research, programming is generally not seen as a core skill within corpus linguistics. As a consequence, limitations in software for text and corpus analysis slow down the progress of research while analysts often have to rely on third party software or even manual data analysis if no suitable…

  19. Managing Researcher Development: "Drastic Transition"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Rowena; Cunningham, Everarda

    2011-01-01

    Academics are expected to write for publication and meet publication targets in research assessment processes. These targets are set by national bodies and institutions, and they can be daunting for academics at the start of a research career. This article reports on an intervention designed to address this issue, writer's retreat, where academics…

  20. Institutional research and development, FY 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.L.; Lawler, G.M.; Crawford, R.B.; Kirvel, R.D.; Peck, T.M.; Prono, J.K.; Strack, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    The Institutional Research and Development program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory fosters exploratory work to advance science and technology, disciplinary research to develop innovative solutions to problems in various scientific fields, and long-term interdisciplinary research in support of defense and energy missions. This annual report describes research funded under this program for FY87. (DWL)

  1. Chemopreventive Agent Development Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Chemopreventive Agent Development Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Evolving Agents as a Metaphor for the Developing Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The emerging field of Evolutionary Computation (EC), inspired by neo-Darwinian principles (e.g. natural selection, mutation, etc.), offers developmental psychologists a wide array of mathematical tools for simulating ontogenetic processes. In this brief review, I begin by highlighting three of the approaches that EC researchers employ (Artificial…

  4. Chemopreventive Agent Development Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Electronic Publishing and Collection Development, a Subscription Agent's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallas, Philip

    Trends in publishing, advances in technology and pressures on library budgets have combined to put libraries and publishers at odds with each other. Research libraries expect broad, easy access to electronic information, greater convenience and faster delivery but at reduced cost. Publishers are exploring new channels for distributing their…

  6. Active Chemopreventive Agent Development Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Sports Institute for Research/Change Agent Research--SIR/CAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Dick; Duthie, James

    1974-01-01

    The decline of the independent, scholar-scientist closeted in a library and/or laboratory resulting from increased social stress on universities for "more scholar per dollar" and "more relevance for the real world" predicts an inevitable shift to action research. The shift in system from relatively independent basic researchers to task force…

  8. Research on Child Development in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Marie M.

    The state of the art of research on child development in New Zealand is reported in this paper. It is noted that while many courses in child development are taught in New Zealand, few incentives or resources for a viable and continuous child development research program are provided. Perhaps because of restricted opportunities for research and…

  9. Evaluation in a Research and Development Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, William W.

    Educational research and development (R&D) has often been characterized as a neat, linear sequence of discrete steps, moving from research through development to evaluation and dissemination. Although the inadequacies of such linear models of educational research and development have been pointed out previously, these models have been so much a…

  10. Creatively Developing Research Writing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    Details a lesson which facilitates the transition from writing narrative prose to writing more difficult expository structures by engaging students in writing a research report on a fantasy animal they create. (MM)

  11. Ohio 4-H Agents' and Volunteer Leaders' Perceptions of the Volunteer Leadership Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwarteng, Joseph A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This study found that six areas of volunteer leadership development are important to volunteers and 4-H agents. The areas are (1) recruiting, (2) training, (3) motivation, (4) recognition, (5) retention, and (6) supervision. (JOW)

  12. Development of antiviral agents toward enterovirus 71 infection.

    PubMed

    Pourianfar, Hamid Reza; Grollo, Lara

    2015-02-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection remains a public health problem at a global level, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. The infection normally manifests as hand-foot-mouth disease; however, it is capable of developing into potentially fatal neurological complications. There is currently no approved vaccine or antiviral substance available for the prevention or treatment of EV71 infection. This paper, thus, reviews efforts to develop or discover synthetic as well as naturally occurring compounds directed against EV71 infection. The recent achievements in cellular receptors of EV71 are also highlighted, and their contribution to the development of antiviral drugs against EV71 is discussed in this article. PMID:24560700

  13. Recent Advances in the Development of Novel Pharmacological Agents for the Treatment of Cognitive Impairments in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Robert W.; Freedman, Robert; Javitt, Daniel C.; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Wayne Fenton was a major driving force behind the establishment of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) and Treatment Units for Research on Neurocognition and Schizophrenia (TURNS) project mechanisms. These projects were designed to facilitate the development of new drugs for the treatment of cognitive impairments in people with schizophrenia. The MATRICS project identified 3 drug mechanisms of particular interest: cholinergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic. The TURNS project is designed to select potential cognitive-enhancing agents and evaluate their potential efficacy in the context of proof of concept or clinical efficacy trials. This article reviews the rationale for these 3 approaches and provides an update on the development of therapeutic agents, which act through one of these 3 mechanisms. PMID:17641146

  14. Principles of antidote pharmacology: an update on prophylaxis, post-exposure treatment recommendations and research initiatives for biological agents

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, S; Liu, CQ; Tran, H; Gubala, A; Gauci, P; McAllister, J; Vo, T

    2010-01-01

    The use of biological agents has generally been confined to military-led conflicts. However, there has been an increase in non-state-based terrorism, including the use of asymmetric warfare, such as biological agents in the past few decades. Thus, it is becoming increasingly important to consider strategies for preventing and preparing for attacks by insurgents, such as the development of pre- and post-exposure medical countermeasures. There are a wide range of prophylactics and treatments being investigated to combat the effects of biological agents. These include antibiotics (for both conventional and unconventional use), antibodies, anti-virals, immunomodulators, nucleic acids (analogues, antisense, ribozymes and DNAzymes), bacteriophage therapy and micro-encapsulation. While vaccines are commercially available for the prevention of anthrax, cholera, plague, Q fever and smallpox, there are no licensed vaccines available for use in the case of botulinum toxins, viral encephalitis, melioidosis or ricin. Antibiotics are still recommended as the mainstay treatment following exposure to anthrax, plague, Q fever and melioidosis. Anti-toxin therapy and anti-virals may be used in the case of botulinum toxins or smallpox respectively. However, supportive care is the only, or mainstay, post-exposure treatment for cholera, viral encephalitis and ricin – a recommendation that has not changed in decades. Indeed, with the difficulty that antibiotic resistance poses, the development and further evaluation of techniques and atypical pharmaceuticals are fundamental to the development of prophylaxis and post-exposure treatment options. The aim of this review is to present an update on prophylaxis and post-exposure treatment recommendations and research initiatives for biological agents in the open literature from 2007 to 2009. PMID:20860656

  15. Development of Anti-Infectives Using Phage Display: Biological Agents against Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Johnny X.; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of anti-infective therapeutics on the market or in development are small molecules; however, there is now a nascent pipeline of biological agents in development. Until recently, phage display technologies were used mainly to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeted against cancer or inflammatory disease targets. Patent disputes impeded broad use of these methods and contributed to the dearth of candidates in the clinic during the 1990s. Today, however, phage display is recognized as a powerful tool for selecting novel peptides and antibodies that can bind to a wide range of antigens, ranging from whole cells to proteins and lipid targets. In this review, we highlight research that exploits phage display technology as a means of discovering novel therapeutics against infectious diseases, with a focus on antimicrobial peptides and antibodies in clinical or preclinical development. We discuss the different strategies and methods used to derive, select, and develop anti-infectives from phage display libraries and then highlight case studies of drug candidates in the process of development and commercialization. Advances in screening, manufacturing, and humanization technologies now mean that phage display can make a significant contribution in the fight against clinically important pathogens. PMID:22664969

  16. Early-life exposures to infectious agents and later cancer development.

    PubMed

    Vedham, Vidya; Verma, Mukesh; Mahabir, Somdat

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing understanding that several infectious agents are acquired in early life and this is the reason why available vaccines target the new born, infants, and adolescents. Infectious agents are associated with cancer development and it is estimated that about 20% of the world's cancer burden is attributed to infectious agents. There is a growing evidence that certain infectious agents acquired in early life can give rise to cancer development, but estimates of the cancer burden from this early-life acquisition is unknown. In this article, we have selected five cancers (cervical, liver, Burkitt's lymphoma-leukemia, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma) and examine their links to infectious agents (HPV, HBV, HCV, EBV, and HTLV-1) acquired in early life. For these agents, the acquisition in early life is from mother-to-child transmission, perinatal contact (with genital tract secretions, amniotic fluids, blood, and breast milk), saliva, sexual intercourse, and blood transfusion. We also discuss prevention strategies, address future directions, and propose mechanisms of action after a long latency period from the time of acquisition of the infectious agent in early life to cancer development. PMID:26377256

  17. Developing a Shared Research Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ira S.; Newcomb, Elizabeth W.

    1990-01-01

    Planning, creation, and current operation of the Transgenic Mouse Research Facility at the New York University Kaplan Cancer Center are discussed. The university considered need, space, funding, supervision, and marketing and followed a logical and structured management process embodying both scientific and administrative input. (Author/MSE)

  18. A spatial web/agent-based model to support stakeholders' negotiation regarding land development.

    PubMed

    Pooyandeh, Majeed; Marceau, Danielle J

    2013-11-15

    Decision making in land management can be greatly enhanced if the perspectives of concerned stakeholders are taken into consideration. This often implies negotiation in order to reach an agreement based on the examination of multiple alternatives. This paper describes a spatial web/agent-based modeling system that was developed to support the negotiation process of stakeholders regarding land development in southern Alberta, Canada. This system integrates a fuzzy analytic hierarchy procedure within an agent-based model in an interactive visualization environment provided through a web interface to facilitate the learning and negotiation of the stakeholders. In the pre-negotiation phase, the stakeholders compare their evaluation criteria using linguistic expressions. Due to the uncertainty and fuzzy nature of such comparisons, a fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process is then used to prioritize the criteria. The negotiation starts by a development plan being submitted by a user (stakeholder) through the web interface. An agent called the proposer, which represents the proposer of the plan, receives this plan and starts negotiating with all other agents. The negotiation is conducted in a step-wise manner where the agents change their attitudes by assigning a new set of weights to their criteria. If an agreement is not achieved, a new location for development is proposed by the proposer agent. This process is repeated until a location is found that satisfies all agents to a certain predefined degree. To evaluate the performance of the model, the negotiation was simulated with four agents, one of which being the proposer agent, using two hypothetical development plans. The first plan was selected randomly; the other one was chosen in an area that is of high importance to one of the agents. While the agents managed to achieve an agreement about the location of the land development after three rounds of negotiation in the first scenario, seven rounds were required in the second

  19. Academic Institutions as Change Agents for Territorial Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aranguren, Mari Jose; Guibert, José María; Valdaliso, Jesús M.; Wilson, James R.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role academic institutions can play as catalysts of change within the territories in which they are located, by contributing proactively to shaping socio-economic development processes. This role for universities takes us beyond the typical focus on knowledge transfer activities or broad economic impacts. It…

  20. Applied research for quantitative analysis of fluorescent whitening agent in emulsion paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin

    Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAS) are widely used in the emulsion paint for brightening effect. In spite of extensive use of FWAS, there are no reports about the measurement method of FWAS in emulsion paint. In this work, a very simple quantitative approach is proposed. Based on the digital grayscale images of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and two-dimensional fluorescence images, several wavelet moment invariants are calculated and used to establish the standard models for the quantitative analysis. The influence factors of storage time and exposure time are also studied here. Measurement results indicated the feasibility and precision of using this method for quantitative analysis of FWAS. The research results also provides a reliable basis for the application of FWAS in emulsion paint. Keywords: fluorescent whitening agents, three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, fluorescence image, wavelet moment invariants

  1. Diagnostic and therapeutic research on ultrasound microbubble/nanobubble contrast agents (Review).

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Xu, Chang Song; Gao, Feng; Chen, Ming; Li, Fan; Du, Lian Fang

    2015-09-01

    The contrast enhanced imaging function of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been extensively investigated using physical acoustic signatures. It has a number of novel applications, including tissue‑specific molecular imaging and multi‑modal imaging. In addition there are numerous other therapeutic applications of UCAs, for example as vehicles for drug or gene delivery. These uses are discussed, as well as the acoustically‑induced biological effects, including ultrasound targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD). This review also explores the considerations for the safe use of UCA from an acoustic standpoint. The scope of the application of UCA has markedly expanded in recent years, and it is a rapidly growing field of medical research. The current article reviews recent advances in the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of ultrasound microbubble/nanobubble contrast agents. PMID:26081968

  2. RAMP: a bioinformatics framework for researching imaging agents through molecular pathways.

    PubMed

    Khokhlovich, Edward; Wahl, Daniel; Masiello, Anthony; Parisot, Pierre; El-Ghatta, Stefan; Szustakowski, Joseph D; Nirmala, Nanguneri; Tuch, David S

    2013-01-01

    Signaling pathways are the fundamental grammar of cellular communication, yet few frameworks are available to analyze molecular imaging probes in the context of signaling pathways. Such a framework would aid in the design and selection of imaging probes for measuring specific signaling pathways and, vice versa, help illuminate which pathways are being assayed by a given probe. RAMP (Researching imaging Agents through Molecular Pathways) is a bioinformatics framework for connecting signaling pathways and imaging probes using a controlled vocabulary of the imaging targets. RAMP contains signaling pathway data from MetaCore, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and the Gene Ontology project; imaging probe data from the Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD); and tissue protein expression data from The Human Protein Atlas. The RAMP search tool is available at . Examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of RAMP for pathway-based searches of molecular imaging probes. PMID:23348786

  3. 2010-11 Research Portfolio: Research & Development Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the breadth of the research that the ETS (Educational Testing Service) Research & Development division is conducting in 2010. This portfolio will be updated in early 2011 to reflect changes to existing projects and new projects that were added after this document was completed. The research described in this portfolio falls…

  4. Development of the Research Competencies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the development of the Research Competencies Scale (RCS). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the RCS, (b) review statistical analysis procedures used in developing the RCS, and (c) offer implications for counselor education, the enhancement of scholar-researchers, and future research.

  5. Design and Research on e-Business Platform Based on Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Z.; Li, L. X.

    The efficiency of enterprises can be improved and made more competitive by e-business. Consequently, e-business is developing in a swift and violent manner as a new type of business mode all over the world. But with the rapid increase of information on the Internet, the traditional technology cannot meet the requirement of information development well. Soon, high-efficient e-business system needs to be set up by a new kind of technology. Since the agent has the characteristic of movement, cooperation as well as some intelligence, it can compensate the shortcoming of the current e-business system. So how to lead the agent into e-business soon becomes the focus of academic and enterprises. This chapter analyzes the existing electronic business mode and designs a kind of the electronic business model based on the agent intelligence. It searches the goods information that match the customer request and negotiates goods price and the bargain conditions with seller, and recommends reasonable goods for the double win both the customer and the safer. The language of the system development is Java and use the B/S structure.

  6. Current and Developing Technologies for Monitoring Agents of Bioterrorism and Biowarfare

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Daniel V.; Simpson, Joyce M.; Kearns, Elizabeth A.; Kramer, Marianne F.

    2005-01-01

    Recent events have made public health officials acutely aware of the importance of rapidly and accurately detecting acts of bioterrorism. Because bioterrorism is difficult to predict or prevent, reliable platforms to rapidly detect and identify biothreat agents are important to minimize the spread of these agents and to protect the public health. These platforms must not only be sensitive and specific, but must also be able to accurately detect a variety of pathogens, including modified or previously uncharacterized agents, directly from complex sample matrices. Various commercial tests utilizing biochemical, immunological, nucleic acid, and bioluminescence procedures are currently available to identify biological threat agents. Newer tests have also been developed to identify such agents using aptamers, biochips, evanescent wave biosensors, cantilevers, living cells, and other innovative technologies. This review describes these current and developing technologies and considers challenges to rapid, accurate detection of biothreat agents. Although there is no ideal platform, many of these technologies have proved invaluable for the detection and identification of biothreat agents. PMID:16223949

  7. Signaling pathway/molecular targets and new targeted agents under development in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    Advances in molecular cell biology over the last decade have clarified the mechanisms involved in cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis, and enabled the development of molecular-targeted agents. To date, sorafenib is the only molecular-targeted agent whose survival benefit has been demonstrated in two global phase III randomized controlled trials, and has been approved worldwide. Phase III clinical trials of other molecular targeted agents comparing them with sorafenib as first-line treatment agents are ongoing. Those agents target the vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor receptors, as well as target the epidermal growth factor receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin, in addition to other molecules targeting other components of the signal transduction pathways. In addition, the combination of sorafenib with standard treatment, such as resection, ablation, transarterial embolization, and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy are ongoing. This review outlines the main pathways involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma and the new agents that target these pathways. Finally, the current statuses of clinical trials of new agents or combination therapy with sorafenib and standard treatment will also be discussed. PMID:23155330

  8. Developing Learning Cohorts for Postgraduate Research Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Sarojni; Delahaye, Brian L.; Saggers, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Development of researchers through higher degree research studies is a high priority in most universities. Yet, research about supervision as pedagogy and models of supervision is only recently gained increasing attention. Charged with producing good researchers within very limited resources, academics are constantly looking for more efficient…

  9. Research and Development Conference CIEE Program 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    CIEE`s second annual Research and Development Conference will introduce you to some of the results achieved to date through CIEE-sponsored multiyear research performed in three programs: Building Energy Efficiency, Air Quality Impacts of Energy Efficiency, and End-Use Resource Planning. Results from scoping studies, Director`s discretionary research, and exploratory research will also be featured in this report.

  10. Research and Development Conference CIEE Program 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    CIEE's second annual Research and Development Conference will introduce you to some of the results achieved to date through CIEE-sponsored multiyear research performed in three programs: Building Energy Efficiency, Air Quality Impacts of Energy Efficiency, and End-Use Resource Planning. Results from scoping studies, Director's discretionary research, and exploratory research will also be featured in this report.

  11. Significance of Infectious Agents in Colorectal Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Antonic, Vlado; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Kester, Kent E.; Weina, Peter J; Brücher, Björn LDM; Protic, Mladjan; Avital, Itzhak; Izadjoo, Mina

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major burden to healthcare systems worldwide accounting for approximately one million of new cancer cases worldwide. Even though, CRC mortality has decreased over the last 20 years, it remains the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality, accounting for approximately 600,000 deaths in 2008 worldwide. A multitude of risk factors have been linked to CRC, including hereditary factors, environmental factors and inflammatory syndromes affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, various pathogens were added to the growing list of risk factors for a number of common epithelial cancers, but despite the multitude of correlative studies, only suggestions remain about the possible relationship between selected viruses and bacteria of interest and the CRC risk. United States military service members are exposed to various risk factors impacting the incidence of cancer development. These exposures are often different from that of many sectors of the civilian population. Thereby, cancer risk identification, screening and early detection are imperative for both the military health care beneficiaries and the population as a whole. In this review, we will focus on several pathogens and their potential roles in development of CRC, highlighting the clinical trials evaluating this correlation and provide our personal opinion about the importance of risk reduction, health promotion and disease prevention for military health care beneficiaries. PMID:23459622

  12. Development of anti-viral agents using molecular modeling and virtual screening techniques.

    PubMed

    Kirchmair, Johannes; Distinto, Simona; Liedl, Klaus Roman; Markt, Patrick; Rollinger, Judith Maria; Schuster, Daniela; Spitzer, Gudrun Maria; Wolber, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Computational chemistry has always played a key role in anti-viral drug development. The challenges and the quickly rising public interest when a virus is becoming a threat has significantly influenced computational drug discovery. The most obvious example is anti-AIDS research, where HIV protease and reverse transcriptase have triggered enormous efforts in developing and improving computational methods. Methods applied to anti-viral research include (i) ligand-based approaches that rely on known active compounds to extrapolate biological activity, such as machine learning techniques or classical QSAR, (ii) structure-based methods that rely on an experimentally determined 3D structure of the targets, such as molecular docking or molecular dynamics, and (iii) universal approaches that can be applied in a structure- or ligand-based way, such as 3D QSAR or 3D pharmacophore elucidation. In this review we summarize these molecular modeling approaches as they were applied to fight anti-viral diseases and highlight their importance for anti-viral research. We discuss the role of computational chemistry in the development of small molecules as agents against HIV integrase, HIV-1 protease, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, the influenza virus M2 channel protein, influenza virus neuraminidase, the SARS coronavirus main proteinase and spike protein, thymidine kinases of herpes viruses, hepatitis c virus proteins and other flaviviruses as well as human rhinovirus coat protein and proteases, and other picornaviridae. We highlight how computational approaches have helped in discovering anti-viral activities of natural products and give an overview on polypharmacology approaches that help to optimize drugs against several viruses or help to optimize the metabolic profile of and anti-viral drug. PMID:21303343

  13. Energy storage research and development

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, US consumers experienced the highest sustained gasoline prices in recent history, in real terms, including those seen in the early 1980s1. Partially as a result of the $3/gallon gasoline prices, sales of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) increased almost 60% in 20072, and several automakers announced plans to develop plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)3. However, total sales of HEVs remained in the 2-3 percent range of all vehicle sales. An important step for continued HEV market penetration, as well as electrifying the nation's personal transportation, is the development of cost effective, long lasting, and abuse tolerant Li-ion batteries.

  14. Surface inspection: Research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchelder, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Surface inspection techniques are used for process learning, quality verification, and postmortem analysis in manufacturing for a spectrum of disciplines. First, trends in surface analysis are summarized for integrated circuits, high density interconnection boards, and magnetic disks, emphasizing on-line applications as opposed to off-line or development techniques. Then, a closer look is taken at microcontamination detection from both a patterned defect and a particulate inspection point of view.

  15. Use of Caries Prevention Agents in Children: Findings from the Dental Practice-based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Richman, Joshua S.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Qvist, Vibeke; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gordan, Valeria V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Scientific evidence supports the application of caries preventive agents in children and this knowledge must transfer into the practice of dentistry. There is little multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize the use of caries preventive agents in pediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of dental practices. Methods This study surveyed Dental Practice-based Research Network dentists who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment and use of prevention techniques in children ages 6-18. Results Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries preventive agents ranged from 36%-7%, with non-prescription fluoride rinse the most common. Dentists who practiced in a large group practice model and dentists from the Scandinavian region more frequently use caries risk assessment than regions that were predominately dentists in private practice. Whether or not dentists used caries risk assessment with their pediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries preventive treatments on patients. Conclusion Although dentists reported the use of some form of in-office caries prevention, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practicing dentists about the benefits of caries preventive agents or a function of differing financial incentives or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk. PMID:21180672

  16. Progressive development in experimental models of transungual drug delivery of anti-fungal agents.

    PubMed

    Thatai, P; Tiwary, A K; Sapra, B

    2016-02-01

    Pre-clinical development comprises of different procedures that relate drug discovery in the laboratory for commencement of human clinical trials. Pre-clinical studies can be designed to recognize a lead candidate from a list to develop the procedure for scale-up, to choose the unsurpassed formulation, to determine the frequency, and duration of exposure; and eventually make the foundation of the anticipated clinical trial design. The foremost aim in the pharmaceutical research and industry is the claim of drug product quality throughout a drug's life cycle. The particulars of the pre-clinical development process for different candidates may vary; however, all have some common features. Typically in vitro, in vivo or ex vivo studies are elements of pre-clinical studies. Human pharmacokinetic in vivo studies are often supposed to serve as the 'gold standard' to assess product performance. On the other hand, when this general assumption is revisited, it appears that in vitro studies are occasionally better than in vivo studies in assessing dosage forms. The present review is compendious of different such models or approaches that can be used for designing and evaluation of formulations for nail delivery with special reference to anti-fungal agents. PMID:25919363

  17. Reusable launch vehicle development research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA has generated a program approach for a SSTO reusable launch vehicle technology (RLV) development which includes a follow-on to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) successful DC-X program, the DC-XA (Advanced). Also, a separate sub-scale flight demonstrator, designated the X-33, will be built and flight tested along with numerous ground based technologies programs. For this to be a successful effort, a balance between technical, schedule, and budgetary risks must be attained. The adoption of BMDO's 'fast track' management practices will be a key element in the eventual success of NASA's effort.

  18. Development of drug-approval regulations for medical countermeasures against CBRN agents in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimazawa, Rumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    To develop approval regulations for drugs against chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) agents in Japan, and to help inform arguments about the development of anti-CBRN agents, we analyzed documentation describing approval processes and data for drugs against CBRN agents. Sixteen countermeasure products against 10 CBRN agents have been approved in Japan. Approval schemes were grouped into 3 categories: application for off-label uses, expedited review for antiterrorism measures, and expedited review. Ten drug applications were designated "priority reviews," and the median review time was 4.4 months. No application relied exclusively on clinical trials to expose patients to CBRN threats. Clinical experience with drugs in victims of unexpected exposure was not necessarily important for approval. The United States is the most advanced country in terms of developing medical countermeasure products against CBRN agents. Japan has similarities with the US in approved products and application packages, but there were 3 unapproved products or indications that were approved under the Animal Rule in the US. The Animal Rule might encourage development of a novel product by providing efficacy evaluation in animal studies. The US also has regulations that do not exist in Japan that authorize administration of an investigational drug outside a clinical trial for patients. Introduction of the Animal Rule and expanded access of investigational drugs could contribute to development and approvals of novel countermeasure products and improve an emergency response in a crisis in Japan. PMID:25813978

  19. A Diversity Research Initiative: How Diverse Undergraduate Students Become Researchers, Change Agents, and Members of a Research Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston-Mann, Esther, Ed.

    This report presents information on the University of Massachusetts Boston's Diversity Research Initiative (DRI). Section 1, "Essays by Participant Observers," includes "Building a Diversity Research Initiative: An Introduction" (Esther Kingston-Mann); "Diversity Imperative: Reflections on the Diversity Research Initiative" (Lin Zhan); "Research…

  20. Development of antimicrobial agents in the era of new and reemerging infectious diseases and increasing antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Cassell, G H; Mekalanos, J

    2001-02-01

    During the past 2 decades, new infectious diseases have appeared and old ones previously thought to be controlled have reemerged. New and reemerging infectious agents will continue to pose serious threats well into the 21st century. The prediction that the threat of infectious disease may not diminish is supported by evidence that infectious agents cause many chronic diseases and cancer of previous unknown etiology. Moreover, the utility of existing antimicrobial agents is rapidly eroding, tipping the balance in favor of multidrug-resistant pathogens, and there appear to be few, if any, new classes of drugs currently in clinical development. The need for research directed toward development of new antibiotics has never been greater. Advances in research technologies and microbial genome sequencing in the past decade have led to identification of a large number of new targets. Functional genomics and integrative biology should validate these targets and provide the best opportunity for developing effective new therapies, improved diagnostic techniques, and better tools to understand host-pathogen interactions. PMID:11176866

  1. [Experimental research on printing and dyeing wastewater treatment through new compound flocculation agent].

    PubMed

    Fan, Di; Wang, Lin; Wang, Juan

    2007-06-01

    Research on the treatment efficiency and coagulation experiments was done using a new compound flocculation agent SE in printing and dyeing wastewater. Taking COD and chromaticity color as indexes, We did research on the coagulation efficiency under different condition of SE dosage, pH value, settling time, and agitation speed, and then we did comparative experiments between SE and PAC, SE and PFS. The experiments show that SE can effectively remove COD and chromaticity color. The four parameters namely pH of 8 - 10, settling of 30 min, agitation of 75 r/min and dosage of 155 mg/L were chosen, the COD and chromaticity color removal rate were recorded as high as 83% and 94% respectively, and the optimum effluent COD and chromaticity color were 155 mg/L and 37 respectively. Compared with PAC and PFS, SE produced bigger and more compact floc, settling time was shorter, the amount of mud and chemical dosage were less, and effluent quality was much better. The results show that SE is a high-effective and practical compound coagulant agent. PMID:17674737

  2. Geothermal energy research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Fridleifsson, I.B. ); Freeston, D.H. . Geothermal Inst.)

    1994-04-01

    Today, electricity is generated from geothermal energy in 21 countries. The installed capacity is nearly 6300 MW-electric. Four developing countries (El Salvador 18%, Kenya 11%, Nicaragua 18% and Philippines 21%) produce over 10% of their total electricity from geothermal. Electric generation cost is commonly around 4 US cents/kWh. Direct utilization of geothermal water is known in about 40 countries, thereof 14 countries have each an installed capacity of over 100 MW-thermal. A worldwide survey shows that the total investments in geothermal energy between 1973 and 1992 amounted to approximately 22 billion US$. During the two decades, 30 countries invested each over 20 million US$, 12 countries over 200 million US$, and 5 countries over 1 billion US$. During the first decade, 1973--1982, public funding amounted to 4.6 billion US$ and private funding to 3 billion US$. During the second decade, 1983--1992, public funding amounted to 6.6 billion US$ and private funding to 7.7 billion US$. The relative economic viability of geothermal energy will improve significantly if and when a pollution tax is endorsed on power production using fossil fuels. Geothermal exploration and exploitation requires skills from many scientific and engineering disciplines. International geothermal training centers are operated in Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, and New Zealand. The International Geothermal Association was founded in 1988 and has over 2,000 members in all parts of the world.

  3. Codes & standards research, development & demonstration Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for SDOs to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  4. Research in Review: Prosocial Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    1982-01-01

    Reviews theory and research on various aspects of prosocial development, discusses curricula designed to increase the ability of young children to behave in prosocial ways, and lists six factors that can be used to facilitate children's prosocial development. (RH)

  5. Action Research as an Agent for Enhancing Teaching and Learning in Physical Education: A Physical Education Teacher's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Action research is a useful method for implementing change through its spiral of plan, act, observe, and reflect, but little research has been published on it in the area of physical education. The purpose of this intervention was to assess the effectiveness of action research as an agent of change and its impact on enhancing my…

  6. Research and Development Work: Developing Teachers as Researchers or Just Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postholm, May Britt

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the theoretical frame of action research and the teacher as researcher, working through a Norwegian Research Council-funded project in a school that explored learning strategies for pupils' subject and social development. Action research is here called research and development (R&D) work as the term envisages that research…

  7. Action Research for Developing Social Workers' Research Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunt, Neil; Fouche, Christa

    2009-01-01

    We reflect on the action research process implemented in assisting the development of a culture of practitioner inquiry amongst social workers in social services agencies, and highlight the overall outcomes of the intervention. The paper outlines the rationale and process for undertaking an action research process with social services…

  8. Doing Research on Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Pipere, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the research preferences and differences of education for sustainable development (ESD) researchers. A model with the continuums assimilation-accommodation and adaptation-agency was applied resulting in quantitative, qualitative, theoretic and participative research orientations.…

  9. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  10. Bridging the Gap between Academic Research and Regional Development in the Basque Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsen, James; Larrea, Miren; Wilson, James R.; Aranguren, Mari Jose

    2012-01-01

    The discussion in this article focuses on how the gap between academic knowledge and regional development can be bridged, creating conditions for change processes between researchers and regional agents. Institutional entrepreneurs can create regional development organisations and research organisations, but in order to fulfil regional needs it is…

  11. Role of research aircraft in technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    The United States's aeronautical research program has been rich in the use of research aircraft to explore new flight regimes, develop individual aeronautical concepts, and investigate new vehicle classes and configurations. This paper reviews the NASA supercritical wing, digital fly-by-wire, HiMAT, and AD-1 oblique-wing flight research programs, and draws from these examples general conclusions regarding the role and impact of research aircraft in technology development. The impact of a flight program on spinoff technology is also addressed. The secondary, serendipitous results are often highly significant. Finally, future research aircraft programs are examined for technology trends and expected results.

  12. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (IRIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Industrial Research and Development Information System (IRIS) links an online interface to a historical database with more than 2,500 statistical tables containing all industrial research and development (R&D) data published by NSF since 19...

  13. Future of federal research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper very briefly describes factors affecting federal funding for research and development. Historical, political, and economic aspects of funding are outlined. Projections of future funding is provided in general terms. The potential of the national laboratories for continued research and development contributions is described.

  14. Bottlenecks in Development of Retinal Therapeutic Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Jack M.; Yau, Edwin H.; Taggart, R. Thomas; Butler, Mark C.; Kolniak, Tiffany A.

    2011-01-01

    Development of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) agents for therapeutic purposes is an immense challenge in modern biology. Established technologies used to knockdown a specific target RNA and its cognate protein: antisense, ribozyme, RNAi, all conditionally depend upon an initial, critical annealing event of the PTGS ligand to a target RNA. In this review we address the nature of the bottlenecks, emphasizing the biocomplexity of target RNA structure, that currently limit PTGS therapeutic development. We briefly review existing and emerging technologies designed to release these constraints to realize the potential of PTGS agents in gene based therapies. PMID:17976683

  15. A Software Product Line Process to Develop Agents for the IoT.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Amor, Mercedes; Fuentes, Lidia; Troya, José M

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important challenges of this decade is the Internet of Things (IoT), which aims to enable things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone, ideally using any path/network and any service. IoT systems are usually composed of heterogeneous and interconnected lightweight devices that support applications that are subject to change in their external environment and in the functioning of these devices. The management of the variability of these changes, autonomously, is a challenge in the development of these systems. Agents are a good option for developing self-managed IoT systems due to their distributed nature, context-awareness and self-adaptation. Our goal is to enhance the development of IoT applications using agents and software product lines (SPL). Specifically, we propose to use Self-StarMASMAS, multi-agent system) agents and to define an SPL process using the Common Variability Language. In this contribution, we propose an SPL process for Self-StarMAS, paying particular attention to agents embedded in sensor motes. PMID:26140350

  16. Evaluation of oxime efficacy in nerve agent poisoning: Development of a kinetic-based dynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Worek, Franz . E-mail: FranzWorek@Bundeswehr.org; Szinicz, Ladislaus; Eyer, Peter; Thiermann, Horst

    2005-12-15

    The widespread use of organophosphorus compounds (OP) as pesticides and the repeated misuse of highly toxic OP as chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) emphasize the necessity for the development of effective medical countermeasures. Standard treatment with atropine and the established acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators, obidoxime and pralidoxime, is considered to be ineffective with certain nerve agents due to low oxime effectiveness. From obvious ethical reasons only animal experiments can be used to evaluate new oximes as nerve agent antidotes. However, the extrapolation of data from animal to humans is hampered by marked species differences. Since reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE is considered to be the main mechanism of action of oximes, human erythrocyte AChE can be exploited to test the efficacy of new oximes. By combining enzyme kinetics (inhibition, reactivation, aging) with OP toxicokinetics and oxime pharmacokinetics a dynamic in vitro model was developed which allows the calculation of AChE activities at different scenarios. This model was validated with data from pesticide-poisoned patients and simulations were performed for intravenous and percutaneous nerve agent exposure and intramuscular oxime treatment using published data. The model presented may serve as a tool for defining effective oxime concentrations and for optimizing oxime treatment. In addition, this model can be useful for the development of meaningful therapeutic animal models.

  17. A Software Product Line Process to Develop Agents for the IoT

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Amor, Mercedes; Fuentes, Lidia; Troya, José M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important challenges of this decade is the Internet of Things (IoT), which aims to enable things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone, ideally using any path/network and any service. IoT systems are usually composed of heterogeneous and interconnected lightweight devices that support applications that are subject to change in their external environment and in the functioning of these devices. The management of the variability of these changes, autonomously, is a challenge in the development of these systems. Agents are a good option for developing self-managed IoT systems due to their distributed nature, context-awareness and self-adaptation. Our goal is to enhance the development of IoT applications using agents and software product lines (SPL). Specifically, we propose to use Self-StarMASMAS, multi-agent system) agents and to define an SPL process using the Common Variability Language. In this contribution, we propose an SPL process for Self-StarMAS, paying particular attention to agents embedded in sensor motes. PMID:26140350

  18. Current developments of coumarin-based anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Emami, Saeed; Dadashpour, Sakineh

    2015-09-18

    Cancer is one of the leading health hazards and the prominent cause of death in the world. A number of anticancer agents are currently in clinical practice and used for treatment of various kinds of cancers. There is no doubt that the existing arsenal of anticancer agents is insufficient due to the high incidence of side effects and multidrug resistance. In the efforts to develop suitable anticancer drugs, medicinal chemists have focused on coumarin derivatives. Coumarin is a naturally occurring compound and a versatile synthetic scaffold possessing wide spectrum of biological effects including potential anticancer activity. This review article covers the current developments of coumarin-based anticancer agents and also discusses the structure-activity relationship of the most potent compounds. PMID:26318068

  19. Development of dietary phytochemical chemopreventive agents: biomarkers and choice of dose for early clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Scott, Edwina N; Gescher, Andreas J; Steward, William P; Brown, Karen

    2009-06-01

    In view of safety concerns surrounding the use of pharmaceuticals such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and tamoxifen as cancer chemopreventive agents, potentially innocuous phytochemicals derived from the diet are considered attractive alternatives. However, results from cancer chemoprevention trials of dietary agents have been disappointing to date, as promising activities observed in rodent models and cells in vitro have not translated into clinical success. This may be partly due to the development process for these agents, which is complex for a number of reasons; the definitive end point, inhibition of carcinogenesis, requires large numbers of individuals followed-up over many years. Furthermore, whereas biomarkers are frequently used as surrogate efficacy end points to expedite the process, biomarker assessment and validation has proven difficult because dietary agents exert multiple actions with an unknown hierarchy of biological importance. These factors have made determining the dose for clinical investigation extremely challenging, and at present, there are no defined strategies for rationally identifying the most appropriate doses. In this commentary, the complexities involved in the development of dietary chemoprevention agents are discussed, and a tentative route towards selection of the optimal clinical dose is proposed. The approach highlights the need to conduct long-term preclinical studies with realistic concentrations that are achievable in human tissues and the importance of efficacy biomarkers that are intrinsically linked to the key mechanisms of action. A more logical design of studies should increase the likelihood that the encouraging preclinical results observed for many phytochemicals translate into tangible clinical benefit. PMID:19470784

  20. Computational Research on Mobile Pastoralism Using Agent-Based Modeling and Satellite Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Takuto

    2016-01-01

    Dryland pastoralism has long attracted considerable attention from researchers in diverse fields. However, rigorous formal study is made difficult by the high level of mobility of pastoralists as well as by the sizable spatio-temporal variability of their environment. This article presents a new computational approach for studying mobile pastoralism that overcomes these issues. Combining multi-temporal satellite images and agent-based modeling allows a comprehensive examination of pastoral resource access over a realistic dryland landscape with unpredictable ecological dynamics. The article demonstrates the analytical potential of this approach through its application to mobile pastoralism in northeast Nigeria. Employing more than 100 satellite images of the area, extensive simulations are conducted under a wide array of circumstances, including different land-use constraints. The simulation results reveal complex dependencies of pastoral resource access on these circumstances along with persistent patterns of seasonal land use observed at the macro level. PMID:26963526

  1. Computational Research on Mobile Pastoralism Using Agent-Based Modeling and Satellite Imagery.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Takuto

    2016-01-01

    Dryland pastoralism has long attracted considerable attention from researchers in diverse fields. However, rigorous formal study is made difficult by the high level of mobility of pastoralists as well as by the sizable spatio-temporal variability of their environment. This article presents a new computational approach for studying mobile pastoralism that overcomes these issues. Combining multi-temporal satellite images and agent-based modeling allows a comprehensive examination of pastoral resource access over a realistic dryland landscape with unpredictable ecological dynamics. The article demonstrates the analytical potential of this approach through its application to mobile pastoralism in northeast Nigeria. Employing more than 100 satellite images of the area, extensive simulations are conducted under a wide array of circumstances, including different land-use constraints. The simulation results reveal complex dependencies of pastoral resource access on these circumstances along with persistent patterns of seasonal land use observed at the macro level. PMID:26963526

  2. Recent Development of Copolymeric Delivery System for Anticancer Agents Based on Cyclodextrin Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Feng, Runliang; Deng, Peizong; Teng, Fangfang; Song, Zhimei

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell structured aggregates of amphiphilic block copolymer are hopefully drug delivery system because of their ability to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs, and their hydrophilic shell can prolong retention time of drugs in the blood circulation system. Cyclodextrin is a kind of hydrophilic polysaccharide containing multiple hydroxyl groups, providing an inner hole that can load small molecule through host-guest interaction. These hydroxyl groups or their derived functional ones are utilized in conjugation with polymeric chains to form block copolymers. These copolymers can not only encapsulate hydrophobic drugs, but also encapsulate hydrophilic drugs (like DNA, protein, etc) through hydrophobic, host-guest or electrostatic interactions, which strengthen interaction between drugs and materials compared with general copolymers, indicating that formed drug delivery systems are more stable. By introduction of target molecule, they also achieve selective delivery of drugs to specific tissues or organs. So, several researchers are stimulated to carry out many studies for the development of cyclodextrin copolymeric drug delivery systems in recent. In this review, we focus the cyclodextrin copolymers' application in the anticancer agents' delivery. PMID:26349814

  3. Recent developments in L-asparaginase discovery and its potential as anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Abhinav; Khan, Abdul Arif; Khurshid, Mohsin; Kalam, Mohd Abul; Jain, Sudhir K; Singhal, Pradeep K

    2016-04-01

    L-Asparaginase (EC3.5.1.1) is an enzyme, which is used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and other related blood cancers from a long time. This enzyme selectively hydrolyzes the extracellular amino acid L-asparagine into L-aspartate and ammonia, leading to nutritional deficiencies, protein synthesis inhibition, and ultimately death of lymphoblastic cells by apoptosis. Currently, bacterial asparaginases are used for treatment purpose but offers scepticism due to a number of toxicities, including thrombosis, pancreatitis, hyperglycemia, and hepatotoxicity. Resistance towards bacterial asparaginase is another major disadvantage during cancer management. This situation attracted attention of researchers towards alternative sources of L-asparaginase, including plants and fungi. Present article discusses about potential of L-asparaginase as an anticancer agent, its mechanism of action, and adverse effects related to current asparaginase formulations. This article also provides an outlook for recent developments in L-asparaginase discovery from alternative sources and their potential as a less toxic alternative to current formulations. PMID:25630663

  4. Advances in Child Development: Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Andrew R., Ed.; And Others

    This book consists of 31 papers focusing on aspects of child development. Mainly reports of research, papers are grouped topically into four sections dealing respectively with perceptual, language/communication, cognitive, and social development. Most of the nine papers in section 1 focus on the perceptual development of infants. Topics include…

  5. Software Development as Music Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses how software development can be used as a method for music education research. It explains how software development can externalize ideas, stimulate action and reflection, and provide evidence to support the educative value of new software-based experiences. Parallels between the interactive software development process and…

  6. Science Teacher Development through Collaborative Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Xavier; Melville, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the views and actions of four science teachers participating in a collaborative action research project. A qualitative case study approach was used to describe and analyze the development of these teachers. This development initially involved the teachers critically comparing their extant practices to current developments in…

  7. Free Agent Learners: The New Career Model and Its Impact on Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opengart, Rose; Short, Darren C.

    2002-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) executives from the United States (n=7), Brazil (n=1), and Britain (n=3) reported some shift toward free-agent attitudes and long-term employability among high-potential and high-tech employees. Organizations increasingly view learning as a recruitment and retention tool. The focus of HRD is shifting from training…

  8. Academic Developers as Change Agents Improving Quality in a Large Interprofessional Undergraduate Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordiner, Moira

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written about academic developers as change agents but not in an interprofessional education (IPE) context. IPE involves teaching students in different health professions how to work effectively in teams across professional boundaries to improve the quality of patient care. Extensive evidence reveals that implementing sustainable IPE…

  9. Developing an Argument Learning Environment Using Agent-Based ITS (ALES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbas, Safia; Sawamura, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an agent-based educational environment to teach argument analysis (ALES). The idea is based on the Argumentation Interchange Format Ontology (AIF)using "Walton Theory". ALES uses different mining techniques to manage a highly structured arguments repertoire. This repertoire was designed, developed and implemented by us. Our aim…

  10. IT [Information Technology] as a Change Agent in Education and National Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Daphne

    The case of Singapore illustrates how well-deployed information technology (IT) can be a change agent in education and national development. IT has been a catalyst and enabler of the shift from didactic, passive instruction to interactive, learner-centered and learner-directed instruction. In technical education in particular, IT has served as a…

  11. Developments in Space Research in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, O.

    2006-08-01

    Nigeria's desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA/ OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa, 1976. The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results. The National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA), Nigeria's space research coordinating body; has taken a more active role to help Nigeria's space research community to succeed internationally. The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria's successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing, meteorology, communication and Information Technology. and many more. It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations. The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist's involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria. It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria's space borne scientific experiments, policies and programs.

  12. Developing an Intelligent Parking Management Application Based on Multi-agent Systems and Semantic Web Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Andrés; Botía, Juan A.

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) are being adopted in multiple areas to deal with knowledge-based applications. On the other hand, Semantic Web technologies such as OWL and SWRL have shown to be useful in managing knowledge and reasoning about it. This paper proposes an architecture based on these technologies to develop an intelligent parking management application, where agents interact to reach a consensus about the assignment of a parking area to a vehicle. Moreover, this paper tackles the inherent problem related to the rise of conflicts in MAS by means of the integration of an argumentation system called ASBO (which is part of our previous work) into the proposed architecture.

  13. [Forensic medical assessment of the mechanisms of development of gunshot lesions caused by elastic destructive agents].

    PubMed

    Musin, É Kh; Roman'ko, N A; Makarov, I Iu; Kutsenko, K I

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of analysis of the data obtained in experimental studies and practical expert assessments of body injuries inflicted by rubber balls for traumatic weapons. The causes accounting for the polymorphism of such injuries and the mechanisms of their development were elucidated by means of damage simulation taking into consideration the physical and dynamic properties of elastic ball-type destructive agents and the morphological structure of different anatomical regions of the human body. The results of the study may be of interest for differential diagnostics of gunshot lesions caused by elastic destructive agents. PMID:22876645

  14. Recent progress in the drug development of coumarin derivatives as potent antituberculosis agents.

    PubMed

    Keri, Rangappa S; Sasidhar, B S; Nagaraja, Bhari Mallanna; Santos, M Amélia

    2015-07-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a challenging worldwide health problem and mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) remains one of the most deadly human pathogens. TB is the second leading infectious cause of mortality today behind only HIV/AIDS. The impetus for developing new structural classes of antituberculosis drugs comes from the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. The development of MDR strains to commonly used drugs is due to, longer durations of therapy as results of resistance, and the resurgence of the disease in immune compromised patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore new antitubercular (anti-TB) agents. Ironically, the low number of potentially new chemical entities which can act as anti-TB candidates is of great importance at present situation. Considering the severity of the problem, WHO has prepared a strategic plan in Berlin declaration 2007 to stop TB, globally. Among the oxygen heterocycles, coumarin derivatives are important motifs, which can be widely found in many natural products, and many of them displaying diverse biological activities. This spectacular spectrum of applications has intrigued organic and medicinal chemists for decades to explore the natural coumarins or their synthetic analogs for their applicability as anti-TB drugs. To pave the way for the future research, there is a need to collect the latest information in this promising area. In the present review, we collated published reports on coumarin derivatives to shed light on the insights on different types of methods reported for their preparations, characterizations and anti-TB applications, so that its full therapeutic potential class of compounds can be utilized for the treatment of tuberculosis. Therefore, the objective of this review is to focus on important coumarin analogs with anti-TB activities, and structure-activity relationships (SAR) for designing the better anti-TB agents. It is hoped that, this review will be helpful for new thoughts in the

  15. PM MASS METHODS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task supports research into methodologies for determining particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations. Due to the complexity of PM (composition, size distribution, and concentration), developing PM methods that perform acceptably under most weather conditions at most U.S. l...

  16. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1992-01-24

    The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch's research group for heart and brain imaging.

  17. Advancing Administrative Supports for Research Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Korr, Wynne; White, Barbara; Vroom, Phyllis; Zabora, James; Middleton, Jane; Shank, Barbara; Schatz, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Research administrative supports must parallel and reinforce faculty initiatives in research grant procurement. This article features several types of developments that draw on presentations at the National Association of Deans and Directors of Schools of Social Work meetings. Key changes in social work programs are addressed, including the…

  18. Technology Transfer in Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, J. W., Ed.; Jolly, J. A., Ed.

    If a secondary use of research and development output is possible and feasible, then the original cost of the research can be viewed as providing a substantial contribution over and above its initial purpose and ends. This "technology transfer" from primary to secondary purposes is becoming increasingly important, if for no other reason than that…

  19. Developing as Teacher Educator-Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrizio, Kami M.; Ballock, Ellen; McNary, Scot W.

    2011-01-01

    This self-study explores the role of collaboration in the development of three new faculty members as teacher educator-researchers. The research finds that protocol-structured dialogue about artifacts of classroom practice promotes understanding of the complex relationships among teachers, student, content, and context. We also report on the…

  20. It's Not Magic! Research on Developing Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In the past two decades, a large body of research has examined the differences between novices and experts in subject areas ranging from physics to poetry. Yet research on developing expertise has found no "magic bullet" in becoming an expert and has concluded that innate talent plays a less prominent role than previously imagined. Various studies…

  1. New starts in research and development, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosson, J.

    1981-01-01

    An outline in slide form, of some areas of U.S. Navy research and development utilizing airborne minicomputers is presented. The following program considerations are addressed: (1) research and engineering management; (2) budgeting; (3) equipment specifications and construction materials; (4) computer applications; (5) technological capabilities, utilization, and transfer; and (6) military applications.

  2. Lesson Study for Professional Development and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Robyn; Stacey, Kaye

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that "lesson study" may be adapted from its primary use as a professional development strategy for use as a research strategy, especially to identify principles of good lesson design. We report on a project undertaken in two Australian secondary schools where lesson study research was used to investigate the design of…

  3. Symbiotic New Program Development through Marketing Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, David J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The applicability of marketing research to development of college programs in collaboration with other institutions or individuals is discussed. It is recommended that college administrators conduct ongoing environmental scanning to identify major opportunities for joint programs, forming research groups to screen basic ideas and explore program…

  4. Developing Research Skills across the Undergraduate Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Simon; Coates, Lee; Fraser, Ann; Pierce, Pam

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes consortial efforts within the Great Lakes Colleges Association to share expertise and programming to build research skills throughout the undergraduate curriculum. Strategies to scaffold research skill development are provided from Allegheny College, Kalamazoo College, and The College of Wooster.

  5. Developing Framework for Agent- Based Diabetes Disease Management System: User Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Safdari, Reza; Rahimi, Azin

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the characteristics of agents is mobility which makes them very suitable for remote electronic health and tele medicine. The aim of this study is developing a framework for agent based diabetes information management at national level through identifying required agents. Methods: The main tool is a questioner that is designed in three sections based on studying library resources, performance of major organizations in the field of diabetes in and out of the country and interviews with experts in the medical, health information management and software fields. Questionnaires based on Delphi methods were distributed among 20 experts. In order to design and identify agents required in health information management for the prevention and appropriate and rapid treatment of diabetes, the results were analyzed using SPSS 17 and Results were plotted with FREEPLANE mind map software. Results: Access to data technology in proposed framework in order of priority is: mobile (mean 1/80), SMS, EMAIL (mean 2/80), internet, web (mean 3/30), phone (mean 3/60), WIFI (mean 4/60). Conclusions: In delivering health care to diabetic patients, considering social and human aspects is essential. Having a systematic view for implementation of agent systems and paying attention to all aspects such as feedbacks, user acceptance, budget, motivation, hierarchy, useful standards, affordability of individuals, identifying barriers and opportunities and so on, are necessary. PMID:24757407

  6. Standard Agent Framework 1

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4)more » Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.« less

  7. Structural Studies on Acetylcholinesterase and Paraoxonase Directed Towards Development of Therapeutic Biomolecules for the Treatment of Degenerative Diseases and Protection Against Chemical Threat Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Joel L.; Silman, Israel

    Acetylcholinesterase and paraoxonase are important targets for treatment of degenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis, respectively, both of which impose major burdens on the health care systems in Western society. Acetylcholinesterase is the target of lethal nerve agents, and paraoxonase is under consideration as a bioscavenger for their detoxification. Both are thus the subject of research and development in the context of nerve agent toxicology. The crystal structures of the two enzymes are described, and structure/function relationships are discussed in the context of drug development and of development of means of protection against chemical threats.

  8. Agent oriented programming: An overview of the framework and summary of recent research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    This is a short overview of the agent-oriented programming (AOP) framework. AOP can be viewed as an specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components called beliefs, choices, capabilities, commitments, and possibly others; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state of agents is captured formally in an extension of standard epistemic logics: beside temporalizing the knowledge and belief operators, AOP introduces operators for commitment, choice and capability. Agents are controlled by agent programs, which include primitives for communicating with other agents. In the spirit of speech-act theory, each communication primitive is of a certain type: informing, requesting, offering, etc. This document describes these features in more detail and summarizes recent results and ongoing AOP-related work.

  9. Advanced Life Support Research and Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliss, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A videograph outlining life support research. The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise's goals are to provide life support self-sufficiency for human beings to carry out research and exploration productively in space, to open the door for planetary exploration, and for benefits on Earth. Topics presented include the role of NASA Ames, funding, and technical monitoring. The focused research areas discussed include air regeneration, carbon dioxide removal, Mars Life Support, water recovery, Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR), solid waste treatment, and Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWC). Focus is placed on the utilization of Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) and Dynamic Systems Modeling in this research.

  10. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to provide a…

  11. JPL basic research review. [research and advanced development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Current status, projected goals, and results of 49 research and advanced development programs at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reported in abstract form. Areas of investigation include: aerodynamics and fluid mechanics, applied mathematics and computer sciences, environment protection, materials science, propulsion, electric and solar power, guidance and navigation, communication and information sciences, general physics, and chemistry.

  12. Novel compounds in the treatment of lung cancer: current and developing therapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Rudi; Chan, Pokman

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Though incremental advances have been made in the treatment of this devastating disease during the past decade, new therapies are urgently needed. Traditional cytotoxic agents have been combined with other modalities with improved survival for early-stage patients. Newer cytotoxic agents targeting the same or different mechanisms have been developed at different stages. Optimization of various chemotherapy regimens in different settings is one of the aims of current clinical trials. Some predictive biomarkers (eg, excision repair cross-complementing 1, ERCC1) and histotypes (eg, adenocarcinoma) are found to be associated with resistance/response to some cytotoxic drugs. Another notable advance is the addition of targeted therapy to lung cancer treatment. Targeted agents such as erlotinib and bevacizumab have demonstrated clinical benefits and gained Food and Drug Administration approval for lung cancer. More agents targeting various signaling pathways critical to lung cancer are at different stages of development. Along with the effort of new targeted drug discovery, biomarkers such as epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase mutations have proven useful for patient selection, and more predictive biomarkers have been actively evaluated in non-small cell lung cancer. The paradigm of lung cancer treatment has shifted towards biomarker-based personalized medicine.

  13. Research and Development of Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next generation high-energy lepton collider machine. A novel accelerator technology must be developed to overcome several intrinsic issues of muon acceleration. Recent research and development of critical beam elements for a muon accelerator, especially muon beam phase space ionization cooling channel, are reviewed in this paper.

  14. Teachers as Researchers: Supporting Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gennaoui, Michele; Kretschmer, Robert E.

    1996-01-01

    Contrasts traditional professional development and a teacher-as-researcher project implemented at the Saint Francis de Sales School for the Deaf. Discusses ways the project influenced the professional development of teachers, the effects on the school community of group collaboration among diverse professional staff, support mechanisms required,…

  15. Current Issues in Research on Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Alberta E.

    Research on early development is moving apace. Developmental psychology is again giving serious attention to ages and stages. This attention is due, in great part, to the formulations about cognitive development by Piaget. Earlier in the century, the experimental approach to child study came to reflect psychology's generally heavy commitment to…

  16. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  17. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research. PMID:21774901

  18. Antibacterial activities and release kinetics of a newly developed recoverable controlled agent-release system.

    PubMed

    Ehara, A; Torii, M; Imazato, S; Ebisu, S

    2000-03-01

    We attempted to develop a resin with a recoverable antibacterial activity based on the desorption/adsorption of a cationic bactericide by the ion-exchange mechanism. The aims of this study were to investigate the release kinetics of the agent and the antibacterial activity of this newly designed resin system. An experimental resin was prepared by the addition of methacrylic acid as a cation-exchanger and a cationic antibacterial agent, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), to triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. The amount of CPC desorbed from the experimental resin into buffer solutions at pH 4-8 was measured. The adsorption of CPC to control resin and re-adsorption of CPC to the experimental resin, which had once desorbed the agent, were also determined. The antibacterial activity of experimental resin against Streptococcus mutans was evaluated, and the relationship between bacterial acid production and antibacterial effect was assessed. The experimental resin desorbed CPC at pH < or = 6, and the amount of agent desorbed increased with increasing acidity. The control resin adsorbed CPC when immersed in CPC aqueous solution at a rate determined by the concentration of the agent and immersion time. The experimental resin, once desorbed CPC, could re-adsorb the bactericide by being exposed to a solution of the agent. Less plaque formed on the experimental resin, and the growth and survival of S. mutans was inhibited in the condition in which acid was produced. These results demonstrate that the resin system proposed was able to desorb and re-adsorb the cationic bactericide by an ion-exchange mechanism and could show an inhibitory effect on S. mutans growth and plaque formation. PMID:10765955

  19. Challenges in the research and development of new human vaccines.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, T; Barral-Netto, M

    2013-02-01

    The field of vaccinology was born from the observations by the fathers of vaccination, Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur, that a permanent, positive change in the way our bodies respond to life-threatening infectious diseases can be obtained by specific challenge with the inactivated infectious agent performed in a controlled manner, avoiding the development of clinical disease upon exposure to the virulent pathogen. Many of the vaccines still in use today were developed on an empirical basis, essentially following the paradigm established by Pasteur, "isolate, inactivate, and inject" the disease-causing microorganism, and are capable of eliciting uniform, long-term immune memory responses that constitute the key to their proven efficacy. However, vaccines for pathogens considered as priority targets of public health concern are still lacking. The literature tends to focus more often on vaccine research problems associated with specific pathogens, but it is increasingly clear that there are common bottlenecks in vaccine research, which need to be solved in order to advance the development of the field as a whole. As part of a group of articles, the objective of the present report is to pinpoint these bottlenecks, exploring the literature for common problems and solutions in vaccine research applied to different situations. Our goal is to stimulate brainstorming among specialists of different fields related to vaccine research and development. Here, we briefly summarize the topics we intend to deal with in this discussion. PMID:23558931

  20. Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    McEwen, B.S.

    1987-10-01

    Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

  1. 78 FR 16357 - Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal... Research, Engineering and Development (R,E&D) Advisory Committee. Name: Research, Engineering & Development... agenda will include receiving from the Committee guidance for FAA's research and development...

  2. Preferences for caries prevention agents in adult patients: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Ajmo, Craig T.; Amundson, Craig; Anderson, Gerald A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors that are significantly associated with dentists’ use of specific caries preventive agents in adult patients, and whether dentists who use one preventive agent are also more likely to use certain others. Methods Data were collected from 564 practitioners in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network, a multi-region consortium of participating practices and dental organizations. Results In-office topical fluoride was the method most frequently used. Regarding at-home preventive agents, there was little difference in preference between non-prescription fluoride, prescription fluoride, or chlorhexidine rinse. Dentists who most frequently used caries prevention were also those who regularly perform caries risk assessment and individualize caries prevention at the patient level. Higher percentages of patients with dental insurance were significantly associated with more use of in-office prevention modalities. Female dentists and dentists with more-recent training were more likely to recommend preventive agents that are applied by the patient. Dentists who reported more-conservative decisions in clinical treatment scenarios were also more likely to use caries preventive agents. Groups of dentist who shared a common preference for certain preventive agents were identified. One group used preventive agents selectively, whereas the other groups predominately used either in-office or at-home fluorides. Conclusions Caries prevention is commonly used with adult patients. However, these results suggest that only a subset of dentists base preventive treatments on caries risk at the individual patient level. PMID:20560997

  3. The role of research efficiency in the evolution of scientific productivity and impact: An agent-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Xiao-Pu; Hadzibeganovic, Tarik

    2016-02-01

    We introduce an agent-based model to investigate the effects of production efficiency (PE) and hot field tracing capability (HFTC) on productivity and impact of scientists embedded in a competitive research environment. Agents compete to publish and become cited by occupying the nodes of a citation network calibrated by real-world citation datasets. Our Monte-Carlo simulations reveal that differences in individual performance are strongly related to PE, whereas HFTC alone cannot provide sustainable academic careers under intensely competitive conditions. Remarkably, the negative effect of high competition levels on productivity can be buffered by elevated research efficiency if simultaneously HFTC is sufficiently low.

  4. Research on Production Scheduling System with Bottleneck Based on Multi-agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenqiang, Bao; Weiye, Wang; Peng, Wang; Pan, Quanke

    Aimed at the imbalance problem of resource capacity in Production Scheduling System, this paper uses Production Scheduling System based on multi-agent which has been constructed, and combines the dynamic and autonomous of Agent; the bottleneck problem in the scheduling is solved dynamically. Firstly, this paper uses Bottleneck Resource Agent to find out the bottleneck resource in the production line, analyses the inherent mechanism of bottleneck, and describes the production scheduling process based on bottleneck resource. Bottleneck Decomposition Agent harmonizes the relationship of job's arrival time and transfer time in Bottleneck Resource Agent and Non-Bottleneck Resource Agents, therefore, the dynamic scheduling problem is simplified as the single machine scheduling of each resource which takes part in the scheduling. Finally, the dynamic real-time scheduling problem is effectively solved in Production Scheduling System.

  5. Development of an integrated system for rapid detection of biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terazono, Hideyuki; Takei, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Masahito; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2010-04-01

    Weaponized biological agents are as great a threat as nuclear or chemical weapons. They must be detected at the earliest stage to prevent diffusion because once these agents are dispersed into the air, the rapidly decreasing concentration makes detection more of a challenge. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common method to create copies of a specific target region of a DNA sequence and to produce large quantities of DNA molecules. A few DNA molecules are rapidly amplified by PCR into billions of copies. While PCR is a powerful technique and is capable of countering new threats relatively easily, it is plagued by the number of processes necessary. Therefore, we have developed an integrated PCR system for rapid detection of biological agents captured from the air. Each processing function is performed by a dedicated module, and reduction in the process time has been made the top priority, without loss in the signal/noise ratio of the total system. Agents can be identified within 15 min from capture. A fully automated operation protects operators from exposure to potentially highly lethal samples.

  6. Federal research and development for satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A Committee on Satellite Communication (COSC) was formed under the auspices of the Space Applications Board (SAB) in order to study Federal research and development on satellite communications (SC). Discussion on whether to continue the research and development and the proper role of the Federal Government are addressed. Discussion focussed on six possible options for a Federal role in SC research and development: (1) the current NASA SC program; (2) an expanded NASA SC technology program; (3) a SC technology flight test support program; (4) an experimental SC technology flight program; (5) an experimental public service SC system program; and (6) an operational public service SC system program. Decision criteria and recommendations are presented.

  7. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  8. A Recent Perspective on Discovery and Development of Diverse Therapeutic Agents Inspired from Isatin Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Rane, Rajesh A; Karunanidhi, Sivanandhan; Jain, Kavita; Shaikh, Mahamadhanif; Hampannavar, Girish; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar

    2016-01-01

    Isatin as an alkaloidal framework have consistently attracted attention of medicinal chemist towards development of wide range of novel therapeutic agents. This review report has discussed significant isatin lead molecules and their derivatives which have shown promising biological potential in recent times. The substituted isatins showing a potent pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antitubercular, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-histaminic, anti-HIV, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-Parkinson's and antidiabetic have been described in this review. The mechanism of action leading to therapeutic activity of the respective isatin derivation has also been recorded. This review reveals that the systematic and rational modifications on isatin motif exhibited significant bio-activities which can be exploited for the development of potent novel therapeutic agents in the future studies. Hence the quest to investigate more structural alterations on isatin scaffold should be continued. PMID:26369813

  9. Collaborative Engineering for Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jose M.; Keys, L. Ken; Chen, Injazz J.

    2004-01-01

    Research and development (R&D) organizations are being required to be relevant, to be more application-oriented, and to be partners in the strategic management of the business while meeting the same challenges as the rest of the organization, namely: (1) reduced time to market; (2) reduced cost; (3) improved quality; (4) increased reliability; and (5) increased focus on customer needs. Recent advances in computer technology and the Internet have created a new paradigm of collaborative engineering or collaborative product development (CPD), from which new types of relationships among researchers and their partners have emerged. Research into the applicability and benefits of CPD in a low/no production, R&D, and/or government environment is limited. In addition, the supply chain management (SCM) aspects of these relationships have not been studied. This paper presents research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) investigating the applicability of CPD and SCM in an R&D organization. The study concentrates on the management and implementation of space research activities at GRC. Results indicate that although the organization is engaged in collaborative relationships that incorporate aspects of SCM, a number of areas, such as development of trust and information sharing merit special attention.

  10. Collaborative Research between Community Development Practitioners and University Based Researchers: Challenges and Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Mildred E.; Hinrichs, Clare; Schneyer, Judith; Joyce, Lucy

    A research project identified the challenges and benefits of collaborative research between extension agents and researchers. Its methodology was a critical review of the collaborative research approach used in a case study examining the usefulness of social capital in promoting rural landscape sustainability in two counties in the Hudson River…

  11. NOAA draft research and development plan released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has released a new draft version of its 5-year research and development (R&D) plan for 2013-2017, Research and Development at NOAA: Environmental Understanding to Ensure America's Vital and Sustainable Future. The plan, which was announced in the Federal Register on 7 May, will chart a course for R&D in support of the agency's four long-term goals of climate, weather, oceans, and coasts, and it will guide the agency's R&D activities over the next 5 years.

  12. Cooperative research and development agreements at METC

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlow, J.C.; Jarr, L.A.; Anderson, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-502) provided a new mechanism for joint research between private parties and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Joint projects under this law are called Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADAs) and are simply agreements between METC and the private sector to work together on a mutually beneficial project. Of primary interest to METC is the development and deployment of: (1) clean, efficient power generation technologies, (2) technologies for the characterization and exploitation of the Nation`s natural gas resource, and (3) environmental remediation technologies.

  13. Research related to variable sweep aircraft development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, E. C.; Toll, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    Development in high speed, variable sweep aircraft research is reviewed. The 1946 Langley wind tunnel studies related to variable oblique and variable sweep wings and results from the X-5 and the XF1OF variable sweep aircraft are discussed. A joint program with the British, evaluation of the British "Swallow", development of the outboard pivot wing/aft tail configuration concept by Langley, and the applied research program that followed and which provided the technology for the current, variable sweep military aircraft is outlined. The relative state of variable sweep as a design option is also covered.

  14. Tabanids: neglected subjects of research, but important vectors of disease agents!

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Desquesnes, Marc; Mihok, Steve; Foil, Lane D; Duvallet, Gérard; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2014-12-01

    Tabanids are nuisance pests for people and livestock because of their painful and irritating bite, persistent biting behavior, and blood ingestion. About 4400 tabanid species have been described; they are seasonally present in all kinds of landscapes, latitudes, and altitudes. High populations have a significant economic impact on outdoor activities, tourism, and livestock production. Tabanids are also vectors of animal disease agents, including viruses, bacteria and parasites. However, tabanids have received little attention in comparison with other hematophagous Diptera. Here, we highlight the many direct and indirect impacts of tabanids and provide a brief summary of tabanid morphology, biology, and life cycle. Impacts include pathogen transmission, parasite transportation (Dermatobia hominis), biological transmission (Loa loa), and mechanical transmission of viruses, such as equine infectious anemia virus, protozoa, such as Trypanosoma evansi and Besnotia besnoiti, and bacteria, such as Bacillus anthracis and Anaplasma marginale. We discuss parameters of mechanical transmission and its mathematical modeling. Control methods for tabanid populations are also summarized; these include trapping, the use of insecticides, repellents, and livestock protection. Lastly recommendations are provided for the direction of future research. PMID:24727644

  15. [The history of the development and changes of quinolone antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hisashi; Hayakawa, Isao; Akimoto, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    were patented in the next three years, several of which reached the market. Among the drugs, ofloxacin (OFLX) and ciprofloxacin (CPFX) are recognized as superior in several respects to the oral beta-lactam antibiotics as an antibacterial agent. With a focus on OFLX and CPFX, numerous research groups entered the antibacterial therapeutic field, triggering intense competition in the search to find newer, more effective quinolones. After NFLX was introduced in the market, while resulting by the end of today, eleven kinds of other new quinolones launched in Japan. They are enoxacin (ENX), OFLX, CPFX, lomefloxacin (LFLX), fleroxacin (FRLX), tosufloxacin (TFLX), levofloxacin (LVFX), sparfloxacin (SPFX), gatifloxacin (GFLX), prulifloxacin (PULX) and also pazufloxacin (PZFX). The advantages of these compounds, e.g., LVFX, SPFX and GFLX, are that their spectrum includes Gram-positive bacteria species as well as Gram-negative bacteria and they improve bioavailability results when a daily dose is administered for systemic infections including RTIs. However, unexpected adverse reactions, such as the CNS reaction, the drug-drug interaction, phototoxicity, hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity such as the QTc interval prolongation of ECG, have been reported in the clinical evaluations or the post-marketing surveillance of several new quinolones. Moreover, the adverse reactions of arthropathy (the joint toxicity) predicated from studies in juvenile animals have never materialized in clinical use. Therefore, no drugs other than NFLX have yet been approved for pediatric use. Fortunately, the newer quinolones are being developed and tested to reduce these adverse reactions on the basis of recent studies. On the other hand, multi-drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphycolocci (MRCNS), penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have

  16. Agent Building Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

  17. KSC Education Technology Research and Development Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, Michael R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Educational technology is facilitating new approaches to teaching and learning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Cognitive research is beginning to inform educators about how students learn providing a basis for design of more effective learning environments incorporating technology. At the same time, access to computers, the Internet and other technology tools are becoming common features in K-20 classrooms. Encouraged by these developments, STEM educators are transforming traditional STEM education into active learning environments that hold the promise of enhancing learning. This document illustrates the use of technology in STEM education today, identifies possible areas of development, links this development to the NASA Strategic Plan, and makes recommendations for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Education Office for consideration in the research, development, and design of new educational technologies and applications.

  18. Development and Evaluation of Novel Coupling Agents for Kenaf-Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaofeng

    Natural fibers are gaining popularity as reinforcement materials for thermoset resins over the last two decades. Natural fibers are inexpensive, abundant, renewable and environmentally friendly. Kenaf fibers are one of the natural fibers that can potentially be used for reinforcing unsaturated polyester (UPE). As a polymer matrix, UPE enjoys a 40% market share of all the thermoset composites. This widespread application is due to many favorable characteristics including low cost, ease of cure at room temperature, ease of molding, a good balance of mechanical, electrical and chemical properties. One of the barriers for the full utilization of the kenaf fiber reinforced UPE composites, however, is the poor interfacial adhesion between the natural fibers and the UPE resins. The good interfacial adhesion between kenaf fibers and UPE matrix is essential for generating the desired properties of kenaf-UPE composites for most of the end applications. Use of a coupling agent is one of the most effective ways of improving the interfacial adhesion. In this study, six novel effective coupling agents were developed and investigated for kenaf-UPE composites: DIH-HEA, MFA, NMA, AESO-DIH, AESO-MDI, and AESO-PMDI. All the coupling agents were able to improve the interfacial adhesion between kanaf and UPE resins. The coupling agents were found to significantly enhance the flexural properties and water resistance of the kenaf-UPE composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed all the coupling agents were covalently bonded onto kenaf fibers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the composites revealed the improved interfacial adhesion between kanaf fibers and UPE resins.

  19. 75 FR 57833 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit..., 2010......... Crowne Plaza Neurobiology-D November 19, 2010......... Crowne Plaza Pulmonary...

  20. 76 FR 66367 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... Medicine. City. Surgery November 22, 2011... The Sheraton Crystal City. Endocrinology-A November...

  1. 77 FR 64598 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services..., 2012...... *VA Central Office. Cellular and Molecular Medicine...... November 19, 2012.........

  2. 75 FR 23847 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and ] Development Services Scientific Merit... & Molecular Medicine........ June 7, 2010 Hotel Palomar. Surgery June 7, 2010 Crowne Plaza....

  3. Development of a faculty research interest resource.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, J.; Wheeler, D. A.; Camerino, P. W.; Bat, O.; Burch, P. E.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a faculty research interests resource by "mining" MEDLINE for relationships that are not directly queryable through the normal MEDLINE schema. Faculty citations are retrieved and World-Wide Web pages built to interconnect authors, their citations, and the MeSH terms that have been assigned to these citations. The design and development of the resource are discussed and examples of the results illustrated. PMID:8947689

  4. Developments in Space Research in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, O.

    Nigeria s desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa 1976 The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results The National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA Nigeria s space research coordinating body has taken a more active role to help Nigeria s space research community to succeed internationally The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria s successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing meteorology communication and Information Technology and many more It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist s involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria s space borne scientific experiments policies and programs

  5. Towards Sustainable Research Capacity Development and Research Ownership for Academic Institutes in Developing Countries: The Malawian Research Support Centre Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomo, Exnevia; Kalilani, Linda; Mwapasa, Victor; Trigu, Chifundo; Phiri, Kamija; Schmidt, Joann; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele

    2011-01-01

    In lesser-developed African countries, the lack of institutionalised support for research, combined with limited career opportunities and poor remuneration, have contributed to weak research infrastructure and capacity, and a continuing brain drain to developed countries. Malawi's Research Support Centre (RSC) model is novel in that it provides a…

  6. Agricultural Research Needs and Priorities as Perceived by West Virginia Vocational Agriculture Teachers and County Extension Agents. Miscellaneous Publication 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalamira, Lucas R.; Lawrence, Layle D.

    Data were obtained in 1982 from 196 vocational agriculture teachers and 48 county agricultural extension agents identifying specific problems in West Virginia's agriculture that were most in need of research solutions. Multiflora rose eradication, coping with high production costs and interest rates, and improving state level funding for extension…

  7. NASA research and development for space telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, Paul S.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore and prove out robust concepts for telerobotic support of space servicing, assembly, maintenance, and telescience tasks. This goal is being addressed through a program of coordinated work in artificial intelligence, robotics, and human factors. The general research objective is the fusion of robot sensing and manipulation, teleoperation, and human and machine cognitive skills into an effective architecture for supervised task automation. NASA is evaluating results of this research program in a ground laboratory telerobot testbed under development at JPL. The testbed development activity includes integrated technology demonstrations. The demonstrations will show telerobot capabilities to perform tasks of increasing complexity, and duration in increasingly unstructured environments. The first such demonstration is the ground-based grappling, dockling, and servicing of a satellite taskboard.

  8. Developing an Experiential Research Writing Course Experientially

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, P. J.; Keane, M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 we developed an experiential Research Writing course to help academics at our university to become more productive and successful writers. Our aim was to create a stimulating environment in which each participant's voice, knowledge and experience was valued, and where learning was characterised by optimism, creativity and energy. In this…

  9. Human Support Technology Research, Development and Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Jitendra; Trinh, Eugene

    2004-01-01

    The Human Support Technology research, development, and demonstration program address es the following areas at TRL: Advanced Power and Propulsion. Cryogenic fluid management. Closed-loop life support and Habitability. Extravehicular activity systems. Scientific data collection and analysis. and Planetary in-situ resource utilization.

  10. UCLA accelerator research & development. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report discusses work on advanced accelerators and beam dynamics at ANL, BNL, SLAC, UCLA and Pulse Sciences Incorporated. Discussed in this report are the following concepts: Wakefield acceleration studies; plasma lens research; high gradient rf cavities and beam dynamics studies at the Brookhaven accelerator test facility; rf pulse compression development; and buncher systems for high gradient accelerator and relativistic klystron applications.

  11. Educational Research Environments in the Developing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaeffer, Sheldon, Ed.; Nkinyangi, John A., Ed.

    In much of the developing world, research environments are in many ways the same--burdened by the same weight of colonial dependency, underfinanced, and with products undervalued and underutilized. The primary purpose of this book is to analyze such environments for the sake of assessing whether and how they might be changed to enhance national…

  12. Clinical Psychology: A Research and Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broskowski, Anthony

    The purpose of this paper is to present a clinical research and development (R and D) model along with the rationale for its implementation and a sample training program for clinical psychologists. Although it may be possible to correct some problems by a clearer restatement of the scientist-professional model, a new model of clinical R and D has…

  13. Research and Development in Industry 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirichiello, John R.; And Others

    This report presents the results of the 1974 survey of industrial research and development and is the twentieth in a series extending back to 1953. Data on R&D expenditures and R&D scientists and engineers presented in this report were collected by the Bureau of the Census for the National Science Foundation, and cover the periods of 1956-74 and…

  14. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-06-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors.

  15. Engineering Research in Irish Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the main findings and recommendations of a report published in December 2010 by the Irish Academy of Engineering (IAE). The report, representing the views of a committee of distinguished Irish engineers from a wide range of disciplines, addresses the role of engineering research in Ireland's economic development and the…

  16. Alternative Models for Funding Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Edward J., Ed.

    An introduction to the "hows" of research and development (R&D) funding decisions made by the U. S. Federal government, this book contains four chapters written by separate authors. The first chapter examines the Federal role, purpose, and practices in funding R&D concluding that Federal funding of R&D is designed primarily to serve nonscientific…

  17. Developing Short Films of Geoscience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.; Harrild, M.; Kienenberger, D.; Salganek, M.

    2015-12-01

    In today's prevalence of social media and networking, video products are becoming increasingly more useful to communicate research quickly and effectively to a diverse audience, including outreach activities as well as within the research community and to funding agencies. Due to the observational nature of geoscience, researchers often take photos and video footage to document fieldwork or to record laboratory experiments. Here we present how researchers can become more effective storytellers by collaborating with filmmakers to produce short documentary films of their research. We will focus on the use of traditional high-definition (HD) camcorders and HD DSLR cameras to record the scientific story while our research topic focuses on the use of remote sensing techniques, specifically thermal infrared imaging that is often used to analyze time varying natural processes such as volcanic hazards. By capturing the story in the thermal infrared wavelength range, in addition to traditional red-green-blue (RGB) color space, the audience is able to experience the world differently. We will develop a short film specifically designed using thermal infrared cameras that illustrates how visual storytellers can use these new tools to capture unique and important aspects of their research, convey their passion for earth systems science, as well as engage and captive the viewer.

  18. Development of Ultrasound-switchable Fluorescence Imaging Contrast Agents based on Thermosensitive Polymers and Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bingbing; Wei, Ming-Yuan; Liu, Yuan; Pitta, Harish; Xie, Zhiwei; Hong, Yi; Nguyen, Kytai T.; Yuan, Baohong

    2015-01-01

    In this work we first introduced a recently developed high-resolution, deep-tissue imaging technique, ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (USF). The imaging principles based on two types of USF contrast agents were reviewed. To improve USF imaging techniques further, excellent USF contrast agents were developed based on high-performance thermoresponsive polymers and environment-sensitive fluorophores. Herein, such contrast agents were synthesized and characterized with five key parameters: (1) peak excitation and emission wavelengths (λex and λem), (2) the fluorescence intensity ratio between on and off states (IOn/IOff), (3) the fluorescence lifetime ratio between on and off states (τOn/τOff), (4) the temperature threshold to switch on fluorophores (Tth), and (5) the temperature transition bandwidth (TBW). We mainly investigated fluorescence intensity and lifetime changes of four environment-sensitive dyes [7-(2-Aminoethylamino)-N,N-dimethyl-4-benzofurazansulfonamide (DBD-ED), St633, Sq660, and St700] as a function of temperature, while the dye was attached to poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) linear polymers or encapsulated in nanoparticles. Six fluorescence resonance energy transfer systems were invented in which both the donor (DBD-ED or ST425) and the acceptor (Sq660) were adopted. Our results indicate that three Förster resonance energy transfer systems, where both IOn/IOff and τOn/τOff are larger than 2.5, are promising for application in future surface tissue bioimaging by USF technique. PMID:26052192

  19. Discovery and development of natural product oridonin-inspired anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ye; Ding, Chunyong; Ye, Na; Liu, Zhiqing; Wold, Eric A; Chen, Haiying; Wild, Christopher; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2016-10-21

    Natural products have historically been, and continue to be, an invaluable source for the discovery of various therapeutic agents. Oridonin, a natural diterpenoid widely applied in traditional Chinese medicines, exhibits a broad range of biological effects including anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. To further improve its potency, aqueous solubility and bioavailability, the oridonin template serves as an exciting platform for drug discovery to yield better candidates with unique targets and enhanced drug properties. A number of oridonin derivatives (e.g. HAO472) have been designed and synthesized, and have contributed to substantial progress in the identification of new agents and relevant molecular mechanistic studies toward the treatment of human cancers and other diseases. This review summarizes the recent advances in medicinal chemistry on the explorations of novel oridonin analogues as potential anticancer therapeutics, and provides a detailed discussion of future directions for the development and progression of this class of molecules into the clinic. PMID:27344488

  20. Development of Anti-EGF Receptor Peptidomimetics (AERP) as Tumor Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    Ponde, Datta E.; Su, ZiFen; Berezov, Alan; Zhang, Hongtao; Alavi, Abbas; Greene, Mark I.; Murali, Ramachandran

    2011-01-01

    EGFR is over-expressed in several solid tumors including breast, prostate, pancreas and lung cancers and is correlated to the metastasic potential of the tumor. Anti-EGFR receptor-binding peptidomimetics (AERP) were examined to assess the small molecule's potential use as tumor-specific imaging agents. The aim of this work was to design and characterize the binding specificity of the radiolabeled peptidomimetics to EGFR over-expressing cell lysate and to A431 xenograft tumors. Our newly designed peptidomimetic, AERP, was conjugated to DTPA and labeled with 99mTc. The in vivo tumor accumulation of [99mTc] DTPA-AERP-2 was 1.6 ± 0.1 %ID/g and tumor to muscle ratio was 5.5. Our studies suggest that this novel peptidomimetic, AERP-2, warrants further development as an EGFR-specific tumor-imaging agent. PMID:21392985

  1. Bimodal Imaging Probes for Combined PET and OI: Recent Developments and Future Directions for Hybrid Agent Development

    PubMed Central

    Seibold, Uwe; Wängler, Björn; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Wängler, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging—and especially positron emission tomography (PET)—has gained increasing importance for diagnosis of various diseases and thus experiences an increasing dissemination. Therefore, there is also a growing demand for highly affine PET tracers specifically accumulating and visualizing target structures in the human body. Beyond the development of agents suitable for PET alone, recent tendencies aim at the synthesis of bimodal imaging probes applicable in PET as well as optical imaging (OI), as this combination of modalities can provide clinical advantages. PET, due to the high tissue penetration of the γ-radiation emitted by PET nuclides, allows a quantitative imaging able to identify and visualize tumors and metastases in the whole body. OI on the contrary visualizes photons exhibiting only a limited tissue penetration but enables the identification of tumor margins and infected lymph nodes during surgery without bearing a radiation burden for the surgeon. Thus, there is an emerging interest in bimodal agents for PET and OI in order to exploit the potential of both imaging techniques for the imaging and treatment of tumor diseases. This short review summarizes the available hybrid probes developed for dual PET and OI and discusses future directions for hybrid agent development. PMID:24822177

  2. Bimodal imaging probes for combined PET and OI: recent developments and future directions for hybrid agent development.

    PubMed

    Seibold, Uwe; Wängler, Björn; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Wängler, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging--and especially positron emission tomography (PET)--has gained increasing importance for diagnosis of various diseases and thus experiences an increasing dissemination. Therefore, there is also a growing demand for highly affine PET tracers specifically accumulating and visualizing target structures in the human body. Beyond the development of agents suitable for PET alone, recent tendencies aim at the synthesis of bimodal imaging probes applicable in PET as well as optical imaging (OI), as this combination of modalities can provide clinical advantages. PET, due to the high tissue penetration of the γ-radiation emitted by PET nuclides, allows a quantitative imaging able to identify and visualize tumors and metastases in the whole body. OI on the contrary visualizes photons exhibiting only a limited tissue penetration but enables the identification of tumor margins and infected lymph nodes during surgery without bearing a radiation burden for the surgeon. Thus, there is an emerging interest in bimodal agents for PET and OI in order to exploit the potential of both imaging techniques for the imaging and treatment of tumor diseases. This short review summarizes the available hybrid probes developed for dual PET and OI and discusses future directions for hybrid agent development. PMID:24822177

  3. Facilitating the Specification Capture and Transformation Process in the Development of Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filho, Aluzio Haendehen; Caminada, Numo; Haeusler, Edward Hermann; vonStaa, Arndt

    2004-01-01

    To support the development of flexible and reusable MAS, we have built a framework designated MAS-CF. MAS-CF is a component framework that implements a layered architecture based on contextual composition. Interaction rules, controlled by architecture mechanisms, ensure very low coupling, making possible the sharing of distributed services in a transparent, dynamic and independent way. These properties propitiate large-scale reuse, since organizational abstractions can be reused and propagated to all instances created from a framework. The objective is to reduce complexity and development time of multi-agent systems through the reuse of generic organizational abstractions.

  4. Drug Development for Hypertension: Do We Need Another Antihypertensive Agent for Resistant Hypertension?

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Eduardo; Calhoun, David A

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of resistant hypertension is seemingly much lower than had been reported in early studies. Recent analyses suggest that <5 % of treated hypertensive patients remain uncontrolled if fully adherent to an optimized antihypertensive treatment. However, these patients do have increased cardiovascular risk and need effective therapeutic approaches. Drug development is a high-risk, complex, lengthy, and very expensive process. In this article, we discuss the factors that should be considered in the process of developing a new agent for treatment of resistant hypertension. PMID:26949263

  5. [THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMMUNE ENZYME AND IMMUNE CHROMATOGRAPHIC MONOCLONAL TEST-SYSTEM FOR DETECTING TULAREMIA AGENT].

    PubMed

    Eremkin, A V; Elagin, G D; Petchenkin, D V; Fomenkov, O O; Bogatcheva, N V; Kitmanov, A A; Kuklina, G V; Tikhvinskaya, O V

    2016-03-01

    The immune enzyme and immunochromatographic test-systems for detecting tularemia agent were developed on the basis of selected set of monoclonal antibodies having immunochemical activity to antigens Francisella tularensis. The evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of developed test-systems demonstrated that samples provided detection of strains of F. tularensis in concentration from 5.0 x 105 mkxcm-3 to 1.0 x 106 mkxcm-3 and gave no false positive results in analysis of heterologous microorganisms in concentration of 1.0 x 108 mkxcm-3. PMID:27506111

  6. Air Force Research Laboratory Cryocooler Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Thomas M.; Smith, D. Adam; Easton, Ryan M.

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the cryogenic refrigerator and cryogenic integration programs in development and characterization under the Cryogenic Cooling Technology Group, Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The vision statement for the group is to support the space community as the center of excellence for developing and transitioning space cryogenic thermal management technologies. This paper will describe the range of Stirling, pulse tube; reverse Brayton, and Joule-Thomson cycle cryocoolers currently under development to meet current and future Air Force and Department of Defense requirements. Cooling requirements at 10K, 35K, 60K, 95K, and multistage cooling requirements at 35/85K are addressed. In order to meet these various requirements, the Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate is pursuing various strategic cryocooler and cryogenic integration options. The Air Force Research Laboratory, working with industry partners, is also developing several advanced cryogenic integration technologies that will result in the reduction in current cryogenic system integration penalties and design time. These technologies include the continued development of gimbaled transport systems, 35K and 10K thermal storage units, heat pipes, cryogenic straps, and thermal switches.

  7. Research and Development Trends of Car Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Li, Zhixiong; Xie, Guotao

    With the rapid development of the world economy, road transport has become increasingly busy. An unexpected incident would cause serious traffic disaster due to traffic accidents. To solve this problem, the intelligent transportation system (ITS), which is important for the health developments of the city transportation, has become a hot topic. The car networking provides a new way for intelligent transportation system. It can ensure intelligent control and monitoring of urban road with high performance. This paper described the concept of car networking and related technology both in oversea and domestic. The importance of car networking to achieve vehicle and details of the car networking related technologies were illustrated firstly. Then, attentions focus on the research nodus of the car networking. Lastly, the development trend of car networking research was discussed.

  8. 1999 LDRD Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Rita Spencer; Kyle Wheeler

    2000-06-01

    This is the FY 1999 Progress Report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, relates the projects to major Laboratory program sponsors, and provides an index to the principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by their LDRD component: Competency Development, Program Development, and Individual Projects. Within each component, they are further grouped into nine technical categories: (1) materials science, (2) chemistry, (3) mathematics and computational science, (4) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and particle beams, (5) engineering science, (6) instrumentation and diagnostics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) bioscience.

  9. The Clinical Development of Molecularly Targeted Agents in Combination With Radiation Therapy: A Pharmaceutical Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Ataman, Ozlem U.; Sambrook, Sally J.; Wilks, Chris; Lloyd, Andrew; Taylor, Amanda E.; Wedge, Stephen R.

    2012-11-15

    Summary: This paper explores historical and current roles of pharmaceutical industry sponsorship of clinical trials testing radiation therapy combinations with molecularly targeted agents and attempts to identify potential solutions to expediting further combination studies. An analysis of clinical trials involving a combination of radiation therapy and novel cancer therapies was performed. Ongoing and completed trials were identified by searching the (clinicaltrials.gov) Web site, in the first instance, with published trials of drugs of interest identified through American Society of Clinical Oncology, European CanCer Organisation/European Society for Medical Oncology, American Society for Radiation Oncology/European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, and PubMed databases and then cross-correlated with (clinicaltrials.gov) protocols. We examined combination trials involving radiation therapy with novel agents and determined their distribution by tumor type, predominant molecular mechanisms examined in combination to date, timing of initiation of trials relative to a novel agent's primary development, and source of sponsorship of such trials. A total of 564 studies of targeted agents in combination with radiation therapy were identified with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Most studies were in phase I/II development, with only 36 trials in phase III. The tumor site most frequently studied was head and neck (26%), followed by non-small cell lung cancer. Pharmaceutical companies were the sponsors of 33% of studies overall and provided support for only 16% of phase III studies. In terms of pharmaceutical sponsorship, Genentech was the most active sponsor of radiation therapy combinations (22%), followed by AstraZeneca (14%). Most radiation therapy combination trials do not appear to be initiated until after drug approval. In phase III studies, the most common (58%) primary endpoint was overall survival. Collectively, this analysis suggests that such

  10. Development of land disposal restrictions for military chemical agent-associated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.; Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1997-04-01

    In July 1988, the State of Utah, Department of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW) listed certain military chemical agents as hazardous waste, as well as residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, and testing of these chemicals. These materials are listed as hazardous waste in Utah, but are not listed as hazardous wastes under the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the primary law governing management of hazardous waste in the United States. Pursuant to the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment standards for most categories of hazardous wastes. However, considering that EPA has not listed chemical agent-associated wastes as hazardous waste under RCRA, LDR treatment standards have not been established specifically for these wastes. In February 1995, the DSHW announced a regulatory initiative to develop LDRs for chemical agent-associated wastes and solicited data and information from the U.S. Army to support a rulemaking effort. The Army`s Chemical and Biological Defense Command (CBDCOM) was designated the lead agency for the Army to assist the DSHW in developing the rule. CBDCOM established the U.S. Army Land Disposal Restrictions Utah Group (LDRUG) and initiated a project with Argonne National Laboratory to support the LDRUG. The focus is on providing the state with accurate and up-to-date data and information to support the rulemaking and the establishment of LDRs. The purpose of this paper is to review the general direction of the proposed rule and to discuss overall progress. Potential impacts of the imposition of LDRs on the management of agent-associated wastes are also reviewed.

  11. The clinical development of molecularly targeted agents in combination with radiation therapy: a pharmaceutical perspective.

    PubMed

    Ataman, Ozlem U; Sambrook, Sally J; Wilks, Chris; Lloyd, Andrew; Taylor, Amanda E; Wedge, Stephen R

    2012-11-15

    This paper explores historical and current roles of pharmaceutical industry sponsorship of clinical trials testing radiation therapy combinations with molecularly targeted agents and attempts to identify potential solutions to expediting further combination studies. An analysis of clinical trials involving a combination of radiation therapy and novel cancer therapies was performed. Ongoing and completed trials were identified by searching the clinicaltrials.gov Web site, in the first instance, with published trials of drugs of interest identified through American Society of Clinical Oncology, European CanCer Organisation/European Society for Medical Oncology, American Society for Radiation Oncology/European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, and PubMed databases and then cross-correlated with clinicaltrials.gov protocols. We examined combination trials involving radiation therapy with novel agents and determined their distribution by tumor type, predominant molecular mechanisms examined in combination to date, timing of initiation of trials relative to a novel agent's primary development, and source of sponsorship of such trials. A total of 564 studies of targeted agents in combination with radiation therapy were identified with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Most studies were in phase I/II development, with only 36 trials in phase III. The tumor site most frequently studied was head and neck (26%), followed by non-small cell lung cancer. Pharmaceutical companies were the sponsors of 33% of studies overall and provided support for only 16% of phase III studies. In terms of pharmaceutical sponsorship, Genentech was the most active sponsor of radiation therapy combinations (22%), followed by AstraZeneca (14%). Most radiation therapy combination trials do not appear to be initiated until after drug approval. In phase III studies, the most common (58%) primary endpoint was overall survival. Collectively, this analysis suggests that such trials are

  12. Antibiotic research and development: business as usual?

    PubMed

    Harbarth, S; Theuretzbacher, U; Hackett, J

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of antibiotic resistance is tremendous and, without new anti-infective strategies, will continue to increase in the coming decades. Despite the growing need for new antibiotics, few pharmaceutical companies today retain active antibacterial drug discovery programmes. One reason is that it is scientifically challenging to discover new antibiotics that are active against the antibiotic-resistant bacteria of current clinical concern. However, the main hurdle is diminishing economic incentives. Increased global calls to minimize the overuse of antibiotics, the cost of meeting regulatory requirements and the low prices of currently marketed antibiotics are strong deterrents to antibacterial drug development programmes. New economic models that create incentives for the discovery of new antibiotics and yet reconcile these incentives with responsible antibiotic use are long overdue. DRIVE-AB is a €9.4 million public-private consortium, funded by the EU Innovative Medicines Initiative, that aims to define a standard for the responsible use of antibiotics and to develop, test and recommend new economic models to incentivize investment in producing new anti-infective agents. PMID:25673635

  13. Empowering Change Agents in Hierarchical Organizations: Participatory Action Research in Prisons.

    PubMed

    Penrod, Janice; Loeb, Susan J; Ladonne, Robert A; Martin, Lea M

    2016-06-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) approaches harness collaborative partnerships to stimulate change in defined communities. The purpose of this article is to illustrate key methodological strategies used in the application of PAR methods in the particularly challenging environment of a hierarchical organization. A study designed to promote sustainable, insider-generated system-level changes in the provision of end-of-life (EOL) care in the restrictive setting of six state prisons is used as an exemplar of the application of three cardinal principles of PAR. First, development of a collaborative network with active partnership between outsider academic researchers and insider co-researchers began with careful attention to understanding the culture and processes of prisons and gaining the support of organizational leadership, using qualitative data gathering and trust-building. During the implementation phase, promoting co-ownership of change in EOL care through the co-construction of knowledge and systems to enhance sustainable change required carefully-orchestrated strategies to maximize the collaborative spirit of the project. Co-researchers were empowered to examine their worlds and capture opportunities for change using new leadership skills role-modeled by the research team. Third, their local knowledge of the barriers inherent in the contextual reality of prisons was translated into achievable system change by production of a toolkit of formalized and well-rehearsed change strategies that collaborative teams were empowered to enact within their hierarchical prison environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27028096

  14. IT roadmap requirements for research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, Leslie J; Kinkead, Susan F

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, members representing the programmatic community of the Laboratory presented a request to the Information Architecture Steering Committee (IASC) to form a committee within the Information Architecture Program (IAP) to review and consider the needs of researchers. In response, a Research and Development Subteam under the Infrastructure Team was created. Members included volunteer representatives of groups performing research and development throughout the Laboratory. This paper represents the product of this review. The R&D computing environment has languished while Los Alamos has been very compliance driven for the past few years under a set of directives that have eliminated our ability to innovate and to push the envelope of R&D computing. The appeal for outside collaborations is rapidly becoming tarnished, as colleagues from outside the NNSA environment view our restrictions as increasingly oppressive. We are losing the ability to conduct cutting-edge research and losing money to competitors who are able to quickly react and pursue program dollars while we are still creating compliant but less than useful computing solutions. Research programs depend on collaboration, employees, foreign nationals, and frequent travel, including travel to foreign countries. Solutions need to facilitate these activities and be based on the risk that the activities actually pose to the infrastructure and data at LANL. Furthermore, when problems are solved, it is essential that the solutions are evaluated for cost/benefit to the programs, that programmatic impact is well identified, and that solutions have sufficient long term resource for collaborations.

  15. Advanced heat pump research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliasha, M. A.

    The Office of Building Energy Research and Development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has been funding R&D in advanced heat pumps and appliances since 1976. Much of that research has been managed for DOE by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the Building Equipment Research (BER) program at ORNL has been to generate new concepts and develop a technology base for improving the energy efficiency and load characteristics of energy conversion equipment used in residential and commercial buildings. The research being pursued to achieve these objectives falls under three general areas: thermally activated heat pumps (TAHP), refrigeration systems, and building equipment systems. The TAHP work is concentrated on three technologies: (1) absorption heat pumps; (2) Stirling engine-driven heat pumps; and (3) internal combustion (IC) engine-driven heat pumps. Major project areas in refrigeration systems research include electric heat pumps, ground-coupled heat pumps, and refigerant mixtures. In the building equipment systems areas, project areas include advanced distribution systems, advanced insulation for appliances, and commercial building equipment.

  16. Organizational Issues and Human Resource Development Research Questions. A Guide for Researchers in Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L., Ed.

    The nine papers in this monograph, written by members of the University Council for Research in Human Resource Development, respond to the following questions: What is the most important organizational issue of the 1990s, and what human resource development (HRD) research questions might be generated from this issue? The papers are as follows: (1)…

  17. Institutional research and development, FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Laboratory's Institutional Research and Development (IR and D) Program was established in 1984 to foster exploratory work to advance science and technology, disciplinary research to develop innovative solutions to support our national defense and energy missions. In FY 1988, the IR and D Program was funded by a 2% assessment on the Laboratory's operating budget. Our policy is to use these funds for researching innovative ideas in LLNL's areas of expertise and for developing new areas of expertise that we perceive to be in the national interest. The technical and scientific accomplishments of each project and of each institute funded this year are presented in this report. The projects were selected because they are expected to advance research in important areas that are too basic or too time consuming to be funded by the developmental programs or because they are somewhat risky projects that have the promise of high payoff. We are continually reappraising the IR and D Program. In particular, we seek new candidates for the Director's Initiatives, and we constantly reassess the work in progress. Each year, we make adjustments to further the Laboratory's policy of using the IR and D Program to fund innovative ideas with high potential for enhancing programmatic activities of national importance.

  18. Global environmental change research: empowering developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Carlos A; Lahsen, Myanna; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses ways to reconcile the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with environmental sustainability at the national and international levels. The authors argue that development and better use of sustainability relevant knowledge is key, and that this requires capacity building globally, and especially in the less developed regions of the world. Also essential is stronger integration of high-quality knowledge creation and technology--and policy--development, including, importantly, the creation of centers of excellence in developing regions which effectively use and produce applications-directed high quality research and bring it to bear on decision making and practices related to environmental change and sustainable management of natural resources. The authors argue that Southern centers of excellence are a necessary first step for bottom-up societal transformation towards sustainability, and that such centers must help design innovative ways to assess and place value on ecosystem services. PMID:18797803

  19. Development of polymer-coated nanoparticle imaging agents for diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairdolf, Brad A.

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the United States, with over 500,000 deaths expected this year. While significant progress has been made in the treatment and management of cancer, challenges remain because of the complexity and the heterogeneous nature of the disease. The improvement that has been seen in survival rates reflects advancements not only in treatment, but also in early stage detection and diagnostics for certain cancers. In particular, early stage detection and treatment of cancer before it has metastasized to other organs has resulted in a dramatic improvement in patient survival rates. One area of research that has shown considerable promise in further advancing diagnostics and early cancer detection is nanotechnology. Specifically, semiconductor and metal nanoparticles have great potential to provide advanced technology platforms for ultrasensitive and multiplexed detection of disease markers and probe disease on the molecular level. Because they are in the same size regime as biological molecules, these nanoparticles exhibit unique interactions with proteins, nucleic acids and other biomarkers of interest for detecting and diagnosing disease. However, high-quality nanoparticles are often unsuited for use in complex biological environments because of their coatings and surface chemistry. In this dissertation, we describe the design and development of polymer-coated nanoparticle imaging agents for use in blood, cell and tissue diagnostic applications. First, low-molecular weight, amphiphilic polymers, with hydrocarbon chains capable of noncovalent interactions with nanoparticle surface ligands and a hydrophilic backbone to render the nanoparticle water soluble, were synthesized and characterized for use in nanoparticle coating applications. We demonstrate that the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between the nanoparticle surface, the amphiphilic polymer and the aqueous solvent were able to drive the coating and water

  20. Exploratory research and development FY90

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Baldwin, G.; Cherniak, J.; Clements, W.; Donohue, M.L.; Francke, A.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Shaw, G.

    1990-01-01

    In general, the Exploratory Research and Development (ER D) Program supports research projects considered too basic or long-range to be funded by other Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. This Program is managed for the Laboratory Director by a special assistant who chairs the LLNL's IR D Review Committee. Membership in the Review Committee comprises senior LLNL scientists, engineers, and managers whose areas of expertise span the range of scientific disciplines pursued at the Laboratory. The research supported by the Program falls into three categories: Exploratory Research in the Disciplines, Director's Initiatives, and Laboratory-Wide Competition. The first two, Exploratory Research and Director's Initiatives, promote pioneering work in the various scientific disciplines and programmatic areas. Laboratory departments and divisions propose and manage projects in the Exploratory Research category. The Laboratory Director, with the advice of the Review Committee, selects several larger projects to fund as Director's Initiative. These projects, which are proposed and managed by the responsible associate director, are intended to enhance the scope of existing programs or establish new technical directions and programs for the Laboratory. All FY90 projects are described in detail in this report. Other publications on ER D projects are included in the Publications List at the back of this report.

  1. CATS-based Agents That Err

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes preliminary research on intelligent agents that make errors. Such agents are crucial to the development of novel agent-based techniques for assessing system safety. The agents extend an agent architecture derived from the Crew Activity Tracking System that has been used as the basis for air traffic controller agents. The report first reviews several error taxonomies. Next, it presents an overview of the air traffic controller agents, then details several mechanisms for causing the agents to err in realistic ways. The report presents a performance assessment of the error-generating agents, and identifies directions for further research. The research was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of the FAA/NASA Aviation Safety Program.

  2. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ogeka, G.J.

    1991-12-01

    Today, new ideas and opportunities, fostering the advancement of technology, are occurring at an ever-increasing rate. It, therefore, seems appropriate that a vehicle be available which fosters the development of these new ideas and technologies, promotes the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and which develops new fundable'' R D projects and programs. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), one such method is through its Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. This discretionary research and development tool is critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and vitality of the Laboratory. Additionally, it is a means to stimulate the scientific community, fostering new science and technology ideas, which is the major factor achieving and maintaining staff excellence, and a means to address national needs, with the overall mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Project Summaries with their accomplishments described in this report reflect the above. Aside from leading to new fundable or promising programs and producing especially noteworthy research, they have resulted in numerous publications in various professional and scientific journals, and presentations at meetings and forums.

  3. Global action plan for childhood diarrhoea: Developing research priorities

    PubMed Central

    Zipursky, Alvin; Wazny, Kerri; Black, Robert; Keenan, William; Duggan, Christopher; Olness, Karen; Simon, Jonathan; Simpson, Evan; Sherman, Philip; Santosham, Mathuram; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood diarrhoea remains a major public health problem responsible for the deaths of approximately 800 000 children annually, worldwide. The present study was undertaken to further define research priorities for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea in low and middle income countries. We used the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) process for defining research priorities. This provided a transparent, systematic method of obtaining the opinions of experts regarding research priorities in childhood diarrhoea. The present report describes the deliberations of a workshop that reviewed these research priorities by stakeholders including colleagues from: government agencies, academic institutions, major funding agencies and non–governmental organizations. Methods The workshop included 38 participants, divided into four groups to consider issues in the categories of description, delivery, development and discovery. Each group received 20 to 23 questions/research priorities previously identified by the CHNRI process. Deliberations and conclusions of each group were summarized in separate reports that were further discussed in a plenary session including all workshop participants. Results The reports of the working groups emphasized the following five key points: 1) A common theme was the need to substantially increase the use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. There is a need for better definitions of those factors that supported and interfered with the use of these agents; 2) There is an urgent need to determine the long–term effects of chronic and recurrent bouts of diarrhoea on the physical and intellectual development of affected children; 3) Improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene facilities are critical steps required to reduce the incidence and severity of childhood diarrhoea; 4)Risk factors enhancing the susceptibility and clinical response to diarrhoea were

  4. Developing a Model for Continuous Professional Development by Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Susan; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the work of two teacher educators with an in-service science teacher. This case study forms one cycle of a larger action research study that will eventually lead to a model of how the third-space concept for teacher professional development can be realized in natural school settings. The case study took place in…

  5. Development and spread of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tenover, F C

    2001-09-15

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is emerging in a wide variety of nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. The emergence and spread of multiply resistant organisms represent the convergence of a variety of factors that include mutations in common resistance genes that extend their spectrum of activity, the exchange of genetic information among microorganisms, the evolution of selective pressures in hospitals and communities that facilitate the development and spread of resistant organisms, the proliferation and spread of multiply resistant clones of bacteria, and the inability of some laboratory testing methods to detect emerging resistance phenotypes. Twenty years ago, bacteria that were resistant to antimicrobial agents were easy to detect in the laboratory because the concentration of drug required to inhibit their growth was usually quite high and distinctly different from that of susceptible strains. Newer mechanisms of resistance, however, often result in much more subtle shifts in bacterial population distributions. Perhaps the most difficult phenotypes to detect, as shown in several proficiency testing surveys, are decreased susceptibility to beta-lactams in pneumococci and decreased susceptibility to vancomycin in staphylococci. In summary, emerging resistance has required adaptations and modifications of laboratory diagnostic techniques, empiric anti-infective therapy for such diseases as bacterial meningitis, and infection control measures in health care facilities of all kinds. Judicious use is imperative if we are to preserve our arsenal of antimicrobial agents into the next decade. PMID:11524705

  6. Development and evaluation of liquid embolic agents based on liquid crystalline material of glyceryl monooleate.

    PubMed

    Du, Ling-Ran; Lu, Xiao-Jing; Guan, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yong-Jie; Gu, Meng-Jie; Zheng, Zhuo-Zhao; Lv, Tian-Shi; Yan, Zi-Guang; Song, Li; Zou, Ying-Hua; Fu, Nai-Qi; Qi, Xian-Rong; Fan, Tian-Yuan

    2014-08-25

    New type of liquid embolic agents based on a liquid crystalline material of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) was developed and evaluated in this study. Ternary phase diagram of GMO, water and ethanol was constructed and three isotropic liquids (ILs, GMO:ethanol:water=49:21:30, 60:20:20 and 72:18:10 (w/w/w)) were selected as potential liquid embolic agents, which could spontaneously form viscous gel cast when contacting with water or physiological fluid. The ILs exhibited excellent microcatheter deliverability due to low viscosity, and were proved to successfully block the saline flow when performed in a device to simulate embolization in vitro. The ILs also showed good cytocompatibility on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line. The embolization of ILs to rabbit kidneys was performed successfully under monitoring of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and embolic degree was affected by the initial formulation composition and used volume. At 5th week after embolization, DSA and computed tomography (CT) confirmed the renal arteries embolized with IL did not recanalize in follow-up period, and an obvious atrophy of the embolized kidney was observed. Therefore, the GMO-based liquid embolic agents showed feasible and effective to embolize, and potential use in clinical interventional embolization therapy. PMID:24858389

  7. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Todd; Levy, Karin

    2001-02-27

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab or LBNL) is a multi-program national research facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). As an integral element of DOE's National Laboratory System, Berkeley Lab supports DOE's missions in fundamental science, energy resources, and environmental quality. Berkeley Lab programs advance four distinct goals for DOE and the nation: (1) To perform leading multidisciplinary research in the computing sciences, physical sciences, energy sciences, biosciences, and general sciences in a manner that ensures employee and public safety and protection of the environment. (2) To develop and operate unique national experimental facilities for qualified investigators. (3) To educate and train future generations of scientists and engineers to promote national science and education goals. (4) To transfer knowledge and technological innovations and to foster productive relationships among Berkeley Lab's research programs, universities, and industry in order to promote national economic competitiveness. Annual report on Laboratory Directed Research and Development for FY2000.

  8. Research Thinking Development by Teaching Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muglova, P. V.; Stoev, A. D.

    2006-08-01

    A model of research thinking development by teaching archaeoastronomy in specialized three-year extra-curriculum Astronomy programme and creation of favourable socio-educational surroundings is suggested. It is shown as a didactic system of conditions, influences and possibilities of answering specific hierarchic complex of personal needs in the 14 - 18 year age interval. Transformation of these needs in worldly values secures an active position of the students in the educational process and determines their personality development. It is also shown that the Archaeoastronomy School, as an educational environment, executes specific work of students' teaching, upbringing and progress as well as their inclusion in the real process of scientific research. Thus, they have the possibility of generating scientific ideas and obtaining results in the science archaeoastronomy. In consequence of this, their activity acquires social significance. Usages of this model of scientific school in the extra-curriculum Astronomy education reproduces norms and traditions of the real scientific research and directly relay subject content, cultural norms and values of archaeoastronomy in the educative process. Students' participation in archaeoastronomical expeditions, their competent work during the research of concrete archaeoastronomical objects create an investigation style of thinking and steady habits of scientific activity.

  9. Development and application of acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for chemical warfare nerve and sulfur mustard agents.

    PubMed

    Watson, Annetta; Opresko, Dennis; Young, Robert; Hauschild, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios. PMID:16621779

  10. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Opresko, Dennis M; Young, Robert A; Hauschild, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

  11. Managing cooperative research and development ventures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    As cooperative ventures to conduct research and development become increasingly attractive, management of these collective undertakings poses new challenges to executives. In selecting the most appropriate organizational structure and strategy the author suggests that the collective enterprise executive must strike the best balance among three distinct but related elements: contribution of the participants; creation of benefits; and transfer of benefits to contributors. Eight types of cooperative R&D ventures are proposed with discussion of the unique management tasks associated with each type.

  12. Oil heat technology research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Kweller, E.R.; McDonald, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this United States Department of Energy (DOE)/Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) program is to develop a technology base for advancing the state-of-the-art related to oilfired combustion equipment. The major thrust is through technology based research that will seek new knowledge leading to improved designs and equipment optimization. The Combustion Equipment space Conditioning Technology program currently deals exclusively with residential and small commercial building oil heat technology.

  13. Solar thermal materials research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, B. P.

    1981-01-01

    Objectives of the Materials Research and Development effort are examined. The behavior and interaction of different materials used in solar thermal technologies are studied so as to create a sound technical base for future system and component designs. Materials are developed to extend the application potential of systems by either making materials more reliable in difficult operating environments or by offering lower cost alternatives to presently used materials. Solar thermal systems designed for electric power, industrial process heat from low to high temperature, and fuels and chemicals applications are discussed.

  14. Directions in automotive engine research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1980-01-01

    The advent of high fuel costs and automotive fuel economy and emission regulations has cast doubt on the economic superiority and even the technical feasibility of conventional spark ignition and diesel engines, and has opened the field to other concepts. The emission regulations and their effect on the design and efficiency of conventional engines are reviewed, the research and development effort to improve the performance of conventional engines and to develop advanced engines is discussed, and the current status of these engines is presented.

  15. [Research development of HIV drug resistance].

    PubMed

    Zou, Wen; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jian; Gao, Guo-Jian; Dong, Ji-Peng; Xian, Qing-Fei

    2013-08-01

    Highly active antiretroviral combination therapy significantly reduced the mortality, but in the high-speed copying, high genetic variation and drug selection pressure under the effect of the increasingly serious problem of drug resistance greatly weakened the role of HAART inhibit viral replication and reduce antiviral treatment. This paper reports the latest trends in HIV drug-resistance in order to develop anti-HIV drugs in clinical programs, research and development of new guidance anti-HIV-1 strategy to bring guidance. PMID:24228557

  16. Water vapor radiometry research and development phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. M.; Chavez, M. C.; Yamane, N. L.; Barbier, K. M.; Chandlee, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the research and development phase for eight dual-channel water vapor radiometers constructed for the Crustal Dynamics Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, and for the NASA Deep Space Network. These instruments were developed to demonstrate that the variable path delay imposed on microwave radio transmissions by atmospheric water vapor can be calibrated, particularly as this phenomenon affects very long baseline interferometry measurement systems. Water vapor radiometry technology can also be used in systems that involve moist air meteorology and propagation studies.

  17. Development of a model representing systems protected against research*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styugin, M.

    2016-04-01

    The research described herein presents a method of modeling information systems with dynamic parameters. The model includes elements with discrete internal states and agents, which can act in the system by modifying states of the system’s elements. The research has two objectives aimed at protection against research, which are as follows: inadmissibility for the system to transfer into some specific states and invisibility of actions taken by the agents. The present paper establishes stable secure states and proves algorithmic insolubility of Problem 1 in its general case.

  18. Fortuitism in the Development of Policy Related Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, John

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the problems of developing research in educational administration from the perspective of the independent researcher. Raises questions about the development of educational research and about the sponsorship and funding of research in the United Kingdom. (Author/IRT)

  19. Assay Development for the Discovery of Semaphorin 3B Inducing Agents from Natural Product Sources

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Yeonjoong; Pan, Li; Ren, Yulin; Fatima, Nighat; Ahmed, Safia; Chang, Leng Chee; Zhang, Xiaoli; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Swanson, Steven M.; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.

    2014-01-01

    Semaphorins are a class of membrane-bound and secreted proteins. They have been found to regulate basic cell functions such as axonal growth cone guidance and recent studies have focused on their effect on tumor progression. Semaphorin 3B (Sema 3B) particularly is a secreted protein that has been known to modulate proliferation and apoptosis, processes that are critical for tumor progression and development. In spite of its importance, there is yet no high-throughput screening assay available to detect or quantify the expression of Sema 3B for natural product anticancer drug discovery purposes. Therefore, the development of a new high-throughput bioassay for the discovery of Sema 3B inducing agents from natural product sources is described herein. A wide variety of pure compounds and extracts from plants and microorganisms has been found suitable for screening using this Sema 3B assay to detect and quantify the effect of Sema 3B inducing agents and thereby identify new selective bioactive Sema 3B lead compounds for anticancer drug discovery and development. Also, this new bioassay procedure is based on a high-throughput platform using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that involves the optimization of sensitivity and selectivity levels as well as accuracy, reproducibility, robustness, and cost effectiveness. PMID:25016954

  20. Development of molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapies in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Adam; Bhosle, Jaishree; Abdelraouf, Fatma; Popat, Sanjay; O'Brien, Mary; Yap, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a smoking-induced malignancy with multiple toxin-associated mutations, which accounts for 15% of all lung cancers. It remains a clinical challenge with a rapid doubling time, early dissemination and poor prognosis. Despite multiple clinical trials in SCLC, platinum-based chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment in the first line advanced disease setting; good initial responses are nevertheless inevitably followed by disease relapse and survival ultimately remains poor. There are currently no molecularly targeted agents licenced for use in SCLC. Advances in sequencing the cancer genome and other high-throughput profiling technologies have identified aberrant pathways and mechanisms implicated in SCLC development and progression. Novel anti-tumour therapeutics that impact these putative targets are now being developed and investigated in SCLC. In this review, we discuss novel anti-tumour agents assessed in SCLC with reference to the complex molecular mechanisms implicated in SCLC development and progression. We focus on novel DNA damage response inhibitors, immune checkpoint modulators and antibody-drug conjugates that have shown promise in SCLC, and which may potentially transform treatment strategies in this disease. Finally, we envision the future management of SCLC and propose a biomarker-driven translational treatment paradigm for SCLC that incorporates next generation sequencing studies with patient tumours, circulating plasma DNA and functional imaging. Such modern strategies have the potential to transform the management and improve patient outcomes in SCLC. PMID:27060747

  1. Targeted agents in epithelial ovarian cancer: review on emerging therapies and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Lokadasan, Rajitha; James, Francis V; Narayanan, Geetha; Prabhakaran, Pranab K

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a clinical challenge and there is a need to optimise the currently available treatment and to urgently develop new therapeutic strategies. Recently, there has been improved understanding of the molecular characteristics and tumour microenvironment of ovarian cancers. This has facilitated the development of various targeted agents used concurrently with chemotherapy or as maintenance. Most of the studies have explored the tumour angiogenesis pathways. In phase-III trials, bevacizumab showed a statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival, although there was no improvement in overall survival in selected high-risk cases. Although several multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors were found to be useful, the toxicity and survival benefit has to be weighed. Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have been another marvellous molecule found to be effective in breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA)-positive ovarian cancers. Several newer molecules targeting Her 2, Wee tyrsine kinases, PIP3/AKT/mTR-signalling pathways, folate receptors are under development and may provide additional opportunities in the future. This article focuses on the targeted agents that have successfully paved the way in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer and the newer molecules that may offer therapeutic opportunities in the future. PMID:27110282

  2. Research and development quality assurance planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hoke, P.B.

    1990-05-14

    Planning for quality assurance (QA) in research and development (R D) is like stealing eggs without waking up the chickens. The QA program should be as unobtrusive as possible. Researchers require a QA program that affords them an environment capable of supporting repeatable experiments with accurate data without unduly stifling their creative abilities. Careful advance planning ensures that the intensity of control provided by quality-related systems is commensurate with the importance and scope of the activities being performed. Good scientific practices applied to small bench-scale projects may require minimal additional controls. As projects increase in size and complexity the controls imposed through planning must, by necessity, be increased. Research and development QA planning, just like any other planning, involves all affected individuals. The application of control systems is determined by factors such as customer or sponsor requirements, the importance of an item or activity to the experiment's success, and the organizational complexity of the project. Many larger experiments are highly dependent on quality-related support activities such as calibration, engineering design, and inspection provided by organizations outside the R D group. Since, in most cases, the expense of support activities is taken directly from funds available for research, it is important for the researchers to be involved in the planning efforts to help determine and agree with the level of QA effort required. A single plan will often suffice for organizations engaged in large numbers of similar experiments. Complex experiments may require unique QA plans or additions to existing plans. Once implemented, the R D QA plans, like any others, require audits or surveillances and may require revisions if the scope of the experiment changes. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  3. Research on mine dustfall agents based on the mechanism of wetting and coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Liu, Dan-dan; Liu, Bing-jie; He, Min-min; Wang, Ying-feng

    2014-03-01

    Mine dust is classified as one of five natural coal mining disasters because it can harm the health of miners and poses a serious threat to the safety of the coal mine. Therefore, preparation of an effective dust suppression agent is highly desired. To improve the capture efficiency of fine dust, this study examines the dust suppression effects of various combinations of wetting agents, additives, and coagulation agents by using the optimum seeking method to reduce mine dust, particularly respirable particles. The optimal formula is shown to contain 10wt% fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether (JFC), 4.96wt% cationic polyacrylamide, and 4wt% calcium chloride. The dust suppression effect can be achieved at 96.1% in 5 min by using the optimal formula.

  4. Targeting the androgen receptor in prostate and breast cancer – several new agents in development

    PubMed Central

    Proverbs-Singh, Tracy; Feldman, Jarett L.; Morris, Michael J.; Autio, Karen A.; Traina, Tiffany A.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer and breast cancer share similarities as hormone-sensitive cancers with a wide heterogeneity of both phenotype and biology. The androgen receptor (AR) is a hormone receptor involved in both benign and malignant processes. Targeting androgen synthesis and the AR pathway has been and remains central to prostate cancer therapy. Recently, there is increased interest in the role of the AR in breast cancer development and growth, with data suggesting AR co-expression with estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptors, across all intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer. Targeting the AR axis is an evolving field with novel therapies in development which may ultimately be applicable for both tumor types. In this review, we offer an overview of available agents which target the AR axis in both prostate and breast cancer and provide insight into the novel drugs in development for targeting this signaling pathway. PMID:25722318

  5. 77 FR 6791 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee. The Federal Advisory Committee Act requires...: To provide advice and recommendations that promotes research and development leading to...

  6. 78 FR 64932 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee under Section 9008(d) of the Food.... This notice announces the meeting of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory...

  7. 78 FR 8500 - Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory... Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Biomass Research and Development... promotes research and development leading to the production of biobased fuels and biobased...

  8. Development and application of a multimodal contrast agent for SPECT/CT hybrid imaging.

    PubMed

    Criscione, Jason M; Dobrucki, Lawrence W; Zhuang, Zhen W; Papademetris, Xenophon; Simons, Michael; Sinusas, Albert J; Fahmy, Tarek M

    2011-09-21

    Hybrid or multimodality imaging is often applied in order to take advantage of the unique and complementary strengths of individual imaging modalities. This hybrid noninvasive imaging approach can provide critical information about anatomical structure in combination with physiological function or targeted molecular signals. While recent advances in software image fusion techniques and hybrid imaging systems have enabled efficient multimodal imaging, accessing the full potential of this technique requires development of a new toolbox of multimodal contrast agents that enhance the imaging process. Toward that goal, we report the development of a hybrid probe for both single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging that facilitates high-sensitivity SPECT and high spatial resolution CT imaging. In this work, we report the synthesis and evaluation of a novel intravascular, multimodal dendrimer-based contrast agent for use in preclinical SPECT/CT hybrid imaging systems. This multimodal agent offers a long intravascular residence time (t(1/2) = 43 min) and sufficient contrast-to-noise for effective serial intravascular and blood pool imaging with both SPECT and CT. The colocalization of the dendritic nuclear and X-ray contrasts offers the potential to facilitate image analysis and quantification by enabling correction for SPECT attenuation and partial volume errors at specified times with the higher resolution anatomic information provided by the circulating CT contrast. This may allow absolute quantification of intramyocardial blood volume and blood flow and may enable the ability to visualize active molecular targeting following clearance from the blood. PMID:21851119

  9. Research into europium complexes as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents (Review)

    PubMed Central

    HAN, GUOCAN; DENG, YANGWEI; SUN, JIHONG; LING, JUN; SHEN, ZHIQUAN

    2015-01-01

    Europium (Eu) is a paramagnetic lanthanide element that possesses an outstanding luminescent property. Eu complexes are ideal fluorescence imaging (FI) agents. Eu2+ has satisfactory relaxivity and optical properties, and can realize magnetic resonance (MRI)-FI dual imaging applications when used with appropriate cryptands that render it oxidatively stable. By contrast, based on the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) mechanism, Eu3+ complexes can provide enhanced MRI sensitivity when used with optimal cryptands, incorporated into polymeric CEST agents or blended with Gd3+. Eu complexes are promising in MRI-FI dual imaging applications and have a bright future. PMID:26136858

  10. 3-DTV research and development in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, Ruediger

    1991-08-01

    An overview on the state of the art of 3-DTV in Europe is given, and the new European Co- operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) project and its objectives are described. The paper starts with a report on 3-DTV broadcast transmissions in 1982 using the simple anaglyph technique, which in many European countries found enthusiastic public interest. Following that, in three international audio and video fairs in 1983, 1985, and 1987 in Berlin, presentations of a high-quality two-channel 3-DTV system using large screen projection, showing professionally produced demonstration programs, attracted about 50,000 visitors. Meanwhile, several 3-DTV activities for advertising, information, and special applications such as medical imaging are to be found. In the broadcast domain, research and development aim to transmit 3-DTV within a high-definition TV channel.

  11. Research and Development Annual Report, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Issued as a companion to Johnson Space Center's Research and Technology Annual Report, which reports JSC accomplishments under NASA Research and Technology Operating Plan (RTOP) funding, this report describes 42 additional JSC projects that are funded through sources other than the RTOP. Emerging technologies in four major disciplines are summarized: space systems technology, medical and life sciences, mission operations, and computer systems. Although these projects focus on support of human spacecraft design, development, and safety, most have wide civil and commercial applications in areas such as advanced materials, superconductors, advanced semiconductors, digital imaging, high density data storage, high performance computers, optoelectronics, artificial intelligence, robotics and automation, sensors, biotechnology, medical devices and diagnosis, and human factors engineering.

  12. Developing a New Sampling And Analysis Method For Hydrazine And Monomethyl Hydrazine: Using a Derivatizing Agent With Solid Phase Microextraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, John

    2001-01-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) will be used to develop a method for detecting monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and hydrazine (Hz). A derivatizing agent, pentafluorobenzoyl chloride (PFBCI), is known to react readily with MMH and Hz. The SPME fiber can either be coated with PFBCl and introduced into a gaseous stream containing MMH, or PFBCl and MMH can react first in a syringe barrel and after a short equilibration period a SPME is used to sample the resulting solution. These methods were optimized and compared. Because Hz and MMH can degrade the SPME, letting the reaction occur first gave better results. Only MMH could be detected using either of these methods. Future research will concentrate on constructing calibration curves and determining the detection limit.

  13. Development of ligands at γ-aminobutyrric acid type A (GABAA) receptor subtype as new agents for pain relief.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Gabriella; Ciciani, Giovanna; Bruni, Fabrizio; Selleri, Silvia; Martini, Claudia; Daniele, Simona; Ghelardini, Carla; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Costanzo, Annarella

    2011-12-15

    The identification of compounds with selective anxiolytic-like effects, exerted through the benzodiazepine site on γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors, and that show pronounced antihyperalgesia in several pain models, has oriented research towards the development of new agents for the relief of pain. Starting from our previously reported ligands at the benzodiazepine site on GABA(A) receptors showing selective anxiolytic-like effects, we have designed new compounds with the aim of identifying those devoid of the typical side effects of the classical benzodiazepines. Our preliminary results indicate that compounds 4, 10(±) and 11 have a very promising antihyperalgesic profile in different animal pain models (peripheral mono-neuropathy, STZ-induced hyperalgesia). In particular 11 exhibits high potency since it exerted its protective effect starting from the dose of 3mg/kg po, after single injection. PMID:22094278

  14. A review on recent developments of indole-containing antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Chen, Qiong; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Indole represents one of the most important privileged scaffolds in drug discovery. Indole derivatives have the unique property of mimicking the structure of peptides and to bind reversibly to enzymes, which provide tremendous opportunities to discover novel drugs with different modes of action. There are seven indole-containing commercial drugs in the Top-200 Best Selling Drugs by US Retail Sales in 2012. There are also an amazing number of approved indole-containing drugs in the market as well as compounds currently going through different clinical phases or registration statuses. This review focused on the recent development of indole derivatives as antiviral agents with the following objectives: 1) To present one of the most comprehensive listings of indole antiviral agents, drugs on market or compounds in clinical trials; 2) To focus on recent developments of indole compounds (including natural products) and their antiviral activities, summarize the structure property, hoping to inspire new and even more creative approaches; 3) To offer perspectives on how indole scaffolds as a privileged structure might be exploited in the future. PMID:25462257

  15. Combining Bayesian Networks and Agent Based Modeling to develop a decision-support model in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nong, Bao Anh; Ertsen, Maurits; Schoups, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    Complexity and uncertainty in natural resources management have been focus themes in recent years. Within these debates, with the aim to define an approach feasible for water management practice, we are developing an integrated conceptual modeling framework for simulating decision-making processes of citizens, in our case in the Day river area, Vietnam. The model combines Bayesian Networks (BNs) and Agent-Based Modeling (ABM). BNs are able to combine both qualitative data from consultants / experts / stakeholders, and quantitative data from observations on different phenomena or outcomes from other models. Further strengths of BNs are that the relationship between variables in the system is presented in a graphical interface, and that components of uncertainty are explicitly related to their probabilistic dependencies. A disadvantage is that BNs cannot easily identify the feedback of agents in the system once changes appear. Hence, ABM was adopted to represent the reaction among stakeholders under changes. The modeling framework is developed as an attempt to gain better understanding about citizen's behavior and factors influencing their decisions in order to reduce uncertainty in the implementation of water management policy.

  16. Development of Global Change Research in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Yepes, Adriana P.

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems and Global Change in the Context of the Neotropics; Medellín, Colombia, 19-20 May 2010; Research in most areas of global environmental change is overwhelmingly produced outside developing countries, which are usually consumers rather than producers of the knowledge associated with their natural resources. While there have been important recent advances in understanding the causes of global-¬scale changes and their consequences to the functioning of tropical ecosystems, there is still an important gap in the understanding of these changes at regional and national levels (where important political decisions are usually made). A symposium was held with the aim of surveying the current state of research activities in a small, developing country such as Colombia. It was jointly organized by the Research Center on Ecosystems and Global Change, Carbono and Bosques; the National University of Colombia at Medellín and the Colombian Ministry of the Environment, Housing, and Regional Development. This 2-¬day symposium gathered Colombian and international scientists involved in different areas of global environmental change, tropical ecosystems, and human societies.

  17. Energy research and development profile of Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, L.

    1986-01-01

    Australia is a large, sparsely populated country with an economy based traditionally on raw materials exports. Though still a major international trader in minerals and agricultural products, Australia has suffered a decline in productivity, employment, exports, and economic growth since the 1950s. Most energy research and development (R and D) and policymaking activities are carried out under the National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (NERDD) program. The NERDD program priorities include, among others, production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas and oil and gas exploration, assessment, and recovery technology (high priority); production of liquid fuels from coal and oil shale by hydrogenation or pyrolysis, coal gasification, and achievement of cost reductions in coal and oil shale exploration and assessment techniques (medium priority); and in-situ coal gasification (low priority). Bilateral agreements for energy R and D with other countries are carried out under the Australian Department of National Development and Energy. Australia currently has agreements related to oil, gas, shale, and coal liquids R and D with the UK, the US, Japan, and West Germany.

  18. Systems Medicine in Pharmaceutical Research and Development.

    PubMed

    Kuepfer, Lars; Schuppert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The development of new drug therapies requires substantial and ever increasing investments from the pharmaceutical company. Ten years ago, the average time from early target identification and optimization until initial market authorization of a new drug compound took more than 10 years and involved costs in the order of one billion US dollars. Recent studies indicate even a significant growth of costs in the meanwhile, mainly driven by the increasing complexity of diseases addressed by pharmaceutical research.Modeling and simulation are proven approaches to handle highly complex systems; hence, systems medicine is expected to control the spiral of complexity of diseases and increasing costs. Today, the main focus of systems medicine applications in industry is on mechanistic modeling. Biological mechanisms are represented by explicit equations enabling insight into the cooperation of all relevant mechanisms. Mechanistic modeling is widely accepted in pharmacokinetics, but prediction from cell behavior to patients is rarely possible due to lacks in our understanding of the controlling mechanisms. Data-driven modeling aims to compensate these lacks by the use of advanced statistical and machine learning methods. Future progress in pharmaceutical research and development will require integrated hybrid modeling technologies allowing realization of the benefits of both mechanistic and data-driven modeling. In this chapter, we sketch typical industrial application areas for both modeling techniques and derive the requirements for future technology development. PMID:26677181

  19. Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Anderson, S.E.; Baldwin, G.; Cherniak, J.C.; Corey, C.W.; Kirvel, R.D.; McElroy, L.A.

    1992-12-31

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) funds projects that nurture and enrich the core competencies of the Laboratory. The scientific and technical output from the FY 1992 RD Program has been significant. Highlights include (1) Creating the first laser guide star to be coupled with adaptive optics, thus permitting ground-based telescopes to obtain the same resolution as smaller space-based instruments but with more light-gathering power. (2) Significantly improving the limit on the mass of the electron antineutrino so that neutrinos now become a useful tool in diagnosing supernovas and we disproved the existence of a 17-keV neutrino. (3) Developing a new class of organic aerogels that have robust mechanical properties and that have significantly lower thermal conductivity than inorganic aerogels. (4) Developing a new heavy-ion accelerator concept, which may enable us to design heavy-ion experimental systems and use a heavy-ion driver for inertial fusion. (5) Designing and demonstrating a high-power, diode-pumped, solid-state laser concept that will allow us to pursue a variety of research projects, including laser material processing. (6) Demonstrating that high-performance semiconductor arrays can be fabricated more efficiently, which will make this technology available to a broad range of applications such as inertial confinement fusion for civilian power. (7) Developing a new type of fiber channel switch and new fiber channel standards for use in local- and wide-area networks, which will allow scientists and engineers to transfer data at gigabit rates. (8) Developing the nation`s only numerical model for high-technology air filtration systems. Filter designs that use this model will provide safer and cleaner environments in work areas where contamination with particulate hazardous materials is possible.

  20. Research-Based Design of Pedagogical Agent Roles: A Review, Progress, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yanghee; Baylor, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we review the contribution of our original work titled "Simulating Instructional Roles Through Pedagogical Agents" published in the "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Education" (Baylor and Kim in "Computers and Human Behavior," 25(2), 450-457, 2005). Our original work operationalized…

  1. Control of research oriented software development

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.C.; Dronkers, J.J.; Pitsker, B.

    1985-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to dispose permanently high level radioactive waste and civilian spent nuclear fuel by January 31, 1998. DOE has responded by creating an organizational structure that directs all the activities necessary to carry out the legislative demands. LLNL is conducting research in the earth sciences and is developing some unique computer codes to help establish the feasibility of geologic repositories for nuclear waste. LLNL has several codes under development. This paper examines the administrative and organizational measures that were and still are being undertaken in order to control the development of the two major codes. In the case of one code, the software quality assurance requirements were imposed five years after the code began its development. This required a retroactive application of requirements. The other code is still in the conceptual stages of development and here requirements can be applied as soon as the initial code design begins. Both codes are being developed by scientists, not computer programmers, and both are modeling codes, not data acquisition and reduction codes. Also the projects for which these codes are being developed have slightly different software quality assurance requirements. All these factors contribute unique difficulties in attempts to assure that the development not only results in a reliable prediction, but that whatever the reliability, it can be objectively shown to exist. The paper will examine a software management model. It will also discuss the reasons why it is felt that this particular model would stand a reasonable chance for success. The paper will then describe the way in which the model should be integrated into the existing management configuration and tradition.

  2. Developing preceptorship through action research: part 2.

    PubMed

    Hilli, Yvonne; Melender, Hanna-Leena

    2015-09-01

    Clinical preception in practice plays a significant role in the education of both Registered Nurses and practical nurses. This study presents the evaluation of an interprofessional research and development project (2009-2103) on clinical preceptorship between two universities of applied sciences, two vocational institutes and four healthcare organisations in western Finland. The research question was as follows: How did the participants evaluate the process and outcomes of developing preceptorship through an action-research approach? The primary target group consisted of professionals within the healthcare sector and nursing teachers at the universities of applied sciences and the vocational institutes. The five units represented in the healthcare organisations functioned as clinical practice placements for both nursing and practical nursing students, with Registered Nurses and practical nurses acting as their preceptors. Each unit developed a unique preceptorship model to answer their specific needs. The models were implemented and tested during one academic year followed by a quantitative (a 4-point scale) and qualitative evaluation of the process. The models are presented in another article, and the evaluation results are presented in this article. The evaluation showed that preceptorship has become an important and accepted part of work, including the practice of starting any preception at a unit with a thorough introduction. The project's emphasis on critical thinking, reflection and focus on ethics were valued by the staff. Pedagogical further education should be arranged on a regular basis to strengthen the knowledge base of the preceptors. Furthermore, enough time for preceptorship should be allocated, as it is a pedagogical duty. The implication of this project is that more cooperation between different stake holders is needed, in order to narrow the gap between theory and praxis. PMID:25833207

  3. SAF1. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y

    1997-06-01

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  4. Recent developments of C-4 substituted coumarin derivatives as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Dandriyal, Jyoti; Singla, Ramit; Kumar, Manvendra; Jaitak, Vikas

    2016-08-25

    Cancer is a prominent cause of death in global. Currently, the numbers of drugs that are in clinical practice are having a high prevalence of side effect and multidrug resistance. Researchers have made an attempt to expand a suitable anticancer drug that has no MDR and side effect. Coumarin scaffold became an attractive subject due to their broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. Coumarin derivatives extensively explored for anticancer activities as it possesses minimum side effect along with multi-drug reversal activity. Coumarin derivatives can act by various mechanisms on different tumor cell lines depending on substitution pattern of the core structure of coumarin. Substitution on coumarin nucleus leads to the search for more potent compounds. In this review, we have made an effort to give a synthetic strategy for the preparation of C-4 substituted coumarin derivatives as anticancer agents based on their mechanism of action and also discuss the SAR of the most active compound. PMID:27155469

  5. Antenna research and development at Ericsson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlsjo, Olof

    1992-04-01

    This article gives an overview of the antenna research and development activities at Ericsson Radar Electronics AB, in Molndal, Sweden. The article covers different types of microwave antennas, such as twist-Cassegrain antennas, shaped-reflector antennas, microstrip antennas, dichroic surfaces, slotted-waveguide-array antennas, omnidirectional antennas, and electronically-steered-array antennas. Measurement methods, such as near-field and diagnostic techniques, are also discussed. The applications are for radar and microwave communication systems, for use in ground, naval, airborne, and space environments.

  6. Important Developments in Romanian Propolis Research

    PubMed Central

    Mărghitaş, Liviu Al; Dezmirean, Daniel S.; Bobiş, Otilia

    2013-01-01

    The most important developments in propolis analysis and pharmacological properties are discussed. In order to help in the Romanian propolis standardization, different methodologies for chemical composition analysis (UV-VIS, HP-TLC, and HPLC-DAD) are reviewed using new approaches and software (fuzzy divisive hierarchical clustering approach and ChromQuest software) and compared with international studies made until now in propolis research. Practical applications of Romanian propolis in medicinal therapy and cosmetics are reviewed, and quality criteria for further standardization are proposed. PMID:23818918

  7. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  8. [Selected research problems of anthrax vaccine development].

    PubMed

    Zakowska, Dorota; Kocik, Janusz; Bartoszcze, Michał

    2009-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism with B. anthracis against civilian population is one of major concern. After successful bioterroristic attack in 2001 in US renewed research interest has prompted in the development of new and more effective vaccine against anthrax. There are two licensed vaccines against anthrax--AVA-Bio-Thrax US and UK--sterile culture filtrate prepared by alum precipitation. Both vaccines are based on PA antigen. There are several concerns regarding PA based vaccines. They require six sc injections and yearly booster, high rates of local reaction after vaccination is observed, the immunity is not long lasting, vaccination do not protect animals against different strains of B. anthracis. New strategies in the development of anthrax vaccines have been presented (recombinant PA, subunits vaccine, mutants, conjugated). Using proteomic approaches new antigens have been also identified as candidates for future vaccines. More effective and easy to perform methods of vaccination have been reviewed. PMID:20120948

  9. Software agents in molecular computational biology.

    PubMed

    Keele, John W; Wray, James E

    2005-12-01

    Progress made in applying agent systems to molecular computational biology is reviewed and strategies by which to exploit agent technology to greater advantage are investigated. Communities of software agents could play an important role in helping genome scientists design reagents for future research. The advent of genome sequencing in cattle and swine increases the complexity of data analysis required to conduct research in livestock genomics. Databases are always expanding and semantic differences among data are common. Agent platforms have been developed to deal with generic issues such as agent communication, life cycle management and advertisement of services (white and yellow pages). This frees computational biologists from the drudgery of having to re-invent the wheel on these common chores, giving them more time to focus on biology and bioinformatics. Agent platforms that comply with the Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA) standards are able to interoperate. In other words, agents developed on different platforms can communicate and cooperate with one another if domain-specific higher-level communication protocol details are agreed upon between different agent developers. Many software agent platforms are peer-to-peer, which means that even if some of the agents and data repositories are temporarily unavailable, a subset of the goals of the system can still be met. Past use of software agents in bioinformatics indicates that an agent approach should prove fruitful. Examination of current problems in bioinformatics indicates that existing agent platforms should be adaptable to novel situations. PMID:16420735

  10. Environmental Health Research at EPA's Office of Research and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are brief overviews of NCER's research and fellowship programs covering the SHC, SSWR, CSS, and ACE programs. There are also overview slides of the research activities in NCEA covering IRIS program and HHRA.

  11. Transferable Skills Training for Researchers: Supporting Career Development and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are embarking on increasingly diverse careers where collaboration, networking and interdisciplinarity are becoming more important. Transferable skills (e.g. communication skills and problem-solving abilities) can help researchers operate more effectively in different work environments. While researchers acquire some of these skills in…

  12. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  13. Risk in Vaccine Research and Development Quantified

    PubMed Central

    Pronker, Esther S.; Weenen, Tamar C.; Commandeur, Harry; Claassen, Eric H. J. H. M.; Osterhaus, Albertus D. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    To date, vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy to combat infectious diseases. Recently, a productivity gap affects the pharmaceutical industry. The productivity gap describes the situation whereby the invested resources within an industry do not match the expected product turn-over. While risk profiles (combining research and development timelines and transition rates) have been published for new chemical entities (NCE), little is documented on vaccine development. The objective is to calculate risk profiles for vaccines targeting human infectious diseases. A database was actively compiled to include all vaccine projects in development from 1998 to 2009 in the pre-clinical development phase, clinical trials phase I, II and III up to Market Registration. The average vaccine, taken from the preclinical phase, requires a development timeline of 10.71 years and has a market entry probability of 6%. Stratification by disease area reveals pandemic influenza vaccine targets as lucrative. Furthermore, vaccines targeting acute infectious diseases and prophylactic vaccines have shown to have a lower risk profile when compared to vaccines targeting chronic infections and therapeutic applications. In conclusion; these statistics apply to vaccines targeting human infectious diseases. Vaccines targeting cancer, allergy and autoimmune diseases require further analysis. Additionally, this paper does not address orphan vaccines targeting unmet medical needs, whether projects are in-licensed or self-originated and firm size and experience. Therefore, it remains to be investigated how these - and other - variables influence the vaccine risk profile. Although we find huge differences between the risk profiles for vaccine and NCE; vaccines outperform NCE when it comes to development timelines. PMID:23526951

  14. PEG conjugates in clinical development or use as anticancer agents: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pasut, Gianfranco; Veronese, Francesco M

    2009-11-12

    During the almost forty years of PEGylation, several antitumour agents, either proteins, peptides or low molecular weight drugs, have been considered for polymer conjugation but only few entered clinical phase studies. The results from the first clinical trials have shared and improved the knowledge on biodistribution, clearance, mechanism of action and stability of a polymer conjugate in vivo. This has helped to design conjugates with improved features. So far, most of the PEG conjugates comprise of a protein, which in the native form has serious shortcomings that limit the full exploitation of its therapeutic action. The main issues can be short in vivo half-life, instability towards degrading enzymes or immunogenicity. PEGylation proved to be effective in shielding sensitive sites at the protein surface, such as antigenic epitopes and enzymatic degradable sequences, as well as in prolonging the drug half-life by decreasing the kidney clearance. In this review PEG conjugates of proteins or low molecular weight drugs, in clinical development or use as anticancer agents, will be taken into consideration. In the case of PEG-protein derivatives the most represented are depleting enzymes, which act by degrading amino acids essential for cancer cells. Interestingly, PEGylated conjugates have been also considered as adjuvant therapy in many standard anticancer protocols, in this regard the case of PEG-G-CSF and PEG-interferons will be presented. PMID:19671438

  15. 7 CFR 916.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 916.45 Section 916... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research § 916.45 Marketing research and development. The... research, marketing research and development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the...

  16. 7 CFR 981.41 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 981.41 Section 981.41... Regulating Handling Research § 981.41 Research and development. (a) General. The Board, with the approval of... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid...

  17. 7 CFR 981.41 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and development. 981.41 Section 981.41... Regulating Handling Research § 981.41 Research and development. (a) General. The Board, with the approval of... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid...

  18. 7 CFR 916.45 - Marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing research and development. 916.45 Section 916... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research § 916.45 Marketing research and development. The... research, marketing research and development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the...

  19. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market... establishment of production and processing research, market research and development, and/or...

  20. Research and Development in the Anthropogenic Cryosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, C.; Luthe, T.; Hohenwallne, D.

    2009-04-01

    Much of todays cryosphere research is oriented towards the polar regions and is strongly supported by large associations and funding. On the other hand, funding and institutional support is still limited for mountains. In Europe, mountain research is mainly funded through Alpine Space Interregs, FP7, ESF and COST. However, there is growing global change pressure on mountain regions, particularly in the more fragile, higher altitudes such as between 1000 - 3200 m in the Alps. Although these zones are comparable to the Arctic in terms of climatic and physiographic conditions, they are not in terms of human pressures and atmospheric pollution released from surrounding agglomerations. A re-orientation of research into more applied projects that tackle present day problems is necessary. Not only is climate change rapidly changing the face of mountains, socio-economic multipliers are also acting fast. New problems such as conflicts over natural resources are evolving at a rapid rate, requiring research funding and projects to respond at according rates if timely and efficient solutions are to be proposed. Other problems include contamination of high altitude lakes and ecosystems through atmospheric precipitation of persistent organic pollutants and concentration of radio-active substances. The rapid melt of glacier ice is also releasing pollutants that have been captured for many decades. Many of the present day problems develop due to a miscomprehension of the cryosphere. Short-term economical reasoning outweighs the long-term ecological impacts that could be very counter-productive at the long term. Both the glaciological, snow, permafrost, geomorphological, ecological, hydrological and atmospheric conditions are increasingly heavily modified by human impacts. The effects include the alteration of the ice cover (by artificial covering of glaciers), production of artificial snow cover, snow and ground compaction, erosion, landsliding, change in vegetation cover and

  1. Developing a career in nursing research.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    What is the best way to build a career in nursing research? In Nurse Researcher Michelle Cleary and colleagues provide an overview of the career essentials for nurses at the beginning careers as researchers. They discusses collaborations, research support, grants, supervising students and climbing the research career ladder. PMID:27484574

  2. Recent developments of atmospheric research in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, G. P.; Danylevsky, V. O.; Grytsai, A. V.; Evtushevsky, O. M.; Kravchenko, V. O., Bovchaliuk, A. P.; Bovchaliuk, V. P.; Sosonkin, M. G.; Goloub, Ph.; Savitska, L. Y.; Udodov, E. V.; Voytenko, V. P.

    2012-11-01

    In recent years the Joint Laboratory of Atmospheric Optics and Aerosols of Ukraine has been carrying out atmospheric research in cooperation with international program of climate change studies. Our current research is aimed at studying aerosol and ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, because these constituents have a substantial influence on climate. In Ukraine, atmospheric aerosol remote sensing in the PHOTONS/AERONET network has been carried out since 2006 in Sevastopol and 2008 in Kyiv. For this research, sunphotometers CIMEL CE318 have been used. A mobile AERONET station has been developed, which consists of CE318N and portable Microtops II sunphotometers, as well as two self-designed experimental portable sunphotometer models and an ozonometer for aerosol and ozone study. The team's findings on aerosol spectral optical thickness, as well as optical and physical properties of aerosol particles (single-scattering albedo, distribution of particles by sizes, Ångström exponent), are discussed in the paper. In 2010, upon the establishment of the new regional atmospheric research station Nr.498 Kyiv-Goloseyev, the team commenced with measurements of the total column density and vertical distribution of ozone, using the Dobson D040 spectrophotometer, in the framework of the Global Atmosphere Watch Program of WMO. The station has also been equipped with a Vaisala automatic weather station, a surface ozone 49i analyzer, and an experimental complex for monitoring secondary space rays. The aerosol and ozone measurements have been continuously submitted to data centres of AERONET (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) and WMO (www.woudc.org/data/). For aerosol and ozone research, the data from satellite sources (POLDER, MODIS, OMI, and SCIAMACHY) have also been analysed. The work on a proposal to design, build, and launch the space radiometer/polarimeter for global monitoring of atmospheric aerosols has commenced recently. This instrument should have the capability of

  3. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of on-road Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: - Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. - Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. - Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehicle-related greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see

  4. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

  5. 76 FR 44648 - Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee Pursuant to... given of a meeting of the FAA Research, Engineering and Development (R,E&D) Advisory Committee. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Name: Research, Engineering &...

  6. 76 FR 12404 - Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee Pursuant to... given of a meeting of the FAA Research, Engineering and Development (R,E&D) Advisory Committee. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Name: Research, Engineering &...

  7. 77 FR 14462 - Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee Pursuant to... given of a meeting of the FAA Research, Engineering and Development (R,E&D) Advisory Committee. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Name: Research, Engineering &...

  8. 77 FR 54648 - Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee Pursuant to... given of a meeting of the FAA Research, Engineering and Development (R, E&D) Advisory Committee. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. NAME: Research, Engineering &...

  9. 75 FR 14243 - Research, Engineering And Development Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Research, Engineering And Development Advisory Committee Pursuant to... given of a meeting of the FAA Research, Engineering and Development (R,E&D) Advisory Committee. Agency: Federal Aviation Administration. Action: Notice of Meeting. Name: Research, Engineering &...

  10. CURRENT ANSTO RESEARCH ON WASTEFORM DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, E.R.; Perera, D.S.; Stewart, M.W.A.; Begg, B.D.; Carter, M.L.; Day, R.A.; Moricca, S.; Smith, K.L.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Hanna, J.V.

    2003-02-27

    Current ANSTO scientific research on wasteform development for mainly high-level radioactive waste is directed towards practical applications. Titanate wasteform products we have developed or are developing are aimed at immobilization of: (a) tank wastes and sludges; (b) U-rich wastes from radioisotope production from reactor irradiation of UO2 targets; (c) Al-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of Al-clad fuels; (d) 99Tc; (e) high- Mo wastes arising from reprocessing of U-Mo fuels and (f) partitioned Cs-rich wastes. Other wasteforms include encapsulated zeolites or silica/alumina beads for immobilization of 129I. Wasteform production techniques cover hot isostatic and uniaxial pressing, sintering, and cold-crucible melting. In addition, building on previous work on speciation and leach resistance of Cs in cementitious products, we are studying geopolymers. Although we have a strong focus on candidate wasteforms for actual wastes, we have a considerable program directed at basic understanding of the wasteforms in regard to crystal chemistry, their dissolution behavior in aqueous media, radiation damage effects and processing techniques.

  11. 7 CFR 959.48 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 959.48 Section 959.48... Regulating Handling Research and Development § 959.48 Research and development. The committee, with the... research, and development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing,...

  12. 7 CFR 947.47 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 947.47 Section 947.47... Research and Development § 947.47 Research and development. The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may provide for the establishment of marketing research and development projects designed...

  13. 7 CFR 959.48 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and development. 959.48 Section 959.48... Regulating Handling Research and Development § 959.48 Research and development. The committee, with the... research, and development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing,...

  14. 7 CFR 989.53 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and development. 989.53 Section 989.53... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 989.53 Research and development... establishment of projects involving marketing research and development and marketing promotion including...

  15. 7 CFR 989.53 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 989.53 Section 989.53... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 989.53 Research and development... establishment of projects involving marketing research and development and marketing promotion including...

  16. 48 CFR 31.205-48 - Research and development costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research and development... Organizations 31.205-48 Research and development costs. Research and development, as used in this subsection... grant for research and development effort, the excess is unallowable under any other Government contract....

  17. 7 CFR 947.47 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and development. 947.47 Section 947.47... Research and Development § 947.47 Research and development. The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may provide for the establishment of marketing research and development projects designed...

  18. 7 CFR 959.48 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research and development. 959.48 Section 959.48... Regulating Handling Research and Development § 959.48 Research and development. The committee, with the... research, and development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing,...

  19. 7 CFR 959.48 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research and development. 959.48 Section 959.48... Regulating Handling Research and Development § 959.48 Research and development. The committee, with the... research, and development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing,...

  20. 7 CFR 989.53 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research and development. 989.53 Section 989.53... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 989.53 Research and development... establishment of projects involving marketing research and development and marketing promotion including...

  1. 48 CFR 31.205-48 - Research and development costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research and development... Organizations 31.205-48 Research and development costs. Research and development, as used in this subsection... grant for research and development effort, the excess is unallowable under any other Government contract....

  2. 7 CFR 989.53 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research and development. 989.53 Section 989.53... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 989.53 Research and development... establishment of projects involving marketing research and development and marketing promotion including...

  3. 7 CFR 947.47 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research and development. 947.47 Section 947.47... Research and Development § 947.47 Research and development. The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may provide for the establishment of marketing research and development projects designed...

  4. 7 CFR 989.53 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research and development. 989.53 Section 989.53... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 989.53 Research and development... establishment of projects involving marketing research and development and marketing promotion including...

  5. 48 CFR 31.205-48 - Research and development costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research and development... Organizations 31.205-48 Research and development costs. Research and development, as used in this subsection... grant for research and development effort, the excess is unallowable under any other Government contract....

  6. 7 CFR 947.47 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research and development. 947.47 Section 947.47... Research and Development § 947.47 Research and development. The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may provide for the establishment of marketing research and development projects designed...

  7. 7 CFR 959.48 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research and development. 959.48 Section 959.48... Regulating Handling Research and Development § 959.48 Research and development. The committee, with the... research, and development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing,...

  8. 7 CFR 947.47 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research and development. 947.47 Section 947.47... Research and Development § 947.47 Research and development. The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may provide for the establishment of marketing research and development projects designed...

  9. Development of a Rotating Human Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M.; Caldwell, William F.; Tucker, John; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A unique facility has been developed at the NASA Ames Research Center to provide scientists with unusual research opportunities at greater than Earth's gravity. In addition to its use for basic research, this facility will help provide answers to many of the questions posed by proponents of rotating human space vehicles. This paper describes the design and planned use of this facility, the Spaceflight Environmental Simulator. Using an existing 52-foot diameter cylindrical rotating platform design centrifuge, the revised facility design includes the provision of two human habitats for long duration studies of the effects of hypergravity. Up to four humans (per habitat) will be able to live at up to 2 G for as long as one month without stopping the centrifuge. Each habitat, constructed of lightweight honeycomb sandwich panels, is nominally 9 ft high x 11 ft wide x 25 1/2 ft long. A radial positioning system provides for positioning each habitat at a distance of 15 to 21 feet from the centrifuge's axis of rotation to the midpoint of the habitat's interior floor. As centrifugal acceleration changes with rotation rate, a habitat floor-mounted accelerometer signal provides automatic servo controlled adjustment of each habitat's angle of inclination to provide an environment for the habitat's crew and cargo in which the resultant gravity vector is normal to the habitat floor at all times. Design of the habitats and modifications to the centrifuge are complete, and are currently under construction. Design philosophy and operational rationale are presented along with complete descriptions of the facility and its systems.

  10. Update on the Development of Anti-Viral Agents Against Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Macarthur, Kristin L.; Smolic, Robert; Smolic, Martina V.; Wu, Catherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects nearly 170 million people worldwide and causes chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The search for a drug regimen that maximizes efficacy and minimizes side effects is quickly evolving. This review will discuss a wide range of drug targets currently in all phases of development for the treatment of HCV. Direct data from agents in phase III/IV clinical trials will be presented, along with reported side-effect profiles. The mechanism of action of all treatments and resistance issues are highlighted. Special attention is given to available trial data supporting interferon-free treatment regimens. HCV has become an increasingly important public health concern, and it is important for physicians to stay up to date on the rapidly growing novel therapeutic options. PMID:26357602

  11. Approach and development strategy for an agent-based model of economic confidence.

    SciTech Connect

    Sprigg, James A.; Pryor, Richard J.; Jorgensen, Craig Reed

    2004-08-01

    We are extending the existing features of Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool, and introducing new features to simulate the role of confidence in economic activity. The new model is built from a collection of autonomous agents that represent households, firms, and other relevant entities like financial exchanges and governmental authorities. We simultaneously model several interrelated markets, including those for labor, products, stocks, and bonds. We also model economic tradeoffs, such as decisions of households and firms regarding spending, savings, and investment. In this paper, we review some of the basic principles and model components and describe our approach and development strategy for emulating consumer, investor, and business confidence. The model of confidence is explored within the context of economic disruptions, such as those resulting from disasters or terrorist events.

  12. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Research and development: widening the energy horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Darmstadter, J.; Landsberg, H.H.; Morton, H.C.

    1984-04-01

    Research and Development (R and D) is not a recent phenomenon. Only the name is new; the substance is old. Such scientists as Alessandro Volta, James Watt, or Thomas Edison would have been surprised to be told that they were in the R and D business, but, of course, they were. In fact, Edison was in the RDD and D business, the extra two D's standing for Demonstration and Deployment. In their lifetime such people were generally called inventors. Today, there are not only multitudes of individuals who engage in R and D, in small or large commercial groups, in government laboratories, or in universities, but there is also a substantial literature on just what R and D is and how it functions. In this article the authors try to identify current trends and where they might lead us and what policies are either in place or are desirable to draw the greatest benefit from R and D endeavors.

  14. Multiyear Research, Development and Demonstration Plan

    SciTech Connect

    EERE

    2012-03-16

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration (MYRD&D) Plan describes the goals, objectives, technical targets, tasks, and schedules for all activities within the Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Office, which is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The MYRD&D Plan is a living document, which is revised periodically to reflect progress in the technologies, revisions to developmental timelines and targets, updates based on external reviews, and changes in the scope of the FCT Office. The document was first published in 2003, and revised in 2005. The document was significantly revised in 2012 to reflect scientific advancements and the changing technological landscape. Any revisions made to the MYRD&D Plan are conducted through a rigorous Change Control process as documented in the Systems Integration section of this report. The hydrogen and fuel cell activities within DOE continue to receive extensive review by stakeholders in the hydrogen and fuel cell community, including panels of the National Research Council and the National Academy of Engineering.

  15. Developing preceptorship through action research: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Hilli, Yvonne; Melender, Hanna-Leena

    2015-09-01

    Clinical preception in practice plays a significant role in both registered and practical nurse studies. As such, the cooperation between the faculty and working life is important to narrow the theory-practice gap, with emphasis being placed on a student-oriented approach promoting self-direction and lifelong learning. The aim of this project was to develop the preceptorship at five different units within the health-care sector in western Finland by implementing an action research (AR) approach. This article is the first of a two-part article on the project, focusing on a cultural analysis and the development of preception models conducted within the project. The five units participating in the study were the following: a long-term care ward in the community, a ward for people with dementia, a geriatric ward, a medical ward and a surgical ward representing specialised care. The starting point of the study was a cultural analysis, which was made in all the five units to obtain a 'bottom-up' perspective. In each of the five units 3-5 nurses were appointed to become members of the core groups. This meant that all the units would start from the perspective of their own working environment when creating a preception model that would fit into their particular workplace. During this process, the participants received continuous support from the researchers. Several workshops and seminars were also arranged to further support the core groups and staff. The models were implemented and tested during the academic year 2010-2011 followed by an evaluation of the project. The evaluation results will be presented in the second part of the two-part article. The project showed that reflective practice and critical thinking can be improved through an AR approach. PMID:25684330

  16. Thermal EOR process research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Moreno, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes recent results of Research and Development activities associated with thermal EOR processes in the areas of process mapping, downhole steam generator (DSG) materials performance, and insulated tubulars. Field measurements which can be used to map overall geometry and local stability of the displacement fronts would be particularly useful in the context of process control. Electromagnetic techniques which are being developed to make these measurements are currently limited to qualitative interpretations. This paper first describes lab scale physical simulations being conducted to develop a fundamental understanding of the variations in electrical properties associated with the constitutive zones of a recovery process to improve our ability to interpret field data. Field tests in 1981 to 1982 identified DSG combustor material failure as the primary technical concern in DSG development, with the presumption that the failure mode was due to mixed hot gas corrosion. Experimental results are summarized here for a variety of candidate combustor materials, chosen largely for corrosion resistance. No important differences in performance were found. More recently, analytical studies supported by a single experiment on a thin-walled combustor liner have suggested that thermally-induced stress in the thick-walled liners used is the probable cause of failure. Insulated steam injection tubulars have been observed to be less effective in reducing wellbore heat loss if operated in a wet wellbore - a typical situation. Wellbore refluxing, a process analogous to the action of a heat pipe, was proposed in 1983 to be the source of the reduced efficiency. The results of recently completed tests on insulated tubing in wet and dry wellbores are reported. 23 references, 16 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Research and development of therapeutic mAbs: An analysis based on pipeline projects.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiaomei; Kong, Xiangjun; Hu, Hao; Chen, Jiayu; Yang, Fengqing; Liang, Hongyu; Chen, Xin; Hu, Yuanjia

    2015-01-01

    As the subject of active research and development (R&D) in recent decades, monoclonal antibodies have emerged among the major classes of therapeutic agents for treatment of many human diseases, especially cancers, infections, and immunological disorders. This article surveys the landscape of R&D projects of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which are mostly used for disease immunotherapy, from a number of perspectives, including therapeutic indications, development phases, participants, and citation of related patents. The results of this research can be used as a reference resource for pharmaceutical researchers, investors, and policymakers in the field of therapeutic mAbs. PMID:26211701

  18. "Comments on Coulter and Smith": Narrative Researchers as Witnesses of Injustice and Agents of Social Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Tom

    2009-01-01

    In commenting on Coulter and Smith (2009), the author explores issues related to the place of the political in education research and in literature, but especially in forms of narrative research that possess both scientific and literary dimensions. More specifically, the author examines four sets of issues related to the researching and writing of…

  19. Biological agent detection since Desert Storm--from theory to practice. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Shockley, L.J.

    1997-04-16

    Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, especially biological warfare (BW) weapons, continues apace in today`s world, both by nation states and terrorist groups. This paper details the progress made in BW agent detection in the six years since the Gulf War. With two new systems, we have the technology to provide the combatant commander with a credible bio-detection array. What we have failed to do in the near term is to supply the requisite force structure in the Active Component to make the technology work for the commander.

  20. Development of a comparative risk ranking system for agents posing a bioterrorism threat to human or animal populations.

    PubMed

    Tomuzia, Katharina; Menrath, Andrea; Frentzel, Hendrik; Filter, Matthias; Weiser, Armin A; Bräunig, Juliane; Buschulte, Anja; Appel, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    Various systems for prioritizing biological agents with respect to their applicability as biological weapons are available, ranging from qualitative to (semi)quantitative approaches. This research aimed at generating a generic risk ranking system applicable to human and animal pathogenic agents based on scientific information. Criteria were evaluated and clustered to create a criteria list. Considering availability of data, a number of 28 criteria separated by content were identified that can be classified in 11 thematic areas or categories. Relevant categories contributing to probability were historical aspects, accessibility, production efforts, and possible paths for dispersion. Categories associated with impact are dealing with containment measures, availability of diagnostics, preventive and treatment measures in human and animal populations, impact on society, human and veterinary public health, and economic and ecological consequences. To allow data-based scoring, each criterion was described by at least 1 measure that allows the assignment of values. These values constitute quantities, ranges, or facts that are as explicit and precise as possible. The consideration of minimum and maximum values that can occur due to natural variations and that are often described in the literature led to the development of minimum and maximum criteria and consequently category scores. Missing or incomplete data, and uncertainty resulting therefrom, were integrated into the scheme via a cautious (but not overcautious) approach. The visualization technique that was used allows the description and illustration of uncertainty on the level of probability and impact. The developed risk ranking system was evaluated by assessing the risk originating from the bioterrorism threat of the animal pathogen bluetongue virus, the human pathogen Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, the zoonotic Bacillus anthracis, and Botulinum neurotoxin. PMID:23971819

  1. OIL SPILL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS FOR THE 1990'S

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the 1970s and the early 1980s the emphasis of Federally-sponsored oil spill research was on mechanical spill control devices and removal methods such as booms, skimmers, and sorbents, with later efforts also focused on dispersing agents. The preponderance of the work was direc...

  2. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ogeka, G.J.; Romano, A.J.

    1992-12-01

    This report briefly discusses the following research: Advances in Geoexploration; Transvenous Coronary Angiography with Synchrotron X-Rays; Borehole Measurements of Global Warming; Molecular Ecology: Development of Field Methods for Microbial Growth Rate and Activity Measurements; A New Malaria Enzyme - A Potential Source for a New Diagnostic Test for Malaria and a Target for a New Antimalarial Drug; Basic Studies on Thoron and Thoron Precursors; Cloning of the cDNA for a Human Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase that is Activated Specifically by Double-Stranded DNA; Development of an Ultra-Fast Laser System for Accelerator Applications; Cluster Impact Fusion; Effect of a Bacterial Spore Protein on Mutagenesis; Structure and Function of Adenovirus Penton Base Protein; High Resolution Fast X-Ray Detector; Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Longitudinal Bunch Shape Monitor; High Grain Harmonic Generation Experiment; BNL Maglev Studies; Structural Investigations of Pt-Based Catalysts; Studies on the Cellular Toxicity of Cocaine and Cocaethylene; Human Melanocyte Transformation; Exploratory Applications of X-Ray Microscopy; Determination of the Higher Ordered Structure of Eukaryotic Chromosomes; Uranium Neutron Capture Therapy; Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Nanoscale Structures; Nuclear Techiques for Study of Biological Channels; RF Sources for Accelerator Physics; Induction and Repair of Double-Strand Breaks in the DNA of Human Lymphocytes; and An EBIS Source of High Charge State Ions up to Uranium.

  3. Southwest Research Institute intensified detector development capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Erik; Vincent, Michael; Kofoed, Christopher; Andrews, John; Brownsberger, Judith; Siegmund, Oswald

    2012-09-01

    Imaging detectors for wavelengths between 10 nm and 105 nm generally rely on microchannel plates (MCPs) to provide photon detection (via the photo-electric effect) and charge amplification. This is because silicon-based detectors (CCD or APS) have near zero quantum detection efficiency (QDE) over this wavelength regime. Combining a MCP based intensifier tube with a silicon detector creates a detector system that can be tuned to the wavelength regime of interest for a variety of applications. Intensified detectors are used in a variety of scientific (e.g. Solar Physics) and commercial applications (spectroscopic test instrumentation, night vision goggles, low intensity cameras, etc.). Building an intensified detector requires the mastery of a variety of technologies involved in integrating and testing of these detector systems. We report on an internally funded development program within the Southwest Research Institute to architect, design, integrate, and test intensified imaging detectors for space-based applications. Through a rigorous hardware program the effort is developing and maturing the technologies necessary to build and test a large format (2k × 2k) UV intensified CCD detector. The intensified CCD is designed around a commercially available CCD that is optically coupled to a UV Intensifier Tube from Sensor Sciences, LLC. The program aims to demonstrate, through hardware validation, the ability to architect and execute the integration steps necessary to produce detector systems suitable for space-based applications.

  4. Challenges of Research and Human Capital Development in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikwe, Christian K.; Ogidi, Reuben C.; Nwachukwu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discussed the challenges of research and human capital development in Nigeria. Research and human capital development are critical to the development of any nation. Research facilitates human capital development. A high rating in human capital development indices places a country among the leading countries of the world. The paper…

  5. 76 FR 1212 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to...

  6. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the public...

  7. Developing Agentic Learners for 21st Century Practice: A Pedagogic Approach in Occupational Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoe C-Y; Flavell, Helen; Parsons, Dave; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to teaching occupational therapy students how to create orthoses, whilst at the same time developing higher-order critical thinking, reflective, and clinical reasoning skills is described. The scaffolded nature of the learning activities, incorporating Kolb's reflective learning cycle, was used to support students' capacity for clinical reasoning and better prepare them for clinical placement. The peer-assessment element was also designed to support the experiential learning by allowing students to test their evaluation of hand orthoses, compare their assessment with an expert's, and identify areas for improvement. Students who demonstrated higher grades for the written reflection assessment showed better agreement with the experts (smaller bias, p<0.01). This study concluded there was a correlation between students' capacity for reflective thinking and the development of clinical reasoning. Furthermore, the reflective writing exercise encouraged students to generalise their skills beyond the classroom. The approach and findings of this study are relevant to a range of allied health professions through providing a process to support the development of higher-order critical thinking, reflection, and reasoning skills. Furthermore, the study provides an evidence base to demonstrate that higher reflective skill capacity and critical thinking are crucial to creating agentic learners. PMID:26937876

  8. Abnormal Development of Tapetum and Microspores Induced by Chemical Hybridization Agent SQ-1 in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Song, Qilu; Zhang, Yingxin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Ma, Shoucai; Wang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical hybridization agent (CHA)-induced male sterility is an important tool in crop heterosis. To demonstrate that CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development, the cytology of CHA-SQ-1-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI staining. The results indicated that the SQ-1-treated plants underwent premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD), which was initiated at the early-uninucleate stage of microspore development and continued until the tapetal cells were completely degraded; the process of microspore development was then blocked. Microspores with low-viability (fluorescein diacetate staining) were aborted. The study suggests that premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion. Furthermore, it determines the starting period and a key factor in CHA-SQ-1-induced male sterility at the cell level, and provides cytological evidence to further study the mechanism between PCD and male sterility. PMID:25803723

  9. Development and application of a HPLC method for eight sunscreen agents in suncare products.

    PubMed

    Peruchi, L M; Rath, S

    2012-06-01

    This work describes the development, validation and application of a simple and fast high-performance liquid chromatography-with diode array dectection (HPLC-DAD) method for the determination of eight sunscreen agents: benzophenone-3, octocrylene, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, ethylhexyl salicylate, homosalate (used in two isomeric forms), butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor and ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA in sunscreen formulations. The separation of the eight sunscreen compounds was achieved using an ACE C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), with a column temperature 20°C, and a mobile phase of 88 : 12 (v/v) methanol-water with isocratic elution. Column temperature strongly influences the retention time and resolution of the compounds. The flow rate was 1.0 mL min(-1) and quantitation was performed by external calibration at the maximum wavelength of each compound. The sample preparation was simple and consisted basically of sample dilution with methanol, centrifugation and filtration in syringe filters before quantitation. Total run time was 18 min. The method was validated according to the parameters: linear range, linearity, selectivity, intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy. Ten samples of sunscreen emulsions commercially available in Brazil (SPF 30) from different manufacturers were analysed using the proposed method. The number of the sunscreen agents varied between one and five in a single sample. The concentrations of all compounds were in the range of 0.9-10% (w/w) and were in accordance with the current Brazilian legislation. PMID:22214440

  10. Development of potent chemical antituberculosis agents targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis acetohydroxyacid synthase.

    PubMed

    Jung, In-Pil; Ha, Na-Reum; Lee, Sang-Choon; Ryoo, Sung-Weon; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2016-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis acetohydroxyacid synthase (MTB-AHAS) has been suggested as a crucial target for antibacterial agents. High-throughput screening of a chemical library was performed to identify potent new inhibitors of MTB-AHAS. Among the 6800 tested compounds, 15 were identified as potent inhibitors, exhibiting >80-90% inhibition of in vitro MTB-AHAS activity at a fixed concentration of 20 µM. Five compounds belonging to the triazolopyrimidine structural class showed greater inhibition potency, with a half-maximum inhibition concentration (IC50 value) in the low micromolar range (0.4-1.24 µM). Furthermore, potent inhibitors demonstrated non-competitive, uncompetitive or mixed-competitive inhibition. Molecular docking experiments with these potent chemicals using a homology model of MTB-AHAS indicated hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with some key herbicide binding site residues with binding energies (ΔG) of -8.04 to -10.68 Kcal/mol, respectively. The binding modes were consistent with inhibition mechanisms, as the chemicals were oriented outside the active site. Importantly, these potent inhibitors demonstrated significant growth inhibition of various clinically isolated multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains, with 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC50 values) ranging from 0.2 µg/mL to 0.8 µg/mL, which resemble the MICs of conventional drugs for tuberculosis (isoniazid, 0.1 µg/mL; rifampicin, 0.4 µg/mL). Thus, the identified potent inhibitors show potential as scaffolds for further in vivo studies and might provide an impetus for the development of strong antituberculosis agents targeting MTB-AHAS. PMID:27451857

  11. Development and Qualification of Alternate Blowing Agents for Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Charles W.; Cavalaris, James G.

    1994-01-01

    The Aerospace industry has a long history of using low density polyurethane and polyurethane-modified isocyanurate foam systems as lightweight, low cost, easily processed cryogenic Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for ascent vehicles. The Thermal Protection System of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) is required so that quality liquid cryogenic propellant can be supplied to the Orbiter main engines and to protect the metal structure of the tanks from becoming too hot from aerodynamic heating, hence preventing premature break-up of the tank. These foams are all blown with CFC-1 I blowing agent which has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an ozone depleting substance. CFCs will not be manufactured after 1995, Consequently, alternate blowing agent substances must be identified and implemented to assure continued ET manufacture and delivery. This paper describes the various testing performed to select and qualify HCFC-1 41 b as a near term drop-in replacement for CFC-11. Although originally intended to be a one for one substitution in the formulation, several technical issues were identified regarding material performance and processability which required both formulation changes and special processing considerations to overcome. In order to evaluate these material changes, each material was subjected to various tests to qualify them to meet the various loads imposed on them during long term storage, pre-launch operations, launch, separation and re-entry. Each material was tested for structural, thermal, aeroshear, and stress/strain loads for the various flight environments each encounters. Details of the development and qualification program and the resolution of specific problems are discussed in this paper.

  12. Development of Microbubble Contrast Agents with Biochemical Recognition and Tunable Acoustic Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuka, Matthew Allan Masao

    Microbubbles, consisting of gas-filled cores encapsulated within phospholipid or polymer shells, are the most widely used ultrasound contrast agents in the world. Because of their acoustic impedance mismatch with surrounding tissues and compressible gaseous interiors, they have high echogenicities that allow for efficient backscatter of ultrasound. They can also generate unique harmonic frequencies when insonated near their resonance frequency, depending on physical microbubble properties such as the stiffness and thickness of the encapsulating shell. Microbubbles are used to detect a number of cardiovascular diseases, but current methodologies lack the ability to detect and distinguish small, rapidly growing abnormalities that do not produce visible blockage or slowing of blood flow. This work describes the development, formulation, and validation of microbubbles with various polymer shell architectures designed to modulate their acoustic ability. We demonstrate that the addition of a thick disulfide crosslinked, poly(acrylic acid) encapsulating shell increases a bubble's resistance to cavitation and changes its resonance frequency. Modification of this shell architecture to use hybridized DNA strands to form crosslinks between the polymer chains allows for tuning of the bubble acoustic response. When the DNA crosslinks are in place, shell stiffness is increased so the bubbles do not oscillate and acoustic signal is muted. Subsequently, when these DNA strands are displaced, partial acoustic activity is restored. By using aptamer sequences with a specific affinity towards the biomolecule thrombin as the DNA crosslinking strand, this acoustic "ON/OFF" behavior can be specifically tailored towards the presence of a specific biomarker, and produces a change in acoustic signal at concentrations of thrombin consistent with acute deep venous thrombosis. Incorporation of the emulsifying agent poly(ethylene glycol) into the encapsulating shell improves microbubble yield

  13. Being an "Agent Provocateur": Utilising Online Spaces for Teacher Professional Development in Virtual Simulation Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deNoyelles, Aimee; Raider-Roth, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This article details the results of an action research study which investigated how teachers used online learning community spaces to develop and support their teaching and learning of the Jewish Court of All Time (JCAT), a web-mediated, character-playing, simulation game that engages participants with social, historical and cultural curricula.…

  14. 77 FR 20489 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... May 24, 2012..... Sheraton Suites--Old Science-B. Town Alexandria. Neurobiology-D May 24-25,...

  15. 78 FR 28292 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review..., 2013; Pulmonary Medicine will meet on May 30, 2013, at the Sheraton Crystal City Hotel and not on...

  16. 78 FR 22622 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit..., 2013......... U.S. Access Board. Pulmonary Medicine May 30-31, 2013......... Sheraton Crystal...

  17. 76 FR 19188 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... Crowne Plaza DC/Silver Spring. Pulmonary Medicine June 3, 2011 Crowne Plaza DC/Silver Spring....

  18. 78 FR 66992 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... Medicine........ November 25, 2013 *VA Central Office. Neurobiology-F November 26, 2013 *VA Central...

  19. 77 FR 23810 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... May 24, 2012........ Sheraton Suites--Old Town Alexandria. Science-B Neurobiology-D May 24-25,...

  20. Developing Research Relationships toward a Learning Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaasila, Raimo; Lutovac, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Research relationships are often poorly understood. Why are some collaborations between research partners more productive than others? This question was a starting point of this paper. By describing their own experiences over a period of three years, the authors evaluated research relationships through collaborative self-study. At the beginning,…

  1. Science Education Research and Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oversby, John; McGregor, Deb; Woodhouse, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Well-designed and thoughtful approaches to practitioner research can bring about very positive impacts to improve teaching and learning in science classrooms. Readers of highly-rated research also need to appreciate and understand research design, literature critique, appropriate data collection, methods of analysis, theoretical frameworks,…

  2. Practitioner Research and Professional Development in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Anne; McNamara, Olwen; Gilroy, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book aims to support and prepare practitioners to undertake small-scale inquiries and research investigations. The processes of research and inquiry-based learning help teachers come to terms with the complexities and challenges of teaching as their responsibilities widen to include the notion of the teacher as researcher. This major shift in…

  3. Action Research as a Professional Development Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Reflective teachers are always searching for ways to improve their teaching. When this reflection becomes intentional and systematic, they are engaging in teacher research. This type of research, sometimes called "action research", can help bridge the gap between theory and practice by addressing topics that are relevant to practicing teachers.…

  4. Developing a Research Agenda for Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Rosalie A.; Wilson, Keren Brown; Spector, William

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We describe an approach to identifying knowledge gaps, research questions, and methodological issues for assisted living (AL) research. Design and Methods: We undertook an inventory of AL literature and research in progress and commissioned background papers critiquing knowledge on selected subtopics. With an advisory committee, we…

  5. Developing Effective K-16 Geoscience Research Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnik, Paul J.; Ross, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of research partnerships between scientists and K-16 students. Regards the partnerships as effective vehicles for teaching scientific logic, processes, and content by integrating inquiry-based educational approaches with innovative research questions. Reviews integrated research and education through geoscience partnerships.…

  6. EERA: A Participant or an Agent in European Research Policy? A Governance Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf; Wubbels, Theo

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors begin to frame a discussion of the educational research space that the European Educational Research Association (EERA) has been given and aims to take. The educational space is not merely a geographical phenomenon, but rather refers to the networks, flows and scapes that form the foundation for the construction of…

  7. Outlook on Research in Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasel, Cornelia; Bormann, Inka; Schutte, Kerstin; Trempler, Kati; Fischbach, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). It shows a lack of correspondence between ESD research and recent debates in educational research. Research on ESD has established as a field of research with insufficient relations to other fields in educational research. Based on the overview…

  8. Research and Development Concerning Coalbed Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    William Ruckelshaus

    2008-09-30

    , most of it is discharged to surface drainages or to soil (for irrigation). CBNG water quality generally declines when moving from the Cheyenne River drainage northwestward to the Belle Fourche, Little Powder, and Powder River drainages and in the central and western part of the PRB, most CBNG water goes to evaporation-infiltration ponds or is discharged directly to surface drainages. Concerns center on the salinity of the water, usually measured as total dissolved solids (TDS), or electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Other management options currently in use include injection, managed irrigation (with additives to mitigate the effects of high salinity), atomization, and treatment by reverse osmosis or ion exchange. A key water quality issue is the cumulative effect of numerous CBNG water discharges on the overall water quality of basin streams. This leads to one of the most contentious issues in CBNG development in Wyoming's PRB: Montana's concern about the potential downstream effects of water quality degradation on rivers flowing north into Montana. Many of the benefits and costs associated with CBNG development have been debated, but dealing with CBNG water quantity and quality arguably has been the most difficult of all the issues. Given the importance of these issues for continued development of CBNG resources in Wyoming and elsewhere, the DOE-NETL funded project presented here focuses on CBNG co-produced water management. The research was organized around nine separate, but interrelated, technical project tasks and one administrative task (Task 1). The nine technical project tasks were pursued by separate research teams at the University of Wyoming, but all nine tasks were coordinated to the extent possible in order to maximize information gained about CBNG co-produced waters. In addition to project management in Task 1, the key research tasks included: (2) estimating groundwater recharge rates in the PRB; (3) groundwater contamination

  9. Research and Development in Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Keith

    2004-01-01

    A report in the form of lecture slides summarizes the optical-communications program of NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and describes the JPL Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) and its role in the program. The purpose of the program is to develop equipment and techniques for laser communication between (1) ground stations and (2) spacecraft (both near Earth and in deep space) and aircraft. The OCTL is an astronomical- style telescope facility that includes a 1-m-diameter, 75.8-m-focal length telescope in an elevation/azimuth mount, plus optical and electronic subsystems for tracking spacecraft and aircraft, receiving laser signals from such moving targets, and transmitting high-power laser signals to such targets. Near-term research at the OCTL is expected to focus on mitigating the effects of atmospheric scintillation on uplinks and on beacon-assisted tracking of ground stations by stations in deep space. Near-term experiments are expected to be performed with retroreflector-equipped aircraft and Earth-orbiting spacecraft techniques to test mathematical models of propagation of laser beams, multiple-beam strategies to mitigate uplink scintillation, and pointing and tracking accuracy of the telescope.

  10. Protein Crystallography in Vaccine Research and Development

    PubMed Central

    Malito, Enrico; Carfi, Andrea; Bottomley, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of protein X-ray crystallography for structure-based design of small-molecule drugs is well-documented and includes several notable success stories. However, it is less well-known that structural biology has emerged as a major tool for the design of novel vaccine antigens. Here, we review the important contributions that protein crystallography has made so far to vaccine research and development. We discuss several examples of the crystallographic characterization of vaccine antigen structures, alone or in complexes with ligands or receptors. We cover the critical role of high-resolution epitope mapping by reviewing structures of complexes between antigens and their cognate neutralizing, or protective, antibody fragments. Most importantly, we provide recent examples where structural insights obtained via protein crystallography have been used to design novel optimized vaccine antigens. This review aims to illustrate the value of protein crystallography in the emerging discipline of structural vaccinology and its impact on the rational design of vaccines. PMID:26068237

  11. Development of a Panel of Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assays for Detection of Biothreat Agents

    PubMed Central

    Euler, Milena; Wang, Yongjie; Heidenreich, Doris; Patel, Pranav; Strohmeier, Oliver; Hakenberg, Sydney; Niedrig, Matthias; Hufert, Frank T.

    2013-01-01

    Syndromic panels for infectious disease have been suggested to be of value in point-of-care diagnostics for developing countries and for biodefense. To test the performance of isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays, we developed a panel of 10 RPAs for biothreat agents. The panel included RPAs for Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis, variola virus, and reverse transcriptase RPA (RT-RPA) assays for Rift Valley fever virus, Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Marburg virus. Their analytical sensitivities ranged from 16 to 21 molecules detected (probit analysis) for the majority of RPA and RT-RPA assays. A magnetic bead-based total nucleic acid extraction method was combined with the RPAs and tested using inactivated whole organisms spiked into plasma. The RPA showed comparable sensitivities to real-time RCR assays in these extracts. The run times of the assays at 42°C ranged from 6 to 10 min, and they showed no cross-detection of any of the target genomes of the panel nor of the human genome. The RPAs therefore seem suitable for the implementation of syndromic panels onto microfluidic platforms. PMID:23345286

  12. Human DDX3 protein is a valuable target to develop broad spectrum antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Brai, Annalaura; Fazi, Roberta; Tintori, Cristina; Zamperini, Claudio; Bugli, Francesca; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Stigliano, Egidio; Esté, José; Badia, Roger; Franco, Sandra; Martinez, Miguel A; Martinez, Javier P; Meyerhans, Andreas; Saladini, Francesco; Zazzi, Maurizio; Garbelli, Anna; Maga, Giovanni; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-05-10

    Targeting a host factor essential for the replication of different viruses but not for the cells offers a higher genetic barrier to the development of resistance, may simplify therapy regimens for coinfections, and facilitates management of emerging viral diseases. DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) is a human host factor required for the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses, including some of the most challenging human pathogens currently circulating, such as HIV-1, Hepatitis C virus, Dengue virus, and West Nile virus. Herein, we showed for the first time, to our knowledge, that the inhibition of DDX3 by a small molecule could be successfully exploited for the development of a broad spectrum antiviral agent. In addition to the multiple antiviral activities, hit compound 16d retained full activity against drug-resistant HIV-1 strains in the absence of cellular toxicity. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity studies in rats confirmed a good safety profile and bioavailability of 16d. Thus, DDX3 is here validated as a valuable therapeutic target. PMID:27118832

  13. Human DDX3 protein is a valuable target to develop broad spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Brai, Annalaura; Fazi, Roberta; Tintori, Cristina; Zamperini, Claudio; Bugli, Francesca; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Stigliano, Egidio; Esté, José; Badia, Roger; Franco, Sandra; Martinez, Javier P.; Meyerhans, Andreas; Saladini, Francesco; Zazzi, Maurizio; Garbelli, Anna; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Targeting a host factor essential for the replication of different viruses but not for the cells offers a higher genetic barrier to the development of resistance, may simplify therapy regimens for coinfections, and facilitates management of emerging viral diseases. DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) is a human host factor required for the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses, including some of the most challenging human pathogens currently circulating, such as HIV-1, Hepatitis C virus, Dengue virus, and West Nile virus. Herein, we showed for the first time, to our knowledge, that the inhibition of DDX3 by a small molecule could be successfully exploited for the development of a broad spectrum antiviral agent. In addition to the multiple antiviral activities, hit compound 16d retained full activity against drug-resistant HIV-1 strains in the absence of cellular toxicity. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity studies in rats confirmed a good safety profile and bioavailability of 16d. Thus, DDX3 is here validated as a valuable therapeutic target. PMID:27118832

  14. Development of a panel of recombinase polymerase amplification assays for detection of biothreat agents.

    PubMed

    Euler, Milena; Wang, Yongjie; Heidenreich, Doris; Patel, Pranav; Strohmeier, Oliver; Hakenberg, Sydney; Niedrig, Matthias; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    Syndromic panels for infectious disease have been suggested to be of value in point-of-care diagnostics for developing countries and for biodefense. To test the performance of isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assays, we developed a panel of 10 RPAs for biothreat agents. The panel included RPAs for Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis, variola virus, and reverse transcriptase RPA (RT-RPA) assays for Rift Valley fever virus, Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Marburg virus. Their analytical sensitivities ranged from 16 to 21 molecules detected (probit analysis) for the majority of RPA and RT-RPA assays. A magnetic bead-based total nucleic acid extraction method was combined with the RPAs and tested using inactivated whole organisms spiked into plasma. The RPA showed comparable sensitivities to real-time RCR assays in these extracts. The run times of the assays at 42°C ranged from 6 to 10 min, and they showed no cross-detection of any of the target genomes of the panel nor of the human genome. The RPAs therefore seem suitable for the implementation of syndromic panels onto microfluidic platforms. PMID:23345286

  15. Recent Development of Multifunctional Agents as Potential Drug Candidates for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guzior, Natalia; ckowska,, Anna Wię; Panek, Dawid; Malawska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The available therapy is limited to the symptomatic treatment and its efficacy remains unsatisfactory. In view of the prevalence and expected increase in the incidence of AD, the development of an effective therapy is crucial for public health. Due to the multifactorial aetiology of this disease, the multi-target-directed ligand (MTDL) approach is a promising method in search for new drugs for AD. This review updates information on the development of multifunctional potential anti-AD agents published within the last three years. The majority of the recently reported structures are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, often endowed with some additional properties. These properties enrich the pharmacological profile of the compounds giving hope for not only symptomatic but also causal treatment of the disease. Among these advantageous properties, the most often reported are an amyloid-β anti-aggregation activity, inhibition of β-secretase and monoamine oxidase, an antioxidant and metal chelating activity, NO-releasing ability and interaction with cannabinoid, NMDA or histamine H3 receptors. The majority of novel molecules possess heterodimeric structures, able to interact with multiple targets by combining different pharmacophores, original or derived from natural products or existing therapeutics (tacrine, donepezil, galantamine, memantine). Among the described compounds, several seem to be promising drug candidates, while others may serve as a valuable inspiration in the search for new effective therapies for AD. PMID:25386820

  16. SECRET AGENT and SPINDLY have overlapping roles in the development of Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heyn.

    PubMed

    Hartweck, Lynn M; Genger, Ruth K; Grey, William M; Olszewski, Neil E

    2006-01-01

    O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyses transfer of GlcNAc (N-acetylglucosamine) to serine or threonine of proteins. The Arabidopsis OGTs, SECRET AGENT (SEC) and SPINDLY (SPY) have overlapping functions during gametogenesis and embryogenesis. SPY functions in a number of processes including circadian, light, and gibberellin (GA) responses. The role of SEC in plant development and GA signalling was investigated by determining the phenotypes of sec-1 and sec-2 plants and the expression pattern of SEC. Similar to SPY, SEC transcripts were ubiquitous. Although there is no evidence of transcript-level regulation by other factors, SEC mRNA levels are elevated in spy plants and SPY mRNA levels are elevated in sec plants. sec-1 and sec-2 plants exhibited few of the defects observed in spy plants and had wild-type GA responses. Compared with wild type, sec plants produced leaves at a reduced rate. Haplo-insufficiency at SEC in a spy ga1 double mutant background suppressed spy during germination and enhanced the production of ovaries with four carpels by spy. By contrast, SPY haplo-insufficiency in a sec ga1 double mutant background caused a novel phenotype, production of a proliferation of pin-like structures instead of a floral shoot. These results are consistent with SEC function overlapping with SPY for leaf production and reproductive development. PMID:16473894

  17. Recent development of multifunctional agents as potential drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Guzior, Natalia; Wieckowska, Anna; Panek, Dawid; Malawska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The available therapy is limited to the symptomatic treatment and its efficacy remains unsatisfactory. In view of the prevalence and expected increase in the incidence of AD, the development of an effective therapy is crucial for public health. Due to the multifactorial aetiology of this disease, the multi-target-directed ligand (MTDL) approach is a promising method in search for new drugs for AD. This review updates information on the development of multifunctional potential anti-AD agents published within the last three years. The majority of the recently reported structures are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, often endowed with some additional properties. These properties enrich the pharmacological profile of the compounds giving hope for not only symptomatic but also causal treatment of the disease. Among these advantageous properties, the most often reported are an amyloid-β antiaggregation activity, inhibition of β-secretase and monoamine oxidase, an antioxidant and metal chelating activity, NOreleasing ability and interaction with cannabinoid, NMDA or histamine H3 receptors. The majority of novel molecules possess heterodimeric structures, able to interact with multiple targets by combining different pharmacophores, original or derived from natural products or existing therapeutics (tacrine, donepezil, galantamine, memantine). Among the described compounds, several seem to be promising drug candidates, while others may serve as a valuable inspiration in the search for new effective therapies for AD. PMID:25386820

  18. Development of Targeted Near-Infrared Imaging Agents for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinning; Huang, Steve S.; Heston, Warren D.W.; Guo, Hong; Wang, Bing-Cheng; Basilion, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy affecting men in North America. Radical prostatectomy remains a definitive treatment for prostate cancer. However, prostate surgeries are still performed “blindly” with the extent of tumor infiltration past the margins of the surgery only being determined postoperatively. An imaging modality that can be used during surgery is needed to help define the tumor margins. With its abundant expression in prostate cancer, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an ideal target for detection of prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to develop PSMA-targeted near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging probes for intraoperative visualization of prostate cancer. We synthesized a high-affinity PSMA ligand (PSMA-1) with low molecular weight and further labeled it with commercially available NIR dyes IRDy800 and Cy5.5. PSMA-1 and PSMA-1–NIR conjugates had binding affinities better than the parent ligand Cys-CO-Glu. Selective binding was measured for each of the probes in both in vitro and in vivo studies using competitive binding and uptake studies. Interestingly, the results indicated that the pharmacokinetics of the probes was dependent of the fluorophore conjugated to the PSMA-1 ligand and varied widely. These data suggest that PSMA-targeted probes have the potential to be further developed as contrast agents for clinical intraoperative fluorescence-guided surgery. PMID:25239933

  19. Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabusoro, E.; Awotunde, J. A.; Sodiya, C. I.; Alarima, C. I.

    2008-01-01

    The field level extension agents (FLEAs) are the lifeline of the agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Their motivation and job performance are therefore important to achieving faster agricultural development in Nigeria. The study identified the factors motivating the FLEAs working with Ogun State Agricultural development programme (OGADEP)…

  20. EPA Research and Development: National Exposure Research Laboratory

    EPA Science Inventory

    This course is for Biology majors, primarily those in the completed Freshman Biology. Students enrolled in the course are expected to have completed Freshman Biology. With some background in biology as a strt, students begin to think about doing some research as part of their u...

  1. 7 CFR 955.50 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and development. 955.50 Section 955.50... Research and Development § 955.50 Research and development. (a) The committee, with the approval of the... development and marketing promotion projects, including paid advertising, designed to assist, improve,...

  2. 7 CFR 927.47 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 927.47 Section 927.47... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 927.47 Research and development. The Fresh... development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption...

  3. 7 CFR 948.35 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 948.35 Section 948.35... Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 948.35 Research and development. The committee... development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption...

  4. 7 CFR 927.47 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and development. 927.47 Section 927.47... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 927.47 Research and development. The Fresh... development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption...

  5. 7 CFR 948.35 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and development. 948.35 Section 948.35... Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 948.35 Research and development. The committee... development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption...

  6. 7 CFR 955.50 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 955.50 Section 955.50... Research and Development § 955.50 Research and development. (a) The committee, with the approval of the... development and marketing promotion projects, including paid advertising, designed to assist, improve,...

  7. 7 CFR 948.35 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research and development. 948.35 Section 948.35... Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 948.35 Research and development. The committee... development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption...

  8. 7 CFR 927.47 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research and development. 927.47 Section 927.47... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 927.47 Research and development. The Fresh... development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption...

  9. 7 CFR 948.35 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research and development. 948.35 Section 948.35... Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 948.35 Research and development. The committee... development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption...

  10. 7 CFR 948.35 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research and development. 948.35 Section 948.35... Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 948.35 Research and development. The committee... development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption...

  11. 7 CFR 927.47 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research and development. 927.47 Section 927.47... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 927.47 Research and development. The Fresh... development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption...

  12. 7 CFR 927.47 - Research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research and development. 927.47 Section 927.47... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 927.47 Research and development. The Fresh... development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption...

  13. Bifunctional chelating agent for the design and development of site specific radiopharmaceuticals and biomolecule conjugation strategy

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Prabhu, Kandikere R.; Gali, Hariprasad; Pillarsetty, Nagavara Kishore; Volkert, Wynn A.

    2003-10-21

    There is provided a method of labeling a biomolecule with a transition metal or radiometal in a site specific manner to produce a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical compound by synthesizing a P.sub.2 N.sub.2 -bifunctional chelating agent intermediate, complexing the intermediate with a radio metal or a transition metal, and covalently linking the resulting metal-complexed bifunctional chelating agent with a biomolecule in a site specific manner. Also provided is a method of synthesizing the --PR.sub.2 containing biomolecules by synthesizing a P.sub.2 N.sub.2 -bifunctional chelating agent intermediate, complexing the intermediate with a radiometal or a transition metal, and covalently linking the resulting radio metal-complexed bifunctional chelating agent with a biomolecule in a site specific manner. There is provided a therapeutic or diagnostic agent comprising a --PR.sub.2 containing biomolecule.

  14. Further development of high temperature-resistant graphite fiber coupling agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    Potential coupling agents for graphite fibers were screened by their effect on the weight losses of Thornel 300, HMS, and HTS fibers at 588K for 200 and 400 hours. Unidirectional laminates were made from HMS and HTS fibers, untreated, and treated with each of the seven coupling agents. The matrix of all laminates was PMR polyimide (PMR-PR). On the basis of the best overall retention of elevated temperature interlaminar shear strength after 200 hours at 588K, composite weight after 200 hours at 588K, and fiber weight after 400 hours at 588K, ventromer T-1 applied from aqueous solution and pyrolyzed PPQ were selected for further evaluation as coupling agents for HTS fiber while ventromer T-2 and pyrolyzed PPQ were selected as coupling agents for HMS fiber. It was shown that pyrolyzed PPQ as a coupling agent improves the oxidative stability of HTS/PMR-PI composites.

  15. Three essays on research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyal, Paroma

    The impact of institutional changes and market structure on research and development (R&D) and technical progress is controversial. My dissertation investigates the determinants of R&D in the context of institutional change. The first two papers address the impact of deregulation in the US electric utility industry on R&D. The third paper investigates the linkage between patenting and different funding sources and patent office attributes. The first paper, "Deregulation, Restructuring and Changing R&D Paradigms in the US Electric Utility Industry", investigates the linkage between market structures and the conduct of R&D in the US electric utility industry. The primary finding of this paper is that institutional and competition factors interact in a way that suggest that the occurrence of full deregulation, coupled with effective retail competition in the market may mitigate the problem of declining R&D expenditures in the face of deregulation. The second paper, "Powering a Green Progress: Environmental Research in the Absence of Regulatory Oversight" analyzes the impact of changing market structure on environmental R&D expenditures by IOUs in the electric utility industry. Conventional wisdom holds that increased competition would lead firms to cut back on R&D funds directed towards social goals, such as the environment. But these arguments fail to take account the threat of future environmental regulations and its influence on disciplining firms. Theory and empirical results from this paper suggest that under certain conditions, even with high monitoring costs, an environmental regulatory agency's threat of stricter future regulations will successfully stem the decrease in environmental R&D expenditures. My third paper, "Birth of a Patent: the Role of Parents, Nursemaids and Constraints", presents an integrated theoretical and empirical approach that models the effects of different sources of R&D funding and patent office attributes on the patenting process. The

  16. Development and characterization of hollow polymeric microcapsules for use as contrast agents for diagnostic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Padma Jyothi

    1999-09-01

    This thesis concerns the development and characterization of a new type of rigid-shelled ultrasound contrast agent. A novel method was devised for producing hollow, gas- filled, polymer microcapsules, sized to less than 10 μm in diameter for contrast imaging. This method involved the encapsulation of a solid, volatile core material, and its subsequent evacuation by sublimation. The biodegradable polymer, 50/50 poly(D,L-lactide-co- glycolide), was the main focus of this study. Polymer- based contrast agents have many advantages, such as their applicability for concomitant imaging and drug delivery. Three encapsulation techniques were evaluated: solvent evaporation, coacervation, and spray drying. The polymer molecular weight and polydispersity in the solvent evaporation and coacervation techniques strongly affected microcapsule size and morphology. Efficient mechanical agitation and shear were crucial for obtaining high yields in the desired size range (less than 6 μm). In spray drying, a factorial design approach was used to optimize conditions to produce microcapsules. The main factors affecting spray drying were found to be the temperature driving force for drying and initial polymer concentration. The smallest microcapsule mean diameters were produced by spray drying (3-4 μm) and solvent evaporation (5-6 μm). Zeta potential (ζ) studies for all microcapsule types indicated that the encapsulation technique affected their surface properties due to the orientation of the polymer chains within nascent polymer droplets. Microcapsules with the most hydrophilic tendency were produced with solvent evaporation (ζ ~ -50 mV). In vitro acoustic testing revealed that the 20-41 μm size fractions of coacervate microcapsules were the most echogenic. In vivo ultrasound studies with both solvent evaporation and coacervate microcapsules showed visible enhancement of the color Doppler image in the rabbit kidney for the samples less than 10 μm in diameter. A mathematical

  17. 7 CFR 915.45 - Production research, marketing research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research, marketing research and... AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 915.45 Production research, marketing research and development. The committee may, with the approval of...

  18. 7 CFR 932.45 - Production research and marketing research and development projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production research and marketing research and...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 932.45 Production research and marketing research and development projects. (a) The following...

  19. Korean Anaphora Recognition System to Develop Healthcare Dialogue-Type Agent

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junggi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Anaphora recognition is a process to identify exactly which noun has been used previously and relates to a pronoun that is included in a specific sentence later. Therefore, anaphora recognition is an essential element of a dialogue agent system. In the current study, all the merits of rule-based, machine learning-based, semantic-based anaphora recognition systems were combined to design and realize a new hybrid-type anaphora recognition system with an optimum capacity. Methods Anaphora recognition rules were encoded on the basis of the internal traits of referred expressions and adjacent contexts to realize a rule-based system and to serve as a baseline. A semantic database, related to predicate instances of sentences including referred expressions, was constructed to identify semantic co-relationships between the referent candidates (to which semantic tags were attached) and the semantic information of predicates. This approach would upgrade the anaphora recognition system by reducing the number of referent candidates. Additionally, to realize a machine learning-based system, an anaphora recognition model was developed on the basis of training data, which indicated referred expressions and referents. The three methods were further combined to develop a new single hybrid-based anaphora recognition system. Results The precision rate of the rule-based systems was 54.9%. However, the precision rate of the hybrid-based system was 63.7%, proving it to be the most efficient method. Conclusions The hybrid-based method, developed by the combination of rule-based and machine learning-based methods, represents a new system with enhanced functional capabilities as compared to other pre-existing individual methods. PMID:25405063

  20. A hybrid agent-based model of the developing mammary terminal end bud.

    PubMed

    Butner, Joseph D; Chuang, Yao-Li; Simbawa, Eman; Al-Fhaid, A S; Mahmoud, S R; Cristini, Vittorio; Wang, Zhihui

    2016-10-21

    Mammary gland ductal elongation is spearheaded by terminal end buds (TEBs), where populations of highly proliferative cells are maintained throughout post-pubertal organogenesis in virgin mice until the mammary fat pad is filled by a mature ductal tree. We have developed a hybrid multiscale agent-based model to study how cellular differentiation pathways, cellular proliferation capacity, and endocrine and paracrine signaling play a role during development of the mammary gland. A simplified cellular phenotypic hierarchy that includes stem, progenitor, and fully differentiated cells within the TEB was implemented. Model analysis finds that mammary gland development was highly sensitive to proliferation events within the TEB, with progenitors likely undergoing 2-3 proliferation cycles before transitioning to a non-proliferative phenotype, and this result is in agreement with our previous experimental work. Endocrine and paracrine signaling were found to provide reliable ductal elongation rate regulation, while variations in the probability a new daughter cell will be of a proliferative phenotype were seen to have minimal effects on ductal elongation rates. Moreover, the distribution of cellular phenotypes within the TEB was highly heterogeneous, demonstrating significant allowable plasticity in possible phenotypic distributions while maintaining biologically relevant growth behavior. Finally, simulation results indicate ductal elongation rates due to cellular proliferation within the TEB may have a greater sensitivity to upstream endocrine signaling than endothelial to stromal paracrine signaling within the TEB. This model provides a useful tool to gain quantitative insights into cellular population dynamics and the effects of endocrine and paracrine signaling within the pubertal terminal end bud. PMID:27475843